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1

Severe and mild mutations in cis for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, and description of five novel mutations in MTHFR.  

PubMed Central

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) catalyzes the synthesis of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, a methyl donor in the conversion of homocysteine to methionine. Patients with severe MTHFR deficiency have hyperhomocysteinemia, hypomethioninemia, and a range of neurological and vascular findings with a variable age at onset. We have previously described nine mutations in patients with severe MTHFR deficiency. A mild form of MTHFR deficiency, associated with a thermolabile enzyme, has been proposed as a genetic risk factor for cardiovascular disease and for neural tube defects. We have shown that a common missense mutation (an alanine-to-valine substitution) encodes this thermolabile variant. We now report an additional five mutations causing severe MTHFR deficiency and an analysis of genotype (alanine/valine status) and enzyme thermolability in 22 patients with this inborn error of metabolism. Six of these patients have four mutations in the MTHFR gene-two rare mutations causing severe deficiency and two mutations for the common alanine-to-valine mutation that results in thermolability. Even in severe MTHFR deficiency, the thermolabile variant is frequently observed, and there is a strong relationship between the presence of this variant and increased enzyme thermolability. Images Figure 1 Figure 2

Goyette, P.; Christensen, B.; Rosenblatt, D. S.; Rozen, R.

1996-01-01

2

Pregnancy-associated osteoporosis with a heterozygous deactivating LDL receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) mutation and a homozygous methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphism.  

PubMed

Pregnancy-associated osteoporosis (PAO) is a rare, idiopathic disorder that usually presents with vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) within 6 months of a first pregnancy and delivery. Spontaneous improvement is typical. There is no known genetic basis for PAO. A 26-year-old primagravida with a neonatal history of unilateral blindness attributable to hyperplastic primary vitreous sustained postpartum VCFs consistent with PAO. Her low bone mineral density (BMD) seemed to respond to vitamin D and calcium therapy, with no fractures after her next successful pregnancy. Investigation of subsequent fetal losses revealed homozygosity for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism associated both with fetal loss and with osteoporosis (OP). Because her neonatal unilateral blindness and OP were suggestive of loss-of-function mutation(s) in the gene that encodes LDL receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5), LRP5 exon and splice site sequencing was also performed. This revealed a unique heterozygous 12-bp deletion in exon 21 (c.4454_4465del, p.1485_1488del SSSS) in the patient, her mother and sons, but not her father or brother. Her mother had a normal BMD, no history of fractures, PAO, ophthalmopathy, or fetal loss. Her two sons had no ophthalmopathy and no skeletal issues. Her osteoporotic father (with a family history of blindness) and brother had low BMDs first documented at ages ?40 and 32 years, respectively. Serum biochemical and bone turnover studies were unremarkable in all subjects. We postulate that our patient's heterozygous LRP5 mutation together with her homozygous MTHFR polymorphism likely predisposed her to low peak BMD. However, OP did not cosegregate in her family with the LRP5 mutation, the homozygous MTHFR polymorphism, or even the combination of the two, implicating additional genetic or nongenetic factors in her PAO. Nevertheless, exploration for potential genetic contributions to PAO may explain part of the pathogenesis of this enigmatic disorder and identify some at-risk women. PMID:24014470

Cook, Fiona J; Mumm, Steven; Whyte, Michael P; Wenkert, Deborah

2014-04-01

3

Cerebral sinovenous thrombosis associated with MTHFR A1298C mutation in the newborn: a case report.  

PubMed

Although cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (CSVT) is a rare condition in the neonatal period, high rates of morbidity and mortality necessitate the establishment of an early diagnosis. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) plays a central role in the folate cycle and mutations of MTHFR are associated with vascular disease. While the C677T common missense mutation is the most well-defined MTHFR polymorphism, another common missense mutation, A1298C also exists. There has been no reported case of CSVT associated with MTHFR A1298C mutation in the neonatal period. Herein, we report a neonate with CSVT who was found to have MTHFR A1298C homozygosity. PMID:22797907

Cizmeci, Mehmet Nevzat; Kanburoglu, Mehmet Kenan; Akelma, Ahmet Zulfikar; Donmez, Ahsen; Sonmez, Fatma Mujgan; Polat, Aziz; Kosehan, Dilek; Tatli, Mustafa Mansur

2013-02-01

4

A Second Genetic Polymorphism in Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) Associated with Decreased Enzyme Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A common mutation in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), C677T, results in a thermolabile variant with reduced activity. Homozygous mutant individuals (approximately 10% of North Americans) are predisposed to mild hyperhomocysteinemia, when their folate status is low. This genetic–nutrient interactive effect is believed to increase the risk for neural tube defects and vascular disease. In this communication, we characterize a second common

Ilan Weisberg; Pamela Tran; Benedicte Christensen; Sahar Sibani; Rima Rozen

1998-01-01

5

Genetic investigation of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and catechol- O-methyl transferase (COMT) in multiple sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurological disease characterized by central nervous system (CNS) inflammation and demyelination. The C677T substitution variant in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene has been associated with increased levels of circulating homocysteine and is a mild risk factor for vascular disease. Higher blood levels of homocysteine have also been reported in MS. Thus, the C677T mutation

Lotti Tajouri; Virginie Martin; Claudia Gasparini; Micky Ovcaric; Rob Curtain; Rod A. Lea; Larisa M. Haupt; Peter Csurhes; Michael P. Pender; Lyn R. Griffiths

2006-01-01

6

Genetic variation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene, MTHFR, does not alter the risk of visual failure in Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Purpose Focal neurodegeneration of the optic nerve in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is primarily due to a maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA mutation. However, the markedly reduced penetrance of LHON and segregation pattern of visual failure within families implicates an interacting nuclear genetic locus modulating the phenotype. Folate deficiency is known to cause bilateral optic neuropathy, and defects of folate metabolism have been associated with nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy. Methods Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) catalyzes a critical step in folate metabolism, and genetic variation in MTHFR has been associated with several late-onset neurodegenerative diseases. Results We therefore determined whether functional genetic variants in MTHFR could account for the reduced penetrance in LHON by studying 414 LHON mtDNA mutation carriers. We found no evidence of association between visual failure in LHON and MTHFR polymorphisms or the MTHFR haplotype. Conclusions Genetic variation in MTHFR does not provide an explanation for the variable phenotype in LHON.

Hudson, Gavin; Yu-Wai-Man, Patrick; Zeviani, Massimo

2009-01-01

7

Impact of new mutations in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene assessed on biochemical phenotypes: A familial study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency was identified in two out of four children born from nonconsanguineous parents. One of the affected children exhibited some clinical findings suggesting cystathionine ß-synthase deficiency; MTHFR activity was extremely reduced. In addition, hyperhomocysteinaemia, hypomethioninaemia, low total folate, especially methylfolate in red blood cells, and a reduced methylfolate\\/total folate ratio were found. Two mutations not yet reported,

C. Tonetti; J. Amiel; A. Munnich; J. Zittoun

2001-01-01

8

Association of Methylentetraydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) 677 C > T gene polymorphism and homocysteine levels in psoriasis vulgaris patients from Malaysia: a case-control study  

PubMed Central

Background The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) enzyme catalyzes the reduction of 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate and methyl donors. The methyl donors are required for the conversion of homocysteine to methionine. Mutation of MTHFR 677 C > T disrupts its thermostability therefore leads to defective enzyme activities and dysregulation of homocysteine levels. Methods This case-control study (n = 367) was conducted to investigate the correlation of the MTHFR gene polymorphism [NM_005957] and psoriasis vulgaris amongst the Malaysian population. Overnight fasting blood samples were collected from a subgroup of consented psoriasis vulgaris patients and matched controls (n = 84) for the quantification of homocysteine, vitamin B12 and folic acid levels. Results There was no significant increase of the MTHFR 677 C > T mutation in patients with psoriasis vulgaris compared with controls (?2 = 0.733, p = 0.392). No significant association between homocysteine levels and MTHFR gene polymorphism in cases and controls were observed (F = 0.91, df = 3, 80, p = 0.44). However, homocysteine levels in cases were negatively correlated with vitamin B12 (r = -0.173) and folic acid (r = -0.345) levels. Vitamin B12 and folic acid levels in cases were also negatively correlated (r = -0.164). Conclusions Our results indicate that there was no significant association between the MTHFR gene polymorphism and psoriasis vulgaris in the Malaysian population. There was no significant increase of the plasma homocysteine level in the psoriasis patients compared to the controls.

2012-01-01

9

Mutated methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase as a risk factor for spina bifida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periconceptional folate supplementation reduces the risk of neural-tube defects. We studied the frequency of the 677C?T mutation in the 5,10–methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene in 55 patients with spina bifida and parents of such patients (70 mothers, 60 fathers), 5% of 207 controls were homozygous for the 677C?T mutation compared with 16% of mothers, 10% of fathers, and 13% of patients.

N. M. J. van der Put; F. J. M. Trijbels; L. P. van den Heuvel; H. J. Blom; R. P. M. Steegers-Theunissen; T. K. A. B. Eskes; E. C. M. Mariman; M. den Heyer; P. Frosst; R. Rozen

1995-01-01

10

Folate Metabolism Gene 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) Is Associated with ADHD in Myelomeningocele Patients  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to examine the relation between the 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and behaviors related to attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in individuals with myelomeningocele. The rationale for the study was twofold: folate metabolizing genes, (e.g. MTHFR), are important not only in the etiology of neural tube defects but are also critical to cognitive function; and individuals with myelomeningocele have an elevated incidence of ADHD. Here, we tested 478 individuals with myelomeningocele for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder behavior using the Swanson Nolan Achenbach Pelham-IV ADHD rating scale. Myelomeningocele participants in this group for whom DNAs were available were genotyped for seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the MTHFR gene. The SNPs were evaluated for an association with manifestation of the ADHD phenotype in children with myelomeningocele. The data show that 28.7% of myelomeningocele participants exhibit rating scale elevations consistent with ADHD; of these 70.1% had scores consistent with the predominantly inattentive subtype. In addition, we also show a positive association between the SNP rs4846049 in the 3?-untranslated region of the MTHFR gene and the attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder phenotype in myelomeningocele participants. These results lend further support to the finding that behavior related to ADHD is more prevalent in patients with myelomeningocele than in the general population. These data also indicate the potential importance of the MTHFR gene in the etiology of the ADHD phenotype.

Spellicy, Catherine J.; Northrup, Hope; Fletcher, Jack M.; Cirino, Paul T.; Dennis, Maureen; Morrison, Alanna C.; Martinez, Carla A.; Au, Kit Sing

2012-01-01

11

Hyperhomocysteinaemia, low folate concentrations and MTHFR C677T mutation in abdominal aortic aneurysm.  

PubMed

Background: Homocysteine (Hcy) has been implicated in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). However, the association of Hcy, vitamin B12, and folate in patients with AAA has not been studied in China. This study was conducted with the aim to evaluate the relationship of vitamin B12, folic acid, and Hcy levels in AAA. Patients and methods: 463 patients who had AAA were included in this study. 463 control subjects were age- and sex-matched with the patients. In all of the subjects, we evaluated total plasma levels Hcy, vitamin B12, folic acid and the distribution of the C677T methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene mutation. Results: The mean plasma Hcy levels were significantly higher in patients with AAA compared with controls (18.37 ± 6.97 vs. 12.89 ± 4.08 ?mol/L, P < 0.001). The frequency of homozygous (TT) genotype in MTHFR C677T mutation was significantly higher in patients with AAA than that in control subjects (19.4 % vs. 11.9 %, P = 0.002). The fasting Hcy correlated negatively with folate (AAA: r = - 0.311, P < 0.01; Control: r = - 0.348, P < 0.01). The aneurysm size was significantly greater (P < 0.001) in patients with hyperhomocysteinemia than that in patients with normal Hcy plasma levels. The size of the AAA had a linear correlation with the plasma Hcy level (r = 0.286; P< 0.001). Conclusions: Serum folate deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia were associated with an increased risk of AAA in Northeast China. The homozygous (TT) genotype of MTHFR gene mutation may be a crucial hereditary risk factor in AAA. PMID:24797049

Cao, Hui; Hu, Xinhua; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Jun; Liu, Bing; Wang, Junpeng; Shao, Yang; Zhang, Zhishen; Liu, Chengwei; Hu, Haidi; Zhang, Jian; Xin, Shijie

2014-05-01

12

Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Gene Variant (MTHFR C677T) and Migraine: A Case Control Study and Meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Migraine is a common disorder that often coexists with depression. While a functional polymorphism in methyleneterahydrofolate\\u000a reductase gene (MTHFR C677T) has been implicated in depression; the evidence to support an association of MTHFR with migraine\\u000a has been inconclusive. We aim to investigate the effect of this variant on propensity for migraine and to perform a systematic\\u000a review and meta-analysis of

Zainab Samaan; Daria Gaysina; Sarah Cohen-Woods; Nick Craddock; Lisa Jones; Ania Korszun; Mike Owen; Andrew Mente; Peter McGuffin; Anne Farmer

2011-01-01

13

Hyperhomocysteinemia and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677CT mutation in patients under 50 years of age affected by central retinal vein occlusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo investigate the correlation between increased homocysteine plasma levels and the homozygosity for the 677C-T mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene in patients aged under 50 years affected by central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO).

Lorenzo Di Crecchio; Maurizio Battaglia Parodi; Giorgia Sanguinetti; Pierluigi Iacono; Giuseppe Ravalico

2004-01-01

14

Infertility in 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR)-deficient male mice is partially alleviated by lifetime dietary betaine supplementation.  

PubMed

Metabolism of folate is essential for proper cellular function. Within the folate pathway, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) reduces 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, a methyl donor for remethylation of homocysteine to methionine, the precursor of S-adenosylmethionine. S-adenosylmethionine is the methyl donor for numerous cellular reactions. In adult male mice, MTHFR levels are highest in the testis; this finding, in conjunction with recent clinical evidence, suggest an important role for MTHFR in spermatogenesis. Indeed, we show here that severe MTHFR deficiency in male mice results in abnormal spermatogenesis and infertility. Maternal oral administration of betaine, an alternative methyl donor, throughout pregnancy and nursing, resulted in improved testicular histology in Mthfr-/- offspring at Postnatal Day 6, but not at 8 mo of age. However, when betaine supplementation was maintained postweaning, testicular histology improved, and sperm numbers and fertility increased significantly. We postulate that the adverse effects of MTHFR deficiency on spermatogenesis, may, in part, be mediated by alterations in the transmethylation pathway and suggest that betaine supplementation may provide a means to bypass MTHFR deficiency and its adverse effects on spermatogenesis by maintaining normal methylation levels within male germ cells. PMID:15548731

Kelly, Tamara L J; Neaga, Oana R; Schwahn, Bernd C; Rozen, Rima; Trasler, Jacquetta M

2005-03-01

15

A Second Common Mutation in the Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Gene: An Additional Risk Factor for Neural-Tube Defects?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Recently, we showed that homozygosity for the common 677(CrT) mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, causing thermolability of the enzyme, is a risk factor for neural-tube defects (NTDs). We now report on another mutation in the same gene, the 1298(ArC) mutation, which changes a glutamate into an alanine residue. This mutation destroys anMboII recognition site and has an

Fons Gabreëls; Erik M. B. Stevens; Jan A. M. Smeitink; Frans J. M. Trijbels; Tom K. A. B. Eskes; Lambert P. van den Heuvel; Henk J. Blom

1998-01-01

16

Hyperhomocyst(e)inaemia, but not MTHFR C677T mutation, as a risk factor for non-arteritic ischaemic optic neuropathy  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/AIMS—Hyperhomocyst(e)inaemia has been identified as a strong risk factor for stroke, myocardial infarction, and deep vein thrombosis. A point mutation of methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T) has been associated with increased plasma homocyst(e)ine levels. To investigate whether hyperhomocyst(e)inaemia and/or MTHFR C677T mutation are associated with non-arteritic ischaemic optic neuropathy (NAION), a case-control study including 59 consecutive patients with NAION and 59 controls matched for age and sex was performed.?METHODS—Fasting plasma homocyst(e)ine levels, MTHFR C677T genotypes, and plasma levels of folate and vitamin B-12 were determined.?RESULTS—Mean plasma homocyst(e)ine levels were significantly higher in patients than in controls (11.8 (SD 5.7) µmol/l v 9.8 (2.5) µmol/l, p = 0.02). The odds ratio for patients with homocyst(e)ine levels exceeding the 95th percentile of control homocyst(e)ine levels was 5.8 (95% CI 1.5-21.4). Mean plasma folate levels were significantly lower in patients than in controls (4.3 (1.7) ng/ml v 5.5 (1.9) ng/ml, p = 0.001), whereas plasma vitamin B-12 levels did not differ significantly. Prevalence of the MTHFR C677T mutation was not significantly increased in patients with NAION compared with controls.?CONCLUSION—These results suggest that hyperhomocyst(e)inaemia, but not MTHFR C677T mutation is associated with NAION. Determination of plasma homocyst(e)ine levels might be of diagnostic value in patients with NAION.??

Weger, M.; Stanger, O.; Deutschmann, H.; Simon, M.; Renner, W.; Schmut, O.; Semmelrock, J.; Haas, A.

2001-01-01

17

Adaptive developmental plasticity in methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism limits its frequency in South Indians.  

PubMed

Methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism shows considerable heterogeneity in its distribution in humans worldwide. The current study was conducted to investigate whether this polymorphism exhibited adaptive developmental plasticity in the control of the TT-genotype frequency. We screened 1,818 South Indian subjects (895 males and 923 females) for MTHFR C677T polymorphism using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism approach. MTHFR 677T-allele frequency in males and females was 9.1 and 11.0 %, respectively. Compared to females, males had lower frequency of TT-genotype [odds ratio 0.31, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.08-1.01]. The frequency of MTHFR 677T-allele was highest in the age group of 20-40 years and it gradually decreased from 40-60 to 60-80 years (P trend <0.0001). MTHFR 677TT-genotype was associated with 7.02-folds (95 % CI: 2.12-25.63, P < 0.0001) cumulative risk for recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL), neural tube defects (NTDs) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Linear regression model suggested that male gender exhibited increased homocysteine levels by 9.35 ?mol/L while each MTHFR 677T-allele contributed to 4.63 ?mol/L increase in homocysteine. Plasma homocysteine showed inverse correlation with dietary folate (r = -0.17, P < 0.0001), B2 (r = -0.14, P < 0.0001) and B6 (r = -0.07, P = 0.03). Examination of the spontaneously aborted fetuses (n = 35) showed no significant association of fetal genotype on its in utero viability. From the current study, it was concluded that C677T seemed to have acquired adaptive developmental plasticity among South Indians due to environmental influences thus contributing to hyperhomocysteinemia and its associated complications such as RPL, NTDs, DVT, etc. PMID:24449370

Naushad, Shaik Mohammad; Krishnaprasad, Chintakindi; Devi, Akella Radha Rama

2014-05-01

18

Population distribution of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C risk alleles for methotrexate toxicity in Israel.  

PubMed

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a central regulatory enzyme in the folate pathway. Two non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in MTHFR, C677T (rs1801133) and A1298C (rs1801131) have been associated with reduced MTHFR enzyme activity. These polymorphisms, especially C677T, appear to be linked with methotrexate-related toxicity, particularly hepatotoxicity; thus, pretreatment identification of individuals carrying these polymorphisms may be of clinical relevance. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency and distribution of MTHFR polymorphic variants, known to functionally impair MTHFR activity, in the highly heterogeneous Israeli population. MTHFR genotyping was carried out in the representatives of three major demographic groups in Israel by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and high-resolution melting. The relative distribution of variant alleles 677T and 1298C was found to be similar in individuals of Jewish, Druze and Arab Moslem descent (p = 0.09). However, Ashkenazi Jews displayed a 1.9-fold higher frequency of variant 677T and a 1.8-fold lower frequency of variant 1298C compared to non-Ashkenazi Jews (p < 0.001). Distinct differences in the relative frequencies of both polymorphisms were also found between Ashkenazi Jews and Druze (p < 0.01 for C677T, p < 0.01 for A1298C) or Ashkenazi Jews and Arab Moslem (p < 0.01 for C677T, p < 0.05 for A1298C). These data underscore the importance of geographic genetic analysis for a better understanding of human pharmacotherapy and personalized medicine. PMID:22847291

Efrati, Edna; Elkin, Hela; Nahum, Sagi; Krivoy, Norberto

2013-04-01

19

Combined marginal folate and riboflavin status affect homocysteine methylation in cultured immortalized lymphocytes from persons homozygous for the MTHFR C677T mutation.  

PubMed

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) catalyzes the reduction of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, the methyl donor for the synthesis of methionine from homocysteine. A common C677T mutation in the MTHFR gene renders the enzyme approximately 50% less active than the wild-type enzyme as shown in in vitro studies using cell extracts. We developed an immortalized cell culture model to determine whether the lower in vitro activity imparted by the homozygous (T/T) genotype is demonstrated in situ when exposed to adequate and marginal physiologic concentrations of folate and riboflavin. T/T MTHFR activity was compared with that of C/C genotype cell extracts by an in vitro assay and in intact cells by measuring the distribution of folate forms, the accumulation of homocysteine in the medium and the synthesis of methionine from formate and homocysteine. Under adequate nutrient conditions, the in vitro activity of the T/T MTHFR enzyme was approximately half that of the C/C genotype. Similarly, the proportion of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in cells with the T/T genotype was approximately half that of the cells with wild-type MTHFR. In contrast, homocysteine accumulation in the culture medium was low and not different between genotypes, nor was there a difference in methionine synthetic capacity. Significant differences were observed between genotypes only when the supply of both folate and riboflavin was limited in the medium, which resulted in increased homocysteine accumulation and decreased methionine production in the T/T genotype. These data are consistent with the current understanding of the molecular interaction of the MTHFR mutant with folate substrates and the FAD prosthetic group. PMID:12949355

Lathrop Stern, Lori; Shane, Barry; Bagley, Pamela J; Nadeau, Marie; Shih, Vivian; Selhub, Jacob

2003-09-01

20

[Neonatal renal vein thrombosis in a heterozygous carrier of both factor V Leiden and the MTHFR gene mutation].  

PubMed

Renal vein thrombosis (RVT) is a rare but potentially serious neonatal disease. Its epidemiology and its clinical and biological expression are currently well known, but its etiological exploration, like that of venous thromboembolism, is increasingly complex. Perinatal risk factors such as prematurity, dehydration, and birth asphyxia have lost their direct accountability at the expense of their interaction with constitutional disorders of hemostasis. We report a case of RVT in a newborn who was a heterozygous carrier of both factor V Leiden and the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene mutation. We recall the clinical and epidemiological characteristics. A search for inborn blood coagulation disorders should be systematic in the newborn infant with venous thrombosis because of the risk of recurrence, taking into account perinatal factors and maternal thrombophilia (especially if RVT is established during the prenatal period). PMID:22361411

Wannes, S; Soua, H; Ghanmi, S; Braham, H; Hassine, M; Hamza, H A; Ben Hamouda, H; Sfar, M-T

2012-04-01

21

Characterization of mutations in severe methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency reveals an FAD-responsive mutation.  

PubMed

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) synthesizes 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, a major methyl donor for homocysteine remethylation to methionine. Severe MTHFR deficiency results in marked hyperhomocysteinemia and homocystinuria. Patients display developmental delay and a variety of neurological and vascular symptoms. Cloning of the human cDNA and gene has enabled the identification of 29 rare mutations in homocystinuric patients and two common variants [677C>T (A222V) and 1298A>C (E429A)] with mild enzymatic deficiency. Homozygosity for 677C>T or combined heterozygosity for both polymorphisms is associated with mild hyperhomocysteinemia. In this communication, we describe four novel mutations in patients with homocystinuria: two missense mutations (471C>G, I153M; 1025T>C, M338T), a nonsense mutation (1274G>A, W421X), and a 2-bp deletion (1553delAG). We expressed the 1025T>C mutation as well as two previously reported amino acid substitutions [983A>G (N324S) and 1027T>G (W339G)] and observed decreased enzyme activity at 10%, 36%, and 21% of control levels, respectively, with little or no effect on affinity for 5-methyltetrahydrofolate. One of these mutations, 983A>G (N324S), showed flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) responsiveness in vitro. Expression of these mutations in cis with the 677C>T polymorphism, as observed in the patients, resulted in an additional 50% decrease in enzyme activity. This report brings the total to 33 severe mutations identified in patients with severe MTHFR deficiency. PMID:12673793

Sibani, Sahar; Leclerc, Daniel; Weisberg, Ilan S; O'Ferrall, Erin; Watkins, David; Artigas, Carmen; Rosenblatt, David S; Rozen, Rima

2003-05-01

22

AntiEpileptic drug treatment in children: Hyperhomocysteinaemia, B-Vitamins and the 677C?T Mutation of the Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to observe the influence of carbamazepine and valproic acid on plasma total homocysteine and B-vitamin status and the gene–drug interaction with the 677C?T mutation of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene. Plasma total homocysteine concentrations were determined in 136 epileptic children taking anti-epileptic drugs as monotherapy. Nutritional (folate, B12and B6vitamins) and genetic (MTHFR 677 C?T)

M Antònia Vilaseca; Eugènia Monrós; Rafael Artuch; Catrina Colomé; Carme Farré; Carme Valls; Esther Cardo; Mercè Pineda

2000-01-01

23

Plasma homocysteine levels related to interactions between folate status and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase: A study in 52 healthy subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperhomocysteinemia, a risk factor for vascular disease, is related to vitamin B12, vitamin B6, and especially folate deficiency, or to genetic factors such as mutations in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), an enzyme involved in the remethylation pathway of homocysteine to methionine. Recently, a C677 ? T mutation identified in the MTHFR gene was found to be frequently associated with decreased MTHFR

Jacqueline Zittoun; Carole Tonetti; Dominique Bories; Jean-Michel Pignon; Michel Tulliez

1998-01-01

24

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T gene polymorphism as a possible factor for reducing clinical severity of psoriasis.  

PubMed

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a crucial enzyme in homocysteine/methionine metabolism. It catalysis the formation of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methyl-THF), which is the methyl donor for synthesis of methionine from homocysteine (Hcy). Decreases in folate consumption due to MTHFR polymorphism may affect production rate of keratinocytes of which had faster reproduction rates with a continuous DNA turnover and this may affect the clinical picture of psoriasis. This study aimed to investigate correlation of C677T polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene with severity of psoriasis and to evaluate the status of plasma Hcy, folate and vitamin B12 levels in patient with chronic plaque psoriasis. The study included 60 patients with chronic plaque psoriasis. The C677T polymorphisms were genotyped using PCR (Qiagen). Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) score below 7 was defined as mild, between 7 and 12 as moderate, and above 12 as severe disease. There was a significant difference between the severity of disease classification (p<0.05) with respect to the C677T polymorphism in the MTHFR gene. Severe involvement (PASI score >12) was observed in 38.46% of wild type (CC), but only 12.50% of homozygote (TT) and 7.69% of heterozygote (CT) patients. Significant differences between gene polymorphism and Hcy levels were noted in TT and CT genotypes respectively (p=0.025 and p=0.040). Plasma Hcy, folate and vitamin B12 levels were not correlated with the PASI score. Our data indicate a possible correlation of MTHFR polymorphism with severity of psoriasis. PMID:24753765

Karabacak, Ercan; Aydin, Ersin; Ozcan, Omer; Dogan, Bilal; Gultepe, Mustafa; Cosar, Alpaslan; Muftuoglu, Tuba

2014-01-01

25

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T gene polymorphism as a possible factor for reducing clinical severity of psoriasis  

PubMed Central

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a crucial enzyme in homocysteine/methionine metabolism. It catalysis the formation of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methyl-THF), which is the methyl donor for synthesis of methionine from homocysteine (Hcy). Decreases in folate consumption due to MTHFR polymorphism may affect production rate of keratinocytes of which had faster reproduction rates with a continuous DNA turnover and this may affect the clinical picture of psoriasis. This study aimed to investigate correlation of C677T polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene with severity of psoriasis and to evaluate the status of plasma Hcy, folate and vitamin B12 levels in patient with chronic plaque psoriasis. The study included 60 patients with chronic plaque psoriasis. The C677T polymorphisms were genotyped using PCR (Qiagen). Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) score below 7 was defined as mild, between 7 and 12 as moderate, and above 12 as severe disease. There was a significant difference between the severity of disease classification (p<0.05) with respect to the C677T polymorphism in the MTHFR gene. Severe involvement (PASI score >12) was observed in 38.46% of wild type (CC), but only 12.50% of homozygote (TT) and 7.69% of heterozygote (CT) patients. Significant differences between gene polymorphism and Hcy levels were noted in TT and CT genotypes respectively (p=0.025 and p=0.040). Plasma Hcy, folate and vitamin B12 levels were not correlated with the PASI score. Our data indicate a possible correlation of MTHFR polymorphism with severity of psoriasis.

Karabacak, Ercan; Aydin, Ersin; Ozcan, Omer; Dogan, Bilal; Gultepe, Mustafa; Cosar, Alpaslan; Muftuoglu, Tuba

2014-01-01

26

MTHFR polymorphisms in gastric cancer and in first-degree relatives of patients with gastric cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two common mutations, 677 C?T and a1298 A?C, in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) reduce the activity of\\u000a MTHFR and folate metabolism. Familial aggregation in a variable but significant proportion of gastric cancer (GC) cases suggests\\u000a the importance of genetic predisposition in determining risk. In this study, we evaluate MTHFR polymorphisms in 57 patients\\u000a with a diagnosis of GC, in

Valli De Re; R. Cannizzaro; V. Canzonieri; E. Cecchin; L. Caggiari; E. De Mattia; C. Pratesi; P. De Paoli; G. Toffoli

2010-01-01

27

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T mutation and risk of retinal vein thrombosis  

PubMed Central

Background: Elevated plasma homocysteine (Hcy) level has been established as a significant risk factor for venous thrombosis and cardiovascular disease. Homozygosity for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T mutation has been associated with elevated plasma Hcy concentration and may contribute to retinal vein thrombosis (RVT) development. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the hyperhomocysteinemia and/or homozygosity for the MTHFR C677T mutation are associated with an increased risk for RVT. Materials and Methods: Our study population consisted of 73 consecutive patients (50-78 years old) with RVT and 73 control subjects (51-80 years old), matched for age and sex. Genotyping for the MTHFR C677T mutation was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique and Hcy level was determined by an enzyme immunoassay kit. Results: The prevalence of 677TT genotype was higher in patients than control subjects, but the difference in frequency didn't reach a significant value (P = 0.07). The frequency of the 677T allele was 26% and 21.2% in patients and controls, respectively and did not differ significantly between the two groups (odds ratio = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (0.75-2.24), P = 0.33). Fasting plasma total Hcy level was significantly higher in patients than controls (P = 0.001). Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that hyperhomocysteinemia, but not the MTHFR C677T mutation, is associated with RVT.

Soltanpour, Mohammad Soleiman; Soheili, Zahra; Shakerizadeh, Ali; Pourfathollah, Ali Akbar; Samiei, Shahram; Meshkani, Reza; Shahjahani, Mohammad; Karimi, Abbas

2013-01-01

28

Association between the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase gene C677T mutation and colchicine unresponsiveness in Behcet's disease  

PubMed Central

Purpose Behcet’s disease (BD) is a multisystemic immunoinflammatory disorder characterized by mucocutaneous, ocular, vascular, and central nervous system manifestations. The common methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene C677T mutation is a known risk factor for thrombosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the MTHFR gene C677 mutation in patients with BD and evaluate if there was an association with clinical features, especially thrombosis, in a relatively large cohort of patients with BD. Methods The study included 318 patients with BD and 207 healthy controls. Genomic DNA was isolated and genotyped using PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism assay for the MTHFR gene C677T mutation. Results The genotype and allele frequencies of the C677T mutation showed a statistically significant difference between BD patients and controls (p=0.003 and p=0.001, respectively). There was also a significant association between C677T alteration and response to colchicine in BD patients (p=0.046). Conclusions The results of this study showed that there was a high association between the MTHFR gene C677T mutation and BD. Stratification analysis according to clinical features for this disease did not reveal an association except response to colchicine that was shown to be influenced by the MTHFR C677T mutation.

Yigit, Serbulent; Kalkan, Goknur; Rustemoglu, Aydin; Inanir, Ahmet; Gul, Ulker; Pancar, Gunseli Sefika; Akkanet, Songul; Ates, Omer

2012-01-01

29

Meta-analysis of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms affecting methotrexate toxicity  

PubMed Central

Objective Methotrexate is an effective therapy for Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) but is also associated with toxicity. Pharmacogenetics is the systematic evaluation of the role of genetic differences in the efficacy and toxicity of therapeutic interventions. Because the results of small pharmacogenetic studies are often misleading, we undertook a meta-analysis of published studies to determine the role of polymorphisms in the therapeutic efficacy and toxicity of methotrexate. Methods A search of PUBMED produced 55 publications which were then reviewed for relevance to methotrexate toxicity and efficacy in patients with RA. To ensure that no studies were missed, each polymorphism found was then entered as an independent search string and all results were again reviewed. Results Only 2 polymorphisms (C677T and A1298C in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, MTHFR, total: 8 studies) relevant to methotrexate metabolism and efficacy had sufficient data to perform a meta-analysis of their association with toxicity; there was no polymorphism with sufficient data to perform a meta-analysis of efficacy. In a fixed effects model, the C677T polymorphism was associated with increased toxicity (OR 1.71, CI 1.32 – 2.21, p<0.001). The A1298C polymorphism was not associated with increased toxicity (OR 1.12, CI 0.79 – 1.6, p=0.626). Conclusions As pharmacogenetics evolves, more data are needed to assess the role of various polymorphisms for drug efficacy and toxicity. These results illustrate the paucity of reliable pharmacogenetic data on a commonly used anti-rheumatic drug and the potential role of pharmacogenetics in tailoring drug therapy for an individual patient.

Fisher, Mark C.; Cronstein, Bruce N.

2008-01-01

30

Influence of Combined Methionine Synthase (MTR 2756A > G) and Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR 677C > T) Polymorphisms to Plasma Homocysteine Levels in Korean Patients with Ischemic Stroke  

PubMed Central

Purpose Methionine synthase (MTR) and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) are the main regulatory enzymes for homocysteine metabolism. The present case-control study was conducted to determine whether there is an association between the MTR 2756A > G or MTHFR 677C > T polymorphism and plasma homocysteine concentration in Korean subjects with ischemic stroke. Materials and Methods DNA samples of 237 patients who had an ischemic stroke and 223 age and sex-matched controls were studied. MTR 2756A > G and MTHFR 677C > T genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Results Frequencies of mutant alleles for MTR and MTHFR polymorphisms were not significantly different between the controls and cases. The patient group, however, had significantly higher homocysteine concentrations of the MTR 2756AA and MTHFR 677TT genotypes than the control group (p = 0.04 for MTR, p = 0.01 for MTHFR). The combined MTR 2756AA and MTHFR 677TT genotype (p = 0.04) and the homocysteine concentrations of the patient group were also higher than those of the controls. In addition, the genotype distribution was significant in the MTHFR 677TT genotype (p = 0.008) and combined MTR 2756AA and MTHFR 677TT genotype (p = 0.03), which divided the groups into the top 20% and bottom 20% based on their homocysteine levels. Conclusion The results of the present study demonstrate that the MTR 2756A > G and MTHFR 677C > T polymorphisms interact with elevated total homocysteine (tHcy) levels, leading to an increased risk of ischemic stroke.

Kim, Ok Joon; Hong, Sun Pyo; Ahn, Jung Yong; Hong, Seung Ho; Hwang, Tae Sun; Kim, Soo Ok; Yoo, Wangdon; Oh, Doyeun

2007-01-01

31

Seven novel mutations at the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase locus  

SciTech Connect

5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), a flavoprotein, catalyzes the conversion of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, a cofactor for methionine synthase in the methylation of homocysteine to methionine. Severe MTHFR deficiency, which causes homocysteinemia, is an autosomal recessive disorder with variable clinical features; developmental delay, perinatal death, mental retardation and asymptomatic individuals have been observed. A milder deficiency has been reported in patients with cardiovascular disease. We have recently described the isolation of a cDNA for MTHFR and the identification of 2 mutations in patients with severe MTHFR deficiency. We report here the characterization of 7 additional mutations at this locus: 5 missense mutations and 2 splicing mutations. Mutation analysis was performed by SSCP on PCR products generated either from reverse transcription-PCR of patients` total fibroblast RNA or from PCR of patients` genomic DNA. The 5 missense mutations are as follows: 1 Arg to Cys substitution in a hydrophilic segment proposed to be the hinge region that connects the catalytic and regulatory domains, 2 different Arg to Cys substitutions in 2 patients whose enzymatic thermolability is responsive to FAD, 1 Thr to Met substitution affecting an evolutionarily-conserved residue and a Pro to Leu substitution. The 2 splicing mutations affect the 5{prime} splice site and the 3{prime} splice site of 2 introns, respectively. The 5{prime} splice site mutation generates a 57 bp in-frame deletion of the RNA through the utilization of a cryptic 5{prime} splice site within the coding sequence. The identification of 9 mutations at this locus has allowed us to make preliminary correlations between genotype and phenotype and to contribute to a structure:function analysis of the enzyme.

Goyette, P.; Frosst, P.; Rosenblatt, D.S.; Rozen, R. [McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada)

1994-09-01

32

A second common mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene: an additional risk factor for neural-tube defects?  

PubMed Central

Recently, we showed that homozygosity for the common 677(C-->T) mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, causing thermolability of the enzyme, is a risk factor for neural-tube defects (NTDs). We now report on another mutation in the same gene, the 1298(A-->C) mutation, which changes a glutamate into an alanine residue. This mutation destroys an MboII recognition site and has an allele frequency of .33. This 1298(A-->C) mutation results in decreased MTHFR activity (one-way analysis of variance [ANOVA] P < .0001), which is more pronounced in the homozygous than heterozygous state. Neither the homozygous nor the heterozygous state is associated with higher plasma homocysteine (Hcy) or a lower plasma folate concentration-phenomena that are evident with homozygosity for the 677(C-->T) mutation. However, there appears to be an interaction between these two common mutations. When compared with heterozygosity for either the 677(C-->T) or 1298(A-->C) mutations, the combined heterozygosity for the 1298(A-->C) and 677(C-->T) mutations was associated with reduced MTHFR specific activity (ANOVA P < .0001), higher Hcy, and decreased plasma folate levels (ANOVA P <.03). Thus, combined heterozygosity for both MTHFR mutations results in similar features as observed in homozygotes for the 677(C-->T) mutation. This combined heterozygosity was observed in 28% (n =86) of the NTD patients compared with 20% (n =403) among controls, resulting in an odds ratio of 2.04 (95% confidence interval: .9-4.7). These data suggest that the combined heterozygosity for the two MTHFR common mutations accounts for a proportion of folate-related NTDs, which is not explained by homozygosity for the 677(C-->T) mutation, and can be an additional genetic risk factor for NTDs.

van der Put, N M; Gabreels, F; Stevens, E M; Smeitink, J A; Trijbels, F J; Eskes, T K; van den Heuvel, L P; Blom, H J

1998-01-01

33

Combined choroidal neovascularization and hypopituitarism in a patient with homozygous mutation in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene.  

PubMed

We report a case of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene mutation in a 20-year-old male patient with hypopituitarism. Treatment with three consecutive injections of intravitreal ranibizumab (anti-vascular endothelial growth factor) resulted in significant improvement of the patient's vision and the appearance of the macula. A search of the literature produced no previously reported case of MTHFR gene mutation associated both CNV and possibly hypopituitarism. With hormone replacement therapy of hypopituitarism, acetyl salicylic acid 100 mg/day also was started. The patient was clinically stable both for CNV and other thromboembolic disorders over a 6-month follow-up and also 1-year follow-up period. PMID:24672570

Aydogdu, Aydogan; Haymana, Cem; Baskoy, Kamil; Durukan, Ali H; Ozgur, Gokhan; Azal, Omer

2014-01-01

34

The Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Polymorphism (MTHFR c.677C > T) and Elevated Plasma Homocysteine Levels in a U.S. Pediatric Population with Incident Thromboembolism  

PubMed Central

Objective Elevated plasma homocysteine (tHcy) and the MTHFR c.677C > T variant have been postulated to increase the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), although mechanisms and implications to pediatrics remain incompletely understood. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalences of elevated tHcy and MTHFR variant in a pediatric population with VTE or arterial ischemic stroke (AIS), and to determine associations with thrombus outcomes. Study Design Subjects were enrolled in an institution-based prospective cohort of children with VTE or AIS. Inclusion criteria consisted of objectively confirmed thrombus, ?21 years at diagnosis, tHcy measured and MTHFR c.677C > T mutation analysis. Clinical and laboratory data were collected. Frequencies for elevated tHcy and MTHFR variant were compared with NHANES values for healthy US children and also between study groups (VTE vs AIS, provoked vs idiopathic) and by age. Results The prevalences of hyperhomocysteinemia or MTHFR variant were not increased in comparison to NHANES. tHcy did not differ between those with wild-type MTHFR versus either c.677C > T heterozygotes or homozygotes. There was no association between tHcy or MTHFR variant and thrombus outcomes. Conclusion In this cohort of US children with VTE or AIS, neither the prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia nor that of MTHFR variant was increased relative to reference values, and adverse thrombus outcomes were not definitively associated with either. While it is important to consider that milder forms of pyridoxine-responsive classical homocystinuria will be detected only by tHcy, we suggest that routine testing of MTHFR c.677C > T genotype as part of a thrombophilia evaluation in children with incident thromboembolismis not warranted until larger studies have been performed in order to establish or refute a link between MTHFR and adverse outcomes.

Joachim, Emily; Goldenberg, Neil A.; Bernard, Timothy J.; Armstrong-Wells, Jennifer; Stabler, Sally; Manco-Johnson, Marilyn J.

2014-01-01

35

The methylenetethrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism and male infertility in Italy.  

PubMed

The 677T allele of the MTHFR gene has been suggested to represent a factor of risk for male infertility. In order to confirm this association, we investigated the presence of the 677T allele in 93 Italian infertile patients, selected after the exclusion of other possible genetic causes of infertility, and in 105 Italian fertile controls. The homozygous 677TT genotype was present in 20.4% of patients and 27.6% of controls. These results do not support an association between the MTHFR 677T allele and male infertility in Italy. PMID:14594111

Stuppia, L; Gatta, V; Scarciolla, O; Colosimo, A; Guanciali-Franchi, P; Calabrese, G; Palka, G

2003-07-01

36

Association of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR 677C>T and 1298A>C) Polymorphisms and Haplotypes with Silent Brain Infarction and Homocysteine Levels in a Korean Population  

PubMed Central

Purpose Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is the main regulatory enzyme for homocysteine metabolism. In the present study, we evaluated whether the MTHFR 677C>T and 1298A>C gene polymorphisms are associated with SBI and plasma homocysteine concentration in a Korean population. Materials and Methods We enrolled 264 patients with SBI and 234 healthy controls in South Korea. Fasting plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations were measured, and genotype analysis of the MTHFR gene was carried out. Results The plasma tHcy levels were significantly higher in patients with SBI than in healthy controls. Despite a significant association between the MTHFR 677TT genotype and hyperhomocysteinemia, the MTHFR 677C>T genotypes did not appear to influence susceptibility to SBI. However, odds ratios of the 1298AC and 1298AC + CC genotypes for the 1298AA genotype were significantly different between SBI patients and normal controls. The frequencies of 677C-1298A and 677C-1298C haplotypes were significantly higher in the SBI group than in the control group. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the MTHFR 1298A>C polymorphism is a risk factor for SBI in a Korean population. The genotypes of 677C>T and 1298A>C polymorphisms interact additively, and increase the risk of SBI in Korean subjects.

Han, In Bo; Kim, Ok Joon; Ahn, Jung Yong; Oh, Doyeun; Hong, Sun Pyo; Huh, Ryoong; Chung, Sang Sup

2010-01-01

37

Distribution of alleles of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T gene polymorphism in familial spina bifida.  

PubMed

Spina bifida cystica (SB) is one of the most common and disabling of birth defects. Folic acid supplementation in mothers during the periconceptional period has been shown to prevent more than 70% of neural tube defects (NTD) including SB. However, the mechanism is unknown. We tested a series of multicase SB families in which 224 individuals were genotyped and a group of 215 unrelated unaffected (external) control individuals for association of SB with the T allele of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism that produces a heat-labile enzyme protein. The data were analyzed using first the transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT) and second a modified case-control study design with Monte Carlo sampling methods. No association of SB with the MTHFR T allele was found by either method. Presently, association between SB and the T allele has been found in four studies, a Dutch study, an Irish study, a North American study, and an Italian study. But no association was found in four other studies, a British study, a French study, a Turkish study, and a German study. A California population-based study found only modestly increased risk of SB with this allele that was not significant at the P < 0.05 level. The present study finds no evidence of the association. Only one other study, the German study, has used TDT analysis. The present study is the first to use a modified case-control study design with Monte Carlo sampling methods to test this association. Thus, it appears that the MTHFR T allele is a risk factor for SB in some populations but not others. Major genetic risk factors for folate-related SB remain to be found. PMID:10594879

Johnson, W G; Stenroos, E S; Heath, S C; Chen, Y; Carroll, R; McKoy, V V; Chatkupt, S; Lehner, T

1999-12-22

38

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and thymidylate synthase promoter (TSER) polymorphisms in Indonesian children with and without leukemia.  

PubMed

Genetic variations in the polymorphic tandem repeat sequence of the enhancer region of the thymidylate synthase promoter (TSER), as well as in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism, influence methotrexate sensitivity. We studied these polymorphisms in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and in subjects without malignancy in Indonesia and Holland. The frequencies of TT and CT genotypes were two-fold higher in Dutch children. The TSER 3R/3R repeat was three-fold more frequent in the Indonesian children, while the 2R/2R repeat was only 1% compared to 21% in the Dutch children. No differences of these polymorphisms were found between ALL cells and normal blood cells, indicating an ethnic rather than leukemic origin. These results may have implications for treatment of Indonesian children with ALL. PMID:17395259

Giovannetti, Elisa; Ugrasena, Dewa G; Supriyadi, Eddy; Vroling, Laura; Azzarello, Antonino; de Lange, Desiree; Peters, Godefridus J; Veerman, Anjo J P; Cloos, Jacqueline

2008-01-01

39

Two cousins with neonatal stroke, PAI-1 4G variant and MTHFR A1298C mutation.  

PubMed

The authors describe 2 female cousins with neonatal stroke. One was heterozygous for the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G variant and compound heterozygous for the A1298C and C677T methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase mutations. Her cousin was homozygous for the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G variant and heterozygous for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase A1298C and factor V Leiden mutations. PMID:17641264

Golomb, Meredith R; Heiny, Mark; Garg, Bhuwan P

2007-06-01

40

Co-existence of renovascular hypertension, polyarteritis nodosa, antiphospholipid syndrome and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase mutation.  

PubMed

We present a hypertensive child with a co-existence of polyarteritis nodosa, anti-phospholipid antibodies (aPL), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) mutation and increased lipoprotein a level. Elevated renin, aldosterone and aPL levels, micro-aneurysms, occlusion and thrombosis at left and right renal artery were found. Anti-hypertensive agents, prednisolone and pulse cyclophosphamide therapy were started and a stent was inserted in the left renal artery. Two months later, brain magnetic resonance imaging/magnetic resonance imaging angiography showed acute infarct area of the left parietofrontal lobe and middle cerebral artery stenosis. We found bilateral peripheral neuropathy, persistent aPL and elevated Lp(a) level and heterozygous A1298C/MTHFR mutation. Intravenous immunoglobulin and low-molecular-weight heparin treatment was added. In conclusion, our observation suggests that in patients with systemic vasculitis, such as polyarteritis nodosa, aPL are probably associated with greater thrombotic risks. The investigation of the LP(a) levels and MTHFR mutations as a synergic pro-coagulant effect might also be considered for determining patients with vasculitis at risk for severe thrombotic events. PMID:23910811

Yildiz, Bilal; Cetin, Nuran; Kural, Nurdan; Kaya, Tamer; Akcar, Nevbahar

2013-08-01

41

The prevalence of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677 C-T, factor V 1691 G-A, and prothrombin 20210 G-A mutations in healthy populations in Setif, Algeria.  

PubMed

The polymorphic mutation 677 C-T in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene presents a heterogeneous worldwide distribution and is associated with different disorders such as cardiovascular disease. Its frequency shows great ethnic and geographic variations. The aim of this work is to determine the frequency of MTHFR 677 C-T and coexistence of MTHFR 677 C-T with 2 other common, hereditary thrombophilia causes-namely, factor V 1691 G-A and prothrombin (PT) 20210 G-A mutation-in the Sétif region of Algeria. The study involved 147 apparently healthy participants (82 men and 65 women). Genotyping was carried out by a real-time polymerase chain reaction. The MTHFR 677T carrier frequency was found to be 54.4% (80/147); 59 individuals were heterozygous (40.1%), and 21 were homozygous (14.3%). The frequency of MTHFR 677T was found to be 34.3%. Among the 147 individuals, 3 (2.0%) had factor V Leiden, and 5 (3.4%) had PT 20210 A mutation. Of the 80 participants with MTHFR 677T mutation, 2 had heterozygote factor V 1691 G-A gene mutation, and 4 had heterozygote PT 20210 G-A gene mutation. The results showed that MTHFR 677T prevalence is quite high: an allelic frequency of 34.3% with a genotype frequency of 14.3%. Factor V 1691 G-A and PT 20210 G-A gene mutations are rare in the healthy population of the Sétif region of Algeria. PMID:18840629

Bourouba, Romyla; Houcher, Bakhouche; Djabi, Farida; Egin, Yonca; Akar, Nejat

2009-10-01

42

MTHFR promotes heterochromatin maintenance.  

PubMed

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), a key enzyme in the folate cycle, catalyzes the reduction of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, a co-substrate for homocysteine remethylation to methionine. Methionine serves as the precursor of the active methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine, which provides methyl groups for many biological methylations. It has been reported that MTHFR is highly phosphorylated under unperturbed conditions and T34 is the priming phosphorylation site. In this report, we generated a phospho-specific antibody that recognized T34-phosphorylated form of MTHFR and revealed that MTHFR was phosphorylated at T34 in vivo and this phosphorylation peaked during mitosis. We further demonstrated that the cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1)/Cyclin B1 complex is the kinase that mediates MTHFR phosphorylation at T34 and the MTHFR immunocomplex purified from mitotic cells exhibited lower enzymatic activity. Inhibition of MTHFR expression resulted in a decrease of H3K9me3 levels, and an increase of transcription of the centromeric heterochromatin markers. Taken together, our results demonstrated that CDK1/Cyclin B1 phosphorylates MTHFR on T34 and MTHFR plays a role in the heterochromatin maintenance at the centromeric region. PMID:24769206

Zhu, Bingtao; Xiahou, Zhikai; Zhao, Heyu; Peng, Bin; Zhao, Hongchang; Xu, Xingzhi

2014-05-16

43

Association of Corticosteroids and Factor V, Prothrombin, and MTHFR Gene Mutations With Avascular Osteonecrosis in Renal Allograft Recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of posttransplantation avascular osteonecrosis (AVN) is controversial. Besides an increased bone marrow pressure due to reduced blood supply, enhanced coagulation has been considered. We investigated the associations of factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, and MTHFR C677T mutations as well as cumulative corticosteroid doses with AVN in renal allograft recipients. The records of 39 volunteer patients and 11 patients

A. Celik; D. Tekis; F. Saglam; S. Tunali; N. Kabakci; D. Ozaksoy; M. Manisali; M. A. Ozcan; M. Meral; H. Gülay; T. Camsari

2006-01-01

44

Association of corticosteroids and factor V, prothrombin, and MTHFR gene mutations with avascular osteonecrosis in renal allograft recipients.  

PubMed

The mechanism of posttransplantation avascular osteonecrosis (AVN) is controversial. Besides an increased bone marrow pressure due to reduced blood supply, enhanced coagulation has been considered. We investigated the associations of factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, and MTHFR C677T mutations as well as cumulative corticosteroid doses with AVN in renal allograft recipients. The records of 39 volunteer patients and 11 patients in whom osteonecrosis was previously identified were reviewed for cumulative corticosteroid dosages during the first year. All patients were screened for factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, and MTHFR C677T mutations by direct sequencing of genomic DNA. The cumulative corticosteroid dosages at 3, 6, and 12 months in the osteonecrotic group (5033.5 +/- 1565.3, 7164.9 +/- 2063.1, 8835.1 +/- 2216.8 mg) were significantly higher than in the control group (3629 +/- 1504.1, 4784.5 +/- 1568.7, 6322.4 +/- 1686.6 mg; P = .013, P = .001, P = .001, respectively). No significant difference in factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, and MTHFR C677T mutations was observed between the osteonecrotic and control groups (P > .05). In conclusion, an association between the first year (3, 6, and 12 month) cumulative corticosteroid dosages and AVN was demonstrated in renal transplant recipients. However, no correlation was determined between factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, and MTHFR C677T mutations and osteonecrosis. PMID:16549163

Celik, A; Tekis, D; Saglam, F; Tunali, S; Kabakci, N; Ozaksoy, D; Manisali, M; Ozcan, M A; Meral, M; Gülay, H; Camsari, T

2006-03-01

45

Association of methylenetetrahytrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C polymorphisms with the susceptibility of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in Chinese population  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the polymorphisms of the methylenetetrahytrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and susceptibility to childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Methods A case–control study was conducted among 98 children with ALL and 93 age- and sex- matched non-ALL controls. Genotyping of MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The odds ratios (ORs) of MTHFR genotypes were used to assess the associations of these polymorphisms with childhood ALL susceptibility. Results No significant differences were observed for frequencies of the 677CC, 677CT and 677TT genotypes between patients and controls. Frequencies of the 1298AA, 1298 AC and 1298CC genotypes between the two groups were significantly different. The risk of ALL with the 1298C allele carriers (AC?+?CC) was elevated by 1.1 times compared with the AA genotype [OR?=?2.100; 95% CI (1.149; 3.837); P?=?0.015]. Conclusions The MTHFR A1298C polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to childhood ALL in the Chinese population.

2014-01-01

46

Impact of new mutations in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene assessed on biochemical phenotypes: a familial study.  

PubMed

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency was identified in two out of four children born from nonconsanguineous parents. One of the affected children exhibited some clinical findings suggesting cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency; MTHFR activity was extremely reduced. In addition, hyperhomocysteinaemia, hypomethioninaemia, low total folate, especially methylfolate in red blood cells, and a reduced methylfolate/total folate ratio were found. Two mutations not yet reported, one on exon 1 of the gene changing an arginine to stop codon and one other on exon 9 changing an arginine to tryptophan were identified in both children in the compound heterozygous state associated with a common polymorphism, 1298A>C, also in the heterozygous state. The mother, homozygous for the mutation on exon 9 and for the polymorphism 1298A>C on exon 7, was clinically and biochemically normal, with normal folate status, mainly methylfolate levels in red blood cells, although MTHFR activity was moderately decreased. The father, heterozygous for the transition arginine to stop codon and for the common polymorphism 677C>T on exon 4, exhibited major biochemical abnormalities, hyperhomocysteinaemia and low methylfolate levels in red blood cells, but was clinically normal. The unaffected children had a biochemical pattern close to that of their mother and were heterozygous for the mutation on exon 9 and also for the two common polymorphisms, 677C>T and 1298A>C. In the affected children, some biochemical abnormalities, including folate status, especially methylfolate levels, were improved with treatment combining methyltetrahydrofolic acid, hydroxocobalamin, pyridoxine and betaine; however, homocysteine concentrations remained high and methionine concentrations were lowered. The father was treated with folic acid, which partially improved biochemical abnormalities. The impact of these mutations is discussed. PMID:11916316

Tonetti, C; Amiel, J; Munnich, A; Zittoun, J

2001-12-01

47

Improved Real-Time Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction Detection of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T and 1298A>C Polymorphisms Using Nearest Neighbor Model-Based Probe Design  

PubMed Central

The disorders of folate metabolism caused by methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphisms may lead to several disease states including coronary heart disease, venous thrombosis, and several types of cancer. We have developed a real-time multiplex single-tube polymerase chain reaction procedure on the LightCycler for the detection of the two most commonly occurring variants, 677C>T and 1298A>C, in the MTHFR gene. An improved probe design, based on the nearest neighbor model for nucleic acid-probe duplex stability, resulted in a better separation (?Tm ? 10°C) of melting peaks of the wild-type and mutant alleles than that by the existing method (?Tm ? 3°C) for specimens heterozygous for the 1298A>C polymorphism. Of the 333 blood specimens analyzed by this procedure, we did not find any samples that gave ambiguous results. The specimens with homozygous mutation for one polymorphism were of the wild type for the other variant. The assay was validated by the comparison of the genotyping results of 50 blood specimens from the LightCycler polymerase chain reaction with the conventional restriction fragment length polymorphism procedures. There was 100% concordance of the test results obtained by the two techniques. This assay is reliable, economical, and can be performed by less trained technologists compared with the procedure performed by the conventional restriction fragment length polymorphism technique.

Agarwal, Raghunath P.; Peters, Stephen M.; Shemirani, Manijeh; von Ahsen, Nicolas

2007-01-01

48

Meta- and Pooled Analyses of the Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) C677T Polymorphism and Colorectal Cancer: A HuGE-GSEC Review  

PubMed Central

Worldwide, over 1 million cases of colorectal cancer (CRC) were reported in 2002, with a 50% mortality rate, making CRC the second most common cancer in adults. Certain racial/ethnic populations continue to experience a disproportionate burden of CRC. A common polymorphism in the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene has been associated with a lower risk of CRC. The authors performed both a meta-analysis (29 studies; 11,936 cases, 18,714 controls) and a pooled analysis (14 studies; 5,068 cases, 7,876 controls) of the C677T MTHFR polymorphism and CRC, with stratification by racial/ethnic population and behavioral risk factors. There were few studies on different racial/ethnic populations. The overall meta-analysis odds ratio for CRC for persons with the TT genotype was 0.83 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.77, 0.90). An inverse association was observed in whites (odds ratio = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.74, 0.94) and Asians (odds ratio = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.67, 0.96) but not in Latinos or blacks. Similar results were observed for Asians, Latinos, and blacks in the pooled analysis. The inverse association between the MTHFR 677TT polymorphism and CRC was not significantly modified by smoking status or body mass index; however, it was present in regular alcohol users only. The MTHFR 677TT polymorphism seems to be associated with a reduced risk of CRC, but this may not hold true for all populations.

Taioli, E.; Garza, M. A.; Ahn, Y. O.; Bishop, D. T.; Bost, J.; Budai, B.; Chen, K.; Gemignani, F.; Keku, T.; Lima, C. S. P.; Le Marchand, L.; Matsuo, K.; Moreno, V.; Plaschke, J.; Pufulete, M.; Thomas, S. B.; Toffoli, G.; Wolf, C. R.; Moore, C. G.; Little, J.

