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1

Cerebral sinovenous thrombosis associated with MTHFR A1298C mutation in the newborn: a case report.  

PubMed

Although cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (CSVT) is a rare condition in the neonatal period, high rates of morbidity and mortality necessitate the establishment of an early diagnosis. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) plays a central role in the folate cycle and mutations of MTHFR are associated with vascular disease. While the C677T common missense mutation is the most well-defined MTHFR polymorphism, another common missense mutation, A1298C also exists. There has been no reported case of CSVT associated with MTHFR A1298C mutation in the neonatal period. Herein, we report a neonate with CSVT who was found to have MTHFR A1298C homozygosity. PMID:22797907

Cizmeci, Mehmet Nevzat; Kanburoglu, Mehmet Kenan; Akelma, Ahmet Zulfikar; Donmez, Ahsen; Sonmez, Fatma Mujgan; Polat, Aziz; Kosehan, Dilek; Tatli, Mustafa Mansur

2013-02-01

2

A Second Genetic Polymorphism in Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) Associated with Decreased Enzyme Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A common mutation in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), C677T, results in a thermolabile variant with reduced activity. Homozygous mutant individuals (approximately 10% of North Americans) are predisposed to mild hyperhomocysteinemia, when their folate status is low. This genetic–nutrient interactive effect is believed to increase the risk for neural tube defects and vascular disease. In this communication, we characterize a second common

Ilan Weisberg; Pamela Tran; Benedicte Christensen; Sahar Sibani; Rima Rozen

1998-01-01

3

Association of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR-677 and MTHFR-1298) Genetic Polymorphisms with Occlusive Artery Disease and Deep Venous Thrombosis in Macedonians  

PubMed Central

Aim To analyze the association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms (MTHFR-677 and MTHFR-1298) with occlusive artery disease and deep venous thrombosis in Macedonians. Methods We examined 83 healthy respondents, 76 patients with occlusive artery disease, and 67 patients with deep venous thrombosis. Blood samples were collected and DNA was isolated from peripheral blood leukocytes. Identification of MTHFR mutations was done with CVD StripAssay (ViennaLab, Labordiagnostika GmbH, Vienna, Austria) and the population genetics analysis package, PyPop, was used for the analysis. Pearson P values, crude odds ratio, and Wald’s 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results The frequency of C alleles of MTHFR-677 was 0.575 in patients with deep venous thrombosis, 0.612 in patients with occlusive artery disease, and 0.645 in healthy participants. The frequency of T allele of MTHFR-677 was lower in healthy participants (0.355) than in patients with occlusive artery disease (0.388) and deep venous thrombosis (0.425). The frequency of A allele for MTHFR-1298 was 0.729 in healthy participants, 0.770 in patients with occlusive artery disease, and 0.746 in patients with deep venous thrombosis. The frequency of C allele of MTHFR-1298 was 0.271 in healthy participants, 0.230 in patients with occlusive artery disease, and 0.425 in patients with deep venous thrombosis. No association of MTHFR-677 and MTHFR-1289 polymorphisms with occlusive artery disease and deep venous thrombosis was found, except for the protective effect of MTHFR/CA:CC diplotype for occlusive artery disease. Conclusion We could not confirm a significant association of MTHFR-677 and MTHFR-1289 polymorphisms with occlusive artery disease or deep venous thrombosis in Macedonians, except for the protective effect of MTHFR/CA:CC diplotype against occlusive artery disease. PMID:18293456

Spiroski, Igor; Kedev, Sashko; Antov, Slobodan; Arsov, Todor; Krstevska, Marija; Dzhekova-Stojkova, Sloboda; Kostovska, Stojanka; Trajkov, Dejan; Petlichkovski, Aleksandar; Strezova, Ana; Efinska-Mladenovska, Olivija; Spiroski, Mirko

2008-01-01

4

A second common variant in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and its relationship to MTHFR enzyme activity, homocysteine, and cardiovascular disease risk.  

PubMed

Molecular defects in genes encoding enzymes involved in homocysteine metabolism may account for mild hyperhomocysteinemia, an independent and graded risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We examined the relationship of two polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, the 677C-->T and 1298A-->C variants, to MTHFR activity, homocysteine concentrations, and risk of CVD in a population of 190 vascular disease patients and 601 apparently healthy controls. The mean specific and residual MTHFR activities were significantly lower in 677CT and 677TT individuals (both P<0.001). The 1298A-->C mutation alone showed no effect on MTHFR activities. However, when the 677C-->T genotype was taken into account, the 1298A-->C mutation also caused a significant decrease in MTHFR activities, which was observed in both the homozygous 1298CC (P<0.001) and the heterozygous 1298AC states (P=0.005). Both the 677TT as the 677CT genotypes were associated with significantly higher fasting and postload homocysteine levels than 677CC (P<0.001 and P=0.003, respectively). The 1298A-->C mutation had no effect on fasting or postload homocysteine levels. Since homocysteine itself is considered to be positively associated with the risk of CVD, these findings indicate that the 1298A-->C mutation cannot be considered a major risk factor for CVD. PMID:11692165

Lievers, K J; Boers, G H; Verhoef, P; den Heijer, M; Kluijtmans, L A; van der Put, N M; Trijbels, F J; Blom, H J

2001-09-01

5

Bilateral transverse sinus thrombosis secondary to a homozygous C677T MTHFR gene mutation.  

PubMed

We describe the case of a previously healthy young man who presented with headache, diplopia, nausea, vomiting, and bilateral papilledema. Magnetic resonance venography of the brain revealed thrombosis of the right transverse sinus. Blood tests showed elevated homocysteine levels, and coagulation studies revealed a homozygous C677T mutation and a heterozygous A1298C mutation of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene. The patient had no other etiology for venous thrombosis. We recommend screening patients who present with sinus thrombosis for MTHFR gene mutations. PMID:18666857

Kanaan, Ziad M; Mahfouz, Rami; Taher, Ali; Sawaya, Raja A

2008-09-01

6

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphisms and FOLFOX response in colorectal cancer patients  

PubMed Central

AIMS To test prospectively the predictive value of germinal gene polymorphisms related to fluorouracil (FU) and oxaliplatin (Oxa) pharmacodynamics on toxicity and responsiveness of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients receiving FOLFOX therapy. METHODS Advanced CRC patients (n= 117) receiving FOLFOX 7 therapy were enrolled. Gene polymorphisms relevant for FU [thymidylate synthase (TYMS, 28 bp repeats including the G?C mutation + 6 bp deletion in 3'UTR), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR, 677C?T, 1298A?C), dihydropyrimidine deshydrogenase (IVS14+1G?A) and Oxa: glutathione S-transferase (GST) ? (105Ile?Val, 114Ala?Val), excision repair cross-complementing group 1 (ERCC1) (118AAT?AAC), ERCC2 (XPD, 751Lys?Gln) and XRCC1 (399Arg?Gln)] were determined (blood mononuclear cells). RESULTS None of the genotypes was predictive of toxicity. Response rate (54.7% complete response + partial response) was related to FU pharmacogenetics, with both 677C?T (P= 0.042) and 1298A?C (P= 0.004) MTHFR genotypes linked to clinical response. Importantly, the score of favourable MTHFR alleles (677T and 1298C) was positively linked to response, with response rates of 37.1, 53.3, 62.5 and 80.0% in patients bearing no, one, two or three favourable alleles, respectively (P= 0.040). Polymorphisms of genes related to Oxa pharmacodynamics showed an influence on progression-free survival, with a better outcome in patients bearing GST? 105 Val/Val genotype or XPD 751Lys-containing genotype (P= 0.054). CONCLUSIONS These results show that response to FOLFOX therapy in CRC patients may be driven by MTHFR germinal polymorphisms. PMID:20078613

Etienne-Grimaldi, Marie-Christine; Milano, Gérard; Maindrault-Gœbel, Frédérique; Chibaudel, Benoist; Formento, Jean-Louis; Francoual, Mireille; Lledo, Gérard; André, Thierry; Mabro, May; Mineur, Laurent; Flesch, Michel; Carola, Elisabeth; de Gramont, Aimery

2010-01-01

7

Methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphisms in chronic myeloid leukemia: an Egyptian study.  

PubMed

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene plays a pivotal role in folate metabolism. Several genetic variations in MTHFR gene as MTHFR-C677T and MTHFR-A1298C result in decreased MTHFR activity, which could influence efficient DNA methylation and explain susceptibility to different cancers. The etiology of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is obscure and little is known about individual's susceptibility to CML. In order to assess the influence of these genetic polymorphisms on the susceptibility to CML and its effect on the course of the disease among Egyptians, we performed an age-gender-ethnic matched case-control study. The study included 97 CML patients and 130 healthy controls. Genotyping of MTHFR-C677T and -A1298C was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. The results showed no statistical difference in the distribution of MTHFR-C677T and -A1298C polymorphic genotypes between CML patients and controls. The frequency of MTHFR 677-TT homozygous variant was significantly higher in patients with accelerated/blastic transformation phase when compared to those in the chronic phase of the disease. In conclusion, our study revealed that MTHFR-C677T and -A1298C polymorphisms could not be considered as genetic risk factors for CML in Egyptians. However, MTHFR 677-TT homozygous variant might be considered as a molecular predictor for disease progression. PMID:24338216

Khorshied, Mervat Mamdooh; Shaheen, Iman Abdel Mohsen; Abu Khalil, Reham E; Sheir, Rania Elsayed

2014-01-01

8

Association between 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms and congenital heart disease: A meta-analysis?  

PubMed Central

Background Inconsistent results were reported in recent literature regarding the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T/A1298C polymorphisms and the susceptibility of congenital heart disease (CHD). In this study, we performed a meta-analysis to investigate the associations by employing multiple analytical methods. Methods Literature search was performed and published articles were obtained from PubMed, Embase and CNKI databases based on the exclusion and inclusion criteria. Data were extracted from eligible studies and the crude odds ratios and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random or fix effects model to evaluate the associations between the MTHFR C677T/A1298C polymorphisms and CHD development. Subgroup based analysis was performed by Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium, ethnicity, types of CHD, source of control and sample size. Results Twenty-four eligible studies were included in this meta-analysis. Significant association was found between fetal MTHFR C677T polymorphism and CHD development in all genetic models. The pooled ORs and 95% CIs in all genetic models indicated that MTHFR C677T polymorphism was significantly associated with CHD in Asian, but not Caucasian in subgroup analysis. The maternal MTHFR C677T polymorphism was not associated with CHD except for recessive model. Moreover, neither maternal nor fetal MTHFR A1298C polymorphism was associated with CHD. Conclusion The fetal MTHFR C677T polymorphism may increase the susceptibility to CHD. Fetal MTHFR C677T polymorphism was more likely to affect Asian fetus than Caucasian. The MTHFR A1298C polymorphism may not be a risk of congenital heart disease. PMID:25606381

Wang, Wenju; Hou, Zongliu; Wang, Chunhui; Wei, Chuanyu; Li, Yaxiong; Jiang, Lihong

2013-01-01

9

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphism susceptibility to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: an updated meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Previous studies examining the possible role of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms in the development of schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BPD) have provided inconclusive findings, this meta-analysis was therefore designed to get a more reliable assessment. A total of 38 articles were identified through a search of electronic databases, up to 27 February 2014. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence interval (CIs) were calculated using random effects models. Meta-analysis showed that MTHFR C677T was significantly associated with SZ, the highest OR was found for the recessive model (for TT vs. CT + CC: OR = 1.34, 95 % CI: 1.18-1.53); a marginal association of MTHFR C677T with increased risk of BPD has also been found for the recessive model (OR = 1.26, 95 % CI: 1.00-1.59). Subgroup analysis by ethnicity indicated that the significant association with SZ and BPD existed among Asian and African populations, but not for the white. MTHFR A1298C was significant associated with SZ, the highest OR for the dominant model (OR = 1.13, 95 % CI: 1.03-1.24). Subgroup analysis indicated a significant association with SZ existed in Asian populations, not among the white populations and no significant association was detected between the MTHFR A1298C and BPD in all groups. We conclude that MTHFR polymorphism is associated with SZ and BPD among Asian, African populations, but not the white. PMID:24938371

Hu, Cai-Yun; Qian, Zhen-Zhong; Gong, Feng-Feng; Lu, Shan-Shan; Feng, Fang; Wu, Yi-Le; Yang, Hui-Yun; Sun, Ye-Huan

2015-02-01

10

Plasma folate, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), and colorectal cancer risk in three large nested case-control studies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Few prospective studies have examined the associations between blood levels of folate, in conjunction with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms, and colorectal cancer. We evaluated the associations between plasma folate, MTHFR C677T, and A1298C, and colorectal cancer in three la...

11

Association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism and age of onset in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Different lines of evidence indicate that methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) functional gene polymorphisms, causative in aberrant folate-homocysteine metabolism, are associated with increased vulnerability to several heritable developmental disorders. Opposing views are expressed considering the possible association between MTHFR and susceptibility for schizophrenia. In order to evaluate if age of onset could explain some of this discrepancy we investigated the relationship between two functional MTHFR gene polymorphisms and age at onset in this disorder. Scandinavian patients (n = 820) diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and schizophreniform disorder were investigated. Two functional MTHFR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs1801131 and rs1801133) were genotyped and the effect of MTHFR polymorphisms on the age of onset was examined with survival analysis. In an attempt to replicate the findings from the Scandinavian sample, the association between rs1801133 and age at onset was also analyzed in Chinese high-risk families, with two or more affected siblings (n = 243). Among the Scandinavian patients the functional MTHFR SNP rs1801133 (C677T) significantly affected age at onset of schizophrenia in a dose-dependent manner (P = 0.0015), with lower age of onset with increasing numbers of the mutant T-allele. There was no evidence of rs1801131 (A1298C) affecting age of onset in schizophrenia. Within the Chinese high-risk families carriers of the MTHFR 677T allele showed earlier age at onset than siblings being homozygous for the wild-type allele (P = 0.008). The MTHFR C677T polymorphism may play a role as a modifying factor for age of onset in schizophrenia. PMID:19746410

Vares, Maria; Saetre, Peter; Deng, Hong; Cai, Guiqing; Liu, Xiehe; Hansen, Thomas; Rasmussen, Henrik B; Werge, Thomas; Melle, Ingrid; Djurovic, Srdjan; Andreassen, Ole A; Agartz, Ingrid; Hall, Håkan; Terenius, Lars; Jönsson, Erik G

2010-03-01

12

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genetic polymorphisms and psychiatric disorders: a HuGE review.  

PubMed

The authors performed a meta-analysis of studies examining the association between polymorphisms in the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, including MTHFR C677T and A1298C, and common psychiatric disorders, including unipolar depression, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. The primary comparison was between homozygote variants and the wild type for MTHFR C677T and A1298C. For unipolar depression and the MTHFR C677T polymorphism, the fixed-effects odds ratio for homozygote variants (TT) versus the wild type (CC) was 1.36 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11, 1.67), with no residual between-study heterogeneity (I(2) = 0%)--based on 1,280 cases and 10,429 controls. For schizophrenia and MTHFR C677T, the fixed-effects odds ratio for TT versus CC was 1.44 (95% CI: 1.21, 1.70), with low heterogeneity (I(2) = 42%)--based on 2,762 cases and 3,363 controls. For bipolar disorder and MTHFR C677T, the fixed-effects odds ratio for TT versus CC was 1.82 (95% CI: 1.22, 2.70), with low heterogeneity (I(2) = 42%)-based on 550 cases and 1,098 controls. These results were robust to various sensitively analyses. This meta-analysis demonstrates an association between the MTHFR C677T variant and depression, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder, raising the possibility of the use of folate in treatment and prevention. PMID:17074966

Gilbody, Simon; Lewis, Sarah; Lightfoot, Tracy

2007-01-01

13

Is methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene A1298C polymorphism related with varicocele risk?  

PubMed

Varicocele is one of the main reasons for male infertility the exact aetiology of which remains unclear. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is important for DNA synthesis and methylation, which has a key role during spermatogenesis. Numerous literature suggests that the MTHFR polymorphism may be genetic risk factors for male infertility. In this study, we evaluated C677T and A1298C MTHFR gene polymorphism frequency in patients with varicocele and normal men. A total of 107 varicocele patients and 109 fertile healthy individuals were included. Genotyping of the MTHFR gene in C677T and A1298C base pairs carried out by using real-time PCR technique and afterwards, the statistical analysis accomplished. There is a statistical difference for the frequency of 1298AA genotype in patients with varicocele compared with normal controls (P = 0.0051, OR = 2.2750). Instead, subsequently, 1298/A allel frequency in patient group was significantly higher in comparison with control group (P = 0.0174). According to our results, 1298AA genotype in MTHFR gene raises the risk of varicocele approximately 2.3 times more compared with men carrying other genotypes. The results show that genetic factors have an important role in the molecular basis of varicocele. PMID:24456105

Ucar, V B; Nami, B; Acar, H; K?l?nç, M

2015-02-01

14

Folate Metabolism Gene 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) Is Associated with ADHD in Myelomeningocele Patients  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to examine the relation between the 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and behaviors related to attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in individuals with myelomeningocele. The rationale for the study was twofold: folate metabolizing genes, (e.g. MTHFR), are important not only in the etiology of neural tube defects but are also critical to cognitive function; and individuals with myelomeningocele have an elevated incidence of ADHD. Here, we tested 478 individuals with myelomeningocele for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder behavior using the Swanson Nolan Achenbach Pelham-IV ADHD rating scale. Myelomeningocele participants in this group for whom DNAs were available were genotyped for seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the MTHFR gene. The SNPs were evaluated for an association with manifestation of the ADHD phenotype in children with myelomeningocele. The data show that 28.7% of myelomeningocele participants exhibit rating scale elevations consistent with ADHD; of these 70.1% had scores consistent with the predominantly inattentive subtype. In addition, we also show a positive association between the SNP rs4846049 in the 3?-untranslated region of the MTHFR gene and the attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder phenotype in myelomeningocele participants. These results lend further support to the finding that behavior related to ADHD is more prevalent in patients with myelomeningocele than in the general population. These data also indicate the potential importance of the MTHFR gene in the etiology of the ADHD phenotype. PMID:23227261

Spellicy, Catherine J.; Northrup, Hope; Fletcher, Jack M.; Cirino, Paul T.; Dennis, Maureen; Morrison, Alanna C.; Martinez, Carla A.; Au, Kit Sing

2012-01-01

15

Association of C677T transition of the human methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene with male infertility.  

PubMed

The human methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene encodes one of the key enzymes in folate metabolism. This gene is located on chromosome 1 (1p36.3), which has 12 exons. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible association of the two (C677T and A1298C) polymorphisms of this gene with male infertility. In a case-control study, 250 blood samples were collected from IVF centres in Sari and Babol (Iran): 118 samples were from oligospermic men and 132 were from controls. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms of the MTHFR genotype were detected using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. There was no association found between the A1298C variant and male infertility. However, carriers of the 677T allele (CT and TT genotypes) were at a higher risk of infertility than individuals with other genotypes (odds ratio 1.84; 95% confidence interval 1.11-3.04; P=0.0174). Structural analysis of human MTHFR flavoprotein showed that C677T transition played an important role in the change in affinity of the MTHFR-Flavin adenine dinucleotide binding site. Based on our results, we suggest that C677T transition in MTHFR may increase the risk of male infertility, and detection of the C677T polymorphism biomarker may be helpful in the screening of idiopathic male infertility. PMID:25412139

Karimian, Mohammad; Colagar, Abasalt Hosseinzadeh

2014-11-21

16

Failure to confirm influence of Methyltetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms on age at onset of Huntington disease  

PubMed Central

Background Huntington disease (HD) is a fully penetrant, autosomal dominantly inherited disorder associated with abnormal expansions of a stretch of perfect CAG repeats in the 5' part of the IT15 gene. The number of repeat units is highly predictive for the age at onset (AO) of the disorder. But AO is only modestly correlated with repeat length when intermediate HD expansions are considered. Recently, suggestive association has been reported between a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs1801131, also known as A1298C) in the methyltetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and AO of HD. 5,10-MTHFR is a key enzyme in the folate metabolism, diverting metabolites toward methylation reactions or nucleotide synthesis. Using part of a previously established study cohort plus additional patients and appropriate statistical methods, we reinvestigated two polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene, C677T and A1298C, as well as their association with AO in 167 HD patients. Results There was no statistically significant impact on AO for HD patients, neither of MTHFR SNPs nor of the combinations thereof. Conclusion Contrary to previously described evidence the A1298C polymorphism in the MTHFR gene does not appear to modulate AO of HD patients. PMID:16372906

Hansen, Wiebke; Saft, Carsten; Andrich, Jürgen; Müller, Thomas; Wieczorek, Stefan; Epplen, Jörg T; Arning, Larissa

2005-01-01

17

Polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and susceptibility to pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a German study population  

PubMed Central

Background Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) has a major impact on the regulation of the folic acid pathway due to conversion of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate (methylene-THF) to 5-methyl-THF. Two common polymorphisms (677C>T and 1298A>C) in the gene coding for MTHFR have been shown to reduce MTHFR enzyme activity and were associated with the susceptibility to different disorders, including vascular disease, neural tube defects and lymphoid malignancies. Studies on the role of these polymorphisms in the susceptibility to acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) led to discrepant results. Methods We retrospectively evaluated the association of the MTHFR 677C>T and 1298A>C polymorphisms with pediatric ALL by genotyping a study sample of 443 ALL patients consecutively enrolled onto the German multicenter trial ALL-BFM 2000 and 379 healthy controls. We calculated odds ratios of MTHFR genotypes based on the MTHFR 677C>T and 1298A>C polymorphisms to examine if one or both of these polymorphisms are associated with pediatric ALL. Results No significant associations between specific MTHFR variants or combinations of variants and risk of ALL were observed neither in the total patient group nor in analyses stratified by gender, age at diagnosis, DNA index, immunophenotype, or TEL/AML1 rearrangement. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the MTHFR 677C>T and 1298A>C gene variants do not have a major influence on the susceptibility to pediatric ALL in the German population. PMID:15921520

Schnakenberg, Eckart; Mehles, Andrea; Cario, Gunnar; Rehe, Klaus; Seidemann, Kathrin; Schlegelberger, Brigitte; Elsner, Holger A; Welte, Karl H; Schrappe, Martin; Stanulla, Martin

2005-01-01

18

Neonatal and fetal methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genetic polymorphisms: an examination of C677T and A1298C mutations.  

PubMed

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) mutations are commonly associated with hyperhomocysteinemia, and, through their defects in homocysteine metabolism, they have been implicated as risk factors for neural tube defects and unexplained, recurrent embryo losses in early pregnancy. Folate sufficiency is thought to play an integral role in the phenotypic expression of MTHFR mutations. Samples of neonatal cord blood (n=119) and fetal tissue (n=161) were analyzed for MTHFR C677T and A1298C mutations to determine whether certain MTHFR genotype combinations were associated with decreased in utero viability. Mutation analysis revealed that all possible MTHFR genotype combinations were represented in the fetal group, demonstrating that 677T and 1298C alleles could occur in both cis and trans configurations. Combined 677CT/1298CC and 677TT/1298CC genotypes, which contain three and four mutant alleles, respectively, were not observed in the neonatal group (P=.0402). This suggests decreased viability among fetuses carrying these mutations and a possible selection disadvantage among fetuses with increased numbers of mutant MTHFR alleles. This is the first report that describes the existence of human MTHFR 677CT/1298CC and 677TT/1298CC genotypes and demonstrates their potential role in compromised fetal viability. PMID:10958762

Isotalo, P A; Wells, G A; Donnelly, J G

2000-10-01

19

Neonatal and Fetal Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Genetic Polymorphisms: An Examination of C677T and A1298C Mutations  

PubMed Central

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) mutations are commonly associated with hyperhomocysteinemia, and, through their defects in homocysteine metabolism, they have been implicated as risk factors for neural tube defects and unexplained, recurrent embryo losses in early pregnancy. Folate sufficiency is thought to play an integral role in the phenotypic expression of MTHFR mutations. Samples of neonatal cord blood (n=119) and fetal tissue (n=161) were analyzed for MTHFR C677T and A1298C mutations to determine whether certain MTHFR genotype combinations were associated with decreased in utero viability. Mutation analysis revealed that all possible MTHFR genotype combinations were represented in the fetal group, demonstrating that 677T and 1298C alleles could occur in both cis and trans configurations. Combined 677CT/1298CC and 677TT/1298CC genotypes, which contain three and four mutant alleles, respectively, were not observed in the neonatal group (P=.0402). This suggests decreased viability among fetuses carrying these mutations and a possible selection disadvantage among fetuses with increased numbers of mutant MTHFR alleles. This is the first report that describes the existence of human MTHFR 677CT/1298CC and 677TT/1298CC genotypes and demonstrates their potential role in compromised fetal viability. PMID:10958762

Isotalo, Phillip A.; Wells, George A.; Donnelly, James G.

2000-01-01

20

Severe arterial thrombophilia associated with a homozygous MTHFR gene mutation (A1298C) in a young man with Klinefelter syndrome.  

PubMed

Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is the most common sex chromosome disorder in men. It may be associated with an increased risk for venous thrombosis and thromboembolism, which is partially explained by hypofibrinolysis due to androgen deficiency. Additional genetic or acquired thrombophilic states have been shown in KS patients complicated with venous thrombosis as isolated case reports. Arterial thrombotic events had not been previously reported in KS. In this study, a young man with KS who developed acute arterial thrombosis during testosterone replacement therapy is presented. He was homozygous for the A1298C mutation of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene. PMID:18160591

Ozbek, Mustafa; Oztürk, M Akif; Ureten, Kemal; Ceneli, Ozcan; Erdogan, Mehmet; Haznedaroglu, Ibrahim C

2008-07-01

21

Folate and breast cancer: the role of polymorphisms in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR).  

PubMed

Evidence is growing that low folate status may be a factor in the aetiology of several cancers, including breast cancer. The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR), which has a key role in folate metabolism, is polymorphic. We report a case-control study of two functional polymorphisms in MTHFR, dietary folate intake and breast cancer. Sixty-two cases with invasive breast cancer and sixty-six general practice controls participated. Women reporting the highest dietary folate intake had non-significantly reduced breast cancer risk (odds ratio (OR) = 0.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.20-1.20). Risk was significantly lower for the 1298CC genotype compared to AA (OR = 0.24, 95% CI 0.06-0.97). Relative to compound wild-type subjects, compound heterozygotes had moderately reduced risk (OR = 0.47, 95% CI 0.11-1.92) and homozygote variants (677TT and/or 1298CC) greater reduced risk (OR = 0.26, 95% CI 0.07-0.96); the trend was statistically significant. Patterns in risk with regard to genotype and folate combinations are broadly similar those reported for colorectal neoplasia. The roles of MTHFR and folate in breast cancer aetiology are likely to be complex. PMID:12430180

Sharp, L; Little, J; Schofield, A C; Pavlidou, E; Cotton, S C; Miedzybrodzka, Z; Baird, J O C; Haites, N E; Heys, S D; Grubb, D A

2002-07-01

22

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR-677 and MTHFR-1298) genotypes and haplotypes and plasma homocysteine levels in patients with occlusive artery disease and deep venous thrombosis.  

PubMed

The aim was to investigate different genotypes and haplotypes of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR-677, -1298) and plasma concentration of total homocysteine (tHcy) in Macedonian patients with occlusive artery disease (OAD) and deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Investigated groups consists of 80 healthy, 74 patients with OAD, and 63 patients with DVT. Plasma tHcy was measured with Microplate Enzyme Immunoassay. Identification of MTHFR genotypes and haplotypes was done with CVD StripAssay. The probability level (P-value) was evaluated by the Student's t-test. Plasma concentration of tHcy in CC and CT genotypes of MTHFR C677T was significantly increased in patients with OAD and in patients with DVT. Plasma concentration of tHcy in AC genotype of MTHFR A1298C was increased in patients with OAD and in patients with DVT. Plasma concentration of tHcy was significantly increased in AA genotype of patients with OAD, but not in patients with DVT. We found a significant increase of plasma tHcy in patients with OAD in comparison with healthy respondents for normal:heterozygote (CC:AC), heterozygote:normal (CT:AA), and heterozygote:heterozygote (CT:AC) haplotypes. Plasma concentration of tHcy in patients with DVT in comparison with healthy respondents was significantly increased for normal:normal (CC:AA), normal heterozygote (CC:AC), and heterozygote:heterozygote (CT:AC) haplotypes. We conclude that MTHFR C677T and MTHFR A1289C genotypes and haplotypes are connected with tHcy plasma levels in Macedonian patients with OAD and DVT. PMID:18800176

Spiroski, Igor; Kedev, Sashko; Antov, Slobodan; Arsov, Todor; Krstevska, Marija; Dzhekova-Stojkova, Sloboda; Bosilkova, Gordana; Kostovska, Stojanka; Trajkov, Dejan; Petlichkovski, Aleksandar; Strezova, Ana; Efinska-Mladenovska, Olivija; Spiroski, Mirko

2008-01-01

23

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene mutations as risk factors for sudden hearing loss.  

PubMed

Sudden hearing loss (SHL) can be caused by vascular disorders favoring impaired cochlear perfusion. Several inherited prothrombotic risk factors have been considered in the pathogenesis of vascular impairment, and the possible role of genetic alterations has recently been suggested. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene mutations at nucleotides 677 and 1298 cause reduced MTHFR enzyme activity, which leads to increased homocysteine and reduced serum folate levels that are known to be involved in vascular impairment. We studied the relationship between SHL and MTHFR C677T and A1298C gene polymorphisms in 67 patients with SHL and 134 controls. Wild-type MTHFR CC677/AA1298 was significantly more frequent in the controls (P = .05), and gene mutations were significantly more frequent in the patients (P = .001; P = .001 for trend). Fifty-three patients (79.1%) and 56 controls (41.8%) (P = .012) had a double mutation (homozygosis 677TT or 1298CC; compound heterozygosis for both polymorphisms). Homocysteine levels were significantly higher and serum folate levels significantly lower in the patients than in the controls (P < .0001). These data suggest that MTHFR gene polymorphisms may be involved in the pathogenesis of SHL. PMID:16275406

Capaccio, Pasquale; Ottaviani, Francesco; Cuccarini, Valeria; Ambrosetti, Umberto; Fagnani, Enrico; Bottero, Alessandro; Cenzuales, Salvatore; Cesana, Bruno Mario; Pignataro, Lorenzo

2005-01-01

24

The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism and tumor risk: evidence from 134 case-control studies.  

PubMed

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is an important enzyme involved in folate metabolism, which is essential for DNA synthesis and methylation. Genetic variations in the MTHFR gene seem to contribute to a decreased activity of MTHFR, ultimately confer increased susceptibility to cancer. As the most extensively studied polymorphism, MTHFR C677T polymorphism was shown to contribute to cancer susceptibility but the results were inconsistent. The authors performed a meta-analysis including 134 studies (46,207 cases and 69,160 controls) to address the issue. Odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the association. Overall, a significant elevated risk of cancer was associated with the MTHFR C677T polymorphism in T-allele versus C-allele comparison (OR = 1.06, 95% CI 1.02-1.11, P(heterogeneity) < 0.001), homozygote model (OR = 1.08, 95% CI 1.01-1.17, P(heterogeneity) < 0.001) and dominant model (OR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.00-1.10, P(heterogeneity) < 0.001). In the stratified analyses, significantly increased cancer risks were indicated among Asians in all genetic models except for heterozygote model. Further analysis revealed that C677T was significantly associated with an increased risk of esophageal and stomach cancer. This meta-analysis supports an association between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and increased risk of esophageal and stomach cancer, especially among Asians. Additionally, more high-quality studies and that the covariates responsible for heterogeneity should be controlled to obtain a more conclusive response about the function of MTHFR C677T in cancer. PMID:24744129

Tang, Min; Wang, Shang-Qian; Liu, Bian-Jiang; Cao, Qiang; Li, Bing-Jie; Li, Peng-Chao; Li, Yong-Fei; Qin, Chao; Zhang, Wei

2014-07-01

25

A common mutation A1298C in human methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene: association with plasma total homocysteine and folate concentrations.  

PubMed

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is one of the main regulatory enzymes of homocysteine metabolism. Previous studies revealed that a common mutation in MTHFR gene C677T is related to hyperhomocysteinemia and occlusive vascular pathology. In the current study, we determined the prevalence of a newly described mutation in the human MTHFR gene A1298C, and the already known C677T mutation, and related them to plasma total homocysteine and folate concentrations. We studied 377 Jewish subjects, including 190 men and 186 women aged 56.8 +/- 13 y (range 32-95 y). The frequency of the homozygotes for the A1298C and the C677T MTHFR mutations was common in the Jewish Israeli population (0.34 and 0.37, respectively). Subjects homozygous (TT) for the C677T mutation had significantly greater plasma total homocysteine concentrations (P < 0.01) than subjects without the mutation (CC). Homozygotes (CC) for the A1298C mutation did not have elevated plasma total homocysteine concentrations. Our study indicated that subjects with the 677CC/1298CC genotype had significantly lower concentrations (P < 0. 05) than those with a 677CC/1298AA genotype. Neither mutation (the A1298C and the C677T) was associated with established cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, elevated total cholesterol or body mass index. PMID:10460200

Friedman, G; Goldschmidt, N; Friedlander, Y; Ben-Yehuda, A; Selhub, J; Babaey, S; Mendel, M; Kidron, M; Bar-On, H

1999-09-01

26

Adaptive developmental plasticity in methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism limits its frequency in South Indians.  

PubMed

Methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism shows considerable heterogeneity in its distribution in humans worldwide. The current study was conducted to investigate whether this polymorphism exhibited adaptive developmental plasticity in the control of the TT-genotype frequency. We screened 1,818 South Indian subjects (895 males and 923 females) for MTHFR C677T polymorphism using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism approach. MTHFR 677T-allele frequency in males and females was 9.1 and 11.0%, respectively. Compared to females, males had lower frequency of TT-genotype [odds ratio 0.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08-1.01]. The frequency of MTHFR 677T-allele was highest in the age group of 20-40 years and it gradually decreased from 40-60 to 60-80 years (P trend<0.0001). MTHFR 677TT-genotype was associated with 7.02-folds (95% CI: 2.12-25.63, P<0.0001) cumulative risk for recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL), neural tube defects (NTDs) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Linear regression model suggested that male gender exhibited increased homocysteine levels by 9.35 ?mol/L while each MTHFR 677T-allele contributed to 4.63 ?mol/L increase in homocysteine. Plasma homocysteine showed inverse correlation with dietary folate (r=-0.17, P<0.0001), B2 (r=-0.14, P<0.0001) and B6 (r=-0.07, P=0.03). Examination of the spontaneously aborted fetuses (n=35) showed no significant association of fetal genotype on its in utero viability. From the current study, it was concluded that C677T seemed to have acquired adaptive developmental plasticity among South Indians due to environmental influences thus contributing to hyperhomocysteinemia and its associated complications such as RPL, NTDs, DVT, etc. PMID:24449370

Naushad, Shaik Mohammad; Krishnaprasad, Chintakindi; Devi, Akella Radha Rama

2014-05-01

27

Population distribution of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C risk alleles for methotrexate toxicity in Israel.  

PubMed

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a central regulatory enzyme in the folate pathway. Two non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in MTHFR, C677T (rs1801133) and A1298C (rs1801131) have been associated with reduced MTHFR enzyme activity. These polymorphisms, especially C677T, appear to be linked with methotrexate-related toxicity, particularly hepatotoxicity; thus, pretreatment identification of individuals carrying these polymorphisms may be of clinical relevance. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency and distribution of MTHFR polymorphic variants, known to functionally impair MTHFR activity, in the highly heterogeneous Israeli population. MTHFR genotyping was carried out in the representatives of three major demographic groups in Israel by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and high-resolution melting. The relative distribution of variant alleles 677T and 1298C was found to be similar in individuals of Jewish, Druze and Arab Moslem descent (p = 0.09). However, Ashkenazi Jews displayed a 1.9-fold higher frequency of variant 677T and a 1.8-fold lower frequency of variant 1298C compared to non-Ashkenazi Jews (p < 0.001). Distinct differences in the relative frequencies of both polymorphisms were also found between Ashkenazi Jews and Druze (p < 0.01 for C677T, p < 0.01 for A1298C) or Ashkenazi Jews and Arab Moslem (p < 0.01 for C677T, p < 0.05 for A1298C). These data underscore the importance of geographic genetic analysis for a better understanding of human pharmacotherapy and personalized medicine. PMID:22847291

Efrati, Edna; Elkin, Hela; Nahum, Sagi; Krivoy, Norberto

2013-04-01

28

A second common mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene: an additional risk factor for neural-tube defects?  