2009-01-01

49

The 5, 10 methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T mutation and risk of fetal loss: a case series and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Background The true relationship between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T homozygosity and risk of recurrent spontaneous abortion is unknown, and it is unclear if women with these mutations should be anticoagulated during pregnancy. Objectives We report a series of 8 patients with this issue and review the current literature. Methods 8 patients (3 of whom were actively pregnant) were referred with histories of spontaneous fetal loss; hypercoaguability work-ups revealed each were homozygous for the MTHFR C677T mutation without other thrombophilias. Results In the 3 women who have conceived, treatment with LMW heparin during pregnancy led to two full-term births and one additional pregnancy without complication. For the 5 who have not, we recommended treatment with LMW heparin upon conception. Conclusion We provide evidence to support the relationship between MTHFR C677T mutations and recurrent fetal loss, and to suggest that anticoagulation of these patients during pregnancy can lead to a successful pregnancy outcome.

Altomare, Ivy; Adler, Alan; Aledort, Louis M

2007-01-01

50

Effect of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and thymidylate synthase enhancer region polymorphisms on the risk of idiopathic recurrent spontaneous abortion in a Korean population.  

PubMed

Previous studies reported an association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms and recurrent spontaneous abortion, whereas no studies are available for the association with thymidylate synthase enhancer region (TSER) genotypes. Mutations of MTHFR and TSER are not likely significant risk factors of idiopathic recurrent spontaneous abortion in Korean women. PMID:18990369

Bae, Jeehyeon; Choi, Dong Hee; Kang, Myung Seo; Cha, Sun Hee; Oh, Doyeun; Kim, Nam Keun

2009-04-01

51

Severe methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency revealed by a pulmonary embolism in a young adult.  

PubMed

Deficiency in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), the enzyme involved in the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine using methyltetrahydrofolate as cofactor, induces hyperhomocysteinaemia, homocysteinuria, hypomethioninaemia and low methylfolate levels. Diagnosis usually occurs during infancy because of various neurological abnormalities. We report MTHFR deficiency diagnosed in an adult woman after a pulmonary embolism. Her adult sister, intellectually retarded, suffered from the same disease. Molecular analysis of the MTHFR gene exhibited four different mutations (two missense mutations, one exon skipping and C677T). The impact of these mutations was analysed through the biological abnormalities in the parents and children. PMID:12406076

Tonetti, Carole; Ruivard, Marc; Rieu, Virginie; Zittoun, Jacqueline; Giraudier, Stephane

2002-11-01

52

Recurrent ischemic strokes in a young celiac woman with MTHFR gene mutation.  

PubMed

Celiac disease (CD) is frequently associated with neurological disorders, but very few reports concern the association with ischemic stroke. A 26-year-old woman affected by CD with secondary amenorrhea, carrier of a homozygous 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase mutation with hyperhomocysteinemia, was affected by two occipital ischemic strokes within a period of 5 mo. At the time of the second stroke, while she was being treated with folic acid, acetylsalicylic acid and a gluten-free diet, she had left hemianopsia, left hemiparesthesias, and gait imbalance. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a subacute right occipital ischemic lesion, which was extended to the dorsal region of the right thalamus and the ipsilateral thalamo-capsular junction. Antitransglutaminase and deamidated gliadin peptide antibodies were no longer present, while antinuclear antibodies, antineuronal antibodies and immune circulating complexes were only slightly elevated. Since the patient was taking folic acid, her homocysteine ??levels were almost normal and apparently not sufficient alone to explain the clinical event. A conventional cerebral angiography showed no signs of vasculitis. Finally, rare causes of occipital stroke in young patients, such as Fabry's disease and mitochondrial myopathy, encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like symptoms, were also excluded by appropriate tests. Thus, the most probable cause for the recurrent strokes in this young woman remained CD, although the mechanisms involved are still unknown. The two main hypotheses concern malabsorption (with consequent deficiency of vitamins known to exert neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects) and immune-mediated mechanisms. CD should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of ischemic stroke in young patients. PMID:22807619

Fabbri, Elisa; Rustignoli, Lisa; Muscari, Antonio; Puddu, Giovanni M; Guarino, Maria; Rinaldi, Rita; Minguzzi, Elena; Caio, Giacomo; Zoli, Marco; Volta, Umberto

2012-07-14

53

Recurrent ischemic strokes in a young celiac woman with MTHFR gene mutation  

PubMed Central

Celiac disease (CD) is frequently associated with neurological disorders, but very few reports concern the association with ischemic stroke. A 26-year-old woman affected by CD with secondary amenorrhea, carrier of a homozygous 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase mutation with hyperhomocysteinemia, was affected by two occipital ischemic strokes within a period of 5 mo. At the time of the second stroke, while she was being treated with folic acid, acetylsalicylic acid and a gluten-free diet, she had left hemianopsia, left hemiparesthesias, and gait imbalance. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a subacute right occipital ischemic lesion, which was extended to the dorsal region of the right thalamus and the ipsilateral thalamo-capsular junction. Antitransglutaminase and deamidated gliadin peptide antibodies were no longer present, while antinuclear antibodies, antineuronal antibodies and immune circulating complexes were only slightly elevated. Since the patient was taking folic acid, her homocysteine ??levels were almost normal and apparently not sufficient alone to explain the clinical event. A conventional cerebral angiography showed no signs of vasculitis. Finally, rare causes of occipital stroke in young patients, such as Fabry’s disease and mitochondrial myopathy, encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like symptoms, were also excluded by appropriate tests. Thus, the most probable cause for the recurrent strokes in this young woman remained CD, although the mechanisms involved are still unknown. The two main hypotheses concern malabsorption (with consequent deficiency of vitamins known to exert neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects) and immune-mediated mechanisms. CD should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of ischemic stroke in young patients.

Fabbri, Elisa; Rustignoli, Lisa; Muscari, Antonio; Puddu, Giovanni M; Guarino, Maria; Rinaldi, Rita; Minguzzi, Elena; Caio, Giacomo; Zoli, Marco; Volta, Umberto

2012-01-01

54

Methyltetrahydrofolate Reductase Defect in Two Cases of Habituel Abortion: a Case Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Methyltetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) defect is a result of a mutation in the encoding gene where thymidine is replaced by cytosine (C667T). Prevalence of the mutation varies in different societies. Resulting thermo labile MTFHR enzyme results in hyperhomocysteinemia which itself is a risk factor for thrombosis. Elevated plasma homocysteine levels also can result in neural tub defects, fetal death, abruption

Feyzi Gökosmanolu; Hakan Cinemre; Cemil Bilir

2008-01-01

55

Increased frequency of combined methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and A1298C mutated alleles in spontaneously aborted embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathogenesis of spontaneous abortion is complex, presumably involving the interaction of several genetic and environmental factors. The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene C677T and A1298C polymorphisms are commonly associated with defects in folate dependent homocysteine metabolism and have been implicated as risk factors for recurrent embryo loss in early pregnancy. In the present study we have determined the prevalence of

Henrik Zetterberg; Björn Regland; Mona Palmér; Anne Ricksten; Lars Palmqvist; Lars Rymo; Demetrios A Arvanitis; Demetrios A Spandidos; Kaj Blennow

2002-01-01

56

Folate restriction and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677T polymorphism decreases adoMet synthesis via folate-dependent remethylation in human-transformed lymphoblasts.  

PubMed

The homozygous mutation (677TT) in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene reduces enzyme activity and alters cellular folate composition. Previous epidemiological studies reported a potential protective effect of MTHFR677C --> T against acute lymphocytic leukemia and malignant lymphoma, but the mechanism remains to be determined. We investigated the biochemical impacts of MTHFR677C --> T on cellular S-adenosyl methionine (adoMet) synthesis, global DNA methylation, and de novo purine synthesis, all of which are potential regulatory pathways involved in tumorigenesis. Metabolic fluxes of homocysteine remethylation and de novo purine synthesis were compared between Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblasts expressing MTHFR 677C and MTHFR 677T using stable isotopic tracers and GCMS. MTHFR TT genotype significantly reduced folate-dependent remethylation under folate restriction, reflecting limited methylated folates under folate restriction. Data also suggested increased formylated folate pool and increased purine synthesis when folate is adequate. The impacts of MTHFR 677T polymorphism appeared closely related to folate status, and such alterations may modulate metabolic pathways involved in cancer onset/progression. The advantage of de novo purine synthesis found in the MTHFR TT genotype may account for the protective effect of MTHFR in hematological malignancies. These transformed cells are potential models for studying the consequences of human genetic variation and cancer pathogenesis. PMID:17301815

Chiang, E-P; Wang, Y-C; Tang, F-Y

2007-04-01

57

Association of plasma folate plasma total homocysteine but not methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C667T polymorphism with bone mineral density in postmenopausal Iranian women: a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) have been well documented to cause hyperhomocysteinemia, and recent studies suggest an association of C677T mutation of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase with low bone mineral density (BMD). In this study, the association of plasma total homocysteine (Hcy), plasma folate, and vitamin B12 as well as methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C667T polymorphism,with bone mineral density at neck of femur

Jamal Golbahar; Afshin Hamidi; Mohammad A. Aminzadeh; Gholamhossein R. Omrani

58

Association of plasma folate, plasma total homocysteine, but not methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C667T polymorphism, with bone mineral density in postmenopausal Iranian women: a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) have been well documented to cause hyperhomocysteinemia, and recent studies suggest an association of C677T mutation of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase with low bone mineral density (BMD). In this study, the association of plasma total homocysteine (Hcy), plasma folate, and vitamin B12 as well as methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C667T polymorphism with bone mineral density at neck of femur

Jamal Golbahar; Afshin Hamidi; Mohammad A. Aminzadeh; Gholamhossein R. Omrani

2004-01-01

59

Folate intake, alcohol consumption, and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T gene polymorphism: influence on prostate cancer risk and interactions  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Folate is essential to DNA methylation and synthesis and may have a complex dualistic role in prostate cancer. Alcohol use may increase risk and epigenetic factors may interact with lifestyle exposures. We aimed to characterize the independent and joint effects of folate intake, alcohol consumption, and the MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism on prostate cancer risk, while accounting for intakes of vitamins B2, B6, B12, methionine, total energy, and confounders. Methods: A case-control study was conducted at Kingston General Hospital of 80 incident primary prostate cancer cases and 334 urology clinic controls, all with normal age-specific PSA levels (to exclude latent prostate cancers). Participants completed a questionnaire on folate and alcohol intakes and potential confounders prior to knowledge of diagnosis, eliminating recall bias, and blood was drawn for MTHFR genotyping. Joint effects of exposures were assessed using unconditional logistic regression and significance of multiplicative and additive interactions using general linear models. Results: Folate, vitamins B2, B6, B12, methionine, and the CT and TT genotypes were not associated with prostate cancer risk. The highest tertile of lifetime alcohol consumption was associated with increased risk (OR = 2.08; 95% CI: 1.12–3.86). Consumption of >5 alcoholic drinks per week was associated with increased prostate cancer risk among men with low folate intake (OR = 2.38; 95% CI: 1.01–5.57), and higher risk among those with the CC MTHFR genotype (OR = 4.43; 95% CI: 1.15–17.05). Increased risk was also apparent for average weekly alcohol consumption when accounting for the multiplicative interaction between folate intake and MTHFR C677T genotype (OR = 3.22; 95% CI: 1.36–7.59). Conclusion: Alcohol consumption is associated with increased prostate cancer risk, and this association is stronger among men with low folate intake, with the CC MTHFR genotype, and when accounting for the joint effect of folate intake and MTHFR C677T genotype.

Kobayashi, Lindsay C.; Limburg, Heather; Miao, Qun; Woolcott, Christy; Bedard, Leanne L.; Massey, Thomas E.; Aronson, Kristan J.

2012-01-01

60

Methyltetrahydrofolate reductase C677T gene mutation and hyperhomocysteinemia as a novel risk factor for diabetic nephropathy.  

PubMed

Hyperhomocysteinemia is a well-defined risk factor for endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. A point mutation (677 C-T) of MTHFR gene results in a significant increase at plasma homocysteine levels. In this study we aimed to evaluate the effects of MTHFR gene mutation and consequent hyperhomocysteinemia on the development of diabetic microvascular complications in comparison with the other defined risk factors. Diabetic patients without a history of macrovascular complication or overt nephropathy enrolled into the study. The presence of MTHFR 677 C-T point mutation was evaluated by Real-Time PCR technique by using a LightCycler. MTHFR heterozygous mutation was present in 24 patients over 52. Patients with diabetes were divided into two groups according to the presence of MTHFR gene mutation. Both groups were well matched regarding age and diabetes duration. Metabolic parameters, plasma homocysteine, microalbuminuria, folic acid, and vitamin B12 levels were also studied. Presence of neuropathy and retinopathy were evaluated by specific tests. Duration of diabetes, BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, plasma CRP, HbA1c, and lipid levels were not different between the two groups. Plasma homocysteine (12.89 +/- 1.74 and 8.98 +/- 1.91 micromol/l; P < 0.0001) and microalbuminuria levels (73.40 +/- 98.15 and 29.53 +/- 5.08 mg/day; P = 0.021) were significantly higher in the group with MTHFR gene mutation while creatinine clearance levels (101.1 +/- 42.6 and 136.21 +/- 51.50 ml/min; P = 0.008) were significantly lower. Sixteen over 22 (73%) of the patients with diabetic nephropathy had MTHFR gene mutation, while this was only 27% (8 over 30) in normoalbuminuric patients (P = 0.017). There was a significant correlation of plasma homocysteine level with microalbuminuria (r = 0.54; P = 0.031) in the patients with diabetic nephropathy who had C677T polymorphism. We did not find any specific association of MTHFR gene mutation and hyperhomocysteinemia with retinopathy or neuropathy. PMID:19598005

Ukinc, Kubilay; Ersoz, Halil Onder; Karahan, Caner; Erem, Cihangir; Eminagaoglu, Selcuk; Hacihasanoglu, Arif Bayram; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Kocak, Mustafa

2009-10-01

61

Nonsense mutations in the dihydrofolate reductase gene affect RNA processing.  

PubMed Central

Steady-state dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) mRNA levels were decreased as a result of nonsense mutations in the dhfr gene. Thirteen DHFR-deficient mutants were isolated after treatment of Chinese hamster ovary cells with UV irradiation. The positions of most point mutations were localized by RNA heteroduplex mapping, the mutated regions were isolated by cloning or by enzymatic amplification, and base changes were determined by DNA sequencing. Two of the mutants suffered large deletions that spanned the entire dhfr gene. The remaining 11 mutations consisted of nine single-base substitutions, one double-base substitution, and one single-base insertion. All of the single-base substitutions took place at the 3' position of a pyrimidine dinucleotide, supporting the idea that UV mutagenesis proceeds through the formation of pyrimidine dimers in mammalian cells. Of the 11 point mutations, 10 resulted in nonsense codons, either directly or by a frameshift, suggesting that the selection method favored a null phenotype. An examination of steady-state RNA levels in cells carrying these mutations and a comparison with similar data from other dhfr mutants (A. M. Carothers, R. W. Steigerwalt, G. Urlaub, L. A. Chasin, and D. Grunberger, J. Mol. Biol., in press) showed that translation termination mutations in any of the internal exons of the gene gave rise to a low-RNA phenotype, whereas missense mutations in these exons or terminations in exon 6 (the final exon) did not affect dhfr mRNA levels. Nuclear run-on experiments showed that transcription of the mutant genes was normal. The stability of mature dhfr mRNA also was not affected, since (i) decay rates were the same in wild-type and mutant cells after inhibition of RNA synthesis with actinomycin D and (ii) intronless minigene versions of cloned wild-type and nonsense mutant genes were expressed equally after stable transfection. We conclude that RNA processing has been affected by these nonsense mutations and present a model in which both splicing and nuclear transport of an RNA molecule are coupled to its translation. Curiously, the low-RNA mutant phenotype was not exhibited after transfer of the mutant genes, suggesting that the transcripts of transfected genes may be processed differently than are those of their endogenous counterparts. Images

Urlaub, G; Mitchell, P J; Ciudad, C J; Chasin, L A

1989-01-01

62

Association of MTHFR gene polymorphisms with breast cancer survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Two functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, C677T and A1298C, lead to decreased enzyme activity and affect chemosensitivity of tumor cells. We investigated whether these MTHFR SNPs were associated with breast cancer survival in African-American and Caucasian women. METHODS: African-American (n = 143) and Caucasian (n = 105) women, who had incident breast cancer

Damali N Martin; Brenda J Boersma; Tiffany M Howe; Julie E Goodman; Leah E Mechanic; Stephen J Chanock; Stefan Ambs

2006-01-01

63

C677T mutation in the 5,10-MTHFR gene and risk of Down syndrome in Italy.  

PubMed

The C677T polymorphism of the MTHFR gene has been associated to maternal risk of Down syndrome, due to the detection of an higher prevalence of the T allele among mothers of children with trisomy 21, compared to control mothers. In order to confirm this association, we studied the presence of the C677T in 64 mothers of Down syndrome children and 112 controls from central Italy. An higher incidence of the mutant T allele in controls (48.2%) than in Down syndrome children mothers (44%) was detected. These results do not support the presence of an increased risk of Down syndrome in mothers carriers of the T allele in the Italian population. PMID:12080391

Stuppia, Liborio; Gatta, Valentina; Gaspari, Anna Rita; Antonucci, Ivana; Morizio, Elisena; Calabrese, Giuseppe; Palka, Giandomenico

2002-06-01

64

Relations between molecular and biological abnormalities in 11 families from siblings affected with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting in elevated homocysteine levels in plasma and urine. MTHFR catalyses the reduction of methylenetetrahydrofolate to methyltetrahydrofolate, a cofactor for homocysteine remethylation to methionine. MTHFR deficiency may be diagnosed from infancy to adulthood with a broad spectrum of clinical symptoms. A molecular analysis of the MTHFR gene combined with an assessment

Carole Tonetti; Jean-Marie Saudubray; Bernard Echenne; Pierre Landrieu; Stéphane Giraudier; Jacqueline Zittoun

2003-01-01

65

A1298C polymorphism in the MTHFR gene predisposes to cardiovascular risk in rheumatoid arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: We determined the contribution of the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677 C>T and 1298 A>C gene polymorphisms to the susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We also assessed whether these two MTHFR gene polymorphisms may be implicated in the development of cardiovascular (CV) events and subclinical atherosclerosis manifested by the presence of endothelial dysfunction, in a series of Spanish patients

Rogelio Palomino-Morales; Carlos Gonzalez-Juanatey; Tomas R Vazquez-Rodriguez; Luis Rodriguez; Jose A Miranda-Filloy; Benjamin Fernandez-Gutierrez; Javier Llorca; Javier Martin; Miguel A Gonzalez-Gay

2010-01-01

66

Analysis of the MTHFR C677T variant with migraine phenotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene variant C677T has been implicated as a genetic risk factor in migraine susceptibility, particularly in Migraine with Aura. Migraine, with and without aura (MA and MO) have many diagnostic characteristics in common. It is postulated that migraine symptomatic characteristics might themselves be influenced by MTHFR. Here we analysed the clinical profile, migraine symptoms, triggers

Annie Liu; Saraswathy Menon; Natalie J Colson; Sharon Quinlan; Hannah Cox; Madelyn Peterson; Thomas Tiang; Larisa M Haupt; Rod A Lea; Lyn R Griffiths

2010-01-01

67

Genetic risk factors for arterial ischemic stroke in children: a possible MTHFR and eNOS gene-gene interplay?  

PubMed

In order to investigate the influence of genetic factors in childhood stroke, we compared the distributions of mutations/ polymorphisms affecting hemostasis and/or endothelial function (factor V [FV] Leiden, factor II [FII] G20210A, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase [MTHFR] C677T, angiotensin-converting enzyme [ACE] insertion/deletion [ID], and endothelial nitric oxide synthase [eNOS] G894T) among children with stroke and controls. A total number of 26 children with arterial ischemic stroke and a control group of 50 healthy children were included in the study. No statistically significant differences in allelic and genotypic distribution were detected in comparisons between groups. However, when combined genotypes were analyzed, statistical significance was observed for the association of MTHFR CT and eNOS TT gene variants. The results of our study suggest that this genotype combination represents a risk factor of 7.2 (P = .017) for arterial ischemic stroke in children. PMID:19372095

Djordjevic, Valentina; Stankovic, Marija; Brankovic-Sreckovic, Vesna; Rakicevic, Ljiljana; Radojkovic, Dragica

2009-07-01

68

MTHFR C677T and A1298C Genotypes and Haplotypes in Slovenian Couples with Unexplained Infertility Problems and in Embryonic Tissues from Spontaneous Abortions.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to analyze the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductases ( MTHFR s) C677T and A1298C genotype distributions in couples with unexplained fertility problems (UFP) and healthy controls, and to analyze the genotype and haplotype distribution in spontaneously aborted embryonic tissues (SAET) using allele specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 200 probands with UFP, 353 samples of SAET and 222 healthy controls. The analysis revealed a significant overall representation of the 677T allele in male probands from couples with UFP ( p = 0.036). The combined genotype distribution for both MTHFR polymorphisms was also significantly altered (? (2) 21.73, p <0.001) although female probands made no contribution (? (2) 1.33, p = 0.72). The overall representation of the 677T allele was more pronounced in SAET (0.5 vs. 0.351 in controls, p <0.001) regardless of the karyotype status (aneuploidy vs. normal karyotype). In addition, the frequencies of the CA and CC haplotypes were significantly lower than in the control group ( p = 0.021 and p = 0.001, respectively), whereas the frequency of the TC haplotype was significantly higher than in controls ( p <0.0001). The presented findings indicate that only male probands contribute to the association of MTHFR mutations with fertility problems in grown adults and demonstrate a high prevalence of mutated MTHFR genotypes in SAET. PMID:24265582

Stangler Herodež, S; Zagradišnik, B; Erjavec Škerget, A; Zagorac, A; Taka?, I; Vlaisavljevi?, V; Lokar, L; Kokalj Voka?, N

2013-06-01

69

Association of MTHFR A1298C polymorphism (but not of MTHFR C677T) with elevated homocysteine levels and placental vasculopathies.  

PubMed

Our aim in this study was to investigate the association between elevated homocysteine levels and the two MTHFR polymorphisms, C677T and A1298C, with several pregnancy complications such as recurrent pregnancy loss, preeclampsia, placental abruption and intrauterine growth retardation. In 203 women with different placental vasculopathies, we determined the MTHFR C677T and the A1298C prevalence and their relative association to elevated homocysteine levels. The mean plasma homocysteine level was significantly higher in the pathologic groups when compared with the control group. We identified the carriage of the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism as a significant risk factor for vascular-related pregnancy complications. Women with MTHFR A1298C polymorphism or elevated homocysteine levels have an increased risk of placental vasculopathies. The MTHFR A1298C mutation also had a positive impact on elevated homocysteine levels. The lack of association between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and pregnancy morbidities needs further studies. PMID:21577095

Klai, Sarra; Fekih-Mrissa, Najiba; El Housaini, Sonia; Kaabechi, Naziha; Nsiri, Brahim; Rachdi, Radhouen; Gritli, Nasredine

2011-07-01

70

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase: biochemical characterization and medical significance.  

PubMed

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) catalyzes the reduction of 5,10-methylenetetrahydofolate (CH2-H4folate) to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (CH3-H4folate). The enzyme employs a noncovalently-bound flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), which accepts reducing equivalents from NAD(P)H and transfers them to CH2-H4folate. The reaction provides the sole source of CH3-H4folate, which is utilized by methionine synthase in the synthesis of methionine from homocysteine. MTHFR plays a key role in folate metabolism and in the homeostasis of homocysteine; mutations in the enzyme lead to hyperhomocyst(e)inemia. A common C677T polymorphism in MTHFR has been associated with an increased risk for the development of cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, and depression in adults, and of neural tube defects in the fetus. The mutation also confers protection for certain types of cancers. This review presents the current knowledge of the enzyme, its biochemical characterization, and medical significance. PMID:23116396

Trimmer, Elizabeth E

2013-01-01

71

MOLECULAR SURVEILLANCE OF MUTATIONS IN DIHYDROFOLATE REDUCTASE AND DIHYROPTEROATE SYNTHASE GENES OF PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM IN ETHIOPIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Point mutations in the genes for dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) of Plasmodium falciparum isolates are associated with sulfadoxine\\/pyrimethamine (SP) treatment failure, respectively. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of SP resistance in P. falciparum isolates collected at the Jimma Health Center in southwestern Ethiopia. In this study, the genetic profil eo fP. falciparum isolates with

TAMIRAT GEBRU-WOLDEAREGAI; ASRAT HAILU; MARTIN P. GROBUSCH; JÜRGEN F. J. KUN

72

Insidious peripheral neuropathy occurring under treatment in infantile MTHFR deficiency.  

PubMed

5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency was diagnosed in a 1-month-old baby with signs of cerebral distress. Under a classic treatment using methionine supplementation, methyl donor (betaine) folinic acid, vitamin B(6) and vitamin B(12), the neuromotor development was satisfactory. At 15 years of age, however, despite no clear modification of the biochemical markers in body fluids, she developed a clinically overt peripheral axonal neuropathy. Only partial clinical improvement was obtained after reinforcement of betaine doses. Surveillance of the peripheral nerve is indicated in MTHFR deficiency, including in the infantile form with a good therapeutic compliance. PMID:19697151

Chaabene-Masmoudi, A; Mesrati, F; Zittoun, J; Landrieu, P

2009-12-01

73

A homozygous frameshift mutation of sepiapterin reductase gene causing parkinsonism with onset in childhood.  

PubMed

We report two siblings that presented hypotonia and very early-onset parkinsonism. Homozygosity mapping using SNP genome scan data identified a candidate locus that was 12.2 Mega base pairs. By exome sequencing, we found a homozygous five-nucleotide deletion (c.448_452delAGAAC) in gene Sepiapterin Reductase (SPR). The mutation is predicted to lead to premature translational termination. Sepiapterin reductase deficiency (SRD) is a recently recognized dopa-responsive dystonia. Our findings show that SRD can manifest as early-onset parkinsonism, widening the spectrum of the disease phenotype and adding to the genetic heterogeneity of the disease. PMID:22018912

Lohmann, Ebba; Köro?lu, Çi?dem; Hanagasi, Hasmet A; Dursun, Burcu; Ta?an, Er?an; Tolun, Asl?han

2012-02-01

74

Hyperhomocysteinemia and of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (C677T) Genetic Polymorphism in Patients with Deep Vein Thrombosis  

PubMed Central

Aim: To determine the concentration of total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) as well as different genotypes of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase MTHFR (C677T) in healthy subjects and patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Material and methods: The investigation comprised a total of 160 subjects divided in two main groups: 80 healthy subjects (control group) and 80 patients with deep vein thrombosis. Concentration of tHcy was determined by spectrophotometric cyclic enzymatic method and mutation of MTHFR (C677T) gene was examined by polymerase chain reaction according to Schneider. Results: The results obtained for plasma tHcy in the control group were 11.62±3.43 ?mol/L, while tHcy level was significantly higher in patients with deep vein thrombosis as compared to the control group, 15.19±3.63 ?mol/L (?<0.001). The analysis of the results has shown that MTHFR (C677T) genetic polymorphism was responsible for mild to moderate hyperhomocysteinemia in the majority of subjects. Conclusion: The level of tHcy in the examined patients was significantly higher in comparison with the control group. Multiple regression analysis has shown that tHcy level in CT and TT genotypes of MTHFR (C677T) was statistically higher in comparison with CC genotype of MTHFR (C677T) in both, the control group and the DVT patients.

Brezovska-Kavrakova, Julijana; Krstevska, Marija; Bosilkova, Gordana; Alabakovska, Sonja; Panov, Saso; Orovchanec, Nikola

2013-01-01

75

Plasma homocysteine levels related to interactions between folate status and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase: a study in 52 healthy subjects.  

PubMed

Hyperhomocysteinemia, a risk factor for vascular disease, is related to vitamin B12, vitamin B6, and especially folate deficiency, or to genetic factors such as mutations in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), an enzyme involved in the remethylation pathway of homocysteine to methionine. Recently, a C677 --> T mutation identified in the MTHFR gene was found to be frequently associated with decreased MTHFR activity and an elevated plasma homocysteine concentration. Since hyperhomocysteinemia seems to be determined by both genetic and environmental factors, we studied the interactions between MTHFR (phenotype and genotype) and folate status, including methyltetrahydrofolate (methylTHF), the product of MTHFR, on the homocysteine concentration in 52 healthy subjects, (28 women and 24 men; mean age, 32.7 years). MTHFR activity seems to be dependent on folate status, as shown by a lower activity in folate-deficient subjects and a return to normal values after supplementation with folic acid, and also by a decreased enzymatic activity on phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated lymphocytes grown in a folic acid-deficient medium. Conversely, the C677 --> T mutation seems to influence folate metabolism. Subjects who were homozygous for this mutation (+/+) had significantly higher plasma homocysteine and lower plasma folate and total and methylfolate levels in red blood cells (RBCs) than heterozygous (+/-) and normal (-/-) subjects. The ratio of RBC methylfolate to RBC total folate was, respectively, 0.27 in +/+, 0.66 in +/-, and 0.71 in -/-. This mutation seems to have an impact on methylTHF generation. These data illustrate the interactions between nutritional and genetic factors. PMID:9826223

Zittoun, J; Tonetti, C; Bories, D; Pignon, J M; Tulliez, M

1998-11-01

76

Mice deficient in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase exhibit hyperhomocysteinemia and decreased methylation capacity, with neuropathology and aortic lipid deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperhomocysteinemia, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is caused by nutritional and\\/or genetic disruptions in homocysteine metabolism. The most common genetic cause of hyperhomocysteinemia is the 677C-->T mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene. This variant, with mild enzymatic deficiency, is associated with an increased risk for neural tube defects and pregnancy complications and with a decreased risk for colon

Zhoutao Chen; A C Karaplis; Susan L. Ackerman; Igor P. Pogribny; Stepan Melnyk; Cacan S Lussier; Moy Fong Chen; A Pai; S W John; R S Smith; T Bottiglieri; P Bagley; J Selhub; M A Rudnicki; S J James; R Rozen

2001-01-01

77

MTHFR Polymorphisms Involved in Vitamin B 12 Deficiency Associated with Atrophic Gastritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic polymorphisms affecting methylentetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) activity may influence hematological and neurological\\u000a dysfunction in cobalamin-deficient patients. We studied the prevalence of C677T and A1298C polymorphisms by analyzing genomic\\u000a DNA in 30 cobalamin-deficient patients. No significant difference was found in 677 and 1298 genotype distribution with respect\\u000a to hematological parameters, B12 and folate levels, and neurological symptoms. The two MTHFR polymorphisms

Mariangela Palladino; Patrizia Chiusolo; Giovanni Reddiconto; Sara Marietti; Daniela De Ritis; Giuseppe Leone; Simona Sica

2009-01-01

78

Mapping of trxB, a mutation responsible for reduced thioredoxin reductase activity.  

PubMed Central

The mutation (trxB) responsible for reduced thioredoxin reductase activity has been mapped on the Escherichia coli K-12 chromosome clockwise from aroA between 20 and 21 min. The gene order in this region of the E. coli chromosome was found to probably be serC-aroA-trxB. The location of gshA, the structural gene for gamma-glutamylcystein synthetase, relative to srl and recA also was determined.

Haller, B L; Fuchs, J A

1984-01-01

79

Impact of MTHFR polymorphisms on methylation of MGMT in glioma patients from Northeast China with different folate levels.  

PubMed

Hypomethylation of the O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter in glioma cells has been associated with temozolomide resistance. S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), which is produced during folate metabolism, is the main source of methyl groups during DNA methylation. As a key enzyme during folate metabolism, polymorphisms of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) may regulate folate end-products. We investigated the effect of typical polymorphisms of MTHFR (C677T and A1298C) on MGMT methylation based on different serum folate levels in patients with glioma from Northeast China. A total of 275 patients with glioma and 329 without malignant tumors were tested. Serum folate concentration was assayed by using the electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. MTHFR polymorphisms were detected by Taqman-Fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Methylation-specific PCR was used to assess MGMT methylation. The constituent ratio of glioma patients below the serum folate biological reference value was significantly higher than that of the control population (P < 0.001). In patients with oligodendroglioma and glioblastoma, heterozygotes for the A1298C mutation were found in higher frequency than homozygotes or wild types (oligodendroglioma, P < 0.001; glioblastoma, P < 0.01). When grouped by the median or biological reference value of serum folate, only homozygotes for C677T with low levels of folate were significantly associated with decreased methylation of MGMT (median, P < 0.001; biological reference value, P = 0.036). These data suggest that, in combination with a negative folate balance in glioma patients, T/T genotypes in MTHFR C677T may be associated with MGMT demethylation. PMID:24301776

Liu, N; Jiang, J; Song, Y J; Zhao, S G; Tong, Z G; Song, H S; Wu, H; Zhu, J Y; Gu, Y H; Sun, Y; Hua, W; Qi, J P

2013-01-01

80

C677T methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and plasma homocysteine levels among Thai vegans and omnivores.  

PubMed

Hyperhomocysteinemia among vegetarians and vegans is caused mostly by vitamin B12 deficiency. A C-to-T mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene results in a thermolabile MTHFR, which may affect homocysteine (Hcy) levels. The importance of this gene mutation among populations depends on the T allele frequency. Blood Hcy, vitamin B12, folate, vitamin B6, and MTHFR C677T mutation status were determined in 109 vegans and 86 omnivores aged 30 - 50 years. The vegans had significantly higher Hcy levels than the omnivores, geometric means (95 % CI) 19.2 (17.0 - 21.7) µmol/L vs. 8.53 (8.12 - 8.95) µmol/L, p < 0.001. A C-to-T mutation in the vegans increased plasma Hcy, albeit insignificantly; geometric means 18.2 µmol/L, 20.4 µmol/L, and 30.0 µmol/L respectively in CC, CT, and TT MTHFR genotypes. There was also a significant decrease in serum folate; geometric means 12.1 ng/mL, 9.33 ng/mL, and 7.20 ng/mL respectively, in the CC, CT, and TT mutants, p = 0.006, and particularly, in the TT mutant compared with the CC wild type, 7.20 ng/mL vs. 12.1 ng/mL, p = 0.023. These findings were not seen in the omnivores. It was concluded that hyperhomocysteinemia is prevalent among Thai vegans due to vitamin B12 deficiency. C-to-T MTHFR mutation contributes only modestly to the hyperhomocysteinemia. PMID:24491881

Kajanachumpol, Saowanee; Atamasirikul, Kalayanee; Tantibhedhyangkul, Phieuvit

2013-01-01

81

Allelic variations in 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene and susceptibility to cervical cancer in Indian women.  

PubMed

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene located on chromosome 1p36.3 catalyses the conversion of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5,methyltetrahydrofolate, the major methyl donor for the conversion of homocysteine to methionine. Two common polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene have been identified, 677C>T in exon 4, leading to substitution of alanine by valine and 1298A>C in exon 7 which leads to the replacement of glutamic acid by alanine resulting into reduced enzyme activity. The potential influence of MTHFR activity on DNA methylation and on the availability of uridylates and thymidylates for DNA synthesis and repair makes MTHFR an attractive candidate for cancer predisposing gene. In order to elucidate the role of MTHFR polymorphism in cervical cancer, both the exons for 677C>T and 1298A>C mutations were analyzed among 219 females, including 77 females with normal cervical cytology, 80 with cervical dysplasia and 62 with squamous cell carcinoma of uterine cervix. Females with mutant allele at 677 position (CT/TT genotypes) were found to be almost three times the risk of cervical dysplasia than females with CC genotype [OR, 2.9; (CI, 1.5-5.7)], but were less likely to develop squamous cell carcinoma [OR, 1.5 (CI, 0.7-3.2)]. Similar findings were observed for mutation at 1298 position, females with AC/CC genotypes were almost four times the risk of cervical dysplasia [OR, 4.3 (CI, 2.1-9.0)], as compared to AA genotype. Our study lends further support to the hypothesis that the MTHFR polymorphism (677C>T or 1298A>C) is involved in susceptibility to cervical dysplasia. PMID:19356065

Nandan, Naveen Kumar; Wajid, Saima; Biswas, Shilpie; Juneja, Sominder Singh; Rizvi, Moshahid; Prakash, Raminder; Naqvi, Samar Husain

2008-01-01

82

Mutations in the dihydrofolate reductase gene of trimethoprim-resistant isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae.  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates resistant to several antimicrobial agent classes including trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole have been reported with increasing frequency throughout the world. The MICs of trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (1:19) for 259 clinical isolates from South Africa were determined, and 166 of these 259 (64%) isolates were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (MICs > or =20 mg/liter). Trimethoprim resistance was found to be more strongly correlated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance (correlation coefficient, 0.744) than was sulfamethoxazole resistance (correlation coefficient, 0.441). The dihydrofolate reductase genes from 11 trimethoprim-resistant (MICs, 64 to 512 microg/ml) clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae were amplified by PCR, and the nucleotide sequences were determined. Two main groups of mutations to the dihydrofolate reductase gene were found. Both groups shared six amino acid changes (Glu20-Asp, Pro70-Ser, Gln81-His, Asp92-Ala, Ile100-Leu, and Leu135-Phe). The first group included two extra changes (Lys60-Gln and Pro111-Ser), and the second group was characterized by six additional amino acid changes (Glu14-Asp, Ile74-Leu, Gln91-His, Glu94-Asp, Phe147-Ser, and Ala149-Thr). Chromosomal DNA from resistant isolates and cloned PCR products of the genes encoding resistant dihydrofolate reductases were capable of transforming a susceptible strain of S. pneumoniae to trimethoprim resistance. The inhibitor profiles of recombinant dihydrofolate reductase from resistant and susceptible isolates revealed that the dihydrofolate reductase from trimethoprim-resistant isolates was 50-fold more resistant (50% inhibitory doses [ID50s], 3.9 to 7.3 microM) than that from susceptible strains (ID50s, 0.15 microM). Site-directed mutagenesis experiments revealed that one mutation, Ile100-Leu, resulted in a 50-fold increase in the ID50 of trimethoprim. The resistant dihydrofolate reductases were characterized by highly conserved redundant changes in the nucleotide sequence, suggesting that the genes encoding resistant dihydrofolate reductases may have evolved as a result of inter- or intraspecies recombination by transformation.

Adrian, P V; Klugman, K P

1997-01-01

83

Insidious peripheral neuropathy occurring under treatment in infantile MTHFR deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency was diagnosed in a 1-month-old baby with signs of cerebral distress.\\u000a Under a classic treatment using methionine supplementation, methyl donor (betaine) folinic acid, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12, the neuromotor development was satisfactory. At 15 years of age, however, despite no clear modification of the biochemical\\u000a markers in body fluids, she developed a clinically overt peripheral axonal

A. Chaabene-Masmoudi; F. Mesrati; J. Zittoun; P. Landrieu

84

A mutation leading to the total lack of nitrite reductase activity in Escherichia coli K 12  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutants of E. coli, completely devoid of nitrite reductase activity with glucose or formate as donor were studied. Biochemical analysis indicates that they are simultaneously affected in nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, fumarate reductase and hydrogenase activities as well as in cytochrome c552 biosynthesis. The use of an antiserum specific for nitrate reductase shows that the nitrate reductase protein is probably

M. Chippaux; D. Giudici; A. Abou-Jaoudé; F. Casse; M. C. Pascal

1978-01-01

85

Mutations at Several Loci Cause Increased Expression of Ribonucleotide Reductase in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Production of deoxyribonucleotides for DNA synthesis is an essential and tightly regulated process. The class Ia ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), the product of the nrdAB genes, is required for aerobic growth of Escherichia coli. In catalyzing the reduction of ribonucleotides, two of the cysteines of RNR become oxidized, forming a disulfide bond. To regenerate active RNR, the cell uses thioredoxins and glutaredoxins to reduce the disulfide bond. Strains that lack thioredoxins 1 and 2 and glutaredoxin 1 do not grow because RNR remains in its oxidized, inactive form. However, suppressor mutations that lead to RNR overproduction allow glutaredoxin 3 to reduce sufficient RNR for growth of these mutant strains. We previously described suppressor mutations in the dnaA and dnaN genes that had such effects. Here we report the isolation of new mutations that lead to increased levels of RNR. These include mutations that were not known to influence production of RNR previously, such as a mutation in the hda gene and insertions in the nrdAB promoter region of insertion elements IS1 and IS5. Bioinformatic analysis raises the possibility that IS element insertion in this region represents an adaptive mechanism in nrdAB regulation in E. coli and closely related species. We also characterize mutations altering different amino acids in DnaA and DnaN from those isolated before.

Feeney, Morgan Anne; Ke, Na

2012-01-01

86

Heterozygous mutation in 5’-untranslated region of sepiapterin reductase gene (SPR) in a patient with dopa-responsive dystonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The search for mutations in genes coding for components of the biopterin pathway other than GTPCH1 revealed a mutation in the gene coding for sepiapterin reductase ( SPR) in 1 of 95 patients with GCH1-negative dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD). The mutation detected in SPR is a G?A transition at position –13 of the untranslated region of the gene. This resulted in

Daniela Steinberger; Nenad Blau; Dimitri Goriuonov; Juliane Bitsch; Michael Zuker; Sibylla Hummel; Ulrich Müller

2004-01-01

87

The implication of dihydrofolate reductase and dihydropteroate synthetase gene mutations in modification of Plasmodium falciparum characteristics  

PubMed Central

Background The Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and dihydropteroate synthetase (DHPS) are enzymes of central importance in parasite metabolism. The dhfr and dhps gene mutations are known to be associated with sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) resistance. Objective To investigate the effects of dhfr/dhps mutations on parasite characteristics other than SP resistance. Method Parasite infections obtained from 153 Sudanese patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria treated with SP or SP + chloroquine, were successfully genotyped at nine codons in the dhfr/dhps genes by PCR-ELISA. Results & conclusion Mutations were detected in dhfr at N51I, S108N and C59R, and in at dhps at A/S436F, A437G, K540E and A581G, the maximum number of mutations per infection were five. Based on number of mutant codons per infection (multiplicity of mutation, MOM), the infections were organized into six grades: wild-types (grade 0; frequency, 0.03) and infections with MOM grades of 1 to 5, with the following cumulative frequency; 0.97, 0.931, 0.866, 0.719, 0.121, respectively. There was no significant association between the MOM and SP response. Importantly, immunity, using age as a surrogate marker, contributed significantly to the clearance of parasites with multiple dhfr/dhps mutations. However, these mutations have a survival advantage as they were associated with increased gametocytogenesis. The above implications of dhfr/dhps mutations were associated with MOM 2 to 5, regardless of the gene/codon locus.

A-Elbasit, Ishraga E; Alifrangis, Michael; Khalil, Insaf F; Bygbjerg, Ib C; Masuadi, Emad M; Elbashir, Mustafa I; Giha, Hayder A

2007-01-01

88

Arterial ischemic stroke in a child with beta-thalassemia trait and methylentetrahydrofolate reductase mutation.  

PubMed

Genetic and acquired disorders that foster a procoagulable state represent risk factors for stroke in childhood. Although an increased incidence of thromboembolic complications has been reported in patients with thalassemia, severe cerebral thromboembolism has rarely been observed in patients with beta-thalassemia minor. This article describes a case study of a 1-year-old boy who presented with left-sided hemiparesis, seizures, microcytic anemia, and recent infection with reactive thrombocytosis. Ischemic infarction in the territory of the right middle cerebral artery was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography. Genetic tests showed that the patient was heterozygous for the beta(degrees) -thalassemia IVS-I-1 mutation and homozygous for the methylentetrahydrofolate reductase C677T mutation. Based on these findings, it was concluded that the synergistic effects of multiple, genetic, and acquired prothrombotic risk factors brought about the hypercoagulable state that resulted in overt stroke in a thalassemic patient in early childhood. PMID:17621484

Brankovic-Sreckovic, Vesna; Milic Rasic, Vedrana; Djordjevic, Valentina; Kuzmanovic, Milos; Pavlovic, Sonja

2007-02-01

89

Association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (A1298C and C677T) polymorphisms with retinal vein occlusion in Tunisian patients.  

PubMed

The role of two polymorphisms C677T and A1298C of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene in the etiology of retinal vein occlusion (RVO) has not been adequately clarified. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of these polymorphisms among RVO Tunisian patients with and without systemic risk factors. Seventy-two patients with retinal vein occlusion (RVO) were studied. The control group included140 people matched for age, sex, and risk factors. Participants in the study were genotyped for the MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms. The genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP. No significant differences were found in the frequencies of the three genotypes (AA, AC, CC) of the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism between RVO patients and healthy controls. However, the prevalence of the group of mutated genotypes (AC+CC) of the missense variant MTHFR A1298C was significantly different between patients and controls (16.67% vs. 6.42%, p=.01). Additionally, the frequency of the CT genotype as well as the group of combined mutated genotypes (CT+TT) for the C677T variant was significantly higher among RVO patients compared with controls (p<10(-3), p<10(-3)). This suggests an association between this polymorphism and RVO. Large study populations would be required to understand more completely the contribution of these markers in the risk of RVO. PMID:24440586

Mrad, Meriem; Wathek, Cheima; Saleh, Mekki Ben; Baatour, Makrem; Rannen, Riadh; Lamine, Khaled; Gabsi, Salem; Gritli, Nasreddine; Fekih-Mrissa, Najiba

2014-04-01

90

Mutation in Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Reductase 1 Gene in Families with Cutis Laxa Type 2  

PubMed Central

Autosomal-recessive cutis laxa type 2 (ARCL2) is a multisystem disorder characterized by the appearance of premature aging, wrinkled and lax skin, joint laxity, and a general developmental delay. Cutis laxa includes a family of clinically overlapping conditions with confusing nomenclature, generally requiring molecular analyses for definitive diagnosis. Six genes are currently known to mutate to yield one of these related conditions. We ascertained a cohort of typical ARCL2 patients from a subpopulation isolate within eastern Canada. Homozygosity mapping with high-density SNP genotyping excluded all six known genes, and instead identified a single homozygous region near the telomere of chromosome 17, shared identically by state by all genotyped affected individuals from the families. A putative pathogenic variant was identified by direct DNA sequencing of genes within the region. The single nucleotide change leads to a missense mutation adjacent to a splice junction in the gene encoding pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1 (PYCR1). Bioinformatic analysis predicted a pathogenic effect of the variant on splice donor site function. Skipping of the associated exon was confirmed in RNA from blood lymphocytes of affected homozygotes and heterozygous mutation carriers. Exon skipping leads to deletion of the reductase functional domain-coding region and an obligatory downstream frameshift. PYCR1 plays a critical role in proline biosynthesis. Pathogenicity of the genetic variant in PYCR1 is likely, given that a similar clinical phenotype has been documented for mutation carriers of another proline biosynthetic enzyme, pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase. Our results support a significant role for proline in normal development.

Guernsey, Duane L.; Jiang, Haiyan; Evans, Susan C.; Ferguson, Meghan; Matsuoka, Makoto; Nightingale, Mathew; Rideout, Andrea L.; Provost, Sylvie; Bedard, Karen; Orr, Andrew; Dube, Marie-Pierre; Ludman, Mark; Samuels, Mark E.

2009-01-01

91

Novel mutator mutants of E. coli nrdAB ribonucleotide reductase: insight into allosteric regulation and control of mutation rates  

PubMed Central

Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) is the enzyme critically responsible for the production of the 5?-deoxynucleoside-triphosphates (dNTPs), the direct precursors for DNA synthesis. The dNTP levels are tightly controlled to permit high efficiency and fidelity of DNA synthesis. Much of this control occurs at the level of the RNR by feedback processes, but a detailed understanding of these mechanisms is still lacking. Using a genetic approach in the bacterium E. coli, a paradigm for the Class Ia RNRs, we isolated 23 novel RNR mutants displaying elevated mutation rates along with altered dNTP levels. The responsible amino-acid substitutions in RNR reside in three different regions: (i) the (d)ATP-binding activity domain, (ii) a novel region in the small subunit adjacent to the activity domain, and (iii) the dNTP-binding specificity site, several of which are associated with different dNTP pool alterations and different mutational outcomes. These mutants provide new insight into the precise mechanisms by which RNR is regulated and how dNTP pool disturbances resulting from defects in RNR can lead to increased mutation.

Ahluwalia, Deepti; Bienstock, Rachelle J.; Schaaper, Roel M.

2012-01-01

92

A distal mutation perturbs dynamic amino acid networks in dihydrofolate reductase  

PubMed Central

Correlated networks of amino acids have been proposed to play a fundamental role in allostery and enzyme catalysis. These networks of amino acids can be traced from surface-exposed residues all the way into the active site, and disruption of these networks can decrease enzyme activity. Substitution of the distal Gly121 residue in E.coli dihydrofolate reductase results in up to a 200-fold decrease in the hydride transfer rate despite the fact that the residue is located 15 Å from the active-site center. In the present study, NMR relaxation experiments are used to demonstrate that dynamics on the ps-ns and ?s-ms timescales are changed significantly in the G121V mutant of dihydrofolate reductase. In particular, ps-ns timescale dynamics are decreased in the FG loop (containing the mutated residue 121) and the neighboring active-site loop (the Met20 loop) in the mutant compared to wild-type enzyme, suggesting that these loops are dynamically coupled. Changes in methyl order parameters reveal a pathway by which dynamic perturbations can be propagated more than 25 Å across the protein from the site of mutation. All of the enzyme complexes, including the model Michaelis complex with folate and NADP+ bound, assume an occluded ground state conformation, and we do not observe sampling of a higher energy closed conformation by 15N R2 relaxation dispersion. This is highly significant, since it is only in the closed conformation that the cofactor and substrate reactive centers are positioned for reaction. The mutation also impairs ?s - ms timescale fluctuations that have been implicated in product release from the wild type enzyme. Our results are consistent with an important role for Gly121 in controlling protein dynamics critical for enzyme function and further validate the dynamic energy landscape hypothesis of enzyme catalysis.

Bae, Sung-Hun; Duggan, Brendan M.; Benkovic, Stephen J.; Dyson, H. Jane; Wright, Peter E

2013-01-01

93

Population- and Family-Based Studies Associate the "MTHFR" Gene with Idiopathic Autism in Simplex Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene ("MTHFR") functional polymorphisms were studied in 205 North American simplex (SPX) and 307 multiplex (MPX) families having one or more children with an autism spectrum disorder. Case-control comparisons revealed a significantly higher frequency of the low-activity 677T allele, higher prevalence of the…

Liu, Xudong; Solehdin, Fatima; Cohen, Ira L.; Gonzalez, Maripaz G.; Jenkins, Edmund C.; Lewis, M. E. Suzanne; Holden, Jeanette J. A.

2011-01-01

94

Tagging SNPs in the MTHFR gene and risk of ischemic stroke in a Chinese population.  

PubMed

Stroke is currently the leading cause of functional impairments worldwide. Folate supplementation is inversely associated with risk of ischemic stroke. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is an important enzyme involved in folate metabolism. The aim of this study is to examine whether genetic variants in MTHFR gene are associated with the risk of ischemic stroke and fasting total serum homocysteine (tHcy) level. We genotyped nine tag SNPs in the MTHFR gene in a case-control study, including 543 ischemic stroke cases and 655 healthy controls in China. We found that subjects with the rs1801133 TT genotype and rs1801131 CC genotype had significant increased risks of ischemic stroke (adjusted odds ratio (OR)=1.82, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.27-2.61, p=0.004; adjusted OR=1.99, 95% CI: 1.12-3.56, p=0.01) compared with subjects with the major alleles. Haplotype analysis also found that carriers of the MTHFR CTTCGA haplotype (rs12121543-rs13306553-rs9651118-rs1801133-rs2274976-rs1801131) had a significant reduced risk of ischemic stroke (adjusted OR=0.53, 95% CI: 0.35-0.82) compared with those with the CTTTGA haplotype. Besides, the MTHFR rs1801133 and rs9651118 were significantly associated with serum levels of tHcy in healthy controls (p<0.0001 and p=0.02). These findings suggest that variants in the MTHFR gene may influence the risk of ischemic stroke and serum tHcy. PMID:24853127

Zhou, Bao-Sheng; Bu, Guo-Yun; Li, Mu; Chang, Bin-Ge; Zhou, Yi-Pin

2014-01-01

95

Tagging SNPs in the MTHFR Gene and Risk of Ischemic Stroke in a Chinese Population  

PubMed Central

Stroke is currently the leading cause of functional impairments worldwide. Folate supplementation is inversely associated with risk of ischemic stroke. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is an important enzyme involved in folate metabolism. The aim of this study is to examine whether genetic variants in MTHFR gene are associated with the risk of ischemic stroke and fasting total serum homocysteine (tHcy) level. We genotyped nine tag SNPs in the MTHFR gene in a case-control study, including 543 ischemic stroke cases and 655 healthy controls in China. We found that subjects with the rs1801133 TT genotype and rs1801131 CC genotype had significant increased risks of ischemic stroke (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.82, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.27–2.61, p = 0.004; adjusted OR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.12–3.56, p = 0.01) compared with subjects with the major alleles. Haplotype analysis also found that carriers of the MTHFR CTTCGA haplotype (rs12121543-rs13306553-rs9651118-rs1801133-rs2274976-rs1801131) had a significant reduced risk of ischemic stroke (adjusted OR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.35–0.82) compared with those with the CTTTGA haplotype. Besides, the MTHFR rs1801133 and rs9651118 were significantly associated with serum levels of tHcy in healthy controls (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.02). These findings suggest that variants in the MTHFR gene may influence the risk of ischemic stroke and serum tHcy.

Zhou, Bao-Sheng; Bu, Guo-Yun; Li, Mu; Chang, Bin-Ge; Zhou, Yi-Pin

2014-01-01

96

Positive association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and oral cancer risk: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a central enzyme involved in regulating the metabolic function of folate, which plays a pivotal role in DNA synthesis, repair, and methylation. The role of MTHFR C677T polymorphism in oral cancer risk has been reported with conflicting evidence. We conducted this study to appropriately estimate the effect size. We searched eligible studies in medicine-specific databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Knowledge) using (polymorphism) OR (polymorphisms) AND (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase) OR (MTHFR) AND (oral cancer). A total of seven studies were summarized. This meta-analysis of the combined data showed a marginal association of MTHFR C677T polymorphism with oral cancer risk [odds ratio (OR)?=?0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI)?=?0.73-1.00 for CT vs. CC]. We also found decreased oral cancer risk in Asian population and hospital-based studies. Moreover, heavy drinkers were found to have a significantly higher risk of developing such cancer as compared to the non-heavy drinkers. These results suggest that MTHFR C677T polymorphism may play a role in oral cancer carcinogenesis in Asian population and heavy drinkers. PMID:24488626

Jia, Juan; Ma, Zheng; Wu, Shuangjiang

2014-05-01

97

A transgenic Neospora caninum strain based on mutations of the dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase gene.  

PubMed

Neospora caninum is an Apicomplexa parasite related to abortion and losses of fertility in cattle. The amenability of Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium to genetic manipulation offers several tools to determine the invasion and replication processes, which support posterior strategies related to the combat of these diseases. For Plasmodium the use of pyrimethamine as an auxiliary drug on malaria treatment has been affected by the rise of resistant strains and the analyses on Dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS) gene indicated several point mutations. In this work we developed a method for stable insertion of genes based on resistance to pyrimethamine. For that, the coding sequence of NcDHFR-TS (Dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase) was point mutated in two amino acids, generating DHFRM2M3. The DHFRM2M3 flanked by the promoter and 3'UTR of Ncdhfr-ts (Ncdhfr-DHFRM2M3) conferred resistance to pyrimethamine after transfection. For illustration of stability and expression, the cassette Ncdhfr-DHFRM2M3 was ligated to the reporter gene Lac-Z (?-galactosidase enzyme) controlled by the N. caninum tubulin promoter and was transfected and selected in N. caninum. The cassette was integrated into the genome and the selected tachyzoites expressed Lac-Z, allowing the detection of tachyzoites by the CPRG reaction and X-gal precipitation. The obtainment of transgenic N. caninum resistant to pyrimethamine confirms the effects on DHFR-TS among the Apicomplexa members and will support future approaches on pholate inhibitors for N. caninum prophylaxis. The construction of stable tachyzoites based on vectors with N. caninum promoters initiates the molecular manipulation of this parasite independently of T. gondii. PMID:24440296

Pereira, Luiz Miguel; Baroni, Luciana; Yatsuda, Ana Patrícia

2014-03-01

98

A1298C polymorphism in the MTHFR gene predisposes to cardiovascular risk in rheumatoid arthritis  

PubMed Central

Introduction We determined the contribution of the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677 C>T and 1298 A>C gene polymorphisms to the susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We also assessed whether these two MTHFR gene polymorphisms may be implicated in the development of cardiovascular (CV) events and subclinical atherosclerosis manifested by the presence of endothelial dysfunction, in a series of Spanish patients with RA. Methods Six hundred and twelve patients fulfilling the 1987 American College of Rheumatology classification criteria for RA, seen at the rheumatology outpatient clinics of Hospital Xeral-Calde, Lugo and Hospital San Carlos, Madrid, were studied. Patients and controls (n = 865) were genotyped using predesigned TaqMan SNP genotyping assays. Results No significant differences in allele or genotype frequencies for the MTHFR gene polymorphisms between RA patients and controls were found. Also, no association between the MTHFR 677 C>T polymorphism and CV events or endothelial dysfunction was observed. However, the MTHFR 1298 allele C frequency was increased in patients with CV events after 5 years (38.7% versus 30.3%; odds ratio = 1.45; 95% confidence interval = 1.00 to 2.10; P = 0.04) and 10 years (42.2% versus 31.0%; odds ratio = 1.62; 95% confidence interval = 1.08 to 2.43; P = 0.01) follow up. Moreover, patients carrying the MTHFR 1298 AC and CC genotypes had a significantly decreased flow-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilatation (4.3 ± 3.9%) compared with those carrying the MTHFR 1298 AA genotype (6.5 ± 4.4%) (P = 0.005). Conclusions Our results show that the MTHFR 1298 A>C gene polymorphism confers an increased risk for subclinical atherosclerosis and CV events in patients with RA.

2010-01-01

99

Effect of a novel mutation in 5'-regulatory region of aldose reductase gene on its expression.  

PubMed

To study the genetic variation in 5'-regulatory region of aldose reductase (AR) gene that might influence expression and the relationship between variations and diabetic complication (DC), PCR-single stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) was used to screen the 5'-regulatory region of AR gene in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A novel mutation, C(-167) --> A substitution which created a new CCAAT box was found only in two diabetic patients. These two patients have no retinopathy, and the AR activity of their erythrocytes was within low range in patients without DC. The DNA segments of AR wild type and mutant were subcloned into pCAT reporter vector, and CAT assays were performed to assess promoter activity. The interaction between the DNA segments and nuclear proteins was determined by using competitive gel electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). The transcriptional activity of mutant (5.7% +/-2.9%) was lower than that of wild type (15.7% +/- 4.1%) (P<0.01), and the mobility shift of mutant was also slower than that of wild type. The results indicated the mutation C(-167) -->A in AR gene might prevent or delay the development of DC by repressing the expression of AR gene. PMID:14515207

Xie, Ping; Li, Qing-Jie; Liu, Mei-Lian; Huang, Jian-Jun; Zeng, Wei-Min; Chen, Shu-Hua; Song, Hui-Ping

2003-10-01

100

Thermolabile methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene and the risk of cognitive impairment in those over 85  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—Previous reports have shown raised plasma concentrations of homocysteine in older persons with cognitive impairment. This may be caused by environmental and genetic factors. The relation between cognitive function and a common ala/val mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene was studied in those over 85. Homozygous carriers of this mutation are characterised by a lifelong exposure to moderately raised plasma concentrations of homocysteine.?METHODS—In the Leiden 85-plus Study, a population based study of persons aged 85 years and over, the score on the mini mental state examination (MMSE) and the presence of dementia dependent on the MTHFR genotypes were compared in 641 participants (456 women, 185 men) at baseline. In addition, the association between the MTHFR genotype and cognitive decline was studied by re-examining cognitive function of 172 participants without dementia at baseline after a median follow up of 4.0years.?RESULTS—At baseline, carriers of the ala/ala genotype had a median MMSE score of 27 points (interquartile range (IQR) 21.5-29), for the ala/val genotype it was 26 points (IQR 20-29), and for the val/val genotype it was 27 points (IQR 20-28.3) (p=0.3). The prevalence of dementia was also not significantly different for the various genotypes (ala/ala 22%, ala/val 28%, val/val 27%; p=0.4). None of the carriers of the val/val genotype without cognitive impairment at baseline developed dementia during the follow up.?CONCLUSIONS—Although previous studies have shown that older persons with cognitive impairment have raised plasma concentrations of homocysteine, homozygosity for the ala to val mutation in the MTHFR gene is not a genetic risk factor for cognitive impairment in persons aged 85 years and over.??

Gussekloo, J; Heijmans, B; Slagboom, P; Lagaay, A; Knook, D; Westendorp, R

1999-01-01

101

Multiple origins of resistance-conferring mutations in Plasmodium vivax dihydrofolate reductase  

PubMed Central

Background In order to maximize the useful therapeutic life of antimalarial drugs, it is crucial to understand the mechanisms by which parasites resistant to antimalarial drugs are selected and spread in natural populations. Recent work has demonstrated that pyrimethamine-resistance conferring mutations in Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) have arisen rarely de novo, but spread widely in Asia and Africa. The origin and spread of mutations in Plasmodium vivax dhfr were assessed by constructing haplotypes based on sequencing dhfr and its flanking regions. Methods The P. vivax dhfr coding region, 792 bp upstream and 683 bp downstream were amplified and sequenced from 137 contemporary patient isolates from Colombia, India, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vanuatu. A repeat motif located 2.6 kb upstream of dhfr was also sequenced from 75 of 137 patient isolates, and mutational relationships among the haplotypes were visualized using the programme Network. Results Synonymous and non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the dhfr coding region were identified, as was the well-documented in-frame insertion/deletion (indel). SNPs were also identified upstream and downstream of dhfr, with an indel and a highly polymorphic repeat region identified upstream of dhfr. The regions flanking dhfr were highly variable. The double mutant (58R/117N) dhfr allele has evolved from several origins, because the 58R is encoded by at least 3 different codons. The triple (58R/61M/117T) and quadruple (57L/61M/117T/173F, 57I/58R/61M/117T and 57L/58R/61M/117T) mutant alleles had at least three independent origins in Thailand, Indonesia, and Papua New Guinea/Vanuatu. Conclusion It was found that the P. vivax dhfr coding region and its flanking intergenic regions are highly polymorphic and that mutations in P. vivax dhfr that confer antifolate resistance have arisen several times in the Asian region. This contrasts sharply with the selective sweep of rare antifolate resistant alleles observed in the P. falciparum populations in Asia and Africa. The finding of multiple origins of resistance-conferring mutations has important implications for drug policy.

Hawkins, Vivian N; Auliff, Alyson; Prajapati, Surendra Kumar; Rungsihirunrat, Kanchana; Hapuarachchi, Hapuarachchige C; Maestre, Amanda; O'Neil, Michael T; Cheng, Qin; Joshi, Hema; Na-Bangchang, Kesara; Sibley, Carol Hopkins

2008-01-01

102

Plasmodium falciparum: Gene Mutations and Amplification of Dihydrofolate Reductase Genes in Parasites Grown in Vitro in Presence of Pyrimethamine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thaithong, S., Ranford-Cartwright, L. C., Siripoon, N., Harnyuttanakorn, P., Kanchanakhan, N. S., Seugorn, A., Rungsihirunrat, K., Cravo, P. V. L., and Beale, G. H. 2001. Plasmodium falciparum: Gene mutations and amplification of dihydrofolate reductase genes in parasites grown in vitro in presence of pyrimethamine. Experimental Parasitology98, 59–70. Samples of three pyrimethamine-sensitive clones of Plasmodium falciparum were grown for periods of

S. Thaithong; L. C. Ranford-Cartwright; N. Siripoon; P. Harnyuttanakorn; N. S. Kanchanakhan; A. Seugorn; K. Rungsihirunrat; P. V. L. Cravo; G. H. Beale

2001-01-01

103

In Vitro Generation of Novel Pyrimethamine Resistance Mutations in the Toxoplasma gondii Dihydrofolate Reductase  

PubMed Central

Pyrimethamine is a potent inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase and is widely used in the treatment of opportunistic infections caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. In order to assess the potential role of dhfr sequence polymorphisms in drug treatment failures, we examined the dhfr-ts genes of representative isolates for T. gondii virulence types I, II, and III. These strains exhibit differences in their sensitivities to pyrimethamine but no differences in predicted dhfr-ts protein sequences. To assess the potential for pyrimethamine-resistant dhfr mutants to emerge, three drug-sensitive variants of the T. gondii dhfr-ts gene (the wild-type T. gondii sequence and two mutants engineered to reflect polymorphisms observed in drug-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum) were subjected to random mutagenesis and transfected into either wild-type T. gondii parasites or dhfr-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae under pyrimethamine selection. Three resistance mutations were identified, at amino acid residues 25 (Trp?Arg), 98 (Leu?Ser), and 134 (Leu?His).

Reynolds, Mary G.; Oh, Jung; Roos, David S.

2001-01-01

104

Pneumocystis carinii dihydropteroate synthase but not dihydrofolate reductase gene mutations correlate with prior trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or dapsone use.  

PubMed

Recent studies of the human Pneumocystis carinii dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) gene suggest that P. carinii is developing resistance to sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and dapsone. To explore whether P. carinii is also developing resistance to trimethoprim (TMP), the human P. carinii dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) gene was cloned, DHFR and DHPS genes in 37 P. carinii isolates from 35 patients were sequenced, and the relationship between TMP-SMX or dapsone use and gene mutations was analyzed. The DHFR gene sequences were identical in all isolates except 1 with a synonymous substitution. In contrast, the DHPS gene sequences showed mutations in 16 of the 37 isolates; prior sulfa/sulfone prophylaxis was associated with the presence of these mutations (P<.001). In addition to suggesting that there is less selective pressure on DHFR than on DHPS, this study reinforces the hypothesis that mutations in the DHPS gene are likely involved in the development of sulfa resistance in P. carinii. PMID:10558954

Ma, L; Borio, L; Masur, H; Kovacs, J A

1999-12-01

105

Altered heme catabolism by heme oxygenase-1 caused by mutations in human NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase  

SciTech Connect

Research highlights: {yields} Mutations in POR identified from patients lead to reduced HO-1 activities. {yields} POR mutation Y181D affecting FMN binding results in total loss of HO-1 activity. {yields} POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F, lost 50-70% activity. {yields} Mutations in FAD binding domain, R457H, Y459H and V492E lost all HO-1 activity. {yields} POR polymorphisms P228L, R316W, G413S, A503V and G504R have normal activity. -- Abstract: Human heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) carries out heme catabolism supported by electrons supplied from the NADPH through NADPH P450 reductase (POR, CPR). Previously we have shown that mutations in human POR cause a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. In this study, we have evaluated the effects of mutations in POR on HO-1 activity. We used purified preparations of wild type and mutant human POR and in vitro reconstitution with purified HO-1 to measure heme degradation in a coupled assay using biliverdin reductase. Here we show that mutations in POR found in patients may reduce HO-1 activity, potentially influencing heme catabolism in individuals carrying mutant POR alleles. POR mutants Y181D, A457H, Y459H, V492E and R616X had total loss of HO-1 activity, while POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F lost 50-70% activity. The POR variants P228L, R316W and G413S, A503V and G504R identified as polymorphs had close to WT activity. Loss of HO-1 activity may result in increased oxidative neurotoxicity, anemia, growth retardation and iron deposition. Further examination of patients affected with POR deficiency will be required to assess the metabolic effects of reduced HO-1 activity in affected individuals.

Pandey, Amit V., E-mail: amit@pandeylab.org [Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, Department of Clinical Research, University of Bern, Tiefenaustrasse 120c, CH-3004 Bern (Switzerland); Flueck, Christa E.; Mullis, Primus E. [Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, Department of Clinical Research, University of Bern, Tiefenaustrasse 120c, CH-3004 Bern (Switzerland)] [Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, Department of Clinical Research, University of Bern, Tiefenaustrasse 120c, CH-3004 Bern (Switzerland)

2010-09-24

106

Mutational analysis of Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase and dihydropteroate synthase genes in the interior division of Sabah, Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Background The sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine (SDX/PYR) combination had been chosen to treat uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Malaysia for more than 30 years. Non-silent mutations in dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) genes are responsible for the resistance to pyrimethamine and sulphadoxine, respectively. This study reports the mutational analysis of pfdhfr and pfdhps in single Plasmodium falciparum infection isolates from the interior division of Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Methods A total of 22 P. falciparum single infection isolates collected from two districts of the interior division of Sabah from February to November 2010 were recruited for the mutational study of pfdhfr and pfdhps. Both genes were amplified by nested PCR prior to DNA sequencing and mutational analysis. Results A total of three pfdhfr and four pfdhps alleles were identified. The most prevalent pfdhfr allele is ANRNL (86%) involving triple mutation at position 108(S to N), 59(C to R) and 164(I to L). In pfdhps, two novel alleles, SGTGA (73%) and AAKAA (5%) were identified. Alleles involving triple mutation in both pfdhfr (ANRNL) and pfdhps (SGTGA), which were absent in Sabah in a study conducted about 15 years ago, are now prevalent. Conclusions High prevalence of mutations in SDX/PYR associated drug resistance genes are reported in this study. This mutational study of pfdhps and pfdhfr indicating that SDX/PYR should be discontinued in this region.

2013-01-01

107

Amniotic fluid homocysteine levels, 5,10-methylenetetrahydrafolate reductase genotypes, and neural tube closure sites.  

PubMed

A specific gene mutation leading to altered homocysteine metabolism has been identified in parents and fetuses with neural tube defects (NTDs). In addition, current animal and human data indicate that spine closure occurs simultaneously in five separate sites that then fuse. We sought to determine whether either this mutation or abnormal amniotic fluid homocysteine levels are associated with all five neural tube closure sites. We retrieved stored amniotic fluid from cases of isolated fetal neural tube defect diagnosed from 1988 to 1998 (n = 80) and from normal controls matched for race, month and year of amniocentesis, and maternal age. Cases were categorized according to defect site by using all available medical records. The presence or absence of the 677C-->T mutation of 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrafolate reductase (MTHFR) gene was determined, and homocysteine levels were measured; case and controls were compared. Significantly more cases than controls were heterozygous or homozygous for the 677C-->T MTHFR mutation (44% vs. 17%, P < or = 0. 001). Likewise, cases were significantly more likely than controls to have amniotic fluid homocysteine levels >90th centile (>1.85 micromol/L), 27% vs. 10%, P = 0.02. Most (83%) of control cases had both normal MTHFR alleles and normal amniotic fluid homocysteine levels (normal/normal), whereas only 56% of NTD case were normal/normal (P = 0.001). When evaluated by defect site, only defects involving the cervical-lumbar spine, lumbosacral spine, and occipital encephalocele were significantly less likely to be normal/normal than controls (P = 0.007, 0.0003, and 0.007, respectively), suggesting a strong association with the 677C-->T allele. In contrast, anencephaly, exencephaly, and defects confined to the sacrum included many cases that had both normal MTHFR alleles and normal homocysteine and were not significantly different from controls. The 677C-->T MTHFR mutation and elevated homocysteine levels appear to be disproportionately associated with defects spanning the cervical-lumbar spine, lumbosacral spine, and occipital encephalocele. In contrast, anencephaly, exencephaly, and defects confined to the sacrum may not be related to altered homocysteine metabolism. PMID:10602110

Wenstrom, K D; Johanning, G L; Owen, J; Johnston, K E; Acton, S; Cliver, S; Tamura, T

2000-01-01

108

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and A1298C variants do not affect ongoing pregnancy rates following IVF  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is concern that IVF could compromise normal imprinting and methylation of DNA. Methyl- enetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) regulates the flow of folic acid-derived, one-carbon moieties for methylation and is critical to early embryonic development. Therefore, we hypothesized that common polymorphisms in MTHFR could associate with IVF outcome. METHODS: MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphism genotyping was per- formed on 374

A. T. Dobson; R. M. Davis; M. P. Rosen; S. Shen; P. F. Rinaudo; J. Chan; M. I. Cedars

2006-01-01

109

Mutations of human cytochrome P450 reductase differentially modulate heme oxygenase-1 activity and oligomerization.  

PubMed

Genetic variations in POR, encoding NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CYPOR), can diminish the function of numerous cytochromes P450, and also have the potential to block degradation of heme by heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Purified full-length human CYPOR, HO-1, and biliverdin reductase were reconstituted in lipid vesicles and assayed for NADPH-dependent conversion of heme to bilirubin. Naturally-occurring human CYPOR variants queried were: WT, A115V, Y181D, P228L, M263V, A287P, R457H, Y459H, and V492E. All CYPOR variants exhibited decreased bilirubin production relative to WT, with a lower apparent affinity of the CYPOR-HO-1 complex than WT. Addition of FMN or FAD partially restored the activities of Y181D, Y459H, and V492E. When mixed with WT CYPOR, only the Y181D CYPOR variant inhibited heme degradation by sequestering HO-1, whereas Y459H and V492E were unable to inhibit HO-1 activity suggesting that CYPOR variants might have differential binding affinities with redox partners. Titrating the CYPOR-HO-1 complex revealed that the optimal CYPOR:HO-1 ratio for activity was 1:2, lending evidence in support of productive HO-1 oligomerization, with higher ratios of CYPOR:HO-1 showing decreased activity. In conclusion, human POR mutations, shown to impact P450 activities, also result in varying degrees of diminished HO-1 activity, which may further complicate CYPOR deficiency. PMID:21741353

Marohnic, Christopher C; Huber Iii, Warren J; Patrick Connick, J; Reed, James R; McCammon, Karen; Panda, Satya P; Martásek, Pavel; Backes, Wayne L; Masters, Bettie Sue S

2011-09-01

110

Mthfr deficiency induces endothelial progenitor cell senescence via uncoupling of eNOS and downregulation of SIRT1.  

PubMed

Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) has been shown to induce endothelial dysfunction in part as a result of enhanced oxidative stress. Function and survival of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs, defined as sca1(+) c-kit(+) flk-1(+) bone marrow-derived cells), which significantly contribute to neovascularization and endothelial regeneration, depend on controlled production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Mice heterozygous for the gene deletion of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (Mthfr(+/-)) have a 1.5- to 2-fold elevation in plasma homocysteine. This mild HHcy significantly reduced the number of circulating EPCs as well as their differentiation. Mthfr deficiency was also associated with increased ROS production and reduced nitric oxide (NO) generation in Mthfr(+/-) EPCs. Treatment of EPCs with sepiapterin, a precursor of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)), a cofactor of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), significantly reduced ROS and improved NO production. mRNA and protein expression of eNOS and the relative amount of eNOS dimer compared with monomer were decreased by Mthfr deficiency. Impaired differentiation of EPCs induced by Mthfr deficiency correlated with increased senescence, decreased telomere length, and reduced expression of SIRT1. Addition of sepiapterin maintained cell senescence and SIRT1 expression at levels comparable to the wild type. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Mthfr deficiency impairs EPC formation and increases EPC senescence by eNOS uncoupling and downregulation of SIRT1. PMID:21169404

Lemarié, Catherine A; Shbat, Layla; Marchesi, Chiara; Angulo, Orlando J; Deschênes, Marie-Eve; Blostein, Mark D; Paradis, Pierre; Schiffrin, Ernesto L

2011-03-01

111

The MTHFR gene polymorphism is associated with lean body mass but not fat body mass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Along with aging, human body composition undergoes notable changes and may incur sarcopenia, obesity or osteoporosis. Sarcopenia\\u000a is related to a wide series of human health problems and can be largely characterized by loss of lean body mass (LBM). Studies\\u000a have showed relevance of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) with variation in LBM and fat body mass (FBM). To test\\u000a if polymorphism

Xiaogang Liu; Lan-Juan Zhao; Yong-Jun Liu; Dong-Hai Xiong; Robert R. Recker; Hong-Wen Deng

2008-01-01

112

Pyrimethamine and Proguanil Resistance-Conferring Key Mutations in Dihydrofolate Reductase Gene of Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using mutation specific PCR assay and analysis of position 108 amino acid in dihydrofolate reductase-thymidilate synthase gene in 70 Plasmodium falciparum isolates of malarial patients from southern areas of Iran, showed 4 different situations: i- wild type (108-Ser) ii-mutant type (108-Thr) iii-mutant type (108-Asn) and iv-mixed wild and mutant type (108-Ser+Thr) with frequency of 58(82.8%), 2(2.9%), 8(11.4%) and 2(2.9%) respectively.

AA Eskandarian; H Keshavarz; F Mahboudi

2003-01-01

113

MTHFR polymorphisms and Opisthorchis viverrini infection: a relationship with increased susceptibility to cholangiocarcinoma in Thailand.  

PubMed

Opisthorchis viverrini (OV) infection is the major risk factor for cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is an important enzyme in folate metabolism. Change in MTHFR activity may influence both DNA methylation and synthesis, crucial steps in carcinogenesis. This study aimed to investigate the association between MTHFR polymorphisms and OV infection with CCA risk in a high-incidence area of Thailand. A nested case-control study within cohort study was carried out: 219 subjects with primary CCA were matched with two non-cancer controls from the same cohort on sex, age at recruitment and presence/ absence of OV eggs in stool. At the time of recruitment information on consumption of foodstuffs potentially contaminated by OV was obtained by questionnaire. MTHFR polymorphisms were analyzed using PCR with high resolution melting analysis. Associations between variables and the risk of CCA were assessed using conditional logistic regression. Risk of CCA was related to consumption of a dish of raw freshwater fish (Koi- Pla) with clear dose-response effects, and there were joint effects on CCA risk between MTHFR polymorphisms and consumption of dishes containing raw- and/or semi-raw freshwater fish. This study provides evidence to support a relationship of increased susceptibility to CCA in individuals with MTHFR variants, especially for those individuals who have OV infection or consume semi-raw freshwater fish (acting either as a source of OV or of pre-formed nitrosamine). Folate may play an important role in OV-related cholangiocarcinogenesis by upsetting the balance between DNA methylation and synthesis in the folate pathway. PMID:21875294

Songserm, Nopparat; Promthet, Supannee; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Pientong, Chamsai; Ekalaksananan, Tipaya; Chopjitt, Peechanika; Parkin, Donald Maxwell

2011-01-01

114

Deep Sequencing Study of the MTHFR Gene to Identify Variants Associated with Myelomeningocele  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Neural tube defects (NTDs) are congenital anomalies caused by a combination of genetic and environmental influences. A defect below the head region resulting in protuberance of meninges and nervous tissue is termed myelomeningocele (MM). MM, the most common NTD compatible with survival, occurs in approximately 1 in 1,000 births worldwide. Maternal pre- and periconceptional folate supplementation reduces the risk of NTDs by up to 70%. A key enzyme in folate metabolism is 5, 10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR). OBJECTIVES Sequence the 12 exons of the MTHFR gene among 96 subjects with MM to identify variants potentially contributing to the disease trait. METHODS Exons were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and the products were sequenced by Sanger method to reveal sequence variants compared to MTHFR reference sequences. Association of variants was examined by Fisher’s test. RESULTS A novel variant c.171+3G>T was identified in intron 1 in one affected subject. The variant was not found in the subject’s unaffected mother’s DNA and the unaffected father’s DNA was unavailable. We found significant differences in allele frequencies for seven SNPs in MM subjects compared to ethnically matched reference populations reported in the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) database (dbSNP). CONCLUSION We identified a novel variant c.171+3G>T in the MTHFR gene that potentially affects splicing in an affected subject. Also, we observed five SNPs (rs13306561, rs2274976, rs2066462, rs12121543, and rs1476413) in the MTHFR gene not previously shown to associate with MM. The current study provides additional evidence that multiple variations in the MTHFR gene are associated with MM.

Aneji, Chiamaka U; Northrup, Hope; Au, Kit Sing

2012-01-01

115

Polymorphisms in MTHFR, MS and CBS Genes and Homocysteine Levels in a Pakistani Population  

PubMed Central

Background Hyperhomocysteinemia (>15 µmol/L) is highly prevalent in South Asian populations including Pakistan. In order to investigate the genetic determinants of this condition, we studied 6 polymorphisms in genes of 3 enzymes - methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR; C677T; A1298C), methionine synthase (MS; A2756G), cystathionine-?-synthase (CBS; T833C/844ins68, G919A) involved in homocysteine metabolism and investigated their interactions with nutritional and environmental factors in a Pakistani population. Methodology/Principal Findings In a cross-sectional survey, 872 healthy adults (355 males and 517 females; age 18–60 years) were recruited from a low-income urban population in Karachi. Fasting venous blood was obtained and assessed for plasma/serum homocysteine; folate, vitamin B12, pyridoxal phosphate and blood lead. DNA was isolated and genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP (restriction-fragment-length- polymorphism) based assays. The average changes in homocysteine levels for MTHFR 677CT and TT genotypes were positive [?(SE ?), 2.01(0.63) and 16.19(1.8) µmol/L, respectively]. Contrary to MTHFR C677T polymorphism, the average changes in plasma homocysteine levels for MS 2756AG and GG variants were negative [?(SE ?), ?0.56(0.58) and ?0.83(0.99) µmol/L, respectively]. The average change occurring for CBS 844ins68 heterozygous genotype (ancestral/insertion) was ?1.88(0.81) µmol/L. The combined effect of MTHFR C677T, MS A2756G and CBS 844ins68 genotypes for plasma homocysteine levels was additive (p value <0.001). Odds of having hyperhomocysteinemia with MTHFR 677TT genotype was 10-fold compared to MTHFR 677CC genotype [OR (95%CI); 10.17(3.6–28.67)]. Protective effect towards hyperhomocysteinemia was observed with heterozygous (ancestral/insertion) genotype of CBS 844ins68 compared to homozygous ancestral type [OR (95% CI); 0.58 (0.34–0.99)]. Individuals with MTHFR 677CT or TT genotypes were at a greater risk of hyperhomocysteinemia in folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies and high blood lead (p value <0.05) level. Conclusions Gene polymorphism (especially MTHFR C677T transition), folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies, male gender and high blood lead level appear to be contributing towards the development of hyperhomocysteinemia in a Pakistani population.

Yakub, Mohsin; Moti, Naushad; Parveen, Siddiqa; Chaudhry, Bushra; Azam, Iqbal; Iqbal, Mohammad Perwaiz

2012-01-01

116

Association of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Osteoporosis is a condition characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD) and micro-architectural changes in the bone tissue. The risk of osteoporosis is partly determined by genetic factors. The role of C677T polymorphism of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene has been investigated in postmenopausal osteoporosis. However, the relationship between MTHFR polymorphism and BMD is still controversial. We carried out a meta-analysis of 5,833 subjects to evaluate the association of MTHFR and BMD in postmenopausal women. Databases of MEDLINE, Web of Science, Scopus and CNKI were retrieved for all publications relating to MTHFR polymorphism and BMD in postmenopausal women. Five eligible studies were selected for meta-analysis. All these articles studied the association of MTHFR polymorphism and BMD of the femoral neck and lumbar spine in postmenopausal women. Our analysis suggested that postmenopausal women with the TT genotype had lower femoral neck BMD than the women with the CC/CT genotype, and the weighted mean difference (WMD) was -0.01 g/cm2 [95% confidence interval (CI): (-0.01, -0.01), P < 0.01]. However, BMD of the lumbar spine of postmenopausal women with the TT genotype was not significantly different from that of women with the CC/CT genotype. In the random effects model, the WMD between the TT and TC/CC genotype was -0.01 g/cm2 [95% CI: (-0.04, 0.01), P = 0.32]. The C677T polymorphism of the MTHFR gene is associated with BMD of the femoral neck in postmenopausal women. Women with the TT genotype of the MTHFR gene have lower BMD, suggesting that the TT genotype may be a risk factor for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

Li, Donghua; Wu, Jie

2010-01-01

117

MTHFR rs1801133 C>T polymorphism is associated with an increased risk of tetralogy of Fallot  

PubMed Central

Abnormal folate metabolism and common variants of folate-metabolizing enzymes have been described as possible risk factors for congenital heart disease (CHD). Two important folate-metabolizing enzymes involved in the folate/homocysteine metabolic pathway are 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1 (MTHFD1). MTHFR and MTHFD1 polymorphisms may be associated with CHD susceptibility. To evaluate the impact of MTHFR and MTHFD1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on CHD susceptibility, we genotyped functional MTHFR SNPs rs1801133 C>T, rs1801131 A>C and rs2274976 G>A, and MTHFD SNPs rs2236225 C>T, rs1950902 G>A and rs1076991 A>G in a hospital-based case-control study of 173 tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) cases and 207 non-CHD controls. When MTHFR rs1801133 CC homozygote genotype was used as the reference group, the TT genotype was associated with a significantly increased risk for TOF [TT vs. CC: odds ratio (OR)=1.67; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01–2.75; P=0.046]. In the recessive model, when MTHFR rs1801133 CC/CT genotype was used as the reference group, the TT homozygote genotype was associated with a significantly increased risk for TOF (OR=1.81, 95% CI: 1.15–2.84; P=0.010). In conclusion, our findings suggest that MTHFR rs1801133 C>T polymorphism may play a role in susceptibility for TOF. Large-scale studies with a more rigorous study design including diverse ethnic populations are required to confirm these findings.

HUANG, JIANBING; MEI, JU; JIANG, LIANYONG; JIANG, ZHAOLEI; LIU, HAO; DING, FANGBAO

2014-01-01

118

Enrichment of MTHFR 677 T in a Chinese long-lived cohort and its association with lipid modulation  

PubMed Central

Background Variants in the Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene may result in a lowered catalytic activity and associate with subsequent elevated serum homocysteine (Hcy) concentration, abnormal DNA synthesis and methylation, cardiovascular risk, and unhealthy aging. Several investigations on the relationship of MTHFR C677T polymorphism with serum lipid profile and longevity have been conducted in some populations, but the findings remain mixed. Herein, we sought to look at the association between MTHFR C677T and lipid profile in a longevous cohort in Bama, a well-known home of longevity in China. Methods Genotyping of MTHFR C677T was undertaken in 516 long-lived inhabitants (aged 90 and older, long-lived group, LG) and 493 healthy controls (aged 60–75, non-long-lived group, non-LG) recruited from Bama area. Correlation between MTHFR genotypes and lipids was then evaluated. Results T allele and TT genotype were significantly more prevalent in LG (P?=?0.001 and 0.002, respectively), especially in females, than in non-LG. No difference in the tested lipid measures among MTHFR C677T genotypes was observed in LG, non-LG and total population (P?>?0.05 for all). However, female but not male T carriers exhibited higher TC and LDL-C levels than did T noncarriers in the total population and in LG after stratification by sex (P?MTHFR 677?T genotypes and its modest unfavorable impact on lipids in Bama long-lived individuals may imply an existence of other protective genotypes which require further determination.

2014-01-01

119

Male pseudohermaphroditism resulting from a novel mutation in the human steroid 5 alpha-reductase type 2 gene (SRD5A2).  

PubMed Central

The enzyme steroid 5 alpha-reductase, via NADPH, catalyses the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone, which is required for the embryonic differentiation of the external male genitalia and the prostate. An impairment of this reaction causes a form of male pseudohermaphroditism in which genetic males differentiate predominantly as phenotypic females. Molecular analysis of the 5 alpha-reductase type 2 gene in a patient with confirmed biochemical 5 alpha-reductase deficiency has resulted in the identification of a novel mutation, GAA to AAA, at codon 200. This mutation produces an amino acid change from glutamic acid to lysine, and may affect the ability of the enzyme to bind its co-factor. Images

Anwar, R.; Gilbey, S. G.; New, J. P.; Markham, A. F.

1997-01-01

120

MTHFR C677T Polymorphism and Risk of Congenital Heart Defects: Evidence from 29 Case-Control and TDT Studies  

PubMed Central

Background Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is an important enzyme for folate metabolism in humans; it is encoded by the MTHFR gene. Several studies have assessed the association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and the risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs), while the results were inconsistent. Methods and Findings Multiple electronic databases were searched to identify relevant studies published up to July 22, 2012. Data from case-control and TDT studies were integrated in an allelic model using the Catmap and Metafor software. Twenty-nine publications were included in this meta-analysis. The overall meta-analysis showed significant association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and CHDs risk in children with heterogeneity (Pheterogeneity?=?0.000) and publication bias (Pegger?=?0.039), but it turned into null after the trim-and-fill method was implemented (OR?=?1.12, 95% CI?=?0.95–1.31). Nevertheless, positive results were obtained after stratified by ethnicity and sample size in all subgroups except the mixed population. For mothers, there was significant association between the variant and CHDs without heterogeneity (Pheterogeneity?=?0.150, OR?=?1.16, 95% CI?=?1.05–1.29) and publication bias (Pegger?=?0.981). However, the results varied across each subgroup in the stratified analysis of ethnicity and sample size. Conclusions Both infant and maternal MTHFR C677T polymorphisms may contribute to the risk of CHDs.

Gong, Fangqi; Zhu, Weihua; Fu, Songling

2013-01-01

121

Interactive effects of COMT Val108/158Met and MTHFR C677T on executive function in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Schizophrenia is characterized by heritable deficits in executive function. Two common, functional polymorphisms, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val108/158Met and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T, have separately been associated with executive function performance in schizophrenia. Given the closely related biochemistry of MTHFR and COMT, it is plausible that the T and Val alleles act synergistically to impair executive function. This investigation of 185 outpatients with schizophrenia examined the interactive effects of these two polymorphisms on Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST) performance. Two WCST measures consistently associated with schizophrenia, perseverative errors and inability to generate categories, were contrasted among compound COMT-MTHFR genotype groups. Individuals homozygous for the COMT Val allele who also carried at least one copy of the MTHFR T allele exhibited a significantly higher percentage of perseverative errors than patients in the other genotype groups. While the T allele also exerted a negative effect on category generation, COMT genotype did not contribute to category performance. It is plausible that cumulative effects of the MTHFR T and COMT Val alleles on intracellular methylation profiles and prefrontal dopamine transmission underlie their interactive effect on perseverative errors. PMID:18186041

Roffman, Joshua L; Weiss, Anthony P; Deckersbach, Thilo; Freudenreich, Oliver; Henderson, David C; Wong, Donna H; Halsted, Charles H; Goff, Donald C

2008-09-01

122

Mutational analysis of Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase: the role of aspartate 54 and phenylalanine 223 on catalytic activity and antifolate binding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The catalytic activity and ability to confer resistance to antifolates of Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (pfDHFR) through single and double mutations at Asp-54 and Phe-223 were investigated. A single Asp54Glu (D54E) mutation in the pfDHFR domain greatly decreased the catalytic activity of the enzyme and affected both the Km values for the substrate dihydrofolate and the Ki values for pyrimethamine,

Worachart Sirawaraporn; Rachada Sirawaraporn; Suganya Yongkiettrakul; Amornpol Anuwatwora; Guilio Rastelli; Sumalee Kamchonwongpaisan; Yongyuth Yuthavong

2002-01-01

123

Identification and characterization of a chlorate-resistant mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana with mutations in both nitrate reductase structural genes NIA1 and NIA2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutant plants defective in the assimilation of nitrate can be selected by their resistance to the herbicide chlorate. In Arabidopsis thaliana, mutations at any one of nine distinct loci confer chlorate resistance. Only one of the CHL genes, CHL3, has been shown genetically to be a nitrate reductase (NR) structural gene (NIA2) even though two NR genes (NIA1 and NIA2)

Jack Q. Wilkinson; Nigel M. Crawford

1993-01-01

124

The 5, 10 methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T mutation and risk of fetal loss: a case series and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The true relationship between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T homozygosity and risk of recurrent spontaneous abortion is unknown, and it is unclear if women with these mutations should be anticoagulated during pregnancy. OBJECTIVES: We report a series of 8 patients with this issue and review the current literature. METHODS: 8 patients (3 of whom were actively pregnant) were referred with histories

Ivy Altomare; Alan Adler; Louis M Aledort

2007-01-01

125

Mutational reconstructed ferric chelate reductase confers enhanced tolerance in rice to iron deficiency in calcareous soil  

PubMed Central

Iron (Fe) deficiency is a worldwide agricultural problem on calcareous soils with low-Fe availability due to high soil pH. Rice plants use a well documented phytosiderophore-based system (Strategy II) to take up Fe from the soil and also possess a direct Fe2+ transport system. Rice plants are extremely susceptible to low-Fe supply, however, because of low phytosiderophore secretion and low Fe3+ reduction activity. A yeast Fe3+ chelate-reductase gene refre1/372, selected for better performance at high pH, was fused to the promoter of the Fe-regulated transporter, OsIRT1, and introduced into rice plants. The transgene was expressed in response to a low-Fe nutritional status in roots of transformants. Transgenic rice plants expressing the refre1/372 gene showed higher Fe3+ chelate-reductase activity and a higher Fe-uptake rate than vector controls under Fe-deficient conditions. Consequently, transgenic rice plants exhibited an enhanced tolerance to low-Fe availability and 7.9× the grain yield of nontransformed plants in calcareous soils. This report shows that enhancing the Fe3+ chelate-reductase activity of rice plants that normally have low endogenous levels confers resistance to Fe deficiency.

Ishimaru, Yasuhiro; Kim, Suyeon; Tsukamoto, Takashi; Oki, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Takanori; Watanabe, Satoshi; Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Takahashi, Michiko; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Mori, Satoshi; Nishizawa, Naoko K.

2007-01-01

126

Multiplex PCR for simultaneous detection of 677 C?T and 1298 A?C polymorphisms in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene for population studies of cancer risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) plays a pivotal role in folate metabolism by regulating the diversion of folate metabolites toward DNA methylation or toward DNA synthesis. Because aberrations in both of these pathways can be tumor promoting, the two common polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene, 677 C?T and 1298 A?C, have been implicated as risk factors for several cancers. Homozygosity for the

Ping Yi; Igor P. Pogribny; S. Jill James

2002-01-01

127

MTHFR C677T polymorphism contributes to the risk for gastric cancer.  

PubMed

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) has been demonstrated to be involved in carcinogenesis. Increasing individual studies have investigated the role of MTHFR C677T polymorphism in gastric cancer pathogenesis, but with inconsistent findings. The aim of this study was to clarify the potential association of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism with gastric cancer risk by pooling all available data from published case-control studies. We searched the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Wanfang databases for all relevant publications to date. The pooled odds ratio (OR) with corresponding 95 % confidence interval (95% CI) was calculated. Stratified analysis and sensitivity analysis were also carried out to estimate the strength of this association. A total of 25 case-control studies with 6,572 cases and 9,584 controls were retrieved. Overall, the ORs under five contrast models indicated that the MTHFR C677T variant was positively associated with gastric cancer risk (ORT vs. C?=?1.21, 95% CI 1.10–1.34, P(OR)?MTHFR C677T polymorphism may be a risk factor for gastric cancer among Asians and Caucasians. PMID:24122207

Yan, Shushan; Xu, Donghua; Wang, Pingping; Wang, Ping; Liu, Chengcheng; Hua, Changjiang; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Bin; Li, Zengcai; Lu, Lei; Liu, Xianzhong; Wang, Bingji; Zhang, Donghua; Zhang, Rongsheng; He, Shaoheng; Sun, Beicheng; Wang, Xuan

2014-03-01

128

Mutations in the human sterol delta7-reductase gene at 11q12-13 cause Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome.  

PubMed Central

The Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS; also known as "RSH syndrome" [MIM 270400]) is an autosomal recessive multiple malformation syndrome due to a defect in cholesterol biosynthesis. Children with SLOS have elevated serum 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) levels and typically have low serum cholesterol levels. On the basis of this biochemical abnormality, it has been proposed that mutations in the human sterol Delta7-reductase (7-DHC reductase; E.C.1.3.1.21) gene cause SLOS. However, one could also propose a defect in a gene that encodes a protein necessary for either the expression or normal function of sterol Delta7-reductase. We cloned cDNA encoding a human sterol Delta7-reductase (DHCR7) on the basis of its homology with the sterol Delta7-reductase from Arabidopsis thaliana, and we confirmed the enzymatic function of the human gene product by expression in SLOS fibroblasts. SLOS fibroblasts transfected with human sterol Delta7-reductase cDNA showed a significant reduction in 7-DHC levels, compared with those in SLOS fibroblasts transfected with the vector alone. Using radiation-hybrid mapping, we show that the DHCR7 gene is encoded at chromosome 11q12-13. To establish that defects in this gene cause SLOS, we sequenced cDNA clones from SLOS patients. In three unrelated patients we have identified four different mutant alleles. Our results demonstrate both that the cDNA that we have identified encodes the human sterol Delta7-reductase and that mutations in DHCR7 are responsible for at least some cases of SLOS.

Wassif, C A; Maslen, C; Kachilele-Linjewile, S; Lin, D; Linck, L M; Connor, W E; Steiner, R D; Porter, F D

1998-01-01

129

Complete deficiency of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase in mice is associated with impaired retinal function and variable mortality, hematological profiles, and reproductive outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severe deficiency of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) with homocystinuria can result in early demise or later-onset\\u000a neurological impairment, including developmental delay, motor dysfunction, and seizures. We previously characterized BALB\\/c\\u000a Mthfr\\u000a ?\\/?mice as a model for this disorder and have recently backcrossed the disrupted allele onto the C57Bl\\/6 background to examine\\u000a the variable phenotypes in MTHFR deficiency. Compared with BALB\\/c Mthfr\\u000a ?\\/?mice,

Andrea K. Lawrance; Julie Racine; Liyuan Deng; Xiaoling Wang; Pierre Lachapelle; Rima Rozen

2011-01-01

130

Increased prevalence of combined MTR and MTHFR genotypes among individuals with severely elevated total homocysteine plasma levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of the methionine synthase (MTR) 2756A?G polymorphism among individuals with severely elevated total homocysteine (tHcy) plasma levels is unknown. Therefore, 1,716 subjects, including 415 hemodialysis patients, 179 peritoneal dialysis patients, 733 kidney graft recipients, and 389 healthy subjects, were investigated. The distribution of MTR 2756A?G, as well as 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C?T\\/1298A?C, genotypes among study participants with extremely

Alexandra Feix; Robert Fritsche-Polanz; Josef Kletzmayr; Andreas Vychytil; Walter H. Hörl; Gere Sunder-Plassmann; Manuela Födinger

2001-01-01

131

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphism and childhood stroke.  

PubMed

Genotyping for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) has been recommended for part of the evaluation for underlying prothrombotic state in childhood stroke; however, studies are inconclusive regarding the role of this gene and also the role of hyperhomocysteinemia, which is the putative mechanism by which MTHFR polymorphism is related to stroke. The prevalence of MTHFR polymorphism in childhood arterial ischemic stroke and cerebral sinovenous thrombosis was compared with that of a reference population, and prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia was reviewed. In arterial ischemic stroke, the prevalence of at-risk methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotypes was 27%, and in cerebral sinovenous thrombosis it was 13%; the population prevalence was 26%. The odds ratio for at-risk genotype in childhood arterial ischemic stroke was 1.06 (95% confidence interval, 0.22-4.0); in cerebral sinovenous thrombosis, it was 0.42 (95% confidence interval, 0.01-3.6). No tested cases had hyperhomocysteinemia. MTHFR polymorphism and hyperhomocysteinemia were not risk factors in childhood arterial ischemic stroke or cerebral sinovenous thrombosis in the Intermountain West region. PMID:19748043

Morita, Denise C; Donaldson, Amy; Butterfield, Russell J; Benedict, Susan L; Bale, James F

2009-10-01

132

Population Study of Frequency of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T Gene Polymorphism in Yakutia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) catalyzes synthesis of 5'-methylenehydrofolate, which is the methyl donor for the conversion of homocysteine to methionine. According to the numerous literature data, polymorphic variant of the MTHFR-encoding gene, C677T, is associated with hyperhomocysteinemia, vascular pathologies, neural tube defects, dementia, perinatal mortality, mental disorders, long-term neurodegenerative disorders, lens displacement, arachnodactyly, and venous thromboses. The present study

M. G. Spiridonova; V. A. Stepanov; N. R. Maximova; V. P. Puzyrev

2004-01-01

133

5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Gene Variants and Congenital Anomalies: A HuGE Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enzyme 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is involved in folate metabolism. The MTHFR gene is located on chromosome 1 (1p36.3), and two common alleles, the C677T (thermolabile) allele and the A1298C allele, have been described. The population frequency of C677T homozygosity ranges from 1% or less among Blacks from Africa and the United States to 20% or more among Italians and

Lorenzo D. Botto; Quanhe Yang

2000-01-01

134

Effects of MTHFR Genetic Polymorphisms on Toxicity and Clinical Response of Irinotecan-Based Chemotherapy in Patients with Colorectal Cancer.  

PubMed

Aims: This meta-analysis aims to evaluate the effects of common polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene on the toxicity and clinical responses of irinotecan-based chemotherapy in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: The PubMed, CISCOM, CINAHL, Web of Science, Google Scholar, EBSCO, Cochrane Library, and CBM databases were searched from their inception through November 1st, 2013 without language restrictions. Meta-analysis was conducted with the use of the STATA 12.0 software. Crude odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated. Seven clinical cohort studies with a total of 815 CRC patients met the inclusion criteria. Two common polymorphisms (677 C>T and 1298?A>C) in the MTHFR gene were assessed. Results: The results from our meta-analysis suggested that MTHFR genetic polymorphisms might significantly decrease the rate of grade 3/4 toxicity of irinotecan-based chemotherapy in CRC patients (OR=0.53, 95% CI: 0.32-0.89, p=0.015). Furthermore, we also demonstrated that MTHFR genetic polymorphisms strongly correlated with good clinical responses (complete response+partial response) to irinotecan-based chemotherapy in CRC patients (OR=1.47, 95% CI: 1.05-2.04, p=0.024). Conclusions: Our findings provide empirical evidence that MTHFR genetic polymorphisms may decrease the toxicity of irinotecan-based chemotherapy and increase the clinical benefits for CRC patients. Thus, MTHFR genetic polymorphisms may be screened to predict the clinical responses to irinotecan-based chemotherapy in CRC patients. PMID:24611457

Li, Ping; Chen, Quan; Wang, Ya-Di; Ha, Min-Wen

2014-05-01

135

MTHFR C677T Predisposes to POAG but Not to PACG in a North Indian Population: A Case Control Study  

PubMed Central

Hyperhomocysteinemia induced by the C677T genetic variant in MTHFR (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase) has been implicated in neuronal cell death of retinal ganglion cells (RGC), which is a characteristic feature of glaucoma. However, association of MTHFR C677T with glaucoma has been controversial because of inconsistent results across association studies. Association between MTHFR C677T and glaucoma has not been reported in Indian population. Therefore, with a focus on neurodegenerative death of RGC in glaucoma, the current study aimed to investigate association of MTHFR C677T with Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG) and Primary Angle Closure Glaucoma (PACG) in a North Indian population. A total of 404 participants (231 patients and 173 controls) were included in this study. Genotyping was performed by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism. A few random samples were also tested by direct sequencing. Genotypic and allelic distributions of the POAG and PACG cohorts were compared to that of controls by chi-square test and odds ratios were reported with 95% confidence intervals. Genotypic and allelic distributions between POAG cases and controls were significantly different (p?=?0.03 and p?=?0.01 respectively). Unlike POAG, we did not find significant difference in the genotypic and allelic distributions of C677T between PACG cases and controls (p>0.05). We also observed a higher proportion of TT associated POAG in females than that in males. However, this is a preliminary indication of gender specific risk of C677T that needs to be replicated in a larger cohort of males and females. The present investigation on MTHFR C677T and glaucoma reveals that the TT genotype and T allele of this polymorphism are significant risk factors for POAG but not for PACG in North Indian population. Ours is the first report demonstrating association of MTHFR C677T with POAG but not PACG in individuals from North India.

Gupta, Shashank; Bhaskar, Pradeep Kumar; Bhardwaj, Ritu; Chandra, Abhishek; Chaudhry, Vidya Nair; Chaudhry, Prashaant; Ali, Akhtar; Mukherjee, Ashim; Mutsuddi, Mousumi

2014-01-01

136

Targeted mutations of Bacillus anthracis dihydrofolate reductase condense complex structure?activity relationships.  

PubMed

Several antifolates, including trimethoprim (TMP) and a series of propargyl-linked analogues, bind dihydrofolate reductase from Bacillus anthracis (BaDHFR) with lower affinity than is typical in other bacterial species. To guide lead optimization for BaDHFR, we explored a new approach to determine structure-activity relationships whereby the enzyme is altered and the analogues remain constant, essentially reversing the standard experimental design. Active site mutants of the enzyme, Ba(F96I)DHFR and Ba(Y102F)DHFR, were created and evaluated with enzyme inhibition assays and crystal structures. The affinities of the antifolates increase up to 60-fold with the Y102F mutant, suggesting that interactions with Tyr 102 are critical for affinity. Crystal structures of the enzymes bound to TMP and propargyl-linked inhibitors reveal the basis of TMP resistance and illuminate the influence of Tyr 102 on the lipophilic linker between the pyrimidine and aryl rings. Two new inhibitors test and validate these conclusions and show the value of the technique for providing new directions during lead optimization. PMID:20882962

Beierlein, Jennifer M; Karri, Nanda G; Anderson, Amy C

2010-10-28

137

Targeted Mutations of Bacillus anthracis Dihydrofolate Reductase Condense Complex Structure-Activity Relationships  

PubMed Central

Several antifolates, including trimethoprim (TMP) and a series of propargyl-linked analogs, bind dihydrofolate reductase from Bacillus anthracis (BaDHFR) with lower affinity than is typical in other bacterial species. To guide lead optimization for BaDHFR, we explored a new approach to determine structure-activity relationships whereby the enzyme is altered and the analogs remain constant, essentially reversing the standard experimental design. Active site mutants of the enzyme, Ba(F96I)DHFR and Ba(Y102F)DHFR, were created and evaluated with enzyme inhibition assays and crystal structures. The affinities of the antifolates increase up to 60-fold with the Y102F mutant, suggesting that interactions with Tyr 102 are critical for affinity. Crystal structures of the enzymes bound to TMP and propargyl-linked inhibitors reveal the basis of TMP resistance and illuminate the influence of Tyr 102 on the lipophilic linker between the pyrimidine and aryl rings. Two new inhibitors test and validate these conclusions and show the value of the technique for providing new directions during lead optimization.

Beierlein, Jennifer M.; Karri, Nanda G.; Anderson, Amy C.

2013-01-01

138

MTHFR C677T polymorphism: association with lymphoid neoplasm and effect on methotrexate therapy.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to detect the possible role of methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphism (MTHFR C677T) in the pathogenesis of lymphoid neoplasms and to investigate the influence of this polymorphism on methotrexate toxicity in adult ALL patients treated with methotrexate maintenance therapy. There was a statistically significant increase in the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in patients with CT genotype (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.3-6.3; P = 0.007) and combined CT + TT genotype (OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.5-6.6; P = 0.006). While no significant association was found between this polymorphism and ALL risk. The patients with ALL treated with methotrexate during maintenance therapy were observed for signs of toxicity. MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism (CT + TT) was significantly overrepresented among cases with hepatic toxicity (OR = 15.6; 95% CI, 2.6-81.3; P = 0.001). In addition, they were overrepresented among cases with mucositis, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and leukopenia. However, it did not reach statistical significance level. Further studies on larger number of subjects are necessary. Additional studies on the role of MTHFR gene polymorphism with environment (folate intake) interaction are needed to confirm the role of these genetic polymorphisms. PMID:24592886

Ayad, Mona W; El Naggar, Amel A; El Naggar, Mostafa

2014-07-01

139

A mutated xylose reductase increases bioethanol production more than a glucose\\/xylose facilitator in simultaneous fermentation and co-fermentation of wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains are able to ferment xylose present in lignocellulosic biomass. However, better xylose fermenting strains are required\\u000a to reach complete xylose uptake in simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) of lignocellulosic hydrolyzates.\\u000a In the current study, haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains expressing a heterologous xylose pathway including either the native xylose reductase (XR) from P. stipitis, a mutated

Kim Olofsson; David Runquist; Bärbel Hahn-Hägerdal; Gunnar Lidén

2011-01-01

140

Prevalence of Dihydrofolate reductase gene mutations in Plasmodium falciparum isolate from pregnant women in Nigeria.  

PubMed

We assessed the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum and the frequency of the dhfr triple mutation that is associated with antifolate drug resistance among P. falciparum isolates obtained from pregnant women in Ilorin, Nigeria. The study included 179 women in the second and third trimester of pregnancy who have been exposed to intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. Thick and thin blood films and PCR were used for malaria parasite detection. Blood group and hemoglobin concentration were also determined. Mutations in P. falciparum dhfr were analyzed by sequencing DNA obtained from blood spots on filter paper. Prevalence of P. falciparum in the population (PCR corrected) was 44.1% (79/179) with 66.7% and 33.3% in the second and third trimester, respectively. Primigravide (51.3%) were more infected than multigravide (48.7%) but the difference was not statistically significant. Women in blood group A had the highest P. falciparum malaria infection (30.8%). The mean hemoglobin concentration was lower among those infected with malaria parasite. Also, more women with the malaria parasite (38.4%) had anemia compare to those without (21.4%). The prevalence of the P. falciparum dhfr mutant alleles was 64.1%, 61.5%, 38.5%, and 12.8% for I51, R59, N108 and T108, respectively. None of the samples had the L164 mutation. The combined triple dhfr mutation (51 + 59 + 108) in the population was 17.9% (7 of 39). Also, the prevalence of the triple mutant alleles was not significantly associated to the number of doses of SP taken by the women. These findings highlight the need for a regular assessment of IPTp/SP efficacy, and evaluation of possible alternative drugs. PMID:24470913

Ojurongbe, Olusola; Tijani, Bukola D; Fawole, Adegboyega A; Adeyeba, Oluwaseyi A; Kun, Juergen F

2011-09-01

141

DETECTION OF MUTATIONS IN THE PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM DIHYDROFOLATE REDUCTASE (dhfr) GENE BY DOT-BLOT HYBRIDIZATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a need for a specific, sensitive, robust, and large-scale method for diagnosis of drug resistance genes in natural Plasmodium falciparum infections. Established polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods may be compromised by the multiplicity of P. falciparum genotypes in natural infections. Here we adopt a dot-blot method to detect point mutations at nucleotide 323 (residue 108) in the P.

ABDEL-MUHSIN A. ABDEL-MUHSIN; LISA C. RANFORD-CARTWRIGHT; ABDEL-RAHMAN MEDANI; SALAH AHMED; SUAD SULEIMAN; BALDIP KHAN; PAUL HUNT; DAVID WALLIKER; HAMZA A. BABIKER

142

Significant Impact of the MTHFR Polymorphisms and Haplotypes on Male Infertility Risk  

PubMed Central

Background Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) converts 5,10-methylene tetrahydrofolate to 5-methyl tetrahydrofolate and affects the activity of cellular cycles participating in nucleotide synthesis, DNA repair, genome stability, maintenance of methyl pool, and gene regulation. Genetically compromised MTHFR activity has been suggested to affect male fertility. The objective of the present study was to find the impact on infertility risk of c.203G>A, c.1298A>C, and c.1793G>A polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene. Methods PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing were used to genotype the common SNPs in the MTHFR gene in 630 infertile and 250 fertile males. Chi-square test was applied for statistical comparison of genotype data. Linkage disequilibrium between the SNPs and the frequency of common haplotypes were assessed using Haploview software. Biochemical levels of total homocysteine (tHcy) and folic acid were measured. Meta-analysis on c.1298A>C polymorphism was performed using data from ten studies, comprising 2734 cases and 2737 controls. Results c.203G>A and c.1298A>C were found to be unrelated to infertility risk. c.1793G>A was protective against infertility (P?=?0.0008). c.677C>T and c.1793G>A were in significant LD (D’?=?0.9). Folic acid and tHcy level did not correlate with male infertility. Pooled estimate on c.1298A>C data from all published studies including our data showed no association of this polymorphism with male infertility (Odds ratio?=?1.035, P?=?0.56), azoospermia (Odds ratio?=?0.97, P?=?0.74), or oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (Odds ratio?=?0.92, p?=?0.29). Eight haplotypes with more than 1% frequency were detected, of which CCGA was protective against infertility (p?=?0.02), but the significance of the latter was not seen after applying Bonferroni correction. Conclusion Among MTHFR polymorphisms, c.203G>A and c.1298A>C do not affect infertility risk and c.1793G>A is protective against infertility. Haplotype analysis suggested that risk factors on the MTHFR locus do not extend too long on the DNA string.

Gupta, Nishi; Sarkar, Saumya; David, Archana; Gangwar, Pravin Kumar; Gupta, Richa; Khanna, Gita; Sankhwar, Satya Narayan; Khanna, Anil; Rajender, Singh

2013-01-01

143

Point mutation of the xylose reductase (XR) gene reduces xylitol accumulation and increases citric acid production in Aspergillus carbonarius.  

PubMed

Aspergillus carbonarius accumulates xylitol when it grows on D-xylose. In fungi, D-xylose is reduced to xylitol by the NAD(P)H-dependent xylose reductase (XR). Xylitol is then further oxidized by the NAD(+)-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH). The cofactor impairment between the XR and XDH can lead to the accumulation of xylitol under oxygen-limiting conditions. Most of the XRs are NADPH dependent and contain a conserved Ile-Pro-Lys-Ser motif. The only known naturally occurring NADH-dependent XR (from Candida parapsilosis) carries an arginine residue instead of the lysine in this motif. In order to overcome xylitol accumulation in A. carbonarius a Lys-274 to Arg point mutation was introduced into the XR with the aim of changing the specificity toward NADH. The effect of the genetic engineering was examined in fermentation for citric acid production and xylitol accumulation by using D-xylose as the sole carbon source. Fermentation with the mutant strain showed a 2.8-fold reduction in xylitol accumulation and 4.5-fold increase in citric acid production compared to the wild-type strain. The fact that the mutant strain shows decreased xylitol levels is assumed to be associated with the capability of the mutated XR to use the NADH generated by the XDH, thus preventing the inhibition of XDH by the high levels of NADH and ensuring the flux of xylose through the pathway. This work shows that enhanced production of citric acid can be achieved using xylose as the sole carbon source by reducing accumulation of other by-products, such as xylitol. PMID:24570325

Weyda, István; Lübeck, Mette; Ahring, Birgitte K; Lübeck, Peter S

2014-04-01

144

Resistance to AFN-1252 arises from missense mutations in Staphylococcus aureus enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (FabI).  

PubMed

AFN-1252 is a potent antibiotic against Staphylococcus aureus that targets the enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (FabI). A thorough screen for AFN-1252-resistant strains was undertaken to identify the spectrum of mechanisms for acquired resistance. A missense mutation in fabI predicted to encode FabI(M99T) was isolated 49 times, and a single isolate was predicted to encode FabI(Y147H). AFN-1252 only bound to the NADPH form of FabI, and the close interactions between the drug and Met-99 and Tyr-147 explained how the mutations would result in resistant enzymes. The clone expressing FabI(Y147H) had a pronounced growth defect that was rescued by exogenous fatty acid supplementation, and the purified protein had less than 5% of the enzymatic activity of FabI. FabI(Y147F) was also catalytically defective but retained its sensitivity to AFN-1252, illustrating the importance of the conserved Tyr-147 hydroxyl group in FabI function. The strains expressing FabI(M99T) exhibited normal growth, and the biochemical properties of the purified protein were indistinguishable from those of FabI. The AFN-1252 Ki(app) increased from 4 nm in FabI to 69 nm in FabI(M99T), accounting for the increased resistance of the corresponding mutant strain. The low activity of FabI(Y147H) precluded an accurate Ki measurement. The strain expressing FabI(Y147H) was also resistant to triclosan; however, the strain expressing FabI(M99T) was more susceptible. Strains with higher levels of AFN-1252 resistance were not obtained. The AFN-1252-resistant strains remained sensitive to submicromolar concentrations of AFN-1252, which blocked growth through inhibition of fatty acid biosynthesis at the FabI step. PMID:24189061

Yao, Jiangwei; Maxwell, John B; Rock, Charles O

2013-12-20

145

Contribution of GSTM1, GSTT1, and MTHFR polymorphisms to end-stage renal disease of unknown etiology in Mexicans  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress is increased in chronic kidney disease, owing to an imbalance between the oxidative and antioxidant pathways as well as a state of persistent hyperhomocysteinemia. The enzymes glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) are implicated in the regulation of these pathways. This study investigates the association between polymorphisms in the Glutathione S-transferase Mu 1 (GSTM1), glutathione S-transferase theta 1 (GSTT1), and MTHFR genes and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) of unknown etiology in patients in Mexico. A Case-control study included 110 ESRD patients and 125 healthy individuals. GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes were determined using the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The MTHFR C677T polymorphism was studied using a PCR/restriction fragment length polymorphism method. In ESRD patients, GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotype frequencies were 61% and 7% respectively. GSTM1 genotype frequencies differed significantly between groups, showing that homozygous deletion of the GSTM1 gene was associated with susceptibility to ESRD of unknown etiology (P = 0.007, odds ratios = 2.05, 95% confidence interval 1.21-3.45). The MTHFR C677T polymorphism genotype and allele distributions were similar in both groups (P > 0.05), and the CT genotype was the most common genotype in both groups (45.5% and 46.6%). Our findings suggest that the GSTM1 null polymorphism appears to be associated with the ESRD of unknown etiology in patients in Mexico.

Gutierrez-Amavizca, B. E.; Orozco-Castellanos, R.; Ortiz-Orozco, R.; Padilla-Gutierrez, J.; Valle, Y.; Gutierrez-Gutierrez, N.; Garcia-Garcia, G.; Gallegos-Arreola, M.; Figuera, L. E.