PubMed Central

Recently, we showed that homozygosity for the common 677(C-->T) mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, causing thermolability of the enzyme, is a risk factor for neural-tube defects (NTDs). We now report on another mutation in the same gene, the 1298(A-->C) mutation, which changes a glutamate into an alanine residue. This mutation destroys an MboII recognition site and has an allele frequency of .33. This 1298(A-->C) mutation results in decreased MTHFR activity (one-way analysis of variance [ANOVA] P < .0001), which is more pronounced in the homozygous than heterozygous state. Neither the homozygous nor the heterozygous state is associated with higher plasma homocysteine (Hcy) or a lower plasma folate concentration-phenomena that are evident with homozygosity for the 677(C-->T) mutation. However, there appears to be an interaction between these two common mutations. When compared with heterozygosity for either the 677(C-->T) or 1298(A-->C) mutations, the combined heterozygosity for the 1298(A-->C) and 677(C-->T) mutations was associated with reduced MTHFR specific activity (ANOVA P < .0001), higher Hcy, and decreased plasma folate levels (ANOVA P <.03). Thus, combined heterozygosity for both MTHFR mutations results in similar features as observed in homozygotes for the 677(C-->T) mutation. This combined heterozygosity was observed in 28% (n =86) of the NTD patients compared with 20% (n =403) among controls, resulting in an odds ratio of 2.04 (95% confidence interval: .9-4.7). These data suggest that the combined heterozygosity for the two MTHFR common mutations accounts for a proportion of folate-related NTDs, which is not explained by homozygosity for the 677(C-->T) mutation, and can be an additional genetic risk factor for NTDs. PMID:9545395

van der Put, N M; Gabreëls, F; Stevens, E M; Smeitink, J A; Trijbels, F J; Eskes, T K; van den Heuvel, L P; Blom, H J

1998-01-01

29

Combined choroidal neovascularization and hypopituitarism in a patient with homozygous mutation in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene  

PubMed Central

We report a case of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene mutation in a 20-year-old male patient with hypopituitarism. Treatment with three consecutive injections of intravitreal ranibizumab (anti-vascular endothelial growth factor) resulted in significant improvement of the patient's vision and the appearance of the macula. A search of the literature produced no previously reported case of MTHFR gene mutation associated both CNV and possibly hypopituitarism. With hormone replacement therapy of hypopituitarism, acetyl salicylic acid 100 mg/day also was started. The patient was clinically stable both for CNV and other thromboembolic disorders over a 6-month follow-up and also 1-year follow-up period. PMID:24672570

Aydogdu, Aydogan; Haymana, Cem; Baskoy, Kamil; Durukan, Ali H.; Ozgur, Gokhan; Azal, Omer

2014-01-01

30

Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis presenting as transient ischemic attacks in a case with homozygous mutations of MTHFR A1298C and CG677T.  

PubMed

We report a case with recurrent, transient attacks of slurred speech, weakness, and numbness of the right half of the face and the right arm without seizure activity, accompanied by headache and double vision. Neurologic examination revealed bilateral papilledema and right abducens palsy. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed thrombosis of the dural venous sinuses and the cortical veins, with no evidence of parenchymal lesion. Homozygous mutations were found for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) A1298C and MTHFR CG677T. Anticoagulation with heparin and warfarin resulted in prompt cessation of the transient attacks, as well as the signs and symptoms of increased intracranial pressure. This report documents that, although rare, transient ischemic attacks can result from cerebral venous thrombosis. PMID:20833086

Yildiz, Ozlem Kayim; Cevik, Seyda; Cil, Gulsum; Oztoprak, Ibrahim; Bolayir, Ertugrul; Topaktas, Suat

2012-01-01

31

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T gene polymorphism as a possible factor for reducing clinical severity of psoriasis  

PubMed Central

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a crucial enzyme in homocysteine/methionine metabolism. It catalysis the formation of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methyl-THF), which is the methyl donor for synthesis of methionine from homocysteine (Hcy). Decreases in folate consumption due to MTHFR polymorphism may affect production rate of keratinocytes of which had faster reproduction rates with a continuous DNA turnover and this may affect the clinical picture of psoriasis. This study aimed to investigate correlation of C677T polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene with severity of psoriasis and to evaluate the status of plasma Hcy, folate and vitamin B12 levels in patient with chronic plaque psoriasis. The study included 60 patients with chronic plaque psoriasis. The C677T polymorphisms were genotyped using PCR (Qiagen). Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) score below 7 was defined as mild, between 7 and 12 as moderate, and above 12 as severe disease. There was a significant difference between the severity of disease classification (p<0.05) with respect to the C677T polymorphism in the MTHFR gene. Severe involvement (PASI score >12) was observed in 38.46% of wild type (CC), but only 12.50% of homozygote (TT) and 7.69% of heterozygote (CT) patients. Significant differences between gene polymorphism and Hcy levels were noted in TT and CT genotypes respectively (p=0.025 and p=0.040). Plasma Hcy, folate and vitamin B12 levels were not correlated with the PASI score. Our data indicate a possible correlation of MTHFR polymorphism with severity of psoriasis. PMID:24753765

Karabacak, Ercan; Aydin, Ersin; Ozcan, Omer; Dogan, Bilal; Gultepe, Mustafa; Cosar, Alpaslan; Muftuoglu, Tuba

2014-01-01

32

Altered protein phosphatase 2A methylation and Tau phosphorylation in the young and aged brain of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficient mice  

PubMed Central

Common functional polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, a key enzyme in folate and homocysteine metabolism, influence risk for a variety of complex disorders, including developmental, vascular, and neurological diseases. MTHFR deficiency is associated with elevation of homocysteine levels and alterations in the methylation cycle. Here, using young and aged Mthfr knockout mouse models, we show that mild MTHFR deficiency can lead to brain-region specific impairment of the methylation of Ser/Thr protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Relative to wild-type controls, decreased expression levels of PP2A and leucine carboxyl methyltransferase (LCMT1) were primarily observed in the hippocampus and cerebellum, and to a lesser extent in the cortex of young null Mthfr?/? and aged heterozygous Mthfr+/? mice. A marked down regulation of LCMT1 correlated with the loss of PP2A/B? holoenzymes. Dietary folate deficiency significantly decreased LCMT1, methylated PP2A and PP2A/B? levels in all brain regions examined from aged Mthfr+/+ mice, and further exacerbated the regional effects of MTHFR deficiency in aged Mthfr+/? mice. In turn, the down regulation of PP2A/B? was associated with enhanced phosphorylation of Tau, a neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Our findings identify hypomethylation of PP2A enzymes, which are major CNS phosphatases, as a novel mechanism by which MTHFR deficiency and Mthfr gene-diet interactions could lead to disruption of neuronal homeostasis, and increase the risk for a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including age-related diseases like sporadic AD. PMID:25202269

Sontag, Jean-Marie; Wasek, Brandi; Taleski, Goce; Smith, Josephine; Arning, Erland; Sontag, Estelle; Bottiglieri, Teodoro

2014-01-01

33

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and breast cancer risk: a nested-case-control study and a pooled meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  A reduced activity of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) due to frequent C677T polymorphism affects DNA synthesis,\\u000a repair and methylation and may be implicated in breast cancer risk.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We conducted a nested case-control study within a phase III prevention trial of tamoxifen. After a median follow-up of 81.2 months,\\u000a 79 of the 5,408 hysterectomised women aged 35–70 years, who had received either tamoxifen 20 mg\\/day

Debora Macis; Patrick Maisonneuve; Harriet Johansson; Bernardo Bonanni; Edoardo Botteri; Simona Iodice; Barbara Santillo; Silvana Penco; Giacomo Gucciardo; Giuseppe D’Aiuto; Marco Rosselli del Turco; Marinella Amadori; Alberto Costa; Andrea Decensi

2007-01-01

34

The prevalence of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677 C-T, factor V 1691 G-A, and prothrombin 20210 G-A mutations in healthy populations in Setif, Algeria.  

PubMed

The polymorphic mutation 677 C-T in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene presents a heterogeneous worldwide distribution and is associated with different disorders such as cardiovascular disease. Its frequency shows great ethnic and geographic variations. The aim of this work is to determine the frequency of MTHFR 677 C-T and coexistence of MTHFR 677 C-T with 2 other common, hereditary thrombophilia causes-namely, factor V 1691 G-A and prothrombin (PT) 20210 G-A mutation-in the Sétif region of Algeria. The study involved 147 apparently healthy participants (82 men and 65 women). Genotyping was carried out by a real-time polymerase chain reaction. The MTHFR 677T carrier frequency was found to be 54.4% (80/147); 59 individuals were heterozygous (40.1%), and 21 were homozygous (14.3%). The frequency of MTHFR 677T was found to be 34.3%. Among the 147 individuals, 3 (2.0%) had factor V Leiden, and 5 (3.4%) had PT 20210 A mutation. Of the 80 participants with MTHFR 677T mutation, 2 had heterozygote factor V 1691 G-A gene mutation, and 4 had heterozygote PT 20210 G-A gene mutation. The results showed that MTHFR 677T prevalence is quite high: an allelic frequency of 34.3% with a genotype frequency of 14.3%. Factor V 1691 G-A and PT 20210 G-A gene mutations are rare in the healthy population of the Sétif region of Algeria. PMID:18840629

Bourouba, Romyla; Houcher, Bakhouche; Djabi, Farida; Egin, Yonca; Akar, Nejat

2009-10-01

35

The Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Polymorphism (MTHFR c.677C > T) and Elevated Plasma Homocysteine Levels in a U.S. Pediatric Population with Incident Thromboembolism  

PubMed Central

Objective Elevated plasma homocysteine (tHcy) and the MTHFR c.677C > T variant have been postulated to increase the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), although mechanisms and implications to pediatrics remain incompletely understood. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalences of elevated tHcy and MTHFR variant in a pediatric population with VTE or arterial ischemic stroke (AIS), and to determine associations with thrombus outcomes. Study Design Subjects were enrolled in an institution-based prospective cohort of children with VTE or AIS. Inclusion criteria consisted of objectively confirmed thrombus, ?21 years at diagnosis, tHcy measured and MTHFR c.677C > T mutation analysis. Clinical and laboratory data were collected. Frequencies for elevated tHcy and MTHFR variant were compared with NHANES values for healthy US children and also between study groups (VTE vs AIS, provoked vs idiopathic) and by age. Results The prevalences of hyperhomocysteinemia or MTHFR variant were not increased in comparison to NHANES. tHcy did not differ between those with wild-type MTHFR versus either c.677C > T heterozygotes or homozygotes. There was no association between tHcy or MTHFR variant and thrombus outcomes. Conclusion In this cohort of US children with VTE or AIS, neither the prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia nor that of MTHFR variant was increased relative to reference values, and adverse thrombus outcomes were not definitively associated with either. While it is important to consider that milder forms of pyridoxine-responsive classical homocystinuria will be detected only by tHcy, we suggest that routine testing of MTHFR c.677C > T genotype as part of a thrombophilia evaluation in children with incident thromboembolismis not warranted until larger studies have been performed in order to establish or refute a link between MTHFR and adverse outcomes. PMID:23866722

Joachim, Emily; Goldenberg, Neil A.; Bernard, Timothy J.; Armstrong-Wells, Jennifer; Stabler, Sally; Manco-Johnson, Marilyn J.

2014-01-01

36

Two cousins with neonatal stroke, PAI-1 4G variant and MTHFR A1298C mutation.  

PubMed

The authors describe 2 female cousins with neonatal stroke. One was heterozygous for the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G variant and compound heterozygous for the A1298C and C677T methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase mutations. Her cousin was homozygous for the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G variant and heterozygous for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase A1298C and factor V Leiden mutations. PMID:17641264

Golomb, Meredith R; Heiny, Mark; Garg, Bhuwan P

2007-06-01

37

Association of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR 677C>T and 1298A>C) Polymorphisms and Haplotypes with Silent Brain Infarction and Homocysteine Levels in a Korean Population  

PubMed Central

Purpose Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is the main regulatory enzyme for homocysteine metabolism. In the present study, we evaluated whether the MTHFR 677C>T and 1298A>C gene polymorphisms are associated with SBI and plasma homocysteine concentration in a Korean population. Materials and Methods We enrolled 264 patients with SBI and 234 healthy controls in South Korea. Fasting plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations were measured, and genotype analysis of the MTHFR gene was carried out. Results The plasma tHcy levels were significantly higher in patients with SBI than in healthy controls. Despite a significant association between the MTHFR 677TT genotype and hyperhomocysteinemia, the MTHFR 677C>T genotypes did not appear to influence susceptibility to SBI. However, odds ratios of the 1298AC and 1298AC + CC genotypes for the 1298AA genotype were significantly different between SBI patients and normal controls. The frequencies of 677C-1298A and 677C-1298C haplotypes were significantly higher in the SBI group than in the control group. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the MTHFR 1298A>C polymorphism is a risk factor for SBI in a Korean population. The genotypes of 677C>T and 1298A>C polymorphisms interact additively, and increase the risk of SBI in Korean subjects. PMID:20191019

Han, In Bo; Kim, Ok Joon; Ahn, Jung Yong; Oh, Doyeun; Hong, Sun Pyo; Huh, Ryoong; Chung, Sang Sup

2010-01-01

38

High prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia in chronic alcoholism: the importance of the thermolabile form of the enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR).  

PubMed

Alcoholism is related to malnutrition and low levels of several vitamins that take part in the metabolism of homocysteine. The objective of the study was to analyze the prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia in patients with heavy alcohol intake and the factors on which it depends. Included in the study were 103 hospitalized heavy drinkers (i.e., patients with an intake of alcohol greater than 80 g per day). Serum homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B(12) levels, plasma vitamin B(6) levels, and CT677 polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) were determined. We also recorded the intensity of alcoholism, the status of nutrition, and the existence of liver cirrhosis. Determination of biochemical data was repeated after 15 days of withdrawal. Serum homocysteine levels were found to be significantly elevated, whereas serum folate and plasma B(6) levels were significantly decreased. Serum homocysteine levels were significantly higher in those heavy drinkers who showed the TT polymorphism of MTHFR, with a prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia of 84.2% in the homozygote TT, 54.3% in the heterozygote CT, and 31.6% in the normal CC genotype. Serum homocysteine inversely correlated with serum folate, serum B(12), and plasma B(6) levels. We did not find any relation between serum homocysteine and intensity of alcoholism, nutritional status, or liver cirrhosis. Serum folate levels were significantly decreased in heavy drinkers, mainly depending on irregular feeding and malnutrition. After 15 days of withdrawal, serum homocysteine levels significantly decreased, whereas folate, B(12), and B(6) levels significantly increased. The conclusion is that heavy drinkers show a high prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia related to low levels of folate, B(6), and B(12) and to the TT polymorphism of MTHFR. PMID:11747974

de la Vega, M J; Santolaria, F; González-Reimers, E; Alemán, M R; Milena, A; Martínez-Riera, A; González-García, C

2001-10-01

39

Plasma folate, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), and colorectal cancer risk in three large nested case-control studies  

PubMed Central

Few prospective studies have examined the associations between blood levels of folate, in conjunction with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms, and colorectal cancer. We evaluated the associations between plasma folate, MTHFR C677T and A1298C, and colorectal cancer in three large prospective studies: the Nurses’ Health Study, the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, and the Physicians’ Health Study. A total of 602 incident cases were identified and individually matched to controls who provided blood specimens. We used conditional logistic regression to calculate the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) and then pooled the estimates using a random effects model. We found a lower risk of colorectal cancer among participants with low plasma folate levels: compared with the lowest quartile, RRs (95% CIs) for each successively higher quartile of plasma folate levels were 1.55 (1.14–2.11), 1.37 (1.00–1.88), and 1.47 (1.07–2.01; P for trend = 0.10). For the MTHFR polymorphisms, RRs (95% CIs) were 0.62 (0.44–0.90) for the 677TT vs. CC/CT and 0.68 (0.31–1.51) for the 1298CC vs. AC/AA, and these lower risk genotypes were associated with lower circulating plasma folate levels. When we partitioned the variation in plasma folate levels, variation due to folate intake was not positively associated with colorectal cancer risk. We found that low plasma folate levels were associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer. The reasons underlying a lower risk of colorectal cancer with low plasma folate levels require elucidation because plasma folate levels can reflect dietary intake, genetic influences, and other factors. PMID:22367721

Lee, Jung Eun; Wei, Esther K.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Hunter, David J.; Lee, I-Min; Selhub, Jacob; Stampfer, Meir J.; Willett, Walter C.; Ma, Jing; Giovannucci, Edward

2013-01-01

40

A retrospective comparative exploratory study on two Methylentetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms in esophagogastric cancer: the A1298C MTHFR polymorphism is an independent prognostic factor only in neoadjuvantly treated gastric cancer patients  

PubMed Central

Background Methylentetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) plays a major role in folate metabolism and consequently could be an important factor for the efficacy of a treatment with 5-fluorouracil. Our aim was to evaluate the prognostic and predictive value of two well characterized constitutional MTHFR gene polymorphisms for primarily resected and neoadjuvantly treated esophagogastric adenocarcinomas. Methods 569 patients from two centers were analyzed (gastric cancer: 218, carcinoma of the esophagogastric junction (AEG II, III): 208 and esophagus (AEG I): 143). 369 patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery, 200 patients were resected without preoperative treatment. The MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms were determined in DNA from peripheral blood lymphozytes. Associations with prognosis, response and clinicopathological factors were analyzed retrospectively within a prospective database (chi-square, log-rank, cox regression). Results Only the MTHFR A1298C polymorphisms had prognostic relevance in neoadjuvantly treated patients but it was not a predictor for response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The AC genotype of the MTHFR A1298C polymorphisms was significantly associated with worse outcome (p?=?0.02, HR 1.47 (1.06-2.04). If neoadjuvantly treated patients were analyzed based on their tumor localization, the AC genotype of the MTHFR A1298C polymorphisms was a significant negative prognostic factor in patients with gastric cancer according to UICC 6th edition (gastric cancer including AEG type II, III: HR 2.0, 95% CI 1.3-2.0, p?=?0.001) and 7th edition (gastric cancer without AEG II, III: HR 2.8, 95% CI 1.5-5.7, p?=?0.003), not for AEG I. For both definitions of gastric cancer the AC genotype was confirmed as an independent negative prognostic factor in cox regression analysis. In primarily resected patients neither the MTHFR A1298C nor the MTHFR C677T polymorphisms had prognostic impact. Conclusions The MTHFR A1298C polymorphisms was an independent prognostic factor in patients with neoadjuvantly treated gastric adenocarcinomas (according to both UICC 6th or 7th definitions for gastric cancer) but not in AEG I nor in primarily resected patients, which confirms the impact of this enzyme on chemotherapy associated outcome. PMID:24490800

2014-01-01

41

Mutations C677T and A1298C of the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene and fasting plasma homocysteine levels are not associated with the increased risk of venous thromboembolic disease.  

PubMed

Mild hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with homozygosity for the thermolabile variant of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and could increase the risk of venous thromboembolic disease (VTD). Recently, the second A1298C mutation of the MTHFR gene was described. The present study aimed to analyze both mutations of the MTHFR gene and plasma homocysteine levels in subjects with VTD. The study groups comprised 146 patients with VTD and 100 healthy subjects. There were no statistical differences in carrier frequency and allelic frequency for both A1298C and C677T mutations, nor were there any differences encountered between subjects with VTD and controls in either plasma homocysteine levels or according to C677T or A1298C genotypes of MTHFR. In our VTD patients and controls, neither MTHFR 677CT/1298CC nor MTHFR 677TT/1298CC combined genotypes were observed; double heterozygotes (A1298C/C677T) were represented only in 11% of VTD patients, and in 15% of the controls. In conclusion, the polymorphisms C677T and A1298C of MTHFR and fasting plasma homocysteine levels do not seem to be significant risk factors for venous thromboembolic disease. PMID:12138370

Domagala, T B; Adamek, L; Nizankowska, E; Sanak, M; Szczeklik, A

2002-07-01

42

Myocardial infarction in a newborn heterozygous for the MTHFR C677T mutation.  

PubMed

Neonatal myocardial infarction secondary to congenital heart disease, anomalous coronary artery anatomy, thromboembolism, coagulopathy, birth asphyxia, and unknown causes has been previously reported. We now report an infant who suffered a massive myocardial infarction during birth, requiring extensive resuscitation and aggressive management. A thrombus, the origin of which was not detected on autopsy, was found occluding the proximal left coronary artery several hours after birth. Genetic studies revealed a single copy variant of the MTHFR C677T mutation that we speculate may have predisposed the infant to coronary thrombosis. PMID:22339112

Clark, Amy B; Stokes, Theophil A; Krous, Henry F; Carbine, Douglas N

2012-01-01

43

Increased frequency of combined methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and A1298C mutated alleles in spontaneously aborted embryos.  

PubMed

The pathogenesis of spontaneous abortion is complex, presumably involving the interaction of several genetic and environmental factors. The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene C677T and A1298C polymorphisms are commonly associated with defects in folate dependent homocysteine metabolism and have been implicated as risk factors for recurrent embryo loss in early pregnancy. In the present study we have determined the prevalence of combined MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in DNA samples from spontaneously aborted embryos (foetal death between sixth and twentieth week after conception) and adult controls using solid-phase minisequencing technique. There was a significant odds ratio of 14.2 (95% CI 1.78-113) in spontaneously aborted embryos comparing the prevalence of one or more 677T and 1298C alleles vs the wild type combined genotype (677CC/1298AA), indicating that the MTHFR polymorphisms may have a major impact on foetal survival. Combined 677CT/1298CC, 677TT/1298AC or 677TT/1298CC genotypes, which contain three or four mutant alleles, were not detected in any of the groups, suggesting complete linkage disequilibrium between the two polymorphisms. The present finding of high prevalence of mutated MTHFR genotypes in spontaneously aborted embryos emphasises the potential protective role of periconceptional folic acid supplementation. PMID:11938441

Zetterberg, Henrik; Regland, Björn; Palmér, Mona; Ricksten, Anne; Palmqvist, Lars; Rymo, Lars; Arvanitis, Demetrios A; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Blennow, Kaj

2002-02-01

44

Pediatric stroke and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms: an examination of C677T and A1298C mutations.  

PubMed

Although rare in children, stroke is becoming increasingly recognized as an important cause of morbidity and mortality with an annual incidence of approximately 3 per 100,000 per year. While several studies have documented the underlying mechanisms and pathogenesis related to stroke in adults, including genetic and acquired prothrombotic conditions, the data available on similar conditions in children is limited. Evidence suggests that mutations in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) appear to be linked with hyperhomocysteinemia (HHC) and cerebral-thrombotic events in children. While the C677T common missense mutation is the best-characterized MTHFR polymorphism, another common missense mutation, A1298C also exists. A recent study of children demonstrated that the homozygous form of C677T polymorphism occurred two-times as often in those with stroke versus healthy controls. In our retrospective chart review of 33 children seen at Children's Hospital of Orange County from January 1, 2000 to September 30, 2003 with the diagnosis of stroke, we examined both the C677T and A1298C polymorphisms for occurrence and type. In the subset (n=21), which excluded those with a confounding disorder, we observed a significant increase in the frequency of A1298C and C677T homozygosity (0.25 [p=0.01] and 0.20 [p=0.100], respectively); expected rate: (0.06 and 0.08, respectively). Our observed rates of heterozygosity for both MTHFR mutations (0.35 and 0.40, respectively) were consistent with expected rates (0.28 and 0.38, respectively). In all subjects, homocysteine (HC) levels were normal. The results of our study suggest that mutations in MTHFR are associated with pediatric stroke. However, additional studies are required to confirm our findings and to determine if this relationship is causal. PMID:16282888

Rook, James L; Nugent, Diane J; Young, Guy

2005-11-01

45

Association of PHB 1630 C>T and MTHFR 677 C>T polymorphisms with breast and ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers: results from a multicenter study  

PubMed Central

Background: The variable penetrance of breast cancer in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers suggests that other genetic or environmental factors modify breast cancer risk. Two genes of special interest are prohibitin (PHB) and methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), both of which are important either directly or indirectly in maintaining genomic integrity. Methods: To evaluate the potential role of genetic variants within PHB and MTHFR in breast and ovarian cancer risk, 4102 BRCA1 and 2093 BRCA2 mutation carriers, and 6211 BRCA1 and 2902 BRCA2 carriers from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 (CIMBA) were genotyped for the PHB 1630 C>T (rs6917) polymorphism and the MTHFR 677 C>T (rs1801133) polymorphism, respectively. Results: There was no evidence of association between the PHB 1630 C>T and MTHFR 677 C>T polymorphisms with either disease for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers when breast and ovarian cancer associations were evaluated separately. Analysis that evaluated associations for breast and ovarian cancer simultaneously showed some evidence that BRCA1 mutation carriers who had the rare homozygote genotype (TT) of the PHB 1630 C>T polymorphism were at increased risk of both breast and ovarian cancer (HR 1.50, 95%CI 1.10–2.04 and HR 2.16, 95%CI 1.24–3.76, respectively). However, there was no evidence of association under a multiplicative model for the effect of each minor allele. Conclusion: The PHB 1630TT genotype may modify breast and ovarian cancer risks in BRCA1 mutation carriers. This association need to be evaluated in larger series of BRCA1 mutation carriers. PMID:22669161

Jakubowska, A; Rozkrut, D; Antoniou, A; Hamann, U; Scott, R J; McGuffog, L; Healy, S; Sinilnikova, O M; Rennert, G; Lejbkowicz, F; Flugelman, A; Andrulis, I L; Glendon, G; Ozcelik, H; Thomassen, M; Paligo, M; Aretini, P; Kantala, J; Aroer, B; von Wachenfeldt, A; Liljegren, A; Loman, N; Herbst, K; Kristoffersson, U; Rosenquist, R; Karlsson, P; Stenmark-Askmalm, M; Melin, B; Nathanson, K L; Domchek, S M; Byrski, T; Huzarski, T; Gronwald, J; Menkiszak, J; Cybulski, C; Serrano, P; Osorio, A; Cajal, T R; Tsitlaidou, M; Benítez, J; Gilbert, M; Rookus, M; Aalfs, C M; Kluijt, I; Boessenkool-Pape, J L; Meijers-Heijboer, H E J; Oosterwijk, J C; van Asperen, C J; Blok, M J; Nelen, M R; van den Ouweland, A M W; Seynaeve, C; van der Luijt, R B; Devilee, P; Easton, D F; Peock, S; Frost, D; Platte, R; Ellis, S D; Fineberg, E; Evans, D G; Lalloo, F; Eeles, R; Jacobs, C; Adlard, J; Davidson, R; Eccles, D; Cole, T; Cook, J; Godwin, A; Bove, B; Stoppa-Lyonnet, D; Caux-Moncoutier, V; Belotti, M; Tirapo, C; Mazoyer, S; Barjhoux, L; Boutry-Kryza, N; Pujol, P; Coupier, I; Peyrat, J-P; Vennin, P; Muller, D; Fricker, J-P; Venat-Bouvet, L; Johannsson, O Th; Isaacs, C; Schmutzler, R; Wappenschmidt, B; Meindl, A; Arnold, N; Varon-Mateeva, R; Niederacher, D; Sutter, C; Deissler, H; Preisler-Adams, S; Simard, J; Soucy, P; Durocher, F; Chenevix-Trench, G; Beesley, J; Chen, X; Rebbeck, T; Couch, F; Wang, X; Lindor, N; Fredericksen, Z; Pankratz, V S; Peterlongo, P; Bonanni, B; Fortuzzi, S; Peissel, B; Szabo, C; Mai, P L; Loud, J T; Lubinski, J

2012-01-01

46

Low frequency of mutated methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677C-->T and 1298A-->C genetics single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Sub-Saharan populations.  

PubMed

5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and methionine synthase (MTR) are two of the key enzymes in the folate/vitamin B12-dependent remethylation of homocysteine to methionine. The frequencies of MTHFR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 677C-->T, 1298A-->C, 1317T-->C and of MTR, 2756A-->G, have been widely studied in Caucasians, but they have never been reported simultaneously in a large population from Sub-Saharan Africa. Presently, we report the prevalence of these SNPs and their relationship to homocysteine in 240 subjects recruited in West Africa. The frequencies of the mutant genotypes 677TT (0.8%) and 1298CC (2%) were lower than that usually observed in Caucasians, while the frequency of the mutant 1317CC was higher (16%). We formed a systematic association of the mutated MTHFR 677C-->T SNP with a 1298A/1317T common haplotype. The MTHFR mutant genotype 677TT was associated with an intermediate hyperhomocysteinemia (92.4 +/- 6.0 micromol/l) higher than that described in Caucasians. The 2756A-->G SNP in the MTR was similarly distributed in Africans compared to Caucasians. In conclusion, the MTHFR 677TTor 1298CC genotypes are much rarer in Africans than in Caucasians. The 677TT low frequency may be related to the high effect of this mutation on homocysteine metabolism in the environmental conditions of this African region. PMID:12964809

Adjalla, Charles E; Amouzou, Emile K; Sanni, Ambaliou; Abdelmouttaleb, Idrissia; Chabi, Nicodème W; Namour, Fares; Soussou, Batoma; Guéant, Jean-Louis

2003-08-01

47

The effect of 677C-->T and 1298A-->C mutations on plasma homocysteine and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase activity in healthy subjects.  

PubMed

We have studied the effect of common mutations (677C-->T and 1298A-->C) of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene in sixty-six healthy French subjects, aged 27-47 years. Serum folate, vitamin B12, and plasma total homocysteine were measured as well as the specific activity of MTHFR in lymphocytes. The frequency of subjects homozygous for the 677TT genotype was 18%, and that of those homozygous for the 1298CC genotype was 12.5%. The frequency of individuals heterozygous for both mutations was 23.5%. The 1298A-->C mutation was associated with decreased MTHFR specific activity in subjects with both 677CC and 677CT genotypes. This activity was 60% for the 677CC/1298AC genotype and 52% for the 677CC/1298CC genotype when compared with the MTHFR specific activity of the 677CC/1298AA genotype. Heterozygotes for both mutations (677CT/1298AC genotype) had 36% of the reference specific activity. Although homocysteine levels in 677TT and 1298CC genotype subjects were higher than for other genotypes, no significant differences were observed among different genotypes. This may be due to high serum folate level in our samples, and suggests that folate therapy may be useful to prevent hyperhomocysteinaemia in homozygous mutant subjects. PMID:10911766

Chango, A; Boisson, F; Barbé, F; Quilliot, D; Droesch, S; Pfister, M; Fillon-Emery, N; Lambert, D; Frémont, S; Rosenblatt, D S; Nicolas, J P

2000-06-01

48

Infant C677T mutation in MTHFR, maternal periconceptional vitamin use, and cleft lip.  

PubMed

Studies have reported an association between homozygosity for a variant form of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and risk for neural tube defects. Because of MTHFR's involvement with folate metabolism and evidence that maternal use of a multivitamin with folic acid in early pregnancy reduces risk for cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CLP), we hypothesized that infants homozygous for the C677T genotype would be at increased risk for CLP because of lower MTHFR enzymatic activity. Data were derived from a large population-based, case-control study of fetuses and liveborn infants among a cohort of 1987 to 1989 California births. The analyses involved 310 infants with isolated CLP whose mothers completed a telephone interview and whose DNA was available from newborn screening blood specimens and involved 383 control infants without a congenital anomaly whose mothers completed a telephone interview and whose DNA was available. Cases and controls were genotyped TT if homozygous for the C677T allele, CT if heterozygous for the C677T allele, and CC if homozygous for the C677 (wild-type) allele. Odds ratios for CLP were 0.89 (0.55 to 1.4) and 0.78 (0.56 to 1.1) for infants with TT versus CC and infants with CT versus CC genotypes, respectively. Compared with the CC genotype, the odds ratios for CLP among infants with the TT genotype were 0.74 (0.39 to 1.4) for those infants whose mothers were users and 1.4 (0.54 to 3.6) for those infants whose mothers were not users of multivitamins containing folic acid periconceptionally. The two estimates were not statistically heterogeneous (P = 0.30). Our results did not indicate increased risks for CLP among infants homozygous for the C677T genotype, nor do they indicate an interaction between infant C677T genotype and maternal multivitamin use on the occurrence of CLP. PMID:9843036

Shaw, G M; Rozen, R; Finnell, R H; Todoroff, K; Lammer, E J

1998-11-16

49

Association of methylenetetrahytrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C polymorphisms with the susceptibility of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in Chinese population  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the polymorphisms of the methylenetetrahytrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and susceptibility to childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Methods A case–control study was conducted among 98 children with ALL and 93 age- and sex- matched non-ALL controls. Genotyping of MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The odds ratios (ORs) of MTHFR genotypes were used to assess the associations of these polymorphisms with childhood ALL susceptibility. Results No significant differences were observed for frequencies of the 677CC, 677CT and 677TT genotypes between patients and controls. Frequencies of the 1298AA, 1298 AC and 1298CC genotypes between the two groups were significantly different. The risk of ALL with the 1298C allele carriers (AC?+?CC) was elevated by 1.1 times compared with the AA genotype [OR?=?2.100; 95% CI (1.149; 3.837); P?=?0.015]. Conclusions The MTHFR A1298C polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to childhood ALL in the Chinese population. PMID:24476575

2014-01-01

50

Serum adiponectin is associated with homocysteine in elderly men and women, and with 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) in a sex-dependent manner.  

PubMed

Plasma homocysteine associates positively with cardiovascular disease. C-to-T substitution at base 677 of the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene associates with increased plasma homocysteine. The association of adiponectin with cardiovascular disease is unclear. This study of survivors of a 30-year cohort of the Jewish Israeli population, 310 men and 273 women (mean age, 70.5 ± 7.0 years for both), investigated the relationship between adiponectin and homocysteine, and between adiponectin and the MTHFR C677T genotype. Serum adiponectin associated positively with total homocysteine in both men (r = 0.27, P < .001) and women (r = 0.22, P < .001). In women, the TT MTHFR genotype associated with lower median adiponectin levels, 8.98 mg/L, compared with 9.88 and 10.57 mg/L for TC and CC, respectively (P = .05; CC vs TT, P = .01). In men, the trend was opposite, but not statistically significant: 7.90, 7.03, and 6.88 mg/L for TT, TC, and CC genotypes, respectively (P = .5). This study demonstrated a positive association between homocysteine and adiponectin in both elderly men and women and a statistically significant association between adiponectin and MTHFR C677T genotypes in women only. PMID:20580032

Dankner, Rachel; Chetrit, Angela; Murad, Havi; Sela, Ben-Ami; Frystyk, Jan; Raz, Itamar; Flyvbjerg, Allan

2010-12-01

51

The Prevalence of Factor V Leiden (G1691A) and Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T Mutations in Sickle Cell Disease in Western India.  

PubMed

The prevalence of the Factor V Leiden (FVL; G1691A) mutation and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR; C677T) mutation was determined in 180 patients with sickle cell (SS) disease (126 sickle homozygous and 54 sickle ?-thalassaemia-age 1-47 years) and in 130 healthy controls. The FVL mutation in the heterozygous state was present in only 3 patients with SS disease and was absent in the controls. Genotyping of MTHFR 677C > T revealed increased frequency of the C allele than the T allele in patients as well as in controls. This suggests that these genetic markers may not be major risk factors for a hypercoagulable state in Indian patients with SS disease. PMID:23869056

Kangne, Harshada K; Jijina, Farah F; Italia, Yazdi M; Jain, Dipti L; Nadkarni, Anita H; Ghosh, Kanjaksha K; Colah, Roshan B

2015-03-01

52

Improved Real-Time Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction Detection of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T and 1298A>C Polymorphisms Using Nearest Neighbor Model-Based Probe Design  

PubMed Central

The disorders of folate metabolism caused by methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphisms may lead to several disease states including coronary heart disease, venous thrombosis, and several types of cancer. We have developed a real-time multiplex single-tube polymerase chain reaction procedure on the LightCycler for the detection of the two most commonly occurring variants, 677C>T and 1298A>C, in the MTHFR gene. An improved probe design, based on the nearest neighbor model for nucleic acid-probe duplex stability, resulted in a better separation (?Tm ? 10°C) of melting peaks of the wild-type and mutant alleles than that by the existing method (?Tm ? 3°C) for specimens heterozygous for the 1298A>C polymorphism. Of the 333 blood specimens analyzed by this procedure, we did not find any samples that gave ambiguous results. The specimens with homozygous mutation for one polymorphism were of the wild type for the other variant. The assay was validated by the comparison of the genotyping results of 50 blood specimens from the LightCycler polymerase chain reaction with the conventional restriction fragment length polymorphism procedures. There was 100% concordance of the test results obtained by the two techniques. This assay is reliable, economical, and can be performed by less trained technologists compared with the procedure performed by the conventional restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. PMID:17591934

Agarwal, Raghunath P.; Peters, Stephen M.; Shemirani, Manijeh; von Ahsen, Nicolas

2007-01-01

53

Meta-analysis of Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase maternal gene in Down syndrome: increased susceptibility in women carriers of the MTHFR 677T allele.  

PubMed

Because a number of data studies include some controversial results about Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms and Down syndrome (DS), we performed a meta-analysis to determine a more precise estimation of this association. Studies were searched on PubMed, EMBASE and Lilacs-Scielo, up to April 2013, and they were eligible if they included case mothers (DSM) that have gave birth to children with DS, and controls mothers (CM) that have gave birth to healthy children without chromosomal abnormality, syndrome or malformation. The combined odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals was calculated by fixed or random effects models to assess the strength of associations. Potential sources of heterogeneity between studies were evaluated using Q test and the I(2). Publication bias was estimated using Begg's test and Egger's linear regression test. Sensitivity analyses were performed by using allelic, dominant, recessive and codominant genetic models, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) and ethnicity. Twenty-two studies with 2,223 DSM and 2,807 CM were included for MTHFR C677T and 15 studies with 1,601 DSM and 1,849 CM were included for MTHFR A1298C. Overall analysis suggests an association of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism with maternal risk for DS. Moreover, no association between the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and maternal risk for DS was found. There is also evidence of higher heterogeneity, with I(2) test values ranging from 8 to 89%. No evidence of publication bias was found. Taken together, our meta-analysis implied that the T allele carriers might carry an increased maternal risk for DS. PMID:24913031

Victorino, D B; Godoy, M F; Goloni-Bertollo, E M; Pavarino, E C

2014-08-01

54

Cerebral Venous Thrombosis and Livedo Reticularis in a Case with MTHFR 677TT Homozygote  

PubMed Central

Hyperhomocysteinemia associated with methylene terahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) mutation can be a risk factor for idiopathic cerebral venous thrombosis. We describe the first case of MTHFR 677TT homozygote with cerebral venous thrombosis and livedo reticularis. A 45-year-old man presented with seizures and mottled-like skin lesions, that were aggravated by cold temperature. Hemorrhagic infarct in the right frontoparietal area with superior sagittal sinus thrombosis was observed. He had hyperhomocysteinemia, low plasma folate level, and MTHFR 677TT homozygote genotype, which might be associated with livedo reticularis and increase the risk for cerebral venous thrombosis. PMID:20396498

Lee, Jee-Young

2006-01-01

55

A COMMON POLYMORPHISM IN THE METHYLENETETRAHYDROFOLATE REDUCTASE (MTHFR) GENE IS ASSOCIATED WITH QUANTITATIVE ULTRASOUND IN THOSE WITH LOW PLASMA FOLATE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A study of a polymorphism in the MTHFR gene, plasma folate, and bone phenotypes in 1632 individuals revealed that the genotype effect on BMD and quantitative ultrasound was dependent on the level of folate. Our findings support the hypothesis that the association between an MTHFR polymorphism and bo...