2013-01-01

146

The Association between MTHFR Gene Polymorphisms and Hepatocellular Carcinoma Risk: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphisms and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk was inconsistent and underpowered. To clarify the effects of MTHFR gene polymorphisms on the risk of HCC, a meta-analysis of all available studies relating C677T and/or A1298C polymorphisms of MTHFR gene to the risk of HCC was conducted. Methods The authors searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Chinese Biomedical Literature database (CBM) for the period up to July 2012. Data were extracted by two independent authors and pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated. Metaregression and subgroup analyses were performed to identify the source of heterogeneity. Results Finally, 12 studies with 2,351 cases and 4,091 controls were included for C677T polymorphism and 6 studies with 1,333 cases and 1,878 controls were included for A1298C polymorphism. With respect to A1298C polymorphism, significantly decreased HCC risk was found in the overall population (CC vs. AA: OR?=?0.660, 95%CI 0.460–0.946, P?=?0.024; recessive model: OR?=?0.667, 95%CI?=?0.470–0.948, P?=?0.024). In subgroup analyses, significantly decreased HCC risk was found in Asian population (CC vs. AA: OR?=?0.647, 95%CI?=?0.435–0.963; P?=?0.032) and population-based studies (CC vs. AA: OR?=?0.519, 95%CI?=?0.327–0.823; P?=?0.005). With respect to C677T polymorphism, no significant association with HCC risk was demonstrated in overall and stratified analyses. Conclusions We concluded that MTHFR A1298C polymorphism may play a protective role in the carcinogenesis of HCC. Further large and well-designed studies are needed to confirm this association.

Deng, Yan; Huang, Shan; Xu, Juanjuan; Li, Haiwei; Li, Shan; Zhao, Jinmin

2013-01-01

147

Analysis of the MTHFR C677T variant with migraine phenotypes  

PubMed Central

Background The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene variant C677T has been implicated as a genetic risk factor in migraine susceptibility, particularly in Migraine with Aura. Migraine, with and without aura (MA and MO) have many diagnostic characteristics in common. It is postulated that migraine symptomatic characteristics might themselves be influenced by MTHFR. Here we analysed the clinical profile, migraine symptoms, triggers and treatments of 267 migraineurs previously genotyped for the MTHFR C677T variant. The chi-square test was used to analyse all potential relationships between genotype and migraine clinical variables. Regression analyses were performed to assess the association of C677T with all migraine clinical variables after adjusting for gender. Findings The homozygous TT genotype was significantly associated with MA (P < 0.0001) and unilateral head pain (P = 0.002). While the CT genotype was significantly associated with physical activity discomfort (P < 0.001) and stress as a migraine trigger (P = 0.002). Females with the TT genotype were significantly associated with unilateral head pain (P < 0.001) and females with the CT genotype were significantly associated with nausea (P < 0.001), osmophobia (P = 0.002), and the use of natural remedy for migraine treatment (P = 0.003). Conversely, male migraineurs with the TT genotype experienced higher incidences of bilateral head pain (63% vs 34%) and were less likely to use a natural remedy as a migraine treatment compared to female migraineurs (5% vs 20%). Conclusions MTHFR genotype is associated with specific clinical variables of migraine including unilateral head pain, physical activity discomfort and stress.

2010-01-01

148

Association of the Maternal MTHFR C677T Polymorphism with Susceptibility to Neural Tube Defects in Offsprings: Evidence from 25 Case-Control Studies  

PubMed Central

Background Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a critical enzyme in folate metabolism and is involved in DNA methylation, DNA synthesis, and DNA repair. In addition, it is a possible risk factor in neural tube defects (NTDs). The association of the C677T polymorphism in the MTHFR gene and NTD susceptibility has been widely demonstrated, but the results remain inconclusive. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis with 2429 cases and 3570 controls to investigate the effect of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism on NTDs. Methods An electronic search of PubMed and Embase database for papers on the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and NTD risk was performed. All data were analysed with STATA (version 11). Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated to assess the association. Sensitivity analysis, test of heterogeneity, cumulative meta-analysis, and assessment of bias were performed in our meta-analysis. Results A significant association between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and NTD susceptibility was revealed in our meta-analysis ( TT versus CC: OR ?=?2.022, 95% CI: 1.508, 2.712; CT+TT versus CC: OR ?=?1.303, 95% CI: 1.089, 1.558; TT versus CC+CT: OR ?=?1.716, 95% CI: 1.448, 2.033; 2TT+CT versus 2CC+CT: OR ?=?1.330, 95% CI: 1.160, 1.525). Moreover, an increased NTD risk was found after stratification of the MTHFR C677T variant data by ethnicity and source of controls. Conclusion The results suggested the maternal MTHFR C677T polymorphism is a genetic risk factor for NTDs. Further functional studies to investigate folate-related gene polymorphisms, periconceptional multivitamin supplements, complex interactions, and the development of NTDs are warranted.

Zou, Peng; Ji, Guixiang; Gu, Aihua; Zhao, Peng

2012-01-01

149

Folate Intake, MTHFR Polymorphisms, and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background. The objective was to determine whether relationships exist between the methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) and examine whether the risk is modified by level of folate intake. Methods. MEDLINE, Embase, and SCOPUS were searched to May 2012 using the terms “folic acid,” “folate,” “colorectal cancer,” “methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase,” “MTHFR.” Observational studies were included which (1) assessed the risk of CRC for each polymorphism and/or (2) had defined levels of folate intake for each polymorphism and assessed the risk of CRC. Results. From 910 references, 67 studies met our criteria; hand searching yielded 10 studies. The summary risk estimate comparing the 677CT versus CC genotype was 1.02 (95% CI 0.95–1.10) and for 677TT versus CC was 0.88 (95% CI 0.80–0.96) both with heterogeneity. The summary risk estimates for A1298C polymorphisms suggested no reduced risk. The summary risk estimate for high versus low total folate for the 677CC genotype was 0.70 (95% CI 0.56–0.89) and the 677TT genotype 0.63 (95% CI 0.41–0.97). Conclusion. These results suggest that the 677TT genotype is associated with a reduced risk of developing CRC, under conditions of high total folate intake, and this associated risk remains reduced for both MTHFR 677 CC and TT genotypes.

Kennedy, Deborah A.; Stern, Seth J.; Matok, Ilan; Moretti, Myla E.; Sarkar, Moumita; Adams-Webber, Thomasin; Koren, Gideon

2012-01-01

150

Plasmodium falciparum: gene mutations and amplification of dihydrofolate reductase genes in parasites grown in vitro in presence of pyrimethamine.  

PubMed

Samples of three pyrimethamine-sensitive clones of Plasmodium falciparum were grown for periods of 22-46 weeks in media containing stepwise increases in pyrimethamine concentrations and were seen to develop up to 1000-fold increases in resistance to the drug. With clone T9/94RC17, the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) gene was sequenced from 10 uncloned populations and 29 pure clones, all having increased resistance to pyrimethamine, and these sequences were compared with the sequence of the original pyrimethamine-sensitive clone. No changes in amino acid sequence were found to have occurred. Some resistant clones obtained by this method were then examined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and the results indicated that there had been an increase in the size of chromosome 4. This was confirmed by hybridization of Southern blots with a chromosome 4-specific probe, the vacuolar ATPase subunit B gene, and a probe to DHFR. Dot-blotting with an oligonucleotide probe to DHFR confirmed that there had been increases up to 44-fold in copy number of the DHFR gene in the resistant strains. Resistant clones obtained by this procedure were then grown in medium lacking pyrimethamine for a period of nearly 2 years, and reversion nearly to the level of pyrimethamine sensitivity of the original clone T9/94RC17 was found to occur after about 16 months. Correspondingly, the chromosome 4 of the reverted population reverted to a size like that of the original sensitive clone T9/94RC17. The procedure of growing parasites in stepwise increases of pyrimethamine concentration was repeated with two other pyrimethamine-sensitive clones: TM4CB8-2.2.3 and G112CB1.1. (The DHFR gene of these clones encodes serine at position 108, in place of threonine as in clone T9/94RC17, and it was thought that this difference might conceivably affect the rate of mutation to asparagine at this position). Clones TM4CB8-2.2.3 and G112CB1.1 also responded by developing gradually increased resistance to pyrimethamine. However, in clone TM4CB8-2.2.3 a single mutation from Ile to Met at position 164 in the DHFR gene sequence was identified, and in clone G112CB1.1 there was a single mutation from Ala to Ser at position 16, but no mutations at position 108 were obtained in any of the clones studied here. In addition, chromosome 4 of clone TM4CB8-2.2.3 increased in size, presumably due to amplification of the DHFR gene. No increase in size was seen in clone G112CB1.1. We conclude that whereas some mutations producing changes in the amino acid sequence of the DHFR molecule may occur occasionally in clones or populations of P. falciparum grown in vitro in the presence of pyrimethamine, amplification of the DHFR gene following adaptation to growth in medium containing pyrimethamine occurs as a regular feature. The bearing of these findings on the development of pyrimethamine-resistant forms of malaria parasites in endemic areas is discussed. PMID:11465989

Thaithong, S; Ranford-Cartwright, L C; Siripoon, N; Harnyuttanakorn, P; Kanchanakhan, N S; Seugorn, A; Rungsihirunrat, K; Cravo, P V; Beale, G H

2001-06-01

151

Pharmacogenetics of methotrexate: toxicity among marrow transplantation patients varies with the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated whether a polymor- phism in the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofo- late reductase (MTHFR) gene (C677T) modi- fies responses to methotrexate (MTX) in patients undergoing bone marrow transplan- tation. About 10% to 12% of the population carry the MTHFR TT genotype (enzyme activ- ity, 30% of wild type (CC)). Patients (n 5 220) with chronic myelogenous leukemia under- went marrow allografts

Cornelia M. Ulrich; Yutaka Yasui; Rainer Storb; Mark M. Schubert; John L. Wagner; Jeannette Bigler; Kiley S. Ariail; Cassie L. Keener; Sue Li; Hao Liu; Federico M. Farin; John D. Potter

2001-01-01

152

MTHFR 677C -> T genotype disrupts prefrontal function in schizophrenia through an interaction with COMT 158Val -> Met  

PubMed Central

Understanding how risk genes cumulatively impair brain function in schizophrenia could provide critical insights into its pathophysiology. Working memory impairment in schizophrenia has been associated with abnormal dopamine signaling in the prefrontal cortex, which is likely under complex genetic control. The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) 158Val ? Met polymorphism (rs4680), which affects the availability of prefrontal dopamine signaling, consistently stratifies prefrontal activation during working memory performance. However, the low-dopamine COMT 158Val allele does not confer increased risk for schizophrenia, and its effects on prefrontal function are not specific to the disorder. In the setting of other genetic variants influencing prefrontal dopamine signaling, COMT 158Val ? Met genotype may exert disease-specific effects. A second polymorphism, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C ? T (rs1801133), has been associated with overall schizophrenia risk and executive function impairment in patients, and may influence dopamine signaling through mechanisms upstream of COMT effects. We found that the hypofunctional 677T variant was associated with decreased working memory load-dependent activation in the prefrontal and insular cortices in 79 schizophrenia patients, but not in 75 demographically matched healthy controls. Further, significant MTHFR × COMT genotype interactions were observed, which differed by diagnostic group: Reduced prefrontal activation was associated with the 677T and 158Val alleles in patients, but with 677C/C and 158Met/Met genotype in controls. These findings are consistent with epistatic effects of the COMT and MTHFR polymorphisms on prefrontal dopamine signaling, and suggest that in schizophrenia patients, the MTHFR 677T allele exacerbates prefrontal dopamine deficiency. The findings also suggest the importance of weighing COMT effects on prefrontal function within the context of MTHFR genotype.

Roffman, Joshua L.; Gollub, Randy L.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Wassink, Thomas H.; Weiss, Anthony P.; Ho, Beng C.; White, Tonya; Clark, Vincent P.; Fries, Jill; Andreasen, Nancy C.; Goff, Donald C.; Manoach, Dara S.

2008-01-01

153

Role of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase A1298C polymorphism in cerebral venous thrombosis.  

PubMed

The association between the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) remains controversial. This study principally investigated the potential role of the MTHFR A1298C variant and CVT. The genotyping of the A1298C variant of the MTHFR gene was performed in 35 CVT patients and 200 healthy controls. The frequency of A1298C genotype among CVT patients was significantly higher compared with controls (P?MTHFR A1298C variant and CVT. Large study populations would be required to understand the contribution of this marker in the risk of CVT. PMID:23314385

Fekih-Mrissa, Najiba; Klai, Sarra; Mrad, Meriem; Zaouali, Jamel; Sayeh, Aycha; Nsiri, Brahim; Gritli, Nasreddine; Mrissa, Ridha

2013-03-01

154

Mutational analysis of sites in sepiapterin reductase phosphorylated by Ca 2+\\/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sepiapterin reductase (SPR) catalyzes the last step in the pathway of tetrahydrobiopterin biosynthesis in tissues. SPR is phosphorylated by Ca2+-dependent protein kinases, which indicates that Ca2+-activated protein kinases may play a role in the regulation of SPR in vivo. Phosphorylation sites of rat sepiapterin reductase (rSPR) by Ca2+\\/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II were determined in the present study. Using specific monoclonal

Kengo Fujimoto; Susumu Y. Takahashi; Setsuko Katoh

2002-01-01

155

The role of the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism in methotrexate-induced liver toxicity: a meta-analysis in patients with cancer.  

PubMed

Methotrexate (MTX), one of the important pillars in the treatment of different forms of cancer, is associated with the development of hepatotoxicity. The 677C>T variant (rs1801133) in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene might affect the development of hepatotoxicity. Results in literature are, however, contradictive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism in MTX-induced hepatotoxicity by analyzing a Dutch cohort of pediatric patients treated with high doses of MTX and subsequently performing a meta-analysis. Ninety-eight patients receiving 542 courses of high-dose MTX were genotyped for the MTHFR 677C>T variant. Hepatotoxicity was evaluated retrospectively according to common terminology criteria for adverse events-National Cancer Institute criteria. The influence of MTHFR 677C>T on hepatotoxicity was examined using a generalized estimating equation (GEE) analysis. A fixed-effect meta-analysis based on this and previous studies investigating the association between the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism and uniformly coded hepatotoxicity was performed. The GEE analysis showed an increased risk of developing hepatotoxicity for T versus C allele (odds ratio (OR) 1.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-3.2, P=0.04). This finding was not supported by the meta-analysis including seven studies and 1044 patients; the OR for the 677T versus C allele was 1.1 (95% CI 0.84-1.5, P=0.25). Heterogeneity between studies was observed, possibly related to differences in MTX dose and leucovorin rescue. In conclusion, in patients with cancer, the MTHFR 677T allele has only a minor role in the development of MTX-induced hepatotoxicity. Observed heterogeneity between studies warrants further study into (tailored) leucovorin rescue. PMID:23648444

Hagleitner, M M; Coenen, M J H; Aplenc, R; Patiño-Garcia, A; Chiusolo, P; Gemmati, D; De Mattei, M; Ongaro, A; Krajinovic, M; Hoogerbrugge, P M; Vermeulen, S H H M; te Loo, D M W M

2014-04-01

156

Green tea intake, MTHFR/TYMS genotype and breast cancer risk: the Singapore Chinese Health Study  

PubMed Central

The tea polyphenol (?)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has been reported to act as a cancer preventive agent through folate pathway inhibition in experimental studies. We hypothesized that if folate pathway inhibition is the mechanism of cancer preventive activities of EGCG, then the protective effect against breast cancer would be stronger among women with low dietary folate intake and the high-activity methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and thymidylate synthase (TYMS) genotypes. In a nested case–control study of 380 women with incident breast cancer and 662 controls within the Singapore Chinese Health Study, we found no association between either green tea intake or gene polymorphisms of MTHFR (C677T and A1298C) and TYMS (1494 ins/del) and breast cancer risk. However, among women with low folate intake (<133.4 ?g/day), weekly/daily green tea intake was inversely associated with breast cancer risk compared with less green tea intake [odds ratio (OR) = 0.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.26–0.79, P for interaction = 0.02]. Among women with high folate intake (?133.4 ?g/day), green tea intake was not associated with breast cancer. Similarly, among women possessing the high-activity MTHFR/TYMS genotypes (0–1 variant allele), weekly/daily versus less frequent green tea intake was associated with lower breast cancer risk (OR?=?0.66, 95% CI?=?0.45–0.98), which was observed even more strongly among those who also had low folate intake (OR?=?0.44, 95% CI?=?0.22–0.89) than high folate intake (OR?=?0.92, 95% CI?=?0.55–1.54). This association was not observed among women possessing the low-activity genotypes (2–4 variant alleles). Our findings suggest that folate pathway inhibition may be one mechanism through which green tea protects against breast cancer in humans.

Inoue, Maki; Robien, Kim; Wang, Renwei; Van Den Berg, David J.; Koh, Woon-Puay; Yu, Mimi C.

2008-01-01

157

The C677T Polymorphism of the Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Gene Is Associated with Idiopathic Ischemic Stroke in the Young Mexican-Mestizo Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose: Previous studies have demonstrated that a common polymorphism in the gene encoding 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is associated with an increased risk for stroke. However, this relation remains controversial. Our aim was to investigate the possible association between the C677T polymorphism in the MTHFR gene and idiopathic ischemic stroke in the young Mexican-Mestizo population. Methods: One hundred seventy-eight

Irma Isordia-Salas; Fernando Barinagarrementería-Aldatz; Alfredo Leaños-Miranda; Gabriela Borrayo-Sánchez; Jorge Vela-Ojeda; Jaime García-Chávez; Isabel Ibarra-González; Abraham Majluf-Cruz

2010-01-01

158

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T genotype affects promoter methylation of tumor-specific genes in sporadic colorectal cancer through an interaction with folate\\/vitamin B12 status  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To evaluate joint effects of Methylentetra- hydrofolate reductase (MTHFR ) C677T genotypes, and serum folate\\/vitamin B12 concentrations on promoter methylation of tumor-associated genes among Iranian colorectal cancer patients. METHODS: We examined the associations between MTHFR C677T genotype, and promoter methylation of P16 , hMLH1 , and hMSH2 tumor-related genes among 151 sporadic colorectal cancer patients. The promoter methylation of

Pooneh Mokarram; Fakhraddin Naghibalhossaini

2008-01-01

159

Association of the C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in the 5,10 methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene in patients with migraine risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although controversial, diminished activity of 5,10 methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), a regulatory enzyme of homocysteine metabolism, may predispose to migraine in Turkish people. In a case-control study, we determined the prevalence of two common MTHFR polymorphisms,C677T and A1298C, in 102 migraine patients (23 migraine with aura, 70 migraine without aura and nine with tension-type headache) and compared it to that of

Ihsan Kara; Ali Sazci; Emel Ergul; Guner Kaya; Gamze Kilic

2003-01-01

160

Association of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism and fracture risk in Chinese postmenopausal women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoporotic fractures are a leading cause of disability and, indirectly, of death in the elderly population. Previous studies have shown that homocysteine level and the C677T polymorphism in the gene encoding methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) may be involved in the development of osteoporosis and its related fracture in European populations. The aim of this study was to verify the association of

Xiumei Hong; Yi-Hsiang Hsu; Henry Terwedow; Genfu Tang; Xue Liu; Shanqun Jiang; Xin Xu; Xiping Xu

2007-01-01

161

Hyperhomocyst(e)inemia and MTHFR C677T genotypes in patients with central retinal vein occlusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Elevated plasma homocyst(e)ine is a major risk factor for venous thrombosis and cardiovascular disease. Homozygosity for the MTHFR C677T mutation and low plasma folate levels increase plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations. The aim of this retrospective case-control study was to investigate a possible association between hyperhomocyst(e)inemia and central retinal vein occlusion. Methods: Our study included 78 consecutive patients with central retinal

Martin Weger; Olaf Stanger; Hannes Deutschmann; Werner Temmel; Wilfried Renner; Otto Schmut; Jürgen Semmelrock; Anton Haas

2002-01-01

162

Genetic diversity and the structure of linkage disequilibrium in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase locus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigation of linkage disequilibrium block architecture in human genome is modern, intensely investigated field of molecular\\u000a genetics. In the present study, genetic differentiation and linkage disequilibrium pattern in the methylenetetrahydrofolate\\u000a reductase (MTHFR) locus was examined in the populations of Russians, Tuvinians, and Northern and Southern Kyrgyzes. Methylenetetrahydrofolate\\u000a reductase is the key enzyme of folate cycle, responsible for reduction of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate

E. A. Trifonova; M. G. Spiridonova; V. A. Stepanov

2008-01-01

163

Characterization of mutations in the cytochrome b subunit of the bc1 complex of Rhodobacter sphaeroides that affect the quinone reductase site (Qc).  

PubMed

The cytochrome b subunit of the bc1 complex contains two heme components, cytochrome bL and cytochrome bH, and is the locus of both a quinol oxidizing site (Qo or Qz) and a quinone reducing site (Qi or Qc). The quinone reductase site has been previously characterized as the site of interaction for a set of inhibitors including antimycin A, diuron, funiculosin, and HQNO. In this paper, four highly conserved residues in the cytochrome b subunit of Rhodobacter sphaeroides (A52, H217, K251, and D252) were targeted for site-directed mutagenesis. These residues were chosen as being likely to be at or near the quinone reductase site, on the basis of known locations of missense mutations in the homologous yeast subunit that confer resistance to Qc-directed inhibitors. The site-directed mutants all exhibit a normal rate of reduction of cytochrome bH, suggesting a fully functional quinol oxidizing site. However, each of the mutants is impaired, to varying degrees, in the rate of reoxidation of cytochrome bH. Two mutants (H217A and D252A) are unable to grow photosynthetically, indicating a severe defect in the bc1 complex. In both cases, the cause of the defect is the lack of reoxidation of cytochrome bH by ubiquinone. This is the first report of mutations that selectively impair the rate of electron transfer from cytochrome bH to the Qc-site. This set of mutations will be useful not only for modeling the structure of the quinone reducing site but also in elucidating the catalytic mechanism of this portion of the Q-cycle. PMID:8386545

Hacker, B; Barquera, B; Crofts, A R; Gennis, R B

1993-04-27

164

DNA methylation status of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene promoter in peripheral blood of end-stage renal disease patients.  

PubMed

End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. DNA methylation is a major epigenetic modification of the genome that has the potential to silence gene expression. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene inactivation was recognized as a predisposing factor of hyperhomocysteinemia in renal patients. The current study aimed to determine the methylation status within the MTHFR promoter region in DNA isolated from peripheral blood of ESRD patients and controls and the correlation of this methylation with the clinical and biochemical characteristics in ESRD patients. Ninety-six ESRD patients and 96 healthy ethnically, age and gender matched controls were included within the study. MTHFR promoter methylation was assessed using methylation specific polymerase chain reaction. The frequency of MTHFR methylation was significantly higher in ESRD patients than in controls (P = 0.003), additionally, MTHFR methylation was associated to a decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate, serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level and an increase in both serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Data generated from this study suggest the possible involvement of MTHFR promoter methylation in the pathogenesis of ESRD and support a new dimension of MTHFR inactivation. PMID:24363223

Ghattas, Maivel; El-Shaarawy, Fatma; Mesbah, Noha; Abo-Elmatty, Dina

2014-02-01

165

Methionine synthase A2756G and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase A1298C polymorphisms are not risk factors for idiopathic venous thromboembolism.  

PubMed

Hyperhomocysteinemia is a defined risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Several polymorphisms of genes encoding for enzymes acting in the remethylation pathway of homocysteine metabolism, ie, methionine synthase (MS) A2756G, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and MTHFR A1298C, can cause increased homocysteine levels particularly in patients with deficiencies of folic acid, vitamin B6, or B12 and hence be potential risk factors for VTE. Indeed, homozygous MTHFR C677T was shown to be a mild risk factor for VTE by some, but not by all, investigators. In this study, we assessed the risk exerted by MS A2756G and MTHFR A1298C in a cohort of patients with idiopathic venous thromboembolism. Homozygosities for MS A2756G and MTHFR A1298C were not found to be statistically significant risk factors for VTE. In addition, no interactions were observed among MS A2756G, MTHFR A1298C and MTHFR C677T in conferring a risk of VTE. PMID:11920232

Salomon, O; Rosenberg, N; Zivelin, A; Steinberg, D M; Kornbrot, N; Dardik, R; Inbal, A; Seligsohn, U

2001-01-01

166

Alteration of the alkaloid profile in genetically modified tobacco reveals a role of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase in nicotine N-demethylation.  

PubMed

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme of the tetrahydrofolate (THF)-mediated one-carbon (C1) metabolic network. This enzyme catalyzes the reduction of 5,10-methylene-THF to 5-methyl-THF. The latter donates its methyl group to homocysteine, forming methionine, which is then used for the synthesis of S-adenosyl-methionine, a universal methyl donor for numerous methylation reactions, to produce primary and secondary metabolites. Here, we demonstrate that manipulating tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) MTHFR gene (NtMTHFR1) expression dramatically alters the alkaloid profile in transgenic tobacco plants by negatively regulating the expression of a secondary metabolic pathway nicotine N-demethylase gene, CYP82E4. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and alkaloid analyses revealed that reducing NtMTHFR expression by RNA interference dramatically induced CYP82E4 expression, resulting in higher nicotine-to-nornicotine conversion rates. Conversely, overexpressing NtMTHFR1 suppressed CYP82E4 expression, leading to lower nicotine-to-nornicotine conversion rates. However, the reduced expression of NtMTHFR did not affect the methionine and S-adenosyl-methionine levels in the knockdown lines. Our finding reveals a new regulatory role of NtMTHFR1 in nicotine N-demethylation and suggests that the negative regulation of CYP82E4 expression may serve to recruit methyl groups from nicotine into the C1 pool under C1-deficient conditions. PMID:23221678

Hung, Chiu-Yueh; Fan, Longjiang; Kittur, Farooqahmed S; Sun, Kehan; Qiu, Jie; Tang, She; Holliday, Bronwyn M; Xiao, Bingguang; Burkey, Kent O; Bush, Lowell P; Conkling, Mark A; Roje, Sanja; Xie, Jiahua

2013-02-01

167

Prospective study of homocysteine and MTHFR 677TT genotype and risk for venous thrombosis in a general population--results from the HUNT 2 study.  

PubMed

This case-cohort designed study prospectively investigated whether elevated homocysteine levels measured in blood samples drawn before the event and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism (MTHFR C677T) were associated with subsequent first venous thrombosis (VT) in a general population. Between August 1995 and June 1997, blood was collected from 66 140 people in the second Norwegian Health Study of Nord-Trøndelag (HUNT2). During a seven-year follow-up, 505 VT cases were identified. 1458 age- and sex-matched controls were selected from the original cohort. Serum total homocysteine (tHcy) and MTHFR genotype were measured in stored samples that were drawn a median of 33 months before the events. The overall odds ratio (OR) was 1.50 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97-2.30] for homocysteine levels above versus below the 95th percentile. There was no graded association with VT over quintiles of homocysteine. In men the OR was 2.17 (95% CI 1.20-3.91) for levels above versus below the 95th percentile, but no association was found in women (OR 1.00). Stratification by age, predisposing risk factors or time to event did not change these results. The MTHFR 677TT genotype was not related to risk for VT. In conclusion, elevated homocysteine levels in the general population predicted subsequent first VT in men but not in women. PMID:18318759

Naess, Inger Anne; Christiansen, Sverre C; Romundstad, Pål R; Cannegieter, Suzanne C; Blom, Henk J; Rosendaal, Frits R; Hammerstrøm, Jens

2008-05-01

168

C677T and A1298C Polymorphisms of MTHFR Gene and Their Relation to Homocysteine Levels in Turner Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Aims: To determine the frequency of C677T and A1298C polymorphisms of the MTHFR gene and correlate them with homocysteine serum levels in patients with Turner syndrome (TS) and controls. Methods: This case–control study included 78 women with TS and a control group of 372 healthy individuals without personal or family history of cardiovascular disease and cancer. C677T (rs1801133) and A1298C (rs1801131) polymorphisms were detected by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment-length polymorphism and the TaqMan system, respectively. Homocysteine serum levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The results were analyzed statistically, and p<0.05 was considered to represent a significant difference. Results: The homocysteine levels change was 13.9+3.3 nM in patients with TS and 8.8+3.2?nM in the control group. No significant difference between groups was found (p=0.348). Single-marker analysis revealed no association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and TS when genotype (p=0.063) or allelic (p=0.277) distribution was considered. Regarding MTHFR A1298C polymorphism, a statistical difference was found between the TS group and the control group, for both genotype (p<0.0001) and allele (p<0.0001) distribution. Haplotype analysis of 2 MTHFR polymorphisms identified 2 haplotypes—CC and TC—associated with TS (p<0.001 and p=0.0165, respectively). However, homocysteine levels were not higher in patients with haplotype risk. Conclusion: The results suggest that the C677T and A1298C polymorphisms of the MTHFR gene are not related to homocysteine levels in Brazilian patients with TS, despite the differential distribution of the mutated allele C (A1298C) in these patients. Further studies are needed to investigate the possible genetic interaction with homocysteine levels in TS.

Oliveira, Kelly C.; Verreschi, Ieda T.N.; Sugawara, Eduardo K.; Silva, Vanessa C.; Galera, Bianca B.; Galera, Marcial Francis; Bianco, Bianca

2012-01-01

169

Prediction of Methotrexate Clinical Response in Portuguese Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: Implication of MTHFR rs1801133 and ATIC rs4673993 Polymorphisms  

PubMed Central

Objective. Methotrexate (MTX), the most used drug in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment, showing variability in clinical response, is often associated with genetic polymorphisms. This study aimed to elucidate the role of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and aminoimidazole carboxamide adenosine ribonucleotide transformylase (ATIC) T675C polymorphisms and clinicopathological variables in clinical response to MTX in Portuguese RA patients. Methods. Study included 233 RA patients treated with MTX for at least six months. MTHFR C677T and ATIC T675C polymorphisms were genotyped and clinicopathological variables were collected. Statistical analyses were performed and binary logistic regression method adjusted to possible confounding variables. Results. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that MTHFR 677TT (OR = 4.63; P = 0.013) and ATIC 675T carriers (OR = 5.16; P = 0.013) were associated with over 4-fold increased risk for nonresponse. For clinicopathological variables, noncurrent smokers (OR = 7.98; P = 0.001), patients positive to anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (OR = 3.53; P = 0.004) and antinuclear antibodies (OR = 2.28; P = 0.045), with higher health assessment questionnaire score (OR = 2.42; P = 0.007), and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug users (OR = 2.77; P = 0.018) were also associated with nonresponse. Contrarily, subcutaneous administration route (OR = 0.11; P < 0.001) was associated with response. Conclusion. Our study suggests that MTHFR C677T and ATIC T675C genotyping combined with clinicopathological data may help to identify patients whom will not benefit from MTX treatment and, therefore, assist clinicians in personalizing RA treatment.

Lima, Aurea; Monteiro, Joaquim; Bernardes, Miguel; Sousa, Hugo; Azevedo, Rita; Seabra, Vitor; Medeiros, Rui

2014-01-01

170

MTHFR A1298C and C677T gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to chronic myeloid leukemia in Egypt  

PubMed Central

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme regulating the intracellular folate metabolism which plays an important role in carcinogenesis through DNA methylation. We aimed to evaluate the association between MTHFR A1298C and C677T polymorphisms and the risks of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Eighty-five patients with CML and a control group containing 100 healthy, age and sex matched individuals were examined for MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length (PCR-RFLP) method. The frequency of 677TT genotype in patients with CML was significantly higher compared to controls (OR = 2.513, 95% CI: 0.722-4.086, P = 0.025). No such association was shown for heterozygous 677CT (OR = 1.010, 95% CI: 0.460-2.218, P = 0.981). Moreover, for A1298C genotype, a statistically significant higher frequency of 1298CC was also detected in CML patients compared to control group (OR = 1.1816, 95% CI: 0.952-3.573, P = 0.036), 0.036). No such statistical significance was demonstrable for heterozygote 1298AC (OR = 1.046, 95% CI: 0.740-1.759, P = 0.092). In addition, patients with joint 677CT/1298AC or 677TT/1298CC genotypes showed an association with increased risk of CML (OR = 1.849, 95% CI: 0.935-2.540, P = 0.024; OR = 1.915, 95% CI: 1.202-3.845, P = 0.020 respectively). .A statistically significant increased risk of resistant to therapy was observed with 677CT and 1298AC genotypes (P = 0.001, P = 0.002 respectively). We conclude that both MTHFR 677TT and 1298CC polymorphisms have been associated with risk of CML and both 677CT and 1298AC genotypes are associated with higher risk of resistant to therapy.

Aly, Rabab M; Taalab, Mona M; Ghazy, Hayam F

2014-01-01

171

Do mutations in Plasmodium falciparum dihydropteroate synthase and dihydrofolate reductase confer resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in Iran?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key codons of dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) and dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) genes implicated in sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) resistance were determined by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction in Plasmodium falciparum isolates collected in 1999 from 35 Iranian patients treated with SP. Seven isolates had Glu-540 dhps allele but 5 of these isolates were characterized to possess wild-type dhfr alleles. Seven additional isolates were

Abbas-Ali Eskandarian; Hossein Keshavarz; Leonardo K. Basco; Fereidoun Mahboudi

2002-01-01

172

Isolation of mutants of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus deficient in wax ester synthesis and complementation of one mutation with a gene encoding a fatty acyl coenzyme A reductase.  

PubMed Central

Acinetobacter calcoaceticus BD413 accumulates wax esters and triacylglycerol under conditions of mineral nutrient limitation. Nitrosoguanidine-induced mutants of strain BD413 were isolated that failed to accumulate wax esters under nitrogen-limited growth conditions. One of the mutants, Wow15 (without wax), accumulated wax when grown in the presence of cis-11-hexadecenal and hexadecanol but not hexadecane or hexadecanoic acid. This suggested that the mutation may have inactivated a gene encoding either an acyl-acyl carrier protein or acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) reductase. The Wow15 mutant was complemented with a cosmid genomic library prepared from wild-type A. calcoaceticus BD413. The complementary region was localized to a single gene (acr1) encoding a protein of 32,468 Da that is 44% identical over a region of 264 amino acids to a product of unknown function encoded by an open reading frame associated with mycolic acid synthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra. Extracts of Escherichia coli cells expressing the acr1 gene catalyzed the reduction of acyl-CoA to the corresponding fatty aldehyde, indicating that the gene encodes a novel fatty acyl-CoA reductase.

Reiser, S; Somerville, C

1997-01-01

173

Mutational and structural analyses of the ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor Sml1 define its Rnr1 interaction domain whose inactivation allows suppression of mec1 and rad53 lethality.  

PubMed

In budding yeast, MEC1 and RAD53 are essential for cell growth. Previously we reported that mec1 or rad53 lethality is suppressed by removal of Sml1, a protein that binds to the large subunit of ribonucleotide reductase (Rnr1) and inhibits RNR activity. To understand further the relationship between this suppression and the Sml1-Rnr1 interaction, we randomly mutagenized the SML1 open reading frame. Seven mutations were identified that did not affect protein expression levels but relieved mec1 and rad53 inviability. Interestingly, all seven mutations abolish the Sml1 interaction with Rnr1, suggesting that this interaction causes the lethality observed in mec1 and rad53 strains. The mutant residues all cluster within the 33 C-terminal amino acids of the 104-amino-acid-long Sml1 protein. Four of these residues reside within an alpha-helical structure that was revealed by nuclear magnetic resonance studies. Moreover, deletions encompassing the N-terminal half of Sml1 do not interfere with its RNR inhibitory activity. Finally, the seven sml1 mutations also disrupt the interaction with yeast Rnr3 and human R1, suggesting a conserved binding mechanism between Sml1 and the large subunit of RNR from different species. PMID:11074005

Zhao, X; Georgieva, B; Chabes, A; Domkin, V; Ippel, J H; Schleucher, J; Wijmenga, S; Thelander, L; Rothstein, R

2000-12-01

174

Malaria treatment failure with novel mutation in the Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (pfdhfr) gene in Kolkata, West Bengal, India.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to define the cause of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) treatment failure in Plasmodium falciparum infections in a malaria-endemic zone of India. Samples were collected from 176 patients in Kolkata from November 2008 to July 2009. In vitro susceptibility testing was performed on all isolates. Parasite DNA was extracted, and PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of different codons of the dhfr gene (16, 51, 59, 108 and 164) and dhps gene (436, 437, 540, 581 and 613) were performed. Finally, sequencing of the products was performed to confirm the mutations. The in vivo treatment response to SP among the 176 patients was determined. A novel mutation of isoleucine was observed at codon 108 of the dhfr gene, which was highly correlated with in vitro SP resistance as well as early treatment failure. A double dhfr mutation (108I+51I) was observed in 77.3% of isolates, and triple mutation of the dhps gene was observed in 18.2% of isolates. In this endemic zone, SP treatment failure is due to a novel dhfr mutation (108I+51I) and any one of the dhps mutations (S436A, A437G, A581G or A613T/S). An increase in these mutations was highly correlated with SP resistance (P < 0.0001). PMID:23428313

Das, Sabyasachi; Chakraborty, Subhankari Prasad; Hati, AmiyaKumar; Roy, Somenath

2013-05-01

175

Boost in bioethanol production using recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae with mutated strictly NADPH-dependent xylose reductase and NADP(+)-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

The xylose-fermenting recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its improvement have been studied extensively. The redox balance between xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) is thought to be an important factor in effective xylose fermentation. Using protein engineering, we previously successfully reduced xylitol accumulation and improved ethanol production by reversing the dependency of XDH from NAD(+) to NADP(+). We also constructed a set of novel strictly NADPH-dependent XR from Pichia stipitis by site-directed mutagenesis. In the present study, we constructed a set of recombinant S. cerevisiae carrying a novel set of mutated strictly NADPH-dependent XR and NADP(+)-dependent XDH genes with overexpression of endogenous xylulokinase (XK) to study the effects of complete NADPH/NADP(+) recycling on ethanol fermentation and xylitol accumulation. All mutated strains demonstrated reduced xylitol accumulation, ranging 34.4-54.7% compared with the control strain. Moreover, compared with the control strain, the two strains showed 20% and 10% improvement in ethanol production. PMID:23578809

Khattab, Sadat Mohammad Rezq; Saimura, Masayuki; Kodaki, Tsutomu

2013-06-10

176

Directed Evolution and Structural Analysis of NADPH-Dependent Acetoacetyl Coenzyme A (Acetoacetyl-CoA) Reductase from Ralstonia eutropha Reveals Two Mutations Responsible for Enhanced Kinetics  

PubMed Central

NADPH-dependent acetoacetyl-coenzyme A (acetoacetyl-CoA) reductase (PhaB) is a key enzyme in the synthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)], along with ?-ketothiolase (PhaA) and polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase (PhaC). In this study, PhaB from Ralstonia eutropha was engineered by means of directed evolution consisting of an error-prone PCR-mediated mutagenesis and a P(3HB) accumulation-based in vivo screening system using Escherichia coli. From approximately 20,000 mutants, we obtained two mutant candidates bearing Gln47Leu (Q47L) and Thr173Ser (T173S) substitutions. The mutants exhibited kcat values that were 2.4-fold and 3.5-fold higher than that of the wild-type enzyme, respectively. In fact, the PhaB mutants did exhibit enhanced activity and P(3HB) accumulation when expressed in recombinant Corynebacterium glutamicum. Comparative three-dimensional structural analysis of wild-type PhaB and highly active PhaB mutants revealed that the beneficial mutations affected the flexibility around the active site, which in turn played an important role in substrate recognition. Furthermore, both the kinetic analysis and crystal structure data supported the conclusion that PhaB forms a ternary complex with NADPH and acetoacetyl-CoA. These results suggest that the mutations affected the interaction with substrates, resulting in the acquirement of enhanced activity.

Matsumoto, Ken'ichiro; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Motohashi, Ren; Ikeda, Koji; Tobitani, Kota; Yao, Min; Tanaka, Isao

2013-01-01

177

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism 677C>T is associated with peripheral arterial disease in type 2 diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Individuals with diabetes are twice as likely to develop peripheral arterial disease (PAD), the manifestation of extensive atherosclerosis throughout the lower extremities. One putative determinant of PAD is the 677C>T polymorphism in the gene encoding methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), which has previously been found to associate with various diabetic complications including retinopathy, nephropathy, atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. The objective

Rebecca L Pollex; Mary Mamakeesick; Bernard Zinman; Stewart B Harris; Anthony JG Hanley; Robert A Hegele

2005-01-01

178

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency in four siblings: a clinical, biochemical, and molecular study of the family.  

PubMed

A diagnosis of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency was made in four sibs at different ages. The first three, including a pair of twins, had retarded psychomotor development, poor social contact, and seizures. Biologically, hyperhomocysteinemia and hypomethioninemia were found associated with low folate levels in serum and red cells, especially undetectable methyltetrahydrofolate in red cells. In the fourth child, prenatal diagnosis was not conclusive because of moderate decrease of enzymatic activity in chorionic villi and trophoblast. The girl was also affected, as shown by hyperhomocysteinemia and low folate levels found several days after birth. A 677C-->T (Ala-->Val) mutation was found in a homozygous state in the four children and in the father. Additionally, a second homozygous mutation, 1081C-->T, changing an arginine to cysteine also was identified in all of the children, whereas the distantly consanguineous parents were heterozygous. This amino acid substitution affecting an arginine residue in a sequence located at the end of catalytic domain seems critical for the function of the enzyme. The difficulty of prenatal diagnosis is discussed given the variability found in enzymatic activity and in the clinical phenotypes. PMID:10767000

Tonetti, C; Burtscher, A; Bories, D; Tulliez, M; Zittoun, J

2000-04-24

179

Aberrant DNA methylation of the P16, MGMT, and hMLH1 genes in combination with the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T genetic polymorphism and folate intake in gastric cancer.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies have indicated that folate metabolism is correlated with increased risk of gastric cancer. Since methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is an important enzyme involved in folate metabolism, in this study, we examined whether polymorphisms and haplotypes of MTHFR are correlated with the risk of gastric cancer. The polymorphisms MTHFR C677T and MTHFR A1298C were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis in 285 patients and 570 healthy controls. Association analyses based on binary logistic regression were conducted to determine the odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (95%CI) for each genotype. The MTHFR 677TT genotype was significantly related with a reduced risk of gastric cancer (OR = 0.60, 95%CI = 0.39-0.92) compared to the CC genotype. Similarly, the MTHFR 1298CC genotype was significantly associated with a decreased risk of cancer (OR = 0.52, 95%CI = 0.32- 0.81). Haplotype analysis showed that the TC haplotype was associated with a reduced risk of gastric cancer compared to the most common haplotype, CA (OR = 0.28, 95%CI = 0.12-0.60). Our results suggest that the MTHFR C677T and MTHFR A1298C polymorphisms are related to gastric cancer susceptibility in the Chinese population. PMID:24737431

Lin, J; Zeng, R M; Li, R N; Cao, W H

2014-01-01

180

Identification of three new mutations in the NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase gene responsible for recessive congenital methemoglobinemia type II  

SciTech Connect

Recessive congenital methemoglobinemia (RCM; McKusick N{degrees}25800) due to NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase (cytb5r) deficiency leads to two different types of diseases: in type I form, cyanosis is the only symptom and the enzyme is only defective in red blood cells; in type II form, cyanosis is associated with severe mental retardation and neurological impairment and the enzyme defect is systemic. We have identified three new molecular defects in two unrelated patients with type II RCM. A homozygous C{r_arrow}T transition in codon 218 (Arg) was detected in the cDNA of one patient, resulting in a premature stop codon (TGA) in exon 8. Restriction enzyme analysis of genomic DNA confirmed the homozygosity of the propositus and heterozygosity for an identical defect in both parents. The second patient was found to be a compound heterozygote, carrying two different mutant alleles in the cyb5r gene. One allele presented a missense mutation (T{r_arrow}C) with substitution of Cys-203 (TGC) by Arg (CGC) in exon 7. The second allele showed a 3 bp deletion of nucleotides 815-817 of the cDNA. The CTG ATG sequence at position 814-819 in exon 9 coding for Leu-271 and Met-272 was replaced by the CTG triplet, with conservation of the Leu-271 and loss of the Met-272. To our knowledge, these are the first examples of a homozygous nonsense mutation and of a compound heterozygous mutation detected in the cytb5r gene. This finding supports the diversity of genetic defects in the cytb5r gene leading to the severe form of the disease.

Mota-Vieira, L.; Kaplan, J.C.; Kahn, A.; Leroux, A. [Universite Rene Descartes-Paris (France)

1994-09-01

181

MTHFR 677 (C?T) polymorphism is not relevant for prognosis or therapy-associated toxicity in pediatric NHL: results from 484 patients of multicenter trial NHL-BFM 95  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed the relationship of genetic variation within the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR 677 C?T) with clinical characteristics, outcome, and therapy-related toxicity in pediatric non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) in our\\u000a multicenter trial NHL-BFM 95. In this trial, high-dose methotrexate (MTX) infusion regimens were randomized (4- vs 24-h infusion)\\u000a in patients with B-cell lymphoma; MTX was applied as 24-h infusion in all

Kathrin Seidemann; Martin Zimmermann; Ulrike Meyer; Karl Welte; Martin Stanulla; Alfred Reiter

2006-01-01

182

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene haplotypes affect toxicity during maintenance therapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Japanese patients.  

PubMed

Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of daily 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) and low-dose weekly methotrexate (MTX) combination treatment and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) haplotypes on toxicity during maintenance therapy in Japanese childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We retrospectively analyzed the MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and influence of haplotypes on toxicity in 73 patients. Patients with the MTHFR 677TT and 677CT + 1298AC were associated with severe liver toxicity (p = 0.014, odds ratio [OR] = 3.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.27-11.46) and more rapid onset of liver toxicity (p = 0.010). Patients with MTHFR 677TT and 677CT + 1298AC were associated with lower frequency of 6-MP and MTX dose reduction due to leukopenia (p < 0.05). No difference was observed in average drug doses in the MTHFR genotypes. In conclusion, the MTHFR C677T and A1298C haplotypes might be useful for monitoring adverse effects in childhood ALL maintenance therapy in Japanese patients. PMID:23865834

Tanaka, Yoichi; Manabe, Atsushi; Nakadate, Hisaya; Kondoh, Kensuke; Nakamura, Kozue; Koh, Katsuyoshi; Kikuchi, Akira; Komiyama, Takako

2014-05-01

183

Deep venous thrombosis and thrombophilic mutations in western Iran: association with factor V Leiden.  

PubMed

The aim of present study was to investigate the prevalence of factor V Leiden (FVL) c.1691G>A, prothrombin g.20210G>A and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) c.677C>T in deep vein thrombosis (DVT) patients and their possible association with DVT in western Iran. Eighty DVT patients with the mean age of 42.07 +/- 13.0 years including 44 women and 36 men and 100 sex-matched healthy individuals with the mean age of 37.63 +/- 13.3 years from Kermanshah Province of Iran with ethnic background of Kurd were studied for FVL c.1691G>A, prothrombin g.20210G>A and MTHFR c.677C>T by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method using MnlI, HindIII and HinfI restriction enzymes, respectively. Prevalence of FVL was 11.4% in patients and 2% in control group. A significant association was found between FVL mutation and DVT with odds ratio (OR) of 6.3 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.32-30.05; P = 0.012]. The prevalence of prothrombin g.20210G>A variant in patients (3.8%) was nonsignificantly higher than control individuals (1.0%; OR 3.8; 95% CI = 0.39-37.81; P = 0.32). The prevalence of MTHFR c.677C>T in patients was 38.7% that was not statistically different from control group (44% P = 0.12). Venous thrombosis in legs was the most frequent clinical manifestation (n = 75), corresponding to 93.8% of the thromboembolism, followed by pulmonary thromboembolism (6.2%). We have, for the first time, determined the prevalence of inherited thrombophilia in a homogenous ethnic group of DVT patients and shown that FVL may be a risk factor for DVT in western Iran. PMID:20479641

Rahimi, Zohreh; Mozafari, Hadi; Shahriari-Ahmadi, Ali; Alimogaddam, Kamran; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir; Aznab, Mozafar; Mansouri, Kamran; Rezaei, Mansour; Parsian, Abbas

2010-07-01

184

HFE, MTHFR, and FGFR4 genes polymorphisms and breast cancer in Brazilian women.  

PubMed

Genetic factors related to cancer have been extensively studied and several polymorphisms have been associated to breast cancer. The FGFR4, MTHFR, and HFE genes have been associated with neoplastic diseases development. The current report outlines the analysis of the polymorphisms G388A (FGFR4), C677T (MTHFR), C282Y, and H63D (HFE) in Brazilian breast cancer patients. We studied 68 patients with invasive ductal and operable breast carcinoma and 85 women as a control group. The polymorphism frequencies in the breast cancer and control groups were analyzed, but no significant difference was observed by comparing the two groups. The presence of each polymorphism was analyzed according to the clinical features and markers already established as prognostic in the breast cancer group. The C677T, H63D, and G388A polymorphisms were not associated to histological grade, age of diagnosis, expression of HER2 receptor, or estrogen and progesterone receptor. The H63D polymorphism showed a significant association (P = 0.02) with the presence of p53 mutations, and C667T showed association to lymph node involvement (P = 0.05). Lymph node involvement, G388A polymorphism, and histological grade were independently associated to metastasis/death. Our data suggests that the polymorphisms G388A, C677T, and H63D are not useful in breast cancer diagnosis, but they may be significant additional prognostic markers related to breast cancer survival. PMID:21625954

Batschauer, Anna P; Cruz, Nathalia G; Oliveira, Vanessa C; Coelho, Fernanda F; Santos, Izabela R; Alves, Michelle T; Fernandes, Ana P; Carvalho, Maria G; Gomes, Karina B

2011-11-01

185

Mutational analysis of NADH-binding residues in triphenylmethane reductase from Citrobacter sp. strain KCTC 18061P.  

PubMed

Triphenylmethane reductase (TMR) catalyzes the NADH-dependent reduction of triphenylmethane dyes. Sequence alignment revealed a region with a conserved GXXGXXG motif near its N-terminus, which corresponds to a conserved structural motif of known dinucleotide-binding proteins. To verify whether some of these glycine residues are important for the enzyme catalysis, these three glycine residues (Gly-7, Gly-10 and Gly-13) were individually replaced by alanine using site-directed mutagenesis. The secondary structures of these mutants, as measured by circular dichroism spectroscopy, did not show remarkable differences as compared with the wild type. The V(max)/K(m) values of mutants G7A and G13A for both Basic fuchsin and NADH were increased about three and twofold over that of the wild type, respectively, whereas the V(max)/K(m) value of mutant G10A were decreased about sixfold. These results suggest that these three glycine residues are involved in the interaction with both substrate and cofactor for the catalytic activity of TMR. PMID:17419765

Jang, Moon-Sun; Kang, Nam-Young; Kim, Kyoung-Sook; Kim, Cheorl-Ho; Lee, Jai-Heon; Lee, Young-Choon

2007-06-01

186

New insights into the catalytic mechanism of vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKORC1) - The catalytic properties of the major mutations of rVKORC1 explain the biological cost associated to mutations?  

PubMed Central

The systematic use of antivitamin K anticoagulants (AVK) as rodenticides caused the selection of rats resistant to AVKs. The resistance is mainly associated to genetic polymorphisms in the Vkorc1 gene encoding the VKORC1 enzyme responsible for the reduction of vitamin K 2,3-epoxide to vitamin K. Five major mutations, which are responsible for AVK resistance, have been described. Possible explanations for the biological cost of these mutations have been suggested. This biological cost might be linked to an increase in the vitamin K requirements. To analyze the possible involvement of VKORC1 in this biological cost, rVKORC1 and its major mutants were expressed in Pichia pastoris as membrane-bound proteins and their catalytic properties were determined for vitamin K and 3-OH-vitamin K production. In this report, we showed that mutations at Leu-120 and Tyr-139 dramatically affect the vitamin K epoxide reductase activity. Moreover, this study allowed the detection of an additional production of 3-hydroxyvitamin K for all the mutants in position 139. This result suggests the involvement of Tyr-139 residue in the second half-step of the catalytic mechanism corresponding to the dehydration of vitamin K epoxide. As a consequence, the biological cost observed in Y139C and Y139S resistant rat strains is at least partially explained by the catalytic properties of the mutated VKORC1 involving a loss of vitamin K from the vitamin K cycle through the formation of 3-hydroxyvitamin K and a very low catalytic efficiency of the VKOR activity.

Matagrin, Benjamin; Hodroge, Ahmed; Montagut-Romans, Adrien; Andru, Julie; Fourel, Isabelle; Besse, Stephane; Benoit, Etienne; Lattard, Virginie

2013-01-01

187

Mutation of the Light-Induced Yellow Leaf 1 Gene, Which Encodes a Geranylgeranyl Reductase, Affects Chlorophyll Biosynthesis and Light Sensitivity in Rice  

PubMed Central

Chlorophylls (Chls) are crucial for capturing light energy for photosynthesis. Although several genes responsible for Chl biosynthesis were characterized in rice (Oryza sativa), the genetic properties of the hydrogenating enzyme involved in the final step of Chl synthesis remain unknown. In this study, we characterized a rice light-induced yellow leaf 1-1 (lyl1-1) mutant that is hypersensitive to high-light and defective in the Chl synthesis. Light-shading experiment suggested that the yellowing of lyl1-1 is light-induced. Map-based cloning of LYL1 revealed that it encodes a geranylgeranyl reductase. The mutation of LYL1 led to the majority of Chl molecules are conjugated with an unsaturated geranylgeraniol side chain. LYL1 is the firstly defined gene involved in the reduction step from Chl-geranylgeranylated (ChlGG) and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) to Chl-phytol (ChlPhy) and phytyl pyrophosphate (PPP) in rice. LYL1 can be induced by light and suppressed by darkness which is consistent with its potential biological functions. Additionally, the lyl1-1 mutant suffered from severe photooxidative damage and displayed a drastic reduction in the levels of ?-tocopherol and photosynthetic proteins. We concluded that LYL1 also plays an important role in response to high-light in rice.

Yuan, Yuan; Zhu, Jinyan; Wang, Man; Yuan, Fuhai; Wu, Shujun; Wang, Zhiqin; Yi, Chuandeng; Xu, Tinghua; Ryom, MyongChol; Gu, Minghong; Liang, Guohua

2013-01-01

188

Effect of substrate binding loop mutations on the structure, kinetics, and inhibition of enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase from Plasmodium falciparum.  

PubMed

Enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase (ENR), which catalyzes the final and rate limiting step of fatty acid elongation, has been validated as a potential drug target. Triclosan is known to be an effective inhibitor for this enzyme. We mutated the substrate binding site residue Ala372 of the ENR of Plasmodium falciparum (PfENR) to Methionine and Valine which increased the affinity of the enzyme towards triclosan to almost double, close to that of Escherichia coli ENR (EcENR) which has a Methionine at the structurally similar position of Ala372 of PfENR. Kinetic studies of the mutants of PfENR and the crystal structure analysis of the A372M mutant revealed that a more hydrophobic environment enhances the affinity of the enzyme for the inhibitor. A triclosan derivative showed a threefold increase in the affinity towards the mutants compared to the wild type, due to additional interactions with the A372M mutant as revealed by the crystal structure. The enzyme has a conserved salt bridge which stabilizes the substrate binding loop and appears to be important for the active conformation of the enzyme. We generated a second set of mutants to check this hypothesis. These mutants showed loss of function, except in one case, where the crystal structure showed that the substrate binding loop is stabilized by a water bridge network. PMID:21280175

Maity, Koustav; Banerjee, Tanushree; Prabakaran, Narayanappa; Surolia, Namita; Surolia, Avadhesha; Suguna, Kaza

2011-01-01

189

The binding sites on human heme oxygenase-1 for cytochrome p450 reductase and biliverdin reductase.  

PubMed

Human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) catalyzes the NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase-dependent oxidation of heme to biliverdin, CO, and free iron. The biliverdin is subsequently reduced to bilirubin by biliverdin reductase. Earlier kinetic studies suggested that biliverdin reductase facilitates the release of biliverdin from hHO-1 (Liu, Y., and Ortiz de Montellano, P. R. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 5297-5307). We have investigated the binding of P450 reductase and biliverdin reductase to truncated, soluble hHO-1 by fluorescence resonance energy transfer and site-specific mutagenesis. P450 reductase and biliverdin reductase bind to truncated hHO-1 with Kd = 0.4 +/- 0.1 and 0.2 +/- 0.1 microm, respectively. FRET experiments indicate that biliverdin reductase and P450 reductase compete for binding to truncated hHO-1. Mutation of surface ionic residues shows that hHO-1 residues Lys18, Lys22, Lys179, Arg183, Arg198, Glu19, Glu127, and Glu190 contribute to the binding of cytochrome P450 reductase. The mutagenesis results and a computational analysis of the protein surfaces partially define the binding site for P450 reductase. An overlapping binding site including Lys18, Lys22, Lys179, Arg183, and Arg185 is similarly defined for biliverdin reductase. These results confirm the binding of biliverdin reductase to hHO-1 and define binding sites of the two reductases. PMID:12626517

Wang, Jinling; de Montellano, Paul R Ortiz

2003-05-30

190

Mutation for nonsyndromic mental retardation in the trans-2-enoyl-CoA reductase TER gene involved in fatty acid elongation impairs the enzyme activity and stability, leading to change in sphingolipid profile.  

PubMed

Very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs, chain length >C20) exist in tissues throughout the body and are synthesized by repetition of the fatty acid (FA) elongation cycle composed of four successive enzymatic reactions. In mammals, the TER gene is the only gene encoding trans-2-enoyl-CoA reductase, which catalyzes the fourth reaction in the FA elongation cycle. The TER P182L mutation is the pathogenic mutation for nonsyndromic mental retardation. This mutation substitutes a leucine for a proline residue at amino acid 182 in the TER enzyme. Currently, the mechanism by which the TER P182L mutation causes nonsyndromic mental retardation is unknown. To understand the effect of this mutation on the TER enzyme and VLCFA synthesis, we have biochemically characterized the TER P182L mutant enzyme using yeast and mammalian cells transfected with the TER P182L mutant gene and analyzed the FA elongation cycle in the B-lymphoblastoid cell line with the homozygous TER P182L mutation (TER(P182L/P182L) B-lymphoblastoid cell line). We have found that TER P182L mutant enzyme exhibits reduced trans-2-enoyl-CoA reductase activity and protein stability, thereby impairing VLCFA synthesis and, in turn, altering the sphingolipid profile (i.e. decreased level of C24 sphingomyelin and C24 ceramide) in the TER(P182L/P182L) B-lymphoblastoid cell line. We have also found that in addition to the TER enzyme-catalyzed fourth reaction, the third reaction in the FA elongation cycle is affected by the TER P182L mutation. These findings provide new insight into the biochemical defects associated with this genetic mutation. PMID:24220030

Abe, Kensuke; Ohno, Yusuke; Sassa, Takayuki; Taguchi, Ryo; Çal??kan, Minal; Ober, Carole; Kihara, Akio

2013-12-20

191

Change in mutation patterns of Plasmodium vivax dihydrofolate reductase (Pvdhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (Pvdhps) in P. vivax isolates from malaria endemic areas of Thailand.  

PubMed

Malaria is the most important public health problem in several countries. In Thailand, co-infections of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum are common. We examined the prevalence and patterns of mutations in P. vivax dihydrofolate reductase (Pvdhfr) and P. vivax dihydropteroate synthase (Pvdhps) in 103 blood samples collected from patients with P. vivax infection who had attended the malaria clinic in Mae Sot, Tak Province during 2009 and 2010. Using nested polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorfism, we examined single nucleotide polymorphisms-haplotypes at amino acid positions 13, 33, 57, 58, 61, 117 and 173 of Pvdhfr and 383 and 553 of Pvdhps. All parasite isolates carried mutant Pvdhfr alleles, of which the most common alleles were triple mutants (99%). Eight different types of Pvdhfr and combination alleles were found, as follows: 57I/58R/117T, 57I/58R/117T, 57I/58R/117T/N, 57L/58R/117T, 57L/58R/117T, 58R/61M/117N, 58R/61M/117N and 13L/57L/58R/117T. The most common Pvdhfr alleles were 57I/58R/117T (77.7%), 57I/58R/117T/N (1%), 57L/58R/117T (5.8%) and 58R/61M/117N (14.5%). The most common Pvdhfr alleles were 57I/58R/117T (77.7%), 57I/58R/117T/N (1%), 57L/58R/117T (5.8%) and 58R/61M/117N (14.5%). Additionally, we recovered one isolate of a carrying a quadruple mutant allele, 13L/57L/58R/117T. The most prevalent Pvdhps allele was a single mutation in amino acid 383 (82.5%), followed by the wild-type A383/A553 (17.5%) allele. Results suggest that all P. vivax isolates in Thailand carry some combination of mutations in Pvdhfr and Pvdhps. Our findings demonstrate that development of new antifolate drugs effective against sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine-resistant P. vivax is required. PMID:21881767

Kuesap, Jiraporn; Rungsrihirunrat, Kanchana; Thongdee, Pimwan; Ruangweerayut, Ronnatrai; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

2011-08-01

192

Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G and the MTHFR 677C/T polymorphisms and susceptibility to polycystic ovary syndrome: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to explore whether the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) 4G/5G and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C/T polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Meta-analyses were conducted to determine the association between the PAI-1 4G/5G and MTHFR 677C/T polymorphisms and PCOS using: (1) allele contrast (2) homozygote contrast, (3) recessive, and (4) dominant models. For meta-analysis, nine studies of the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism with 2384 subjects (PCOS, 1615; controls, 769) and eight studies of the MTHFR 677C/T polymorphism with 1270 study subjects were included. Meta-analysis of all study subjects showed no association between PCOS and the PAI-1 4G allele (OR=0.949, 95% CI=0.671-1.343, p=0.767). Stratification by ethnicity, however, indicated a significant association between the PAI-1 4G allele and PCOS in Turkish and Asian populations (OR=0.776, 95% CI=0.602-0.999, p=0.049; OR=1.749, 95% CI=1.297-2.359, p=2.5×10(-5) respectively). In addition, meta-analysis indicated an association between PCOS and the PAI-1 4G4G+4G5G genotype in Europeans (OR=1.406, 95% CI=1.025-1.928, p=0.035). However, meta-analysis of all study subjects showed no association between PCOS and the MTHFR 677T allele (OR=0.998, 95% CI=0.762-1.307, p=0.989), including Europeans (OR=0.806, 95% CI=0.610-1.063, p=0.126). Meta-analysis showed no association between PCOS and the MTHFR 677C/T polymorphism using homozygote contrast, and recessive and dominant models. In conclusion, meta-analysis suggests the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to PCOS in European, Turkish, and Asian populations, but the MTHFR 677C/T polymorphism is not associated with susceptibility to PCOS in Europeans. PMID:24439532

Lee, Young Ho; Song, Gwan Gyu

2014-04-01

193

The association of gastric cancer risk with plasma folate, cobalamin, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown inconsistent associations of folate intake and polymorphisms of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene with gastric cancer risk. Our nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort is the first prospective study of blood folate levels and gastric cancer. Gastric cancer cases (n=247) and controls (n=631) were matched for study center, age,

S. E. Vollset; J. Igland; M. Jenab; A. Fredriksen; K. Meyer; S. Eussen; H. K. Gjessing; P. M. Ueland; G. Pera; N. Sala; A. Agudo; G. Capella; G. Del Giudice; D. Palli; H. Boeing; C. Weikert; H. B. Bueno-De-Mesquita; F. Carneiro; V. Pala; P. Vineis; R. Tumino; S. Panico; G. Berglund; J. Manjer; R. Stenling; G. Hallmans; C. Martinez; M. Dorronsoro; A. Barricarte; C. Navarro; J. R. Quiros; N. Allen; T. J. Key; S. Bingham; J. Linseisen; R. Kaaks; K. Overvad; A. Tjonneland; F. L. Buchner; P. H. M. Peeters; M. E. Numans; F. Clavel-Chapelon; M.-C. Boutron-Ruault; A. Trichopoulou; E. Lund; N. Slimani; P. Ferrari; E. Riboli; C. A. Gonzalez

2007-01-01

194

Significance of dietary folate intake, homocysteine levels and MTHFR 677 C>T genotyping in South African patients diagnosed with depression: test development for clinical application.  

PubMed

Low folate intake in the presence of the functional MTHFR 677 C > T (rs1801133) polymorphism is an important cause of elevated homocysteine levels previously implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD) and many other chronic diseases. In this study the clinical relevance and inter-relationship of these aspects were evaluated in 86 South African patients diagnosed with MDD and 97 population-matched controls participating in a chronic diseases screening program. A questionnaire-based clinical and nutrition assessment was performed, homocysteine levels determined, and all study participants genotyped for MTHFR 677 C > T (rs1801133) using allele-specific TaqMan technology. The folate score was found to be significantly lower in the patient group compared to controls (p?=?0.003) and correlated with increased body mass index (BMI), particularly in females with MDD (p?=?0.009). BMI was significantly higher in the MDD patients compared with controls after adjustment for age and sex (p?=?0.015), but this association was no longer significant after further adjustment for the level of folate intake in the diet. In MDD patients but not controls, the minor T-allele of MTHFR 677 C > T was associated with increased BMI (p?=?0.032), which in turn correlated significantly with increased homocysteine levels. The significant association between BMI and homocysteine levels was observed in both the MDD patient (p?=?0.049) and control (p?=?0.018) study groups. The significantly higher homocysteine levels observed in MDD patients compared to controls after adjustment for age and sex (p?=?0.030), therefore appears to be mediated by the effects of MTHFR 677 C > T and low folate intake on BMI. Detection of the low-penetrance MTHFR 677 C > T mutation reinforces the importance of folate intake above the recommended daily dose to prevent or restore dysfunction of the methylation pathway. PMID:24532086

Delport, Darnielle; Schoeman, Renata; van der Merwe, Nicole; van der Merwe, Lize; Fisher, Leslie R; Geiger, Dieter; Kotze, Maritha J

2014-06-01

195

Effect of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 intake and MTHFR C677T polymorphism on homocysteine concentrations of renal transplant recipients.  

PubMed

Plasma hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is considered a risk factor for chronic allograft dysfunction (CAD), the main cause of functional loss in transplant recipients. Genetic polymorphisms that alter enzymes involved in homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism, such as methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), and vitamin deficiency can result in HHcy. The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between HHcy and CAD development, and to evaluate the effect of intake of folate and vitamins B6 and B12 as well as MTHFR C677T polymorphism on Hcy concentrations. Ninety-eight renal transplant recipients including 48 showing CAD and 50 with normal renal function (NRF), were included in this cross-sectional study. Peripheral blood samples were collected for plasma Hcy quantification by liquid chromatography/sequential mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and for MTHFR polymorphism analysis using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Dietary intake was evaluated using a nutritional questionnaire. HHcy (P=.002) and higher mean concentrations of Hcy (P=.029) were associated with CAD. An association was observed between HHcy and 677T variant allele in the CAD group (P=.0005). There was no correlation between Hcy concentration and folate, vitamin B6 or vitamin B12 intake in the CAD group. However, a negative correlation was observed between Hcy concentration and folate intake (P=.043), and also between Hcy concentration and vitamin B6 intake (P=.030) in the NRF group. According to our study, HHcy is associated with CAD development. In patients with CAD, MTHFR polymorphism seems to have a greater effect on the Hcy concentration than the vitamin intake. Increased folate and vitamin B6 intakes seem to reduce Hcy concentrations among transplant recipients with NRF, and could contribute to reducing the risk of CAD development. PMID:18089344

Biselli, P M; Sanches de Alvarenga, M P; Abbud-Filho, M; Ferreira-Baptista, M A S; Galbiatti, A L S; Goto, M T Y; Cardoso, M A; Eberlin, M N; Haddad, R; Goloni-Bertollo, E M; Pavarino-Bertelli, E C

2007-12-01

196

Oxidative stress and platelet activation in subjects with moderate hyperhomocysteinaemia due to MTHFR 677 C?T polymorphism.  

PubMed

The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677 C?T polymorphism may be associated with elevated total homocysteine (tHcy) levels, an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It was the study objective to evaluate in vivo lipid peroxidation and platelet activation in carriers of the MTHFR 677 C?T polymorphism and in non-carriers, in relation to tHcy and folate levels. A cross-sectional comparison of urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin (PG)F(2?) and 11-dehydro-thromboxane (TX)B(2) (markers of in vivo lipid peroxidation and platelet activation, respectively) was performed in 100 carriers and 100 non-carriers of the polymorphism. A methionine-loading test and folic acid supplementation were performed to investigate the causal relationship of the observed associations. Urinary 8-iso-PGF(2?) and 11-dehydro-TXB(2) were higher in carriers with hyperhomocysteinaemia than in those without hyperhomocysteinaemia (p<0.0001). Hyperhomocysteinaemic carriers had lower folate levels (p=0.0006), higher urinary 8-iso-PGF(2?) (p<0.0001) and 11-dehydro-TXB(2) (p<0.0001) than hyperhomocysteinaemic non-carriers. On multiple regression analysis, high tHcy (p<0.0001), low folate (p<0.04) and MTHFR 677 C?T polymorphism (p<0.001) independently predicted high rates of 8-iso-PGF(2?) excretion. Methionine loading increased plasma tHcy (p=0.002), and both urinary prostanoid metabolites (p=0.002). Folic acid supplementation was associated with decreased urinary 8-iso-PGF(2?) and 11-dehydro-TXB2 excretion (p<0.0003) in the hyperhomocysteinaemic group, but not in the control group, with substantial inter-individual variability related to baseline tHcy level and the extent of its reduction. In conclusion, hyperhomocysteinaemia due to the MTHFR 677 C?T polymorphism is associated with enhanced in vivo lipid peroxidation and platelet activation that are reversible, at least in part, following folic acid supplementation. An integrated biomarker approach may help identifying appropriate candidates for effective folate supplementation. PMID:22782530

Dragani, Alfredo; Falco, Angela; Santilli, Francesca; Basili, Stefania; Rolandi, Giancarlo; Cerasa, Loredana; Lattanzio, Stefano; Ciabattoni, Giovanni; Patrono, Carlo; Davì, Giovanni

2012-09-01

197

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphisms association with the risk of diffuse large B cell lymphoma: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

To date, case-control studies on the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) have provided either controversial or inconclusive results. To clarify the effect of MTHFR on the risk of diffuse large B cell lymphoma, a meta-analysis of all case-control observational studies was performed. The fixed effects and random effects model showed that the C677T polymorphism was associated with a risk of DLBCL among East Asian populations, and A1298C polymorphism was not associated with a risk of DLBCL among Caucasian and East Asian populations. Our pooled data suggest evidence for a major role of MTHFR C677T polymorphism in the carcinogenesis of DLBCL among East Asian populations. PMID:23812728

Sun, Yun-Yu; An, Li; Xie, Yu-Lan; Xu, Jing-Yan; Wang, Jing

2013-12-01

198

Influence of the cystathionine ?-synthase 844ins68 and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677C>T polymorphisms on folate and homocysteine concentrations  

PubMed Central

A high homocysteine, low folate phenotype is a feature of many diseases. The effect of the cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS) 844ins68 polymorphism on homocysteine and folate concentrations was examined alone and in the context of the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T polymorphism in a Northwestern European male population. The MTHFR 677TT genotype is known to be associated with increased homocysteine and decreased folate relative to CT heterozygotes and CC homozygotes in this and other populations. MTHFR 677TT homozygotes who were also CBS 844ins68 carriers had homocysteine and folate concentrations similar to those of individuals with the MTHFR 677CT and CC genotypes. Homocysteine levels in MTHFR 677TT subjects carrying the CBS 844ins68 allele were 24.1% lower than in non-carriers (6.66 vs 8.77 ?mol/l, P=0.045), and serum folate levels were 27.7% higher (11.16 vs 8.74 nmol/l, P=0.034). These findings suggest that the CBS 844ins68 allele ‘normalizes’ homocysteine and folate levels in MTHFR 677TT individuals.

Summers, Carolyn M; Hammons, Andrea L; Mitchell, Laura E; Woodside, Jayne V; Yarnell, John WG; Young, Ian S; Evans, Alun; Whitehead, Alexander S

2014-01-01

199

Polymorphisms in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in a multi-ethnic population.  

PubMed

An imbalance in folate metabolism can adversely affect DNA synthesis and methylation systems which can lead to susceptibility to non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and their haplotypes in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) are associated with NHL, remain inconclusive. We investigated the association between MTHFR C677T and A1298C SNPs and NHL risk in a population which is made up of Malay, Chinese and Indian ethnic subgroups. A total of 372 NHL patients and 722 controls were genotyped using the Sequenom MassARRAY platform. Our results of the pooled subjects failed to demonstrate significant association between the MTHFR C677T and A1298C SNPs with NHL and its subtypes. The results were in agreement with the previous meta-analyses. In the Indian ethnic subgroup however, single locus analysis of MTHFR A1298C appears to confer risk to NHL (Odds ratio (OR) 1.91, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.22-3.00, P=0.006). The risk is almost doubled in homozygous carrier of MTHFR 1298CC (OR 4.03, 95% CI 1.56-10.43, P=0.004). Haplotype analysis revealed higher frequency of CC in the Indian NHL patients compared with controls (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.18-2.93, P=0.007). There is lack of evidence to suggest an association between MTHFR C677T and A1298C with the risk of NHL in the Malays and Chinese. In the Indians however, the MTHFR A1298C confers risk to NHL. This study suggests ethnicity modifies the relationship between polymorphisms in the folate-metabolizing gene and NHL. PMID:24646728

Suthandiram, Sujatha; Gan, Gin Gin; Zain, Shamsul Mohd; Haerian, Batoul Sadat; Bee, Ping Chong; Lian, Lay Hoong; Chang, Kian Meng; Ong, Tee Chuan; Mohamed, Zahurin

2014-05-01

200

Association between polymorphisms in genes encoding methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and the risk of Ménière's disease.  

PubMed

Folate metabolism is essential for cellular functioning. Despite extensive research on the roles of folate-metabolism-related gene polymorphisms in the pathophysiology of many diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, cancers, and sudden sensorineural hearing loss, little is known about their association with Ménière's disease (MD). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphisms (C677T and A1298C) on the risk of MD in a Japanese population. We examined the C677T and A1298C (rs1801133 and rs1801131) polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene and compared them between 1946 adults (986 men and 960 women) participating in the National Institute for Longevity Sciences Longitudinal Study of Aging and 86 cases of MD. A multiple logistic regression was performed to obtain odds ratios (ORs) for the risk of MD regarding the MTHFR polymorphisms before (model 1) and after (model 2) adjustment for age and sex factors. The OR of MTHFR C677T for the risk of MD was 0.669 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.479-0.934) in model 1 and 0.680 (95% CI, 0.484-0.954) in model 2. In contrast, the OR of MTHFR A1298C for the risk of MD was 1.503 (95% CI, 1.064-2.123) in model 1 and 1.505 (95% CI, 1.045-2.167) in model 2. Our results imply that the MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms are associated with the risk of MD. PMID:23484733

Huang, Yang; Teranishi, Masaaki; Uchida, Yasue; Nishio, Naoki; Kato, Ken; Otake, Hironao; Yoshida, Tadao; Sone, Michihiko; Sugiura, Saiko; Ando, Fujiko; Shimokata, Hiroshi; Nakashima, Tsutomu

2013-06-01

201

Laboratory informatics based evaluation of methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase C677T genetic test overutilization  

PubMed Central

Background: Laboratory data can provide a wide range of information to estimate adherence to guidelines and proper utilization of genetic testing. The methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T variant has been demonstrated to have negligible utility in patient management. However, the testing of this variant remains pervasive. The purpose of this study was to develop methods to analyze concordance of clinician ordering practices with national guidelines. Methods: We used laboratory data to extract specific data elements including patient demographics, timestamps, physician ordering logs and temporal relationship to chemistry requests to examine 245 consecutive MTHFR tests ordered in 2011 at an academic tertiary center. A comprehensive chart review was used to identify indications for testing. These results were correlated with a retrospective analysis of 4,226 tests drawn at a range of hospitals requesting testing from a national reference laboratory over a 2-year period. MTHFR ordering practices drawn from 17 institutions were examined longitudinally from 2002 to 2011. Results: Indications for testing included cerebrovascular events (40.0%) and venous thrombosis (39.1%). Family history prompted testing in eight cases. Based on acceptable hypercoagulability guidelines recommending MTHFR C677T testing only in the presence of elevated serum homocysteine, 10.6% (22/207) of adult patients met an indicated threshold at an academic tertiary center. Among 77 institutions, 14.5% (613/4226) of MTHFR testing met recommendations. Conclusion: We demonstrate an effective method to examine discreet elements of a molecular diagnostics laboratory information system at a tertiary care institution and to correlate these findings at a national level. Retrospective examination of clinicians’ request of MTHFR C677T genetic testing strongly suggests that clinicians have failed to adjust their ordering practices in light of evolving scientific and professional organization recommendations.

Cohen, David A.; Shirts, Brian H.; Jackson, Brian R.; Parker, Lisa S.

2013-01-01

202

Copper-containing nitrite reductase from Pseudomonas aureofaciens is functional in a mutationally cytochrome cd 1 -free background (NirS ? ) of Pseudomonas stutzeri  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structural gene, nirK, for the respiratory Cu-containing nitrite reductase from denitrifying Pseudomonas aureofaciens was isolated and sequenced. It encodes a polypeptide of 363 amino acids including a signal peptide of 24 amino acids for protein export. The sequence showed 63.8% positional identity with the amino acid sequence of “Achromobacter cycloclastes” nitrite reductase. Ligands for the blue, type I Cu-binding

Andrea B. Glockner; Angelika Jiingst; Walter G. Zumft

1993-01-01

203

Prediction of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine in vivo by mutations in the dihydrofolate reductase and dihydropteroate synthetase genes: a comparative study between sites of differing endemicity.  

PubMed

Plasmodium falciparum resistance to sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (S/P) is due to mutations in the dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthetase (dhfr) genes. Large-scale screening of the prevalence of these mutations could facilitate the surveillance of the level of S/P resistance in vivo. The prevalence of mutations in dhfr and dhps in relation to S/P efficacy was studied in four sites of differing endemicity in Sudan, Mozambique, and Tanzania. The sites were organized in order of increasing resistance and a significant increase in the prevalence of triple mutations in codons c51, c59, and c108 of dhfr was observed. A similar trend was observed when dhfr genotypes were combined with c437 of dhps. Since the differences in S/P resistance between the sites were minor, but nevertheless revealed major differences in dhfr genotype prevalence, the role of dhfr as a general molecular marker seems debatable. The differences may reflect variation in the duration and magnitude of S/P usage (or other antifolate drugs) between the sites. Thus, triple dhfr mutations may prove suitable only as a general guideline for detecting emerging S/P resistance in areas where S/P has been introduced recently. However, changes in susceptibility within the same area with moderate levels of resistance may be possible by longitudinal surveillance of a subset of dhfr/dhps mutations that has been associated with S/P resistance in vivo in a defined location. PMID:14740875

Alifrangis, Michael; Enosse, Sonja; Khalil, Insaf F; Tarimo, Donath S; Lemnge, Martha M; Thompson, Richardo; Bygbjerg, Ib C; Rønn, Anita M

2003-12-01

204

MTHFR genetic polymorphisms may contribute to the risk of chronic myelogenous leukemia in adults: a meta-analysis of 12 genetic association studies.  

PubMed

Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a complex disease with a genetic basis. The genetic association studies (GASs) that have investigated the association between adult CML and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C polymorphisms have produced contradictory and inconclusive results. The aim of this meta-analysis is to provide a relatively comprehensive assessment of the association of these polymorphisms with adult CML risk. A literature search for eligible GAS published before September 15, 2013 was conducted in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were used to evaluate the strength of the association under a fixed or random effect model according to heterogeneity test results. All analyses were performed using the Stata software, version 12.0. Twelve case-control studies were included in this meta-analysis with a total of 932 CML patients and 3,465 healthy controls. For MTHFR C677T (dbSNP: rs1801133, C>T), though the pooled ORs were not significant in the overall population, all the ORs greater than 1 suggested an increased risk of CML for carriers of the risk allele. However, stratified analysis based on genotyping method revealed a significant association in the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) subgroup, possibly as a result of heterogeneity. For MTHFR A1298C (dbSNP: rs1801131, A>C), the combined results showed that carriers of the C allele may be associated with a decreased risk of adult CML. Stratified analysis showed that the magnitude of this effect was especially significant among Asians, indicating ethnicity differences in adult CML susceptibility. This meta-analysis shows that the C allele of MTHFR A1298C may be associated with a decreased risk in adult CML, especially among Asians, while MTHFR C677T may not be associated with adult CML risk. However, the development of adult CML may be the result of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions, which should be considered in future individual GAS and subsequent meta-analyses. PMID:24379141

Li, Bin; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Lei; Li, Yan; Jin, Juping; Ai, Limei; Li, Chong; Li, Zhe; Mao, Shudan

2014-05-01

205

Cardiovascular Events Are Not Associated with MTHFR Polymorphisms, But Are Associated with Methotrexate Use and Traditional Risk Factors in US Veterans with Rheumatoid Arthritis  

PubMed Central

Objective C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in the enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) have been associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) events in non-rheumatoid arthritis (RA) populations. We investigated potential associations of MTHFR polymorphisms and use of methotrexate (MTX) with time-to-CV event in data from the Veterans Affairs Rheumatoid Arthritis (VARA) registry. Methods VARA participants were genotyped for MTHFR polymorphisms. Variables included demographic information, baseline comorbidities, RA duration, autoantibody status, and disease activity. Patients’ comorbidities and outcome variables were defined using International Classification of Diseases-9 and Current Procedural Terminology codes. The combined CV event outcome included myocardial infarction (MI), percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary artery bypass graft surgery, and stroke. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to model the time-to-CV event. Results Data were available for 1047 subjects. Post-enrollment CV events occurred in 97 patients (9.26%). Although there was a trend toward reduced risk of CV events, MTHFR polymorphisms were not significantly associated with time-to-CV event. Time-to-CV event was associated with prior stroke (HR 2.01, 95% CI 1.03–3.90), prior MI (HR 1.70, 95% CI 1.06–2.71), hyperlipidemia (HR 1.57, 95% CI 1.01–2.43), and increased modified Charlson-Deyo index (HR 1.23, 95% CI 1.13–1.34). MTX use (HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.44–0.99) and increasing education (HR 0.87, 95% CI 0.80–0.95) were associated with a lower risk for CV events. Conclusion Although MTHFR polymorphisms were previously associated with CV events in non-RA populations, we found only a trend toward decreased association with CV events in RA. Traditional risk factors conferred substantial CV risk, while MTX use and increasing years of education were protective. (First Release April 1 2013; J Rheumatol 2013;40:809–17; doi:10.3899/ jrheum.121012)

Davis, Lisa A.; Cannon, Grant W.; Pointer, Lauren F.; Haverhals, Leah M.; Wolff, Roger K.; Mikuls, Ted R.; Reimold, Andreas M.; Kerr, Gail S.; Richards, J. Steuart; Johnson, Dannette S.; Valuck, Robert; Prochazka, Allan; Caplan, Liron

2014-01-01

206

Hyperhomocysteinemia and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism in cerebral veno-sinus thrombosis.  

PubMed

There is limited data on the role of hyperhomocysteinemia as a risk factor for cerebral veno-sinus thrombosis (CVT) in Indians. We examined the association between plasma homocysteine (Hcy), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism, and CVT in 185 patients with aseptic CVT (puerperal 80 and nonpuerperal 105) and 248 healthy controls (puerperal 67 and nonpuerperal 181). Fasting Hcy was higher in patients compared to controls (20.25 ± 5.97 vs 9.81 ± 5.19 ?mol/L, P < .001) and associated with 4.54-fold (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.74-7.53) increase in risk of CVT. Risk was higher in puerperal (odds ratio [OR]: 8.7, 95% CI: 2.73-26.91) compared to nonpuerperal CVT (OR: 3.82, 95% CI: 2.09-6.96). Plasma Hcy was higher in MTHFR 677TT compared to 677CT and 677CC genotypes (34.44 ± 32.8 vs 25.81 ± 33.3 vs 18.50 ± 23.7 ?mol/L, respectively, P < .001), but the risk associated with MTHFR 677TT was insignificant (OR: 1.91, 95% CI: 0.53-7.06). We conclude that hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk marker for Indian patients with aseptic CVT. MTHFR 677TT genotype is not linked with CVT but is a determinant of plasma Hcy. PMID:23172871

Bharatkumar, Venkata Pinnelli; Nagaraja, Dindagur; Christopher, Rita

2014-01-01

207

Geographical Distribution of MTHFR C677T, A1298C and MTRR A66G Gene Polymorphisms in China: Findings from 15357 Adults of Han Nationality  

PubMed Central

Background Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T, A1298C and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G polymorphisms are important genetic determinants for homocysteine (Hcy) levels, and are associated with several disorders. These polymorphisms are heterogeneously distributed worldwide. Our objective was to explore the geographical distributions of these polymorphisms in China. Methodologies 15357 healthy adults were recruited from 10 regions. Buccal samples were collected and genomic DNA was isolated. Genotyping was performed using the fluorogenic 5?-nuclease assay. Principal Findings The prevalence of the three polymorphisms among different populations from China varied significantly and showed apparent geographical gradients. For MTHFR C677T, the frequencies of the 677T allele and the 677TT genotype were significantly higher among northern populations and ranged from the lowest values (24.0% and 6.4%, respectively) in Hainan (southern) to the highest values (63.1% and 40.8%, respectively) in Shandong (northern). For MTHFR A1298C, the 1298C allele and the 1298CC genotype frequencies were significantly higher among southern populations and increased from low values (13.1% and 1.4%, respectively) in Shandong to high values (25.7% and 6.7%, respectively) in Hainan. For A66G, the 66G allele and the 66GG genotype frequencies increased from lower values (23.7% and 5.4%, respectively) in Shandong to higher values (29.2% and 8.6%, respectively) in Hainan. The overall frequency of the 677T allele, 677TT genotype, 1298C allele, 1298CC genotype, 66G allele and 66GG genotype in the Chinese Han population was 45.2%, 23.2%, 18.6%, 3.9%, 25.7%, and 6.6%, respectively. No gender differences were found in the prevalence of both the MTHFR C677T and MTRR A66G polymorphisms. Conclusions This study indicates that there are marked geographical variations in the prevalence of the three polymorphisms among Chinese Han populations. Our baseline data may be useful for future researches in related fields.

Yang, Boyi; Liu, Yuyan; Li, Yongfang; Fan, Shujun; Zhi, Xueyuan; Lu, Xiangxiang; Wang, Da; Zheng, Quanmei; Wang, Yinuo; Wang, Yanxun; Sun, Guifan

2013-01-01

208

Kenyan Plasmodium falciparum Field Isolates: Correlation between Pyrimethamine and Chlorcycloguanil Activity In Vitro and Point Mutations in the Dihydrofolate Reductase Domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixty-nine Kenyan Plasmodium falciparum field isolates were tested in vitro against pyrimethamine (PM), chlorcycloguanil (CCG), sulfadoxine (SD), and dapsone (DDS), and their dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) genotypes were determined. The in vitro data show that CCG is more potent than PM and that DDS is more potent than SD. DHFR genotype is correlated with PM and CCG drug response. Isolates can

A. NZILA-MOUNDA; E. K. MBERU; C. H. SIBLEY; C. V. PLOWE; P. A. WINSTANLEY; W. M. WATKINS

1998-01-01

209

Association of MTHFR C677T polymorphism and risk of cerebrovascular disease in Chinese population: an updated meta-analysis.  

PubMed

A variety of epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene C677T polymorphism and cerebrovascular disease, but the results were inconsistent. The present meta-analysis was therefore performed to investigate the relationship between C677T polymorphism and cerebrovascular disease in Chinese population. Systematically searching for related studies from PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, CBMdisc and CNKI databases up to 20 September 2013 and manual searching of the reference lists of identified articles was performed. Information was extracted to calculate for the additive, dominant, and recessive models using the pooled odds ratios (ORs) along with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs), using Review Manager 5.0, STATA 11.0 and SPSS 17. Logistic regression, fixed or random effects model, subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, meta-regression analysis and publication bias were conducted to improve the comprehensive analysis. A total of 68 case-control studies containing 7,990 cases and 6,941 controls were included in the final meta-analysis. Evidence of significant association between C677T polymorphism and risk of cerebrovascular disease was found in all three genetic models (additive model OR 1.472, 95 % CI 1.368-1.585, P L < 0.001 (CT vs. CC); OR 1.819, 95 % CI 1.666-1.985, P L < 0.001 (TT vs. CC); dominant model OR 1.77, 95 % CI 1.57-1.98, p < 0.00001; and recessive model OR 1.54, 95 % CI 1.39-1.71, p < 0.00001, respectively) based on the overall population. In addition, the results were verified by the subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis. The present meta-analysis suggests that MTHFR gene C677T polymorphism is significantly associated with increased risk of cerebrovascular disease. TT genotype may act as an independent risk factor for cerebrovascular disease in Chinese population. PMID:24603976

Zhang, Ming-Jie; Li, Jing-Cheng; Yin, Yan-Wei; Li, Bing-Hu; Liu, Yun; Liao, Shao-Qiong; Gao, Chang-Yue; Zhang, Li-Li

2014-05-01

210

Homocysteine and Coronary Heart Disease: Meta-analysis of MTHFR Case-Control Studies, Avoiding Publication Bias  

PubMed Central

Background Moderately elevated blood levels of homocysteine are weakly correlated with coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, but causality remains uncertain. When folate levels are low, the TT genotype of the common C677T polymorphism (rs1801133) of the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) appreciably increases homocysteine levels, so “Mendelian randomization” studies using this variant as an instrumental variable could help test causality. Methods and Findings Nineteen unpublished datasets were obtained (total 48,175 CHD cases and 67,961 controls) in which multiple genetic variants had been measured, including MTHFR C677T. These datasets did not include measurements of blood homocysteine, but homocysteine levels would be expected to be about 20% higher with TT than with CC genotype in the populations studied. In meta-analyses of these unpublished datasets, the case-control CHD odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI comparing TT versus CC homozygotes was 1.02 (0.98–1.07; p?=?0.28) overall, and 1.01 (0.95–1.07) in unsupplemented low-folate populations. By contrast, in a slightly updated meta-analysis of the 86 published studies (28,617 CHD cases and 41,857 controls), the OR was 1.15 (1.09–1.21), significantly discrepant (p?=?0.001) with the OR in the unpublished datasets. Within the meta-analysis of published studies, the OR was 1.12 (1.04–1.21) in the 14 larger studies (those with variance of log OR<0.05; total 13,119 cases) and 1.18 (1.09–1.28) in the 72 smaller ones (total 15,498 cases). Conclusions The CI for the overall result from large unpublished datasets shows lifelong moderate homocysteine elevation has little or no effect on CHD. The discrepant overall result from previously published studies reflects publication bias or methodological problems. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

Verhoef, Petra; Dotsch-Klerk, Mariska; Lathrop, Mark; Xu, Peng; Nordestgaard, B?rge G.; Holm, Hilma; Hopewell, Jemma C.; Saleheen, Danish; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Anand, Sonia S.; Chambers, John C.; Kleber, Marcus E.; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Yamada, Yoshiji; Elbers, Clara; Peters, Bas; Stewart, Alexandre F. R.; Reilly, Muredach M.; Thorand, Barbara; Yusuf, Salim; Engert, James C.; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Kooner, Jaspal; Danesh, John; Watkins, Hugh; Samani, Nilesh J.

2012-01-01

211

Thioredoxin reductase.  

PubMed Central

The mammalian thioredoxin reductases (TrxRs) are a family of selenium-containing pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductases with mechanistic and sequence identity, including a conserved -Cys-Val-Asn-Val-Gly-Cys- redox catalytic site, to glutathione reductases. TrxRs catalyse the NADPH-dependent reduction of the redox protein thioredoxin (Trx), as well as of other endogenous and exogenous compounds. The broad substrate specificity of mammalian TrxRs is due to a second redox-active site, a C-terminal -Cys-SeCys- (where SeCys is selenocysteine), that is not found in glutathione reductase or Escherichia coli TrxR. There are currently two confirmed forms of mammalian TrxRs, TrxR1 and TrxR2, and it is possible that other forms will be identified. The availability of Se is a key factor determining TrxR activity both in cell culture and in vivo, and the mechanism(s) for the incorporation of Se into TrxRs, as well as the regulation of TrxR activity, have only recently begun to be investigated. The importance of Trx to many aspects of cell function make it likely that TrxRs also play a role in protection against oxidant injury, cell growth and transformation, and the recycling of ascorbate from its oxidized form. Since TrxRs are able to reduce a number of substrates other than Trx, it is likely that additional biological effects will be discovered for TrxR. Furthermore, inhibiting TrxR with drugs may lead to new treatments for human diseases such as cancer, AIDS and autoimmune diseases.

Mustacich, D; Powis, G

2000-01-01

212

Association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and cystathionine ?-synthase polymorphisms in cardiovascular disease in the algerian population.  

PubMed

Aim: Polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS) genes, involved in the intracellular metabolism of homcysteine, can result in hyperhomocysteinemia. The objective of this study was to evaluate prevalence estimates of MTHFR C677T and the CBS insertion of 68-bp (844ins68) polymorphisms among individuals with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods: In total, 131 patients (61 men and 70 women) were hospitalized in the Cardiology Department in CHU of Sétif, Algeria. The control group included 147 apparently healthy adults (82 women and 65 men). The genetic analysis of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism was performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction on a Light Cycler; the CBS genotype was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction in a thermal cycler. Results: The frequency of the TT genotype was 16.1% in the patient group and 14.3% in the control group. The CT genotype constituted 43.5% and 40.1% in the patient group and the control group, respectively. There was no significant difference in the occurrence of the TT genotype between the studied groups. The frequency of C677T/MTHFR in male and female patients was 16.4% and 15.7% for the TT genotype, respectively. There was no significant difference in T allele frequencies between sexes. However, the frequency of C677T homozygotes in the patients was higher in men with CVD than that in corresponding control subjects (40.2% vs. 29.2%), but the difference was not statistically significant. The coexistence of the MTHFR 677TT genotype and the common CBS 844ins68 variant was lower among patients. Conclusions: The MTHFR C677T and CBS 844ins68 variants tested in this study, individually or combined, are not associated with CVD in the Algerian population. PMID:20939734

Houcher, Bakhouche; Houcher, Zahira; Touabti, Abderrezak; Begag, Samia; Torun, Didem; E?in, Yonca; Akar, Nejat; Kadour, Fatima

2010-12-01

213

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism in patients with gastric and colorectal cancer in a Korean population  

PubMed Central

Background This study was designed to investigate an association between the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism and the risk of gastric and colorectal cancer in the Korean population. Methods We conducted a population-based large-scale case-control study involving 2,213 patients with newly diagnosed gastric cancer, 1,829 patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer, and 1,700 healthy controls. Genotyping was performed with peripheral blood DNA for MTHFR C677T polymorphisms. The statistical significance was estimated by logistic regression analysis. Results The MTHFR C677T frequencies of CC, CT, and TT genotypes were 35.2%, 47.5%, and 17.3% among stomach cancer, 34%, 50.5%, and 15.5% in colorectal cancer, and 31.8%, 50.7%, and 17.5% in the controls, respectively. The MTHFR 677TT genotype showed a weak opposite association with colorectal cancer compared to the homozygous CC genotype [adjusted age and sex odds ratio (OR) = 0.792, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.638-0.984, P = 0.035]. Subjects with the MTHFR 677CT showed a significantly reduced risk of gastric cancer compared whose with the 677CC genotype (age- and sex-adjusted OR = 0.810; 95% CI = 0.696-0.942, P = 0.006). We also observed no significant interactions between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and smoking or drinking in the risk of gastric and colorectal cancer. Conclusions The T allele was found to provide a weak protective association with gastric cancer and colorectal cancer.

2010-01-01

214

MOLECULAR EPIDEMIOLOGY OF MALARIA IN CAMEROON. XI. GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM ISOLATES WITH DIHYDROFOLATE REDUCTASE GENE MUTATIONS IN SOUTHERN AND CENTRAL CAMEROON  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DNA sequence of the dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) gene, a molecular marker for pyrimethamine resistance, was determined for 178 field isolates of Plasmodium falciparum collected along the east-west axis in southern Cameroon. The proportion of isolates having the wild-type dhfr allele varied from 48.1% in the east (city of Bertoua) to 11.3-15.7% in central provinces (Yaounde and Eseka) and 0%

LEONARDO K. BASCO; MATHIEU NDOUNGA; MATHURIN TEJIOKEM; VINCENT FOUMANE NGANE; JEAN-CHRISTIAN YOUMBA; PASCAL RINGWALD; GEORGES SOULA

215

Mendelian Randomization Analysis of the Effect of Maternal Homocysteine During Pregnancy, as Represented by Maternal MTHFR C677T Genotype, on Birth Weight  

PubMed Central

Background We used Mendelian randomization analysis to investigate the causal relationship between maternal homocysteine level, as represented by maternal methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T genotype, with the birth weight of offspring. Methods We recruited women at 24 to 28 weeks’ gestation who visited Ewha Womans University Hospital for prenatal care during the period from August 2001 to December 2003. A total of 473 newborns with a gestational age of at least 37 weeks were analyzed in this study. We excluded twin births and children of women with a history of gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, or chronic renal disease. The association of maternal homocysteine concentration with the birth weight of infants was analyzed using 2-stage regression. Results MTHFR C677T genotype showed a dose–response association with homocysteine concentration for each additional T allele (Ptrend < 0.01). Birth weight decreased from 120 to 130 grams as maternal homocysteine level increased, while controlling for confounding factors; however, the association was of marginal significance (P = 0.06). Conclusions Our results suggest an adverse relationship between maternal homocysteine level and birth weight. A reduction in homocysteine levels might positively affect birth outcomes.

Lee, Hye Ah; Park, Eun Ae; Cho, Su Jin; Kim, Hae Soon; Kim, Young Ju; Lee, Hwayoung; Gwak, Hye Sun; Kim, Ki Nam; Chang, Namsoo; Ha, Eun Hee; Park, Hyesook

2013-01-01

216

46,XY disorder of sexual development resulting from a novel monoallelic mutation (p.Ser31Phe) in the steroid 5?-reductase type-2 (SRD5A2) gene  

PubMed Central

Inactivating mutations of the 5?-steroid reductase type-2 (SRD5A2) gene result in a broad spectrum of masculinization defects, ranging from a male phenotype with hypospadias to a female phenotype with Wolffian structures. Molecular studies of the SRD5A2 revealed a new heterozygous gene variant within the coding region that results in phenotypic expression. A c.92C>T transition changing serine to phenylalanine at codon 31 of exon 1 (p.Ser31Phe) was identified in a patient with 46,XY disorder of sexual development who displayed glandular hypospadias with micropenis and bilateral cryptorchidism. The restoration of the p.Ser31Phe mutation by site-directed mutagenesis and transient expression assays using cultured HEK-293 cells showed that this novel substitution does not abolish but does deregulate the catalytic efficiency of the enzyme. Thus, the maximum velocity (Vmax) value was higher for the mutant enzyme (22.5 ± 6.9 nmol DHT mg protein?1 h?1) than for the wild-type enzyme (9.8 ± 2.0 nmol DHT mg protein?1 h?1). Increased in vitro activity of the p.Ser31Phe mutant suggested an activating effect. This case provides evidence that heterozygous missense mutations in SRD5A2 may induce the abnormal development of male external genitalia.

Chavez, Bertha; Ramos, Luis; Gomez, Rita; Vilchis, Felipe

2014-01-01

217

Normal Weight Obese syndrome: role of single nucleotide polymorphism of IL-1 5Ralpha and MTHFR 677C-->T genes in the relationship between body composition and resting metabolic rate.  

PubMed

We have identified a subset of metabolically obese, but normal weight individuals, with potentially increased risks of developing the metabolic syndrome, despite their normal body mass index. We determined the relationship among body fat distribution, resting metabolic rate (RMR), total body water amount (%TBW), selected gene polymorphism on interleukin-15 receptor-alpha (IL-15Ralpha) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677C-->T (MTHFR 677C-->T), to distinguish normal weight obese (NWO) from nonobese with a normal metabolic profile and obese individuals. We analysed anthropometric variables, body composition by Dual energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA), RMR by indirect calorimetry, %TBW by bioimpedence analysis (BIA), MTHFR 677C-->T and IL-15Ralpha genotypes of 128 clinically healthy Caucasian individuals. We compared a group of female, defined as NWO and characterised by a BMI < or = 25 kg/m(2) and FM > or = 30% with groups of others female, and males, represented by nonobese with a BMI < or = 25 kg/m(2) and FM < or = 30%, and preobese-obese individuals with BMI > or = 25 kg/m(2) and %FM > or = 30%; none of the males was classified as NWO. Significant correlations were found among body fat mass distribution, metabolic variables, percentage of total body water distribution and selected genetic variations. The variables that contributed significantly to the separation of classes were body tissue (Tissue), %TBW, RMR, the volumes of both oxygen (VO2) and carbon dioxide (VCO2). The distribution of MTHFR 677C-->T and IL-15 genotypes was significantly different between classes. Our data highlight that NWO individuals showed a significant relationship between the decrease in the basal metabolism (RMR), body fat mass increasing and total water amount. Possession of wild type homozygotes genotypes regarding IL-15Ralpha cytokine and 677C-->T MTHFR enzyme characterised NWO individuals. PMID:17121316

Di Renzo, L; Bigioni, M; Bottini, F G; Del Gobbo, V; Premrov, M G; Cianci, R; De Lorenzo, A

2006-01-01

218

Association of 677 C>T (rs1801133) and 1298 A>C (rs1801131) Polymorphisms in the MTHFR Gene and Breast Cancer Susceptibility: A Meta-Analysis Based on 57 Individual Studies  

PubMed Central

Objective The 677 C>T and 1298 A>C polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene have been widely reported and considered to have a significant effect on breast cancer risk, but the results are inconsistent. A meta-analysis based on 57 eligible studies was carried out to clarify the role of MTHFR gene polymorphisms in breast cancer. Methods and Results Eligible articles were identified by searching databases including PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, CNKI and CBM for the period up to August 2012. Finally, a total of 57 studies were included in this meta-analysis. Crude ORs with 95% CIs were used to assess the association between the MTHFR polymorphisms and breast cancer risk. The pooled ORs were performed with additive model, dominant model and recessive model, respectively. Subgroup analysis was also performed by ethnicity. The statistical heterogeneity across studies was examined with ?2-based Q-test. A meta-analysis was performed using the Stata 12.0 software. Overall, the 677 C allele was significantly associated with breast cancer risk (OR?=?0.942, 95%CI?=?0.898 to 0.988) when compared with the 677 T allele in the additive model, and the same results were also revealed under other genetic models. Simultaneously, the 1298 A allele was not associated with the breast cancer susceptibility when compared with the 1298 C allele (OR?=?0.993, 95%CI?=?0.978 to 1.009). Furthermore, analyses under the dominant, recessive and the allele contrast model yielded similar results. Conclusions The results of this meta-analysis suggest that 677 C>T polymorphism in the MTHFR gene may contribute to breast cancer development. However, the 1298 A>C polymorphism is not significantly associated with increased risks of breast cancer.

Li, Kai; Li, Wusheng; Dong, Xi

2014-01-01

219

Correlations of MTHFR 677C>T Polymorphism with Cardiovascular Disease in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective This meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the correlations of a common polymorphism (677C>T) in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Method The following electronic databases were searched without language restrictions: Web of Science (1945?2013), the Cochrane Library Database (Issue 12, 2013), MEDLINE (1966?2013), EMBASE (1980?2013), CINAHL (1982?2013) and the Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM) (1982?2013). Meta-analysis was performed using STATA statistical software. Odds ratios (ORs) with their 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were calculated. Results Eight cohort studies met all inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. A total of 2,292 ESRD patients with CVD were involved in this meta-analysis. Our meta-analysis results revealed that the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism might increase the risk of CVD in ESRD patients (TT vs. CC: OR?=?2.75, 95%CI?=?1.35?5.59, P?=?0.005; CT+TT vs. CC: OR?=?1.39, 95%CI?=?1.09?1.78, P?=?0.008; TT vs. CC+CT: OR?=?2.52, 95%CI?=?1.25?5.09, P?=?0.010; respectively). Further subgroup analysis by ethnicity suggested that the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism was associated with an elevated risk for CVD in ESRD patients among Asians (TT vs. CC: OR?=?3.38, 95%CI?=?1.11?10.28, P?=?0.032; CT+TT vs. CC: OR?=?1.44, 95%CI?=?1.05?1.97, P?=?0.022; TT vs. CC+CT: OR?=?3.15, 95%CI?=?1.02?9.72, P?=?0.046; respectively), but not among Africans or Caucasians (all P>0.05). Conclusion Our findings indicate that the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism may be associated with an elevated risk for CVD in ESRD patients, especially among Asians.

Gao, Xian-Hui; Zhang, Guo-Yi; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Hui-Ying

2014-01-01

220

Association of MTRRA66G polymorphism (but not of MTHFR C677T and A1298C, MTRA2756G, TCN C776G) with homocysteine and coronary artery disease in the French population.  

PubMed

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism (MTHFR C677T) is an established determinant of homocysteine plasma level (t-Hcys) while its association with coronary artery disease (CAD) seems to be more limited. In contrast, the association of the substitutions A2756G of methionine synthase (MTR), A66G of methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) and C776G of transcobalamin (TCN) to both t-Hcys and CAD needs to be evaluated further. The objective was to evaluate the association of these polymorphisms with t-Hcys and CAD in a French population. We investigated the individual and combined effects of these polymorphisms and of vitamin B12 and folates with t-Hcys in 530 CAD patients and 248 matched healthy controls. t-Hcys was higher in the CAD group than in controls (11.8 vs 10.4 microM, P < 0.0001) and in carriers of MTRRAA and MTHFR 677TT than in those carrying the most frequent allele of both polymorphisms (13.8 vs 11.4 microM, P = 0.0102 and 12.5 vs 11.0 mM, P = 0.0065 respectively). The frequency of MTRR A allele was higher in CAD patients than in controls (0.48 [95% CI: 0.44-0.52] vs 0.38 [95% CI: 0.32-0.44], P = 0.0081) while no difference was observed for MTHFR 677T frequency. In multivariate analysis, t-Hcys > median and MTRRAA genotype were two significant independent predictors of CAD with respective odds ratios of 3.1 (95 % CI: 1.8-5.1, P < 0.0001) and 4.5 (95% CI: 1.5-13.1, P = 0.0051). In conclusion, in contrast to North Europe studies, MTRRAA genotype is a genetic determinant of moderate hyperhomocysteinemia associated with CAD in a French population without vitamin fortification. PMID:16268464

Guéant-Rodriguez, Rosa-Maria; Juilliére, Yves; Candito, Mirande; Adjalla, Charles E; Gibelin, Pierre; Herbeth, Bernard; Van Obberghen, Emmanuel; Gueánt, Jean-Louis

2005-09-01

221

Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G\\/5G and 5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphisms in polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous condition with unknown etiology and is considered to be the most common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age. Two meta-analyses are presented here concerning the association of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) 4G\\/5G polymorphism and the methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism with the risk of developing PCOS. Seven studies were included concerning

Pantelis G. Bagos

2009-01-01

222

Plasma homocysteine, methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and factor II G20210A polymorphisms, factor VIII, and VWF in central retinal vein occlusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMSTo determine whether plasma homocysteine, methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and factor II G20210A polymorphisms, factor VIII, and vWF are risk factors for central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO).METHODProspective comparison of 63 consecutive patients with central retinal vein occlusion and 63 age matched controls. Plasma homocysteine and vWF were estimated by ELISA, the MTFHR and factor II G20210A polymorphisms determined by

S Boyd; D Owens; T Gin; K Bunce; H Sherafat; D Perry; P G Hykin

2001-01-01

223

Effects of Maternal 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T and A1298C Polymorphisms and Tobacco Smoking on Infant Birth Weight in a Japanese Population  

PubMed Central

Background Intracellular folate hemostasis depends on the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene. Because 5,10-MTHFR 677TT homozygosity and tobacco smoking are associated with low folate status, we tested the hypothesis that smoking in mothers with 5,10-MTHFR C677T or A1298C polymorphisms would be independently associated with lower birth weight among their offspring. Methods We assessed 1784 native Japanese mother-child pairs drawn from the ongoing birth cohort of The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children’s Health. Data (demographic information, hospital birth records, and biological specimens) were extracted from recruitments that took place during the period from February 2003 to March 2006. Maternal serum folate were assayed by chemiluminescent immunoassay, and genotyping of 5,10-MTHFR C677T/A1298C polymorphisms was done using a TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. Results The prevalence of folate deficiency (<6.8 nmol/L) was 0.3%. The 5,10-MTHFR 677CT genotype was independently associated with an increase of 36.40 g (95% CI: 2.60 to 70.30, P = 0.035) in mean infant birth weight and an increase of 90.70 g (95% CI: 6.00 to 175.50, P = 0.036) among male infants of nonsmokers. Female infants of 677TT homozygous passive smokers were 99.00 g (95% CI: ?190.26 to ?7.56, P = 0.034) lighter. The birth weight of the offspring of smokers with 5,10-MTHFR 1298AA homozygosity was lower by 107.00 g (95% CI: ?180.00 to ?33.90, P = 0.004). Conclusions The results suggest that, in this population, maternal 5,10-MTHFR C677T polymorphism, but not the 5,10-MTHFR A1298C variant, is independently associated with improvement in infant birth weight, especially among nonsmokers. However, 5,10-MTHFR 1298AA might be associated with folate impairment and could interact with tobacco smoke to further decrease birth weight.

Yila, Thamar Ayo; Sasaki, Seiko; Miyashita, Chihiro; Braimoh, Titilola Serifat; Kashino, Ikuko; Kobayashi, Sumitaka; Okada, Emiko; Baba, Toshiaki; Yoshioka, Eiji; Minakami, Hisanori; Endo, Toshiaki; Sengoku, Kazuo; Kishi, Reiko

2012-01-01

224

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and thymidylate synthase genotypes and risk of acute graft-versus-host disease following hematopoietic cell transplantation for chronic myelogenous leukemia.  

PubMed

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and thymidylate synthase (TS) play key roles in intracellular folate metabolism. Polymorphisms in these enzymes have been shown to modify toxicity of methotrexate (MTX) after hematopoietic cell transplantation. In this study, we evaluated the risk of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) associated with genetic variation in recipient and donor MTHFR and TS genotypes to assess whether genotype alters the efficacy of MTX in acute GVHD prophylaxis. Data on the transplantation course were abstracted from medical records for 304 adults who received allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplants. MTHFR (C677T and A1298C) and TS (enhancer-region 28-base pair repeat, TSER, and 1494del6) genotypes were determined using polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism and TaqMan assays. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the associations between genotypes and risk of acute GVHD. Compared with recipients with the wild-type MTHFR 677CC genotype, those with the variant 677T allele showed a decreased risk of detectable acute GVHD (677CT: odds ratio, 0.8; 95% confidence interval, 0.4-1.6; 677TT: odds ratio, 0.4; 95% confidence interval, 0.2-0.8; P for trend = .01). The variant MTHFR 1298C allele in recipients was associated with an increased risk of acute GVHD compared with the wild-type MTHFR 1298AA genotype (1298AC: odds ratio, 2.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-3.9; 1298CC: odds ratio, 3.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-12.7; P for trend < .01). No association with risk of acute GVHD was observed for donor MTHFR genotypes or for recipient or donor TS genotypes, with the exception of an increase in acute GVHD among recipients whose donors had the TSER 3R/2R genotype (odds ratio, 3.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-7.2). These findings indicate that host, but not donor, MTHFR genotypes modify the risk of acute GVHD in recipients receiving MTX, in a manner consistent with our previously reported associations between MTHFR genotypes and MTX toxicity. A direct trade-off between drug toxicity and drug efficacy may play a role. Alternatively, the systemic folate environment, regulated by host tissues, might influence donor T-cell growth and activity. PMID:16920564

Robien, Kim; Bigler, Jeannette; Yasui, Yutaka; Potter, John D; Martin, Paul; Storb, Rainer; Ulrich, Cornelia M

2006-09-01

225

Mutation of the Heme Axial Ligand of Escherichia coli Succinate-Quinone Reductase: Implications for Heme Ligation in Mitochondrial Complex II from Yeast  

PubMed Central

A b-type heme is conserved in membrane-bound complex II enzymes (SQR, succinate-ubiquinone reductase). The axial ligands for the low spin heme b in Escherichia coli complex II are SdhC His84 and SdhD His71. E. coli SdhD His71 is separated by 10 residues from SdhD Asp82 and Tyr83 which are essential for ubiquinone catalysis. The same His-10x-AspTyr motif dominates in homologous SdhD proteins, except for Saccharomyces cerevisiae where a tyrosine is at the axial position (Tyr-Cys-9x-AspTyr). Nevertheless, the yeast enzyme was suggested to contain a stoichiometric amount of heme, however, with the Cys ligand in the aforementioned motif acting as heme ligand. In this report, the role of Cys residues for heme coordination in the complex II family of enzymes is addressed. Cys was substituted to the SdhD-71 position and the yeast Tyr71Cys72 motif also recreated. The Cys71 variant retained heme, although it was high spin, while the Tyr71Cys72 mutant lacked heme. Previously the presence of heme in S. cerevisiae was detected by a spectral peak in fumarate-oxidized, dithionite-reduced mitochondria. Here it is shown that this method must be used with caution. Comparison of bovine and yeast mitochondrial membranes shows that fumarate induced reoxidation of cytochromes in both SQR and the bc1 complex (ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase). Thus, this report raises a concern about the presence of low spin heme b in S. cerevisiae complex II.

Maklashina, Elena; Rajagukguk, Sany; McIntire, William S.; Cecchini, Gary

2010-01-01

226

Conversion of Human Steroid 5[beta]-Reductase (AKR1D1) into 3[beta]-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase by Single Point Mutation E120H: Example of Perfect Enzyme Engineering  

SciTech Connect

Human aldo-keto reductase 1D1 (AKR1D1) and AKR1C enzymes are essential for bile acid biosynthesis and steroid hormone metabolism. AKR1D1 catalyzes the 5{beta}-reduction of {Delta}{sup 4}-3-ketosteroids, whereas AKR1C enzymes are hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs). These enzymes share high sequence identity and catalyze 4-pro-(R)-hydride transfer from NADPH to an electrophilic carbon but differ in that one residue in the conserved AKR catalytic tetrad, His120 (AKR1D1 numbering), is substituted by a glutamate in AKR1D1. We find that the AKR1D1 E120H mutant abolishes 5{beta}-reductase activity and introduces HSD activity. However, the E120H mutant unexpectedly favors dihydrosteroids with the 5{alpha}-configuration and, unlike most of the AKR1C enzymes, shows a dominant stereochemical preference to act as a 3{beta}-HSD as opposed to a 3{alpha}-HSD. The catalytic efficiency achieved for 3{beta}-HSD activity is higher than that observed for any AKR to date. High resolution crystal structures of the E120H mutant in complex with epiandrosterone, 5{beta}-dihydrotestosterone, and {Delta}{sup 4}-androstene-3,17-dione elucidated the structural basis for this functional change. The glutamate-histidine substitution prevents a 3-ketosteroid from penetrating the active site so that hydride transfer is directed toward the C3 carbonyl group rather than the {Delta}{sup 4}-double bond and confers 3{beta}-HSD activity on the 5{beta}-reductase. Structures indicate that stereospecificity of HSD activity is achieved because the steroid flips over to present its {alpha}-face to the A-face of NADPH. This is in contrast to the AKR1C enzymes, which can invert stereochemistry when the steroid swings across the binding pocket. These studies show how a single point mutation in AKR1D1 can introduce HSD activity with unexpected configurational and stereochemical preference.

Chen, Mo; Drury, Jason E.; Christianson, David W.; Penning, Trevor M. (UPENN)

2012-10-10

227

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism predicts response and time to progression to gemcitabine-based chemotherapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer in a Chinese Han population*  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) genetic polymorphisms and the clinical efficacy of gemcitabine-based chemotherapy in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: A total of 135 chemonaive patients with unresectable advanced NSCLC were treated with gemcitabine/platinum regimens. The polymorphisms of MTHFR C677T, ERCC1 C8092A, and ERCC1 C118T were genotyped using the TaqMan methods. Results: The overall response rate was 28.9%. Patients with MTHFR CC genotype had a higher rate of objective response than patients with variant genotype (TT or CT) (41.2% versus 19.1%, P=0.01). Median time to progression (TTP) of patients with MTHFR CC genotype was longer than that of patients with variant genotype (7.6 months versus 5.0 months, P=0.003). No significant associations were obtained between ERCC1 C118T and C8092A polymorphisms and both response and survival. Conclusions: Our data suggest the value of MTHFR C677T polymorphism as a possible predictive marker of response and TTP in advanced NSCLC patients treated with gemcitabine/platinum.