56

Genetic susceptibility of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene C677T, A1298C, and G1793A polymorphisms with risk for bladder transitional cell carcinoma in men.  

PubMed

We performed a case-control study of 158 bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) cases and 316 controls to investigate the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T, A1298G, and G1793A polymorphisms and bladder cancer susceptibility by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RLFP) technique. The controls were frequency-matched to the cases by age (± 5 years), ethnicity, and smoking status. We also measured serum levels of total homocysteine (tHcy), folate, and vitamin B12. It was found that the 1298AC (odds ratio, OR = 3.74; 95% confidence interval, CI = 2.34-5.47; P = 0.001) and 1298CC (OR = 3.46, 95% CI = 2.37-5.52; P = 0.001) genotypes of MTHFR A1298C were significantly associated with increased risk of bladder TCC. The MTHFR C677T and G1793A polymorphisms were not associated with bladder TCC. After stratification for grade and stage, we observed that the 677TT (OR = 4.47, 95% CI = 2.74-6.72; P = 0.001) and MTHFR 1298CC (OR = 4.78, 95% CI = 2.82-6.89; P = 0.001) genotypes of MTHFR were associated with increased risk of muscle-invasive bladder TCC. We also found that the MTHFR 677CT+1298AA genotypes were associated with an approximately 70% reduction in risk of bladder cancer (OR = 0.31; 95% CI = 0.15-0.68) compared to the combined referent genotype. There were 8 haplotypes and 16 haplotype genotypes based on these three variants. When we used the haplotypes and assumed that the 677T, 1298C, and 1793G alleles were risk alleles, the adjusted odds ratios increased as the number of risk alleles increased: 1.00 for 0-1 variant, 1.88 (1.4-2.7) for any two risk alleles and 2.07 (1.6-2.8) for any three risk alleles. Serum tHcy levels were significantly higher in carriers of the 677T, 1298C, and 1793G alleles compared to noncarriers (all P < 0.01). There was no significant correlation between serum levels of tHcy and folate and bladder cancer risk. Further studies in larger samples size and different ethnicity are required to confirm our findings. PMID:21046286

Safarinejad, Mohammad Reza; Shafiei, Nayyer; Safarinejad, Shiva

2011-12-01

57

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genetic variation and major depressive disorder prognosis: A five-year prospective cohort study of primary care attendees.  

PubMed

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genetic variation has been associated with the diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD) but no study to date has examined the effect MTHFR variation has on MDD prognosis. We sought to examine the prospective effects of two common MTHFR variants (C677T and A1298C) as well as seven haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNPs) on MDD prognosis over a 5-year (60-month) period. Participants were 147 depressed primary care attendees enrolled in the Diagnosis, Management and Outcomes of Depression in Primary Care (diamond) prospective cohort study. Prognosis of MDD was measured using three methods: (1) DSM-IV criteria, (2) Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and (3) Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD). DSM-IV criteria for MDD was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview at baseline and 24, 36, 48, and 60 months post-baseline; whereas, PHQ-9 and CESD measures were employed at baseline and 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months post-baseline. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed that PHQ-9 symptom severity trajectories differed by C677T genotype (F?=?3.34, df?=?2,144, P?=?0.038), with 677CC genotype showing the most severe symptom severity course over the 60 months of observation. Neither the A1298C polymorphism nor any of the htSNPs were associated with MDD prognosis regardless of measure used. Our results suggest that the MTHFR C677T polymorphism may serve as a marker for MDD prognosis pending independent replication. PMID:24123968

Bousman, Chad A; Potiriadis, Maria; Everall, Ian P; Gunn, Jane M

2014-01-01

58

Preponderance of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T homozygosity among leukemia patients intolerant to methotrexate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism, a common mutation of the gene encoding the enzyme that catalyzes reduction of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, a carbon donor in the metabolism of folate, determines a striking reduction in the enzyme activity in carriers of mutation at homozygous status. Patients and methods: We retrospectively analyzed the incidence of MTHFR C677T and the influence of

P. Chiusolo; G. Reddiconto; I. Casorelli; L. Laurenti; F. Sorà; L. Mele; L. Annino; G. Leone

2002-01-01

59

Molecular analysis of factor V Leiden, factor V Hong Kong, factor II G20210A, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T, and A1298C mutations related to Turkish thrombosis patients.  

PubMed

Inherited gene disorders related to the hemostatic system have been documented as risk factors for thrombosis. The roles of factor V Hong Kong (FV Hong Kong), factor V Leiden (FV Leiden), factor II G20210A (FII G20210A), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T, and MTHFR A1298C mutations in Turkish patients with thrombosis (270 patients) compared with healthy controls (114 subjects) were evaluated. Polymerase chain reaction-based restriction enzyme analysis was carried out to screen these mutations, and single-strand conformation analysis was established to identify variations using the primers selected for restriction enzyme analysis studies. As a result, a significant relationship was determined among FV Leiden, FII G20210A, and thrombosis. The FV Hong Kong mutation was observed in only 2 patients with pulmonary vein thrombosis who are FV Leiden/FV Hong Kong compound heterozygous for FV gene. MTHFR C677T and A1298C were equally distributed in the patient group compared with the control group. All named mutations were also identified with single-strand conformation analysis, but a new variant/polymorphism during studies was not found. Because some inherited abnormalities are associated with thromboembolic disorders, determining the mutations and gene-to-gene interactions in patients with thrombosis history has a great impact on diagnosis and treatment of these diseases. PMID:17911197

Dölek, Bilgen; Eraslan, Serpil; Ero?lu, Sevim; Kesim, Belgin Eroglu; Ulutin, Turgut; Yalçiner, Altan; Laleli, Yahya R; Gözükirmizi, Nermin

2007-10-01

60

Prevalence of MTHFR C677T single nucleotide polymorphism in genetically isolated populations in Jordan.  

PubMed

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T single nucleotide polymorphism is a major inherited risk factor of venous thromboembolism. We sought to determine its prevalence in genetically isolated populations of Chechens and Circassians in Jordan. The MTHFR C677T mutation was analyzed from blood samples taken from 120 random unrelated Chechens and 72 Circassians. The prevalence of the MTHFR mutation in the Chechen population was 27.5% (allele frequency 15%); the prevalence among the Circassians was 50% (allele frequency 29.2%). The prevalence in the Chechen population is similar to that in Jordan and other world populations, but it is higher in the Circassian population. This study will contribute to understanding the interaction between genetic and environmental risk factors underlying thrombosis and will be useful in deciding which genetic variants should be tested in a clinical genetic testing service. PMID:23749065

Dajani, Rana; Fathallah, Raja; Arafat, Ala; AbdulQader, Mohammed Emad; Hakooz, Nancy; Al-Motassem, Yousef; El-Khateeb, Mohammad

2013-10-01

61

Recurrent ischemic strokes in a young celiac woman with MTHFR gene mutation.  

PubMed

Celiac disease (CD) is frequently associated with neurological disorders, but very few reports concern the association with ischemic stroke. A 26-year-old woman affected by CD with secondary amenorrhea, carrier of a homozygous 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase mutation with hyperhomocysteinemia, was affected by two occipital ischemic strokes within a period of 5 mo. At the time of the second stroke, while she was being treated with folic acid, acetylsalicylic acid and a gluten-free diet, she had left hemianopsia, left hemiparesthesias, and gait imbalance. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a subacute right occipital ischemic lesion, which was extended to the dorsal region of the right thalamus and the ipsilateral thalamo-capsular junction. Antitransglutaminase and deamidated gliadin peptide antibodies were no longer present, while antinuclear antibodies, antineuronal antibodies and immune circulating complexes were only slightly elevated. Since the patient was taking folic acid, her homocysteine ??levels were almost normal and apparently not sufficient alone to explain the clinical event. A conventional cerebral angiography showed no signs of vasculitis. Finally, rare causes of occipital stroke in young patients, such as Fabry's disease and mitochondrial myopathy, encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like symptoms, were also excluded by appropriate tests. Thus, the most probable cause for the recurrent strokes in this young woman remained CD, although the mechanisms involved are still unknown. The two main hypotheses concern malabsorption (with consequent deficiency of vitamins known to exert neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects) and immune-mediated mechanisms. CD should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of ischemic stroke in young patients. PMID:22807619

Fabbri, Elisa; Rustignoli, Lisa; Muscari, Antonio; Puddu, Giovanni M; Guarino, Maria; Rinaldi, Rita; Minguzzi, Elena; Caio, Giacomo; Zoli, Marco; Volta, Umberto

2012-07-14

62

Elevated plasma homocysteine is positively associated with age independent of C677T mutation of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene in selected Egyptian subjects  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to evaluate the plasma homocysteine (tHcy) and folate levels as well as the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T mutation in Egyptian subjects. Fasting total homocysteine (tHcy) and the (MTHFR) C677T mutation were evaluated in 50 healthy young control males (age 35-50 years, Gp1), 50 elderly males age ranged between 50-75 years without any cardiovascular diseases (Gp2) and 50 age matched elderly male patients (Gp3) with myocardial infarction. There was a significant elevation of plasma tHcy in the patients group and Gp2 compared to the young control group (Gp1). The total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) in the control group, Gp2 and the patients group were 17.99 ± 9.76, 39.9 ± 20.06 and 43.8 ± 13.13 ?mol/L respectively. The frequency of the TT genotype was 12% in the patient group compared with 8 % in the young healthy controls and elderly subjects (Gp2). The CT genotype constituted 36%, 48% and 44% in the control group, Gp2 and the patients group respectively. There was no significant difference in the occurrence of the TT genotype between the studied groups. Plasma tHcy correlated positively with age, total cholesterol, urea, creatinine, glucose levels and carotid intimal thickness (CIT). Conclusion: The MTHFR mutation does not seem to be associated with either high tHcy or the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases in the studied patients. However, elevated plasma tHcy level positively correlates with age in the studied subjects. PMID:15912197

2004-01-01

63

Livedoid vasculopathy in a patient with lupus anticoagulant and MTHFR mutation: treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin.  

PubMed

Livedoid vasculopathy is characterized by painful purpuric lesions on the extremities which frequently ulcerate and heal with atrophic scarring. For many years, livedoid vasculopathy has been considered to be a primary vasculitic process. However, there has been evidence considering livedoid vasculopathy as an occlusive vasculopathy due to a hypercoagulable state. We present the case of livedoid vasculopathy in a 21-year-old female who had been suffering of painful lower extremity lesions of 3 years duration. The patient was found to be lupus anticoagulant positive and homozygous for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T mutation. The patient was successfully treated with low-molecular-weight heparin. PMID:22592843

Abou Rahal, Jihane; Ishak, Rim S; Otrock, Zaher K; Kibbi, Abdul-Ghani; Taher, Ali T

2012-11-01

64

Effects of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism on prostate specific antigen and prostate cancer.  

PubMed

Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer related deaths among men in many countries. Serum levels of prostate-spesific antigen (PSA) have attracted attention for prediction purposes. The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene play a critical role in cancer development, but its potential impact on prostate cancer has not been well studied. The C677T variant lies in exon 4 at the folate binding site of the MTHFR gene and results in substitution of an alanine by a valine residue. The present study was carried out 55 cases with prostate cancer and 50 healthy men. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and agarose gel electrophoresis techniques were employed to determine MTHFR C677T mutation. The frequencies of the CT genotype (p= 0.025) and T allele (p= 0.023) was found to be higher in control subjects when compared with patients group. No statistical difference was found between the alleles of MTHFR and PSA levels after (PSA-BT)/ before (PSA-AT) antiandrogen treatment or tumor stages. We suggest that the heterozygote CT genotype and the 677T allele of the MTHFR polymorphism might be associated with an decreased prostate cancer risk. PMID:22296369

Küçükhüseyin, Özlem; Kurnaz, Özlem; Akadam-Teker, A Basak; Narter, Fehmi; Y?lmaz-Aydo?an, Hülya; ?sbir, Turgay

2011-01-01

65

Frequency of the Methylenetetrahydrofolate REDUCTASE 677CT and 1298AC mutations in an Iranian Turkish female population  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Introduction: Gene-environmental interactions in the pathway of folate metabolism influence greatly the embryonic development. Individual specific MTHFR 677C/T and 1298A/C mutations are known as risk factors for predisposition to human disorders. Therefore, we studied the frequencies of the MTHFR 677CT and 1298AC mutations in a female general population from Iranian Azeri Turkish. Material and methods: We studied 108 unrelated women from Iranian Azeri Turkish general population. Genomic DNA was extracted using standard procedure. The MTHFR 677CT and 1298AC mutations determined by PCR-RFLP method. Outcomes: The frequencies (percent) at position 677 for C and T alleles were 159(74%), 57(26%), and for CC, CT, and TT genotypes were 59(54.6%), 41(38%), and 8(7.41%) respectively. The frequencies (percent) at position 1298 for A and C alleles were 136(63%), 80(37%), and for AA, AC, and CC genotypes were 43(39.8%), 50(46.3%), and 15(13.9%) respectively. Conclusions: The frequency of MTHFR 677 C and T alleles were 0.74 and 0.26 while that of MTHFR 1298 A and C alleles were 0.63 and 0.37 in present study, respectively. This is the first report in its own kind in Iranian Azeri Turkish women. PMID:21977149

BAGHERI, Morteza; ABDI RAD, Isa

2010-01-01

66

Prevalence of genetic prothrombotic risk factors: 1691G > A FV, 20210G > A PT and 677C > T MTHFR mutations in the Bosnian population.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: Venous thrombosis (VT) affects 1-2 out of 10(3) individuals each year. Mutations of 1691G?>?A FV gene, 20210G?>?A PT gene and 677C?>?T gene MTHFR are common in Europe and increase the risk of venous thrombosis. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on the prevalence of these mutations in the general population of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Aim: The aim of this study was to simultaneously analyse main VT associated polymorphisms and compare the results with those published for other European populations. Data sources: Electronic databases including Medline and Embase were searched from 1995 to December 2013. Subjects and methods: The subjects of the study consisted of 100 unrelated healthy people from Bosnia and Herzegovina (82 female and 18 male). The mean age of the cohort was 58.8 (±10.7) years. PCR-RFLP was used for measurement of allele frequencies. Results: All three SNPs were found to be polymorphic, with allele frequencies of 6.0%, 6.0% and 37.5% for 1691A FV, 20210A PT and 677T MTHFR, respectively. Conclusion: Further studies on larger cohorts with an adequate female-to-male ratio are necessary to confirm a high prevalence of hereditary thrombophilia in the Bosnian population. PMID:25357225

Adler, Gra?yna; Agnieszka, Garstka; Valjevac, Amina; Czerska, Ewa; Kiseljakovic, Emina; Salkic, Nermin Nusret

2014-10-30

67

[Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency-induced schizophrenia in a school-age boy].  

PubMed

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder. It is known that MTHFR deficiency may result in hyperhomocysteinemia, but MTHFR deficiency-induced schizophrenia has been rarely reported. Here we present the clinical course, biochemical and genetic characteristics of schizophrenia resulted from MTHFR deficiency in a school-age boy. He was 13 years old. He was admitted with a two-year history of fear, auditory hallucination, learning difficulty, sleeping problems, irascibility, drowsing and giggling. At admission, he had significantly elevated plasma and urine levels of total homocysteine, significantly decreased levels of folate in serum and cerebrospinal fluid, and a normal blood concentration of methionine. Further DNA sequencing analysis showed 665C>T homozygous mutations in the MTHFR gene. The patient was diagnosed with MTHFR deficiency-associated schizophrenia and treatment with calcium folinate, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, and betaine was initiated. After the treatment for 1 week, his plasma and urine levels of homocysteine were decreased to a normal range and the clinical symptoms were significantly improved. After 3 months of treatment, the patient returned to school. He is now living with normal school life. In summary, children with late-onset MTHFR deficiency and secondary cerebral folate deficiency may lead to schizophrenia. This rare condition can be early diagnosed through analyses of blood and urine total homocysteine, amino acids in blood and folate in blood and cerebral fluid and successfully treated with folinic acid, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and betaine. PMID:24461181

Wang, Qiao; Liu, Jing; Liu, Yu-Peng; Li, Xi-Yuan; Ma, Yan-Yan; Wu, Tong-Fei; Ding, Yuan; Song, Jin-Qing; Wang, Yu-Jie; Yang, Yan-Ling

2014-01-01

68

MTHFR genotypes and breast cancer survival after surgery and chemotherapy: a report from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) regulates the intracellular folates pool for DNA synthesis and methylation. Sequence variations in MTHFR (nucleotides 677 (CT) and 1298 (AC)) result in allozymes with decreased activity. The 677TT genotype is associated with increased toxicity of methotrexate and increased clinical response to 5-fluorouracil in treatment of cancers including breast cancer. We evaluated MTHFR genotypes and breast cancer survival

Martha J. Shrubsole; Xiao Ou Shu; Zhi Xian Ruan; Qiuyin Cai; Hui Cai; Qi Niu; Yu-Tang Gao; Wei Zheng

2005-01-01

69

Plasmodium falciparum:Mutation Pattern in the Dihydrofolate Reductase–Thymidylate Synthase Genes of Vietnamese Isolates, a Novel Mutation, and Coexistence of Two Clones in a Thai Patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

ZINDROU, S., DUNG, N. P., SY, N. D., SKÖLD, O., and SWEDBERG, G. 1996.Plasmodium falciparum:Mutation pattern in the dihydrofolate reductase–thymidylate synthase genes of Vietnamese isolates, a novel mutation, and coexistence of two clones in a Thai patient.Experimental Parasitology84,56–64. Pyrimethamine and cycloguanil resistance ofPlasmodium falciparumhas been linked to mutations in the dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) portion of thedhfr-tsgene. In this paper, the

Sherwan Zindrou; Nguyen Phuong Dung; Nguyen Duy Sy; Ola Sköld; Göte Swedberg

1996-01-01

70

Severe scoliosis in a patient with severe methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency.  

PubMed

Severe methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessively inherited inborn error of folate metabolism. We report a new patient with severe MTHFR deficiency who presented at age 4months with early onset severe scoliosis associated with severe hypotonia. Markedly decreased MTHFR enzyme activity (0.3nmoles CHO/mg protein/h; reference range>9) and compound heterozygous mutations (c. 1304T>C; p.Phe435Ser and c.1539dup; p.Glu514Argfs?24) in the MTHFR gene confirmed the diagnosis. She was treated with vitamin B12, folic acid and betaine supplementation and showed improvements in her developmental milestones and hypotonia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first patient with MTHFR deficiency reported with severe early onset scoliosis. Despite the late diagnosis and treatment initiation, she showed favorable short-term neurodevelopmental outcome. This case suggests that homocysteine measurement should be included in the investigations of patients with developmental delay, hypotonia and scoliosis within first year of life prior to organizing genetic investigations. PMID:24726568

Munoz, Tatiana; Patel, Jinesh; Badilla-Porras, Ramses; Kronick, Jonathan; Mercimek-Mahmutoglu, Saadet

2015-01-01

71

A Possible Genetic Link between MTHFR Genotype and Smoking Behavior  

PubMed Central

Background Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for stroke and other vascular events. The variant methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T is associated with elevated homocysteine levels, cardiovascular disease and stroke, which supports a causal relationship between hyperhomocysteinemia and vascular disease. However, MTHFR variants have also been reported to be associated with smoking behavior, which could be an important confounder. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed the MTHFR variants C677T and A1298C in two independent samples of 525 and 535 individuals, respectively. 21% of the non-smokers, but only 12% of the smokers were homozygous carriers of both MTHFR wildtype alleles, i.e. 677CC and 1298AA (Chi2?=?15.8; p<0.001; binary regression). Plasma homocysteine levels were higher in smokers (13.9±4.1 µmol/L) than in non-smokers (12.6±4.0 µmol/L; F?=?11.4; p?=?0.001; ANOVA). Smoking MTHFR 677TT individuals had the highest plasma homocysteine levels (16.2±5.2 µmol/L), non-smoking 677CC individuals had the lowest (12.2±13.6 µmol/L). Conclusions/Significance In our study samples, MTHFR variants and smoking behaviour were associated with homocysteine plasma levels. In addition, the MTHFR variants were associated with smoking behaviour. Such an association may be a relevant confounder between MTHFR variants, homocysteine plasma levels and vascular diseases. PMID:23285280

Linnebank, Michael; Moskau, Susanna; Semmler, Alexander; Hoefgen, Barbara; Bopp, Gisela; Kallweit, Ulf; Maier, Wolfgang; Schütz, Christian G.; Wüllner, Ullrich

2012-01-01

72

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase: biochemical characterization and medical significance.  

PubMed

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) catalyzes the reduction of 5,10-methylenetetrahydofolate (CH2-H4folate) to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (CH3-H4folate). The enzyme employs a noncovalently-bound flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), which accepts reducing equivalents from NAD(P)H and transfers them to CH2-H4folate. The reaction provides the sole source of CH3-H4folate, which is utilized by methionine synthase in the synthesis of methionine from homocysteine. MTHFR plays a key role in folate metabolism and in the homeostasis of homocysteine; mutations in the enzyme lead to hyperhomocyst(e)inemia. A common C677T polymorphism in MTHFR has been associated with an increased risk for the development of cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, and depression in adults, and of neural tube defects in the fetus. The mutation also confers protection for certain types of cancers. This review presents the current knowledge of the enzyme, its biochemical characterization, and medical significance. PMID:23116396

Trimmer, Elizabeth E

2013-01-01

73

MTHFR C677T and A1298C Genotypes and Haplotypes in Slovenian Couples with Unexplained Infertility Problems and in Embryonic Tissues from Spontaneous Abortions  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to analyze the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductases ( MTHFR s) C677T and A1298C genotype distributions in couples with unexplained fertility problems (UFP) and healthy controls, and to analyze the genotype and haplotype distribution in spontaneously aborted embryonic tissues (SAET) using allele specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 200 probands with UFP, 353 samples of SAET and 222 healthy controls. The analysis revealed a significant overall representation of the 677T allele in male probands from couples with UFP ( p = 0.036). The combined genotype distribution for both MTHFR polymorphisms was also significantly altered (? 2 21.73, p <0.001) although female probands made no contribution (? 2 1.33, p = 0.72). The overall representation of the 677T allele was more pronounced in SAET (0.5 vs. 0.351 in controls, p <0.001) regardless of the karyotype status (aneuploidy vs. normal karyotype). In addition, the frequencies of the CA and CC haplotypes were significantly lower than in the control group ( p = 0.021 and p = 0.001, respectively), whereas the frequency of the TC haplotype was significantly higher than in controls ( p <0.0001). The presented findings indicate that only male probands contribute to the association of MTHFR mutations with fertility problems in grown adults and demonstrate a high prevalence of mutated MTHFR genotypes in SAET. PMID:24265582

Stangler Herodež, Š; Zagradišnik, B; Erjavec Škerget, A; Zagorac, A; Taka?, I; Vlaisavljevi?, V; Lokar, L; Kokalj Voka?, N

74

Study of MTHFR and MS polymorphisms as risk factors for NTD in the Italian population.  

PubMed

Homozygosity for the C677T mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase ( MTHFR) gene is a risk factor for neural tube defects (NTDs) in many populations, including Italians. Another common mutation on the MTHFR gene, A1298C, has also been described as a risk mutation. Furthermore, several studies have suggested that a defective methionine synthase ( MS) enzyme could be a critical defect in folate-related NTDs. An A-to-G transition at bp 2756 on the MS gene has also been reported. In this case-control study, we studied the frequencies of these two polymorphisms in 203 Italian probands with non-syndromic NTDs: 98 mothers, 67 fathers, and 210 control individuals. Although the A1298C polymorphism is common in the Italian population (0.25), the allelic frequency was significantly higher among NTD cases and their parents. Heterozygous patients and mothers have an odds ratio (OR) of 1.98 and 2.11, respectively. The risk associated with the 1298CC genotype was higher for cases (OR = 3.67), for fathers (OR = 3.28), and, above all, for mothers (OR = 6.23). The prevalence of the A2756G polymorphism of the MS gene was determined (0.15). No increased prevalence of the mutated G allele was found in NTD families. This study shows that the MTHFRA1298C polymorphism is a genetic determinant for NTD risk in Italy. No association between the MSA2756G and NTD susceptibility was found. PMID:12111380

De Marco, Patrizia; Calevo, Maria Grazia; Moroni, Anna; Arata, Lorenza; Merello, Elisa; Finnell, Richard H; Zhu, Huiping; Andreussi, Luciano; Cama, Armando; Capra, Valeria

2002-01-01

75

Relationship of MTHFR gene polymorphisms with renal and cardiac disease  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the effects of different methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T gene polymorphism and hyperhomocysteinemia for the development of renal failure and cardiovascular events, which are controversial. METHODS: We challenged the relationship, if any, of MTHFR 677C>T and MTHFR 1298A>C polymorphisms with renal and heart function. The present article is a reappraisal of these concepts, investigating within a larger population, and including a subgroup of dialysis patients, if the two most common MTHFR polymorphisms, C677T and A1298C, as homozygous, heterozygous or with a compound heterozygous state, show different association with chronic renal failure requiring hemodialysis. MTHFR polymorphism could be a favorable evolutionary factor, i.e., a protective factor for many ominous conditions, like cancer and renal failure. A similar finding was reported in fatty liver disease in which it is suggested that MTHFR polymorphisms could have maintained and maintain their persistence by an heterozygosis advantage mechanism. We studied a total of 630 Italian Caucasian subject aged 54.60 ± 16.35 years, addressing to the increased hazard of hemodialysis, if any, according to the studied MTHFR genetic polymorphisms. RESULTS: A favorable association with normal renal function of MTHFR polymorphisms, and notably of MTHFR C677T is present independently of the negative effects of left ventricular hypertrophy, increased Intra-Renal arterial Resistance and hyperparathyroidism. CONCLUSION: MTHFR gene polymorphisms could have a protective role on renal function as suggested by their lower frequency among our dialysis patients in end-stage renal failure; differently, the association with left ventricular hypertrophy and reduced left ventricular relaxation suggest some type of indirect, or concurrent mechanism. PMID:25664255

Trovato, Francesca M; Catalano, Daniela; Ragusa, Angela; Martines, G Fabio; Pirri, Clara; Buccheri, Maria Antonietta; Di Nora, Concetta; Trovato, Guglielmo M

2015-01-01

76

Prevalence of thromogenic gene mutations in women with recurrent miscarriage: A retrospective study of 1,507 patients  

PubMed Central

Objective Thromogenic gene mutations has been thought to be associated with recurrent pregnancy loss in women in Turkey. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of thromogenic gene mutations such as factor V Leiden (FVL, G1691T), prothrombin (G20210A), and the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR, C677T) mutation in women with recurrent pregnancy loss. Methods This descriptive study was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Harran University School of Medicine, and included a total of 1,507 women with histories of recurrent pregnancy loss between January 2010 and June 2013. The mutations were assessed by using the polymerase chain reaction. Results The homozygous mutation frequencies of FVL, prothrombin, and MTHFR were found to be 3 (0.20%), 0 and 125 (8.29%), and the heterozygous mutation frequencies were 83 (5.51%), 61 (4.05%), and 612 (40.61%), respectively. Among the 86 FVL mutation patients, 38 also had accompanying prothrombin and MTHFR mutations. Conclusion Since the homozygous forms of the FVL-prothrombin gene mutations have low incidences and MTHFR mutation is similar to a healthy population, preconceptional thromogenic gene mutations screening seems to be controversial. PMID:25469341

Hilali, Nese Gul; Camuzcuoglu, Aysun; Camuzcuoglu, Hakan; Akbas, Halit; Kilic, Avni; Vural, Mehmet

2014-01-01

77

Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T and A1298C Polymorphism in Iranian Women With Idiopathic Recurrent Pregnancy Losses  

PubMed Central

Background: Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is a serious problem for pregnancy. There is evidence that vascular complications play a principal role in RPL. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme in folate metabolism. Polymorphisms (C677T, A1298C) of MTHFR gene are associated with decreased MTHFR activity. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the association between MTHFR polymorphisms (C677T and A1298C) and recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) in Iranian women. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, blood samples were obtained from patients who had three or more consecutive pregnancy losses before the 22nd week of pregnancy (n = 204). The control group consisted of 116 age-matched women with at least one alive child and without any history of pregnancy loss or other gestational complications (n = 116). Following DNA extraction, samples were tested for MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms using the reverse hybridization method. Results: The prevalence of 677TT mutation was 8.8% (18/204) in the patient group and 8.6% (10/116) in the control group (P = 0.434). The prevalence of 1298CC mutation was 12.3 % (25/204) in the patient group and 8% (9/116) in the control group (P = 0.155). Investigation of the distributions of various genotypes of MTHFR C677T and A1298C did not indicate a significant difference between patients with RPL and healthy control subjects. Conclusions: The results suggest that MTHFR mutations might not be associated with RPL in the examined population. PMID:25237572

Yousefian, Elham; Kardi, Mohammad Taghi; Allahveisi, Azra

2014-01-01

78

Subacute methotrexate neurotoxicity and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis in a 12-year-old with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism: homocysteine-mediated methotrexate neurotoxicity via direct endothelial injury.  

PubMed

From as early as the 1970s methotrexate has been associated with disseminated necrotizing leukoencephalopathy and other neurotoxic sequelae. Yet, a clear mechanism for methotrexate-induced neurotoxicity has not been established. The authors describe the case of a 12-year-old male with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and a homozygous methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T mutation, who developed subacute methotrexate-induced toxicity and cerebral venous thrombosis after receiving intrathecal methotrexate. The role of homocysteine as a possible mediator in methotrexate-induced neurotoxicity via direct endothelial injury is discussed. PMID:20121554

Mahadeo, Kris M; Dhall, Girish; Panigrahy, Ashok; Lastra, Carlos; Ettinger, Lawrence J

2010-02-01

79

Polymorphism for mutation of cytosine to thymine at location 677 in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene is associated with recurrent early fetal loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study was undertaken to determine whether a cytosine to thymine mutation at nucleotide 677 in the gene encoding for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase is associated with particular subtypes of recurrent unexplained spontaneous abortion. Study Design: The prevalences of cytosine to thymine mutation at nucleotide 677 in the gene encoding for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase among 41 patients with recurrent unexplained spontaneous abortions

Arie Lissak; Avi Sharon; Oren Fruchter; Aliza Kassel; Judith Sanderovitz; Haim Abramovici

1999-01-01

80

Mutation in pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1 gene in families with cutis laxa type 2.  

PubMed

Autosomal-recessive cutis laxa type 2 (ARCL2) is a multisystem disorder characterized by the appearance of premature aging, wrinkled and lax skin, joint laxity, and a general developmental delay. Cutis laxa includes a family of clinically overlapping conditions with confusing nomenclature, generally requiring molecular analyses for definitive diagnosis. Six genes are currently known to mutate to yield one of these related conditions. We ascertained a cohort of typical ARCL2 patients from a subpopulation isolate within eastern Canada. Homozygosity mapping with high-density SNP genotyping excluded all six known genes, and instead identified a single homozygous region near the telomere of chromosome 17, shared identically by state by all genotyped affected individuals from the families. A putative pathogenic variant was identified by direct DNA sequencing of genes within the region. The single nucleotide change leads to a missense mutation adjacent to a splice junction in the gene encoding pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1 (PYCR1). Bioinformatic analysis predicted a pathogenic effect of the variant on splice donor site function. Skipping of the associated exon was confirmed in RNA from blood lymphocytes of affected homozygotes and heterozygous mutation carriers. Exon skipping leads to deletion of the reductase functional domain-coding region and an obligatory downstream frameshift. PYCR1 plays a critical role in proline biosynthesis. Pathogenicity of the genetic variant in PYCR1 is likely, given that a similar clinical phenotype has been documented for mutation carriers of another proline biosynthetic enzyme, pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase. Our results support a significant role for proline in normal development. PMID:19576563

Guernsey, Duane L; Jiang, Haiyan; Evans, Susan C; Ferguson, Meghan; Matsuoka, Makoto; Nightingale, Mathew; Rideout, Andrea L; Provost, Sylvie; Bedard, Karen; Orr, Andrew; Dubé, Marie-Pierre; Ludman, Mark; Samuels, Mark E

2009-07-01

81

Genetic Polymorphisms in the Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase and Thymidylate Synthase Genes and Risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and thymidylate synthase (TYMS) are known to play a role in DNA methylation, synthesis, and repair. The genetic mutations in MTHFR and TYMS genes may have influences on their respective enzyme activities. Data on the association studies of the MTHFR and TYMS genetic polymorphisms and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are sparse. MTHFR and TYMS genotypes were determined on 365 HCC cases and 457 healthy control subjects among Hispanic and non-Hispanic whites and African-Americans in Los Angeles County, California, and among Chinese in the city of Nanning, Guangxi, China. Relative to the high-activity genotype, each low-activity genotype of MTHFR was associated with a statistically nonsignificant 30% to 50% reduction in risk of HCC. Relative to the TYMS3?UTR +6/+6 genotype, individuals with 1 or 2 copies of the deletion allele had a statistically significant 50% reduction in risk of HCC. When we examined HCC risk by the total number of mutant alleles in the 3 polymorphic loci of MTHFR/TYMS (range, 0-4), there was a monotonic decrease in risk with increasing number of mutant alleles (P for trend = 0.003). Individuals possessing the maximum number of mutant alleles (i.e., 4) had an odds ratio of 0.46 (95% confidence interval = 0.23-0.93) for HCC compared with those with no or only 1 mutant allele. Conclusion This study supports the hypothesis that reduced MTHFR activity and enhanced TYMS activity, both of which are essential elements in minimizing uracil misincorporation into DNA, may protect against the development of HCC. PMID:17659576

Yuan, Jian-Min; Lu, Shelly C.; Van Den Berg, David; Govindarajan, Sugantha; Zhang, Zhen-Quan; Mato, Jose M.; Yu, Mimi C.

2008-01-01

82

Primary thrombophilia in Mexico. II. Factor V G1691A (Leiden), prothrombin G20210A, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism in thrombophilic Mexican mestizos.  

PubMed

We have shown that in Mexican mestizo patients with clinical features of primary thrombophilia, 39% have activated protein C resistance phenotype, 5% protein C deficiency, and 2% protein S deficiency. In the present study, in a group of 37 thrombophilic Mexicans and 50 normal controls, we assessed the factor V G1691A (Leiden), the prothrombin G20210A, and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T gene polymorphisms. Four patients were found to be heterozygous for factor V Leiden, 5 heterozygous for the prothrombin 20210, 16 heterozygous, and 6 homozygous for the MTHFR 677. There were four individuals with co-segregation of alleles: two heterozygotes for the factor V Leiden/prothrombin 20210, one heterozygote for prothrombin 20210/MTHFR 677, and one heterozygote for prothrombin 20210/homozygote for MTHFR 677. For factor V Leiden, prothrombin 20210, and MTHFR 677 mutations, the allele frequencies were respectively 1% (+/-0.2%, alpha = 0.05), <1% and 51% (+/-5%, alpha = 0.05), with calculated relative risks for thrombosis of 5.94 (P = 0.08), >7.66 (P < 0.05), and 0.44 (P NS), respectively. In Mexican mestizo thrombophilic patients, the low prevalence of the factor V Leiden mutation (10.8%) and the high prevalence of the prothrombin 20210 mutation (13.5%) contrast with those identified in Caucasian thrombophilic patients (21% and 6%, respectively; P < 0.01). On the other hand, the high prevalence of the MTHFR 677 mutation gene both in normal controls (78%) and thrombophilic patients (61%) does not support a role of this mutation in the thrombogenesis of Mexican mestizo patients. PMID:11426488

Ruiz-Argüelles, G J; Garcés-Eisele, J; Reyes-Núñez, V; Ramírez-Cisneros, F J

2001-01-01

83

MTHFR polymorphic variant C677T is associated to vascular complications in sickle-cell disease.  

PubMed

Vaso-occlusion is a determinant for most signs and symptoms of sickle-cell anemia (SCA). The mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of vascular complications in SCA remain unclear. It is known that genetic polymorphisms associated with thrombophilia may be potential modifiers of clinical features of SCA. The genetic polymorphisms C677T and A1298C relating to the enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), a clotting Factor V Leiden mutation (1691G?A substitution of Factor V Leiden), and the mutant prothrombin 20210A allele were analyzed in this study. The aim was to find possible correlations with vascular complications and thrombophilia markers in a group of SCA patients in Pernambuco, Brazil. The study included 277 SCA patients, divided into two groups: one consisting of 177 nonconsanguineous SCA patients who presented vascular manifestations of stroke, avascular necrosis, leg ulcers, priapism, and acute chest syndrome (group 1); and the other consisting of 100 SCA patients without any reported vascular complication (group 2). Molecular tests were done using either polymerase chain reaction (PCR) restriction fragment length polymorphism or allele-specific PCR techniques. Comparisons between the groups were made using the ?(2) test. The 677 CT and TT genotypes showed a significant risk of vascular complications (p=0.015). No significant associations between the groups were found when samples were analyzed for the MTHFR A1298C allele (p=0.913), Factor V G1691 (p=0.555), or prothrombin G20210A mutation (p=1.000). The polymorphism MTHFR C677T seemed to be possibly predictive for the development of some vascular complications in SCA patients among this population. PMID:22924497

Hatzlhofer, Betânia L D; Bezerra, Marcos André C; Santos, Magnun N N; Albuquerque, Dulcinéia M; Freitas, Elizabete M; Costa, Fernando F; Araújo, Aderson S; Muniz, Maria Tereza C

2012-09-01

84

[Resistance to acenocoumarol revealing a missense mutation of the vitamin K epoxyde reductase VKORC1: A case report].  