Hong, Wei; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Yi-ping; Kou, Jun-yan; Hong, Dan; Su, Dan; Mao, Wei-min; Yu, Xin-min; Xie, Fa-jun; Wang, Xiao-jian

2013-01-01

228

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene C677T, A1298C polymorphisms and pre-eclampsia risk: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

To determine whether methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C polymorphisms are associated with pre-eclampsia susceptibility. Literature searches of the Pubmed, Embase, BIOSIS Previews and Web of Science were conducted to identify all eligible articles up to January 18th, 2013. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of five genetic models were calculated by fixed-effects or random-effects model. Publication bias, subgroup analysis, meta-regression and sensitivity analysis were also performed. A number of 49 studies including 51 samples consisted of 18,009 subjects (6,238 patients and 11,771 controls) were finally included. MTHFR C677T allele (TT or CT) carriers were 1.12 times more likely to develop pre-eclampsia (95 % CI 1.04-1.21) compared with 677CC homozygous individuals. Similar results were obtained under other genetic models. Restricted to severe pre-eclampsia, there was an increased risk for 677TT homozygotes compared with 677CC homozygotes (OR 1.43; 95 % CI 1.12-1.83). Subgroup analysis revealed a significant positive association between the C677T polymorphism (TT or CT) and pre-eclampsia in Asians (OR 1.41; 95 % CI 1.11-1.79) and white population (OR 1.14; 95 % CI 1.03-1.25). Meta-regression showed that study population, blinded genotyping, matching of cases and controls were not substantial sources of heterogeneity. For the MTHFR A1298C, ORs for all genetic models yielded a null association. This meta-analysis suggests that the MTHFR 677T allele might be associated with increased pre-eclampsia risk in Asian and white ethnicity and the subgroup of severe pre-eclampsia, while no association is observed between the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and pre-eclampsia. PMID:24898880

Li, Xing; Luo, Ya L; Zhang, Qiong H; Mao, Chen; Wang, Xi W; Liu, Shan; Chen, Qing

2014-08-01

229

Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Polymorphisms and Risk of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Evidence from an updated meta-analysis including 35 studies  

PubMed Central

Background 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) variants, C677T and A1298C, have been reported to be associated with decreased risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, results derived from individually underpowered studies are conflicting. We carried out an updated meta-analysis on the association between MTHFR polymorphisms and ALL risk. Methods Relevant publications were searched through PUBMED and EMBASE databases. The associations between MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and the risk of ALL were evaluated by odds ratios (ORs). The heterogeneity and publication bias were estimated. Meta-regression analysis was performed to evaluate the potential sources of heterogeneity. Results C677T polymorphism was associated with a reduced risk of ALL (allele contrast: ORRE?=?0.91, 95% CI: 0.83-0.99). Subgroup analysis showed MTHFR C677T variant was associated with decreased susceptibility to ALL in children and Caucasians. Meta-regression showed the logOR for the association between T allele and ALL increased as sex ratio (M/F) in the case group increased (P?=?0.01). Regarding A1298C polymorphism, no significant association was observed (allele contrast: ORRE?=?1.01, 95% CI: 0.91-1.11). There was no publication bias for C677T or A1298C polymorphism. Conclusions The present meta-analysis suggests that the C677T polymorphism, not A1298C, in MTHFR gene is associated with a decreased risk of ALL, particularly among children and Caucasians subjects. Our findings suggest that the influence of the C677T polymorphism on ALL susceptibility is modified by sex ratio in cases (M/F). Since folate intake may be a possible confounding factor, including this factor in future prospective studies is warranted. Further meta-analysis studies should be at least stratified for folate levels and gender to give more powerful and informative results.

2012-01-01

230

Association of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene A1298C polymorphism with stroke risk based on a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Several independent studies have reported the role of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) A1298C polymorphism in strokes, but the results are inconclusive. To derive a more precise estimation of the relationship, a meta-analysis was performed in the present study. In this meta-analysis, a total of 13 studies, including 1974 cases and 2660 controls, were selected to evaluate the possible association. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to assess the strength of the association in additive, dominant, and recessive models. The overall analysis showed that MTHFR A1298C was associated with a significant increase in the risk of stroke in the heterozygote comparison (AC vs AA: OR = 1.17; 95%CI = 1.03-1.34) and in the dominant model (AC/CC vs AA: OR = 1.22; 95%CI = 1.01-1.49). Stratified analysis showed a significantly strong association between the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and stroke risk in Asian populations (OR = 1.32 for AC vs AA; OR = 1.94 for CC vs AA; OR = 1.37 for AC/CC vs AA; OR = 1.33 for C vs A allele), but not in Caucasian populations. Additionally, the MTHFR 1298C allele was found to be a risk factor for developing ischemic strokes. However, no statistically significant increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke was found in any of the genetic models. In conclusion, this meta-analysis supported that the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism could be capable of increasing stroke susceptibility in Asian, but not in Caucasian, populations. PMID:24391036

Lv, Q; Lu, J; Wu, W; Sun, H; Zhang, J

2013-01-01

231

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene A1298C polymorphism and susceptibility to recurrent pregnancy loss: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Environmental and genetic factors are thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL)/spontaneous abortions (SA), which include endocrine, anatomical abnormalities within the genital organs, autoimmune diseases and some gene variants. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme of the folate/methionine metabolic pathway and it is well established fact that folate deficiency causes pregnancy complications like recurrent pregnancy loss, preeclempsia and birth defects affected pregnancies. MTHFR A1298C polymorphism reduces the enzymatic activity and mimics as folate deficiency. To date, many studies have investigated the association between MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and RPL risk; however, the result is still controversial and inconclusive. The aim of the present study was to address the association of MTHFR A1298C polymorphism with RPL risk by meta—analysis. By searching electronic databases, total seventeen studies were identified for present meta—analysis. Crude odds ratios (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) was used to assess the strength of association between A1298C polymorphism and RPL. The results indicate that the A1298C polymorphism is not associated with RPL (ORCvs A = 1.13 ,95 % CI= 0.87—1.46, P = 0.36 ; ORACvs AA = 1.22 ,95 % CI= 0.94— 1.6, P = 0.13; ORCCvsAA =1.35, 95 % CI= 76—2.36, P = 0.30; ORCC+AC vs AA = 1.15, 95 % CI= 88 —1.49, P = 0.29; ORCCvs AC+AA = 1.29, 95 % CI= 76 —2.12, P = 0.34). Further prospective studies were needed to confirm the precise relationship between the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and RPL. PMID:24970119

Rai, V

2014-01-01

232

Glutathione reductase is not required for maintenance of reduced glutathione in Escherichia coli K-12.  

PubMed Central

Seven independently isolated glutathione reductase-deficient (gor) Escherichia coli mutants were found to have an in vivo glutathione redox state that did not significantly differ from that of the parental strain, 98 to 99% reduced. Strains containing both a gor mutation and either a trxA mutation (thioredoxin deficient) or a trxB mutation (thioredoxin reductase deficient) were able to maintain a 94 to 96% reduced glutathione pool, suggesting that glutathione can be reduced independently of glutathione reductase and thioredoxin reductase.

Tuggle, C K; Fuchs, J A

1985-01-01

233

Hyperhomocysteinemia but Not the C677T Mutation of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Is an Independent Risk Determinant of Carotid Wall Thickening The Perth Carotid Ultrasound Disease Assessment Study (CUDAS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Hyperhomocysteinemia has been identified as a potential risk factor for atherosclerosis. This study examined whether a modest elevation of plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) was an independent risk factor for increased carotid artery intimal-medial wall thickness (IMT) and focal plaque formation in a large, randomly selected community population. We also examined whether vitamin cofactors and the C677T genetic mutation of the

Brendan M. McQuillan; John P. Beilby; Mark Nidorf; Peter L. Thompson; Joseph Hung

234

The zebrafish mutation m865 affects formation of dopaminergic neurons and neuronal survival, and maps to a genetic interval containing the sepiapterin reductase locus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The zebrafish mutation m865 was isolated during a large-scale mutagenesis screen aimed at identifying genes involved in the development and maintenance\\u000a of subgroups of neurons in the zebrafish central nervous system. The phenotype of m865 mutant embryos shows defects in the development of dopaminergic neurons in the pretectum and of retinal amacrine cells, as\\u000a well as abnormal caudal dopaminergic cluster

Anne-Kathrin Ettl; Jochen Holzschuh; Wolfgang Driever

2006-01-01

235

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene variants and antipsychotic-induced weight gain and metabolic disturbances.  

PubMed

Weight gain and metabolic disturbances represent serious side-effects in antipsychotic (AP) treatment, particularly with clozapine and olanzapine. The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene is a key determinant in the folate metabolism and previous studies reported a significant effect on AP-induced weight gain and related metabolic abnormalities. Thus, we investigated MTHFR gene variants and changes in several important metabolic parameters in AP-treated patients. In this study, two functional MTHFR polymorphisms, rs1801133 (C677T) and rs1801131 (A1298C), were investigated for changes in weight and metabolic parameters. Genotypic associations were evaluated in a large population (n = 347 including 66 first episode psychosis, FEP patients) treated mostly with clozapine and olanzapine. We did not detect any genotypic association with weight changes (p > 0.05) in our total sample and in the sample refined for ancestry and medication. In our allelic analyses, we observed a trend for the 677-C allele to be associated with weight gain in the total sample (p = 0.03). This effect appeared to be driven by the FEP patients where those carrying the C-allele gained, on average, twice as much weight. Exploratory analyses revealed a significant association between the C677T and the A1298C polymorphism with HDL cholesterol serum levels in patients (p = 0.031). Overall we did not detect a major effect of two functional MTHFR gene variants and AP-induced weight gain. However, our findings suggest an effect of the C677T polymorphism in FEP patients and changes in weight and cholesterol levels. Further investigations in a larger sample are required. PMID:24725652

Kao, A C C; Rojnic Kuzman, M; Tiwari, A K; Zivkovic, M V; Chowdhury, N I; Medved, V; Kekin, I; Zai, C C; Lieberman, J A; Meltzer, H Y; Bozina, T; Bozina, N; Kennedy, J L; Sertic, J; Müller, D J

2014-07-01

236

Analysis of Polymorphisms in Genes (AGT, MTHFR, GPIIIa, and GSTP1) Associated with Hypertension, Thrombophilia and Oxidative Stress in Mestizo and Amerindian Populations of M?xico  

PubMed Central

Several polymorphisms related to hypertension, thrombophilia, and oxidative stress has been associated with the development of cardiovascular disease. We analyzed the frequency of M235T angiotensinogen (AGT), A222V 5,10 methylenete-trahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), L33P glycoprotein IIIa (GPIIIa), and I105V glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) polymorphisms in 285 individuals belonging to Mexican-Mestizo and five Amerindian population from México, by real time PCR allelic discrimination. Allele and genotype frequencies were compared using ?2 tests. All populations followed the Hardy Weinberg equilibrium for assay markers with the exception of the Triki, whose were in Hardy Weinberg dysequilibrium for the glutathione S-transferase P1 polymorphism. Interestingly, according to all the analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the Triki population was the most differentiated and homogeneous group of the six populations analyzed. A comparison of our data with those previously published for some Caucasian, Asian and Black populations showed quite significant differences. These differences were remarkable with all the Mexican populations having a lower frequency of the 105V allele of the glutathione S-transferase P1 and reduced occurrence of the 222A allele of the 5,10 methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase. Our results show the genetic diversity among different Mexican populations and with other racial groups.

Juarez-Velazquez, Rocio; Canto, Patricia; Canto-Cetina, Thelma; Rangel-Villalobos, Hector; Rosas-Vargas, Haydee; Rodriguez, Maricela; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Velazquez Wong, Ana Claudia; Ordonez-Razo, Rosa Maria; Vilchis-Dorantes, Guadalupe; Coral-Vazquez, Ramon Mauricio

2010-01-01

237

Polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and glutathione S-transferase are not associated with the risk of papillary thyroid cancer in Korean population.  

PubMed

Korea has the highest incidence of thyroid cancer of any nation. We conducted a population-based, case-control study of the association between the risk of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) in the Korean population and polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T, glutathione S-transferase class mu (GSTM1), and glutathione S-transferase class theta (GSTT1). The study subjects consisted of 2,194 newly diagnosed PTC cases and 1,669 population-based healthy controls. Odds ratios adjusted by age, sex, body mass index, smoking, drinking, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone level, family history of thyroid cancer, and previous history of thyroid disease, with 95 % confidence intervals, were estimated using logistic regression analysis. The frequencies of MTHFR 677TT genotypes, and null genotypes of GSTM1 and GSTT1 were 19.2, 56.8, and 51.4 % among PTC cases and 17.4, 54.1, and 50.6 % among the controls, respectively. No significant associations between PTC and TT genotypes of MTHFR C677T, null genotypes of GSTM1 and GSTT1, or double-null (GSTM1-GSTT1) genotypes were found. These findings suggest that polymorphisms of the MTHFR C677T, GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes do not contribute to the development of PTC susceptibility in the Korean population. PMID:24535271

Kweon, Sun-Seog; Shin, Min-Ho; Kim, Hee-Nam; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Kang, Ho-Cheol

2014-06-01

238

Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T Polymorphism and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Chinese Population: A Meta-Analysis of 29 Case-Control Studies  

PubMed Central

Background Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), a key enzyme in folate metabolism, had significant effects on the homocysteine levels. The common functional MTHFR C677T polymorphism had been extensively researched. Several studies had evaluated the relationship between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but the results were still controversial in the Chinese Han population. This meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the relationship between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and T2DM in the Chinese Han population. Methods We searched the relevant studies in multiple electronic databases, which published up to December 2013. We reviewed and extracted data from all the included studies on the relationship between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and T2DM in the Chinese Han population. The odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were used to evaluate the relationship. Fixed-effects and random-effects meta-analysis were used to pool ORs by the heterogeneity. Publication bias and sensitivity analysis were also examined. Results 29 studies were finally included in our meta-analysis, which contained 4656 individuals with T2DM and 2127 healthy controls. There was a significant relationship between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and T2DM under dominant (OR: 1.70, 95% CI: 1.42–2.02), recessive (OR: 1.48, 95% CI: 1.21–1.80), homozygous (OR: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.47–2.42), heterozygous (OR: 1.58, 95% CI: 1.33–1.87), and additive (OR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.28–1.68) genetic model in a random-effects model. Subgroup analysis also reached similar results. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the overall result were dependable. Conclusions There was a significant relationship between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and T2DM in the Chinese Han population. The results of our meta-analysis suggested that MTHFR 677T allele might be a risk genetic factor of T2DM in the Chinese Han population.

Zhu, Bo; Wu, Xiaomei; Zhi, Xueyuan; Liu, Lei; Zheng, Quanmei; Sun, Guifan

2014-01-01

239

Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Activity Is Involved in the Plasma Membrane Redox System Required for Pigment Biosynthesis in Filamentous Fungi ? †  

PubMed Central

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductases (MTHFRs) play a key role in biosynthesis of methionine and S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) via the recharging methionine biosynthetic pathway. Analysis of 32 complete fungal genomes showed that fungi were unique among eukaryotes by having two MTHFRs, MET12 and MET13. The MET12 type contained an additional conserved sequence motif compared to the sequences of MET13 and MTHFRs from other eukaryotes and bacteria. Targeted gene replacement of either of the two MTHFR encoding genes in Fusarium graminearum showed that they were essential for survival but could be rescued by exogenous methionine. The F. graminearum strain with a mutation of MET12 (Fg?MET12) displayed a delay in the production of the mycelium pigment aurofusarin and instead accumulated nor-rubrofusarin and rubrofusarin. High methionine concentrations or prolonged incubation eventually led to production of aurofusarin in the MET12 mutant. This suggested that the chemotype was caused by a lack of SAM units for the methylation of nor-rubrofusarin to yield rubrofusarin, thereby imposing a rate-limiting step in aurofusarin biosynthesis. The Fg?MET13 mutant, however, remained aurofusarin deficient at all tested methionine concentrations and instead accumulated nor-rubrofusarin and rubrofusarin. Analysis of MET13 mutants in F. graminearum and Aspergillus nidulans showed that both lacked extracellular reduction potential and were unable to complete mycelium pigment biosynthesis. These results are the first to show that MET13, in addition to its function in methionine biosynthesis, is required for the generation of the extracellular reduction potential necessary for pigment production in filamentous fungi.

Frandsen, Rasmus J. N.; Albertsen, Klaus Selk; Stougaard, Peter; S?rensen, Jens L.; Nielsen, Kristian F.; Olsson, Stefan; Giese, Henriette

2010-01-01

240

Spinach Nitrate Reductase 1  

PubMed Central

Initial velocity studies of immunopurified spinach nitrate reductase have been performed under conditions of controlled ionic strength and pH and in the absence of chloride ions. Increased ionic strength stimulated NADH:ferricyanide reductase and reduced flavin:nitrate reductase activities and inhibited NADH:nitrate reductase, NADH:cytochrome c reductase and reduced methyl viologen:nitrate reductase activities. NADH:dichlorophenolindophenol reductase activity was unaffected by changes in ionic strength. All of the partial activities, expressed in terms of micromole 2 electron transferred per minute per nanomole heme, were faster than the overall full, NADH:nitrate reductase activity indicating that none of the partial activities included the rate limiting step in electron transfer from NADH to nitrate. The pH optimum for NADH:nitrate reductase activity was determined to be 7 while values for the various partial activities ranged from 6.5 to 7.5. Chlorate, bromate, and iodate were determined to be alternate electron acceptors for the reduced enzyme. These results indicate that unlike the enzyme from Chlorella vulgaris, intramolecular electron transfer between reduced heme and Mo is not rate limiting for spinach nitrate reductase.

Barber, Michael J.; Notton, Brian A.

1990-01-01

241

A common 1317TC polymorphism in MTHFR can lead to erroneous 1298AC genotyping by PCR-RE and TaqMan probe assays.  

PubMed

Multiple polymorphisms of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) have been documented, and some are associated with decreased enzyme activity. One polymorphism, 677CT, is commonly tested in the context of thrombosis. Recently, consideration has also been extended to 1298AC, which is also associated with reduced catalytic activity. This report describes problems arising during the development of a PCR restriction enzyme assay for 1298AC. In the process of validating a PCR-MboII assay, it was realized that a nearby 1317TC polymorphism rendered a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) pattern that was virtually indistinguishable from a 1298A allele. An alternate approach, involving primer mutagenesis and Fnu4HI digestion, resolved the problem. To validate the latter assay, samples were obtained from a CLIA-approved facility that had developed a multiplexed real-time PCR using TaqMan probes for simultaneous assessment of 677CT and 1298AC. Interlaboratory results concurred for 10 out of 11 samples; however, one sample was consistently heterozygous by PCR-Fnu4HI and homozygous 1298CC by real-time PCR. Bidirectional sequencing confirmed that the sample was a compound 1298AC/1317TC heterozygote. It is likely that the 1317C variant, residing with 1298A on one chromosome, disrupted primer annealing in the TaqMan assay, leading to preferential amplification of the 1298C/1317T chromosome and hence an aberrant homozygous 1298CC genotype. This validation exercise emphasizes the need for comprehensive appraisal and continual reassessment of the optimal performance of molecular diagnostic assays. It is hoped that laboratories offering MTHFR 1298AC testing are cognizant of some of the inherent problems in published methods. PMID:17627388

Allen, Richard A; Gatalica, Zoran; Knezetic, Joseph; Hatcher, Lori; Vogel, John S; Dunn, S Terence

2007-01-01

242

Strong Association of 677 C>T Substitution in the MTHFR Gene with Male Infertility - A Study on an Indian Population and a Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is an important enzyme of folate and methionine metabolism, making it crucial for DNA synthesis and methylation. The objective of this study was to analyze MTHFR gene 677C>T polymorphism in infertile male individuals from North India, followed by a meta-analysis on our data and published studies. Methodology/Principal Findings We undertook genotyping on a total of 837 individuals including well characterized infertile (N?=?522) and confirmed fertile (N?=?315) individuals. The SNP was typed by direct DNA sequencing. Chi square test was done for statistical analysis. Published studies were searched using appropriate keywords. Source of data collection for meta-analysis included ‘Pubmed’, ‘Ovid’ and ‘Google Scholar’. Those studies analyzing 677C>T polymorphism in male infertility and presenting all relevant data were included in meta-analysis. The genotype data for infertile subjects and fertile controls was extracted from each study. Chi square test was done to obtain odds ratio (OR) and p-value. Meta-analysis was performed using Comprehensive Meta-analysis software (Version 2). The frequency of mutant (T) allele (p?=?0.0025) and genotypes (CT+TT) (p?=?0.0187) was significantly higher in infertile individuals in comparison to fertile controls in our case-control study. The overall summary estimate (OR) for allele and genotype meta-analysis were 1.304 (p?=?0.000), 1.310 (p?=?0.000), respectively, establishing significant association of 677C>T polymorphism with male infertility. Conclusions/Significance 677C>T substitution associated strongly with male infertility in Indian population. Allele and genotype meta-analysis also supported its strong correlation with male infertility, thus establishing it as a risk factor.

Gupta, Nishi; Gupta, Saraswati; Dama, Madhukar; David, Archana; Khanna, Geeta; Khanna, Anil; Rajender, Singh

2011-01-01

243

MTHFR C677T genotype as a risk factor for epilepsy including post-traumatic epilepsy in a representative military cohort.  

PubMed

The well-studied C677T variant in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) enzyme is a biologically plausible genetic risk factor for seizures or epilepsy. First, plasma/serum levels of homocysteine, a pro-convulsant, are moderately elevated in individuals with the homozygote TT genotype. Furthermore, the TT genotype has been previously linked with migraine with aura-a comorbid condition-and with alcohol withdrawal seizures. Finally, several small studies have suggested that the TT genotype may be overrepresented in epilepsy patients. In this study, we consider whether the MTHFR C677T or A1298C variants are associated with risk of epilepsy including post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE) in a representative military cohort. Study subjects were selected from the cohort of military personnel on active duty during the years 2003 through 2007 who had archived serum samples at the DoD Serum Repository, essentially all active duty personnel during this time frame. We randomly selected 800 epilepsy patients and 800 matched controls based on ICD-9-CM diagnostic codes. We were able to isolate sufficient genetic material from the archived sera to genotype approximately 85% of our study subjects. The odds of epilepsy were increased in subjects with the TT versus CC genotype (crude OR=1.52 [1.04-2.22], p=0.031; adjusted OR=1.57 [1.07-2.32], p=0.023). In our sensitivity analysis, risk was most evident for patients with repeated rather than single medical encounters for epilepsy (crude OR=1.85 [1.14-2.97], p=0.011, adjusted OR=1.95 [1.19-3.19], p=0.008), and particularly for PTE (crude OR=3.14 [1.41-6.99], p=0.005; adjusted OR=2.55 [1.12-5.80], p=0.026). Our early results suggest a role for the common MTHFR C677T variant as a predisposing factors for epilepsy including PTE. Further exploration of baseline homocysteine and folate levels as predictors of seizure risk following traumatic brain injury is warranted. PMID:21787169

Scher, Ann I; Wu, Holly; Tsao, Jack W; Blom, Henk J; Feit, Preethy; Nevin, Remington L; Schwab, Karen A

2011-09-01

244

Antifolate-Resistant Mutants of Plasmodium falciparum Dihydrofolate Reductase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single and multiple mutations at residues 16, 51, 59, 108, and 164 of Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (pfDHFR) have been linked to antifolate resistance in malaria. We prepared and characterized all seven of the pfDHFR mutants found in nature, as well as six mutants not observed in nature. Mutations involving residues 51, 59, 108, or 164 conferred cross resistance to

Worachart Sirawaraporn; Tanajit Sathitkul; Rachada Sirawaraporn; Yongyuth Yuthavong; Daniel V. Santi

1997-01-01

245

Gender-specific association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphisms with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

Studies have revealed that elevated homocysteine levels can cause damage to motor neurons through multiple neurotoxic mechanisms, thus leading to the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). One way by which homocysteine levels are increased in the body is the consequence of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphisms. Therefore, to address this question, we studied the MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in 437 sporadic ALS (SALS) and 439 healthy controls to learn whether they were associated with SALS. The overall SALS were not associated with MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms (?(2)=1.378; p=0.502; ?(2)=1.304; p=0.521, respectively). However, when we stratified results in terms of gender, we found that the MTHFR C677T polymorphism (?(2)=6.376; p=0.041), T677T genotype (?(2)=5.508; p=0.019; odds ratio [OR]=2.561; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.142-5.744), C677C/A1298A (?(2)=5.216; p=0.022; OR=0.424, 95% CI=0.199-0.900), and T677T/A1298A (?(2)=6.639; p=0.010; OR=2.900; 95% CI=1.252-6.717) compound genotypes were associated with SALS in female patients only. Moreover, stratification of SALS according to the onset of disease indicated that there was no association between MTHFR C677T (?(2)=1.565; p=0.457; A1298C ?(2)=3.461; p=0.177) polymorphisms and overall spinal onset SALS. Further stratification analysis according to gender revealed that there was a remarkable association between MTHFR C677T (?(2)=9.728, p=0.008), T677T genotype (?(2)=7.820; p=0.005; OR=3.126; 95% CI=1.361-7.178) and T allele (?(2)=5.000; p=0.025; OR=1.711; 95% CI=1.067-2.745), and T677T/A1298A compound genotype (?(2)=9.108; p=0.003; OR=3.540; 95% CI=1.494-8.387) and spinal onset female SALS only. Likewise, there was also association between MTHFR A1298C polymorphism (?(2)=5.946; p=0.051) and the C1298C genotype (?(2)=5.282; p=0.022; OR=2.524; 95% CI=1.125-5.658), and the C677T/C1298C compound genotype (?(2)=7.155; p=0.007; OR=1.045; 95% CI=0.983-1.112) and bulbar onset SALS only in women. In conclusion, the evidence we provide here clearly shows that MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms are genetic risk factors for SALS in women in a gender-specific manner whether they are of spinal or bulbar onset. PMID:22385294

Sazci, Ali; Ozel, Mavi Deniz; Emel, Ergul; Idrisoglu, Halil Atilla

2012-07-01

246

Physiological characterization of a Neurospora crassa mutant with impaired regulation of nitrate reductase.  

PubMed Central

This report describes the isolation and characterization of a Neurospora crassa mutant with an impaired regulation of nitrate reductase. Glutamine, which prevents the induction of nitrate reductase in N. crassa, did so relatively ineffectively in this mutant. The mutation did not affect the regulation of all enzymes regulated by "nitrogen metabolite regulation"; it did affect the regulation of nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, histidase, and acetamidase, as well as that of thiourea sensitivity. The mutation was not allelic with nit-2, the gene controlling a general positive effector of nitrogen metabolite-regulated enzyme formation.

Premakumar, R; Sorger, G J; Gooden, D

1980-01-01

247

Novel Posttranslational Activation of the LYS2-Encoded ?-Aminoadipate Reductase for Biosynthesis of Lysine and Site-Directed Mutational Analysis of Conserved Amino Acid Residues in the Activation Domain of Candida albicans  

PubMed Central

The ?-aminoadipate pathway for lysine biosynthesis is present only in fungi. The ?-aminoadipate reductase (AAR) of this pathway catalyzes the conversion of ?-aminoadipic acid to ?-aminoadipic-?-semialdehyde by a complex mechanism involving two gene products, Lys2p and Lys5p. The LYS2 and LYS5 genes encode, respectively, a 155-kDa inactive AAR and a 30-kDa phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PPTase) which transfers a phosphopantetheinyl group from coenzyme A (CoA) to Lys2p for the activation of Lys2p and AAR activity. In the present investigation, we have confirmed the posttranslational activation of the 150-kDa Lys2p of Candida albicans, a pathogenic yeast, in the presence of CoA and C. albicans lys2 mutant (CLD2) extract as a source of PPTase (Lys5p). The recombinant Lys2p or CLD2 mutant extract exhibited no AAR activity with or without CoA. However, the recombinant 150-kDa Lys2p, when incubated with CLD2 extract and CoA, exhibited significant AAR activity compared to that of wild-type C. albicans CAI4 extract. The PPTase in the CLD2 extract was required only for the activation of Lys2p and not for AAR reaction. Site-directed mutational analysis of G882 and S884 of the Lys2p activation domain (LGGHSI) revealed no AAR activity, indicating that these two amino acids are essential for the activation. Replacement of other amino acid residues in the domain resulted in partial or full AAR activity. These results demonstrate the posttranslational activation and the requirement of specific amino acid residues in the activation domain of the AAR of C. albicans.

Guo, Shujuan; Evans, Sarah A.; Wilkes, Mindy B.; Bhattacharjee, J. K.

2001-01-01

248

Comparing techniques for the identification of the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism.  

PubMed

The restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique with the MboII enzyme is used by a number of researchers as a methodology for the identification of the genetic polymorphism MTHFR A1298C. However, the reliability of this enzyme for genotyping this polymorphism has been questioned, since the silent polymorphism T1317C, located close to the polymorphic region A1298C on gene MTHFR, also has a recognition site for MboII. Thus, the fragments formed by the digestion of MboII present similar sizes, making it difficult to differentiate the allele MTHFR 1298A in the presence of the allele MTHFR 1317C. Hence, we investigated the A1298C polymorphism in a Brazilian population of renal transplant patients, using the RFLP technique with digestion by Mbo II and using sequencing, in order to examine the concordance between the two techniques. Our results showed an 8.6% difference in genotyping between RFLP and sequencing, but the statistical concordance test presented a kappa coefficient equal to 0.81 (CI 95% 0.74-88), which indicates a virtually perfect concordance, according to the criterion of Landis and Koch. Therefore, we concluded that the RFLP technique is concordant with automated sequencing in the detection of polymorphism A1298C under our laboratory conditions. PMID:19137091

de Alvarenga, Maria Paula Sanches; Pavarino-Bertelli, Erika Cristina; Goloni-Bertollo, Eny Maria

2008-04-01

249

Association between MTHFR 1298A>C polymorphism and spontaneous abortion with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy.  

PubMed

PROBLEM? Polymorphisms in genes involved in folate metabolism are commonly associated with defects in folate-dependent homocysteine metabolism, which can result in DNA hypomethylation and chromosome nondisjunction. This prospective study aimed to investigate the associations between MTHFR 677C>T, MTHFR 1298A>C, MTR 2756A>G, MTRR 66A>G, and CBS 844ins68 polymorphisms and spontaneous abortion (SA) with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy. METHOD OF STUDY? Subjects included 33 SA with normal fetal karyotype, 24 SA with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy and 155 normal controls. Polymorphisms were genotyped by PCR-RFLP and QF-PCR analysis. RESULTS? The frequencies of MTHFR 1298AC and combined 1298AC/CC genotypes were higher in SA with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy than in controls. The 1298C allele frequency was also significantly higher in SA with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy than in controls. Moreover, the 1298C allele frequency was higher in SA with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy than in SA with normal fetal karyotype. The combined 1298AC/CC genotype was significantly associated with the risk of SA with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy compared with that of the 1298AA genotype (adjusted OR = 2.93, 95% CI: 1.11-7.69). There was no association between SA with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy and other polymorphisms. CONCLUSIONS? Our findings indicate that MTHFR 1298A>C polymorphism may be an independent risk factor for SA with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy. PMID:21410812

Kim, Shin Young; Park, So Yeon; Choi, Ji Won; Kim, Do Jin; Lee, Shin Yeong; Lim, Ji Hyae; Han, Jung Yeol; Ryu, Hyun Mee; Kim, Min Hyoung

2011-10-01

250

Deoxyribonucleotide metabolism in cycling and resting human fibroblasts with a missense mutation in p53R2, a subunit of ribonucleotide reductase.  

PubMed

Ribonucleotide reduction provides deoxynucleotides for nuclear and mitochondrial (mt) DNA replication and DNA repair. In cycling mammalian cells the reaction is catalyzed by two proteins, R1 and R2. A third protein, p53R2, with the same function as R2, occurs in minute amounts. In quiescent cells, p53R2 replaces the absent R2. In humans, genetic inactivation of p53R2 causes early death with mtDNA depletion, especially in muscle. We found that cycling fibroblasts from a patient with a lethal mutation in p53R2 contained a normal amount of mtDNA and showed normal growth, ribonucleotide reduction, and deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) pools. However, when made quiescent by prolonged serum starvation the mutant cells strongly down-regulated ribonucleotide reduction, decreased their dCTP and dGTP pools, and virtually abolished the catabolism of dCTP in substrate cycles. mtDNA was not affected. Also, nuclear DNA synthesis and the cell cycle-regulated enzymes R2 and thymidine kinase 1 decreased strongly, but the mutant cell populations retained unexpectedly larger amounts of the two enzymes than the controls. This difference was probably due to their slightly larger fraction of S phase cells and therefore not induced by the absence of p53R2 activity. We conclude that loss of p53R2 affects ribonucleotide reduction only in resting cells and leads to a decrease of dNTP catabolism by substrate cycles that counterweigh the loss of anabolic activity. We speculate that this compensatory mechanism suffices to maintain mtDNA in fibroblasts but not in muscle cells with a larger content of mtDNA necessary for their high energy requirements. PMID:21297166

Pontarin, Giovanna; Ferraro, Paola; Rampazzo, Chiara; Kollberg, Gittan; Holme, Elisabeth; Reichard, Peter; Bianchi, Vera

2011-04-01

251

Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, factor V, factor II and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms in women with recurrent miscarriage.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the association between genetic polymorphisms of selected thrombophilic factors with recurrent miscarriage (RM). The genetic polymorphisms for plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G (PAI-1), Factor V Leiden (FVL), Factor II G20210A (FII) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase MTHFR C677T were determined in 186 RM women and 129 healthy women. In RM women, the frequency of heterozygosity for PAI-1 5G/4G (31%) was significantly higher than in controls (5G/4G: 22%) whereas no difference was found in the case of homozygosity 4G/4G and 5G/5G. The frequencies of genotype G/A for FVL and FII were significantly higher in RM women (FVL, 10%; FII, 8%) than in controls (FVL, 3%; FII, 2%). No difference was found in the case of MTHFR C677T. The polymorphisms of FVL and FII should be screened in RM women, whereas PAI-1 seems to be weakly associated with RM. The role of MTHFR C677T polymorphisms without hyperhomocysteinemia appears negligible. PMID:24484533

Pietropolli, A; Giuliani, E; Bruno, V; Patrizi, L; Piccione, E; Ticconi, C

2014-04-01

252

C677T and A1298C polymorphisms of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene: effect on methotrexate-related toxicity in adult acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.  

PubMed

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme involved in folate metabolism. Two polymorphisms, C677T and A1298C, were described leading to reduced enzyme activity. Methotrexate (MTX) is an antifolate agent of consolidation and maintenance therapy of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Despite its clinical success, MTX can be associated with serious toxicities resulting in treatment interruption or discontinuation, impacting disease outcome. There is evidence that MTX toxicity can be affected by polymorphisms in genes encoding for drug-metabolizing enzymes such as MTHFR. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the influence of MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms on the frequency of MTX-related toxicity, disease outcome and patients' survival. MTHFR polymorphisms were assessed in 50 adult patients with de novo ALL using real-time PCR. Patients were followed-up for the development of haematologic and/or nonhaematologic toxicity and assessment of clinical outcome. Frequency of C677T polymorphisms was 42% for TT, 24% for CT and 34% for CC; A1298C polymorphisms were 28, 6 and 66% for CC, AC and AA, respectively. MTX therapy was significantly associated with neutropaenia, hepatic and gastrointestinal toxicities, unfavourable response at day 14 of induction therapy, increased relapse and mortality rates and shorter survival in patients with 677 TT genotype than in those with CC and CT, whereas 1298 CC genotype patients had lower frequency of neutropaenia, hepatic toxicity and relapse than in those with AA and AC. Our study suggests MTHFR polymorphism as an attractive predictor of MTX-related toxicity in adult ALL, considering it a potential prognostic factor influencing disease outcome. PMID:23183238

Eissa, Deena Samir; Ahmed, Tamer Mohamed

2013-03-01

253

Molecular genetic analysis and human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation tests in the diagnosis of prepubertal patients with partial 5?-reductase deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduced conversion of testosterone (T) to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) results in defective virilization in karyotypic males. Different mutations in the 5?-reductase type 2 gene cause the phenotypic variability of the disease. In this report we describe four prepubertal patients with a predominantly male phenotype who carry homozygous point mutations in the 5?-reductase type 2 gene and address the specific T and

Olaf Hiort; Holger Willenbring; Norbert Albers; Wolfgang Hecker; Jiirgen Engert; Leif Dibbelt; Gernot H. G. Sinnecker

1996-01-01

254

Association between dietary intake of folate, vitamin B6, B12 & MTHFR, MTR Genotype and breast cancer risk  

PubMed Central

Objective: we conducted a case-control study to investigate the association between dietary folate, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 intake, MTHFR and MTR genotype, and breast cancer risk. Methods: Genotyping for MTHFR C677T and A1298C and MTR A2756G polymorphisms were performed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PCR-RFLP) method. The intake of folate, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 were calculated by each food item from questionnaire. Results: Subjects with breast cancer tended to have more first-degree relatives (?2=30.77, P<0.001) and have high intake of folate (t=2.42, P=0.008) and Vitamin B6 (t=2.94, P=0.002). Compared to the reference group, women with MTHFR 677 TT genotype and T allele had a significantly increased risk of breast cancer, with ORs (95%CI) of 1.8(1.08-2.27) and 1.39(1.02-1.92), respectively. For those who had folate intake?450 ug/day, MTHFR 667TT genotype was associated with a higher risk of breast cancer (OR=2.45, 95% CI=1.09-5.82, P=0.02). Similarly, subjects with Vitamin B6 intake?0.84 mg/day and MTHFR 667T allele genotype was correlated with a marginally increased risk of breast cancer. A significant interaction was observed between MTHFR C667T polymorphism and folate intake on the risk of breast cancer (P for interaction was 0.025). Conclusion: This case-control study found a significant association between MTHFR C667T polymorphism, folate intake and vitamin B6 and breast cancer risk, and a significant interaction was observed between MTHFR C667T polymorphism and folate intake on the risk of breast cancer.

Weiwei, Zheng; Liping, Chen; Dequan, Li

2014-01-01

255

Association between dietary intake of folate, vitamin B6, B12 & MTHFR, MTR Genotype and breast cancer risk.  

PubMed

Objective: we conducted a case-control study to investigate the association between dietary folate, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 intake, MTHFR and MTR genotype, and breast cancer risk. Methods: Genotyping for MTHFR C677T and A1298C and MTR A2756G polymorphisms were performed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PCR-RFLP) method. The intake of folate, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 were calculated by each food item from questionnaire. Results: Subjects with breast cancer tended to have more first-degree relatives (?(2) =30.77, P<0.001) and have high intake of folate (t=2.42, P=0.008) and Vitamin B6 (t=2.94, P=0.002). Compared to the reference group, women with MTHFR 677 TT genotype and T allele had a significantly increased risk of breast cancer, with ORs (95%CI) of 1.8(1.08-2.27) and 1.39(1.02-1.92), respectively. For those who had folate intake?450 ug/day, MTHFR 667TT genotype was associated with a higher risk of breast cancer (OR=2.45, 95% CI=1.09-5.82, P=0.02). Similarly, subjects with Vitamin B6 intake?0.84 mg/day and MTHFR 667T allele genotype was correlated with a marginally increased risk of breast cancer. A significant interaction was observed between MTHFR C667T polymorphism and folate intake on the risk of breast cancer (P for interaction was 0.025). Conclusion: This case-control study found a significant association between MTHFR C667T polymorphism, folate intake and vitamin B6 and breast cancer risk, and a significant interaction was observed between MTHFR C667T polymorphism and folate intake on the risk of breast cancer. PMID:24639841

Weiwei, Zheng; Liping, Chen; Dequan, Li

2014-01-01

256

Membrane Topology of NADPH–Cytochrome P450 Reductase on the Endoplasmic Reticulum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topology of the membrane-anchoring segment of mouse NADPH–cytochrome P450 reductase in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane was elucidated. An N-glycosylation site was generated in the amino-terminal hydrophilic sequence of the reductase, and the mutated protein was expressed in a cell-free system in the presence of microsomal vesicles. Thein vitrosynthesized reductase protein was integrated into the microsomal membrane and N-glycosylated depending on

Yuichiro Kida; Satoru Ohgiya; Katsuyoshi Mihara; Masao Sakaguchi

1998-01-01

257

Quinone Reductase 2 Is a Catechol Quinone Reductase  

SciTech Connect

The functions of quinone reductase 2 have eluded researchers for decades even though a genetic polymorphism is associated with various neurological disorders. Employing enzymatic studies using adrenochrome as a substrate, we show that quinone reductase 2 is specific for the reduction of adrenochrome, whereas quinone reductase 1 shows no activity. We also solved the crystal structure of quinone reductase 2 in complexes with dopamine and adrenochrome, two compounds that are structurally related to catecholamine quinones. Detailed structural analyses delineate the mechanism of quinone reductase 2 specificity toward catechol quinones in comparison with quinone reductase 1; a side-chain rotational difference between quinone reductase 1 and quinone reductase 2 of a single residue, phenylalanine 106, determines the specificity of enzymatic activities. These results infer functional differences between two homologous enzymes and indicate that quinone reductase 2 could play important roles in the regulation of catecholamine oxidation processes that may be involved in the etiology of Parkinson disease.

Fu, Yue; Buryanovskyy, Leonid; Zhang, Zhongtao (NYMEDCO)

2008-09-05

258

The association between end-stage diabetic nephropathy and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotype with macroangiopathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

The T/T genotype of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677 T gene polymorphism is associated with elevated homocysteine levels and presumably with increased atherosclerotic risk. We evaluated the interaction between this gene polymorphism and end-stage diabetic nephropathy on the observed prevalence of macroangiopathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus. The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677 C/T genotypes were determined in 174 type 2 diabetic patients: 80 with and 94 without renal failure due to diabetic nephropathy. In the patients with renal failure, the T/T genotype and T allele were significantly associated with macroangiopathy (T/T; 31 % vs. 2 %, P = 0.0001 T allele; 59 % vs. 29 %, P = 0.00014), whereas the associations were not significant in the patients without renal failure. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, age (10 years OR 4.05 [1.79 - 9.31], P < 0.0005) and 677 T allele (6.84 [2.12 - 22.05], P = 0.0013) were significantly associated with macroangiopathy in the patients with renal failure. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the 677 T/T genotype and T allele of MTHFR were significantly associated with macroangiopathy in type 2 diabetic patients with renal failure. The MTHFR 677 T allele, together with renal dysfunction due to diabetic nephropathy, could be a strong risk factor for atherosclerotic disease. PMID:12784186

Hasegawa, G; Obayashi, H; Kamiuchi, K; Nakai, M; Kanatsuna, T; Yamaguchi, M; Tanaka, T; Shigeta, H; Fujii, M; Yoshikawa, T; Nakamura, N

2003-05-01

259

Association of genetic variants of MTHFR, ENPP1, and ADIPOQ with myocardial infarction in Egyptian patients.  

PubMed

The study aimed to investigate the association between MTHFR C677T, ENPP1 K121Q, and ADIPOQ 45 T/G gene polymorphisms and incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) in Egyptian patients. The study included 60 unrelated patients suffering from their first MI and 60 unrelated controls. Patients were recruited from Kasr-El Eini hospital, Cairo University. The previously mentioned polymorphisms were determined in all participants by PCR-RFLP. There was no significant difference in the distribution of genotypes and alleles of MTHFR C677T between groups. In contrast, significant difference was found in the distributions of genotypes and alleles of ENPP1 K121Q and ADIPOQ 45 T/G between MI patients and controls (P = 0.01, P = 0.004, P = 0.009, P = 0.001, respectively). Univariate analysis revealed that 121Q ENPP1 and 45 G ADIPOQ alleles were associated with the increased risk of MI (OR = 3; 95 % CI = 1.45-6.2; P = 0.004 and OR = 5.8; 95 % CI = 1.92-17.54; P = 0.001, respectively). The mutant homozygous genotypes of MTHFR, ENPP1, and ADIPOQ were more prevalent in diabetic hypertensive MI patients than it was among non-diabetic normotensive MI patients. Regarding the coagulation profile, INR (P = 0.009) and PC % (P = 0.022) were significantly different among the three genotypes of MTHFR C677T. The 677 T, 121 Q, and 45G variants were associated with MI in Egyptian patients; however, more studies are needed to determine the possible protective effect for these polymorphisms in our population. PMID:24242286

Shaker, Olfat Gamil; Ismail, Manal Fouad

2014-06-01

260

MTHFR and MSX1 contribute to the risk of nonsyndromic cleft lip/palate.  

PubMed

Recent studies suggest that multiple interacting loci, with possible additional environmental factors, influence the risk for nonsyndromic oral clefts, one of the most common birth defects in humans. Advances in high-throughput genotyping technology allow the testing of multiple markers, simultaneously, in many candidate genes. We tested for associations between 176 haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 18 candidate genes/loci and nonsyndromic clefts in a case-control study in an Estonian sample (153 patients, 205 controls). The most significant associations with nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) were found for SNPs in MSX1, MTHFR, and PVRL2, including several common haplotypes in the MTHFR and MSX1 genes. The strongest association was observed for rs6446693 in the MSX1 region, which remained statistically significant after Bonferroni correction. The strongest association with nonsyndromic cleft palate (CP) was found for the SNP rs11624283 in the JAG2 gene. Epistatic interactions were observed for SNPs within PVRL2, between BCL3 and EDN1, and between IRF6 and MSX1 genes. This study provides further evidence implicating MSX1 and MTHFR in the etiology of nonsyndromic CL/P across different populations. PMID:20572854

Jagomägi, Triin; Nikopensius, Tiit; Krjutskov, Kaarel; Tammekivi, Veronika; Viltrop, Triin; Saag, Mare; Metspalu, Andres

2010-06-01

261

Detection of Thrombophilic Mutations Related to Spontaneous Abortions by a Multiplex SNaPshot Method  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous abortion is a significant clinical problem of different etiologies. Certain thrombophilia gene mutations have been associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion. Also, mutations in folate-related genes can lead to abnormal chromosomal segregation during meiosis which is the most common cause of spontaneous abortion. We have developed a multiplex single-base extension reaction assay that allows simultaneous analysis of 10 different mutations in thrombophilia- and folate-related genes (Factor V Leiden G1691A, Factor V H1299R, Factor II G20210A, Factor XIII V34L, PAI-I -675 4G/5G, FGB -455G/A, MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C, MTR A2756G, and MTRR A66G). Using this method we have studied 232 women who had a spontaneous abortion and 209 of their male partners. Prevalence of Factor II G20210A and Factor V H1299R mutations was significantly higher in the women than in their male partners (2.4% and 0.7%, respectively [p=0.0499] for the Factor II mutation and 9.3% and 5.7%, respectively [p=0.0485] for the Factor V mutation). The prevalence of MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C, MTR A2756G, and MTRR A66G mutations did not differ between the studied groups. In conclusion, we have developed a rapid, simple, reliable, and inexpensive multiplex SNaPshot method for determination of 10 thrombophilic mutations that may result in spontaneous abortions.

Madjunkova, Svetlana; Volk, Marija; Peterlin, Borut

2012-01-01

262

Polymorphisms of folate pathway enzymes (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and thymidylate synthase) and their relationship with thymidylate synthase expression in human astrocytic tumors.  

PubMed

Two important polymorphisms of folate cycle enzymes, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and thymidylate synthase (TS) enhancer region (TSER) 28-bp tandem repeat, are related to risk of various types of cancer, including brain tumors, although there are few studies on this subject. A case-control study of these two polymorphisms in astrocytomas of different grades was carried out using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, also determining the immunohistochemical expression of TS. The MTHFR 677 TT genotype was less associated with astrocytic tumors (odds ratio [OR]=0.00; p=0.0238), but the TSER polymorphism did not show any significant association. Combined genotype TT-double repeats/triple repeats (2R/3R) had a protective effect against astrocytomas (OR=0.00; p=0.0388). Expression of TS protein was observed in the majority of cases, with grade IV tumors being the exception. Moreover, the median H-score for the pilocytic astrocytomas was significantly higher when compared with that for diffuse tumors. There was an inverse correlation between the 2R/2R genotype and the highest TS-expressing tumors, and 3R/3R was relatively more frequent among the tumors grouped in the third and fourth quartiles. Our results provide support for the role of MTHFR and TS polymorphism in gliomagenesis, possibly because of the alteration of DNA methylation and repair status. Moreover, high levels of TS expression were detected in these tumors. PMID:21848426

da Costa, Débora Menezes; de Lima, Germano Paulo Venceslau; Faria, Mário Henrique Girão; Rabenhorst, Silvia Helena Barem

2012-01-01

263

Polycystic ovary syndrome, the G1691A factor V Leiden mutation, and plasminogen activator inhibitor activity: associations with recurrent pregnancy loss.  

PubMed

Our specific aim was to assess associations of thrombophilia, hypofibrinolysis, and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) with recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) (>/=3 consecutive pregnancy losses < 20 weeks gestation). Prospective studies were performed in 33 Caucasian women referred for diagnosis and treatment of PCOS who were subsequently found to have RPL and in 16 Caucasian women referred for diagnosis and treatment of RPL, who did not have PCOS. Cases (PCOS-RPL, RPL without PCOS) were compared with controls (116 healthy Caucasian females) for the G1691A Factor V Leiden, G20210A prothrombin, C677T methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), plasminogen activator inhibitor 4G/5G, and platelet glycoprotein PL A1A2 gene mutations. Cases were compared with controls (44 healthy adult Caucasian females) for serologic coagulation tests including homocysteine, proteins C, S, free S, antithrombin III, anticardiolipin antibodies IgG and IgM, dilute Russel's viper venom time, activated partial thromboplastin time, Factor VIII, Factor XI, lipoprotein (Lp)(a), and plasminogen activator inhibitor activity (PAI-Fx). The 33 Caucasian women with PCOS subsequently found to have RPL were 10% of a cohort of 322 Caucasian women who had >/= 1 previous pregnancy and had been referred for diagnosis and therapy of PCOS over a 4.3-year period. The Factor V Leiden G1691 mutation was present in 6 of 33 women (18%) with PCOS-RPL and in 3 of 16 women with RPL without PCOS (19%) versus 2 of 116 (1.7%) female controls, Fisher's P (p(f)) =.0016, p(f) =.013. The 33 PCOS-RPL cases also differed from the 44 female controls for high PAI-Fx (>21.1 U/mL), 38% versus 8%, p(f) =. 004. The thrombophilic G1691A Factor V Leiden mutation is associated with RPL in women with and without PCOS; hypofibrinolysis (high PAI-Fx) is also associated with RPL in women with PCOS. PMID:14669168

Glueck, Charles J; Wang, Ping; Bornovali, Seref; Goldenberg, Naila; Sieve, Luann

2003-12-01

264

Mild hyperhomocysteinemia, C677T polymorphism on methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene and the risk of macroangiopathy in type 2 diabetes: a prospective study.  

PubMed

The role of hyperhomocysteinemia as a risk factor for diabetic long-term complications has not been sufficiently evaluated in prospective studies, considering specific correlates of homocysteine (tHcy) concentration and traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Fasting tHcy, vitamin B12 and folate plasma levels, the common methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T gene polymorphism, as well as clinical and lifestyle information were assessed in 216 type 2 diabetic patients attending two outpatient clinics, who had a follow-up evaluation at 65 ± 9 months for the incidence of macroangiopathy. At basal evaluation, mild hyperhomocysteinemia (tHcy ? 15 ?mol/l) was diagnosed in 21.3% of participants. At follow-up, hyperhomocysteinemia and the distribution of MTHFR C677T genotype did not significantly differ according to the incidence of macroangiopathy. Multiple variables adjusted ORs (95% CI) for CVD associated with mild hyperhomocysteinemia were 1.01 (0.37-2.82); P > 0.05; those associated with MTHFR TT genotype were 0.46 (0.15-1.38); P > 0.05. Although the prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia was higher in diabetic men (26.9%) than in women (16.1%; P > 0.05), similar results were also observed in a separate sex-analysis. At the multivariate analysis, including in the model other potential CVD risk factors, only creatinine clearance was a significant risk factor for the development of macroangiopathy. In this cohort of diabetic subjects, mild hyperhomocysteinemia and the MTHFR TT genotype are not significant risk factors for the development of macroangiopathy; impaired renal function was confirmed as a significant predictor of this complication. PMID:19937354

Russo, Giuseppina Tiziana; Di Benedetto, Antonino; Magazzù, Domenico; Giandalia, Annalisa; Giorda, Carlo Bruno; Ientile, Riccardo; Previti, Marcello; Di Cesare, Enrico; Cucinotta, Domenico

2011-06-01

265

MTHFR polymorphisms C677T and A1298C and associations with IVF outcomes in Brazilian women.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MTHFR gene polymorphisms and IVF outcomes in Brazilian women undergoing assisted reproduction treatment. A prospective study was conducted in the Human Reproduction Department at the ABC University School of Medicine and the Ideia Fertility Institute between December 2010 and April 2012. The patient population was 82 women undergoing assisted reproduction cycles. The MTHFR polymorphisms C677T and A1298C were evaluated and compared with laboratory results and pregnancy rates. The C677T variant was associated with proportions of mature (P=0.006) and immature (P=0.003) oocytes whereas the A1298C variant was associated with number of oocytes retrieved (P=0.044). The polymorphisms, whether alone or in combination, were not associated with normal fertilization, good-quality embryo or clinical pregnancy rates. This study suggests that the number and maturity of oocytes retrieved may be related to the MTHFR polymorphisms C677T and A1298C. It is believed that folate has a crucial function in human reproduction and that folate deficiency can compromise the function of the metabolic pathways it is involved in, leading to an accumulation of homocysteine. The gene MTHFR encodes the 5-MTHFR enzyme, which is involved in folate metabolism, and C677T/A1298C polymorphisms of this gene are related to decreased enzyme activity and consequent changes in homocysteine concentration. Folate deficiency and hyperhomocysteinaemia can also compromise fertility and lead to pregnancy complications by affecting the development of oocytes, preparation of endometrial receptivity, implantation of the embryo and pregnancy. In folliculogenesis, hyperhomocysteinaemia can activate apoptosis, leading to follicular atresia and affecting the maturity of oocytes and the quality of embryos cultured in vitro. This study was performed to investigate the association between MTHFR polymorphisms and IVF outcomes in women undergoing assisted reproduction treatment. PMID:24746944

D'Elia, Priscila Queiroz; Dos Santos, Aline Amaro; Bianco, Bianca; Barbosa, Caio Parente; Christofolini, Denise Maria; Aoki, Tsutomu

2014-06-01

266

Methionine synthase A2756G polymorphism may predict ulcerative colitis and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T pancolitis, in Central China  

PubMed Central

Background The association of genetic polymorphisms related to metabolism of homocysteine with inflammatory bowel disease has been evidenced in Crohn disease and remains an open question in ulcerative colitis. We evaluated the association of the polymorphisms of MTHFR, MTR, MTRR and TCN2 genes with ulcerative colitis in Central China. Methods 168 patients were genotyped for these polymorphisms and compared to 219 matched controls. Results Methionine synthase 2756G allele frequency was higher in ulcerative colitis than in controls 0.15 (95% C.I. 0.11–0.19) vs 0.09 (95% C.I. 0.07 – 0.12), (P = 0.0137) and predicted ulcerative colitis risk in logistic regression, with an Odds ratio at 1.8 (95% C.I. 1.15–2.84). Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677TT genotype was 2.7-fold more prevalent in individuals with pancolitis than in those with left colitis or proctitis, with respective percentages of 27.3 (95% C.I.16.4–42.0) and 10.5 (95% C.I. 6.3–17.1) (P = 0.0123). The carriage of 677TT or 677CT/1298AC genotypes of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase was more frequent in cases with pancolitis than in subjects with left colitis or proctitis (P = 0.0048), with an Odds ratio adjusted by age and sex at 3.3 (95% C.I. 1.4–7.9), P = 0.0084) in logistic regression. Conclusion Methionine synthase and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase are genes of vitamin B12 and folate cellular metabolism associated respectively with risk and extent of ulcerative colitis, at least in Central China. This finding may open new insights, particularly for the potential interest in treating patients carrying the 677TT MTHFR genetic trait and a deficit in folate.

Chen, Min; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent; Xia, Bing; Gueant-Rodriguez, Rosa-Maria; Bronowicki, Jean-Pierre; Bigard, Marc-Andre; Gueant, Jean-Louis

2008-01-01

267

Evaluation of Factor V G1691A, prothrombin G20210A, Factor XIII V34L, MTHFR A1298C, MTHFR C677T and PAI-1 4G/5G genotype frequencies of patients subjected to cardiovascular disease (CVD) panel in south-east region of Turkey.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, such as arterial hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia or diabetes mellitus, as well as CVDs, including myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease or stroke, are the most prevalent diseases and account for the major causes of death worldwide. In the present study, 4,709 unrelated patients subjected to CVD panel in south-east part of Turkey between the years 2010 and 2013 were enrolled and DNA was isolated from the blood samples of these patients. Mutation analyses were conducted using the real-time polymerase chain reaction method to screen six common mutations (Factor V G1691A, PT G20210A, Factor XIII V34L, MTHFR A1298C and C677T and PAI-1 -675 4G/5G) found in CVD panel. The prevalence of these mutations were 0.57, 0.25, 2.61, 13.78, 9.34 and 24.27 % in homozygous form, respectively. Similarly, the mutation percent of them in heterozygous form were 7.43, 3.44, 24.91, 44.94, 41.09 and 45.66%, respectively. No mutation was detected in 92 (1.95%) patients in total. Because of the fact that this is the first study to screen six common mutations in CVD panel in south-east region of Turkey, it has a considerable value on the diagnosis and treatment of these diseases. Upon the results of the present and previous studied a careful examination for these genetic variants should be carried out in thrombophilia screening programs, particularly in Turkish population. PMID:24532105

Oztuzcu, Serdar; Ergun, Sercan; Ula?l?, Mustafa; Nacarkahya, Gülper; I?ci, Yusuf Ziya; I?ci, Mehri; Bayraktar, Recep; Tamer, Ali; Çakmak, Ecir Ali; Arslan, Ahmet

2014-06-01

268

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T gene polymorphism and essential hypertension: A meta-analysis of 10,415 subjects  

PubMed Central

The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T gene polymorphism has been suggested to be associated with the risk of essential hypertension (EH), however, results remain inconclusive. To investigate this association, the present meta-analysis of 27 studies including 5,418 cases and 4,997 controls was performed. The pooled odds ratio (OR) and its corresponding 95% confidence interval were calculated using the random-effects model. A significant association between the MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism and EH was found under the allelic (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.20–1.45; P=0.000), dominant (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.25–1.55; P=0.000), recessive (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.18–1.62; P=0.000), homozygote (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.32–1.92; P=0.000), and heterozygote (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.20–1.45; P=0.000) genetic models. A strong association was also revealed in subgroups, including Asian, Caucasian and Chinese. The Japanese subgroup did not show any significant association under all models. Meta-regression analyses suggested that the study design was a potential source of heterogeneity, whereas the subgroup analysis additionally indicated that the population origin may also be an explanation. Another subgroup analysis revealed that hospital-based studies have a stronger association than population-based studies, however, the former suffered a greater heterogeneity. Funnel plot and Egger’s test manifested no evidence of publication bias. In conclusion, the present study supports the evidence for the association between the MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism and EH in the whole population, as well as in subgroups, such as Asian, Caucasian and Chinese. The carriers of the 677T allele are susceptible to EH.

YANG, KE-MING; JIA, JIAN; MAO, LI-NA; MEN, CHEN; TANG, KANG-TING; LI, YAN-YAN; DING, HAI-XIA; ZHAN, YI-YANG

2014-01-01

269

Prevalence of MTHFR C677T and MS A2756G polymorphisms in major depressive disorder, and their impact on response to fluoxetine treatment  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the prevalence of the C677T polymorphism of the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and the A2756G polymorphism of methionine synthase (MS), and their impact on antidepressant response. Methods We screened 224 subjects (52% female, mean age 39 ± 11 years) with SCID-diagnosed major depressive disorder (MDD), and obtained 194 genetic samples. 49 subjects (49% female, mean age 36 ± 11 years) participated in a 12-week open clinical trial of fluoxetine 20–60 mg/day. Association between clinical response and C677T and A2756G polymorphisms, folate, B12, and homocysteine was examined. Results Prevalence of the C677T and A2756G polymorphisms was consistent with previous reports (C/C=41%, C/T=47%, T/T=11%, A/A=66%, A/G=29%, G/G=4%). In the fluoxetine-treated subsample (n=49), intent-to-treat (ITT) response rates were 47% for C/C subjects and 46% for pooled C/T and T/T subjects (nonsignificant). ITT response rates were 38% for A/A subjects and 60% for A/G subjects (nonsignificant), with no subjects exhibiting the G/G homozygote. Mean baseline plasma B12 was significantly lower in A/G subjects compared to A/A, but folate and homocysteine levels were not affected by genetic status. Plasma folate was negatively associated with treatment response. Conclusion The C677T and A2756G polymorphisms did not significantly affect antidepressant response. These preliminary findings require replication in larger samples.