PubMed

A significant proportion of the interindividual variability of the response to vitamin K antagonist (VKA) treatment has been associated with genetic factors. Genetic variations affecting the vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) are associated with hypersensitivity or rarely with resistance to VKA. We report the case of a black women patient who presents a resistance to acenocoumarol. Despite the use of high doses of acenocoumarol (114mg/week) for the treatment of recurrent pulmonary embolism, the International Normalized Ratio was below the therapeutic target. This resistance to acenocoumarol was confirmed by the identification of a missense mutation Val66Met of the vitamin K epoxide reductase. PMID:24095214

Mboup, M C; Dia, K; Ba, D M; Fall, P D

2015-02-01

85

Prospective study of MTHFR genetic polymorphisms as a possible etiology of male infertility.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between 2 genetic polymorphisms of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR), C677T and A1298C, and determine the long-term reproductive outcome in infertile men. This was a prospective study conducted in an andrology clinic. Men with a 1-year history of infertility were assessed for the MTHFR polymorphisms at a 5-year follow-up. We compared the MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism between men who did and did not bear children during follow-up. Of the 215 men who were infertile at 1 year, 82 (38.1%) remained infertile and 133 (61.9%) achieved natural conception during the 5-year follow-up, with the highest rate in the first year (32.6%). The MTHFR 677TT genotype (homozygote) was associated with a substantially increased risk of infertility during follow-up [odds ratio (OR) = 10.242; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.257-83.464] relative to the MTHFR 677CC genotype (wild-type). Risk of infertility was not increased by the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism alone, but was increased by the combination of polymorphisms MTHFR C677T and MTHFR A1298C (OR = 11.818; 95%CI = 1.415-98.674). The homozygous MTHFR C677T genotype was a risk factor for male infertility during 5-year follow-up, whereas a correlation between MTHFR A1298C and infertility was not observed. The MTHFR C677T and MTHFR A1298C polymorphisms had additive effects on male infertility. PMID:24737513

Li, S-S; Li, J; Xiao, Z; Ren, A-G; Jin, L

2014-01-01

86

The association between methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphism and lung cancer risk.  

PubMed

This study aimed to determine the relation between methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism and lung cancer risk and the frequency of this polymorphism. The study involved 64 lung cancer patients (the study group) with definitive diagnosis and 61 noncancerous subjects (the control group). MTHFR C677T and A1298C mutation analysis was made using DNA isolated from peripheric blood and multiplex PCR and reverse hybridization strip test. Eighty-four percent of the patients were male. The age, gender, and history of alcohol use of the patients and control group were statistically similar. While MTHFR 677T and 677C allele frequency was 0.33 and 0.67 in the patients respectively, it was 0.29 and 0.71 in the control group. The frequencies of MTHFR 1298C and 1298A were 0.33 and 0.67 in the patients, and it was 0.31 and 0.69 in the control group respectively. When MTHFR 677TT and 677CT genotypes were compared with 677CC genotype, lung cancer risk was 2.4 times higher in the 677TT genotype. When MTHFR 1298AC and 1298CC genotypes were compared with 1298AA genotype, lung cancer risk was 1.5 times higher in 1298CC genotype. According to the results, allele frequency of homozygote T and C was high in lung cancer patients. It was 3.05 and 1.29 times higher in smokers than in non-smokers, and 3.05 and 1.64 times higher in males than in females; 3.0 and 2.44 times higher in those with non-small cell lung cancer than in those with small-cell lung cancer. PMID:20532637

Arslan, Sulhattin; Karadayi, Sule; Yildirim, Malik Ejder; Ozdemir, Ozturk; Akkurt, Ibrahim

2011-02-01

87

Association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (A1298C and C677T) polymorphisms with retinal vein occlusion in Tunisian patients.  

PubMed

The role of two polymorphisms C677T and A1298C of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene in the etiology of retinal vein occlusion (RVO) has not been adequately clarified. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of these polymorphisms among RVO Tunisian patients with and without systemic risk factors. Seventy-two patients with retinal vein occlusion (RVO) were studied. The control group included140 people matched for age, sex, and risk factors. Participants in the study were genotyped for the MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms. The genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP. No significant differences were found in the frequencies of the three genotypes (AA, AC, CC) of the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism between RVO patients and healthy controls. However, the prevalence of the group of mutated genotypes (AC+CC) of the missense variant MTHFR A1298C was significantly different between patients and controls (16.67% vs. 6.42%, p=.01). Additionally, the frequency of the CT genotype as well as the group of combined mutated genotypes (CT+TT) for the C677T variant was significantly higher among RVO patients compared with controls (p<10(-3), p<10(-3)). This suggests an association between this polymorphism and RVO. Large study populations would be required to understand more completely the contribution of these markers in the risk of RVO. PMID:24440586

Mrad, Meriem; Wathek, Cheima; Saleh, Mekki Ben; Baatour, Makrem; Rannen, Riadh; Lamine, Khaled; Gabsi, Salem; Gritli, Nasreddine; Fekih-Mrissa, Najiba

2014-04-01

88

Altered heme catabolism by heme oxygenase-1 caused by mutations in human NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase  

SciTech Connect

Research highlights: {yields} Mutations in POR identified from patients lead to reduced HO-1 activities. {yields} POR mutation Y181D affecting FMN binding results in total loss of HO-1 activity. {yields} POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F, lost 50-70% activity. {yields} Mutations in FAD binding domain, R457H, Y459H and V492E lost all HO-1 activity. {yields} POR polymorphisms P228L, R316W, G413S, A503V and G504R have normal activity. -- Abstract: Human heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) carries out heme catabolism supported by electrons supplied from the NADPH through NADPH P450 reductase (POR, CPR). Previously we have shown that mutations in human POR cause a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. In this study, we have evaluated the effects of mutations in POR on HO-1 activity. We used purified preparations of wild type and mutant human POR and in vitro reconstitution with purified HO-1 to measure heme degradation in a coupled assay using biliverdin reductase. Here we show that mutations in POR found in patients may reduce HO-1 activity, potentially influencing heme catabolism in individuals carrying mutant POR alleles. POR mutants Y181D, A457H, Y459H, V492E and R616X had total loss of HO-1 activity, while POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F lost 50-70% activity. The POR variants P228L, R316W and G413S, A503V and G504R identified as polymorphs had close to WT activity. Loss of HO-1 activity may result in increased oxidative neurotoxicity, anemia, growth retardation and iron deposition. Further examination of patients affected with POR deficiency will be required to assess the metabolic effects of reduced HO-1 activity in affected individuals.

Pandey, Amit V., E-mail: amit@pandeylab.org [Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, Department of Clinical Research, University of Bern, Tiefenaustrasse 120c, CH-3004 Bern (Switzerland); Flueck, Christa E.; Mullis, Primus E. [Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, Department of Clinical Research, University of Bern, Tiefenaustrasse 120c, CH-3004 Bern (Switzerland)] [Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, Department of Clinical Research, University of Bern, Tiefenaustrasse 120c, CH-3004 Bern (Switzerland)

2010-09-24

89

DIFFERENT ALLELE-DISTRIBUTION OF MTHFR 677 C ! T AND MTHFR -393 C ! A IN PATIENTS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO SUBTYPES OF LESCH'S TYPOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: The typology by Lesch distinguishes between four subtypes: type 1 (model of allergy), type 2 (model of anxiety or conflict), type 3 (alcohol as an antidepressant), and type 4 (alcohol as adaptation). Taking into account that alcohol dependence is associated with elevated homocysteine levels, this study was undertaken to investigate different MTHFR (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase) genotypes related to homocysteine metabolism

DOMINIKUS BONSCH; KRISTINA BAYERLEIN; UDO REULBACH; ROLAND FISZER; THOMAS HILLEMACHER; WOLFGANG SPERLING; JOHANNES KORNHUBER; STEFAN BLEICH

2006-01-01

90

The MTHFR C677T polymorphism and global DNA methylation in oral epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

DNA methylation is mediated by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) that add a methyl group to the 5?-carbon of cytosine. The enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) catalyzes the reduction of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in the rate-limiting step of the cycle involving the methyl donor S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM). The MTHFR C677T polymorphism results in a thermolabile enzyme with reduced activity that is predicted to influence the DNA methylation status. In this study, we investigated the impact of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism on the global DNA methylation of oral epithelial cells obtained from 54 healthy subjects. There were no significant differences in global DNA methylation among the MTHFR CC, CT and TT genotypes (p = 0.75; Kruskal-Wallis test). PMID:24385849

de Arruda, Isabela Tatiana Sales; Persuhn, Darlene Camati; de Oliveira, Naila Francis Paulo

2013-01-01

91

Evaluation of the MTHFR A1298C variant in leukoaraiosis.  

PubMed

Vascular demyelinization of the white matter of the brain is referred to as leukoaraiosis (LA). This very frequent entity is associated with a cognitive decline, thereby resulting in a deteriorating quality of life. Besides poorly controlled hypertension and aging, its development is reported to be associated with an elevated serum homocysteine level. Although the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T genetic variant is associated with an elevated serum homocysteine level, it has not been proved to be an independent risk factor for LA. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the MTHFR A1298C genetic variant, which is also believed to be unfavorable, is associated with the presence of LA. The clinical and genetic data on 198 LA patients and 235 neuroimaging alteration-free controls were analyzed. The presence of the A1298C or the 1298CC variant was calculated to be a risk factor for LA, as compared with the absence of both of them. The clustering of the heterozygous A1298C and C677T variants was proved to involve the risk of LA. Our results suggest that the MTHFR A1298C variant confers an independent genetic risk of LA, and this pathological role may be amplified by the MTHFR C677T variant. PMID:21845428

Szolnoki, Zoltan; Szaniszlo, Istvan; Szekeres, Marta; Hitri, Krisztina; Kondacs, Andras; Mandi, Yvette; Nedo, Erika; Somogyvari, Ferenc

2012-03-01

92

Genetic polymorphism of MTHFR G1793A in Chinese populations.  

PubMed

5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is an important enzyme in folate metabolism. A novel polymorphic site in MTHFR (G1793A) could influence the homocysteine levels and was first described in 2002. Investigations revealed that this allele was associated with susceptibility to several cancers, but its distribution around the world was not adequate. To study the prevalence of the mutant frequency in Chinese populations, 923 healthy individuals from 13 Chinese populations distributing widely from north to south were collected. DNA samples were isolated from peripheral blood samples and genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), with the digestion of restriction endonuclease BsrBI. Of the 923 individuals, 82.1% were GG homozygous, 17.2% were GA heterozygous and 0.7% were AA homozygous. The frequency of the MTHFR 1793A allele in all tested individuals was 9.3%, which was slightly lower than indicated by HapMap (10%, Beiing Han, 45 samples). The frequencies of A allele were generally higher in southern China than that in northern China, and the frequencies had significant variance in 13 Chinese populations (X2 = 26.315, P = 0.010). Summarizing of the MTHFR G1793A allele polymorphism, including control groups in the case-control studies, we found only 20 normal peoples with AA homozygous (7 Chineses, 1 Caucasian, 2 Java Indonesias, 2 non-Hispanic whites, 6 Irish women, 2 Indians). The Java Indonesias and Ashkenzai Jevish had the highest (26.6%) and the lowest (1.3%) 1793A frequency, respectively. Together with our previous data, the MTHFR G1793A polymorphism was in linkage disequilibrium with both C677T and A1298C polymorphism sites in Chinese population, but not as strong as presented by HapMap. PMID:18409008

Mao, Renfang; Fan, Yihui; Chen, Feng; Fu, Songbin

2008-01-01

93

The 5, 10 methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T mutation and risk of fetal loss: a case series and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The true relationship between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T homozygosity and risk of recurrent spontaneous abortion is unknown, and it is unclear if women with these mutations should be anticoagulated during pregnancy. OBJECTIVES: We report a series of 8 patients with this issue and review the current literature. METHODS: 8 patients (3 of whom were actively pregnant) were referred with histories

Ivy Altomare; Alan Adler; Louis M Aledort

2007-01-01

94

Tagging SNPs in the MTHFR Gene and Risk of Ischemic Stroke in a Chinese Population  

PubMed Central

Stroke is currently the leading cause of functional impairments worldwide. Folate supplementation is inversely associated with risk of ischemic stroke. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is an important enzyme involved in folate metabolism. The aim of this study is to examine whether genetic variants in MTHFR gene are associated with the risk of ischemic stroke and fasting total serum homocysteine (tHcy) level. We genotyped nine tag SNPs in the MTHFR gene in a case-control study, including 543 ischemic stroke cases and 655 healthy controls in China. We found that subjects with the rs1801133 TT genotype and rs1801131 CC genotype had significant increased risks of ischemic stroke (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.82, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.27–2.61, p = 0.004; adjusted OR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.12–3.56, p = 0.01) compared with subjects with the major alleles. Haplotype analysis also found that carriers of the MTHFR CTTCGA haplotype (rs12121543-rs13306553-rs9651118-rs1801133-rs2274976-rs1801131) had a significant reduced risk of ischemic stroke (adjusted OR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.35–0.82) compared with those with the CTTTGA haplotype. Besides, the MTHFR rs1801133 and rs9651118 were significantly associated with serum levels of tHcy in healthy controls (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.02). These findings suggest that variants in the MTHFR gene may influence the risk of ischemic stroke and serum tHcy. PMID:24853127

Zhou, Bao-Sheng; Bu, Guo-Yun; Li, Mu; Chang, Bin-Ge; Zhou, Yi-Pin

2014-01-01

95

MTHFR genotype and colorectal adenoma recurrence: data from a double blind placebo controlled clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme in folate metabolism. We ssessed the association between two common MTHFR variants, 677C>T and 1298A>C, and adenoma recurrence in the context of a randomized double blind clinical trial of aspirin use and folate supplementation. We used generalized linear regression to estimate risk ratios and 95% CIs for recurrence, adjusting for age, sex, clinical center, follow-up time, and treatment status. Neither MTHFR polymorphism was associated with overall or advanced adenoma recurrence. Compared to those with 2 wild type alleles, the relative risk for advanced adenoma was 0.75 (95% CI 0.36 to 1.55), for the MTHFR 677 TT genotype and 1.16 (95% CI 0.58–2.33) for the MTHFR 1298 CC genotype. The effect of folate supplementation on recurrence risk did not differ by genotype. Our findings indicate that MTHFR genotype does not change adenoma risk in a manner similar to its effect on colorectal cancer, and does not modify the effect of folate supplementation on metachronous adenoma risk. PMID:18768511

Levine, A. Joan; Wallace, Kristin; Tsang, Shirley; Haile, Robert W.; Saibil, Fred; Ahnen, Dennis; Cole, Bernard F.; Barry, Elizabeth L.; Munroe, David J; Ali, Iqbal U; Ueland, Per; Baron, John A.

2009-01-01

96

Association of the MTHFR A1298C Variant with Unexplained Severe Male Infertility  

PubMed Central

The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene is one of the main regulatory enzymes involved in folate metabolism, DNA synthesis and remethylation reactions. The influence of MTHFR variants on male infertility is not completely understood. The objective of this study was to analyze the distribution of the MTHFR C677T and A1298C variants using PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) in a case group consisting of 344 men with unexplained reduced sperm counts compared to 617 ancestry-matched fertile or normozoospermic controls. The Chi square test was used to analyze the genotype distributions of MTHFR polymorphisms. Our data indicated a lack of association of the C677T variant with infertility. However, the homozygous (C/C) A1298C polymorphism of the MTHFR gene was present at a statistically high significance in severe oligozoospermia group compared with controls (OR?=?3.372, 95% confidence interval CI?=?1.27–8.238; p?=?0.01431). The genotype distribution of the A1298C variants showed significant deviation from the expected Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, suggesting that purifying selection may be acting on the 1298CC genotype. Further studies are necessary to determine the influence of the environment, especially the consumption of diet folate on sperm counts of men with different MTHFR variants. PMID:22457816

Eloualid, Abdelmajid; Abidi, Omar; Charif, Majida; El houate, Brahim; Benrahma, Houda; Louanjli, Noureddine; Chadli, Elbakkay; Ajjemami, Maria; Barakat, Abdelhamid; Bashamboo, Anu; McElreavey, Ken; Rhaissi, Houria; Rouba, Hassan

2012-01-01

97

Association of the MTHFR A1298C variant with unexplained severe male infertility.  

PubMed

The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene is one of the main regulatory enzymes involved in folate metabolism, DNA synthesis and remethylation reactions. The influence of MTHFR variants on male infertility is not completely understood. The objective of this study was to analyze the distribution of the MTHFR C677T and A1298C variants using PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) in a case group consisting of 344 men with unexplained reduced sperm counts compared to 617 ancestry-matched fertile or normozoospermic controls. The Chi square test was used to analyze the genotype distributions of MTHFR polymorphisms. Our data indicated a lack of association of the C677T variant with infertility. However, the homozygous (C/C) A1298C polymorphism of the MTHFR gene was present at a statistically high significance in severe oligozoospermia group compared with controls (OR?=?3.372, 95% confidence interval CI?=?1.27-8.238; p?=?0.01431). The genotype distribution of the A1298C variants showed significant deviation from the expected Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, suggesting that purifying selection may be acting on the 1298CC genotype. Further studies are necessary to determine the influence of the environment, especially the consumption of diet folate on sperm counts of men with different MTHFR variants. PMID:22457816

Eloualid, Abdelmajid; Abidi, Omar; Charif, Majida; El Houate, Brahim; Benrahma, Houda; Louanjli, Noureddine; Chadli, Elbakkay; Ajjemami, Maria; Barakat, Abdelhamid; Bashamboo, Anu; McElreavey, Ken; Rhaissi, Houria; Rouba, Hassan

2012-01-01

98

Hyperhomocysteinemia and the compound heterozygous state for methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase are independent risk factors for deep vein thrombosis among South Indians.  

PubMed

To investigate the role of methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) (677 C-->T and 1298 A-->C), factor V (1691 G-->A), factor II (20210 G-->A) genetic polymorphisms and hyperhomocysteinemia in the aetiology of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in 163 cases and 163 controls. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was used for genotyping, reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography for plasma homocysteine, and Student's t-test and Fisher exact tests were used for statistical analysis. Elevated mean plasma homocysteine levels were observed in DVT cases irrespective of gender differences. Homocysteine elevation above the 95th percentile of the control group associated with 9.4-fold and 7.6-fold increased risk for DVT in men and women, respectively. Genotyping showed the MTHFR 677CT/1298AC genotype (i.e. compound heterozygosity) is associated with 3.5-fold risk for thrombosis. The factor V Leiden mutation frequency was higher in DVT cases, but not statistically significant; however, genetic predisposition to this mutation was associated with early age of DVT onset. Factor II mutation was absent in cases and controls. Co-segregation of two or more risk factors was associated with 11.7-fold increased risk for thrombosis. This study projects that hyperhomocysteinemia and compound heterozygous state for MTHFR are independent risk factors for DVT among South Indians. PMID:17287626

Naushad, Sm; Jamal, Nurul Jain; Angalena, R; Prasad, C Krishna; Devi, A Radha Rama

2007-03-01

99

Quantitative assessment of the association between MTHFR rs1801131 polymorphism and risk of liver cancer.  

PubMed

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is one of the most important enzymes for folate metabolism which plays a key role in cell metabolism. MTHFR rs1801131 (A1298C) polymorphism can decrease in vitro MTHFR enzyme activity and has been hypothesized to be associated with liver cancer risk. This study aimed to quantify the strength of the association between MTHFR rs1801131 polymorphism and liver cancer risk by performing a meta-analysis. We searched the PubMed and Wanfang databases for studies relating on the association between MTHFR rs1801131 polymorphism and risk of liver cancer. Seven studies with 2,030 cases of liver cancer and 3,096 controls were finally included into the meta-analysis. Meta-analysis of a total of seven studies showed that the homozygote genotype CC of MTHFR rs1801131 polymorphism was significantly associated with decreased risk of liver cancer (for CC versus AA: odds ratio (OR)?=?0.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.47-0.89, P?=?0.007; for CC versus AA?+?AC: OR?=?0.65, 95% CI 0.48-0.89, P?=?0.006). Subgroup by race showed that the homozygote genotype CC of MTHFR rs1801131 polymorphism was significantly associated with decreased risk of liver cancer in Asians (CC versus AA: OR?=?0.64, 95% CI 0.46-0.90, P?=?0.010; for CC versus AA?+ AC: OR?=?0.63, 95% CI 0.45-0.88, P?=?0.007). However, the association in Caucasians was still unclear owing to the limited data available now. Thus, Asian individuals with the homozygote genotype CC of MTHFR rs1801131 polymorphism are significantly associated with decreased risk of liver cancer. The association in Caucasians needs further studies. PMID:24014085

Liang, Tie-Jun; Liu, Hui; Zhao, Xiao-Qian; Tan, Yan-Rong; Jing, Kai; Qin, Cheng-Yong

2014-01-01

100

A1298C polymorphism in the MTHFR gene predisposes to cardiovascular risk in rheumatoid arthritis  

PubMed Central

Introduction We determined the contribution of the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677 C>T and 1298 A>C gene polymorphisms to the susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We also assessed whether these two MTHFR gene polymorphisms may be implicated in the development of cardiovascular (CV) events and subclinical atherosclerosis manifested by the presence of endothelial dysfunction, in a series of Spanish patients with RA. Methods Six hundred and twelve patients fulfilling the 1987 American College of Rheumatology classification criteria for RA, seen at the rheumatology outpatient clinics of Hospital Xeral-Calde, Lugo and Hospital San Carlos, Madrid, were studied. Patients and controls (n = 865) were genotyped using predesigned TaqMan SNP genotyping assays. Results No significant differences in allele or genotype frequencies for the MTHFR gene polymorphisms between RA patients and controls were found. Also, no association between the MTHFR 677 C>T polymorphism and CV events or endothelial dysfunction was observed. However, the MTHFR 1298 allele C frequency was increased in patients with CV events after 5 years (38.7% versus 30.3%; odds ratio = 1.45; 95% confidence interval = 1.00 to 2.10; P = 0.04) and 10 years (42.2% versus 31.0%; odds ratio = 1.62; 95% confidence interval = 1.08 to 2.43; P = 0.01) follow up. Moreover, patients carrying the MTHFR 1298 AC and CC genotypes had a significantly decreased flow-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilatation (4.3 ± 3.9%) compared with those carrying the MTHFR 1298 AA genotype (6.5 ± 4.4%) (P = 0.005). Conclusions Our results show that the MTHFR 1298 A>C gene polymorphism confers an increased risk for subclinical atherosclerosis and CV events in patients with RA. PMID:20423475

2010-01-01

101

Prevalence of genetic mutations that predispose to thrombophilia in a Greek Cypriot population.  

PubMed

Several hereditary disorders, particularly those affecting the physiological anticoagulation systems, have been well established as risk factors for venous thromboembolism. In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of the following thrombogenic mutations in a Greek-Cypriot population: the G1691 factor V Leiden mutation, the G20210A mutation in the prothrombin gene, and the C677T mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR). All three variants have been documented to be significant risk factors for various cardiovascular conditions. Ninety unrelated subjects were screened. For the Leiden mutation, 11 subjects (12.2%) were heterozygous and one (1.1%) was homozygous. Seven subjects (7.8%) were heterozygous for the G20210A variant in prothrombin; no homozygotes were identified. The C677T mutation in MTHFR was found in 40 individuals in the heterozygous state (44.4%), and in 16 individuals in the homozygous state (17.8%). These data demonstrate that Greek-Cypriots have an increased frequency of thrombogenic mutations, and suggest that screening for these mutations should be seriously considered, especially when surgery or pregnancy is planned. This is the first study for the frequency of mutations in risk factors that predispose to thrombophilia on the island of Cyprus. PMID:10775032

Angelopoulou, K; Nicolaides, A; Constantinou Deltas, C

2000-04-01

102

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphisms in 13 Chinese ethnic populations.  

PubMed

It has been shown that the polymorphisms of Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene are associated with susceptibility to several disorders including hyperhomocysteinemia, vascular disease, birth defect, and certain cancers, and exhibit great diversities among various populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of two common non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (i.e., C677T and A1298C) at MTHFR gene in 13 Chinese populations. A total of 1015 healthy individuals from 13 populations distributed widely from north to south in China were studied. DNA samples were isolated from peripheral blood samples and genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. For C677T polymorphism, the frequency in Chinese of CC homozygous was 42.4%; CT heterozygous was 49.8%; and TT homozygous was 7.9%. For A1298C, AA homozygous was 39.2%; AC heterozygous was 38.6%; and CC homozygous was 22.2%. The allelic frequency of 677T and 1298C was 32.8 and 41.5%, respectively, and each allele frequency had significant variance in 13 Chinese populations. The frequency of the 677T allele among southern populations was 30.7% compared to 38.0% among northeastern and 30.5% among northwestern populations. The difference was statistically significant (p < 0.01). The frequency of 1298C mutation in southerns was 58.9% whereas in northeasterns it was 24.0% and 37.6% in northwesterns. This was also statistically significant (p < 0.01). The MTHFR C677T and A1298C sites were in linkage disequilibrium in the Chinese population revealed by our data. PMID:18098118

Mao, Renfang; Fan, Yihui; Chen, Feng; Sun, Donglin; Bai, Jing; Fu, Songbin

2008-04-01

103

Dihydrofolate reductase I164L mutations in Plasmodium falciparum isolates: clinical outcome of 14 Kenyan adults infected with parasites harbouring the I164L mutation.  

PubMed

Recently, Plasmodium falciparum bearing dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) I164L was isolated from Africa. Quadruple mutations containing I164L confer high-level resistance to antifolate antimalarials. We prospectively measured the effect of co-trimoxazole (CTX) prophylaxis on P. falciparum antifolate resistance development among HIV-infected persons. HIV-positive patients with CD4 cell count < 350 cells/microl (n=692) received CTX; HIV-positive patients with CD4 cell count > or = 350 cells/microl (n=336) and HIV-negative patients (n=132) received multivitamins. Malaria microscopy-positive samples (n=413) and selected microscopy-negative/PCR-positive samples (n=76) were analysed for DHFR mutations at baseline and during six months follow up. We identified I164L in 14 patients. Seven were malaria microscopy-positive: two failed sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP). Among seven microscopy-negative/PCR-positive patients, none developed patent infections with I164L. I164L was not associated with high-level SP resistance or poor outcome among adults living where malaria is highly endemic. Surveillance to monitor spread of I164L is critical, especially among children and pregnant women, who are potentially a source for I164L amplification. PMID:18321547

Hamel, Mary J; Poe, Amanda; Bloland, Peter; McCollum, Andrea; Zhou, Zhiyong; Shi, Ya Ping; Ouma, Peter; Otieno, Kephas; Vulule, John; Escalante, Ananias; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Slutsker, Laurence

2008-04-01

104

Associations of MTHFR C677T and MTRR A66G gene polymorphisms with metabolic syndrome: a case-control study in Northern China.  

PubMed

Prior evidence indicates that homocysteine plays a role in the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G polymorphisms are common genetic determinants of homocysteine levels. To investigate the associations of the MTHFR C677T and MTRR A66G polymorphisms with MetS, 692 Chinese Han subjects with MetS and 878 controls were recruited. The component traits of MetS and the MTHFR C677T and MTRR A66G genotypes were determined. A significant association was observed between the MTHFR 677T allele and increased risk of MetS, high fasting blood glucose, high waist circumference, and increasing number of MetS components. The MTRR A66G polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of MetS when combined with the MTHFR 677TT genotype, although there was no association found between MetS and MTRR A66G alone. Furthermore, the MTRR 66GG genotype was associated with high fasting blood glucose and triglycerides. Our data suggest that the MTHFR 677T allele may contribute to an increased risk of MetS in the northern Chinese Han population. The MTRR A66G polymorphism is not associated with MetS. However, it may exacerbate the effect of the MTHFR C677T variant alone. Further large prospective population-based studies are required to confirm our findings. PMID:25429430

Yang, Boyi; Fan, Shujun; Zhi, Xueyuan; Wang, Da; Li, Yongfang; Wang, Yinuo; Wang, Yanxun; Wei, Jian; Zheng, Quanmei; Sun, Guifan

2014-01-01

105

Associations of MTHFR C677T and MTRR A66G Gene Polymorphisms with Metabolic Syndrome: A Case-Control Study in Northern China  

PubMed Central

Prior evidence indicates that homocysteine plays a role in the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G polymorphisms are common genetic determinants of homocysteine levels. To investigate the associations of the MTHFR C677T and MTRR A66G polymorphisms with MetS, 692 Chinese Han subjects with MetS and 878 controls were recruited. The component traits of MetS and the MTHFR C677T and MTRR A66G genotypes were determined. A significant association was observed between the MTHFR 677T allele and increased risk of MetS, high fasting blood glucose, high waist circumference, and increasing number of MetS components. The MTRR A66G polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of MetS when combined with the MTHFR 677TT genotype, although there was no association found between MetS and MTRR A66G alone. Furthermore, the MTRR 66GG genotype was associated with high fasting blood glucose and triglycerides. Our data suggest that the MTHFR 677T allele may contribute to an increased risk of MetS in the northern Chinese Han population. The MTRR A66G polymorphism is not associated with MetS. However, it may exacerbate the effect of the MTHFR C677T variant alone. Further large prospective population-based studies are required to confirm our findings. PMID:25429430

Yang, Boyi; Fan, Shujun; Zhi, Xueyuan; Wang, Da; Li, Yongfang; Wang, Yinuo; Wang, Yanxun; Wei, Jian; Zheng, Quanmei; Sun, Guifan

2014-01-01

106

Prevalence of MTHFR C677T Polymorphism in North Indian Mothers Having Babies with Trisomy 21 Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent studies have evaluated possible links between polymorphisms in maternal folate metabolism genes and Down syndrome. Some of these studies show a significantly increased prevalence of the C677T polymorphism of the 5,10-methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (NADPH) gene (MTHFR) among mothers who have had babies with Down syndrome. This study…

Kohli, Utkarsh; Arora, Sadhna; Kabra, Madhulika; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmy; Gulati, Sheffali; Pandey, Ravindra

2008-01-01

107

Association of Polymorphisms in BDNF, MTHFR, and Genes Involved in the Dopaminergic Pathway with Memory in a Healthy Chinese Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The contribution of genetic factors to the memory is widely acknowledged. Research suggests that these factors include genes involved in the dopaminergic pathway, as well as the genes for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR). The activity of the products of these genes is affected by single…

Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Hu, Chung-Yi; Yeh, Ting-Chi; Lin, Pei-Jung; Wu, Chung-Hsin; Lee, Po-Lei; Chang, Chun-Yen

2012-01-01

108

Frequency of APOE, MTHFR and ACE polymorphisms in the Zambian population  

PubMed Central

Background Polymorphisms within the apolipoprotein-E (APOE), Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) genes has been associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disorders, Alzheimer’s disease and other complex diseases in various populations. The aim of the study was to analyze the allelic and genotypic frequencies of APOE, MTHFR C677T and ACE I/D gene polymorphisms in the Zambian population. Results The allele frequencies of APOE polymorphism in the Zambian populations were 13.8%, 59.5% and 26.7% for the ?2, ?3 and ?4 alleles respectively. MTHFR C677T and ACE I/D allele frequencies were 8.6% and 13.8% for the T and D minor alleles respectively. The ?2?2 genotype and TT genotype were absent in the Zambian population. The genetic distances between Zambian and other African and non-African major populations revealed an independent variability of these polymorphisms. Conclusion We found that the APOE ?3 allele and the I allele of the ACE were significantly high in our study population while there were low frequencies observed for the MTHFR 677 T and ACE D alleles. Our analysis of the APOE, MTHFR and ACE polymorphisms may provide valuable insight into the understanding of the disease risk in the Zambian population. PMID:24679048

2014-01-01

109

Resistance to AFN-1252 Arises from Missense Mutations in Staphylococcus aureus Enoyl-acyl Carrier Protein Reductase (FabI)*  

PubMed Central

AFN-1252 is a potent antibiotic against Staphylococcus aureus that targets the enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (FabI). A thorough screen for AFN-1252-resistant strains was undertaken to identify the spectrum of mechanisms for acquired resistance. A missense mutation in fabI predicted to encode FabI(M99T) was isolated 49 times, and a single isolate was predicted to encode FabI(Y147H). AFN-1252 only bound to the NADPH form of FabI, and the close interactions between the drug and Met-99 and Tyr-147 explained how the mutations would result in resistant enzymes. The clone expressing FabI(Y147H) had a pronounced growth defect that was rescued by exogenous fatty acid supplementation, and the purified protein had less than 5% of the enzymatic activity of FabI. FabI(Y147F) was also catalytically defective but retained its sensitivity to AFN-1252, illustrating the importance of the conserved Tyr-147 hydroxyl group in FabI function. The strains expressing FabI(M99T) exhibited normal growth, and the biochemical properties of the purified protein were indistinguishable from those of FabI. The AFN-1252 Kiapp increased from 4 nm in FabI to 69 nm in FabI(M99T), accounting for the increased resistance of the corresponding mutant strain. The low activity of FabI(Y147H) precluded an accurate Ki measurement. The strain expressing FabI(Y147H) was also resistant to triclosan; however, the strain expressing FabI(M99T) was more susceptible. Strains with higher levels of AFN-1252 resistance were not obtained. The AFN-1252-resistant strains remained sensitive to submicromolar concentrations of AFN-1252, which blocked growth through inhibition of fatty acid biosynthesis at the FabI step. PMID:24189061

Yao, Jiangwei; Maxwell, John B.; Rock, Charles O.

2013-01-01

110

Association of molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide with Escherichia coli dimethyl sulfoxide reductase: effect of tungstate and a mob mutation.  

PubMed Central

We have identified the organic component of the molybdenum cofactor in Escherichia coli dimethyl sulfoxide reductase (DmsABC) to be molybdopterin (MPT) guanine dinucleotide (MGD) and have studied the effects of tungstate and a mob mutation on cofactor (Mo-MGD) insertion. Tungstate severely inhibits anaerobic growth of E. coli on a glycerol-dimethyl sulfoxide minimal medium, and this inhibition is partially overcome by overexpression of DmsABC. Isolation and characterization of an oxidized derivative of MGD (form A) from DmsABC overexpressed in cells grown in the presence of molybdate or tungstate indicate that tungstate inhibits insertion of Mo-MGD. No electron paramagnetic resonance evidence for the assembly of tungsten into DmsABC was found between Eh = -450 mV and Eh = +200 mV. The E. coli mob locus is responsible for the addition of a guanine nucleotide to molybdo-MPT (Mo-MPT) to form Mo-MGD. DmsABC does not bind Mo-MPT or Mo-MGD in a mob mutant, indicating that nucleotide addition must precede cofactor insertion. No electron paramagnetic resonance evidence for the assembly of molybdenum into DmsABC in a mob mutant was found between Eh = -450 mV and Eh = +200 mV. These data support a model for Mo-MGD biosynthesis and assembly into DmsABC in which both metal chelation and nucleotide addition to MPT precede cofactor insertion. PMID:7721698

Rothery, R A; Grant, J L; Johnson, J L; Rajagopalan, K V; Weiner, J H

1995-01-01

111

A New Strategy to Produce a Defensin: Stable Production of Mutated NP-1 in Nitrate Reductase-Deficient Chlorella ellipsoidea  

PubMed Central

Defensins are small cationic peptides that could be used as the potential substitute for antibiotics. However, there is no efficient method for producing defensins. In this study, we developed a new strategy to produce defensin in nitrate reductase (NR)-deficient C. ellipsoidea (nrm-4). We constructed a plant expression vector carrying mutated NP-1 gene (mNP-1), a mature ?-defensin NP-1 gene from rabbit with an additional initiator codon in the 5?-terminus, in which the selection markers were NptII and NR genes. We transferred mNP-1 into nrm-4 using electroporation and obtained many transgenic lines with high efficiency under selection chemicals G418 and NaNO3. The mNP-1 was characterized using N-terminal sequencing after being isolated from transgenic lines. Excitingly, mNP-1 was produced at high levels (approximately 11.42 mg/l) even after 15 generations of continuous fermentation. In addition, mNP-1 had strong activity against Escherichia coli at 5 µg/ml. This research developed a new method for producing defensins using genetic engineering. PMID:23383016

Chen, Yu-Hong; Niu, Li-Li; Sun, Yong-Ru; Zhao, Shi-Min; Yang, Fu-Quan; Wang, Richard R.-C.; Wu, Qing; Zhang, Xiang-Qi; Hu, Zan-Min

2013-01-01

112

MTHFR 677CC/1298CC genotypes are highly associated with chronic myelogenous leukemia: a case-control study in Korea.  

PubMed

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is an enzyme involved in folate metabolism and DNA methylation. Studies on MTHFR polymorphism in leukemia have largely focused on the protective role of MTHFR polymorphism in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We evaluated the C677T and A1298C polymorphisms using the TaqMan allelic discrimination assay in various malignancies. The study population included 115 subjects with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), 200 with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), 196 with multiple myeloma (MM) and 434 healthy control subjects. The frequency of 1298CC was statistically significantly higher in subjects with CML than that of the controls (OR=5.12, 95% CI: 1.75-14.9, P-value=.003). Of note, the frequencies of 677CC/1298CC genotype were statistically significantly higher in subjects with CML, AML and MM than that of the controls (OR=8.8, 3.5, 3.83, P-value=.002, 0.036, 0.023, respectively). Our results demonstrate that the MTHFR 1298CC homozygote variant is strongly associated with an increased risk of CML, while MTHFR C677T does not significantly affect the risk of CML. Moreover, we demonstrated that MTHFR 677CC and 1298CC genotype might have combined effect on risk of CML, AML and MM and it is inferred that the A1298C may play a different role in carcinogenesis, depending on the types of organs involved, the types of disease entities and the genotype of C677T. PMID:17156840

Moon, Hee Won; Kim, Tae Young; Oh, Bo Ra; Min, Hyun Chung; Cho, Han Ik; Bang, Soo Mee; Lee, Jae Hoon; Yoon, Sung Soo; Lee, Dong Soon

2007-09-01

113

Interaction between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and traumatic childhood events predicts depression.  

PubMed

Childhood trauma is associated with the onset and recurrence of major depressive disorder (MDD). The thermolabile T variant of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism (rs1801133) is associated with a limited (oxidative) stress defense. Therefore, C677T MTHFR could be a potential predictor for depressive symptomatology and MDD recurrence in the context of traumatic stress during early life. We investigated the interaction between the C677T MTHFR variant and exposure to traumatic childhood events (TCEs) on MDD recurrence during a 5.5-year follow-up in a discovery sample of 124 patients with recurrent MDD and, in an independent replication sample, on depressive symptomatology in 665 healthy individuals from the general population. In the discovery sample, Cox regression analysis revealed a significant interaction between MTHFR genotype and TCEs on MDD recurrence (P=0.017). Over the 5.5-year follow-up period, median time to recurrence was 191 days for T-allele carrying patients who experienced TCEs (T+ and TCE+); 461 days for T- and TCE+ patients; 773 days for T+ and TCE- patients and 866 days for T- and TCE- patients. In the replication sample, a significant interaction was present between the MTHFR genotype and TCEs on depressive symptomatology (P=0.002). Our results show that the effects of TCEs on the prospectively assessed recurrence of MDD and self-reported depressive symptoms in the general population depend on the MTHFR genotype. In conclusion, T-allele carriers may be at an increased risk for depressive symptoms or MDD recurrence after exposure to childhood trauma. PMID:23900311

Lok, A; Bockting, C L H; Koeter, M W J; Snieder, H; Assies, J; Mocking, R J T; Vinkers, C H; Kahn, R S; Boks, M P; Schene, A H

2013-01-01

114

Epistasis effects of COMT and MTHFR on inter-individual differences in mental health: under the inverted U-shaped prefrontal dopamine model.  

PubMed

Higher cognitive performance, maintenance of mental health and psychological well-being require adequate prefrontal cortex (PFC) function. "Inverted U-shaped" dopamine model indicates optimal PFC dopamine level is important to attain its function while high or low levels have adverse effects. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) may be involved in this complex non-linear PFC dopamine regulation. We addressed whether genetic variation reflecting COMT and MTHFR activities can explain the inter-individual mental health differences in healthy Japanese men (n=188). The mental health was measured by Mental Health Inventory (MHI)-5 score. The rs4633-rs4818-rs4680 haplotypes were used to represent the multilevel COMT activities, while for MTHFR, the functional single polymorphism, rs1801133 (C677T), was used. We examined the effectiveness of haplotype-based association analysis of COMT on mental health together with studying its interaction with MTHFR-C677T. As a result, the relation between activity-ranked COMT genotype and MHI-5 score showed a tendency to fit into an "inverted U-shaped" quadratic curve (P=0.054). This curvilinear correlation was significant in the subjects with MTHFR-CC (P<0.001), but not with MTHFR T-allele carriers (P=0.793). Our pilot study implies a potential influence of COMT and MTHFR genotypic combination on normal variation of mental health. PMID:25124664

Htun, Nay Chi; Miyaki, Koichi; Zhao, Chenxi; Muramatsu, Masaaki; Sato, Noriko

2014-09-01

115

The Association of the MTHFR c.1625A>C Genetic Variant with the Risk of Congenital Heart Diseases in the Chinese  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study is to investigate the association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphisms with the risk of congenital heart diseases (CHD). The genotypes of the MTHFR genetic variant were determined by the polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing methods. Our data suggested that the allelic and genotypic frequencies of CHD patients were significantly different from non-CHD controls. The MTHFR c.1625A>C genetic variant was significantly associated with the increased risk of CHD (CC vs. AA: odds ratio [OR]=2.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15–4.53, p=0.016; C vs. A: OR=1.47, 95% CI 1.11–1.96, p=0.008). Results from this study indicate that the MTHFR c.1625A>C genetic variant influences the risk of CHD in the studied population. PMID:25494855

Wang, Yuting; Sun, Lei; Du, Weina; Song, Shuang; Wang, Shuo; Jiang, Weiju; Huang, Tianchu

2015-01-01

116

The Association of the MTHFR c.1625A>C Genetic Variant with the Risk of Congenital Heart Diseases in the Chinese.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to investigate the association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphisms with the risk of congenital heart diseases (CHD). The genotypes of the MTHFR genetic variant were determined by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing methods. Our data suggested that the allelic and genotypic frequencies of CHD patients were significantly different from non-CHD controls. The MTHFR c.1625A>C genetic variant was significantly associated with the increased risk of CHD (CC vs. AA: odds ratio [OR]=2.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15-4.53, p=0.016; C vs. A: OR=1.47, 95% CI 1.11-1.96, p=0.008). Results from this study indicate that the MTHFR c.1625A>C genetic variant influences the risk of CHD in the studied population. PMID:25494855

Wang, Yuting; Sun, Lei; Du, Weina; Song, Shuang; Wang, Shuo; Jiang, Weiju; Huang, Tianchu; Li, Hui

2015-01-01

117

Dietary consumption of B vitamins, maternal MTHFR polymorphisms and risk for spontaneous abortion  

PubMed Central

Objective To asses he association between intake of folate and B vitamins and the incidence of spontaneous abortion (SA) according to the maternal methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms (677 C>T and 1298 A>C). Material and Methods We conducted a nested case-control study within a perinatal cohort of women recruited in the state of Morelos, Mexico. Twenty-three women with SA were compared to 74 women whose pregnancy survived beyond week 20th. Intake of folate and B vitamins respectively, was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Maternal MTHFR polymorphisms were determined by PCR-RFLP and serum homocysteine levels by HPLC. Results Carriers of MTHFR 677TT and 1298AC genotypes respectively showed an increased risk of SA (OR 677TT vs. CC/CT=5.0; 95% CI: 1.2, 20.9 and OR 1298 AC vs. AA=5.5; 95% CI: 1.1, 26.6). Conclusions Our results support the role of MTHFR polymorphisms as a risk factor for SA, regardless of dietary intake of B vitamins. PMID:19180309

Rodríguez-Guillén, María del Rosario; Torres-Sánchez, Luisa; Chen, Jia; Galván-Portillo, Marcia; Silva-Zolezzi, Irma; Blanco-Muñoz, Julia; Hernández-Valero, María A.; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth

2010-01-01

118

The Importance of Homozygous Polymorphisms of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Gene in Romanian Patients with Idiopathic Venous Thromboembolism  

PubMed Central

Background: Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms have recently raised the interest as a possible thrombophilic factors. Aims: We aimed to assess the frequency of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in idiopathic venous thromboembolism (VTE) in a Romanian population and the associated risk of VTE. Study Design: We performed a case-control transversal study including 90 patients diagnosed with VTE and 75 sex- and age-matched controls. Methods: MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms were detected using PCR-RFLP method. Results: The homozygous MTHFR 677TT genotype, present in 18.8% of patients with VTE versus 6.6% of controls, was significantly associated with VTE (p= 0.021, OR= 3.26, 95%CI (1.141–9.313)). The heterozygous MTHFR A1298C genotype, presenting the highest prevalence in the VTE group (34.4%) as well as in controls (37.3%), was not associated with VTE (p=0.7). No associations were found for heterozygous MTHFR C677T (with a frequency of 32.2% in VTE and 37.3% in controls, p=0.492), respective homozygous MTHFR A1298C genotype (with a frequency of 1.1% in VTE and 2.6% in controls, p=0.456). Conclusion: Among MTHFR polymorphisms, only homozygosity for MTHFR 677TT may be considered a risk factor for VTE; the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism is not significantly associated with an increased risk of VTE. PMID:25207100

Hotoleanu, Cristina; Trifa, Adrian; Popp, Radu; Fodor, Daniela

2013-01-01

119

Association of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism with primary brain tumor risk.  

PubMed

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene plays key roles not only in folate metabolism but also in carcinogenesis. The single nucleotide polymorphism MTHFR C677T has been indicated in the development of various tumors. The effect of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism on brain tumors remains poorly understood. We performed the present meta-analysis and aimed to provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis of brain tumors. A literature search of the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Wanfang databases was carried out for potential relevant publications. We calculated the pooled odds ratio (OR) with corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) to assess the association of MTHFR C677T with the susceptibility to brain tumors. We also performed stratified analysis and sensitivity analysis to further estimate the genetic association. All statistical analyses were conducted by the use of STATA 11.0 (STATA Corporation, College Station, TX, USA). Eight case-control studies involving a total of 3,059 cases and 3,324 controls were retrieved according to the inclusion criteria. The overall ORs suggested that the MTHFR C677T variant can exert a risk effect on brain tumor development under the following contrast models (OR(TC vs. CC) = 1.14, 95% CI 1.02-1.27, P OR = 0.018; OR(TT + TC vs. CC)= 1.23, 95% CI 1.01-1.51, P(OR) = 0.043). No significant correlation was identified among the Caucasians, but not among the Asians. In addition, the TC genotype carriers were more susceptible to meningioma when compared with the CC genotype carriers (OR(TC vs. CC) = 1.38, 95% CI 1.15-1.65, P(OR) < 0.001). The MTHFR C677T polymorphism seemed to exert no effect on glioma risk. The current meta-analysis firstly provides evidence that the MTHFR C677T polymorphism may modify the risk for brain tumors, particularly meningioma. The role of the MTHFR C677T variant in brain tumor pathogenesis across diverse ethnicities needs further elucidation by more future studies with large sample size. PMID:23846816

Xu, Chen; Yuan, Lutao; Tian, Hengli; Cao, Heli; Chen, Shiwen

2013-12-01

120

Infants' MTHFR polymorphisms and nonsyndromic orofacial clefts susceptibility: a meta-analysis based on 17 case-control studies.  

PubMed

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), an important enzyme in folate metabolism, is thought to be involved in the development of nonsyndromic orofacial clefts (NSOC). However, conflicting results have been achieved when evaluating the associations between infants' MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and the risk of NSOC. To obtain more precise estimations of these associations, a meta-analysis recruiting 17 case-control studies was performed. Among Asians we found that CT heterozygote, TT homozygote, and CT/TT of infants' MTHFR C677T variant could contribute to elevated risks of NSOC, compared with CC wild-type homozygote (OR=1.741, 95% CI=1.043-2.907 for CT vs. CC, OR=2.311, 95% CI=1.313-4.041 for TT vs. CC, and OR=1.740, 95% CI=1.051-2.882 for CT/TT vs. CC, respectively). Similar effect was also observed on MTHFR 677T T allele, when using C allele as a reference in Asians (OR=1.420, 95% CI=1.191-1.693, for T allele vs. C allele). Furthermore, in stratified analysis by types of disease, CT/CC was suggested to confer decreased susceptibility to CL/P under recessive genetic model (OR=0.854, 95% CI=0.730-1.000). For MTHFR A1298C, the MTHFR 1298C allele in the case group of Caucasians was significantly lower than that in the control group, suggesting a protective effect against NSOC in Caucasian populations (OR=0.711, 95% CI=0.641-0.790, for C allele vs. A allele). In conclusion, the meta-analysis provided confirmative evidences that infants' MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms were involved in the development of NSOC. PMID:22847888

Pan, Yongchu; Zhang, Weibing; Ma, Junqing; Du, Yifei; Li, Dandan; Cai, Qi; Jiang, Hongbing; Wang, Meilin; Zhang, Zhengdong; Wang, Lin

2012-09-01

121

Enrichment of MTHFR 677?T in a Chinese long-lived cohort and its association with lipid modulation  

PubMed Central

Background Variants in the Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene may result in a lowered catalytic activity and associate with subsequent elevated serum homocysteine (Hcy) concentration, abnormal DNA synthesis and methylation, cardiovascular risk, and unhealthy aging. Several investigations on the relationship of MTHFR C677T polymorphism with serum lipid profile and longevity have been conducted in some populations, but the findings remain mixed. Herein, we sought to look at the association between MTHFR C677T and lipid profile in a longevous cohort in Bama, a well-known home of longevity in China. Methods Genotyping of MTHFR C677T was undertaken in 516 long-lived inhabitants (aged 90 and older, long-lived group, LG) and 493 healthy controls (aged 60–75, non-long-lived group, non-LG) recruited from Bama area. Correlation between MTHFR genotypes and lipids was then evaluated. Results T allele and TT genotype were significantly more prevalent in LG (P?=?0.001 and 0.002, respectively), especially in females, than in non-LG. No difference in the tested lipid measures among MTHFR C677T genotypes was observed in LG, non-LG and total population (P?>?0.05 for all). However, female but not male T carriers exhibited higher TC and LDL-C levels than did T noncarriers in the total population and in LG after stratification by sex (P?MTHFR 677?T genotypes and its modest unfavorable impact on lipids in Bama long-lived individuals may imply an existence of other protective genotypes which require further determination. PMID:24968810

2014-01-01

122

MTHFR Gene Polymorphisms and the Risk of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Adults and Children: A Case Control Study in India.  

PubMed

Genetic polymorphisms in the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene have been associated with the development of acute leukemias and various malignancies. The role of MTHFR polymorphism in the development of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has been extensively studied among north Indians in various settings, yet its association with acute leukemias remains unresolved. To evaluate the relationship between functional MTHFR polymorphisms, C677T and A1298C and possible effect on risk of ALL in adults and children in North Indian population by comparing them with healthy controls. DNA was isolated from peripheral blood of 184 ALL patients (33 adults, 151 children) and 155 controls and analyzed by a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. The frequency of MTHFR 677CT and 1298 AC genotypes were significantly lower among adult ALL cases when compared to the controls. We found a 1.74-fold reduced risk of ALL in individuals with 1298AC polymorphic variant and a 9.17-fold decreased risk of adult ALL. However, no statistically significant difference was evident between the above polymorphisms and susceptibility to ALL in children. Polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene possibly modulate risk of ALL in north Indian adults but not in children, although larger studies are needed. PMID:25435717

Sazawal, Sudha; Chaubey, Rekha; Kaur, Pawandeep; Chikkara, Sunita; Kumar, Bijender; Bakshi, Sameer; Arya, L S; Raina, Vinod; Das Gupta, Alakananda; Saxena, Renu

2014-12-01

123

Dietary intake of folate and co-factors in folate metabolism, MTHFR polymorphisms, and reduced rectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the contribution of polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) and the folate metabolism pathway in rectal cancer alone. Data were from participants in a case-control study conducted in Northern California and Utah (751 cases and 979 controls). We examined independent associations and interactions of folate, B vitamins, methionine, alcohol, and MTHFR polymorphisms (MTHFR C677T and A1298C) with rectal cancer. Dietary folate intake was associated with a reduction in rectal cancer OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.48-0.92 (>475 mcg day compared to < = 322 mcg) as was a combination of nutrient intakes contributing to higher methyl donor status (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.66-0.95). Risk was reduced among women with the 677 TT genotype (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.30-0.9), but not men (OR 1.11, 95% CI 0.70-1.76) and with the 1298 CC genotype in combined gender analysis (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.46-0.98). These data are consistent with a protective effect of increasing dietary folate against rectal cancer and suggest a protective role of the MTHFR 677 TT genotype in women and 1298 CC in men and women. Folate intake, low methyl donor status, and MTHFR polymorphisms may play independent roles in the etiology of rectal cancer. PMID:17245555

Murtaugh, Maureen A.; Curtin, Karen; Sweeney, Carol; Wolff, Roger K.; Holubkov, Richard; Slattery, Martha L.; Caan, Bette J.

2008-01-01

124

High prevalence of three prothrombotic polymorphisms among Palestinians: factor V G1691A, factor II G20210A and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T.  

PubMed

Factor V leiden G1691A/R506Q (FVL), prothrombin G20210A (FII) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T are related genetic risk factors for venous thromboembolism. Analysis for those mutations is increasingly being performed on patients exhibiting hypercoagulability. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of FVL, FII-G20210A and MTHFR-C677T polymorphisms and their coexistence among apparently healthy Palestinians. After institutional approval, 303 apparently healthy students from An-Najah University representative to North and South regions of West Bank with no previous history of cardiovascular diseases participated in this study. A uniform questionnaire was used to collect relevant information through personal interview with the subjects. The collected information included gender, age, smoking habits, weight and height, diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular and family history of CVD. The frequencies of allelic distribution of the three prothrombotic polymorphisms factor V G1691A/R506Q), prothrombin G2010A, and MTHFR-C677T were 0.114, 0.050 and 0.071, respectively. The prevalence of the three thrombotic polymorphisms (FVL, FII G20210A and MTHFR-C677T) were 20.1, 9.1 and 13.8 %, respectively. Statistical analysis for factor V leiden showed no significant association between place of residence (P value = 0.953) and gender (P value >0.082). The data presented in this study showed the highest prevalence of FVL among healthy Palestinians compared to other populations and this important finding should be followed in terms of clinical significance. PMID:22528331

Hussein, Ayman S

2012-10-01

125

Status of vitamin B-12 and B-6 but not of folate, homocysteine and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism are associated with impaired cognition and depression in adults  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The C677T polymorphism of the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene differs in frequency in different ethnic groups which have differing prevalence of age-related cognitive impairments. We used a battery of neuropsychological tests to examine association of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism w...

126

Synergistic effects of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and hypertension on spatial navigation.  

PubMed

Navigation skills deteriorate with age, but the mechanisms of the decline are poorly understood. Part of the decrement may be due to age-related vascular risk factors. The T allele in a C677T variant in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene is associated with elevated plasma homocysteine, which is detrimental to vascular integrity and has been linked to cognitive decline. We inquired if a combination of physiological (hypertension) and genetic (MTHFR 677T) vascular risks has a synergistic negative impact on cognitive performance in otherwise healthy adults. We tested 160 participants (18-80 years old) on a virtual water maze. Advanced age, female sex, and hypertension were associated with poorer performance. However, hypertensive carriers of the T allele performed significantly worse than the rest of the participants at all ages. These findings indicate that hypertension combined with a genetic vascular risk factor may significantly increase risk for cognitive impairment. PMID:19013496

Deshmukh, Awantika; Rodrigue, Karen M; Kennedy, Kristen M; Land, Susan; Jacobs, Bradley S; Raz, Naftali

2009-02-01

127

Association between MTHFR gene polymorphisms and the risk of autism spectrum disorders: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is essential for DNA biosynthesis and the epigenetic process of DNA methylation, and its gene polymorphisms have been implicated as risk factors for birth defects, neurological disorders, and cancers. However, reports on the association of MTHFR polymorphisms with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are inconclusive. Therefore, we investigated the relationship of the MTHFR polymorphisms (C677T and A1298C) and the risk of ASD by meta-analysis. Up to December 2012, eight case-control studies involving 1672 patients with ASD and 6760 controls were included for meta-analysis. The results showed that the C677T polymorphism was associated with significantly increased ASD risk in all the comparison models [T vs. C allele (frequency of allele): odds ratio (OR)?= 1.42, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09-1.85; CT vs. CC (heterozygote): OR = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.09-2.00; TT vs. CC (homozygote): OR = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.08-3.20; CT+TT vs. CC (dominant model): OR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.12-2.18; and TT vs. CC+CT (recessive model): OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.02-2.22], whereas the A1298C polymorphism was found to be significantly associated with reduced ASD risk but only in a recessive model (CC vs. AA+AC: OR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.56-0.97). In addition, we stratified the patient population based on whether they were from a country with food fortification of folic acid or not. The meta-analysis showed that the C677T polymorphism was found to be associated with ASD only in children from countries without food fortification. Our study indicated that the MTHFR C677T polymorphism contributes to increased ASD risk, and periconceptional folic acid may reduce ASD risk in those with MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism. PMID:23653228

Pu, Danhua; Shen, Yiping; Wu, Jie

2013-10-01

128

MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms: diet, estrogen, and risk of colon cancer.  

PubMed

5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme in folate metabolism, diverting metabolites toward methylation reactions or nucleotide synthesis. Using data from an incident case-control study (1608 cases and 1972 controls) we investigated two polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene, C677T and A1298C, and their associations with risk of colon cancer. All of the combined genotypes were evaluated separately, and the 1298AA/677CC (wild-type/wild-type) group was considered the reference group. Among both men and women, the 677TT/1298AA (variant/wild-type) genotype was associated with a small reduction in risk [men: odds ratio (OR), 0.7, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.5-1.0; women: OR, 0.8, 95% CI, 0.5-1.2]. However, the 677CC/1298CC (wild-type/variant) genotype was associated with a statistically significant lower risk among women (OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4-0.9) but not men. When the polymorphisms were considered individually, for A1298C a significant risk reduction associated with the homozygous variant CC genotype was seen among women only (OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.5-0.9), and nonstatistically significant reduced risks were observed for the variant 677 TT genotypes among both men and women. Stratification by nutrient intakes showed inverse associations with higher intakes of folate, vitamin B(2), B(6), B(12), and methionine among women with the MTHFR 677CC/1298AA genotypes, but not those with 677TT/1298AA. We observed opposite risk trends for both MTHFR variants, depending on whether women used hormone-replacement therapy or not (P for interaction = <.01). In summary, this study supports recent findings that the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism may be a predictor of colon cancer risk and have functional relevance. The possible interaction with hormone-replacement therapy warrants additional investigation. PMID:14973104

Curtin, Karen; Bigler, Jeannette; Slattery, Martha L; Caan, Bette; Potter, John D; Ulrich, Cornelia M

2004-02-01

129

Conversion of Human Steroid 5?-Reductase (AKR1D1) into 3?-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase by Single Point Mutation E120H  

PubMed Central

Human aldo-keto reductase 1D1 (AKR1D1) and AKR1C enzymes are essential for bile acid biosynthesis and steroid hormone metabolism. AKR1D1 catalyzes the 5?-reduction of ?4-3-ketosteroids, whereas AKR1C enzymes are hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs). These enzymes share high sequence identity and catalyze 4-pro-(R)-hydride transfer from NADPH to an electrophilic carbon but differ in that one residue in the conserved AKR catalytic tetrad, His120 (AKR1D1 numbering), is substituted by a glutamate in AKR1D1. We find that the AKR1D1 E120H mutant abolishes 5?-reductase activity and introduces HSD activity. However, the E120H mutant unexpectedly favors dihydrosteroids with the 5?-configuration and, unlike most of the AKR1C enzymes, shows a dominant stereochemical preference to act as a 3?-HSD as opposed to a 3?-HSD. The catalytic efficiency achieved for 3?-HSD activity is higher than that observed for any AKR to date. High resolution crystal structures of the E120H mutant in complex with epiandrosterone, 5?-dihydrotestosterone, and ?4-androstene-3,17-dione elucidated the structural basis for this functional change. The glutamate-histidine substitution prevents a 3-ketosteroid from penetrating the active site so that hydride transfer is directed toward the C3 carbonyl group rather than the ?4-double bond and confers 3?-HSD activity on the 5?-reductase. Structures indicate that stereospecificity of HSD activity is achieved because the steroid flips over to present its ?-face to the A-face of NADPH. This is in contrast to the AKR1C enzymes, which can invert stereochemistry when the steroid swings across the binding pocket. These studies show how a single point mutation in AKR1D1 can introduce HSD activity with unexpected configurational and stereochemical preference. PMID:22437839

Chen, Mo; Drury, Jason E.; Christianson, David W.; Penning, Trevor M.

2012-01-01

130

Mutational analysis of the triclosan-binding region of enoyl-ACP (acyl-carrier protein) reductase from Plasmodium falciparum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triclosan, a known antibacterial, acts by inhibiting enoyl-ACP (acyl-carrier protein) reductase (ENR), a key enzyme of the type II fatty acid synthesis (FAS) system. Plasmodium falciparum, the human malaria-causing parasite, harbours the type II FAS; in contrast, its human host utilizes type I FAS. Due to this striking difference, ENR has emerged as an important target for the devel- opment

Mili KAPOOR; Jayashree GOPALAKRISHNAPAI; Namita SUROLIA; Avadhesha SUROLIA

2004-01-01

131

Polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene are associated with susceptibility to acute leukemia in adults  

PubMed Central

Reduction of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate (methyleneTHF), a donor for methylating dUMP to dTMP in DNA synthesis, to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (methylTHF), the primary methyl donor for methionine synthesis, is catalyzed by 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR). A common 677 C ? T polymorphism in the MTHFR gene results in thermolability and reduced MTHFR activity that decreases the pool of methylTHF and increases the pool of methyleneTHF. Recently, another polymorphism in MTHFR (1298 A ? C) has been identified that also results in diminished enzyme activity. We tested whether carriers of these variant alleles are protected from adult acute leukemia. We analyzed DNA from a case–control study in the United Kingdom of 308 adult acute leukemia patients and 491 age- and sex-matched controls. MTHFR variant alleles were determined by a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. The MTHFR 677TT genotype was lower among 71 acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) cases compared with 114 controls, conferring a 4.3-fold decrease in risk of ALL [odds ratio (OR = 0.23; 95% CI = 0.06–0.81]. We observed a 3-fold reduction in risk of ALL in individuals with the MTHFR 1298AC polymorphism (OR = 0.33; 95% CI = 0.15–0.73) and a 14-fold decreased risk of ALL in those with the MTHFR 1298CC variant allele (OR = 0.07; 95% CI = 0.00–1.77). In acute myeloid leukemia, no significant difference in MTHFR 677 and 1298 genotype frequencies was observed between 237 cases and 377 controls. Individuals with the MTHFR 677TT, 1298AC, and 1298CC genotypes have a decreased risk of adult ALL, but not acute myeloid leukemia, which suggests that folate inadequacy may play a key role in the development of ALL. PMID:10536004

Skibola, Christine F.; Smith, Martyn T.; Kane, Eleanor; Roman, Eve; Rollinson, Sara; Cartwright, Raymond A.; Morgan, Gareth

1999-01-01

132

Significance of the use of the ViennaLab “Cardiovascular Disease panel” (CVD) Assay as a reflex test for the “Factor V/II/MTHFR Assay”?  

PubMed Central

Introduction Trends toward identifying risk factors of thrombotic complications had become essential as an attempt to prevent and decrease the incidence of the complications. Thrombosis has been associated with predisposing factors like mutations in FV, PTH, MTHFR and other genes. Aim Evaluate whether the CVD StripAssay has an added value in the screening for more thrombophilia risk factors, which may predispose for the development of cardiovascular diseases and other thrombotic clinical conditions. Methods We compared the results for 94 patients who were previously tested for Factor V, Factor II and MTHFR gene mutations using the ViennaLab FV-PTH-MTHFR StripAssay, and for whom additional testing for the Cardiovascular Disease panel (CVD StripAssay, ViennaLab) was requested. Results Using the CVD StripAssay, 66% of patients who had no mutations when tested using the FV-PTH-MTHFR StripAssay or carried a mutation for MTHFR, were found to have additional genes' SNPs or mutations that are highly associated with a risk of thrombosis as per the available international literature. Conclusion This observation is of extreme importance in clinical practice for the introduction of the extended CVD panel into routine molecular diagnostic test menus and highlights the importance of genetic analysis of the implicated genes in the management of patients with a thrombotic episode presentation. PMID:25606377

Hoteit, Rouba; Abbas, Fatmeh; Antar, Ahmad; Abdel Khalek, Rabab; Shammaa, Dina; Mahfouz, Rami

2013-01-01

133

MTHFR C677T Predisposes to POAG but Not to PACG in a North Indian Population: A Case Control Study  

PubMed Central

Hyperhomocysteinemia induced by the C677T genetic variant in MTHFR (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase) has been implicated in neuronal cell death of retinal ganglion cells (RGC), which is a characteristic feature of glaucoma. However, association of MTHFR C677T with glaucoma has been controversial because of inconsistent results across association studies. Association between MTHFR C677T and glaucoma has not been reported in Indian population. Therefore, with a focus on neurodegenerative death of RGC in glaucoma, the current study aimed to investigate association of MTHFR C677T with Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG) and Primary Angle Closure Glaucoma (PACG) in a North Indian population. A total of 404 participants (231 patients and 173 controls) were included in this study. Genotyping was performed by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism. A few random samples were also tested by direct sequencing. Genotypic and allelic distributions of the POAG and PACG cohorts were compared to that of controls by chi-square test and odds ratios were reported with 95% confidence intervals. Genotypic and allelic distributions between POAG cases and controls were significantly different (p?=?0.03 and p?=?0.01 respectively). Unlike POAG, we did not find significant difference in the genotypic and allelic distributions of C677T between PACG cases and controls (p>0.05). We also observed a higher proportion of TT associated POAG in females than that in males. However, this is a preliminary indication of gender specific risk of C677T that needs to be replicated in a larger cohort of males and females. The present investigation on MTHFR C677T and glaucoma reveals that the TT genotype and T allele of this polymorphism are significant risk factors for POAG but not for PACG in North Indian population. Ours is the first report demonstrating association of MTHFR C677T with POAG but not PACG in individuals from North India. PMID:25054348

Gupta, Shashank; Bhaskar, Pradeep Kumar; Bhardwaj, Ritu; Chandra, Abhishek; Chaudhry, Vidya Nair; Chaudhry, Prashaant; Ali, Akhtar; Mukherjee, Ashim; Mutsuddi, Mousumi

2014-01-01

134

Effects of Common Polymorphisms in the MTHFR and ACE Genes on Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy Progression: a Meta-Analysis.  

PubMed

Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of MTHFR 677 C?>?T and ACE I/D polymorphisms in the development of DPN. We systematically reviewed published studies on MTHFR 677 C?>?T and ACE I/D polymorphisms and DPN found in various types of electronic databases. STROBE quality score systems were used to determine the quality of the articles selected for inclusion. Odds ratios (OR), and its corresponding 95 % confidence interval (95%CI) were calculated. We used STATA statistical software (Version 12.0, Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA) to deal with statistical data. Our results indicated an association of ACE D?>?I mutation (OR?=?1.43, 95%CI 1.12-1.83, P?=?0.004) and MTHFR 677 C?>?T mutation (OR?=?1.43, 95%CI 1.08-1.90, P?=?0.014) with DPN under the allele model, and similar results were also found under the dominant model (all P?MTHFR 677 C?>?T polymorphism may be the main risk factor for DPN in Turkey under four genetic models. ACE D?>?I mutation was correlated with DPN in Japanese and Pakistani populations in the majority of groups. The relationships of MTHFR 677 C?>?T and ACE I/D polymorphisms with DPN patients presented in this meta-analyses support the view that the MTHFR and ACE genes might play important roles in the development of DPN. PMID:25421207

Wu, Shuai; Han, Yan; Hu, Qiang; Zhang, Xiao-Jie; Cui, Guang-Cheng; Li, Ze-Zhi; Guan, Yang-Tai

2014-11-25

135

Association of the A1298C polymorphism in MTHFR gene with ischemic stroke.  

PubMed

A meta-analysis was performed to assess the association between the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) A1298C genetic polymorphism and ischemic stroke. A comprehensive search was conducted to identify all case-control or cohort studies. The fixed or random effect pooled measure was selected based on the homogeneity between studies, as assessed by I(2). Meta-regression was used to explore the potential sources of between-study heterogeneity. Publication bias was estimated using Egger's linear regression test. Thirteen case-control studies corresponded to the inclusion criteria comprising 2133 patients and 2572 controls which were included in the present meta-analysis. After excluding articles that deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in controls and the key contributors to between-study heterogeneity, significant associations between MTHFR A1298C genetic polymorphism and risk of ischemic stroke were observed in dominant (odds ratio [OR] 1.227, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.062-1.416) and codominant (OR 1.138, 95% CI 1.007-1.286) inheritance models. Moreover, in the subgroup analysis based on region (Asia and Europe), significant associations were observed in most genetic models in Asia but not in Europe. This meta-analysis suggests that MTHFR A1298C genetic polymorphism is associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke, and the C allele may be an important risk factor for ischemic stroke. PMID:24128767

Kang, Shan; Wu, Yili; Liu, Lingling; Zhao, Xinxin; Zhang, Dongfeng

2014-02-01

136

Association between MTHFR Polymorphisms and Acute Myeloid Leukemia Risk: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Previous observational studies investigating the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms and acute myeloid leukemia risk (AML) have yielded inconsistent results. The aim of this study is to derive a more precise estimation of the association between MTHFR (C677T and A1298C) polymorphisms and acute myeloid leukemia risk. PubMed and Embase databases were systematically searched to identify relevant studies from their inception to August 2013. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were the metric of choice. Thirteen studies were selected for C677T polymorphism (1838 cases and 5318 controls) and 9 studies (1335 patients and 4295 controls) for A1298C polymorphism. Overall, pooled results showed that C677T polymorphism was not significant associated with AML risk(OR, 0.98–1.04; 95% CI, 0.86–0.92 to 1.09–1.25). Similar results were observed for the A1298C polymorphism and in subgroup analysis. All comparisons revealed no substantial heterogeneity nor did we detect evidence of publication bias. In summary, this meta-analysis provides evidence that MTHFR polymorphisms were not associated with AML risk. Further investigations are needed to offer better insight into the role of these polymorphisms in AML carcinogenesis. PMID:24586405

Su, Yan; Lu, Ge-Ning; Wang, Ren-Sheng

2014-01-01

137

Null Mutation of 5?-Reductase Type I Gene Alters Ethanol Consumption Patterns in a Sex-Dependent Manner.  

PubMed

The neuroactive steroid allopregnanolone (ALLO) is a positive modulator of GABAA receptors, and manipulation of neuroactive steroid levels via injection of ALLO or the 5?-reductase inhibitor finasteride alters ethanol self-administration patterns in male, but not female, mice. The Srd5a1 gene encodes the enzyme 5?-reductase-1, which is required for the synthesis of ALLO. The current studies investigated the influence of Srd5a1 deletion on voluntary ethanol consumption in male and female wildtype (WT) and knockout (KO) mice. Under a continuous access condition, 6 and 10 % ethanol intake was significantly greater in KO versus WT females, but significantly lower in KO versus WT males. In 2-h limited access sessions, Srd5a1 deletion retarded acquisition of 10 % ethanol intake in female mice, but facilitated it in males, versus respective WT mice. The present findings demonstrate that the Srd5a1 gene modulates ethanol consumption in a sex-dependent manner that is also contingent upon ethanol access condition and concentration. PMID:25416204

Ford, Matthew M; Nickel, Jeffrey D; Kaufman, Moriah N; Finn, Deborah A

2014-11-23

138

Spectrum of MTHFR gene SNPs C677T and A1298C: a study among 23 population groups of India.  

PubMed

Elevated homocysteine is a risk factor for many complex disorders. The role of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene in methylation of homocysteine makes it one of the most important candidate genes for these disorders. Considering the heterogeneity in its distribution in world populations, we screened MTHFR C677T and A1298C single nucleotide polymorphisms in a total of 23 Indian caste, tribal and religious population groups from five geographical regions of India and belonging to four major linguistic groups. The frequencies of MTHFR 677T and 1298C alleles were found to be 10.08 and 20.66%, respectively. MTHFR homozygous genotype 677TT was absent in eight population groups and homozygous 1298CC was absent in two population groups. 677T allele was found to be highest among north Indian populations with Indo-European tongue and 1298C was high among Dravidian-speaking tribes of east India and south India. The less common mutant haplotype 677T-1298C was observed among seven population groups and overall the frequency of this haplotype was 0.008, which is similar to that of African populations. cis configuration of 677T and 1298C was 0.94%. However, we could not find any individual with four mutant alleles which supports the earlier observation that presence of more than two mutant alleles may decrease the viability of foetus and possibly be a selective disadvantage in the population. PMID:22147263

Saraswathy, Kallur Nava; Asghar, Mohammad; Samtani, Ratika; Murry, Benrithung; Mondal, Prakash Ranjan; Ghosh, Pradeep Kumar; Sachdeva, Mohinder Pal

2012-04-01

139

Risk association of meningiomas with MTHFR C677T and GSTs polymorphisms: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have shown that the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs, including GSTM1, GSTT1) genes play an important role in determining the response of an individual to environmental pathogenesis and significantly relate to incidences of various human tumors, including brain tumors. However, these genes’ polymorphisms on meningioma risk remains poorly understood. The relevant inferences from previous studies are hindered by their limited statistical power and conflicting results. The aim of this meta-analysis is to provide a relatively comprehensive account of the association between these polymorphisms and human meningioma risk. A literature search for eligible studies published before January 1, 2014 was conducted in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and CNKI databases. Pooled odds ratios (OR) with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were used to evaluate the strength of the association under a fixed or random effect model according to heterogeneity test results. Heterogeneity and publication bias were evaluated. All statistical analyses were conducted by using the software of STATA 12.0 (STATA Corporation, College Station, TX, USA). For MTHFR C677T (dbSNP: rs1801133) (C T) polymorphism, 9 individual case-control studies from six publications with 1,615 cases and 1,909 controls were obtained. For GSTM1 null polymorphism, there were 4 studies with 417 cases and 1,735 controls. For GSTT1 null polymorphism, there were 4 studies with 405 cases and 1,622 controls. The combined results for the MTHFR C677T show that carriers of the CT genotype may be associated with a higher meningioma risk (OR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.05-1.38, P = 0.009). Stratified analyses show that Caucasians have significantly higher risk if they carry the CT genotype of MTHFR (OR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.05-1.63, P = 0.02). Risk of Caucasians carrying TT + CT genotype is also significantly higher (OR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.02-1.58, P = 0.03). Risk of Caucasians carrying TT genotype is not significantly different compared to control population (OR = 0.96, 95% CI 0.69-1.34, P = 0.82). All of the enrolled studies about GSTM1/GSTT1 are on Caucasians. The pooled ORGSTM1 and ORGSTT1 were not significant in Caucasian population. These results indicate SNPs of MTHFR C677T are related to meningioma risk with ethnic differences. Caucasians carrying CT genotype of MTHFR C677T have significantly higher meningioma susceptibility. SNPs of GSTM1/GSTT1 are not related to meningioma risk.