Mischoulon, David; Lamon-Fava, Stefania; Selhub, Jacob; Katz, Judith; Papakostas, George I.; Iosifescu, Dan V.; Yeung, Albert S.; Dording, Christina M.; Farabaugh, Amy H.; Clain, Alisabet J.; Baer, Lee; Alpert, Jonathan E.; Nierenberg, Andrew A.; Fava, Maurizio

2014-01-01

270

Regulation of aldehyde reductase expression by STAF and CHOP.  

PubMed

Aldehyde reductase is involved in the reductive detoxification of reactive aldehydes that can modify cellular macromolecules. To analyze the mechanism of basal regulation of aldehyde reductase expression, we cloned the murine gene and adjacent regulatory region and compared it to the human gene. The mouse enzyme exhibits substrate specificity similar to that of the human enzyme, but with a 2-fold higher catalytic efficiency. In contrast to the mouse gene, the human aldehyde reductase gene has two alternatively spliced transcripts. A fragment of 57 bp is sufficient for 25% of human promoter activity and consists of two elements. The 3' element binds transcription factors of the Sp1 family. Gel-shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation as well as deletion/mutation analysis reveal that selenocysteine tRNA transcription activating factor (STAF) binds to the 5' element and drives constitutive expression of both mouse and human aldehyde reductase. Aldehyde reductase thus becomes the fourth protein-encoding gene regulated by STAF. The human, but not the mouse, promoter also binds C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), which competes with STAF for the same binding site. Transfection of the human promoter into ethoxyquin-treated mouse 3T3 cells induces a 3.5-fold increase in promoter activity and a CHOP-C/EBP band appears on gel shifts performed with the 5' probe from the human aldehyde reductase promoter. Induction is attenuated in similar transfection studies of the mouse promoter. Mutation of the CHOP-binding site in the human promoter abolishes CHOP binding and significantly reduces ethoxyquin induction, suggesting that CHOP mediates stimulated expression in response to antioxidants in the human. This subtle difference in the human promoter suggests a further evolution of the promoter toward responsiveness to exogenous stress and/or toxins. PMID:14667815

Barski, Oleg A; Papusha, Victor Z; Kunkel, Gary R; Gabbay, Kenneth H

2004-01-01

271

Association between factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T mutations and events of the arterial circulatory system: a meta-analysis of published studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe association between the inherited gene mutations of factor V, prothrombin, and homocysteine metabolism and venous thromboembolic events is accepted widely; however, their influence on the arterial circulatory system remains controversial.

Robert J Kim; Richard C Becker

2003-01-01

272

Acceleration of an aldo-keto reductase by minimal loop engineering  

PubMed Central

Aldo-keto reductases tighten coenzyme binding by forming a hydrogen bond across the pyrophosphate group of NAD(P)(H). Mutation of the hydrogen bonding anchor Lys24 in Candida tenuis xylose reductase prevents fastening of the “safety belt” around NAD(H). The loosened NAD(H) binding leads to increased turnover numbers (kcat) for reductions of bulky-bulky ketones at constant substrate and coenzyme affinities (i.e. Km Ketone, Km NADH).

Krump, C.; Vogl, M.; Brecker, L.; Nidetzky, B.; Kratzer, R.

2014-01-01

273

Association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations  

PubMed Central

Background The association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism and serum lipid profiles is still controversial in diverse ethnics. Bai Ku Yao is an isolated subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The aim of the present study was to eveluate the association of MTHFR C677T polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 780 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 686 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the MTHFR C677T was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) AI and ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.05-0.001). The frequency of C and T alleles was 77.4% and 22.6% in Bai Ku Yao, and 60.9% and 39.1% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The frequency of CC, CT and TT genotypes was 58.7%, 37.3% and 4.0% in Bai Ku Yao, and 32.6%, 56.4% and 11.0% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The levels of TC and LDL-C in both ethnic groups were significant differences among the three genotypes (P < 0.05-0.01). The T allele carriers had higher serum TC and LDL-C levels than the T allele noncarriers. The levels of ApoB in Han were significant differences among the three genotypes (P < 0.05). The T allele carriers had higher serum ApoB levels as compared with the T allele noncarriers. The levels of TC, TG and LDL-C in Bai Ku Yao were correlated with genotypes (P < 0.05-0.001), whereas the levels of LDL-C in Han were associated with genotypes (P < 0.001). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with sex, age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and blood pressure in the both ethnic groups. Conclusions The differences in serum TC, TG, LDL-C and ApoB levels between the two ethnic groups might partly result from different genotypic and allelic frequencies of the MTHFR C677T or different MTHFR gene-enviromental interactions.

2010-01-01

274

Liz1p, a Novel Fission Yeast Membrane Protein, Is Required for Normal Cell Division When Ribonucleotide Reductase Is Inhibited  

PubMed Central

Ribonucleotide reductase activity is required for generating deoxyribonucleotides for DNA replication. Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells lacking ribonucleotide reductase activity arrest during S phase of the cell cycle. In a screen for hydroxyurea-sensitive mutants in S. pombe, we have identified a gene, liz1+, which when mutated reveals an additional, previously undescribed role for ribonucleotide reductase activity during mitosis. Inactivation of ribonucleotide reductase, by either hydroxyurea or a cdc22-M45 mutation, causes liz1? cells in G2 to undergo an aberrant mitosis, resulting in chromosome missegregation and late mitotic arrest. liz1+ encodes a 514-amino acid protein with strong similarity to a family of transmembrane transporters, and localizes to the plasma membrane of the cell. These results reveal an unexpected G2/M function of ribonucleotide reductase and establish that defects in a transmembrane protein can affect cell cycle progression.

Moynihan, Elizabeth B.; Enoch, Tamar

1999-01-01

275

Sepiapterin reductase deficiency an autosomal recessive DOPA-responsive dystonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diagnosis of a 14-year-old girl with a new homoallelic mutation in the sepiapterin reductase (SR) gene is reported. Initially she presented at the age of 2 with hypotonia and mild cognitive developmental delay, and was diagnosed as having mild methylmalonic aciduria, which was recently identified as methylmalonylCoA racemase deficiency, a new defect in valine-isoleucine metabolism. After a 12-year progression

Nico G. Abeling; Marinus Duran; Henk D. Bakker; Lida Stroomer; Beat Thöny; Nenad Blau; Jan Booij; Bwee Tien Poll-The

2006-01-01

276

Ribonucleotide reductases: essential enzymes for bacterial life  

PubMed Central

Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) is a key enzyme that mediates the synthesis of deoxyribonucleotides, the DNA precursors, for DNA synthesis in every living cell. This enzyme converts ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides, the building blocks for DNA replication, and repair. Clearly, RNR enzymes have contributed to the appearance of genetic material that exists today, being essential for the evolution of all organisms on Earth. The strict control of RNR activity and dNTP pool sizes is important, as pool imbalances increase mutation rates, replication anomalies, and genome instability. Thus, RNR activity should be finely regulated allosterically and at the transcriptional level. In this review we examine the distribution, the evolution, and the genetic regulation of bacterial RNRs. Moreover, this enzyme can be considered an ideal target for anti-proliferative compounds designed to inhibit cell replication in eukaryotic cells (cancer cells), parasites, viruses, and bacteria.

Torrents, Eduard

2014-01-01

277

Cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis and thrombophilic mutations in Western Iran: association with factor V Leiden.  

PubMed

The present study aimed at investigating the prevalence of factor V Leiden G1691A, prothrombin G20210A, and MTHFR C677T in cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis (CVST) patients and their possible association with CVST in Western Iran. A total of 24 CVST patients with the mean age of 37.1 +/- 11.7 years and 100 sex- and age-matched healthy individuals from Kermanshah Province of Iran with ethnic background of Kurd were studied for factor V Leiden G1691A, prothrombin G20210A and MTHFR C677T by PCR-RFLP method using Mnl I, Hind III, and Hinf I restriction enzymes, respectively. Prevalence of factor V Leiden was 16.7% in patients and 2% in control group. A significant association was found between factor V Leiden mutation and CVST with odds ratio (OR) of 9.8 (95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.68-57.2, P = .01). No prothrombin G20210A was found among patients. In patients, MTHFR C677T tended to be higher (58.3%) compared to control (44%), OR of 1.8 (95% CI 0.73-4.5, P = .2). Our study for the first time has determined the prevalence of inherited thrombophilia in a homogenous ethnic group of CVST patients and suggests that factor V Leiden, and not the prothrombin gene mutation is a risk factor for CVST in Western Iran. PMID:19703820

Rahimi, Zohreh; Mozafari, Hadi; Bigvand, Amir Hossein Amiri; Doulabi, Reza Mohammad; Vaisi-Raygani, Asad; Afshari, Dariush; Razazian, Nazanin; Rezaei, Mansour

2010-08-01

278

Isolated menthone reductase and nucleic acid molecules encoding same  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides isolated menthone reductase proteins, isolated nucleic acid molecules encoding menthone reductase proteins, methods for expressing and isolating menthone reductase proteins, and transgenic plants expressing elevated levels of menthone reductase protein.

Croteau, Rodney B; Davis, Edward M; Ringer, Kerry L

2013-04-23

279

Genetics Home Reference: Sepiapterin reductase deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... coordination and balance (ataxia), and involuntary jerking movements (chorea). People with sepiapterin reductase deficiency can experience episodes ... reductase deficiency? acids ; ataxia ; autosomal ; autosomal recessive ; cell ; chorea ; deficiency ; disability ; dopamine ; dystonia ; enzyme ; gene ; involuntary ; microcephaly ; ...

280

Zeatin reductase in Phaseolus embryos  

SciTech Connect

Zeatin was converted to O-xylosylzeatin in embryos of Phaseolus vulgaris . O-xylosyldihydrozeatin was also identified as a zeatin metabolite. Incubation of embryo extracts with {sup 14}C-zeatin and {sup 14}C-O-xylosylzeatin revealed that reduction preceeds the O-xylosylation of zeatin. An enzyme responsible for reducing the N{sup 6}-side chain was isolated and partially purified using ammonium sulfate fractionation and affinity, gel filtration and anion exchange chromatography. The NADPH dependent reductase was zeatin specific and did not recognize cis-zeatin, ribosylzeatin, i{sup 6}Ade or i{sup 6}Ado. Two forms of the reductase could be separated by either gel filtration or anion exchange HPLC. The HMW isozyme (Mr. 55,000) eluted from the anion exchange column later than the LMW isozyme (Mr. 25,000). Interspecific differences in zeatin reductase activity were also detected.

Martin, R.C.; Mok, David, W.S.; Mok, M.C. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (USA))

1989-04-01

281

Pseudoazurin-nitrite reductase interactions.  

PubMed

The nitrite reductase-binding site on pseudoazurin has been determined by using NMR chemical-shift perturbations. It comprises residues in the hydrophobic patch surrounding the exposed copper ligand His81 as well as several positively charged residues. The binding site is similar for both redox states of pseudoazurin, despite differences in the binding mode. The results suggest that pseudoazurin binds in a well-defined orientation. Docking simulations provide a putative structure of the complex with a binding site on nitrite reductase that has several hydrophobic and polar residues as well as a ridge of negatively charged side chains and a copper-to-copper distance of 14 A. PMID:16138306

Impagliazzo, Antonietta; Krippahl, Ludwig; Ubbink, Marcellus

2005-09-01

282

Genomic Organization and Chromosomal Localization of the Human Sepiapterin Reductase Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sepiapterin reductase (SPR) catalyzes the final step of the biosynthetic pathway of tetrahydrobiopterin, which is an essential cofactor for aromatic amino acid hydroxylases and nitric oxide synthases. To aid the analysis of any possible human diseases caused by mutations in SPR, we have cloned and characterized the human SPR gene. The gene is composed of three exons spanning approximately 4

Tamae Ohye; Tada-aki Hori; Setsuko Katoh; Toshiharu Nagatsu; Hiroshi Ichinose

1998-01-01

283

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and transcobalamin genetic polymorphisms in human spontaneous abortion: biological and clinical implications  

PubMed Central

The pathogenesis of human spontaneous abortion involves a complex interaction of several genetic and environmental factors. The firm association between increased homocysteine concentration and neural tube defects (NTD) has led to the hypothesis that high concentrations of homocysteine might be embryotoxic and lead to decreased fetal viability. There are several genetic polymorphisms that are associated with defects in folate- and vitamin B12-dependent homocysteine metabolism. The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T and 1298A>C polymorphisms cause elevated homocysteine concentration and are associated with an increased risk of NTD. Additionally, low concentration of vitamin B12 (cobalamin) or transcobalamin that delivers vitamin B12 to the cells of the body leads to hyperhomocysteinemia and is associated with NTD. This effect involves the transcobalamin (TC) 776C>G polymorphism. Importantly, the biochemical consequences of these polymorphisms can be modified by folate and vitamin B12 supplementation. In this review, I focus on recent studies on the role of hyperhomocysteinemia-associated polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of human spontaneous abortion and discuss the possibility that periconceptional supplementation with folate and vitamin B12 might lower the incidence of miscarriage in women planning a pregnancy.

Zetterberg, Henrik

2004-01-01

284

JAK2 mutation status, hemostatic risk factors and thrombophilic factors in essential thrombocythemia (ET) patients.  

PubMed

The recently discovered JAK2 V617F point mutation, found in 50-60% of ET patients, has been reported to be associated with a higher risk of thrombotic events. In this study, we explored if JAK2 V617F mutation, or coexisting thrombophilic and hemostatic risk factors, contributed to these complications. We examined 32 patients with ET, and looked for pathogenetic JAK2 V617F mutation and prothrombotic genes mutations: factor V Leiden, prothrombin and MTHFR. We also evaluated plasma levels of fibrinogen, factors VIII and XII, AT, protein C, protein S and serum level of homocysteine. Urokinase concentration was assessed in patients' plasma as well as platelet lysates. There was no difference in the number of thrombotic complications between ET patients with and without JAK2 mutation. However, we found a number of thrombophilic and hemostatic risk factors that could contribute to thrombotic complications in ET patients. PMID:21744327

Soko?owska, Bo?ena; Nowaczy?ska, Aleksandra; Bykowska, Ksenia; Chocholska, Sylwia; Wejksza, Katarzyna; Walter-Croneck, Adam; Gromek, Tomasz; Kowalska, Anna M; Kandefer-Szersze?, Martyna; Dmoszy?ska, Anna

2011-01-01

285

Purification and properties of aldose reductase and aldehyde reductase II from human erythrocyte.  

PubMed

Aldose reductase (EC 1.1.1.21) and aldehyde reductase II (L-hexonate dehydrogenase, EC 1.1.1.2) have been purified to homogeneity from human erythrocytes by using ion-exchange chromatography, chromatofocusing, affinity chromatography, and Sephadex gel filtration. Both enzymes are monomeric, Mr 32,500, by the criteria of the Sephadex gel filtration and polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis under denaturing conditions. The isoelectric pH's for aldose reductase and aldehyde reductase II were determined to be 5.47 and 5.06, respectively. Substrate specificity studies showed that aldose reductase, besides catalyzing the reduction of various aldehydes such as propionaldehyde, pyridine-3-aldehyde and glyceraldehyde, utilizes aldo-sugars such as glucose and galactose. Aldehyde reductase II, however, did not use aldo-sugars as substrate. Aldose reductase activity is expressed with either NADH or NADPH as cofactors, whereas aldehyde reductase II can utilize only NADPH. The pH optima for aldose reductase and aldehyde reductase II are 6.2 and 7.0, respectively. Both enzymes are susceptible to the inhibition by p-hydroxymercuribenzoate and N-ethylmaleimide. They are also inhibited to varying degrees by aldose reductase inhibitors such as sorbinil, alrestatin, quercetrin, tetramethylene glutaric acid, and sodium phenobarbital. The presence of 0.4 M lithium sulfate in the assay mixture is essential for the full expression of aldose reductase activity whereas it completely inhibits aldehyde reductase II. Amino acid compositions and immunological studies further show that erythrocyte aldose reductase is similar to human and bovine lens aldose reductase, and that aldehyde reductase II is similar to human liver and brain aldehyde reductase II. PMID:3922304

Das, B; Srivastava, S K

1985-05-01

286

Nitrate reductase from Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides.  

PubMed Central

The facultative phototroph Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides DSM158 was incapable of either assimilating or dissimilating nitrate, although the organism could reduce it enzymatically to nitrite either anaerobically in the light or aerobically in the dark. Reduction of nitrate was mediated by a nitrate reductase bound to chromatophores that could be easily solubilized and functioned with chemically reduced viologens or photochemically reduced flavins as electron donors. The enzyme was solubilized, and some of its kinetic and molecular parameters were determined. It seemed to be nonadaptive, ammonia did not repress its synthesis, and its activity underwent a rapid decline when the cells entered the stationary growth phase. Studies with inhibitors and with metal antagonists indicated that molybdenum and possibly iron participate in the enzymatic reduction of nitrate. The conjectural significance of this nitrate reductase in phototrophic bacteria is discussed.

Kerber, N L; Cardenas, J

1982-01-01

287

Identification of missense, nonsense, and deletion mutations in the GRHPR gene in patients with primary hyperoxaluria type II (PH2)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary hyperoxaluria type II (PH2) is a rare disease characterized by the absence of an enzyme with glyoxylate reductase, hydroxypyruvate reductase, and D-glycerate dehydrogenase activities. The gene encoding this enzyme (GRHPR) has been characterized, and a single mutation has been detected in four PH2 patients. In this report, we have identified five novel mutations. One nonsense mutation (C295T) results in

Kylie E. Webster; Patrick M. Ferree; Ross P. Holmes; Scott D. Cramer

2000-01-01

288

21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Glutathione reductase assay. 864.7375 Section...Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7375 Glutathione reductase assay. (a) Identification. A glutathione reductase assay is a device used...

2010-04-01

289

21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Glutathione reductase assay. 864.7375 Section...Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7375 Glutathione reductase assay. (a) Identification. A glutathione reductase assay is a device used...

2009-04-01

290

Studies on the interaction of NADPH with Rhodobacter sphaeroides biotin sulfoxide reductase.  

PubMed

Rhodobacter sphaeroides biotin sulfoxide reductase (BSOR) contains the bis(molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide)molybdenum cofactor and catalyzes the reduction of D-biotin-D-sulfoxide to biotin. This protein is the only member of the dimethyl sulfoxide reductase family of molybdopterin enzymes that utilizes NADPH as the direct electron donor to the catalytic Mo center. Kinetic studies using stopped-flow spectrophotometry indicate that BSOR reduction by NADPH (>1000 s(-1)) is faster than steady-state turnover (440 s(-1)) and has shown that BSOR reduction occurs in concert with NADPH oxidation with no indication of a Mo(V) intermediate species. Because no crystallographic structure is currently available for BSOR, a protein structure was modeled using the structures for R. sphaeroides dimethyl sulfoxide reductase, Rhodobacter capsulatus dimethyl sulfoxide reductase, and Shewanella massilia trimethylamine N-oxide reductase as the templates. A potential NADPH-binding site was identified and tested by site-directed mutagenesis of residues within the area. Mutation of Arg137 or Asp136 reduced the ability of NADPH to serve as the electron donor to BSOR, indicating that the NADPH-binding site in BSOR is located in the active-site funnel of the putative structure where it can directly reduce the Mo center. Along with kinetic and spectroscopic data, the location of this binding site supports a direct hydride transfer mechanism for NADPH reduction of BSOR. PMID:15366932

Nelson, Kimberly Johnson; Rajagopalan, K V

2004-09-01

291

Role of aldo-keto reductase family 1 (AKR1) enzymes in human steroid metabolism.  

PubMed

Human aldo-keto reductases AKR1C1-AKR1C4 and AKR1D1 play essential roles in the metabolism of all steroid hormones, the biosynthesis of neurosteroids and bile acids, the metabolism of conjugated steroids, and synthetic therapeutic steroids. These enzymes catalyze NADPH dependent reductions at the C3, C5, C17 and C20 positions on the steroid nucleus and side-chain. AKR1C1-AKR1C4 act as 3-keto, 17-keto and 20-ketosteroid reductases to varying extents, while AKR1D1 acts as the sole ?(4)-3-ketosteroid-5?-reductase (steroid 5?-reductase) in humans. AKR1 enzymes control the concentrations of active ligands for nuclear receptors and control their ligand occupancy and trans-activation, they also regulate the amount of neurosteroids that can modulate the activity of GABAA and NMDA receptors. As such they are involved in the pre-receptor regulation of nuclear and membrane bound receptors. Altered expression of individual AKR1C genes is related to development of prostate, breast, and endometrial cancer. Mutations in AKR1C1 and AKR1C4 are responsible for sexual development dysgenesis and mutations in AKR1D1 are causative in bile-acid deficiency. PMID:24189185

Rižner, Tea Lanišnik; Penning, Trevor M

2014-01-01

292

Identification of the Arabidopsis CHL3 gene as the nitrate reductase structural gene NIA2.  

PubMed Central

Chlorate, the chlorine analog of nitrate, is a herbicide that has been used to select mutants impaired in the process of nitrate assimilation. In Arabidopsis thaliana, mutations at any one of eight distinct loci confer resistance to chlorate. The molecular identities of the genes at these loci are not known; however, one of these loci--chl3--maps very near the nitrate reductase structural gene NIA2. Through the isolation, characterization, and genetic analysis of new chlorate-resistant mutants generated by gamma irradiation, we have been able to demonstrate that the CHL3 gene and the NIA2 gene are identical. Three new chlorate-resistant mutants were identified that had deletions of the entire NIA2 gene. These nia2 null mutants were viable and still retained 10% of wild-type nitrate reductase activity in the leaves of the plants. All three deletion mutations were found to be new alleles of chl3. Introduction of the NIA2 gene back into these chl3 mutants by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation partially complemented their mutant phenotype. From these data, we conclude that Arabidopsis has at least two functional nitrate reductase genes and that the NIA2 gene product accounts for the majority of the leaf nitrate reductase activity and chlorate sensitivity of Arabidopsis plants.

Wilkinson, J Q; Crawford, N M

1991-01-01

293

One carbon metabolism disturbances and the C677T MTHFR gene polymorphism in children with autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), which include the prototypic autistic disorder (AD), Asperger's syndrome (AS) and pervasive developmental disorders not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), are complex neurodevelopmental conditions of unknown aetiology. The current study investigated the metabolites in the methionine cycle, the transsulphuration pathway, folate, vitamin B(12) and the C677T polymorphism of the MTHFR gene in three groups of children diagnosed with AD (n= 15), AS (n= 5) and PDD-NOS (n= 19) and their age- and sex-matched controls (n= 25). No metabolic disturbances were seen in the AS patients, while in the AD and PDD-NOS groups, lower plasma levels of methionine (P= 0.01 and P= 0.03, respectively) and alpha-aminobutyrate were observed (P= 0.01 and P= 0.001, respectively). Only in the AD group, plasma cysteine (P= 0.02) and total blood glutathione (P= 0.02) were found to be reduced. Although there was a trend towards lower levels of serine, glycine, N, N-dimethylglycine in AD patients, the plasma levels of these metabolites as well as the levels of homocysteine and cystathionine were not statistically different in any of the ASDs groups. The serum levels of vitamin B(12) and folate were in the normal range. The results of the MTHFR gene analysis showed a normal distribution of the C677T polymorphism in children with ASDs, but the frequency of the 677T allele was slightly more prevalent in AD patients. Our study indicates a possible role for the alterations in one carbon metabolism in the pathophysiology of ASDs and provides, for the first time, preliminary evidence for metabolic and genetic differences between clinical subtypes of ASDs. PMID:19267885

Pa?ca, Sergiu P; Dronca, Eleonora; Kaucsár, Tamás; Craciun, Elena C; Endreffy, Emõke; Ferencz, Beatrix K; Iftene, Felicia; Benga, Ileana; Cornean, Rodica; Banerjee, Ruma; Dronca, Maria

2009-10-01

294

Screening for mutations in candidate genes for hypospadias.  

PubMed

Hypospadias. a condition with a frontally placed urethral orifice on the penis, is the most common malformation in males. During fetal development several components are necessary for normal male genital development. Testosterone and dihydrotestosterone act via the androgen receptor but a defective receptor function results in different degrees of genital malformations. Testosterone-5alpha-reductase converts testosterone to dihydrotestosterone, which is crucial for normal differentiation, and a total lack of this enzyme results, in syndromes with hypospadias. The Wilms' tumour 1 (WT1) gene is expressed in the fetal gonad and genital malformations can occur due to WT1 gene mutations. These genes are therefore strong candidate genes for hypospadias. We have analysed 35 boys with hypopadias and one girl diagnosed as with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome, using exon by exon polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the AR, WTI and 5alpha-reductase genes and screened for point mutations and performed subsequent DNA sequencing. No mutations in any of these genes were found in the 26 patients with isolated hypospadias. Two patients with severe hypospadias with cryptorchidism were found to carry mutations in the androgen receptor gene. Also the girl with clinically diagnosed complete androgen insensitivity was found to be homozygous for a splice mutation in the 5alpha-reductase gene. In summary, mutations in the WT1, AR and 5alpha-reductase genes are not common causes of isolated hypospadias. PMID:10092153

Nordenskjöld, A; Friedman, E; Tapper-Persson, M; Söderhäll, C; Leviav, A; Svensson, J; Anvret, M

1999-01-01

295

Levodopa response reveals sepiapterin reductase deficiency in a female heterozygote with adrenoleukodystrophy.  

PubMed

We report a 4-year-old girl heterozygous for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) who displayed dopa-responsive motor symptoms and was subsequently diagnosed with sepiapterin reductase deficiency (SPR; OMIM 182125). Her father and paternal uncle had known ALD, and she was found to have elevated plasma very long chain fatty acids and a mutation in the ABCD1 gene. She had language delay, severe hypotonia and abnormal eye movements and responded dramatically to a trial of levodopa (4 mg/kg per day). Two mutations within the gene for sepiapterin reductase were found and cultured skin fibroblasts demonstrated near zero activity of the enzyme. This case illustrates the importance of treatment trials that may give rise to biochemical clues to the underlying diagnosis, and the need to continue to search for diagnoses despite a misleading family history. PMID:23430877

Thibert, Ronald; Hyland, Keith; Chiles, Joe; Steinberg, Steven; Eichler, Florian

2012-01-01

296

Alkyl Hydroperoxide Reductase Repair by Helicobacter pylori Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase  

PubMed Central

Protein exposure to oxidants such as HOCl leads to formation of methionine sulfoxide (MetSO) residues, which can be repaired by methionine sulfoxide reductase (Msr). A Helicobacter pylori msr strain was more sensitive to HOCl-mediated killing than the parent. Because of its abundance in H. pylori and its high methionine content, alkyl hydroperoxide reductase C (AhpC) was hypothesized to be prone to methionine oxidation. AhpC was expressed as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli. AhpC activity was abolished by HOCl, while all six methionine residues of the enzyme were fully to partially oxidized. Upon incubation with a Msr repair mixture, AhpC activity was restored to nonoxidized levels and the MetSO residues were repaired to methionine, albeit to different degrees. The two most highly oxidized and then Msr-repaired methionine residues in AhpC, Met101 and Met133, were replaced with isoleucine residues by site-directed mutagenesis, either individually or together. E. coli cells expressing variant versions were more sensitive to t-butyl hydroperoxide than cells expressing native protein, and purified AhpC variant proteins had 5% to 39% of the native enzyme activity. Variant proteins were still able to oligomerize like the native version, and circular dichroism (CD) spectra of variant proteins revealed no significant change in AhpC conformation, indicating that the loss of activity in these variants was not related to major structural alterations. Our results suggest that both Met101 and Met133 residues are important for AhpC catalytic activity and that their integrity relies on the presence of a functional Msr.

Benoit, Stephane L.; Bayyareddy, Krishnareddy; Mahawar, Manish; Sharp, Joshua S.

2013-01-01

297

Alkyl hydroperoxide reductase repair by Helicobacter pylori methionine sulfoxide reductase.  

PubMed

Protein exposure to oxidants such as HOCl leads to formation of methionine sulfoxide (MetSO) residues, which can be repaired by methionine sulfoxide reductase (Msr). A Helicobacter pylori msr strain was more sensitive to HOCl-mediated killing than the parent. Because of its abundance in H. pylori and its high methionine content, alkyl hydroperoxide reductase C (AhpC) was hypothesized to be prone to methionine oxidation. AhpC was expressed as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli. AhpC activity was abolished by HOCl, while all six methionine residues of the enzyme were fully to partially oxidized. Upon incubation with a Msr repair mixture, AhpC activity was restored to nonoxidized levels and the MetSO residues were repaired to methionine, albeit to different degrees. The two most highly oxidized and then Msr-repaired methionine residues in AhpC, Met101 and Met133, were replaced with isoleucine residues by site-directed mutagenesis, either individually or together. E. coli cells expressing variant versions were more sensitive to t-butyl hydroperoxide than cells expressing native protein, and purified AhpC variant proteins had 5% to 39% of the native enzyme activity. Variant proteins were still able to oligomerize like the native version, and circular dichroism (CD) spectra of variant proteins revealed no significant change in AhpC conformation, indicating that the loss of activity in these variants was not related to major structural alterations. Our results suggest that both Met101 and Met133 residues are important for AhpC catalytic activity and that their integrity relies on the presence of a functional Msr. PMID:24097943

Benoit, Stéphane L; Bayyareddy, Krishnareddy; Mahawar, Manish; Sharp, Joshua S; Maier, Robert J

2013-12-01

298

Isolation and characterization of a nitrate reductase deficient mutant of Chlorella ellipsoidea (Chlorophyta)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using X-ray mutagenesis and a chlorate-resistance selection method, a nitrate reductase (NR)-deficient mutant of Chlorella ellipsoidea nrm-4 was isolated, which is incapable of using NO3? as a nitrogen source. NR activity was not detected in nrm-4, suggesting this is a null mutation. Molecular analysis revealed that nrm-4 has a two base deletion at position 2348–49 of its DNA sequence, which

Yiqin Wang; Yan Chen; Xiaoyu Zhang; Peng Wang; Degui Geng; Shimin Zhao; Liming Zhang; Yongru Sun

2005-01-01

299

SEPIAPTERIN REDUCTASE DEFICIENCY: MOLECULAR ANALYSIS IN A NEW CASE PRESENTING WITH NEUROTRANSMITTER DEFICIENCY WITHOUT HYPERPHENYLALANINEMIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 27 year-old woman presenting with the clinical picture characterized by hypersomnolence, mild psychomotor retardation, dystonia, oculomotor apraxia, weakness, and striking diurnal variations of symptoms was found to be sepiapterin reductase (SR)-deficient by investigation s of pterins in cytokine stimulated fibroblasts. There was no detectable SR activity in the non-stimulated fibroblasts and mutation analysis revealed a homozygous Arg to Gly

Lina Elzaouk; Hatam Osmani; Walter Leimbacher; Anne Romstad; Jennifer Friedman; Mia Maccollin; Beat Thöny; Nenad Blau

300

Inhibition of glutathione reductase by oncomodulin.  

PubMed

Evidence for a specific interaction between oncomodulin and glutathione reductase is presented. Glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.2) isolated from either the bovine intestinal mucosa or the rat liver was bound in a Ca2(+)-dependent manner to oncomodulin which was covalently attached to Sepharose. In addition, glutathione reductase was able to catalyze the reduction of the disulfide-linked dimer of oncomodulin. The interaction of these proteins could also be indirectly demonstrated by monitoring glutathione reductase activity since oncomodulin was shown to inhibit the enzyme in a dose-dependent manner with an apparent IC50 of approximately 5 microM. The kinetic analysis of the oncomodulin-dependent effects on glutathione reductase activity indicates that oncomodulin interacts at a site other than the active site as the oncomodulin-induced inhibition was of the noncompetitive type. The in vivo inhibition of glutathione reductase appears to be an oncomodulin-specific effect as closely related members of the troponin C superfamily such as rabbit (pI 5.5) or carp (pI 4.25) parvalbumins, as well as calmodulin, failed to affect the activity of this enzyme. The present in vitro study indicating that oncomodulin can regulate the activity of glutathione reductase could be very significant with respect to the elucidation of a physiological role for oncomodulin. PMID:2306116

Palmer, E J; MacManus, J P; Mutus, B

1990-02-15

301

Polymorphisms in ERCC1, GSTs, TS and MTHFR predict clinical outcomes of gastric cancer patients treated with platinum/5-Fu-based chemotherapy: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Despite genetic polymorphism in response to platinum/5-Fu chemotherapy in gastric cancer (GC) has been studied, data reported so far are conflicting and critical consideration is needed before translation to the treatment of GC. Methods We performed a meta-analysis by using 20 eligible studies to examine polymorphisms of ERCC1, GSTs, TS and MTHFR in predicting clinical outcomes (response rate, overall survival and toxicity) of GC patients treated with platinum/5-Fu-based chemotherapy. The association was measured using random/fixed effect odds ratios (ORs) or hazard ratios (HRs) combined with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) according to the studies’ heterogeneity. Statistical analysis was performed with the software STATA 9.0 package. Results No significant association was found between response rate and genetic polymorphism in TS, MTHFR, ERCC1, GSTM1 and GSTP1. However, response rate was higher in GSTT1 (+) genotype compared with GSTT1 (?) genotype (T-/T+: OR=0.67, 95% CI: 0.47–0.97). With regard to long term outcomes, we could observe a significant longer overall survival in TS 3R/3R [(2R2R+2R3R)/3R3R: HR=1.29, 95% CI: 1.02–1.64] and GSTP1 GG/GA [(GG+AG)/AA: HR=0.51, 95% CI: (0.39, 0.67)] genotypes. In addition, significant association was demonstrated between toxicity and genetic polymorphism in TS, MTHFR and GSTP1 in included studies. Conclusion Polymorphisms of ERCC1, GSTs, TS and MTHFR were closely associated with clinical outcomes of GC patients treated with platinum/5-Fu-based chemotherapy. Studies with large sample size using the method of multi-variant analyses may help us to give more persuasive data on the putative association in future.

2012-01-01

302

Association of MTHFR and RFC1 gene polymorphism with hyperhomocysteinemia and its modulation by vitamin B12 and folic acid in an Indian population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Objectives:Unlike most Western populations, MTHFR 677T is a rare allele and a risk factor for a variety of disorders in India. What kind of nutritional (environmental) and\\/or genetic factors could contribute to the genetic risk is not known. To assess the incidence of hyperhomocysteinemia and its correlation with the polymorphism in homocysteine (Hcy)-pathway genes and associated cofactors in the native

K K Sukla; R Raman

2012-01-01

303

Imine Reductases: A Comparison of Glutamate Dehydrogenase to Ketimine Reductases in the Brain  

PubMed Central

A key intermediate in the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH)-catalyzed reaction is an imine. Mechanistically, therefore, GDH exhibits similarities to the ketimine reductases. In the current review, we briefly discuss (a) the metabolic importance of the GDH reaction in liver and brain, (b) the mechanistic similarities between GDH and the ketimine reductases, (c) the metabolic importance of the brain ketimine reductases, and (d) the neurochemical consequences of defective ketimine reductases. Our review contains many historical references to the early work on amino acid metabolism. This work tends to be overlooked nowadays, but is crucial for a contemporary understanding of the central importance of ketimines in nitrogen and intermediary metabolism. The ketimine reductases are important enzymes linking nitrogen flow among several key amino acids, yet have been little studied. The cerebral importance of the ketimine reductases is an area of biomedical research that deserves far more attention.

Jamie, Joanne F.; Cooper, Arthur J. L.

2013-01-01

304

Carbonyl reductase and NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase activities in human tumoral versus normal tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of bioreductive agents in enzyme-directed bioreductive therapy has been proposed to take advantage not only of hypoxia in tumours, but also of the presence of reductases that metabolise such compounds. In this study, we studied the activities of NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase (P450R) and carbonyl reductase (CR) in 17 human lung tumours and 18 human breast tumours, together

A López de Cerain; A Mar??n; M. A Idoate; M. T Tuñón; J Bello

1999-01-01

305

Molecular simulation to investigate the cofactor specificity for pichia stipitis Xylose reductase.  

PubMed

Xylose is one of the most abundant carbohydrates in nature, and widely used to produce bioethanol via fermentation in industry. Xylulose can produce two key enzymes: xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase. Owing to the disparate cofactor specificities of xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase, intracellular redox imbalance is detected during the xylose fermentation, resulting in low ethanol yields. To overcome this barrier, a common strategy is applied to artificially modify the cofactor specificity of xylose reductase. In this study, we utilized molecular simulation approaches to construct a 3D (three-dimensional) structural model for the NADP-dependent Pichia stipitis xylose reductase (PsXR). Based on the 3D model, the favourable binding modes for both cofactors NAD and NADP were obtained using the flexible docking procedure and molecular dynamics simulation. Structural analysis of the favourable binding modes showed that the cofactor binding site of PsXR was composed of 3 major components: a hydrophilic pocket, a hydrophobic pocket as well as a linker channel between the aforementioned two pockets. The hydrophilic pocket could recognize the nicotinamide moiety of the cofactors by hydrogen bonding networks, while the hydrophobic pocket functioned to position the adenine moiety of the cofactors by hydrophobic and ?-? stacking interactions. The linker channel contained some key residues for ligand-binding; their mutation could have impact to the specificity of PsXR. Finally, it was found that any of the two single mutations, K21A and K270N, might reverse the cofactor specificity of PsXR from major NADP- to NADdependent, which was further confirmed by the additional experiments. Our findings may provide useful insights into the cofactor specificity of PsXR, stimulating new strategies for better designing xylose reductase and improving ethanol production in industry. PMID:23521003

Xia, Xiao-Le; Cong, Shan; Weng, Xiao-Rong; Chen, Jin-Hua; Wang, Jing-Fang; Chou, Kuo-Chen

2013-11-01

306

The KC Channel in the cbb3-Type Respiratory Oxygen Reductase from Rhodobacter capsulatus Is Required for Both Chemical and Pumped Protons.  

PubMed

The heme-copper superfamily of proton-pumping respiratory oxygen reductases are classified into three families (A, B, and C families) based on structural and phylogenetic analyses. Most studies have focused on the A family, which includes the eukaryotic mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase as well as many bacterial homologues. Members of the C family, also called the cbb3-type oxygen reductases, are found only in prokaryotes and are of particular interest because of their presence in a number of human pathogens. All of the heme-copper oxygen reductases require proton-conducting channels to convey chemical protons to the active site for water formation and to convey pumped protons across the membrane. Previous work indicated that there is only one proton-conducting input channel (the K(C) channel) present in the cbb3-type oxygen reductases, which, if correct, must be utilized by both chemical protons and pumped protons. In this work, the effects of mutations in the K(C) channel of the cbb3-type oxygen reductase from Rhodobacter capsulatus were investigated by expressing the mutants in a strain lacking other respiratory oxygen reductases. Proton pumping was evaluated by using intact cells, and catalytic oxygen reductase activity was measured in isolated membranes. Two mutations, N346M and Y374F, severely reduced catalytic activity, presumably by blocking the chemical protons required at the active site. One mutation, T272A, resulted in a substantially lower proton-pumping stoichiometry but did not inhibit oxygen reductase activity. These are the first experimental data in support of the postulate that pumped protons are taken up from the bacterial cytoplasm through the K(C) channel. PMID:24563037

Y?ld?z, Gülgez Gökçe; Gennis, Robert B; Daldal, Fevzi; Oztürk, Mehmet

2014-05-01

307

Methods and Compositions Involving Aldose Reductase.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Embodiments of the invention include methods and compositions for the inhibition of Aldose Reductase by nitric oxide. Certain embodiments of the invention include the induction of nitric oxide by administration of a nitric oxide donor, nitric oxide precur...

A. Bhatnagar K. V. Ramana S. K. Srivastava

2006-01-01

308

Structure of a bacterial homologue of vitamin K epoxide reductase  

SciTech Connect

Vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) generates vitamin K hydroquinone to sustain {gamma}-carboxylation of many blood coagulation factors. Here, we report the 3.6 {angstrom} crystal structure of a bacterial homologue of VKOR from Synechococcus sp. The structure shows VKOR in complex with its naturally fused redox partner, a thioredoxin-like domain, and corresponds to an arrested state of electron transfer. The catalytic core of VKOR is a four transmembrane helix bundle that surrounds a quinone, connected through an additional transmembrane segment with the periplasmic thioredoxin-like domain. We propose a pathway for how VKOR uses electrons from cysteines of newly synthesized proteins to reduce a quinone, a mechanism confirmed by in vitro reconstitution of vitamin K-dependent disulphide bridge formation. Our results have implications for the mechanism of the mammalian VKOR and explain how mutations can cause resistance to the VKOR inhibitor warfarin, the most commonly used oral anticoagulant.

Li, Weikai; Schulman, Sol; Dutton, Rachel J.; Boyd, Dana; Beckwith, Jon; Rapoport, Tom A. (Harvard-Med); (HHMI)

2010-03-19

309

Structure of a bacterial homolog of vitamin K epoxide reductase  

PubMed Central

Vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) generates vitamin K hydroquinone to sustain ?-carboxylation of many blood coagulation factors. Here, we report the 3.6Å crystal structure of a bacterial homolog of VKOR from Synechococcus sp. The structure shows VKOR in complex with its naturally fused redox partner, a thioredoxin-like domain, and corresponds to an arrested state of electron transfer. The catalytic core of VKOR is a four transmembrane helix bundle that surrounds a quinone, connected through an additional transmembrane segment with the periplasmic thioredoxin-like domain. We propose a pathway for how VKOR uses electrons from newly synthesized proteins to reduce a quinone, a mechanism confirmed by in vitro reconstitution of vitamin K-dependent disulfide bridge formation. Our results have implications for the mechanism of the mammalian VKOR and explain how mutations can cause resistance to the VKOR inhibitor warfarin, the most commonly used oral anticoagulant.

Li, Weikai; Schulman, Sol; Dutton, Rachel J.; Boyd, Dana; Beckwith, Jon; Rapoport, Tom A.

2010-01-01

310

Divergent evolution of protein conformational dynamics in dihydrofolate reductase  

PubMed Central

Molecular evolution is driven by mutations, which may affect the fitness of an organism and are then subject to natural selection or genetic drift. Analysis of primary protein sequences and tertiary structures has yielded valuable insights into the evolution of protein function, but little is known about evolution of functional mechanisms, protein dynamics and conformational plasticity essential for activity. We characterized the atomic-level motions across divergent members of the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) family. Despite structural similarity, E. coli and human DHFRs use different dynamic mechanisms to perform the same function, and human DHFR cannot complement DHFR-deficient E. coli cells. Identification of the primary sequence determinants of flexibility in DHFRs from several species allowed us to propose a likely scenario for the evolution of functionally important DHFR dynamics, following a pattern of divergent evolution that is tuned by the cellular environment.

Bhabha, Gira; Ekiert, Damian C.; Jennewein, Madeleine; Zmasek, Christian M.; Tuttle, Lisa M.; Kroon, Gerard; Dyson, H. Jane; Godzik, Adam; Wilson, Ian A.; Wright, Peter E.

2013-01-01

311

Divergent evolution of protein conformational dynamics in dihydrofolate reductase.  

PubMed

Molecular evolution is driven by mutations, which may affect the fitness of an organism and are then subject to natural selection or genetic drift. Analysis of primary protein sequences and tertiary structures has yielded valuable insights into the evolution of protein function, but little is known about the evolution of functional mechanisms, protein dynamics and conformational plasticity essential for activity. We characterized the atomic-level motions across divergent members of the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) family. Despite structural similarity, Escherichia coli and human DHFRs use different dynamic mechanisms to perform the same function, and human DHFR cannot complement DHFR-deficient E. coli cells. Identification of the primary-sequence determinants of flexibility in DHFRs from several species allowed us to propose a likely scenario for the evolution of functionally important DHFR dynamics following a pattern of divergent evolution that is tuned by cellular environment. PMID:24077226

Bhabha, Gira; Ekiert, Damian C; Jennewein, Madeleine; Zmasek, Christian M; Tuttle, Lisa M; Kroon, Gerard; Dyson, H Jane; Godzik, Adam; Wilson, Ian A; Wright, Peter E

2013-11-01

312

Isolation, sequence identification and tissue expression profile of two novel soybean (glycine max) genes-vestitone reductase and chalcone reductase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete mRNA sequences of two soybean (glycine max) genes-vestitone reductase and chalcone reductase, were amplified\\u000a using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends methods. The sequence analysis of these two genes revealed that soybean vestitone\\u000a reductase gene encodes a protein of 327 amino acids which has high homology with the vestitone reductase of Medicago sativa\\u000a (77%). The soybean chalcone reductase

G. Y. Liu

2009-01-01

313

A dissimilatory nitrite reductase in Paracoccus halodenitrificans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Paracoccus halodenitrificans produced a membrane-associated nitrite reductase. Spectrophotometric analysis showed it to be associated with a cd-cytochrome and located on the inner side of the cytoplasmic membrane. When supplied with nitrite, membrane preparations produced nitrous oxide and nitric oxide in different ratios depending on the electron donor employed. The nitrite reductase was maximally active at relatively low concentrations of sodium chloride and remained attached to the membranes at 100 mM sodium chloride.

Grant, M. A.; Hochstein, L. I.

1984-01-01

314

Monoclonal Antibodies to Human Thioredoxin Reductase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thioredoxin system consisting of thioredoxin (Trx), thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), and NADPH is an electron donor for ribonucleotide reductase but has also been implicated in other cellular events, including secretion, growth promotion, regulation of transcription factors, protection against oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Mammalian TrxR is a dimeric flavoprotein with 58 kDa subunits each with a catalytically active selenocysteine residue. To

Anita Söderberg; Bita Sahaf; Arne Holmgren; Anders Rosén

1998-01-01

315

Molecular evolution of nitrate reductase genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the evolutionary mechanisms and relationships of nitrate reductases (NRs), the nucleotide sequences encoding\\u000a 19 nitrate reductase (NR) genes from 16 species of fungi, algae, and higher plants were analyzed. The NR genes examined show\\u000a substantial sequence similarity, particularly within functional domains, and large variations in GC content at the third codon\\u000a position and intron number. The intron positions

Jizhong Zhou; Andris Kleinhofs

1996-01-01

316

A phase II trial of sequential ribonucleotide reductase inhibition in aggressive myeloproliferative neoplasms  

PubMed Central

Myeloproliferative neoplasms are a varied group of disorders that can have prolonged chronic phases, but eventually accelerate and can transform into a secondary acute myeloid leukemia that is ultimately fatal. Triapine is a novel inhibitor of the M2 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase. Sequential inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase with triapine and an M1 ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor (fludarabine) was noted to be safe, and led to a 29% complete plus partial response rate in myeloproliferative neoplasms. This article reports the findings of a phase II trial of triapine (105 mg/m2/day) followed by fludarabine (30 mg/m2/day) daily for 5 consecutive days in 37 patients with accelerated myeloproliferative neoplasms and secondary acute myeloid leukemia. The overall response rate was 49% (18/37), with a complete remission rate of 24% (9/37). Overall response rates and complete remissions were seen in all disease subsets, including secondary acute myeloid leukemia, in which the overall response rate and complete remission rate were 48% and 33%, respectively. All patients with known JAK2 V617F mutations (6/6) responded. The median overall survival of the entire cohort was 6.9 months, with a median overall survival of both overall responders and complete responders of 10.6 months. These data further demonstrate the promise of sequential inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase in patients with accelerated myeloproliferative neoplasms and secondary acute myeloid leukemia. This study was registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00381550).

Zeidner, Joshua F.; Karp, Judith E.; Blackford, Amanda L.; Smith, B. Douglas; Gojo, Ivana; Gore, Steven D.; Levis, Mark J.; Carraway, Hetty E.; Greer, Jacqueline M.; Ivy, S. Percy; Pratz, Keith W.; McDevitt, Michael A.

2014-01-01

317

CATALYTIC ADVANTAGES PROVIDED BY SELENOCYSTEINE IN METHIONINE-S-SULFOXIDE REDUCTASES  

PubMed Central

Methionine sulfoxide reductases are key enzymes that repair oxidatively damaged proteins. Two distinct stereospecific enzyme families are responsible for this function: MsrA (methionine-S-sulfoxide reductase) and MsrB (methionine-R-sulfoxide reductase). In the present study, we identified multiple selenoprotein MsrA sequences in organisms from bacteria to animals. We characterized the selenocysteine (Sec)-containing Chlamydomonas MsrA and found that this protein exhibited 10–50-fold higher activity than either its cysteine (Cys) mutant form or the natural mouse Cys-containing MsrA, making this selenoenzyme the most efficient MsrA known. We also generated a selenoprotein form of mouse MsrA and found that the presence of Sec increased the activity of this enzyme when a resolving Cys was mutated in the protein. These data suggest that the presence of Sec improves the reduction of methionine sulfoxide by MsrAs. However, the oxidized selenoprotein could not always be efficiently reduced to regenerate the active enzyme. Overall, this study demonstrates that sporadically evolved Sec-containing forms of methionine sulfoxide reductases reflect catalytic advantages provided by Sec in these and likely other thiol-dependent oxidoreductases.

Kim, Hwa-Young; Fomenko, Dmitri E.; Yoon, Yeo-Eun; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

2008-01-01

318

Ribonucleotide reductase activity is regulated by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)  

PubMed Central

Summary Synthesis of dNTPs is required for both DNA replication and DNA repair and is catalyzed by ribonucleotide reductases (RNR), which convert ribonucleotides to their deoxy forms [1, 2]. Maintaining the correct levels of dNTPs for DNA synthesis is important for minimising the mutation rate [3-7], and this is achieved by tight regulation of ribonucleotide reductase [2, 8, 9]. In fission yeast, ribonucleotide reductase is regulated in part by a small protein inhibitor, Spd1, which is degraded in S phase and after DNA damage to allow up-regulation of dNTP supply [10-12]. Spd1 degradation is mediated by the activity of the CRL4Cdt2 ubiquitin ligase complex [5, 13, 14]. This has been reported to be dependent on modulation of Cdt2 levels which are cell cycle regulated, peaking in S phase, and which also increase after DNA damage in a checkpoint-dependent manner [7, 13]. We show here that Cdt2 levels fluctuations are not sufficient to regulate Spd1 proteolysis and that the key step in this event is the interaction of Spd1 with the polymerase processivity factor PCNA, complexed onto DNA. This mechanism thus provides a direct link between DNA synthesis and ribonucleotide reductase regulation.

Salguero, Israel; Guarino, Estrella; Shepherd, Marianne; Deegan, Tom; Havens, Courtney G.; MacNeill, Stuart A.; Walter, Johannes C.; Kearsey, Stephen E.

2014-01-01

319

Characterization of thyroidal glutathione reductase  

SciTech Connect

Glutathione levels were determined in bovine and rat thyroid tissue by enzymatic conjugation with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene using glutathione S-transferase. Bovine thyroid tissue contained 1.31 {+-} 0.04 mM reduced glutathione (GSH) and 0.14 {+-} 0.02 mM oxidized glutathione (GSSG). In the rat, the concentration of GSH was 2.50 {+-} 0.05 mM while GSSG was 0.21 {+-} 0.03 mM. Glutathione reductase (GR) was purified from bovine thyroid to electrophoretic homogeneity by ion exchange, affinity and molecular exclusion chromatography. A molecular weight range of 102-109 kDa and subunit size of 55 kDa were determined for GR. Thyroidal GR was shown to be a favoprotein with one FAD per subunit. The Michaelis constants of bovine thyroidal GR were determined to be 21.8 {mu}M for NADPH and 58.8 {mu}M for GSSG. The effect of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroxine (T{sub 4}) on in vivo levels of GR and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase were determined in rat thyroid homogenates. Both enzymes were stimulated by TSH treatment and markedly reduced following T{sub 4} treatment. Lysosomal hydrolysis of ({sup 125}I)-labeled and unlabeled thyroglobulin was examined using size exclusion HPLC.

Raasch, R.J.

1989-01-01

320

Thiosulfate Reductase of Desulfovibrio vulgaris  

PubMed Central

The thiosulfate reductase of Desulfovibrio vulgaris has been purified and some of its properties have been determined. Only one protein component was detected when the purified enzyme was subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis at pH values of 8.9, 8.0, and 7.6. In the presence of H2, the enzyme, when coupled to hydrogenase and with methyl viologen as an electron carrier, catalyzed the reduction of thiosulfate to hydogen sulfide. The use of specifically labeled 35S-thiosulfate revealed that the outer sulfur atom was reduced to sulfide and the inner sulfur atom was released as sulfite. Thus, the enzyme catalyzes the reductive dismutation of thiosulfate to sulfide and sulfite. The molecular weight of the enzyme was determined by sedimentation equilibrium (16,300) and amino acid analysis (15,500). The enzyme sedimented as a single, symmetrical component with a calculated sedimentation coefficient of 2.21S. Amino acid analysis revealed the presence of two half-cystine residues per mole of enzyme and a total of 128 amino acid residues. Carbohydrate and organic phosphorus analyses revealed the presence of 9.2 moles of carbohydrate and 4.8 moles of phosphate per mole of enzyme. The substrate specificity of the enzyme was studied. Images

Haschke, Richard H.; Campbell, L. Leon

1971-01-01

321

Antifolate drug resistance and point mutations in Plasmodium falciparum in Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to increased chloroquine resistance, the antifolate\\/sulpha drug combinations are becoming increasingly important in the chemotherapy of falciparum malaria. However, point mutations in the dihydrofolate reductase gene lead to resistance to the antifolate drugs. We therefore investigated the prevalence of the 6 reported point mutations in this gene among field isolates of Plasmodium falciparum from Kenya, to determine if the

B. Khan; S. Omar; J. N. Kanyara; M. Warren-Perry; J. Nyalwidhe; D. S. Peterson; T. Wellems; S. Kaniaru; J. Gitonga; F. J. Mulaa; D. K. Koech

1997-01-01

322

Role of the chlC gene in formation of the formate-nitrate reductase pathway in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

Five temperature-sensitive chlC mutants were isolated from Escherichia coli by the technique of localized mutagenesis. All of the mutants produced severely reduced levels of both nitrate reductase and formate dehydrogenase when grown at 43 degrees C. In three of the mutants, the nitrate reductase activity produced at the permissive temperature was shown to be thermolabile compared with the activity produced by the parent wild-type strain, both in membrane preparations and in preparations released from the membrane by deoxycholate. In each case, formate dehydrogenase activity was similar to the wild-type activity in its stability to heat. It is concluded that the chlC gene codes for at least one of the polypeptide chains of nitrate reductase and that the chlC mutations affect indirectly the formation of formate dehydrogenase.

DeMoss, J A

1978-01-01

323

Respiratory arsenate reductase as a bidirectional enzyme  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The haloalkaliphilic bacterium Alkalilimnicola ehrlichii is capable of anaerobic chemolithoautotrophic growth by coupling the oxidation of arsenite (As(III)) to the reduction of nitrate and carbon dioxide. Analysis of its complete genome indicates that it lacks a conventional arsenite oxidase (Aox), but instead possesses two operons that each encode a putative respiratory arsenate reductase (Arr). Here we show that one homolog is expressed under chemolithoautotrophic conditions and exhibits both arsenite oxidase and arsenate reductase activity. We also demonstrate that Arr from two arsenate respiring bacteria, Alkaliphilus oremlandii and Shewanella sp. strain ANA-3, is also biochemically reversible. Thus Arr can function as a reductase or oxidase. Its physiological role in a specific organism, however, may depend on the electron potentials of the molybdenum center and [Fe–S] clusters, additional subunits, or constitution of the electron transfer chain. This versatility further underscores the ubiquity and antiquity of microbial arsenic metabolism.

Richey, C.; Chovanec, P.; Hoeft, S. E.; Oremland, R. S.; Basu, P.; Stolz, J. F.

2009-01-01

324

The tyrosyl free radical in ribonucleotide reductase.  

PubMed Central

The enzyme, ribonucleotide reductase, catalyses the formation of deoxyribonucleotides from ribonucleotides, a reaction essential for DNA synthesis in all living cells. The Escherichia coli ribonucleotide reductase, which is the prototype of all known eukaryotic and virus-coded enzymes, consists of two nonidentical subunits, proteins B1 and B2. The B2 subunit contains an antiferromagnetically coupled pair of ferric ions and a stable tyrosyl free radical. EPR studies show that the tyrosyl radical, formed by loss of ferric ions and a stable tyrosyl free radical. EPR studies show that the tyrosyl radical, formed by loss of an electron, has its unpaired spin density delocalized in the aromatic ring of tyrosine. Effects of iron-radical interaction indicate a relatively close proximity between the iron center and the radical. The EPR signal of the radical can be studied directly in frozen packed cells of E. coli or mammalian origin, if the cells are made to overproduce ribonucleotide reductase. The hypothetic role of the tyrosyl free radical in the enzymatic reaction is not yet elucidated, except in the reaction with the inhibiting substrate analogue 2'-azido-CDP. In this case, the normal tyrosyl radical is destroyed with concomitant appearance of a 2'-azido-CDP-localized radical intermediate. Attempts at spin trapping of radical reaction intermediates have turned out negative. In E. coli the activity of ribonucleotide reductase may be regulated by enzymatic activities that interconvert a nonradical containing form and the fully active protein B2. In synchronized mammalian cells, however, the cell cycle variation of ribonucleotide reductase, studied by EPR, was shown to be due to de novo protein synthesis. Inhibitors of ribonucleotide reductase are of medical interest because of their ability to control DNA synthesis. One example is hydroxyurea, used in cancer therapy, which selectively destroys the tyrosyl free radical.

Graslund, A; Sahlin, M; Sjoberg, B M

1985-01-01

325

Evaluation of nitrate reductase activity in Rhizobium japonicum  

SciTech Connect

Nitrate reductase activity was evaluated by four approaches, using four strains of Rhizobium japonicum and 11 chlorate-resistant mutants of the four strains. It was concluded that in vitro assays with bacteria or bacteroids provide the most simple and reliable assessment of the presence or absence of nitrate reductase. Nitrite reductase activity with methyl viologen and dithionite was found, but the enzyme activity does not confound the assay of nitrate reductase. 18 references

Streeter, J.G.; DeVine, P.J.

1983-08-01

326

Mitochondrial Mutations  

PubMed Central

Mutations in mitochondrial DNA cause a number of neurological diseases with defined neuropathology; however, mutations in this genome have also been found to be important in a number of more common neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, the authors discuss the importance of mitochondrial DNA mutations in a number of different diseases and speculate how such mutations could lead to cell loss. Increasing our understanding of how mitochondrial DNA mutations affect mitochondrial metabolism and subsequently result in neurodegenerative disease will prove vital to the development of targeted therapies and treatments.