Ding, Hao; Liu, Wei; Yu, Xinyuan; Wang, Lei; Shao, Lingmin; Yi, Wei

2014-01-01

140

Significant Impact of the MTHFR Polymorphisms and Haplotypes on Male Infertility Risk  

PubMed Central

Background Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) converts 5,10-methylene tetrahydrofolate to 5-methyl tetrahydrofolate and affects the activity of cellular cycles participating in nucleotide synthesis, DNA repair, genome stability, maintenance of methyl pool, and gene regulation. Genetically compromised MTHFR activity has been suggested to affect male fertility. The objective of the present study was to find the impact on infertility risk of c.203G>A, c.1298A>C, and c.1793G>A polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene. Methods PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing were used to genotype the common SNPs in the MTHFR gene in 630 infertile and 250 fertile males. Chi-square test was applied for statistical comparison of genotype data. Linkage disequilibrium between the SNPs and the frequency of common haplotypes were assessed using Haploview software. Biochemical levels of total homocysteine (tHcy) and folic acid were measured. Meta-analysis on c.1298A>C polymorphism was performed using data from ten studies, comprising 2734 cases and 2737 controls. Results c.203G>A and c.1298A>C were found to be unrelated to infertility risk. c.1793G>A was protective against infertility (P?=?0.0008). c.677C>T and c.1793G>A were in significant LD (D’?=?0.9). Folic acid and tHcy level did not correlate with male infertility. Pooled estimate on c.1298A>C data from all published studies including our data showed no association of this polymorphism with male infertility (Odds ratio?=?1.035, P?=?0.56), azoospermia (Odds ratio?=?0.97, P?=?0.74), or oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (Odds ratio?=?0.92, p?=?0.29). Eight haplotypes with more than 1% frequency were detected, of which CCGA was protective against infertility (p?=?0.02), but the significance of the latter was not seen after applying Bonferroni correction. Conclusion Among MTHFR polymorphisms, c.203G>A and c.1298A>C do not affect infertility risk and c.1793G>A is protective against infertility. Haplotype analysis suggested that risk factors on the MTHFR locus do not extend too long on the DNA string. PMID:23874907

Gupta, Nishi; Sarkar, Saumya; David, Archana; Gangwar, Pravin Kumar; Gupta, Richa; Khanna, Gita; Sankhwar, Satya Narayan; Khanna, Anil; Rajender, Singh

2013-01-01

141

Genetic polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and promoter methylation of MGMT and FHIT genes in diffuse large B cell lymphoma risk in Middle East.  

PubMed

Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is one of the most common non-Hodgkin's lymphoma types. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) balances the pool of folate coenzymes in one carbon metabolism of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis and methylation; both are implicated in carcinogenesis of many types of cancer including lymphoma. Two common variants in the MTHFR gene (C677T and A1298C) have been associated with reduced enzyme activity, thereby making MTHFR polymorphisms a potential candidate as a cancer-predisposing factor. The O6 methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) and fragile histidine triad (FHIT) genes are transcriptionally silenced by promoter hypermethylation in DLBCL. These genetic differences are highly race specific and have never been screened in the Saudi DLBCL patients. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study including 160 DLBCL cases and 511 Saudi control samples analyzing the MTHFR C677T and A1298C functional polymorphisms by the restriction fragment length polymorphism method and their association with MGMT and FHIT genes promoter hypermethylation. Our data demonstrated that Saudi individuals carrying MTHFR genotype 1298CC (p < 0.001) and the 1298C allele (p = 0.012) had 4.23 and 1.73-fold higher risk of developing DLBCL, respectively. Additionally, combined genotype CCCC (MTHFR 677CC + MTHFR 1298CC) was associated with 3.489-fold, and CTCC (MTHFR 677 CT + 1298CC) was related to 9.515-fold higher risk, compared with full MTHFR enzyme activity. No significant association between MTHFR variant genotypes and methylation of MGMT and FHIT genes were observed. Our findings suggested that polymorphisms of MTHFR enzyme genes might be associated with the individual susceptibility to develop DLBCL. Additionally, the results indicated that MTHFR variants were not related to MGMT or FHIT hypermethylation in DLBCL. PMID:17712558

Siraj, Abdul K; Ibrahim, Muna; Al-Rasheed, Maha; Bu, Rong; Bavi, Prashant; Jehan, Zeenath; Abubaker, Jehad; Murad, Walid; Al-Dayel, Fouad; Ezzat, Adnan; El-Solh, Hassan; Uddin, Shahab; Al-Kuraya, Khawla

2007-12-01

142

C677T gene polymorphism of MTHFR and metabolic syndrome: response to dietary intervention.  

PubMed

BackgroundMethylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphisms were found associated with body mass index (BMI)-defined obesity and lean mass.The aim of our study was to examine the role of the C677T MTHFR gene polymorphism in the response to diet in the management of metabolic syndrome. We investigated the body composition and metabolic factor changes after an hysocaloric balanced diet (HBD), in Italian obese women affected by metabolic syndrome (MS).MethodsForty four obese women affected by MS were eligible for the study. A HBD for 12 weeks was assigned. Study participation included a complete screening for dietary habits, anthropometry, body composition, blood biochemical markers and C677T MTHFR polymorphism genotyping. The study has been registrated by ClinicalTrials.gov Id: NCT01890070.ResultsThe highest number of responders to HBD nutritional intervention were T(¿) carriers (p¿¿¿0.05). In the 81% of the total population a loss of Total Body Lean was observed. A significative loss (p¿¿¿0.05) of Total Body Lean was observed in the 47% of T(¿) carriers and in the 53% of T(+) carriers. Diastolic and systolic blood pressure, and waist circumference were reduced (p¿¿¿0.05). The prevalence of MS parameters decreased by 84% for systolic and diastolic blood pressure; 79,5% for HDL cholesterol, 82% for fasting glucose and 77% for triglycerides.ConclusionsMTHFR genetic variations analysis would be an innovative tool for the nutritional assessment. Our data provide the basis for personalized dietary recommendations based on the individual¿s genetic makeup and nutritional status.Trial registrationThe study has been registrated by ClinicalTrials.gov Id: NCT01890070. PMID:25432492

Di Renzo, Laura; Marsella, Luigi; Sarlo, Francesca; Soldati, Laura; Gratteri, Santo; Abenavoli, Ludovico; De Lorenzo, Antonino

2014-11-29

143

The Association between MTHFR Gene Polymorphisms and Hepatocellular Carcinoma Risk: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphisms and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk was inconsistent and underpowered. To clarify the effects of MTHFR gene polymorphisms on the risk of HCC, a meta-analysis of all available studies relating C677T and/or A1298C polymorphisms of MTHFR gene to the risk of HCC was conducted. Methods The authors searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Chinese Biomedical Literature database (CBM) for the period up to July 2012. Data were extracted by two independent authors and pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated. Metaregression and subgroup analyses were performed to identify the source of heterogeneity. Results Finally, 12 studies with 2,351 cases and 4,091 controls were included for C677T polymorphism and 6 studies with 1,333 cases and 1,878 controls were included for A1298C polymorphism. With respect to A1298C polymorphism, significantly decreased HCC risk was found in the overall population (CC vs. AA: OR?=?0.660, 95%CI 0.460–0.946, P?=?0.024; recessive model: OR?=?0.667, 95%CI?=?0.470–0.948, P?=?0.024). In subgroup analyses, significantly decreased HCC risk was found in Asian population (CC vs. AA: OR?=?0.647, 95%CI?=?0.435–0.963; P?=?0.032) and population-based studies (CC vs. AA: OR?=?0.519, 95%CI?=?0.327–0.823; P?=?0.005). With respect to C677T polymorphism, no significant association with HCC risk was demonstrated in overall and stratified analyses. Conclusions We concluded that MTHFR A1298C polymorphism may play a protective role in the carcinogenesis of HCC. Further large and well-designed studies are needed to confirm this association. PMID:23457501

Deng, Yan; Huang, Shan; Xu, Juanjuan; Li, Haiwei; Li, Shan; Zhao, Jinmin

2013-01-01

144

MTHFR Polymorphisms, Folate Intake, and Carcinogen DNA Adducts in the Lung  

PubMed Central

The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genes and folate in one-carbon metabolism are essential for DNA methylation and synthesis. However, their role in carcinogen DNA damage in target lung tissue, a dosimeter for cancer risk, is not known. Our study aimed to investigate the association between genetic and nutritional one-carbon metabolism factors and DNA adducts in target lung. Data on 135 lung cancer cases from the Massachusetts General Hospital were studied. Genotyping was completed for MTHFR C677T (rs1801133) and A1298C (rs1801131). Information on dietary intake for one-carbon related micronutrients, folate and other B vitamin, was derived from a validated food frequency questionnaire. DNA adducts in lung were measured by 32P-postlabeling. After adjusting for potential confounders, DNA adduct levels in lung significantly increased by 69.2% [95% confidence interval (CI), 5.5% to 171.5%] for the MTHFR 1298AC+CC genotype. The high risk group, combining the A1298C (AC+CC) plus C677T (CT+TT) genotypes, had significantly enhanced levels of lung adducts by 210.7% (95% CI, 21.4% to 695.2%) in contrast to the A1298C (AA) plus C677T (CC) genotypes. Elevation of DNA adduct was pronounced - 111.3% (95% CI, ?3.0 to 360.5%) among 1298AC+CC patients who consumed the lowest level of folate intake as compared with 1298AA individuals with highest tertile of intake. These results indicate that DNA adducts levels are influenced by MTHFR polymorphisms and low folate consumption, suggesting an important role of genetic and nutritional factors in protecting DNA damage from lung carcinogen in at-risk populations. PMID:22052259

Lee, Mi-Sun; Asomaning, Kofi; Su, Li; Wain, John C.; Mark, Eugene J.; Christiani, David C.

2011-01-01

145

Folate Intake, MTHFR Polymorphisms, and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background. The objective was to determine whether relationships exist between the methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) and examine whether the risk is modified by level of folate intake. Methods. MEDLINE, Embase, and SCOPUS were searched to May 2012 using the terms “folic acid,” “folate,” “colorectal cancer,” “methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase,” “MTHFR.” Observational studies were included which (1) assessed the risk of CRC for each polymorphism and/or (2) had defined levels of folate intake for each polymorphism and assessed the risk of CRC. Results. From 910 references, 67 studies met our criteria; hand searching yielded 10 studies. The summary risk estimate comparing the 677CT versus CC genotype was 1.02 (95% CI 0.95–1.10) and for 677TT versus CC was 0.88 (95% CI 0.80–0.96) both with heterogeneity. The summary risk estimates for A1298C polymorphisms suggested no reduced risk. The summary risk estimate for high versus low total folate for the 677CC genotype was 0.70 (95% CI 0.56–0.89) and the 677TT genotype 0.63 (95% CI 0.41–0.97). Conclusion. These results suggest that the 677TT genotype is associated with a reduced risk of developing CRC, under conditions of high total folate intake, and this associated risk remains reduced for both MTHFR 677 CC and TT genotypes. PMID:23125859

Kennedy, Deborah A.; Stern, Seth J.; Matok, Ilan; Moretti, Myla E.; Sarkar, Moumita; Adams-Webber, Thomasin; Koren, Gideon

2012-01-01

146

Association between MTHFR C677T and A1298C Polymorphisms and NSCL/P Risk in Asians: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective Several studies have reported the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without palate (NSCL/P) in Asian populations. However, findings have been conflicting. In order to investigate the association, a meta-analysis was performed. Methods We searched Pubmed, MedLine and EmBase database to selected eligible studies. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were calculated using fixed effects model or random effects model to assess the association between MTHFR polymorphisms and NSCL/P in both Asian children and mothers. Results Finally, nine case-control studies were included. Overall, the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and NSCL/P showed pooled ORs (95%CI) of 1.41(1.23–1.61) in Asian children, and 1.70(1.19–2.42) in Asian mothers. Subgroup analyses by geographical locations further identified the association in Eastern Asian children, Western/Central Asian children and mothers, but not in Eastern Asian mothers. However, no significant relationship between MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and NSCL/P was found in this meta-analysis. Conclusions The MTHFR 677T allele was associated with an increased risk of NSCL/P in Asian populations. PMID:24658649

Zhao, Mengmeng; Ren, Yangwu; Shen, Li; Zhang, Yue; Zhou, Baosen

2014-01-01

147

Combined Impact of Polymorphism of Folate Metabolism Genes; Glutamate Carboxypeptidase, Methylene Tetrahydrofolate Reductase and Methionine Synthase Reductase on Breast Cancer Susceptibility in Kashmiri Women  

PubMed Central

Background: Folate and methionine play a crucial role in DNA synthesis, repair and the epigenetic profile of cell. Hence, the alterations in the folate metabolism can lead to aberrant proliferation leading to neoplasia. Most of the studies have associated polymorphisms in methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) genes with reduced risk of cervical and colorectal cancer. However, the association with breast cancer is still controversial. Further, the involvement of Glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) polymorphism in cancer is not known. In the present study, we analyzed if the individual and combined effects of polymorphisms in folate pathway genes viz., MTHFR 677C > T, MTHFR 1298A > C, MTRR 66A > G and GCP II 1561 C>T, have any role in altering the susceptibility to breast cancer. Methods: The DNA of 35 female breast cancer patients and 33 healthy individuals, in the Kashmiri population from India, were analyzed using a PCR-RFLP approach for the above mentioned polymorphisms. Results: Individuals carrying the MTHFR 677CT/TT and GCPII 1561 CT genotype showed a 3.5 (95% CI: 3.1–3.7, P<0.02) and 7.7 (95% CI: 6.7–9.1, P<0.001) fold decreased risk for breast cancer than the wild types (MTHFR 677CC and GCPII 1561 CC). Subjects with MTRR 66 G-allele showed a 4.5 fold decreased risk (OR: 0.22, 95% CI: 0.20, 0.24, P<0.0005) compared to the wild type (MTRR 66A). Further, subjects with combined polymorphisms in MTHFR, GCPII and MTRR loci revealed a significant reduction of breast cancer risk. Conclusion: This study indicates (i) a protective role of polymorphisms in MTHFR, GCPII, MTRR against breast cancer in the study subjects, and (ii) combined effect of polymorphisms is more pronounced than single genetic polymorphism, thereby emphasizing the role of gene-gene interaction in the susceptibility to breast cancer. PMID:21475466

Mir, M. Muzaffar; Dar, Javid A.; Dar, Nazir A.; Dar, M. Shafi; Salam, Irfana; Lone, M. Maqbool; Chowdary, Nissar A.

2008-01-01

148

Quantitative assessment of the associations between MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and risk of fractures: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Many studies have investigated the associations between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and risk of fractures, but the impact of MTHFR polymorphisms on fractures risk is unclear owing to the obvious inconsistence among those studies. This study aims to quantify the strength of association between MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and risk of fractures. We searched the PubMed, Embase and Wanfang databases for articles relating the association between MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and risk of fractures in humans. We estimated summary odds ratios (ORs) with their confidence intervals (CIs) to assess the associations. Meta-analyses suggested MTHFR C677T polymorphism was associated with increased risk of any site fractures (for T vs. C, OR = 1.17, 95 % CI 1.03-1.32; for TT vs. CC, OR = 1. 31, 95 % CI 1.11-1.54; for TT vs. CT, OR = 1.22, 95 % CI 1.04-1.43; for TT vs. CT/CC, OR = 1.31, 95 % CI 1.13-1.51). Besides, MTHFR A1298C polymorphism was also associated with increased risk of any site fractures. Subgroup meta-analyses suggested MTHFR C677T polymorphism was associated with increased risk of vertebral fractures under three genetic contrast modes (for TT vs. CC, OR = 1.43, 95 % CI 1.05-1.95; for TT vs. CT, OR = 1.36, 95 % CI 1.01-1.85; for TT vs. CT/CC, OR = 1.50, 95 % CI 1.17-1.91), but there was no association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and risk of hip fractures and non-vertebral fractures (all P values were more than 0.05). Thus, individuals with homozygote genotype TT of MTHFR C677T have obviously increased risk of vertebral fractures compared those with heterozygote genotype CT or homozygote genotype CC. There is no association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and risk of hip fractures and non-vertebral fractures. PMID:23229495

Bai, Rui; Liu, Wanlin; Zhao, Aiqing; Zhao, Zhenqun; Jiang, Dianming

2013-03-01

149

A mutated xylose reductase increases bioethanol production more than a glucose/xylose facilitator in simultaneous fermentation and co-fermentation of wheat straw  

PubMed Central

Genetically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains are able to ferment xylose present in lignocellulosic biomass. However, better xylose fermenting strains are required to reach complete xylose uptake in simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) of lignocellulosic hydrolyzates. In the current study, haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains expressing a heterologous xylose pathway including either the native xylose reductase (XR) from P. stipitis, a mutated variant of XR (mXR) with altered co-factor preference, a glucose/xylose facilitator (Gxf1) from Candida intermedia or both mXR and Gxf1 were assessed in SSCF of acid-pretreated non-detoxified wheat straw. The xylose conversion in SSCF was doubled with the S. cerevisiae strain expressing mXR compared to the isogenic strain expressing the native XR, converting 76% and 38%, respectively. The xylitol yield was less than half using mXR in comparison with the native variant. As a result of this, the ethanol yield increased from 0.33 to 0.39 g g-1 when the native XR was replaced by mXR. In contrast, the expression of Gxf1 only slightly increased the xylose uptake, and did not increase the ethanol production. The results suggest that ethanolic xylose fermentation under SSCF conditions is controlled primarily by the XR activity and to a much lesser extent by xylose transport. PMID:21906329

2011-01-01

150

Mutation of the Light-Induced Yellow Leaf 1 Gene, Which Encodes a Geranylgeranyl Reductase, Affects Chlorophyll Biosynthesis and Light Sensitivity in Rice  

PubMed Central

Chlorophylls (Chls) are crucial for capturing light energy for photosynthesis. Although several genes responsible for Chl biosynthesis were characterized in rice (Oryza sativa), the genetic properties of the hydrogenating enzyme involved in the final step of Chl synthesis remain unknown. In this study, we characterized a rice light-induced yellow leaf 1-1 (lyl1-1) mutant that is hypersensitive to high-light and defective in the Chl synthesis. Light-shading experiment suggested that the yellowing of lyl1-1 is light-induced. Map-based cloning of LYL1 revealed that it encodes a geranylgeranyl reductase. The mutation of LYL1 led to the majority of Chl molecules are conjugated with an unsaturated geranylgeraniol side chain. LYL1 is the firstly defined gene involved in the reduction step from Chl-geranylgeranylated (ChlGG) and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) to Chl-phytol (ChlPhy) and phytyl pyrophosphate (PPP) in rice. LYL1 can be induced by light and suppressed by darkness which is consistent with its potential biological functions. Additionally, the lyl1-1 mutant suffered from severe photooxidative damage and displayed a drastic reduction in the levels of ?-tocopherol and photosynthetic proteins. We concluded that LYL1 also plays an important role in response to high-light in rice. PMID:24058671

Yuan, Yuan; Zhu, Jinyan; Wang, Man; Yuan, Fuhai; Wu, Shujun; Wang, Zhiqin; Yi, Chuandeng; Xu, Tinghua; Ryom, MyongChol; Gu, Minghong; Liang, Guohua

2013-01-01

151

Effect of substrate binding loop mutations on the structure, kinetics, and inhibition of enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase from Plasmodium falciparum.  

PubMed

Enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase (ENR), which catalyzes the final and rate limiting step of fatty acid elongation, has been validated as a potential drug target. Triclosan is known to be an effective inhibitor for this enzyme. We mutated the substrate binding site residue Ala372 of the ENR of Plasmodium falciparum (PfENR) to Methionine and Valine which increased the affinity of the enzyme towards triclosan to almost double, close to that of Escherichia coli ENR (EcENR) which has a Methionine at the structurally similar position of Ala372 of PfENR. Kinetic studies of the mutants of PfENR and the crystal structure analysis of the A372M mutant revealed that a more hydrophobic environment enhances the affinity of the enzyme for the inhibitor. A triclosan derivative showed a threefold increase in the affinity towards the mutants compared to the wild type, due to additional interactions with the A372M mutant as revealed by the crystal structure. The enzyme has a conserved salt bridge which stabilizes the substrate binding loop and appears to be important for the active conformation of the enzyme. We generated a second set of mutants to check this hypothesis. These mutants showed loss of function, except in one case, where the crystal structure showed that the substrate binding loop is stabilized by a water bridge network. PMID:21280175

Maity, Koustav; Banerjee, Tanushree; Prabakaran, Narayanappa; Surolia, Namita; Surolia, Avadhesha; Suguna, Kaza

2011-01-01

152

Mutation for nonsyndromic mental retardation in the trans-2-enoyl-CoA reductase TER gene involved in fatty acid elongation impairs the enzyme activity and stability, leading to change in sphingolipid profile.  

PubMed

Very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs, chain length >C20) exist in tissues throughout the body and are synthesized by repetition of the fatty acid (FA) elongation cycle composed of four successive enzymatic reactions. In mammals, the TER gene is the only gene encoding trans-2-enoyl-CoA reductase, which catalyzes the fourth reaction in the FA elongation cycle. The TER P182L mutation is the pathogenic mutation for nonsyndromic mental retardation. This mutation substitutes a leucine for a proline residue at amino acid 182 in the TER enzyme. Currently, the mechanism by which the TER P182L mutation causes nonsyndromic mental retardation is unknown. To understand the effect of this mutation on the TER enzyme and VLCFA synthesis, we have biochemically characterized the TER P182L mutant enzyme using yeast and mammalian cells transfected with the TER P182L mutant gene and analyzed the FA elongation cycle in the B-lymphoblastoid cell line with the homozygous TER P182L mutation (TER(P182L/P182L) B-lymphoblastoid cell line). We have found that TER P182L mutant enzyme exhibits reduced trans-2-enoyl-CoA reductase activity and protein stability, thereby impairing VLCFA synthesis and, in turn, altering the sphingolipid profile (i.e. decreased level of C24 sphingomyelin and C24 ceramide) in the TER(P182L/P182L) B-lymphoblastoid cell line. We have also found that in addition to the TER enzyme-catalyzed fourth reaction, the third reaction in the FA elongation cycle is affected by the TER P182L mutation. These findings provide new insight into the biochemical defects associated with this genetic mutation. PMID:24220030

Abe, Kensuke; Ohno, Yusuke; Sassa, Takayuki; Taguchi, Ryo; Çal??kan, Minal; Ober, Carole; Kihara, Akio

2013-12-20

153

Alteration of the alkaloid profile in genetically modified tobacco reveals a role of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase in nicotine N-demethylation.  

PubMed

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme of the tetrahydrofolate (THF)-mediated one-carbon (C1) metabolic network. This enzyme catalyzes the reduction of 5,10-methylene-THF to 5-methyl-THF. The latter donates its methyl group to homocysteine, forming methionine, which is then used for the synthesis of S-adenosyl-methionine, a universal methyl donor for numerous methylation reactions, to produce primary and secondary metabolites. Here, we demonstrate that manipulating tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) MTHFR gene (NtMTHFR1) expression dramatically alters the alkaloid profile in transgenic tobacco plants by negatively regulating the expression of a secondary metabolic pathway nicotine N-demethylase gene, CYP82E4. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and alkaloid analyses revealed that reducing NtMTHFR expression by RNA interference dramatically induced CYP82E4 expression, resulting in higher nicotine-to-nornicotine conversion rates. Conversely, overexpressing NtMTHFR1 suppressed CYP82E4 expression, leading to lower nicotine-to-nornicotine conversion rates. However, the reduced expression of NtMTHFR did not affect the methionine and S-adenosyl-methionine levels in the knockdown lines. Our finding reveals a new regulatory role of NtMTHFR1 in nicotine N-demethylation and suggests that the negative regulation of CYP82E4 expression may serve to recruit methyl groups from nicotine into the C1 pool under C1-deficient conditions. PMID:23221678

Hung, Chiu-Yueh; Fan, Longjiang; Kittur, Farooqahmed S; Sun, Kehan; Qiu, Jie; Tang, She; Holliday, Bronwyn M; Xiao, Bingguang; Burkey, Kent O; Bush, Lowell P; Conkling, Mark A; Roje, Sanja; Xie, Jiahua

2013-02-01

154

MTHFR-1298 A>C (rs1801131) is a predictor of survival in two cohorts of stage II/III colorectal cancer patients treated with adjuvant fluoropyrimidine chemotherapy with or without oxaliplatin.  

PubMed

Adjuvant treatment based on fluoropyrimidines (FL) improves the prognosis of stage II/III colorectal cancer (CRC). Validated predictive/prognostic biomarkers would spare therapy-related morbidity in patients with a good prognosis. We compared the impact of a set of 22 FL-related polymorphisms with the prognosis of two cohorts of CRC patients treated with adjuvant FL with or without OXA, including a total of 262 cases. 5,10-Methylentetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) MTHFR-1298 A>C (rs1801131) polymorphism had a concordant effect: MTHFR-rs1801131-1298CC genotype carriers had a worse disease free survival (DFS) in both the cohorts. In the pooled population MTHFR-rs1801131-1298CC carriers had also a worse overall survival. We computed a clinical score related to DFS including MTHFR-rs1801131, tumor stage, sex and tumor location, where rs1801131 is the most detrimental factor (hazard ratio=5.3, 95% confidence interval=2.2-12.9; P-value=0.0006). MTHFR-rs1801131 is a prognostic factor that could be used as an additional criteria for the choice of the proper adjuvant regimen in stage II/III colorectal cancer patients.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 21 October 2014; doi:10.1038/tpj.2014.64. PMID:25331073

Cecchin, E; Perrone, G; Nobili, S; Polesel, J; De Mattia, E; Zanusso, C; Petreni, P; Lonardi, S; Pella, N; D'Andrea, M; Errante, D; Rizzolio, F; Mazzei, T; Landini, I; Mini, E; Toffoli, G

2014-10-21

155

Sodium arsenite alters cell cycle and MTHFR, MT1/2, and c-Myc protein levels in MCF-7 cells  

SciTech Connect

There is limited available information on the effects of arsenic on enzymes participating in the folate cycle. Therefore, our aim was to evaluate the effects of sodium arsenite on the protein levels of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and its further relationship with the expression MT1/2 and c-myc in MCF-7 cells. Arsenite treatment (0-10 muM) for 4 h decreased MTHFR levels in a concentration-dependent fashion without significant effects on DHFR. The effects on MTHFR were observed at arsenite concentrations not significantly affecting cell viability. We also observed an increase in S-phase recruitment at all concentrations probed. Lower concentrations (< 5 muM) induced cell proliferation, showing a high proportion of BrdU-stained cells, indicating a higher DNA synthesis rate. However, higher concentrations (>= 5 muM) or longer treatment periods induced apoptosis. Arsenite also induced dose-dependent increases in MT1/2 and c-Myc protein levels. The levels of MTHFR were inversely correlated to MT1/2 and c-Myc overexpression and increased S-phase recruitment. Our findings indicate that breast epithelial cells are responsive to arsenite and suggest that exposure may pose a risk for breast cancer. The reductions in MTHFR protein levels contribute to understand the mechanisms underlying the induction of genes influencing growth regulation, such as c-myc and MT1/2. However, further research is needed to ascertain if the effects here reported following short-time and high-dose exposure are relevant for human populations chronically exposed to low arsenic concentrations.

Ruiz-Ramos, Ruben [Centro de Investigacion en Salud Poblacional, INSP, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Departamento de Toxicologia, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, 07360 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Lopez-Carrillo, Lizbeth [Centro de Investigacion en Salud Poblacional, INSP, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Albores, Arnulfo [Departamento de Toxicologia, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, 07360 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Hernandez-Ramirez, Raul U. [Centro de Investigacion en Salud Poblacional, INSP, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Cebrian, Mariano E., E-mail: mcebrian@cinvestav.m [Departamento de Toxicologia, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, 07360 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

2009-12-15

156

Association between epidermal growth factor receptor mutations and the expression of excision repair cross-complementing protein 1 and ribonucleotide reductase subunit M1 mRNA in patients with non-small cell lung cancer  

PubMed Central

The present study aimed to investigate the association between epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutations and excision repair cross-complementing protein 1 (ERCC1) and ribonucleotide reductase subunit M1 (RRM1) mRNA expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissue. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to detect EGFR mutations, and ERCC1 and RRM1 mRNA expression in 257 cases of NSCLC. In the NSCLC samples the EGFR mutation rate was 49.03% (126/257). The rate was higher in females and non-smoking patients (P<0.05). High expression of ERCC1 mRNA was observed in 47.47% of the samples (122/257), while a high RRM1 mRNA expression was observed in 61.87% of the samples (159/257). In comparison with patients with NSCLC without EGFR mutations, patients with EGFR mutations had significantly lower levels of ERCC1 mRNA expression (P<0.05); however, EGFR mutations and expression levels of RRM1 mRNA were not correlated in NSCLC tissues (P>0.05). In addition, ERCC1 mRNA expression was not correlated with the expression levels of RRM1 mRNA (P>0.05). In conclusion, patients with NSCLC with EGFR mutations tend to have a low expression of ERCC1 mRNA and may potentially benefit from platinum-based chemotherapy.

XU, CHUN-WEI; WANG, GANG; WANG, WU-LONG; GAO, WEN-BIN; HAN, CHUAN-JUN; GAO, JING-SHAN; LI, YANG; WANG, LIN; ZHANG, LI-YING; ZHANG, YU-PING; TIAN, YU-WANG; FANG, JIN-NV

2015-01-01

157

Gene-environment and gene-gene interactions of specific MTHFR, MTR and CBS gene variants in relation to homocysteine in black South Africans.  

PubMed

The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), cystathione-?-synthase (CBS) and methionine synthase (MTR) genes interact with each other and the environment. These interactions could influence homocysteine (Hcy) and diseases contingent thereon. We determined single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within these genes, their relationships and interactions with total Hcy concentrations within black South Africans to address the increased prevalence of diseases associated with Hcy. The MTHFR 677 TT and MTR 2756 AA genotypes were associated with higher Hcy concentrations (16.6 and 10.1 ?mol/L; p<0.05) compared to subjects harboring the MTHFR 677 CT/CC and the MTR 2756 AG genotypes (10.5, 9.7 and 9.5 ?mol/L, respectively). The investigated CBS genotypes did not influence Hcy. We demonstrated interactions between the area of residence and the CBS T833C/844ins68 genotypes (p=0.005) so that when harboring the wildtype allele, rural subjects had significantly higher Hcy than their urban counterparts, but when hosting the variant allele the environment made no difference to Hcy. Between the CBS T833C/844ins68 or G9276A and MTHFR C677T genotypes, there were two-way interactions (p=0.003 and=0.004, respectively), with regard to Hcy. Subjects harboring the MTHFR 677 TT genotype in combination with the CBS 833 TT/homozygous 844 non-insert or the MTHFR 677 TT genotype in combination with the CBS 9276 GA/GG displayed higher Hcy concentrations. Therefore, some of the investigated genotypes affected Hcy; residential area changed the way in which the CBS T833C/844ins68 SNPs influenced Hcy concentrations highlighting the importance of environmental factors; and gene-gene interactions allude to epistatic effects. PMID:23954866

Nienaber-Rousseau, Cornelie; Ellis, Suria M; Moss, Sarah J; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Towers, G Wayne

2013-11-01

158

MTHFR Gene variants C677T, A1298C and association with Down syndrome: A Case-control study from South India  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: The 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms and low folate levels are associated with inhibition of DNA methyltransferase and consequently DNA hypomethylation. The expanding spectrum of common conditions linked with MTHFR polymorphisms includes certain adverse birth outcome, pregnancy complications, cancers, adult cardiovascular diseases and psychiatric disorders, with several of these associations remaining still controversial. Trisomy 21 or Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic cause of mental retardation. It stems predominantly from the failure of chromosome 21 to segregate normally during meiosis. Despite substantial research, the molecular mechanisms underlying non-disjunction leading to trisomy 21 are poorly understood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two common variants C677T and A1298C of the MTHFR gene were screened in 36 parents with DS children and 60 healthy couples from Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. The MTHFR genotypes were studied by RFLP analysis of PCR-amplified products and confirmed by sequencing. RESULTS: The CT genotype was seen in three each (8.3%) of case mothers and fathers. One case father showed TT genotype. All the control individuals exhibited the wild type CC genotype. A similar frequency for the uncommon allele C of the second polymorphism was recorded in case mothers (0.35) and fathers (0.37) in comparison with the control mothers (0.39) and fathers (0.37). CONCLUSION: This first report on MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in trisomy 21 parents from south Indian population revealed that MTHFR 677CT polymorphism was associated with a risk for Down syndrome. PMID:20680153

Cyril, Cyrus; Rai, Padmalatha; Chandra, N.; Gopinath, P. M.; Satyamoorthy, K.

2009-01-01

159

MTHFR C677T and A1298C variant genotypes and the risk of microsatellite instability among Iranian colorectal cancer patients  

PubMed Central

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme in the folate metabolic pathway. We aimed to test the hypothesis that C677T and A1298C variants of MTHFR predispose to microsatellite instable (MSI) colorectal cancer. We determined MTHFR genotypes in 175 sporadic colorectal cancer patients and a total of 231 normal controls in Shiraz, Southern Iran. Among the genotypes found in our samples, MTHFR CT and CT + TT were associated with increased risk for CRC incidence [odds ratio (OR) = 2.4, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) = 1.8–4.4; OR = 2.4, 95%CI = 1.6–3.6, respectively]. Double heterozygotes 677CT/1298AC and double homozygote 677TT/1298AA and 677CC/1298CC genotypes also showed a significantly increased risk of developing CRC compared with the wild-type 677CC/1298AA genotypes of the controls. Among the 151 tumors tested, 36 (23.8%) were MSI+. MSI was more common in proximal tumors (OR = 10.4; 95%CI = 3.9–27.8) and in smokers (OR = 2.9; 95%CI = 1.3–6.7). In a case–control comparison, the MTHFR 677CT + TT genotype was strongly associated with MSI (OR = 2.6; 95%CI = 1.3–5.3). Hypermethylation of mismatch repair genes was positively related with MSI incidence in these tumor series (P = 0.00). Our data suggest that the MTHFR 677CT + TT variant genotype may be a risk factor for MSI+ cancer. PMID:20193847

Naghibalhossaini, Fakhraddin; Mokarram, Pooneh; Khalili, Islam; Vasei, Mohammad; Hosseini, Seyed Vahid; Ashktorab, Hassan; Rasti, Mozhgan; Abdollahi, Kourosh

2013-01-01

160

MTHFR C677T and A1298C variant genotypes and the risk of microsatellite instability among Iranian colorectal cancer patients.  

PubMed

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme in the folate metabolic pathway. We aimed to test the hypothesis that C677T and A1298C variants of MTHFR predispose to microsatellite instable (MSI) colorectal cancer. We determined MTHFR genotypes in 175 sporadic colorectal cancer patients and a total of 231 normal controls in Shiraz, Southern Iran. Among the genotypes found in our samples, MTHFR CT and CT+TT were associated with increased risk for CRC incidence [odds ratio (OR)=2.4, 95% confidence interval (95%CI)=1.8-4.4; OR=2.4, 95%CI=1.6-3.6, respectively]. Double heterozygotes 677CT/1298AC and double homozygote 677TT/1298AA and 677CC/1298CC genotypes also showed a significantly increased risk of developing CRC compared with the wild-type 677CC/1298AA genotypes of the controls. Among the 151 tumors tested, 36 (23.8%) were MSI+. MSI was more common in proximal tumors (OR=10.4; 95%CI=3.9-27.8) and in smokers (OR=2.9; 95%CI=1.3-6.7). In a case-control comparison, the MTHFR 677CT+TT genotype was strongly associated with MSI (OR=2.6; 95%CI=1.3-5.3). Hypermethylation of mismatch repair genes was positively related with MSI incidence in these tumor series (P=0.00). Our data suggest that the MTHFR 677CT+TT variant genotype may be a risk factor for MSI+ cancer. PMID:20193847

Naghibalhossaini, Fakhraddin; Mokarram, Pooneh; Khalili, Islam; Vasei, Mohammad; Hosseini, Seyed Vahid; Ashktorab, Hassan; Rasti, Mozhgan; Abdollahi, Kourosh

2010-03-01

161

Effect of the MTHFR 677C/T polymorphism on homocysteinemia in response to creatine supplementation: a case study.  

PubMed

Creatine (Cr) is recommended as a dietary supplement especially for athletes but its therapeutic potential is also discussed. It is assumed that human body uses Cr for the formation of phosphocreatine, which is necessary for muscular work as a source of energy. Production of Cr in a body is closely connected to methionine cycle where guanidinoacetate (GAA) is in a final step methylated from S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). Increased availability of SAM for phosphatidylcholine (PC) and sarcosine synthesis can potentially stimulate endogenous production of betaine a thus methylation of homocysteine (HCy) to form methionine. Our subject who was methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677TT homozygote lowered plasma HCy from 33.3 micromol/l to 17.1 micromol/l following one-month Cr supplementation (5 g/day) opposite to 677CC and CT genotypes whose HCy levels tended to increase (but still in normal ranges). We suppose that Cr supplementation stimulates pathways leading to production of sarcosine which can serve to regenerate tetrahydrofolate (THF) to form 5,10-methylene-THF. This could potentially increase MTHFR enzyme activity which may later result in increased HCy methylation. Cr supplementation significantly effects metabolism of one carbon unit and potentially lower body´s demands for methyl groups. This could be beneficial as in the case of reduced enzyme activity such as MTHFR 677C/T polymorphism. PMID:23869894

Petr, M; Steffl, M; Kohlíková, E

2013-12-20

162

MTHFR C677T polymorphism contributes to prostate cancer risk among Caucasians: A meta-analysis of 3511 cases and 2762 controls.  

PubMed

Published data regarding the association between 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms and prostate cancer risk have been conflicting. To derive a more precise estimation of the relationship, a meta-analysis was performed. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated to assess the association between MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and prostate cancer risk. Six studies including 3511 cases and 2762 controls described C677T genotypes, among which four articles totalling 838 cases and 1121 controls described A1298C genotypes, were involved in this meta-analysis. Overall meta-analysis indicated that the 677T allele was more likely to exert a protective effect on prostate cancer risk (OR=0.81, 95% CI: 0.68-0.98) with a recessive genetic model. No association was found for the 677CT genotype and the 677TT mutant homozygote with prostate cancer risk compared with 677CC, with OR=1.13 (95% CI: 0.88-1.45) and OR=0.85 (95% CI: 0.71-1.03), respectively. No evidence of an association of MTHFR A1298C polymorphism with prostate cancer was found. This meta-analysis supports that the C677T of the MTHFR gene is a low-penetrance susceptibility gene for prostate cancer, and might provide protective effects against prostate cancer risk. PMID:19223177

Bai, Jian-Ling; Zheng, Ming-Hua; Xia, Xian; Ter-Minassian, Monica; Chen, Yong-Ping; Chen, Feng

2009-05-01

163

Association Between MTHFR Polymorphisms and Congenital Heart Disease: A Meta-analysis based on 9,329 cases and 15,076 controls  

PubMed Central

The aim of our study was to evaluate the association between polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and the risk for congenital heart disease (CHD). Electronic literature databases were searched to identify eligible studies published before Jun, 2014. The association was assessed by the odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). The publication bias was explored using Begg's test. Sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the stability of the crude results. A total of 35 studies were included in this meta-analysis. For the MTHFR C677T polymorphism, we detected significant association in all genetic models for Asian children and the maternal population. Significant association was also detected in T vs. C for a Caucasian paediatric population (OR = 1.163, 95% CI: 1.008–1.342) and in both T vs. C (OR = 1.125, 95% CI: 1.043–1.214) and the dominant model (OR = 1.216, 95% CI:b1.096–1.348) for a Caucasian maternal population. For the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism, the association was detected in CC vs. AC for the Caucasian paediatric population (OR = 1.484, 95% CI: 1.035–2.128). Our results support the MTHFR -677T allele as a susceptibility factor for CHD in the Asian maternal population and the -1298C allele as a risk factor in the Caucasian paediatric population. PMID:25472587

Xuan, Chao; Li, Hui; Zhao, Jin-Xia; Wang, Hong-Wei; Wang, Yi; Ning, Chun-Ping; Liu, Zhen; Zhang, Bei-Bei; He, Guo-Wei; Lun, Li-Min

2014-01-01

164

The MTHFR C677T polymorphism contributes to increased risk of Alzheimer's Disease: Evidence based on 40 case-control studies.  

PubMed

The association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene C677T polymorphism and Alzheimer's Disease (AD) risk has been widely reported with inconsistent results. We performed an updated meta-analysis of all available studies to clarify this situation. We conducted a comprehensive literature search in PubMed Alzgene, Embase, and Chinese Biomedical Literature database (CBM) for the period up to June 2014. Finally, a total of 40 case-control studies with 4503 AD cases and 5767 controls were included. Overall, significant increased AD risk was found, when all studies were pooled into the meta-analysis. In subgroup analyses stratified by ethnicity, age of onset, and APOE ?4 status, significant increased AD risk was found in Asians, late-onset AD, and APOE ?4 carriers, but not in Caucasians, early-onset AD, and non-APOE ?4 carriers. The present meta-analysis suggested that the MTHFR is a candidate gene for AD susceptibility. The MTHFR C677T polymorphism may be a risk factor for AD in Asians, APOE ?4 carriers, and late-onset AD. Further, investigations taking the potential gene-gene and gene-environmental interactions into consideration for the MTHFR C677T polymorphism should be conducted. PMID:25486592

Peng, Qiliu; Lao, Xianjun; Huang, Xiuli; Qin, Xue; Li, Shan; Zeng, Zhiyu

2015-01-23

165

Cardiometabolic risk and the MTHFR C677T variant in children treated with second-generation antipsychotics.  

PubMed

Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are increasingly being used to treat children with a variety of psychiatric illnesses. Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is a side-effect of SGA-treatment. We conducted a cross-sectional study and assessed the association of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T variant with features of MetS in SGA-treated (n=105) and SGA-naïve (n=112) children. We targeted the MTHFR C677T variant, because it is associated with risk for cardiovascular disease, and features of MetS in adults without psychiatric illness. MetS in children is based on the presence of any three of the following: waist circumference ? 90th percentile for age and sex; plasma triglyceride ? 1.24?mmol?l(-1); plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol ? 1.03?mmol?l(-1); systolic or diastolic blood pressure ? 90th percentile for age, sex, and height; and fasting glucose ? 5.6?mmol?l(-1). We found that 15% of SGA-treated children had MetS compared with 2% of SGA-naïve children (OR 8.113, P<0.05). No effect of the MTHFR C677T variant on psychiatric diagnosis was observed. The MTHFR 677T allele was associated (P<0.05) with MetS (OR 5.75, 95% CI= 1.18-28.12) in SGA-treated children. Models adjusted for duration of SGA treatment, ethnicity, sex, age and use of other medications revealed a positive relationship between the MTHFR 677T allele and diastolic blood pressure Z-scores (P=0.001) and fasting plasma glucose (P<0.05) in SGA-treated children. These findings illustrate the high prevalence of MetS in SGA-treated children and suggest metabolic alterations associated with the MTHFR C677T variant may have a role in the development of MetS features in SGA-treated children. PMID:22832733

Devlin, A M; Ngai, Y F; Ronsley, R; Panagiotopoulos, C

2012-01-01

166

Cardiometabolic risk and the MTHFR C677T variant in children treated with second-generation antipsychotics  

PubMed Central

Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are increasingly being used to treat children with a variety of psychiatric illnesses. Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is a side-effect of SGA-treatment. We conducted a cross-sectional study and assessed the association of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T variant with features of MetS in SGA-treated (n=105) and SGA–naïve (n=112) children. We targeted the MTHFR C677T variant, because it is associated with risk for cardiovascular disease, and features of MetS in adults without psychiatric illness. MetS in children is based on the presence of any three of the following: waist circumference ?90th percentile for age and sex; plasma triglyceride ?1.24?mmol?l?1; plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol ?1.03?mmol?l?1; systolic or diastolic blood pressure ?90th percentile for age, sex, and height; and fasting glucose ?5.6?mmol?l?1. We found that 15% of SGA-treated children had MetS compared with 2% of SGA-naïve children (OR 8.113, P<0.05). No effect of the MTHFR C677T variant on psychiatric diagnosis was observed. The MTHFR 677T allele was associated (P<0.05) with MetS (OR 5.75, 95% CI= 1.18–28.12) in SGA-treated children. Models adjusted for duration of SGA treatment, ethnicity, sex, age and use of other medications revealed a positive relationship between the MTHFR 677T allele and diastolic blood pressure Z-scores (P=0.001) and fasting plasma glucose (P<0.05) in SGA-treated children. These findings illustrate the high prevalence of MetS in SGA-treated children and suggest metabolic alterations associated with the MTHFR C677T variant may have a role in the development of MetS features in SGA-treated children. PMID:22832733

Devlin, A M; Ngai, Y F; Ronsley, R; Panagiotopoulos, C

2012-01-01

167

MTHFR polymorphisms' influence on outcome and toxicity in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients.  

PubMed

Recently the influence of polymorphisms of different genes involved in metabolism of chemoterapic agents have been studied especially in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We evaluated the influence of C677T and A1298C methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms on time to relapse and survival and on methotrexate (MTX) toxicity in 82 ALL adult patients. Relapse free survival and event free survival between homozygous wild-type and variant patients in both polymorphisms were not significantly different. However, we observed an association between 677TT variant and survival in a subset of ALL patients homogenously treated with MTX-based maintenance (p=0.02). In the same subgroup we confirmed the role of 677TT variant on toxicity during MTX treatment (p=0.003). PMID:17512587

Chiusolo, Patrizia; Reddiconto, Giovanni; Farina, Giuliana; Mannocci, Alice; Fiorini, Alessia; Palladino, Mariangela; La Torre, Giuseppe; Fianchi, Luana; Sorà, Federica; Laurenti, Luca; Leone, Giuseppe; Sica, Simona

2007-12-01

168

Prediction of Methotrexate Clinical Response in Portuguese Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: Implication of MTHFR rs1801133 and ATIC rs4673993 Polymorphisms  

PubMed Central

Objective. Methotrexate (MTX), the most used drug in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment, showing variability in clinical response, is often associated with genetic polymorphisms. This study aimed to elucidate the role of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and aminoimidazole carboxamide adenosine ribonucleotide transformylase (ATIC) T675C polymorphisms and clinicopathological variables in clinical response to MTX in Portuguese RA patients. Methods. Study included 233 RA patients treated with MTX for at least six months. MTHFR C677T and ATIC T675C polymorphisms were genotyped and clinicopathological variables were collected. Statistical analyses were performed and binary logistic regression method adjusted to possible confounding variables. Results. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that MTHFR 677TT (OR = 4.63; P = 0.013) and ATIC 675T carriers (OR = 5.16; P = 0.013) were associated with over 4-fold increased risk for nonresponse. For clinicopathological variables, noncurrent smokers (OR = 7.98; P = 0.001), patients positive to anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (OR = 3.53; P = 0.004) and antinuclear antibodies (OR = 2.28; P = 0.045), with higher health assessment questionnaire score (OR = 2.42; P = 0.007), and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug users (OR = 2.77; P = 0.018) were also associated with nonresponse. Contrarily, subcutaneous administration route (OR = 0.11; P < 0.001) was associated with response. Conclusion. Our study suggests that MTHFR C677T and ATIC T675C genotyping combined with clinicopathological data may help to identify patients whom will not benefit from MTX treatment and, therefore, assist clinicians in personalizing RA treatment. PMID:24967362

Lima, Aurea; Monteiro, Joaquim; Bernardes, Miguel; Sousa, Hugo; Azevedo, Rita; Seabra, Vitor; Medeiros, Rui

2014-01-01

169

Folate Levels and Polymorphisms in the Genes MTHFR, MTR, and TS in Colorectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

AIM The aim of the study was to explore and describe the effect of polymorphisms in folate-associated genes regarding the levels of different folate forms and their distribution in tumors and mucosa in patients with colorectal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS Tumor and mucosa tissues from 53 patients with colorectal cancer were analyzed. The concentrations of tetrahydrofolate (THF), 5-methylTHF, and 5,10-methyleneTHF were measured by liquid chromatography—mass spectrometry. Genotyping of polymorphisms in the folate-associated genes methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR, C677T), methionine synthase (MTR, A2756G), and thymidylate synthase (TS, 5?-TSER 28 bp tandem repeat and 3?-TSUTR 6 bp deletion/insertion), were done by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Folate levels and distributions were determined in the total patient cohort and after subgrouping by genotypes. RESULTS The total folate level, as well as the THF and 5,10-methyleneTHF levels, were significantly higher in the tumor compared with mucosa tissue (P = 0.030, 0.031, and 0.015, respectively). The individual variation in folate levels in both tumor and mucosa were larger than the variation found when the patients were subgrouped by the gene polymorphisms. No significant differences in the mean concentration of any folate in the mucosa or tumor tissue were found in relation to the analyzed polymorphisms. The percentage level of 5,10-methyleneTHF in tumors was highest in patients with the MTHFR 677 CC genotype, and lowest in patients with the TT genotype (P = 0.033). A significantly lower percentage level of the 5,10-methyleneTHF level was found in tumors of patients with the 5?-TSER 3R/3R genotype (P = 0.0031). CONCLUSION A significant difference was found between the percentage level of 5,10-methyleneTHF in tumor tissues in relation to the MTHFR C677T and 5?-TSER 28 bp repeat polymorphisms. However, no differences were found in the actual tissue folate levels, or in their distribution, in relation to the polymorphisms in the MTHFR, MTR, or TS genes. These findings could be of importance for further research in the field by explaining some of the difficulties of obtaining reproducible and uniform results when using a few selected polymorphisms as predictive markers. PMID:24596472

Taflin, Helena; Wettergren, Yvonne; Odin, Elisabeth; Carlsson, Göran; Derwinger, Kristoffer

2014-01-01

170

The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism influences risk of esophageal cancer in Chinese.  

PubMed

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) plays a central role in folate metabolism. This study with 381 esophageal cancer patients and 432 healthy controls was conducted to examine the association of MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms with susceptibility to esophageal cancer (EC) in a Chinese population. Compared with the CC genotype of MTHFR C677T, subjects carrying homozygote TT and variant genotypes (CT+TT) demonstrated reduced risk of EC with adjusted ORs (95% CI) of 0.44 (0.28-0.71) and 0.57 (0.37-0.88), respectively. However, no association was found between the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and the risk of EC. Comparing to haplotype CA, haplotypes TA and TC could reduce the susceptibility to EC with adjusted ORs (95% CI) of 0.61(0.47-0.79) and 0.06 (0.01-0.43), respectively. In conclusion, the present study suggested that the MTHFR C677T polymorphism can markedly influence the risk of EC in Chinese. PMID:23803097

Qu, Hong-Hong; Cui, Li-Hong; Wang, Ke; Wang, Peng; Song, Chun-Hua; Wang, Kai-Juan; Zhang, Jian-Ying; Dai, Li-Ping

2013-01-01

171

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and overall survival in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a systematic review.  

PubMed

A summary of the evidence pertaining to the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and overall survival in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is not currently available. We thus reviewed the literature on the association between MTFHR C677T and overall survival in pediatric ALL. We searched PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus and ISI Web of Knowledge literature databases without language restrictions to identify observational studies among children diagnosed between ages 0 and 19 years that assessed MTHFR 677 polymorphisms in relation to ALL survival. We identified six studies comprising 909 pediatric patients with ALL. The magnitude of relative risk (RR) for pediatric ALL mortality varied by genotype comparison and study population, ranging from RR = 0.84 (95% confidence limits [CL]: 0.24, 3.0) for a TT vs. CT/CC comparison to RR = 7.0 (95% CL: 0.98, 49) for a TT vs. CC comparison. The current evidence suggests that individuals with MTHFR 677 variants (i.e. at least one T allele) may have a higher relative risk of pediatric ALL mortality, with greater statistical support for MTHFR 677TT. With more detailed supporting evidence, MTHFR 677 genotyping at diagnosis could provide an option for individualizing therapy and further reducing pediatric ALL mortality in certain populations. PMID:23550988

Ojha, Rohit P; Gurney, James G

2014-01-01

172

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T gene polymorphism and colorectal cancer risk: A case-control study.  

PubMed

We designed a case-control study to determine the plasma homocysteine (Hcy) level and evaluate the potential role of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T gene polymorphism in colorectal cancer (CRC). Total Hcy was quantified using the fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) on the IMx analyzer. Genomic DNA was analyzed by the real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The plasma levels of Hcy in the CRC group (12.63±3.11 ?mol/l) were significantly higher compared with those in the control group (10.87±2.42 ?mol/l; P<0.05). The frequency of the MTHFR 677TT genotype in CRC patients was markedly high. The MTHFR 677TT genotype was significantly correlated with an increased risk of CRC (odds ratio, 1.671; 95% confidence interval, 1.094-2.553; P=0.018). This study suggests that the MTHFR C677T polymorphism indicates susceptibility to CRC and is correlated with CRC pathogenesis, suggesting that the homozygous variant MTHFR C677T polymorphism is a candidate risk factor for CRC. PMID:22844384

Yin, Guancheng; Ming, Hanxin; Zheng, Xiao; Xuan, Yi; Liang, Jianwei; Jin, Xing

2012-08-01

173

MTHFR C677T polymorphisms are associated with aberrant methylation of the IGF-2 gene in transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between methylation status of the insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2) gene and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T gene polymorphisms in bladder transitional cell carcinoma tissues in a Chinese population. The polymorphisms of the folate metabolism enzyme gene MTHFR were studied by restrictive fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). PCR-based methods of DNA methylation analysis were used to detect the CpG island methylation status of the IGF-2 gene. The association between the methylation status of the IGF-2 gene and clinical characteristics, as well as MTHFR C677T polymorphisms, was analyzed. Aberrant hypomethylation of the IGF-2 gene was found in 68.3% bladder cancer tissues and 12.4% normal bladder tissues, respectively, while hypomethylation was not detected in almost all normal bladder tissues. The hypomethylation rate of the IGF-2 gene in cancer tissues was significantly higher in patients with lymph node metastasis than in those without lymph node metastasis (46.3% vs 17.2%, P = 0.018). No association was found between aberrant DNA methylation and selected factors including sex, age, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and green tea consumption. After adjusting for potential confounding variables the variant allele of MTHFR C677T was found to be associated with hypomethylation of the IGF-2 gene. Compared with wildtype CC, the odds ratio was 4.33 (95% CI=1.06-10.59) for CT and 4.95 (95% CI=1.18-12.74) for TT. MTHFR 677 CC and CT genotypes might be one of the reasons that cause abnormal hypomethylation of the IGF-2 gene, and the aberrant CpG island hypomethylation of the IGF-2 gene may contribute to the genesis and progression of bladder transitional cell carcinoma. PMID:23554734

Cheng, Huan; Deng, Zhonglei; Wang, Zengjun; Zhang, Wei; Su, Jiantang

2012-01-01

174

Meta-analyses of Blood Homocysteine Levels for Gender and Genetic Association Studies of the MTHFR C677T Polymorphism in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Previous studies suggest that elevated blood homocysteine levels and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism are risk factors for schizophrenia. However, the effects of gender and MTHFR C677T genotypes on blood homocysteine levels in schizophrenia have not been consistent. We first investigated whether plasma total homocysteine levels were higher in patients with schizophrenia than in controls with stratification by gender and by the MTHFR C677T genotypes in a large cohort (N = 1379). Second, we conducted a meta-analysis of association studies between blood homocysteine levels and schizophrenia separately by gender (N = 4714). Third, we performed a case-control association study between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and schizophrenia (N = 4998) and conducted a meta-analysis of genetic association studies based on Japanese subjects (N = 10 378). Finally, we assessed the effect of plasma total homocysteine levels on schizophrenia by a mendelian randomization approach. The ANCOVA after adjustment for age demonstrated a significant effect of diagnosis on the plasma total homocysteine levels in all strata, and the subsequent meta-analysis for gender demonstrated elevated blood homocysteine levels in both male and female patients with schizophrenia although antipsychotic medication might influence the outcome. The meta-analysis of the Japanese genetic association studies demonstrated a significant association between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and schizophrenia. The mendelian randomization analysis in the Japanese populations yielded an OR of 1.15 for schizophrenia per 1-SD increase in plasma total homocysteine. Our study suggests that increased plasma total homocysteine levels may be associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia. PMID:24535549

Nishi, Akira; Numata, Shusuke; Tajima, Atsushi; Kinoshita, Makoto; Kikuchi, Kumiko; Shimodera, Shinji; Tomotake, Masahito; Ohi, Kazutaka; Hashimoto, Ryota; Imoto, Issei; Takeda, Masatoshi; Ohmori, Tetsuro

2014-01-01

175

MTHFR C677T polymorphisms are associated with aberrant methylation of the IGF-2 gene in transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between methylation status of the insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2) gene and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T gene polymorphisms in bladder transitional cell carcinoma tissues in a Chinese population. The polymorphisms of the folate metabolism enzyme gene MTHFR were studied by restrictive fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). PCR-based methods of DNA methylation analysis were used to detect the CpG island methylation status of the IGF-2 gene. The association between the methylation status of the IGF-2 gene and clinical characteristics, as well as MTHFR C677T polymorphisms, was analyzed. Aberrant hypomethylation of the IGF-2 gene was found in 68.3% bladder cancer tissues and 12.4% normal bladder tissues, respectively, while hypomethylation was not detected in almost all normal bladder tissues. The hypomethylation rate of the IGF-2 gene in cancer tissues was significantly higher in patients with lymph node metastasis than in those without lymph node metastasis (46.3% vs 17.2%, P = 0.018). No association was found between aberrant DNA methylation and selected factors including sex, age, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and green tea consumption. After adjusting for potential confounding variables the variant allele of MTHFR C677T was found to be associated with hypomethylation of the IGF-2 gene. Compared with wildtype CC, the odds ratio was 4.33 (95% CI=1.06-10.59) for CT and 4.95 (95% CI=1.18-12.74) for TT. MTHFR 677 CC and CT genotypes might be one of the reasons that cause abnormal hypomethylation of the IGF-2 gene, and the aberrant CpG island hypomethylation of the IGF-2 gene may contribute to the genesis and progression of bladder transitional cell carcinoma. PMID:23554734

Cheng, Huan; Deng, Zhonglei; Wang, Zengjun; Zhang, Wei; Su, Jiantang

2012-03-01

176

Methotrexate related adverse effects in patients with rheumatoid arthritis are associated with the A1298C polymorphism of the MTHFR gene  

PubMed Central

Background: There is an association between C677T polymorphism of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and methotrexate related toxicity. Objective: To examine the relations between the recently described A1298C polymorphism of the MTHFR gene, plasma homocysteine, methotrexate toxicity, and disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Design: A cross sectional study on 93 methotrexate treated patients with rheumatoid arthritis, comprising a clinical interview and physical examination to determine disease activity and methotrexate related adverse reactions. Genotype analysis of the MTHFR gene was carried out and fasting plasma homocysteine and serum folate concentrations were measured. The data were analysed using univariate analysis. Allele and genotype distributions were compared with those of a healthy control group. Results: The frequency of the 1298CC genotype (24.7%) in the rheumatoid study group was greater than expected in the general population (12.8%, p<0.001). This genotype was associated with a significantly low rate of methotrexate related side effects. The odds ratio for side effects in patients with wild type 1298AA genotype v 1298CC genotype was 5.24 (95% confidence interval, 1.38 to 20). No correlation of disease activity variables or plasma homocysteine with MTHFR A1298C and C677T polymorphisms was observed. Conclusions: 1298CC polymorphism was more common in methotrexate treated rheumatoid patients than expected in the population, and was associated with a reduction in methotrexate related adverse effects. The A1298C polymorphism of the MTHFR gene may indicate a need to adjust the dose of methotrexate given to patients with rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:15361376

Berkun, Y; Levartovsky, D; Rubinow, A; Orbach, H; Aamar, S; Grenader, T; Abou, A; Mevorach, D; Friedman, G; Ben-Yehuda, A

2004-01-01

177

46,XY disorder of sexual development resulting from a novel monoallelic mutation (p.Ser31Phe) in the steroid 5?-reductase type-2 (SRD5A2) gene  

PubMed Central

Inactivating mutations of the 5?-steroid reductase type-2 (SRD5A2) gene result in a broad spectrum of masculinization defects, ranging from a male phenotype with hypospadias to a female phenotype with Wolffian structures. Molecular studies of the SRD5A2 revealed a new heterozygous gene variant within the coding region that results in phenotypic expression. A c.92C>T transition changing serine to phenylalanine at codon 31 of exon 1 (p.Ser31Phe) was identified in a patient with 46,XY disorder of sexual development who displayed glandular hypospadias with micropenis and bilateral cryptorchidism. The restoration of the p.Ser31Phe mutation by site-directed mutagenesis and transient expression assays using cultured HEK-293 cells showed that this novel substitution does not abolish but does deregulate the catalytic efficiency of the enzyme. Thus, the maximum velocity (Vmax) value was higher for the mutant enzyme (22.5 ± 6.9 nmol DHT mg protein?1 h?1) than for the wild-type enzyme (9.8 ± 2.0 nmol DHT mg protein?1 h?1). Increased in vitro activity of the p.Ser31Phe mutant suggested an activating effect. This case provides evidence that heterozygous missense mutations in SRD5A2 may induce the abnormal development of male external genitalia. PMID:25077171

Chávez, Bertha; Ramos, Luis; Gómez, Rita; Vilchis, Felipe

2014-01-01

178

Laboratory informatics based evaluation of methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase C677T genetic test overutilization  

PubMed Central

Background: Laboratory data can provide a wide range of information to estimate adherence to guidelines and proper utilization of genetic testing. The methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T variant has been demonstrated to have negligible utility in patient management. However, the testing of this variant remains pervasive. The purpose of this study was to develop methods to analyze concordance of clinician ordering practices with national guidelines. Methods: We used laboratory data to extract specific data elements including patient demographics, timestamps, physician ordering logs and temporal relationship to chemistry requests to examine 245 consecutive MTHFR tests ordered in 2011 at an academic tertiary center. A comprehensive chart review was used to identify indications for testing. These results were correlated with a retrospective analysis of 4,226 tests drawn at a range of hospitals requesting testing from a national reference laboratory over a 2-year period. MTHFR ordering practices drawn from 17 institutions were examined longitudinally from 2002 to 2011. Results: Indications for testing included cerebrovascular events (40.0%) and venous thrombosis (39.1%). Family history prompted testing in eight cases. Based on acceptable hypercoagulability guidelines recommending MTHFR C677T testing only in the presence of elevated serum homocysteine, 10.6% (22/207) of adult patients met an indicated threshold at an academic tertiary center. Among 77 institutions, 14.5% (613/4226) of MTHFR testing met recommendations. Conclusion: We demonstrate an effective method to examine discreet elements of a molecular diagnostics laboratory information system at a tertiary care institution and to correlate these findings at a national level. Retrospective examination of clinicians’ request of MTHFR C677T genetic testing strongly suggests that clinicians have failed to adjust their ordering practices in light of evolving scientific and professional organization recommendations. PMID:24392247

Cohen, David A.; Shirts, Brian H.; Jackson, Brian R.; Parker, Lisa S.

2013-01-01

179

[A weak association of 677 C>T polymorphism in MTHFR with recurrent embryonic loss].  

PubMed

Early (embryonic) pregnancy loss before 10 week of gestation (wg) could also be related with endometrial receptivity as well as with gene expression regulation in developed embryo. Methylation of genome is a key process in the gene expression. Because the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) have had significant role in methionine metabolism polymorphisms into the gene could be related with early embryonic development. This study evaluated relationship between T allele in 677 C>T polymorphism in MTHFR and recurrent embryonic loss development. One hundred six women with tree or more pregnancy loss before 10 wg and 165 women without reproductive failure have been evaluated for 677 C>T carrier status. Sixteen (15.1%) of women with pregnancy loss have had TT genotype and 54 (50.9%) are heterozygous carriers for T allele. T allele frequency was higher but not significant differ from carrier status in control group (13.9% for TT genotype and 43.9% for CT OR and 95% CI respectively 1.1, 0.52-2.3 u 1.34, 0.8-2.26, p > 0.05). T allele (in homozygous and heterozygous carriers) was in higher but not significant prevalence in patients compared with controls (66% and 57.6% respectively, OR 1.43, 95% CI 0.84-2.46, p > 0.05), This study found a weak association between T allele carrier status (both in homozygous and heterozygous state) and recurrent embryonic loss development. T allele in 677 C>T polymorphism could be considered like an agent for early pregnancy wastage only in a constellation with other risk factors influencing embryonic development. PMID:24919337

Ivanov, P; Gecheva, Sv; Tsvyatkovska, Tsv; Izmailov, A; Komsa-Penkova, R; Kovacheva, K; Konova, E; Simeonova, M; Tanchev, St

2014-01-01

180

Polymorphisms in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in a multi-ethnic population.  

PubMed

An imbalance in folate metabolism can adversely affect DNA synthesis and methylation systems which can lead to susceptibility to non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and their haplotypes in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) are associated with NHL, remain inconclusive. We investigated the association between MTHFR C677T and A1298C SNPs and NHL risk in a population which is made up of Malay, Chinese and Indian ethnic subgroups. A total of 372 NHL patients and 722 controls were genotyped using the Sequenom MassARRAY platform. Our results of the pooled subjects failed to demonstrate significant association between the MTHFR C677T and A1298C SNPs with NHL and its subtypes. The results were in agreement with the previous meta-analyses. In the Indian ethnic subgroup however, single locus analysis of MTHFR A1298C appears to confer risk to NHL (Odds ratio (OR) 1.91, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.22-3.00, P=0.006). The risk is almost doubled in homozygous carrier of MTHFR 1298CC (OR 4.03, 95% CI 1.56-10.43, P=0.004). Haplotype analysis revealed higher frequency of CC in the Indian NHL patients compared with controls (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.18-2.93, P=0.007). There is lack of evidence to suggest an association between MTHFR C677T and A1298C with the risk of NHL in the Malays and Chinese. In the Indians however, the MTHFR A1298C confers risk to NHL. This study suggests ethnicity modifies the relationship between polymorphisms in the folate-metabolizing gene and NHL. PMID:24646728

Suthandiram, Sujatha; Gan, Gin Gin; Zain, Shamsul Mohd; Haerian, Batoul Sadat; Bee, Ping Chong; Lian, Lay Hoong; Chang, Kian Meng; Ong, Tee Chuan; Mohamed, Zahurin

2014-05-01

181

Regulatory mutants of dihydrofolate reductase in Escherichia coli K12  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trimethoprim inhibits dihydrofolate reductase. Mutations conferring trimethoprim-resistance on E. coli K12 result in either an altered reductase with decreased affinity for the drug, or in 2–30 fold higher levels of the enzyme. Studies of the latter class of mutants indicate that dihydrofolate reductase is regulated by a diffusible molecule, and is probably under negative control. The regulatory mutants, some of

Robert Sheldon; Sydney Brenner

1976-01-01

182

Diet folate, DNA methylation and polymorphisms in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase in association with the susceptibility to gastric cancer.  

PubMed

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) has been reported to be associated with DNA methylation, an epigenetic feature frequently found in gastric cancer. We conducted a case-control study to explore the association of MTHFR C677T polymorphisms with gastric cancer risk and its relation with the DNA methylation of COX-2, MGMT, and hMLH1 genes. Genotyping of P16, MGMT and HMLH1 was determined by methylation-specific PCR after sodium bisulfate modification of DNA, and genotyping of MTHFR C677T was conducted by TaqMan assays using the ABI Prism 7911HT Sequence Detection System. Folate intake was calculated with the aid of a questionnaire. Compared with the MTHFR 677CC genotype, the TT genotype was significantly associated with 2.08 fold risk of gastric cancer when adjusting for potential risk factors. Individuals who had an intake of folate above 310 ?g/day showed protective effects against gastric cancer risk. The effect of MTHFR C677T polymorphisms on the risk of gastric cancer was modified by folate intake and methylation status of MGMT (P for interaction <0.05). PMID:23534741

Gao, Shang; Ding, Li-Hong; Wang, Jian-Wei; Li, Cun-Bao; Wang, Zhao-Yang

2013-01-01

183

The maize brown midrib2 (bm2) gene encodes a methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase that contributes to lignin accumulation  

PubMed Central

The midribs of maize brown midrib (bm) mutants exhibit a reddish-brown color associated with reductions in lignin concentration and alterations in lignin composition. Here, we report the mapping, cloning, and functional and biochemical analyses of the bm2 gene. The bm2 gene was mapped to a small region of chromosome 1 that contains a putative methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, which is down-regulated in bm2 mutant plants. Analyses of multiple Mu-induced bm2-Mu mutant alleles confirmed that this constitutively expressed gene is bm2. Yeast complementation experiments and a previously published biochemical characterization show that the bm2 gene encodes a functional MTHFR. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses demonstrated that the bm2 mutants accumulate substantially reduced levels of bm2 transcript. Alteration of MTHFR function is expected to influence accumulation of the methyl donor S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM). Because SAM is consumed by two methyltransferases in the lignin pathway (Ye et al., 1994), the finding that bm2 encodes a functional MTHFR is consistent with its lignin phenotype. Consistent with this functional assignment of bm2, the expression patterns of genes in a variety of SAM-dependent or -related pathways, including lignin biosynthesis, are altered in the bm2 mutant. Biochemical assays confirmed that bm2 mutants accumulate reduced levels of lignin with altered composition compared to wild-type. Hence, this study demonstrates a role for MTHFR in lignin biosynthesis. PMID:24286468

Tang, Ho Man; Liu, Sanzhen; Hill-Skinner, Sarah; Wu, Wei; Reed, Danielle; Yeh, Cheng-Ting; Nettleton, Dan; Schnable, Patrick S

2014-01-01

184

Association of MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms with non-Hodgkin lymphoma susceptibility: evidence from a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is an important enzyme involved in folate metabolism and DNA synthesis. A number of studies have examined the association of MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) susceptibility; however, the conclusions were contradictory. We searched available publications assessing the polymorphisms of MTHFR and NHL susceptibility from MEDLINE, EMBASE and CBM. Genotype-based mRNA expression analysis was performed using data from 270 individuals with three different ethnicities. Ultimately, a total of 7448 cases and 11146 controls from 25 studies were included for the C677T polymorphism, 6173 cases and 9725 controls from 19 studies for the A1298C polymorphism. Pooled results indicated that neither C677T nor A1298C polymorphism was associated with NHL susceptibility. However, C677T polymorphism showed a statistically significantly increased risk for Caucasians, but a decreased risk for Asians in the subgroup analysis by ethnicity. The same variants may confer increased susceptibility to develop follicular lymphoma (FL). Moreover, A1298C polymorphism was associated with increased NHL risk for Asians. This meta-analysis indicated that C677T polymorphism was associated with altered NHL susceptibility for Caucasians, Asians and FL. Increased NHL risk was also shown for A1298C among Asians. These findings warrant validation in large and well-designed prospective studies. PMID:25146845

He, Jing; Liao, Xiao-Yu; Zhu, Jin-Hong; Xue, Wen-Qiong; Shen, Guo-Ping; Huang, Shao-Yi; Chen, Wei; Jia, Wei-Hua

2014-01-01

185

Genetic polymorphisms of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene, plasma folate levels and breast cancer susceptibility: a case-control study in Taiwan.  

PubMed

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) balances the pool of folate coenzymes in one-carbon metabolism for DNA synthesis and methylation, both are implicated in carcinogenesis. Two common variants in the MTHFR gene (C677T and A1298C) have been associated with reduced enzyme activity, thereby making MTHFR polymorphisms a potential candidate cancer-predisposing factor. To evaluate the C677T and A1298C functional polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene and their associations with breast cancer risk, as well as the potential modifying effect by plasma folate status on the MTHFR-associated risk, a hospital-based case-control study was conducted on a Taiwanese population consisting of 146 histologically confirmed incident breast cancer cases and their 285 age-matched controls without a history of cancer. A PCR-RFLP method was used for MTHFR polymorphism genotyping and RIA was used to measure the plasma folate. Statistical evaluations were performed using logistic regression analysis. The plasma folate level was inversely associated with breast cancer risk with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 0.52 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.26-1.05] observed among women who were in the highest plasma folate tertile. The MTHFR 677T and 1298C variant alleles were associated with decreased risk for breast cancer [adjusted ORs were 0.81 (95% CI: 0.54-1.21) and 0.57 (95% CI: 0.36-0.89) for 677CT + TT genotypes and 1298AC + CC genotypes, respectively]. Furthermore, compound heterozygote and homozygote variants (677CT + TT and 1298AC + CC) had greater reduced risk (adjusted OR: 0.11, 95% CI: 0.03-0.43) among women with lower plasma folate levels. These results provide support for the important role of folate metabolism in breast tumorigenesis. Further mechanistic studies are warranted to investigate how MTHFR combined genotypes exert their effect on cancer susceptibility. PMID:16777985

Chou, Yu-Ching; Wu, Mei-Hsuan; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Yang, Tsan; Shih, Hsiu-Lan; Wu, Tsai-Yi; Sun, Chien-An

2006-11-01

186

The Genetic Diversity and Structure of Linkage Disequilibrium of the MTHFR Gene in Populations of Northern Eurasia  

PubMed Central

The structure of the haplotypes and linkage disequilibrium (LD) of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) in 9 population groups from Northern Eurasia and populations of the international HapMap project was investigated in the present study. The data suggest that the architecture of LD in the human genome is largely determined by the evolutionary history of populations; however, the results of phylogenetic and haplotype analyses seems to suggest that in fact there may be a common “old” mechanism for the formation of certain patterns of LD. Variability in the structure of LD and the level of diversity of MTHFRhaplotypes cause a certain set of tagSNPs with an established prognostic significance for each population. In our opinion, the results obtained in the present study are of considerable interest for understanding multiple genetic phenomena: namely, the association of interpopulation differences in the patterns of LD with structures possessing a genetic susceptibility to complex diseases, and the functional significance of the pleiotropicMTHFR gene effect. Summarizing the results of this study, a conclusion can be made that the genetic variability analysis with emphasis on the structure of LD in human populations is a powerful tool that can make a significant contribution to such areas of biomedical science as human evolutionary biology, functional genomics, genetics of complex diseases, and pharmacogenomics. PMID:22708063

Trifonova, E.A.; Eremina, E.R.; Urnov, F.D.; Stepanov, V.A.

2012-01-01

187

Sex Differences in Ethanol's Anxiolytic Effect and Chronic Ethanol Withdrawal Severity in Mice with a Null Mutation of the 5?-Reductase Type 1 Gene.  