Lax, Nichola Z.; Turnbull, Doug M.

2011-01-01

327

Increased rate of base substitution in a hamster mutator strain obtained during serial selection for gene amplification.  

PubMed Central

The pattern of mutations produced by a mutator gene (obtained during serial selection for amplification of the dihydrofolate reductase [dhfr] locus) shows a pronounced shift from that found in wild-type cells. The rate of certain types of base substitutions (particularly transitions) is dramatically increased, while gene rearrangements constitute a lower proportion of mutations. These data suggest a lower fidelity of the replication process in the mutator strain.

Caligo, M A; Armstrong, W; Rossiter, B J; Meuth, M

1990-01-01

328

Kinetic and structural characterization of dihydrofolate reductase from Streptococcus pneumoniae.  

PubMed

Drug resistance associated with dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) has emerged as a critical issue in the treatment of bacterial infections. In our efforts to understand the mechanism of a drug-resistant dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from a pathogenic bacterial source, we report the first kinetic characterization of Streptococcus pneumoniae DHFR (spDHFR) along with its X-ray structure. This study revealed that the kinetic properties of spDHFR were significantly different from those of Escherichia coli DHFR. The product (tetrahydrofolate) dissociation step that is the rate-limiting step in E. coli DHFR is significantly accelerated in spDHFR so that hydride transfer or a preceding step is rate-limiting. Comparison of the binding parameters of this enzyme to those of a mutant spDHFR (Sp9) confirmed that the Leu100 residue in spDHFR is the critical element for the trimethoprim (TMP) resistance. Steady-state kinetics exhibited a pH dependence in k(cat), which prompted us to elucidate the role of the new catalytic residue (His33) in the active site of spDHFR. Structural data of the Sp9 mutant in complex with NADPH and methotrexate confirmed the participation of His33 in a hydrogen bonding network involving a water molecule, the hydroxyl group of Thr119, and the carboxylate ion of Glu30. Sequence analysis of the DHFR superfamily revealed that the His residue is the major amino acid component at this position and is found mostly in pathogenic bacterial DHFRs. A mutation of Val100 to Leu demonstrated a steric clash of the leucine side chain with the side chains of Ile8 and Phe34, rationalizing weaker binding of trimethoprim to Leu100 DHFR. Understanding the role of specific amino acids in the active site coupled with detailed structural analysis will inform us on how to better design inhibitors targeting drug-resistant pathogenic bacterial DHFRs. PMID:19950924

Lee, Jeeyeon; Yennawar, Neela H; Gam, Jongsik; Benkovic, Stephen J

2010-01-12

329

A new nomenclature for the aldo-keto reductase superfamily.  

PubMed

The aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) represent a growing oxidoreductase superfamily. Forty proteins have been identified and characterized as AKRs, and an additional fourteen genes may encode proteins related to the superfamily. Found in eukaryotes and prokaryotes, the AKRs metabolize a wide range of substrates, including aliphatic aldehydes, monosaccharides, steroids, prostaglandins, and xenobiotics. This broad substrate specificity has caused problems in naming these proteins. Enzymes capable of these reactions have been referred to as aldehyde reductase (ALR1), aldose reductase (ALR2), and carbonyl reductase (ALR3); however, ALR3 is not a member of the AKR superfamily. Also, some AKRs have multiple names based upon substrate specificity. For example, human 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3apha-HSD) type I is also known as dihydrodiol dehydrogenase 4 and chlordecone reductase. To address these issues, we propose a new nomenclature system for the AKR superfamily based on amino acid sequence identities. Cluster analysis of the AKRs shows seven distinct families at the 40% amino acid identity level. The largest family (AKR1) contains the aldose reductases, aldehyde reductases, and HSDs. Other families include the prokaryotic AKRs, the plant chalcone reductases, the Shaker channels, and the ethoxyquin-inducible aflatoxin B1 aldehyde reductase. At the level of 60% amino acid identity, subfamilies are discernible. For example, the AKR1 family includes five subfamilies: (A) aldehyde reductases (mammalian); (B) aldose reductases; (C) HSDs; (D) delta4-3-ketosteroid-5beta-reductases; and (E) aldehyde reductases (plant). This cluster analysis forms the basis for our nomenclature system. Recommendations for naming an aldo-keto reductase include the root symbol "AKR," an Arabic number designating the family, a letter indicating the subfamily when multiple subfamilies exist, and an Arabic numeral representing the unique protein sequence. For example, human aldehyde reductase would be assigned as AKR1A1. Our nomenclature is both systematic and expandable, thereby allowing assignment of consistent designations for newly identified members of the superfamily. PMID:9310340

Jez, J M; Flynn, T G; Penning, T M

1997-09-15

330

Structure and function of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase and nitric oxide synthase reductase domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) and the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) reductase domains are members of the FAD–FMN family of proteins. The FAD accepts two reducing equivalents from NADPH (dehydrogenase flavin) and FMN acts as a one-electron carrier (flavodoxin-type flavin) for the transfer from NADPH to the heme protein, in which the FMNH\\/FMNH2 couple donates electrons to cytochrome P450 at constant

Takashi Iyanagi

2005-01-01

331

Ribonucleotide reductase subunit p53R2 regulates mitochondria homeostasis and function in KB and PC3 cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ribonucleotide reductase (RR) is a rate-limiting enzyme that catalyzes de novo conversion of ribonucleotide 5?-diphosphates to the corresponding 2?-deoxynucleotide, essential for DNA synthesis and replication. The mutations or knockout of RR small subunit, p53R2, results in the depletion of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in human, implying that p53R2 might play a critical role for maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis. In this study, siRNA

Xiaochen Wang; Xiyong Liu; Lijun Xue; Keqiang Zhang; Mei-Ling Kuo; Shuya Hu; Bingsen Zhou; David Ann; Suzhan Zhang; Yun Yen

2011-01-01

332

Difficulties in Diagnosis and Treatment of 5?-Reductase Type 2 Deficiency in a Newborn with 46,XY DSD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Steroid 5?-reductase deficiency (MIM*607306) caused by mutations in the SRD5A2 gene is characterized by a predominantly female phenotype at birth and significant virilization at puberty. The undermasculinization at birth results from low dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels during fetal development as the type 2 isoenzyme activity is reduced. In puberty, when the type 1 isoenzyme activity increases, significant virilization occurs. Most

Kerstin N. Walter; Frederike B. Kienzle; Alexander Frankenschmidt; Olaf Hiort; Stefan A. Wudy; Natascha van der Werf-Grohmann; Andrea Superti-Furga; Karl Otfried Schwab

2010-01-01

333

Evidence that the amino acid residue Cys117 of chloroplastic monodehydroascorbate reductase is involved in its activity and structural stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR; EC 1.6.5.4) is crucial for AsA regeneration and essential for maintaining the reduced pool of AsA. And the amino acid residue C117 of chloroplastic MDAR is the conserved cysteine residue in MDAR isoforms. A series mutation of conserved amino acid residue cysteine117 (C117) was constructed to investigate its role in MDAR structural stability and activity. Our study

Feng Li; Qing-Yun Wu; Yan-Li Sun; Na-Na Ma; Xiao-Yun Wang; Qing-Wei Meng

2010-01-01

334

Resveratrol, a remarkable inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resveratrol, a natural phytoalexin found in grapes, is well known for its presumed role in the prevention of heart disease, associated with red wine consumption. We show here that it is a remarkable inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase and DNA synthesis in mammalian cells, which might have further applications as an antiproliferative or a cancer chemopreventive agent in humans.

Marc Fontecave; Michel Lepoivre; Eric Elleingand; Catherine Gerez; Olivier Guittet

1998-01-01

335

Nitrate reductase in Peru current phytoplankton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrate reductase (NR) activity was assayed by measuring the NADH-dependent formation of nitrite in phytoplankton extracts. NR specific activity increased with the nitrate concentration of the water in upwelling areas of the Peru Current. The temperature optimum for NR for natural phytoplankton was 15° to 20°C. NR activity showed diel periodicity, with maximum activity about noon and minimum activity near

R. W. Eppley; T. T. Packard; J. J. MacIsaac

1970-01-01

336

Control of dihydrofolate reductase messenger ribonucleic acid production.  

PubMed Central

We used methotrexate-resistant mouse cells in which dihydrofolate reductase levels are approximately 500 times normal to study the effect of growth stimulation on dihydrofolate reductase gene expression. As a result of growth stimulation, the relative rate of dihydrofolate reductase protein synthesis increased threefold, reaching a maximum between 25 and 30 h after stimulation. The relative rate of dihydrofolate reductase messenger ribonucleic acid production (i.e., the appearance of dihydrofolate reductase messenger ribonucleic acid in the cytoplasm) increased threefold after growth stimulation and was accompanied by a corresponding increase in the relative steady-state level of dihydrofolate reductase ribonucleic acid in the nucleus. However, the increase in the nuclear level of dihydrofolate reductase ribonucleic acid was not accompanied by a significant increase in the relative rate of transcription of the dihydrofolate reductase genes. These data indicated that the relative rate of appearance of dihydrofolate reductase messenger ribonucleic acid in the cytoplasm depends on the relative stability of the dihydrofolate reductase ribonucleic acid sequences in the nucleus and is not dependent on the relative rate of transcription of the dihydrofolate reductase genes.

Leys, E J; Kellems, R E

1981-01-01

337

Monoterpene double-bond reductases of the (?)-menthol biosynthetic pathway: isolation and characterization of cDNAs encoding (?)-isopiperitenone reductase and (+)-pulegone reductase of peppermint  

Microsoft Academic Search

Random sequencing of a peppermint essential oil gland secretory cell cDNA library revealed a large number of clones that specified redox-type enzymes. Full-length acquisitions of each type were screened by functional expression in Escherichia coli using a newly developed in situ assay. cDNA clones encoding the monoterpene double-bond reductases (?)-isopiperitenone reductase and (+)-pulegone reductase were isolated, representing two central steps

Kerry L Ringer; Marie E McConkey; Edward M Davis; Gary W Rushing; Rodney Croteau

2003-01-01

338

Polymorphisms of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, vascular endothelial growth factor, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and apolipoprotein E genes are not associated with carotid intima-media thickness  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genes appear to be a genetic risk factor for atherosclerosis. Common carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) provides information on the severity of atherosclerosis. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between cIMT and gene polymorphisms associated with atherosclerosis in Turkish patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: Sixty-two patients with angiographically diagnosed stable CAD were divided into two groups according to their cIMT values (group 1: n=35, cIMT of 1 mm or greater; group 2: n=27, cIMT of less than 1 mm). MTHFR 677 C/T, VEGF–460 C/T, eNOS 894 G/T, MCP-1–2518 A/G and ApoE (E2, E3 and E4) gene polymorphisms (where A is adenine, C is cytosine, G is guanine and T is thymine) were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Evaluations of cardiovascular risk factors and coronary atherosclerotic lesions were performed in all patients. Serum homocysteine and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were measured and compared between the two groups. RESULTS: Serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (P=0.04) and homocysteine (P=0.006) levels were higher in group 1 than in group 2. The ratio of multivessel CAD and previous myocardial infarction was significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2 (P=0.014). In the study population, no significant difference in cIMT was observed according to the polymorphisms studied. Only hyperhomocysteinemia (OR 1.17 [95% CI 1.01 to 1.35], P=0.033) and previous myocardial infarction (OR 3.76 [95% CI 1.10 to 12.81], P=0.034) maintained a significant correlation with cIMT on multiple logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSION: cIMT is increased in patients with hyperhomocysteinemia, inflammation and extended CAD. MTHFR 677 C/T, VEGF–460 C/T, eNOS 894 G/T, MCP-1–2518 A/G and ApoE single nucleotide polymorphisms were not associated with increased cIMT.

Alioglu, Emin; Turk, Ugur; Cam, Sirri; Abbasaliyev, Abbasali; Tengiz, Istemihan; Ercan, Ertugrul

2009-01-01

339

Aberrant DNA methylation of P16, MGMT, hMLH1 and hMSH2 genes in combination with the MTHFR C677T genetic polymorphism in gastric cancer.  

PubMed

Associations of P16, MGMT, hMLH1 and hMLH2 with gastric cancer and their relation with MTHFR status in gastric patients who were confirmed with pathological diagnosis were assessed. Aberrant DNA methylation of P16, MGMT, hMLH1 and hMLH2 and polymorphisms of MTHFR C677T were assayed. The proportional DNA hypermethylation in P16, MGMT, hMLH1 and hMLH2 in cancer tissues was significantly higher than in remote normal-appearing tissues. DNA hypermethylation of P16 and MGMT was correlated with the T and N stages. Individuals with homozygotes (TT) of MTHFR C677T had significant risk of hypermethylation of MGMT in cancer tissues [OR (95% CI)= 3.47(1.41-7.93)]. However, we did not find association between polymorphism in MTHFR C677T and risk of hypermethylation in P16, MGMT, hMLH1 and hMLH2 genes either in cancer or remote normal-appearing tissues. Aberrant hypermethylation of P16, MGMT, hMLH1 and hMLH2 could be predictive of gastric cancer. PMID:23803092

Xiong, Hai-Lin; Liu, Xun-Qi; Sun, Ai-Hua; He, Ying; Li, Jun; Xia, Yuan

2013-01-01

340

New 19 bp deletion polymorphism in intron-1 of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR): a risk factor for spina bifida acting in mothers during pregnancy?  

PubMed

Up to 72% of spina bifida cystica (SB) is preventable by maternal periconceptual folic acid supplementation. The C677T allele of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and some other functional polymorphisms are risk factors for SB in some populations. However, despite extensive study, the genetic risk factors for SB are incompletely understood. Polymorphic alleles that diminish bioavailability of reduced folate in the mother during pregnancy could contribute to SB in her fetus, acting in the mother as teratogenic alleles. We recently discovered a polymorphic 19 bp deletion allele (frequency 0.45) within intron-1 of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) that is a good candidate for such a genetic factor. Since there is precedence for intron-1 regulatory elements and the deletion allele removes a potential Sp1 transcription factor binding site, we hypothesized that the deletion allele could be functional and act in SB mothers to increase the risk of SB in her fetus. We found that homozygosity for this deletion allele was significantly more frequent in SB mothers, but not in SB fathers or patients, compared with controls and was associated with a significantly increased odds ratio (OR) (2.035) of being an SB mother compared with other genotypes. Genotype distribution obeyed the constraints of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in controls, SB patients and fathers, but not in SB mothers. If confirmed, these findings could lead to improved forms of folate supplementation for pregnancy. About half of dietary folates and all of folic acid supplements must be reduced by DHFR to be available for mother and fetus. Reduced folates could be preferable for supplements during pregnancy to prevent SB. PMID:14735580

Johnson, William G; Stenroos, Edward S; Spychala, John R; Chatkupt, Sansnee; Ming, Sue X; Buyske, Steven

2004-02-01

341

Plasmodium falciparum Isolates in India Exhibit a Progressive Increase in Mutations Associated with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine Resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combination of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is used as a second line of therapy for the treatment of uncomplicated chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Resistance to SP arises due to certain point mutations in the genes for the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and dihydropteroate synthetase (DHPS) enzymes of the parasite. We have analyzed these mutations in 312 field isolates of P. falciparum collected

Anwar Ahmed; Deepak Bararia; Sumiti Vinayak; Mohammed Yameen; Sukla Biswas; Vas Dev; Ashwani Kumar; Musharraf A. Ansari; Yagya D. Sharma

2004-01-01

342

Crystal structure determination and mutagenesis analysis of the ene reductase NCR.  

PubMed

The crystal structure of the "ene" nicotinamide-dependent cyclohexenone reductase (NCR) from Zymomonas mobilis (PDB ID: 4A3U) has been determined in complex with acetate ion, FMN, and nicotinamide, to a resolution of 1.95 Å. To study the activity and enantioselectivity of this enzyme in the bioreduction of activated ?,?-unsaturated alkenes, the rational design methods site- and loop-directed mutagenesis were applied. Based on a multiple sequence alignment of various members of the Old Yellow Enzyme family, eight single-residue variants were generated and investigated in asymmetric bioreduction. Furthermore, a structural alignment of various ene reductases predicted four surface loop regions that are located near the entrance of the active site. Four NCR loop variants, derived from loop-swapping experiments with OYE1 from Saccharomyces pastorianus, were analysed for bioreduction. The three enzyme variants, P245Q, D337Y and F314Y, displayed increased activity compared to wild-type NCR towards the set of substrates tested. The active-site mutation Y177A demonstrated a clear influence on the enantioselectivity. The loop-swapping variants retained reduction efficiency, but demonstrated decreased enzyme activity compared with the wild-type NCR ene reductase enzyme. PMID:23033175

Reich, Sabrina; Hoeffken, Hans Wolfgang; Rosche, Bettina; Nestl, Bettina M; Hauer, Bernhard

2012-11-01

343

Predicting resistance mutations using protein design algorithms  

PubMed Central

Drug resistance resulting from mutations to the target is an unfortunate common phenomenon that limits the lifetime of many of the most successful drugs. In contrast to the investigation of mutations after clinical exposure, it would be powerful to be able to incorporate strategies early in the development process to predict and overcome the effects of possible resistance mutations. Here we present a unique prospective application of an ensemble-based protein design algorithm, K?, to predict potential resistance mutations in dihydrofolate reductase from Staphylococcus aureus using positive design to maintain catalytic function and negative design to interfere with binding of a lead inhibitor. Enzyme inhibition assays show that three of the four highly-ranked predicted mutants are active yet display lower affinity (18-, 9-, and 13-fold) for the inhibitor. A crystal structure of the top-ranked mutant enzyme validates the predicted conformations of the mutated residues and the structural basis of the loss of potency. The use of protein design algorithms to predict resistance mutations could be incorporated in a lead design strategy against any target that is susceptible to mutational resistance.

Frey, Kathleen M.; Georgiev, Ivelin; Donald, Bruce R.; Anderson, Amy C.

2010-01-01

344

Thiosulfate Reductase ofDesulfovibrio vulgaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thethiosulfate reductase ofDesulfovibrio vulgaris hasbeenpurified andsome of itsproperties havebeendetermined. Onlyone protein component was detected whenthepurified enzyme was subjected topolyacrylamide gelelectrophoresis at pH values of8.9, 8.0, and7.6.InthepresenceofH2,theenzyme, whencoupled to hydrogenase andwithmethyl viologen as an electron carrier, catalyzed thereduc- tionofthiosulfate tohydogensulfide. The use ofspecifically labeled35S-thiosul- fate revealed thattheoutersulfur atomwas reduced tosulfide andtheinner sulfur atomwas released assulfite. Thus, theenzyme catalyzes thereductive dismutation ofthiosulfate

RICHARD H. HASCHKE; L. LEON CAMPBELL

1971-01-01

345

KRAS Mutation  

PubMed Central

Treatment of colon carcinoma with the anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibody Cetuximab is reported to be ineffective in KRAS-mutant tumors. Mutation testing techniques have therefore become an urgent concern. We have compared three methods for detecting KRAS mutations in 59 cases of colon carcinoma: 1) high resolution melting, 2) the amplification refractory mutation system using a bifunctional self-probing primer (ARMS/Scorpion, ARMS/S), and 3) direct sequencing. We also evaluated the effects of the methods of sectioning and coring of paraffin blocks to obtain tumor DNA on assay sensitivity and specificity. The most sensitive and specific combination of block sampling and mutational analysis was ARMS/S performed on DNA derived from 1-mm paraffin cores. This combination of tissue sampling and testing method detected KRAS mutations in 46% of colon tumors. Four samples were positive by ARMS/S, but initially negative by direct sequencing. Cloned DNA samples were retested by direct sequencing, and in all four cases KRAS mutations were identified in the DNA. In six cases, high resolution melting abnormalities could not be confirmed as specific mutations either by ARMS/S or direct sequencing. We conclude that coring of the paraffin blocks and testing by ARMS/S is a sensitive, specific, and efficient method for KRAS testing.

Franklin, Wilbur A.; Haney, Jerry; Sugita, Michio; Bemis, Lynne; Jimeno, Antonio; Messersmith, Wells A.

2010-01-01

346

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genetic polymorphisms and toxicity to 5-FU-based chemoradiation in rectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Background: There is a large degree of variation in tumour response and host toxicities associated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation for rectal cancer patients. We performed a complimentary pharmacogenetic study to investigate germline polymorphisms of genes involved in 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and irinotecan pathways and their potential association with clinical outcomes and toxicities from neoadjuvant chemoradiation in patients with rectal cancer treated in a prospective genotype-directed study. Methods: The germline DNA of 131 patients was genotyped for 10 variants in TYMS, MTHFR, DPYD, UGT1A1, ABCC1 and SLCO1B1 genes. Ninety-six patients were treated with 5-FU/radiotherapy (RT) and 35 received 5-FU/RT/irinotecan. Relationships between genetic variants and adverse events, tumour response, overall and disease-free survivals were assessed. Results: MTHFR 1298A>C and MTHFR diplotypes (for 677C>T and 1298A>C) were associated with chemoradiation-related toxicity when 5-FU was used alone. MTHFR haplotypes (677C–1298C) and diplotypes (CA–TA and TA–TA) showed, respectively, a protective and a negative effect on the incidence of severe diarrhoea or mucositis. No association was observed between genetic markers and drug response. Conclusion: MTHFR polymorphisms can potentially predict toxicity in patients treated with 5-FU as a single chemotherapeutic drug.

Thomas, F; Motsinger-Reif, A A; Hoskins, J M; Dvorak, A; Roy, S; Alyasiri, A; Myerson, R J; Fleshman, J W; Tan, B R; McLeod, H L

2011-01-01

347

Crystal structure of a ferredoxin reductase for the CYP199A2 system from Rhodopseudomonas palustris.  

PubMed

Cytochrome P450-199A2 from Rhodopseudomonas palustris oxidizes para-substituted benzoic acids and may play a role in lignin and aromatic acid degradation pathways in the bacterium. CYP199A2 has an associated [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin, palustrisredoxin (Pux) but not a ferredoxin reductase. A genome search identified the palustrisredoxin reductase (PuR) gene. PuR was produced in Escherichia coli and shown to be a flavin-dependent protein that supports efficient electron transfer from NADH to Pux, thus reconstituting CYP199A2 monooxygenase activity (k(cat) = 37.9 s(-1) with 4-methoxybenzoic acid). The reduction of Pux by PuR shows K(m) = 4.2 microM and k(cat) = 262 s(-1) in 50 mM Tris, pH 7.4. K(m) is increased to 154 microM in the presence of 200 mM KCl, indicating the importance of ionic interactions in PuR/Pux binding. The crystal structure of PuR has been determined at 2.2 A resolution and found to be closely related to that of other oxygenase-coupled NADH-dependent ferredoxin reductases. Residues on the surface that had been proposed to be involved in ferredoxin reductase-ferredoxin binding are conserved in PuR. However, Lys328 in PuR lies over the FAD isoalloxazine ring and, together with His11 and Gln41, render the electrostatic potential of the surface more positive and may account for the greater involvement of electrostatic interactions in ferredoxin binding by PuR. Consistent with these observations the K328G mutation weakened Pux binding and virtually eliminated the dependence of PuR/Pux binding on salt concentration, thus confirming that the FAD si side surface in the vicinity of Lys328 is the ferredoxin binding site. PMID:19626710

Xu, Feng; Bell, Stephen G; Peng, Ying; Johnson, Eachan O D; Bartlam, Mark; Rao, Zihe; Wong, Luet-Lok

2009-12-01

348

Characterization of erythrose reductases from filamentous fungi  

PubMed Central

Proteins with putative erythrose reductase activity have been identified in the filamentous fungi Trichoderma reesei, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium graminearum by in silico analysis. The proteins found in T. reesei and A. niger had earlier been characterized as glycerol dehydrogenase and aldehyde reductase, respectively. Corresponding genes from all three fungi were cloned, heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified. Subsequently, they were used to establish optimal enzyme assay conditions. All three enzymes strictly require NADPH as cofactor, whereas with NADH no activity could be observed. The enzymatic characterization of the three enzymes using ten substrates revealed high substrate specificity and activity with D-erythrose and D-threose. The enzymes from T. reesei and A. niger herein showed comparable activities, whereas the one from F. graminearum reached only about a tenth of it for all tested substrates. In order to proof in vivo the proposed enzyme function, we overexpressed the erythrose reductase-encoding gene in T. reesei. An increased production of erythritol by the recombinant strain compared to the parental strain could be detected.

2013-01-01

349

Characterization of Nitrate Reductase Deficient Mutants of Chlorella sorokiniana  

PubMed Central

After x-ray irradiation, 13 mutants of Chlorella sorokiniana incapable of using NO3? as N source were isolated using a pinpoint method. Using immunoprecipitation and Western blot assays, no nitrate reductase was found in five strains while in eight mutants the enzyme was detected. The latter strains contained different patterns of nitrate reductase partial reactions. All isolates were of the nia-type as indicated by the inducibility of purine hydroxylase I and by complementation of nitrate reductase activity in the Neurospora crassa mutant Nit-1. A restoration of NADP-nitrate reductase in Nit-1 was also obtained with NH4+-grown cells indicating that Mo-cofactor is constitutive in Chlorella. Complementation experiments among the Chlorella mutants resulted in restoration of NADH-nitrate reductase activity. The characteristics of some of the Chlorella mutants are discussed in view of an improper orientation of Mo-cofactor in the residual nitrate reductase protein. Images Figure 3

Knobloch, Otto; Tischner, Rudolf

1989-01-01

350

S-Nitrosoglutathione Reductase in Human Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

S-Nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) reductase regulates cell signaling pathways relevant to asthma and protects cells from nitrosative stress. Recent evidence suggests that this enzyme may prevent human hepatocellular carcinoma arising in the setting of chronic hepatitis. We hypothesized that GSNO reductase may also protect the lung against potentially carcinogenic reactions associated with nitrosative stress. We report that wild-type Ras is S-nitrosylated and activated by nitrosative stress and that it is denitrosylated by GSNO reductase. In human lung cancer, the activity and expression of GSNO reductase are decreased. Further, the distribution of the enzyme (including its colocalization with wild-type Ras) is abnormal. We conclude that decreased activity of GSNO reductase could leave the human lung vulnerable to the oncogenic effects of nitrosative stress, as is the case in the liver. This potential should be considered when developing therapies that inhibit pulmonary GSNO reductase to treat asthma and other conditions.

Marozkina, Nadzeya V.; Wei, Christina; Yemen, Sean; Wallrabe, Horst; Nagji, Alykhan S.; Liu, Lei; Morozkina, Tatiana; Jones, David R.

2012-01-01

351

A glutathione reductase mutant of yeast accumulates high levels of oxidized glutathione and requires thioredoxin for growth.  

PubMed Central

A glutathione reductase null mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was isolated in a synthetic lethal genetic screen for mutations which confer a requirement for thioredoxin. Yeast mutants that lack glutathione reductase (glr1 delta) accumulate high levels of oxidized glutathione and have a twofold increase in total glutathione. The disulfide form of glutathione increases 200-fold and represents 63% of the total glutathione in a glr1 delta mutant compared with only 6% in wild type. High levels of oxidized glutathione are also observed in a trx1 delta, trx2 delta double mutant (22% of total), in a glr1 delta, trx1 delta double mutant (71% of total), and in a glr1 delta, trx2 delta double mutant (69% of total). Despite the exceptionally high ratio of oxidized/reduced glutathione, the glr1 delta mutant grows with a normal cell cycle. However, either one of the two thioredoxins is essential for growth. Cells lacking both thioredoxins and glutathione reductase are not viable under aerobic conditions and grow poorly anaerobically. In addition, the glr1 delta mutant shows increased sensitivity to the thiol oxidant diamide. The sensitivity to diamide was suppressed by deletion of the TRX2 gene. The genetic analysis of thioredoxin and glutathione reductase in yeast runs counter to previous studies in Escherichia coli and for the first time links thioredoxin with the redox state of glutathione in vivo. Images

Muller, E G

1996-01-01

352

Quantification of methanogenic heterodisulfide reductase activity in biogas sludge.  

PubMed

Methanogenic archaea are essential for the production of methane in biogas plants. Here we present enzymatic test systems for the analysis of the metabolic activity of methanogens based on the heterodisulfide reductase reaction. The first rapid test shows that heterodisulfide reductase can be detected in 1g of biogas sludge after sonication and centrifugation. The resulting cell lysate used reduced methylviologen for heterodisulfide reduction, a reaction that is specifically catalyzed by methanogenic heterodisulfide reductase. In the second test cell lysate from 60g of biogas sludge was separated by ultracentrifugation. Both, cytoplasmic membrane and cytoplasmic fractions revealed heterodisulfide reductase activity, indicating the presence of hydrogenotrophic and aceticlastic methanogens, respectively. PMID:24721213

Refai, Sarah; Berger, Stefanie; Wassmann, Kati; Deppenmeier, Uwe

2014-06-20

353

Gene polymorphisms in TYMS, MTHFR, p53 and MDR1 as risk factors for breast cancer: a case-control study.  

PubMed

Breast cancer (BC) is a complex disease influenced by environmental and genetic factors. The disease has important genetic and environmental components, most of them are still unknown. An important role of gene polymorphisms related to the risk of developing BC has been reported. However, the results have been controversial. We investigated the association of TSER, MTHFR C677T, p53 codon 72 and MDR1 C3435T gene polymorphisms with breast carcinoma in women from Canary Islands (Spain). Blood samples collected from 135 patients with BC and 304 healthy controls all of them Caucasian, were analyzed through polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Subsequently, a structured questionnaire including patient history and risk factors in relation to BC development was filled out. Allelic frequencies of these genetic variations were: TSER, (2) 0.55 and (3) 0.45 in cases, 0.49 and 0.51 respectively in controls (P=0.240); MTHFR C677T, (C) 0.63 and (T) 0.37 in cases, 0.60 and 0.40 respectively in controls (P=0.568); p53 Arg72Pro, (Arg) 0.74 and (Pro) 0.26 in cases and controls (P=0.910); MDR1 C3435T, (C) 0.52 and (T) 0.48 in cases, 0.55 and 0.45 respectively in controls (P=0.523). We did not observe any gene polymorphism as a risk factor to develop BC. A statistical association was observed between p53 codon 72 polymorphism and family history of breast cancer in both groups, as well as between MDR1 C3435T and smoking habits in cases (P<0.05). Gene polymorphisms vary by regions. The present study contributes to the characterization of the genetic pattern of the Canary population. PMID:19885596

Henríquez-Hernández, L A; Murias-Rosales, A; Hernández González, A; Cabrera De León, A; Díaz-Chico, B N; Mori De Santiago, M; Fernández Pérez, L

2009-12-01

354

A highly reproducible and economically competitive SNP analysis of several well characterized human mutations.  

PubMed

During the last years several genetic markers have appeared which were extensively studied for their clinical consequences and impact. Therefore, we developed 14 new genetic tests using the TaqMan technology. The new test systems detect the alpha1-antitrypsin, ACE, apolipoprotein B-100, apolipoprotein E, factor V Leiden, prothrombin, HFE, MTHFR, COL1A1, VDR and HLA-B27 mutations. These new kits were compared to the established endonuclease restriction digestion and flow cytometry, respectively. The results showed, that the allelic discrimination assays (TaqMan method) were in 100% concordance with the formerly used digestion method. Flow cytometry revealed a lower specificity in contrast to the TaqMan PCR system. Thus, it could be demonstrated that the new TaqMan assays are robust, rapid and automated methods for high throughput applications which avoid time consuming (and therefore expensive) and difficult post-PCR steps. PMID:15209439

Behrens, Martin; Lange, Robert

2004-01-01

355

Isobutyraldehyde production from Escherichia coli by removing aldehyde reductase activity  

PubMed Central

Background Increasing global demand and reliance on petroleum-derived chemicals will necessitate alternative sources for chemical feedstocks. Currently, 99% of chemical feedstocks are derived from petroleum and natural gas. Renewable methods for producing important chemical feedstocks largely remain unaddressed. Synthetic biology enables the renewable production of various chemicals from microorganisms by constructing unique metabolic pathways. Here, we engineer Escherichia coli for the production of isobutyraldehyde, which can be readily converted to various hydrocarbons currently derived from petroleum such as isobutyric acid, acetal, oxime and imine using existing chemical catalysis. Isobutyraldehyde can be readily stripped from cultures during production, which reduces toxic effects of isobutyraldehyde. Results We adopted the isobutanol pathway previously constructed in E. coli, neglecting the last step in the pathway where isobutyraldehyde is converted to isobutanol. However, this strain still overwhelmingly produced isobutanol (1.5?g/L/OD600 (isobutanol) vs 0.14?g/L/OD600 (isobutyraldehyde)). Next, we deleted yqhD which encodes a broad-substrate range aldehyde reductase known to be active toward isobutyraldehyde. This strain produced isobutanol and isobutyraldehyde at a near 1:1 ratio, indicating further native isobutyraldehyde reductase (IBR) activity in E. coli. To further eliminate isobutanol formation, we set out to identify and remove the remaining IBRs from the E. coli genome. We identified 7 annotated genes coding for IBRs that could be active toward isobutyraldehyde: adhP, eutG, yiaY, yjgB, betA, fucO, eutE. Individual deletions of the genes yielded only marginal improvements. Therefore, we sequentially deleted all seven of the genes and assessed production. The combined deletions greatly increased isobutyraldehyde production (1.5?g/L/OD600) and decreased isobutanol production (0.4?g/L/OD600). By assessing production by overexpression of each candidate IBR, we reveal that AdhP, EutG, YjgB, and FucO are active toward isobutyraldehyde. Finally, we assessed long-term isobutyraldehyde production of our best strain containing a total of 15 gene deletions using a gas stripping system with in situ product removal, resulting in a final titer of 35?g/L after 5?days. Conclusions In this work, we optimized E. coli for the production of the important chemical feedstock isobutyraldehyde by the removal of IBRs. Long-term production yielded industrially relevant titers of isobutyraldehyde with in situ product removal. The mutational load imparted on E. coli in this work demonstrates the versatility of metabolic engineering for strain improvements.

2012-01-01

356

Plasma homocysteine levels, C677T polymorphism of the methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase gene, Plasma Renin Activity and cardiovascular risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to analysed possible relationships between genotypes of the C677T polymorphism of the MTHFR gene, homocysteinemie (Hcy) and PRA searching for a marker of the conection PRA and cardiovascular risk.In a group of 30 (10 by each genoptype of MTHFR) healthy young people (mean age: 22.2 ± 1.46 years) with a mean BMI: 25.8 ±1.3

Armando Reyes-Engel; Miguel Morel; Francisco J. Aranda; Encarnación Muñoz-Moran; Pedro Aranda; M. Ruiz; P. Muñoz; Jose L. Dieguez; Nieves Fernandez-Arcas

2002-01-01

357

Molecular characterization of 6 unrelated Italian patients with 5alpha-reductase type 2 deficiency.  

PubMed

Steroid 5alpha-reductase (5alphaR) deficiency (OMIM number #264600) is a rare 46,XY disorder of sex differentiation caused by mutations in the 5alphaR type 2 gene (SRD5A2) resulting in dihydrotestosterone deficiency during fetal development. We report on the analysis of the SRD5A2 gene in 6 unrelated 46,XY Italian patients with external genitalia morphology ranging from predominantly female to nearly completely male. Three subjects were seen and assessed at birth, 1 patient was referred to us before puberty, and 2 at postpubertal age. Six different causative mutations (5 missense and 1 nonsense) and a rare polymorphism were identified. Four patients presented homozygous single-base substitutions. These SRD5A2 mutations were located in exon 2 (variant Cys133Gly), exon 4 (Gly196Ser and Ala207Asp) and exon 5 (Tyr235Phe). A fifth subject was a compound heterozygote who carried a nonsense mutation in exon 1 (Trp53X) and a second SRD5A2 alteration in exon 5 (Tyr235Phe). The final patient presented a mutation in only 1 allele (Gly34Trp) together with the Ala49Thr variant. The molecular characterization of these patients made it possible to identify novel mutations and to confirm, before gender assignment or any surgical approach, the suspected 5alphaR deficiency in 2 newborns, 1 of whom had inconclusive hormonal data. 5alphaR deficiency in subjects without parental consanguinity and the presence of compound heterozygotic patients suggest that SRD5A2 mutations carrier frequency may be higher than previously thought. PMID:17609295

Baldinotti, F; Majore, S; Fogli, A; Marrocco, G; Ghirri, P; Vuerich, M; Tumini, S; Boscherini, B; Vetri, M; Scommegna, S; Rinaldi, R; Simi, P; Grammatico, P

2008-01-01

358

S-nitrosoglutathione reductase deficiency increases mutagenesis from alkylation in mouse liver.  

PubMed

In human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and many other cancers, somatic point mutations are highly prevalent, yet the mechanisms critical in their generation remain poorly understood. S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR), a key regulator of protein S-nitrosylation, is frequently deficient in human HCC. Targeted deletion of the GSNOR gene in mice can reduce the activity of the DNA repair protein O (6)-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) and promote both carcinogen-induced and spontaneous HCC. In this study, we report that following exposure to the environmental carcinogen diethylnitrosamine, the mutation frequency of a transgenic reporter in the liver of GSNOR-deficient mice (GSNOR(-/-)) is significantly higher than that in wild-type control. In wild-type mice, diethylnitrosamine treatment does not significantly increase the frequency of the transition from G:C to A:T, a mutation deriving from diethylnitrosamine-induced O (6)-ethylguanines that are normally repaired by AGT. In contrast, the frequency of this transition from diethylnitrosamine is increased ~20 times in GSNOR(-/-) mice. GSNOR deficiency also significantly increases the frequency of the transversion from A:T to T:A, a mutation not affected by AGT. GSNOR deficiency in our experiments does not significantly affect either the frequencies of the other diethylnitrosamine-induced point mutations or hepatocyte proliferation. Thus, GSNOR deficiency, through both AGT-dependent and AGT-independent pathways, significantly raises the rates of specific types of DNA mutations. Our results demonstrate a critical role for GSNOR in maintaining genomic integrity in mice and support the hypothesis that GSNOR deficiency is an important cause of the widespread mutations in human HCC. PMID:23354311

Leung, James; Wei, Wei; Liu, Limin

2013-05-01

359

The orphan protein bis-?-glutamylcystine reductase joins the pyridine nucleotide disulfide reductase family.  

PubMed

Facile DNA sequencing became possible decades after many enzymes had been purified and characterized. Consequently, there are still "orphan" enyzmes for which activities are known but for which encoding genes have not been identified. Identification of the genes encoding orphan enzymes is important because it allows correct annotation of genes of unknown function or with misassigned function. Bis-?-glutamylcystine reductase (GCR) is an orphan protein that was purified in 1988. This enzyme catalyzes the reduction of bis-?-glutamylcystine. ?-Glutamylcysteine is the major low-molecular weight thiol in halobacteria. We purified GCR from Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 and identified the sequence of 23 tryptic peptides by nano-liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. These peptides cover 62% of the protein predicted to be encoded by a gene in Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 that is annotated as mercuric reductase. GCR and mercuric reductase activities were assayed using enzyme that was expressed in Escherichia coli and refolded from inclusion bodies. The enzyme had robust GCR activity but no mercuric reductase activity. The genomes of most, but not all, halobacteria for which whole genome sequences are available have close homologues of GCR, suggesting that there is more to be learned about the low-molecular weight thiols used in halobacteria. PMID:23560638

Kim, Juhan; Copley, Shelley D

2013-04-30

360

Structure and function of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase and nitric oxide synthase reductase domain  

SciTech Connect

NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) and the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) reductase domains are members of the FAD-FMN family of proteins. The FAD accepts two reducing equivalents from NADPH (dehydrogenase flavin) and FMN acts as a one-electron carrier (flavodoxin-type flavin) for the transfer from NADPH to the heme protein, in which the FMNH {sup {center_dot}}/FMNH{sub 2} couple donates electrons to cytochrome P450 at constant oxidation-reduction potential. Although the interflavin electron transfer between FAD and FMN is not strictly regulated in CPR, electron transfer is activated in neuronal NOS reductase domain upon binding calmodulin (CaM), in which the CaM-bound activated form can function by a similar mechanism to that of CPR. The oxygenated form and spin state of substrate-bound cytochrome P450 in perfused rat liver are also discussed in terms of stepwise one-electron transfer from CPR. This review provides a historical perspective of the microsomal mixed-function oxidases including CPR and P450. In addition, a new model for the redox-linked conformational changes during the catalytic cycle for both CPR and NOS reductase domain is also discussed.

Iyanagi, Takashi [Biometal Science Laboratory, RIKEN Harima Institute/Spring8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Mikazuki-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)]. E-mail: iyanagi@spring8.or.jp

2005-12-09

361

Biliverdin Reductase Fragments and Variants, and Methods of using Biliverdin Reductase and Such Fragments and Variants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One aspect of the present invention relates to a method of regulating protein kinase C activity that includes contacting human protein kinase C selected from the group of isozymes alpha, beta, and gamma with a mammalian biliverdin reductase or a fragment ...

M. D. Maines

2005-01-01

362

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphism as a risk factor for diabetic nephropathy: a meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations into the association between diabetic nephropathy (DN) and MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism in several case–control\\u000a studies has yielded contradictory results. To shed light on these inconclusive findings, a meta-analysis of all available\\u000a studies relating the C677T polymorphism to the risk of developing DN was conducted. The PubMed database was searched, and\\u000a case–control studies investigating the association between MTHFR C677T

Elias Zintzaras; Katrin Uhlig; George N. Koukoulis; Afroditi A. Papathanasiou; Ioannis Stefanidis

2007-01-01

363

Monoclonal antibodies to human thioredoxin reductase.  

PubMed

The thioredoxin system consisting of thioredoxin (Trx), thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), and NADPH is an electron donor for ribonucleotide reductase but has also been implicated in other cellular events, including secretion, growth promotion, regulation of transcription factors, protection against oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Mammalian TrxR is a dimeric flavoprotein with 58 kDa subunits each with a catalytically active selenocysteine residue. To study the function and expression of TrxR, we have produced and characterized, for the first time, monoclonal antibodies against human TrxR. Native placenta TrxR was used for immunization of BALB/c mice, followed by hybridization, cloning, and establishment of hybridomas producing specific antibodies against human TrxR. Three clones of IgG1, kappa subclass, termed anti-TrxR1, anti-TrxR2, and anti-TrxR3, were studied in detail. The isoelectric points (pIs) of the mAbs were 6.5, 6.0, and 6.5, respectively. The affinities (Ka) of the mAbs were 2 x 10(8) M-1. Inhibition ELISA using biotin-labeled versus nonconjugated mAb IgG revealed that all three mAbs recognized one immunodominant epitope. Western blot analysis showed that the antibodies specifically bound to a 58 kDa protein, representing the subunit of TrxR. A Trx-dependent insulin reduction assay was used for analysis of enzymatic activity and the antibodies neutralized the reductase activity. PMID:9705836

Söderberg, A; Sahaf, B; Holmgren, A; Rosén, A

1998-08-10

364

Analogue reaction systems of selenate reductase.  

PubMed

Analogue reaction systems of selenate reductase, which reduces substrate in the overall enzymatic reaction SeO4(2-) + 2H+ + 2e- --> SeO3(2-) + H2O, have been developed using bis(dithiolene) complexes of Mo(IV) and W(IV). On the basis of the results of EXAFS analysis of the oxidized and reduced enzyme, the minimal reaction Mo(IV)OH + SeO4(2-) --> Mo(VI)O(OH) + SeO3(2-) is probable. The square pyramidal complexes [M(OMe)(S2C2Me2)2](1-) (M = Mo, W) were prepared as structural analogues of the reduced enzyme site. The systems, [ML(S2C2Me2)2](1-)/SeO4(2-) (L = OMe, OPh, SC6H2-2,4,6-Pr(i)3) in acetonitrile, cleanly reduce selenate to selenite in second-order reactions whose negative entropies of activation implicate associative transition states. Rate constants at 298 K are in the 10(-2)-10(-4) M(-1) s(-1) range with DeltaS++ = -12 to -34 eu. When rate constants are compared with previous data for the reduction of (CH2)4SO, Ph3AsO, and nitrate by oxygen atom transfer, reactivity trends dependent on the metal, axial ligand L, and substrate are identified. As in all other cases of substrate reduction by oxo transfer, the kinetic metal effect k(2)W > k(2)Mo holds. A proposal from primary sequence alignments suggesting that a conserved Asp residue is a likely ligand in the type II enzymes in the DMSO reductase family has been pursued by synthesis of the [Mo(IV)(O2CR)(S2C2Me2)2](1-) (R = Ph, Bu(t)) complexes. The species display symmetrical eta2-carboxylate binding and distorted trigonal prismatic stereochemistry. They serve as possible structural analogues of the reduced sites of nitrate, selenate, and perchlorate reductases under the proposed aspartate coordination. Carboxylate binding has been crystallographically demonstrated for one nitrate reductase, but not for the other two enzymes. PMID:16562954

Wang, Jun-Jieh; Tessier, Christian; Holm, R H

2006-04-01

365

Molecular study of the 5 {alpha}-reductase type 2 gene in three European families with 5 {alpha}-reductase deficiency  

SciTech Connect

The molecular basis of 5{alpha}-reductase (5{alpha}R) deficiency was investigated in four patients from three European families. In the French family, the first patient was raised as a female, and gonadectomy was performed before puberty. The second sibling, also raised as female, differed in that gonadal removal was performed after the onset of pubertal masculinization. The other two patients, both from Polish families, developed masculinization of external genitalia during puberty. All patients developed a female sexual identity. In all cases, no known consanguinity or family history of 5{alpha}R deficiency was reported. The genomic DNAs of the patients were sequenced after polymerase chain reaction amplification of the five exons of the 5{alpha}R type 2 gene. We found two homozygous mutations responsible for gutamine to arginine and histidine to arginine substitution in families 1 and 3, respectively. In family 2, we found a heterozygous mutation responsible for an asparagine to serine substitution at position 193. The glutamine/arginine 126 mutation in the French family was previously reported in a Creole ethnic group, and the Polish histidine/arginine 231 mutation was previously reported in a patient from Chicago, Moreover, all of the mutations created new restriction sites, which were used to determine the kindred carrier status in the three families. Because 5{alpha}R deficiency is known to be heterogenous disease in terms of clinical and biochemical expression, our data suggest that molecular biology analysis of the type 2 gene could be an essential step in diagnosing 5{alpha}R deficiency. 22 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Boudon, C.; Lumbroso, S.; Lobaccaro, J.M. [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Montpellier (France)] [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Montpellier (France); [Child Health Center, Warsaw (Poland); [Hopital A. de Villeneuve, Montpellier (France)] [and others

1995-07-01

366

5 ?-Reductase Type 2 Deficiency: Response to Dihydrotestosterone Gel.  

PubMed

5?-reductase (5?-R) deficiency is an important cause of ambiguious genitalia in genetic males; however therapeutic experience in literature is limited. In this report authors describe a child with 46 XY Disorder of Sexual Differentiation (DSD), due to 5?-reductase deficiency, who was managed with Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) gel. PMID:23702801

Vupputuri, Madhavarao; Kandepu, Madhurima; Devireddy, Harikishore Reddy

2014-08-01

367

Parasite-specific trypanothione reductase as a drug target molecule  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trypanosomatids are the causative agents of African sleeping sickness, Chagas' disease, and the different manifestations of leishmaniasis. New drugs against these parasitic protozoa are urgently needed since the current drugs are unsatisfactory, in particular due to serious adverse side effects. In trypanosomes and leishmanias, the nearly ubiquitous glutathione\\/glutathione reductase system is replaced by trypanothione and trypanothione reductase. The essential role

R. Luise Krauth-Siegel; Oliver Inhoff

2003-01-01

368

NADH-Nitrate Reductase Inhibitor from Soybean Leaves 1  

PubMed Central

A NADH-nitrate reductase inhibitor has been isolated from young soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. Var. Amsoy) leaves that had been in the dark for 54 hours. The presence of the inhibitor was first suggested by the absence of nitrate reductase activity in the homogenate until the inhibitor was removed by diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-cellulose chromatography. The inhibitor inactivated the enzyme in homogenates of leaves harvested in the light. Nitrate reductases in single whole cells isolated through a sucrose gradient were equally active from leaves grown in light or darkness, but were inhibited by addition of the active inhibitor. The NADH-nitrate reductase inhibitor was purified 2,500-fold to an electrophoretic homogeneous protein by a procedure involving DEAE- cellulose chromatography, Sephadex G-100 filtration, and ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by dialysis. The assay was based on nitrate reductase inhibition. A rapid partial isolation procedure was also developed to separate nitrate reductase from the inhibitor by DEAE-cellulose chromatography and elution with KNO3. The inhibitor was a heat-labile protein of about 31,000 molecular weight with two identical subunits. After electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel two adjacent bands of protein were present; an active form and an inactive form that developed on standing. The active factor inhibited leaf NADH-nitrate reductase but not NADPH-nitrate reductase, the bacterial nitrate reductase or other enzymes tested. The site of inhibition was probably at the reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide-NR reaction, since it did not block the partial reaction of NADH-cytochrome c reductase. The inhibitor did not appear to be a protease. Some form of association of the active inhibitor with nitrate reductase was indicated by a change of inhibitor mobility through Sephadex G-75 in the presence of the enzyme. The inhibition of nitrate reductase was noncompetitive with nitrate but caused a decrease in Vmax. The isolated inhibitor was inactivated in the light, but after 24 hours in the dark full inhibitory activity returned. Equal amounts of inhibitor were present in leaves harvested from light or darkness, except that the inhibitor was at first inactive when rapidly isolated from leaves in light. Photoinactivation of yellow impure inhibitor required no additional components, but inactivation of the purified colorless inhibitor required the addition of flavin. Preliminary evidence and a procedure are given for partial isolation of a component by DEAE-cellulose chromatography that stimulated nitrate reductase. The data suggest that light-dark changes in nitrate reductase activity are regulated by specific protein inhibitors and stimulators.

Jolly, S. Omata; Tolbert, N. E.

1978-01-01

369

Evidence that the amino acid residue Cys117 of chloroplastic monodehydroascorbate reductase is involved in its activity and structural stability.  

PubMed

Monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR; EC 1.6.5.4) is crucial for AsA regeneration and essential for maintaining the reduced pool of AsA. And the amino acid residue C117 of chloroplastic MDAR is the conserved cysteine residue in MDAR isoforms. A series mutation of conserved amino acid residue cysteine117 (C117) was constructed to investigate its role in MDAR structural stability and activity. Our study revealed that mutation in this conserved residue could cause pronounced loss of activity and conformational changes. Spectroscopic experiments indicated that these mutations influenced transition from the molten globule intermediate to the native state in folding process. These results suggested that amino acid residue C117 played a relatively important role in keeping MDAR structural stability and activity. PMID:20085781

Li, Feng; Wu, Qing-Yun; Sun, Yan-Li; Ma, Na-Na; Wang, Xiao-Yun; Meng, Qing-Wei

2010-04-01

370

Reduced impact of pyrimethamine drug pressure on Plasmodium malariae dihydrofolate reductase gene.  

PubMed

Molecular investigations performed following the emergence of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) resistance in Plasmodium falciparum have allowed the identification of the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) enzyme as the target of pyrimethamine. Although clinical cases of Plasmodium malariae are not usually treated with antifolate therapy, incorrect diagnosis and the high frequency of undetected mixed infections has probably exposed non-P. falciparum parasites to antifolate therapy in many areas. In this context, we aimed to assess the worldwide genetic diversity of the P. malariae dhfr gene in 123 samples collected in Africa and Asia, areas with different histories of SP use. Among the 10 polymorphic sites found, we have observed 7 new mutations (K55E, S58R, S59A, F168S, N194S, D207G, and T221A), which led us to describe 6 new DHFR proteins. All isolates from African countries were classified as wild type, while new mutations and haplotypes were recognized as exclusive to Madagascar (except for the double mutations at nucleotides 341 and 342 [S114N] found in one Cambodian isolate). Among these nonsynonymous mutations, two were likely related to pyrimethamine resistance: S58R (corresponding to C59R in P. falciparum and S58R in Plasmodium vivax; observed in one Malagasy sample) and S114N (corresponding to S108N in P. falciparum and S117N in P. vivax; observed in three Cambodian samples). PMID:22123682

Khim, Nimol; Kim, Saorin; Bouchier, Christiane; Tichit, Magali; Ariey, Frédéric; Fandeur, Thierry; Chim, Pheaktra; Ke, Sopheakvatey; Sum, Sarorn; Man, Somnang; Ratsimbasoa, Arsène; Durand, Rémy; Ménard, Didier

2012-02-01

371

Role of 5?-reductase inhibitors in benign prostatic diseases.  

PubMed

Testosterone is the most abundant androgen in serum. Intracellularly, testosterone is converted to dihydrotestosterone, the preferred ligand for androgen receptor transactivation, by the enzyme 5?-reductase. Three 5?-reductase isozymes have been discovered and they are expressed ubiquitously in human tissues. Testosterone and dihydrotestosterone have different but complimentary functions. Dihydrotestosterone has 2-5 times higher binding affinity for the androgen receptor than testosterone, and 10-fold higher potency of inducing androgen receptor signaling than testosterone. The role of dihydrotestosterone was discovered after the description of 5?-reductase type 2 deficiency in 1974, where affected males have normal internal but ambiguous external genitalia. Neither BPH nor prostate cancer has been reported in these patients. Currently, two 5?-reductase inhibitors are available for clinical use. This review will discuss the important clinical trials of 5?-reductase inhibitors in the treatment of benign prostatic diseases. PMID:22333687

Azzouni, F; Mohler, J

2012-09-01

372

Deep Vein Thrombosis after Bunionectomy: A Case Report of Two Genetic Mutations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep venous thrombosis after foot and ankle surgery is a serious complication that can have potentially life-threatening complications, such as pulmonary embolus. Genetic mutations have been reported in the published data to cause an increased risk of developing deep vein thrombosis. Two such genetic mutations are the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene variant C677T and the 4G\\/5G polymorphism of the plasminogen activator

Kyle S. Peterson; Robert W. Mendicino; Alan R. Catanzariti; Karl R. Saltrick

2011-01-01

373

Molecular surveillance of drug-resistance associated mutations of Plasmodium falciparum in south-west Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In Tanzania, drug-resistant malaria parasites are an increasing public health concern. Because of widespread chloroquine (CQ) resistance Tanzania changed its first line treatment recommendations for uncomplicated malaria from CQ to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) in 2001. Loss of SP sensitivity is progressing rapidly. SP resistance is associated with mutations in the dihydrofolate reductase (pfdhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (pfdhps) genes. METHODS: In

Mirjam Schönfeld; Isabel Barreto Miranda; Mirjam Schunk; Ibrahim Maduhu; Leonard Maboko; Michael Hoelscher; Nicole Berens-Riha; Andrew Kitua; Thomas Löscher

2007-01-01

374

Purification and Characterization of NAD(P)H:Nitrate Reductase and NADH:Nitrate Reductase from Corn Roots.  

PubMed

The nitrate reductase activity of 5-day-old whole corn roots was isolated using phosphate buffer. The relatively stable nitrate reductase extract can be separated into three fractions using affinity chromatography on blue-Sepharose. The first fraction, eluted with NADPH, reduces nearly equal amounts of nitrate with either NADPH or NADH. A subsequent elution with NADH yields a nitrate reductase which is more active with NADH as electron donor. Further elution with salt gives a nitrate reductase fraction which is active with both NADH and NADPH, but is more active with NADH. All three nitrate reductase fractions have pH optima of 7.5 and Stokes radii of about 6.0 nanometers. The NADPH-eluted enzyme has a nitrate K(m) of 0.3 millimolar in the presence of NADPH, whereas the NADH-eluted enzyme has a nitrate K(m) of 0.07 millimolar in the presence of NADH. The NADPH-eluted fraction appears to be similar to the NAD(P)H:nitrate reductase isolated from corn scutellum and the NADH-eluted fraction is similar to the NADH:nitrate reductases isolated from corn leaf and scutellum. The salt-eluted fraction appears to be a mixture of NAD(P)H: and NADH:nitrate reductases. PMID:16661853

Redinbaugh, M G; Campbell, W H

1981-07-01

375

Prevalence of thrombophilic mutations in patients with unprovoked thromboembolic disease. A comparative analysis regarding arterial and venous disease  

PubMed Central

Background: Thromboembolic disease (TED) represents one of the main reasons of morbitity and mortality in Western World. Venous and arterial thrombotic disorders have long been viewed as separate pathophysiological entities. However, in recent times the separate nature of arterial and venous thrombotic events has been challenged. Although inherited thrombophilia’s predominant clinical manifestation is venous thrombosis, its contribution to arterial thrombosis remains controversial. Purpose  of  the  study  was  to  evaluate  the  prevalence  of  the  most common  thrombophilic  mutations, FV Leiden G1691A-FVL and FII G20210A-PTM and to assess  the  differences between venous, arterial and mixed thrombotic events. Testing  for polymorphism MTHFR C677T and  antithrombin,  protein  C  and  protein  S was also performed. Correlations with  dyslipidemia, smoking, obesity, homocysteine and antiphospholipid antibodies were made. Methods: 515 patients with unprovoked TED, 263 males, median age 44 years, were studied. Patients were divided into three groups: 258 with venous thrombosis (group A), 239 with arterial (group B) and 18 with mixed episodes (group C). All patients were interviewed regarding family history of TED, origin, smoking and dyslipidemia. Body mass index (BMI) had been calculated. Molecular assessment of the FVL, PTM and MTHFR C677T was performed. Antithrombin, protein C, protein S, APCR, homocysteine, antiphospholipid antibodies and lipid profile were also measured. Results: The population studied was homogenous among three groups as regards age (p=0.943), lipid profile (p=0.271), BMI (p=0.506), homocysteine (p=0.177), antiphospholipid antibodies (p=0.576), and positive family history (p=0.099). There was no difference in the prevalence of FVL between venous and arterial disease (p=0.440). Significant correlation of PTM with venous TED was found (p=0.001). The number of positive and negative for MTHFR presented statistically significant difference with a support in arterial disease (p=0.05). Moreover, a 2-fold increase in the risk of venous thrombosis in FVL positive patients (odds ratio: 2.153) and a positive correlation of homocysteine levels with MTHFR C677T (p<0.001) was found. Conclusions: Correlation of PTM with venous thrombosis was established. Analysis showed no difference in prevalence of FVL between venous and arterial thrombosis, indicating that FVL might be a predisposing factor for arterial disease. A significant increase in MTHFR C677T prevalence in arterial disease was found. In conclusion, young patients with unprovoked arterial disease should undergo evaluation for thrombophilic genes. Identification of these mutations is important in the overall assessment and management of patients at high risk. Findings will influence the decisions of stratified approaches for antithrombotic therapy either primary or secondary thromboprophylaxis, the duration of therapy, the potential for avoiding clinical thrombosis by risk factor modification and the genetic counselling of family members. However, further studies are needed to clarify the nature of the association regarding venous and arterial thrombotic events.

Mandala, E; Lafaras, C; Tsioni, C; Speletas, M; Papageorgiou, A; Kleta, D; Da