PubMed

Manipulation of endogenous levels of the GABAergic neurosteroid allopregnanolone alters sensitivity to some effects of ethanol. Chronic ethanol withdrawal decreases activity and expression of 5?-reductase-1, an important enzyme in allopregnanolone biosynthesis encoded by the 5?-reductase-1 gene (Srd5a1). The present studies examined the impact of Srd5a1 deletion in male and female mice on several acute effects of ethanol and on chronic ethanol withdrawal severity. Genotype and sex did not differentially alter ethanol-induced hypothermia, ataxia, hypnosis, or metabolism, but ethanol withdrawal was significantly lower in female versus male mice. On the elevated plus maze, deletion of the Srd5a1 gene significantly decreased ethanol's effect on total entries versus wildtype (WT) mice and significantly decreased ethanol's anxiolytic effect in female knockout (KO) versus WT mice. The limited sex differences in the ability of Srd5a1 genotype to modulate select ethanol effects may reflect an interaction between developmental compensations to deletion of the Srd5a1 gene with sex hormones and levels of endogenous neurosteroids. PMID:25355320

Tanchuck-Nipper, Michelle A; Ford, Matthew M; Hertzberg, Anna; Beadles-Bohling, Amy; Cozzoli, Debra K; Finn, Deborah A

2014-10-31

188

Association between Hcy levels and the CBS844ins68 and MTHFR C677T polymorphisms with essential hypertension  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between the homocysteine (Hcy) levels and polymorphisms of the CBS844ins68 and MTHFR C677T genes in essential hypertension (EH). The effects of the MTHFR C677T and CBS844ins68 haploid genotypes and the combined genotypes on EH and levels of Hcy were further explored. The polymorphisms of CBS844ins68 and MTHFR C677T genes in 200 EH and 200 normal tensive (NT) patients were detected using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and analysis of the distribution of genotypes. An automated biochemical analyzer was used to measure the plasma Hcy levels and the clinical biochemistry data. The plasma Hcy levels in EH were significantly higher than those of the NT group (P<0.05). There were no significant differences (P>0.05) between males and females. Two genotypes, deletion/deletion (DD) and deletion/insertion (DI), of the CBS844ins68 polymorphism were found in two groups with no clear differences in two genotypes and allele frequency distribution (P>0.05). There were significant differences in the three genotype frequencies (?2=6.658, ?2=4.410, P<0.05) for MTHFR C677T locus genotypes CC, CT and TT. The Hcy levels in genotypes DD and DI had no significant differences (P>0.05) and the CT and TT types were significantly higher compared to the CC genotype (P<0.05). The CC/DD combined genotype in the two groups was significantly different (P<0.05), and the odds ratio (OR), 0.569 showed that the CC/DD genotype may be a protective factor of hypertension. In the two groups, the Hcy levels for combined genotypes CC/DD, CT/DD, TT/DD and TT/DI were significantly different (P<0.05). The SHEsis software analysis linkage disequilibrium coefficient=0.216, indicates that there is probably a weak linkage for MTHFR C677T and CBS844ins68. Haplotype analysis suggested that the C-D haplotype was negatively correlated with EH (OR, 0.727) and that there was a positive correlation between T-D haplotype and EH (OR, 1.376). MTHFR C677T and CBS844ins68 polymorphisms were present in the populations studied and the CBS844ins68 homozygous mutation was not present. Therefore, there is a correlation between the polymorphisms of the MTHFR C677T gene and EH, and allele T may be one of the predisposing factors. MTHFR C677T and CBS844ins68 may exist with a certain linkage and the T-D haplotype may be a risk factor for EH. PMID:25279160

CAI, WEIJUAN; YIN, LIANG; YANG, FANG; ZHANG, LEI; CHENG, JIANG

2014-01-01

189

Hyperhomocysteinemia and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism in cerebral veno-sinus thrombosis.  

PubMed

There is limited data on the role of hyperhomocysteinemia as a risk factor for cerebral veno-sinus thrombosis (CVT) in Indians. We examined the association between plasma homocysteine (Hcy), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism, and CVT in 185 patients with aseptic CVT (puerperal 80 and nonpuerperal 105) and 248 healthy controls (puerperal 67 and nonpuerperal 181). Fasting Hcy was higher in patients compared to controls (20.25 ± 5.97 vs 9.81 ± 5.19 ?mol/L, P < .001) and associated with 4.54-fold (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.74-7.53) increase in risk of CVT. Risk was higher in puerperal (odds ratio [OR]: 8.7, 95% CI: 2.73-26.91) compared to nonpuerperal CVT (OR: 3.82, 95% CI: 2.09-6.96). Plasma Hcy was higher in MTHFR 677TT compared to 677CT and 677CC genotypes (34.44 ± 32.8 vs 25.81 ± 33.3 vs 18.50 ± 23.7 ?mol/L, respectively, P < .001), but the risk associated with MTHFR 677TT was insignificant (OR: 1.91, 95% CI: 0.53-7.06). We conclude that hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk marker for Indian patients with aseptic CVT. MTHFR 677TT genotype is not linked with CVT but is a determinant of plasma Hcy. PMID:23172871

Bharatkumar, Venkata Pinnelli; Nagaraja, Dindagur; Christopher, Rita

2014-01-01

190

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphisms and skin cancer risk: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

We sought to determine whether the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) A1298C and C677T polymorphisms are associated with increased skin cancer risk. We performed literature searches of the PubMed, BIOSIS Previews, and Web of Science databases to identify eligible articles published through September 15, 2013. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using fixed-effects or random-effects models. Publication bias and subgroup analyses were also performed. Eight articles, which consisted of 10,066 subjects (2,672 patients and 7,394 controls), were included in the meta-analysis. Homozygous MTHFR 1298C individuals were 1.29 times more likely to develop skin cancer (95% CI, 1.04-1.61) compared with A1298C allele (AA or AC) carriers. There was an increased risk for C allele homozygotes compared with the 1,298 AA+AC carriers (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.08-1.96) when restricted to basal cell carcinomas (BCC). The 1298C homozygote carriers increased the odds of BCC by 1.47 times (95% CI, 1.07-2.01) compared with those who were 1298A homozygote carriers. ORs for all genetic models yielded a null association. The data obtained from this meta-analysis suggest that the MTHFR 1298C allele is associated with increased skin cancer risk, particularly BCC; however, no association was observed between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and skin cancer. PMID:25306137

Deng, Feng; Gao, Ying; L V, Ju-Hong; Gao, Jian-Min

2014-01-01

191

[Association between methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphisms and chronic myeloid leukemia].  

PubMed

Methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme of folate metabolism. Few studies were reported about its relationship with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). We conducted a case-control study analyzing the prevalence of the polymorphisms MTHFR C677T and MTHFR A1298C in Algerians CML patients. Using TaqMan(®) allelic discrimination assay, we investigate MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphism distribution in 90 cases of CML and 100 healthy subjects. The frequencies of 677T alleles and genotypes 677TT and 677CT were significantly higher in cases than in control (P?=?1E-6; OR?=?6.77 [4.22-10.86]) and (P?=?1E-6; OR?=?10.38 [4.56-23.6]) respectively. Also, the frequencies of 1298C alleles and genotypes 1298CC and 1298AC were higher in cases (P?=?9 E-6; OR?=?2.65 [1.71-4.10]) and (P?=?0.008; OR?=?2.22 [1.21-4.06]) respectively. We report also the higher significance of the haplotype 677T/1298A and 677T/1298C in cases (P?=?0.007; OR?=?2.57 [1.26-5.24]) and (P?=?5 E-6, OR?=?6.91 [2.7646-17.2899]) respectively. Our results demonstrate that 677T and 1298C alleles are both associated with an increased risk of CML in Algeria. PMID:25036376

Dorgham, Samia; Aberkane, Meriem; Boughrara, Wefa; Antar Soltan, Badra; Mehalhal, Nemra; Touhami, Hadj; Sidimansour, Noureddine; Merad Boudia, Nadia; Louhibi, Lotfi; Boudjema, Abdallah

2014-09-01

192

Folate levels in mucosal tissue but not methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms are associated with gastric carcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate whether folate levels in mucosal tissue and some common methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) variants are associated with the risk of gastric cancer through DNA methylation. METHODS: Real-time PCR was used to study the expression of tumor related genes in 76 mucosal tissue samples from 38 patients with gastric cancer. Samples from the gastroscopic biopsy tissues of 34 patients with chronic superficial gastritis (CSG) were used as controls. Folate concentrations in these tissues were detected by the FOL ACS: 180 automated chemiluminescence system. MTHFR polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR-RFLP, and the promoter methylation of tumor-related genes was determined by methylation-specific PCR (MSP). RESULTS: Folate concentrations were significantly higher in CSG than in cancerous tissues. Decreased expression and methylation of c-myc accompanied higher folate concentrations. Promoter hypermethylation and loss of p16INK4A in samples with MTHFR 677CC were more frequent than in samples with the 677TT or 677CT genotype. And the promoter hypermethylation and loss of p21WAF1 in samples with MTHFR 677CT were more frequent than when 677CC or 677TT was present. The 677CT genotype showed a non-significant higher risk for gastric cancer as compared with the 677CC genotype. CONCLUSION: Lower folate levels in gastric mucosal tissue may confer a higher risk of gastric carcinogenesis through hypomethylation and overexpression of c-myc. PMID:17171786

Weng, Yu-Rong; Sun, Dan-Feng; Fang, Jing-Yuan; Gu, Wei-Qi; Zhu, Hong-Yin

2006-01-01

193

The 894G > T (Glu298Asp) variant in the endothelial NOS gene and MTHFR polymorphisms influence homocysteine levels in patients with cognitive decline.  

PubMed

The presence and severity of cerebrovascular pathological findings have been shown to increase the risk and stage of cognitive decline observed in Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Thus, the modification of vascular risk factors seems useful to reduce the risk of dementia regardless of type. Hyperhomocysteinemia has long been known as a major independent risk factor for vascular dysfunction. In this study, we evaluated the relationships between plasma homocysteine levels and genetic risk factors for hyperhomocysteinemia, i.e., the presence of gene variants for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in patients with cognitive impairment. Genotyping for MTHFR C677T and eNOS 894G > T polymorphisms was carried out in 69 patients with probable diagnosis of AD and anamnestic mild cognitive impairment, matched for age and gender with 69 healthy volunteers. Patients with MTHFR TT677 genotype showed higher plasma Hcy levels than controls, even after adjustment for folate levels (P < 0.05). Moreover, Hcy plasma levels were higher in cases than controls for any given eNOS genotype. In particular, the presence of eNOS TT894 genotype in patients with cognitive decline resulted significantly associated with increased plasma Hcy levels when compared with controls having the same genotype or patients having other eNOS genotypes (P = 0.02). These data suggest that both MTHFR C677T and eNOS G894T variants should be regarded as genetic risk factors for hyperhomocysteinemia in patients with cognitive decline. PMID:21607713

Ferlazzo, Nadia; Gorgone, Gaetano; Caccamo, Daniela; Currò, Monica; Condello, Salvatore; Pisani, Francesco; Vernieri, Fabrizio; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Ientile, Riccardo

2011-09-01

194

A Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in the MTHFR Gene is Associated with Risk of Radiation Pneumonitis in Lung Cancer Patients Treated with Thoracic Radiation Therapy  

PubMed Central

Background To study the association between functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate genes from oxidative stress pathways, and risk of radiation pneumonitis (RP) in patients treated with thoracic radiation therapy (RT) for locally advanced lung cancer (LC). Methods We reviewed 136 patients treated with RT for LC between 2001 and 2007, and had prior genotyping of functional SNPs in oxidative stress genes including superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2; rs4880) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR; rs1801131, rs1801133). RP events were retrospectively scored using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. Cox proportional hazard regression was performed to identify clinical variables and genotypes associated with risk of grade ?2 and grade ?3 RP on univariate and multivariate analysis. P-values were corrected for multiple hypothesis testing. Results With a median follow-up of 21.4 months, the incidence of ?grade 2 RP was 29% and ?grade 3 RP was 14%. On multivariate analysis, after adjusting for clinical factors such as concurrent chemotherapy, and consolidation docetaxel, and lung dosimetric parameters such as V20 and mean lung dose, MTHFR genotype (rs1801131; AA versus AC/CC) was significantly associated with risk of ?grade 2 RP (Hazard ratio [HR]: 0.37; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.18-0.76; p=0.006, corrected p=0.018) and ?grade 3 RP (HR: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.06-0.70; p=0.01; corrected p=0.03). SOD2 genotype was not associated with RP. Conclusions Our study showed an association between MTHFR genotype and risk of clinically significant RP. Further study of MTHFR-related pathways may provide insight into the mechanisms behind RP. PMID:22144047

Mak, Raymond H.; Alexander, Brian M.; Asomaning, Kofi; Heist, Rebecca S.; Liu, Chen-yu; Su, Li; Zhai, Rihong; Ancukiewicz, Marek; Napolitano, Brian; Niemierko, Andrzej; Willers, Henning; Choi, Noah C.; Christiani, David C.

2011-01-01

195

Conversion of Human Steroid 5[beta]-Reductase (AKR1D1) into 3[beta]-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase by Single Point Mutation E120H: Example of Perfect Enzyme Engineering  

SciTech Connect

Human aldo-keto reductase 1D1 (AKR1D1) and AKR1C enzymes are essential for bile acid biosynthesis and steroid hormone metabolism. AKR1D1 catalyzes the 5{beta}-reduction of {Delta}{sup 4}-3-ketosteroids, whereas AKR1C enzymes are hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs). These enzymes share high sequence identity and catalyze 4-pro-(R)-hydride transfer from NADPH to an electrophilic carbon but differ in that one residue in the conserved AKR catalytic tetrad, His120 (AKR1D1 numbering), is substituted by a glutamate in AKR1D1. We find that the AKR1D1 E120H mutant abolishes 5{beta}-reductase activity and introduces HSD activity. However, the E120H mutant unexpectedly favors dihydrosteroids with the 5{alpha}-configuration and, unlike most of the AKR1C enzymes, shows a dominant stereochemical preference to act as a 3{beta}-HSD as opposed to a 3{alpha}-HSD. The catalytic efficiency achieved for 3{beta}-HSD activity is higher than that observed for any AKR to date. High resolution crystal structures of the E120H mutant in complex with epiandrosterone, 5{beta}-dihydrotestosterone, and {Delta}{sup 4}-androstene-3,17-dione elucidated the structural basis for this functional change. The glutamate-histidine substitution prevents a 3-ketosteroid from penetrating the active site so that hydride transfer is directed toward the C3 carbonyl group rather than the {Delta}{sup 4}-double bond and confers 3{beta}-HSD activity on the 5{beta}-reductase. Structures indicate that stereospecificity of HSD activity is achieved because the steroid flips over to present its {alpha}-face to the A-face of NADPH. This is in contrast to the AKR1C enzymes, which can invert stereochemistry when the steroid swings across the binding pocket. These studies show how a single point mutation in AKR1D1 can introduce HSD activity with unexpected configurational and stereochemical preference.

Chen, Mo; Drury, Jason E.; Christianson, David W.; Penning, Trevor M. (UPENN)

2012-10-10

196

Analysis of relation between C677T genotype in MTHFR gene and prostatic cancer in Iranian males.  

PubMed

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) enzyme is one of the most important enzymes with a pivotal role in the folate metabolism and DNA synthesis pathways. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in the coding gene has been related to many medical diseases as well as diverse malignancies including the prostate cancer which is the leading cause of the cancer deaths in men and one of the major public health problems. The goal of this study is to determine the relationship between the MTHFR C677T SNP and the prostate adenocarcinoma in Iranian males attending to the Labbafi-nezhad hospital in Tehran. In this Case-control unmatched study, 67 and 75 paraffinized tissue samples were taken out of the specimens diagnosed previously as the prostatic adenocarcinoma and nodular prostatic hyperplasia for the case and control groups respectively. MTHFR C677T genotyping was done by the use of multiplex ARMS-PCR and frequencies of the alleles were compared between the case and control groups as well as calculating the deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and Odds Ratio for the "T" allele regarding the prostatic carcinoma. The observed rates in the control group were not too different from that of expected from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P=0.407). Frequencies of the possible genotypes were as follows: CC, 43.28% vs. 42.67%; CT, 49.25% vs. 52% and CT, 7.46% vs. 5.33% in the case and control groups respectively (P=0.85). 1.37 times increased risk was found for the homozygote carriers of C677T variant (OR: 1.37, 95% CI: 0.33-5.6; P=0.653) which is however statistically not significant. No association has been evident between the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism and the risk of prostatic carcinoma in this study confirming the findings of some of the previous attempts; however, (OR: 1.37, 95% CI: 0.33-5.6) implies a slight effect of the homozygote on the carcinogenesis. Thus larger studies especially with a greater number of the smaples are recommended. PMID:23275280

Fard-Esfahani, Pezhman; Mohammadi Torbati, Peyman; Hashemi, Zahra; Fayaz, Shima; Golkar, Majid

2012-01-01

197

Supplementation with apple juice can compensate for folate deficiency in a mouse model deficient in methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase activity.  

PubMed

Folate insufficiency promotes developmental as well as age-related disorders of the nervous system. The C677T variant of 5',10' methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR; which utilizes folate to regenerate methionine from homocysteine) displays reduced activity, and therefore promotes functional folate deficiency. Mice heterozygously lacking this gene (MTHFR+/- mice) represent a useful model for analysis of the impact of MTHFR deficiency and potential compensatory approaches. Since consumption of apple products has benefited mouse models subjected to dietary and/or genetically-induced folate deficiency, we compared the impact of supplementation with apple juice on cognitive and neuromuscular performance of mice MTHFR+/+ and +/- mice with and without dietary folate deficiency. Mice were maintained for 1 month on a standard, complete diet, or a challenge diet lacking folate, and vitamin E and containing a 50 g iron/500 g total diet as a pro-oxidant. Additional groups received apple juice concentrate (AJC) diluted to 0.5% (vol/vol) in their sole source of drinking water. MTHFR+/- mice demonstrated significantly impaired cognitive performance in standard reward-based T maze and the non-reward-based Y maze tests as compared to MTHFR+/+ when maintained on the complete diet; supplementation with AJC improved the performance of MTHFR+/- to the level observed for MTHFR+/+ mice. Maintenance for 1 month on the deficient diet reduced the performance of both genotypes in both tests, but supplementation with AJC prevented these reductions. MTHFR+/+ and +/- displayed virtually identical neuromuscular performance in the standard paw grip endurance test when maintained on the complete diet, and displayed similar, non-significant declines in performance when maintained on the deficient diet. Supplementation of either diet with AJC dramatically improved the performance of both genotypes. The findings presented herein indicate that supplementation with AJCs can compensate for genetic as well as dietary insufficiency in folate in a murine model of genetic folate compromise, and support the notion that dietary supplementation may be more critical under conditions of latent genetic compromise. PMID:21369671

Chan, A; Ortiz, D; Rogers, E; Shea, T B

2011-03-01

198

The association between MTHFR 677C>T genotype and folate status and genomic and gene-specific DNA methylation in the colon of individuals without colorectal neoplasia1234  

PubMed Central

Background: Decreased genomic and increased gene-specific DNA methylation predispose to colorectal cancer. Dietary folate intake and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism (MTHFR 677C>T) may influence risk by modifying DNA methylation. Objective: We investigated the associations between MTHFR 677C>T genotype, folate status, and DNA methylation in the colon. Design: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 336 men and women (age 19–92 y) in the United Kingdom without colorectal neoplasia. We obtained blood samples for measurement of serum and red blood cell folate, plasma homocysteine, and MTHFR 677C>T genotype and colonic tissue biopsies for measurement of colonic tissue folate and DNA methylation (genomic- and gene-specific, estrogen receptor 1, ESR1; myoblast determination protein 1, MYOD1; insulin-like growth factor II, IGF2; tumor suppressor candidate 33, N33; adenomatous polyposis coli, APC; mut-L homolog 1, MLH1; and O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase, MGMT) by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and pyrosequencing, respectively. Results: Of the 336 subjects recruited, 185 (55%) carried the CC, 119 (35%) the CT, and 32 (10%) the TT alleles. No significant differences in systemic markers of folate status and colonic tissue folate between genotypes were found. The MTHFR TT genotype was not associated with genomic or gene-specific DNA methylation. Biomarkers of folate status were not associated with genomic DNA methylation. Relations between biomarkers of folate status and gene-specific methylation were inconsistent. However, low serum folate was associated with high MGMT methylation (P = 0.001). Conclusion: MTHFR 677C>T genotype and folate status were generally not associated with DNA methylation in the colon of a folate-replete population without neoplasia. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as ISRCTN43577261. PMID:24108782

Hanks, Joanna; Ayed, Iyeman; Kukreja, Neil; Rogers, Chris; Harris, Jessica; Gheorghiu, Alina; Liu, Chee Ling; Emery, Peter

2013-01-01

199

Development of a PCR-based marker utilizing a deletion mutation in the dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) gene responsible for the lack of anthocyanin production in yellow onions (Allium cepa).  

PubMed

Bulb color in onions (Allium cepa) is an important trait, but the mechanism of color inheritance is poorly understood at the molecular level. A previous study showed that inactivation of the dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) gene at the transcriptional level resulted in a lack of anthocyanin production in yellow onions. The objectives of the present study were the identification of the critical mutations in the DFR gene (DFR-A) and the development of a PCR-based marker for allelic selection. We report the isolation of two additional DFR homologs (DFR-B and DFR-C). No unique sequences were identified in either DFR homolog, even in the untranslated region (UTR). Both genes shared more than 95% nucleotide sequence identity with the DFR-A gene. To obtain a unique sequence from each gene, we isolated the promoter regions. Sequences of the DFR-A and DFR-B promoters differed completely from one another, except for an approximately 100-bp sequence adjacent to the 5'UTR. It was possible to specifically amplify only the DFR-A gene using primers designed to anneal to the unique promoter region. The sequences of yellow and red DFR-A alleles were the same except for a single base-pair change in the promoter and an approximately 800-bp deletion within the 3' region of the yellow DFR-A allele. This deletion was used to develop a co-dominant PCR-based marker that segregated perfectly with color phenotypes in the F2 population. These results indicate that a deletion mutation in the yellow DFR-A gene results in the lack of anthocyanin production in yellow onions. PMID:15647922

Kim, Sunggil; Yoo, Kil Sun; Pike, Leonard M

2005-02-01

200

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and apolipoprotein E polymorphisms are independent risk factors for coronary heart disease in Japanese: a case-control study.  

PubMed

A missense variant of the C677T (Ala --> Val) polymorphism in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) (the T allele) may increase levels of plasma homocysteine. Apolipoprotein E4 increases plasma LDL-cholesterol levels. Increased levels of homocysteine and LDL-cholesterol have been recognized as risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). To examine whether the polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene and the APOE gene are associated with CHD in the Japanese, we analyzed 214 CHD patients with an onset age before 65 and 310 apparently healthy persons. In the controls, significantly higher plasma concentrations of homocysteine were observed in the MTHFR TT genotype (15.1+/-6.0 mmol/l) compared with the CT genotype (11.2+/-1.9 mmol/l) and the CC genotype (10.5+/-3.3 mmol/l). The MTHFR TT genotype was significantly more frequent in the CHD patients (28.5%) compared with the control subjects (13.5%); the odds ratio was 2.54 (P < 0.00003). Subjects with the apo E4 allele were significantly more frequent in the CHD group (22.9%) than in the control group (10.0%); the odds ratio was 2.74 (P < 0.00004). Multivariate analysis showed that the TT genotype of MTHFR and the apoE4 allele are independent risk factors for CHD in the Japanese. PMID:9568733

Ou, T; Yamakawa-Kobayashi, K; Arinami, T; Amemiya, H; Fujiwara, H; Kawata, K; Saito, M; Kikuchi, S; Noguchi, Y; Sugishita, Y; Hamaguchi, H

1998-03-01

201

Geographical Distribution of MTHFR C677T, A1298C and MTRR A66G Gene Polymorphisms in China: Findings from 15357 Adults of Han Nationality  

PubMed Central

Background Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T, A1298C and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G polymorphisms are important genetic determinants for homocysteine (Hcy) levels, and are associated with several disorders. These polymorphisms are heterogeneously distributed worldwide. Our objective was to explore the geographical distributions of these polymorphisms in China. Methodologies 15357 healthy adults were recruited from 10 regions. Buccal samples were collected and genomic DNA was isolated. Genotyping was performed using the fluorogenic 5?-nuclease assay. Principal Findings The prevalence of the three polymorphisms among different populations from China varied significantly and showed apparent geographical gradients. For MTHFR C677T, the frequencies of the 677T allele and the 677TT genotype were significantly higher among northern populations and ranged from the lowest values (24.0% and 6.4%, respectively) in Hainan (southern) to the highest values (63.1% and 40.8%, respectively) in Shandong (northern). For MTHFR A1298C, the 1298C allele and the 1298CC genotype frequencies were significantly higher among southern populations and increased from low values (13.1% and 1.4%, respectively) in Shandong to high values (25.7% and 6.7%, respectively) in Hainan. For A66G, the 66G allele and the 66GG genotype frequencies increased from lower values (23.7% and 5.4%, respectively) in Shandong to higher values (29.2% and 8.6%, respectively) in Hainan. The overall frequency of the 677T allele, 677TT genotype, 1298C allele, 1298CC genotype, 66G allele and 66GG genotype in the Chinese Han population was 45.2%, 23.2%, 18.6%, 3.9%, 25.7%, and 6.6%, respectively. No gender differences were found in the prevalence of both the MTHFR C677T and MTRR A66G polymorphisms. Conclusions This study indicates that there are marked geographical variations in the prevalence of the three polymorphisms among Chinese Han populations. Our baseline data may be useful for future researches in related fields. PMID:23472119

Yang, Boyi; Liu, Yuyan; Li, Yongfang; Fan, Shujun; Zhi, Xueyuan; Lu, Xiangxiang; Wang, Da; Zheng, Quanmei; Wang, Yinuo; Wang, Yanxun; Sun, Guifan

2013-01-01

202

Association of MTHFR and PICALM polymorphisms with Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder and the primary cause of dementia in the elderly and causes a decrease in cognition, functionality, and behaviour. Genetic risk factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of AD. In this case-control study, we aimed to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms in MTHFR (rs1801133), PICALM (3851719), CLU (rs11136000), and CR1 (rs6701713) are associated with AD. Genotype frequencies were evaluated in 82 late-onset AD patients and 161 elderly healthy controls matched by age and gender. We detected a significant association of the MTHFR rs1801133 and PICALM rs3851179 polymorphisms with AD. The results of this study support the hypothesis that several genes are involved in the aetiology of AD. PMID:25359311

Belcavello, Luciano; Camporez, Daniela; Almeida, Leila D; Morelato, Renato L; Batitucci, Maria C P; de Paula, Flavia

2015-03-01

203

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotype association with the risk of follicular lymphoma.  

PubMed

The metabolism of folate is essential in DNA synthesis, and polymorphisms of genes involved in such metabolism have been implicated in many types of cancer. Among these, the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) encodes an enzyme that converts folate to a methyl donor used for DNA methylation. We studied the association between the different genotypes of the two most common MTHFR polymorphisms, C677T and A1298C, and the risk of follicular lymphoma (FL). For this purpose, 55 previously diagnosed FL patients and 170 normal control subjects were examined using polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. The frequency of the A1298C CC homozygous mutant genotype was significantly higher in patients with FL than in control subjects (OR = 3.51, 95% CI = 1.39-8.86, P = 0.008). No such association was found for the heterozygous A1298C AC genotype (OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 0.55-2.12, P = 0.83). On the other hand, no significant association was found for either the C677T CT heterozygous genotype (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.42-1.51, P = 0.49) or the C677T TT homozygous mutant genotype (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.12-2.65, P = 0.46). The present findings add to the very few reports suggesting a link between the A1298C CC homozygous MTHFR genotype and a higher risk of developing FL, and the first such in a Jordanian population. PMID:19963111

Ismail, Said I; Ababneh, Nida A; Khader, Yousef; Abu-Khader, Ahmad A; Awidi, Abdullah

2009-12-01

204

MTHFR Gene C677T Polymorphism in Autism Spectrum Disorders  

PubMed Central

Aim. Autism is a subgroup of autism spectrum disorders, classified as a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder and symptoms occur in the first three years of life. The etiology of autism is largely unknown, but it has been accepted that genetic and environmental factors may both be responsible for the disease. Recent studies have revealed that the genes involved in the folate/homocysteine pathway may be risk factors for autistic children. In particular, C677T polymorphism in the MTHFR gene as a possible risk factor for autism is still controversial. We aimed to investigate the possible effect of C677T polymorphism in a Turkish cohort. Methods. Autism patients were diagnosed by child psychiatrists according to DSM-IV and DSM-V criteria. A total of 98 children diagnosed as autistic and 70 age and sex-matched children who are nonautistic were tested for C677T polymorphism. This polymorphism was studied by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods. Results. MTHFR 677T-allele frequency was found to be higher in autistic children compared with nonautistic children (29% versus 24%), but it was not found statistically significant. Conclusions. We conclude that other MTHFR polymorphisms such as A1298C or other folate/homocysteine pathway genes may be studied to show their possible role in autism. PMID:25431675

Oztop, Didem Behice; Ozkul, Yusuf

2014-01-01

205

A newborn case with perinatal-lethal Gaucher disease due to R463H homozygosity complicated by C677T homozygosity in the MTHFR gene.  

PubMed

Perinatal-lethal Gaucher disease is very rare and is considered a variant of type 2 Gaucher disease that occurs in the neonatal period. The most distinct features of perinatal-lethal Gaucher disease are non-immune hydrops fetalis, in utero fetal demise and neonatal distress. In some cases without hydrops, neurological signs occur in the first week of life and lead to death within 3 months. Less common signs of the disease are hepatosplenomegaly, ichthyosis, arthrogryposis and facial dysmorphy. We describe a preterm neonate with Gaucher disease homozygous for R463H mutation in GBA gene who showed severe neurologic signs in addition to refractory thrombocytopenia, hepatosplenomagaly, direct hyperbilirubinemia, facial dysmorphy and ichthyosiform skin abnormalities in addition to having thrombosis in portal and splenic veins possibly due to homozygosity for C677T mutation in MTHFR gene. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case homozygous for the GBA R463H mutation resulting in Gaucher disease with a concomitant homozygous MTHFR C677T mutation. PMID:21823541

Akdag, Arzu; O?uz, Serife Suna; Ezgü, Fatih; Erdeve, Omer; Ura?, Nurdan; Dilmen, U?ur

2011-01-01

206

Effects of Maternal 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T and A1298C Polymorphisms and Tobacco Smoking on Infant Birth Weight in a Japanese Population  

PubMed Central

Background Intracellular folate hemostasis depends on the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene. Because 5,10-MTHFR 677TT homozygosity and tobacco smoking are associated with low folate status, we tested the hypothesis that smoking in mothers with 5,10-MTHFR C677T or A1298C polymorphisms would be independently associated with lower birth weight among their offspring. Methods We assessed 1784 native Japanese mother-child pairs drawn from the ongoing birth cohort of The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children’s Health. Data (demographic information, hospital birth records, and biological specimens) were extracted from recruitments that took place during the period from February 2003 to March 2006. Maternal serum folate were assayed by chemiluminescent immunoassay, and genotyping of 5,10-MTHFR C677T/A1298C polymorphisms was done using a TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. Results The prevalence of folate deficiency (<6.8 nmol/L) was 0.3%. The 5,10-MTHFR 677CT genotype was independently associated with an increase of 36.40 g (95% CI: 2.60 to 70.30, P = 0.035) in mean infant birth weight and an increase of 90.70 g (95% CI: 6.00 to 175.50, P = 0.036) among male infants of nonsmokers. Female infants of 677TT homozygous passive smokers were 99.00 g (95% CI: ?190.26 to ?7.56, P = 0.034) lighter. The birth weight of the offspring of smokers with 5,10-MTHFR 1298AA homozygosity was lower by 107.00 g (95% CI: ?180.00 to ?33.90, P = 0.004). Conclusions The results suggest that, in this population, maternal 5,10-MTHFR C677T polymorphism, but not the 5,10-MTHFR A1298C variant, is independently associated with improvement in infant birth weight, especially among nonsmokers. However, 5,10-MTHFR 1298AA might be associated with folate impairment and could interact with tobacco smoke to further decrease birth weight. PMID:22277790

Yila, Thamar Ayo; Sasaki, Seiko; Miyashita, Chihiro; Braimoh, Titilola Serifat; Kashino, Ikuko; Kobayashi, Sumitaka; Okada, Emiko; Baba, Toshiaki; Yoshioka, Eiji; Minakami, Hisanori; Endo, Toshiaki; Sengoku, Kazuo; Kishi, Reiko

2012-01-01

207

Evaluation of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene variant (C677T) as risk factor for bipolar disorder.  

PubMed

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme in the metabolism of folate, whose role in bipolar disorder is controversial. The aim of the present study was to assess the risk of MTHFR C677T polymorphism for bipolar disorder. The author performed a meta-analysis and pooled data from individual case-control studies that examined the association between C677T polymorphism and bipolar disorder (meta-analysis: 8 studies, 1457 cases and 2169 controls).The pooled Odd Ratios (OR) were estimated by both fixed effects and random effects models. The meta-analysis with fixed effects showed that there was 71% heterogeneity between the eight studies. The fixed effect pooled OR was 1.07 (95% CI; 0.98 to 1.17) and Cochran Q was 24.13 (df = 7; p=0.0011). The study is significant and shows meager association. The random effect pooled OR was 1.07(95% CI; 0.87 to 1.32) and Cochran Q was 24.13 (df = 7; p=0.0011). The random effect pooled OR was also significant and shows meager association between MTHFR C677T genotype and bipolar disorder. PMID:21955385

Rai, V

2011-01-01

208

Mendelian Randomization Analysis of the Effect of Maternal Homocysteine During Pregnancy, as Represented by Maternal MTHFR C677T Genotype, on Birth Weight  

PubMed Central

Background We used Mendelian randomization analysis to investigate the causal relationship between maternal homocysteine level, as represented by maternal methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T genotype, with the birth weight of offspring. Methods We recruited women at 24 to 28 weeks’ gestation who visited Ewha Womans University Hospital for prenatal care during the period from August 2001 to December 2003. A total of 473 newborns with a gestational age of at least 37 weeks were analyzed in this study. We excluded twin births and children of women with a history of gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, or chronic renal disease. The association of maternal homocysteine concentration with the birth weight of infants was analyzed using 2-stage regression. Results MTHFR C677T genotype showed a dose–response association with homocysteine concentration for each additional T allele (Ptrend < 0.01). Birth weight decreased from 120 to 130 grams as maternal homocysteine level increased, while controlling for confounding factors; however, the association was of marginal significance (P = 0.06). Conclusions Our results suggest an adverse relationship between maternal homocysteine level and birth weight. A reduction in homocysteine levels might positively affect birth outcomes. PMID:23856949

Lee, Hye Ah; Park, Eun Ae; Cho, Su Jin; Kim, Hae Soon; Kim, Young Ju; Lee, Hwayoung; Gwak, Hye Sun; Kim, Ki Nam; Chang, Namsoo; Ha, Eun Hee; Park, Hyesook

2013-01-01

209

A deep vein thrombosis caused by 20209C>T mutation in homozygosis of the prothrombin gene in a Caucasian patient  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Additional nucleotide substitutions in the 3?-untranslated region of prothrombin gene could explain some thrombotic events and also adverse pregnancy outcomes. We describe the first case of a homozygous 20209C>T mutation as the cause of deep vein thrombosis in a Spanish patient. Case and methods: The 56-year-old male patient with a partial tear of the Achilles tendon developed calf (tibial) deep vein thrombosis after immobilization and was treated with an anticoagulant. To determine if the deep vein thrombosis was of genetic origin, a peripheral blood DNA sample was analysed for the presence of the three most frequent mutations associated with thrombotic events: factor V Leiden (1691G>A), prothrombin (20210G>A) and methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (677C>T). The presence or absence of the normal allele of prothrombin could not be determined using the PTH-FV-MTHFR StripAssay (Vienna Lab). Results: Comprehensive analysis showed that the patient had a variant interfering with the polymerase chain reaction product, we sequenced the entire prothrombin gene and found that the patient had a homozygous C>T mutation at position 20209; this interfered with the polymerase chain reaction product, which needs a C at this position to be able to bind to the wild-type probe present in the test strip. Conclusion: The homozygous 20209C>T mutation and the presence of the mutation 677C>T in heterozygosity explained the patient’s deep vein thrombosis because the combination of mutations would increase the risk of thrombosis. Suitable genetic counselling should be provided to the patient and first-degree relatives as it important to detect prothrombin gene variants that could increase risk for thrombotic events. PMID:24627725

Álvarez, Silvia Izquierdo; Ollero, Eva Barrio; Llinares Sanjuan, Francisco Miguel; Martínez, Fabiola Lorente; Calvo Martín, María Teresa

2014-01-01

210

Structure of an integral membrane sterol reductase from Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum.  

PubMed

Sterols are essential biological molecules in the majority of life forms. Sterol reductases including ?(14)-sterol reductase (C14SR, also known as TM7SF2), 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR7) and 24-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR24) reduce specific carbon-carbon double bonds of the sterol moiety using a reducing cofactor during sterol biosynthesis. Lamin B receptor (LBR), an integral inner nuclear membrane protein, also contains a functional C14SR domain. Here we report the crystal structure of a ?(14)-sterol reductase (MaSR1) from the methanotrophic bacterium Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum 20Z (a homologue of human C14SR, LBR and DHCR7) with the cofactor NADPH. The enzyme contains ten transmembrane segments (TM1-10). Its catalytic domain comprises the carboxy-terminal half (containing TM6-10) and envelops two interconnected pockets, one of which faces the cytoplasm and houses NADPH, while the other one is accessible from the lipid bilayer. Comparison with a soluble steroid 5?-reductase structure suggests that the reducing end of NADPH meets the sterol substrate at the juncture of the two pockets. A sterol reductase activity assay proves that MaSR1 can reduce the double bond of a cholesterol biosynthetic intermediate, demonstrating functional conservation to human C14SR. Therefore, our structure as a prototype of integral membrane sterol reductases provides molecular insight into mutations in DHCR7 and LBR for inborn human diseases. PMID:25307054

Li, Xiaochun; Roberti, Rita; Blobel, Günter

2015-01-01

211

Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Polymorphisms and Risk of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Evidence from an updated meta-analysis including 35 studies  

PubMed Central

Background 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) variants, C677T and A1298C, have been reported to be associated with decreased risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, results derived from individually underpowered studies are conflicting. We carried out an updated meta-analysis on the association between MTHFR polymorphisms and ALL risk. Methods Relevant publications were searched through PUBMED and EMBASE databases. The associations between MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and the risk of ALL were evaluated by odds ratios (ORs). The heterogeneity and publication bias were estimated. Meta-regression analysis was performed to evaluate the potential sources of heterogeneity. Results C677T polymorphism was associated with a reduced risk of ALL (allele contrast: ORRE?=?0.91, 95% CI: 0.83-0.99). Subgroup analysis showed MTHFR C677T variant was associated with decreased susceptibility to ALL in children and Caucasians. Meta-regression showed the logOR for the association between T allele and ALL increased as sex ratio (M/F) in the case group increased (P?=?0.01). Regarding A1298C polymorphism, no significant association was observed (allele contrast: ORRE?=?1.01, 95% CI: 0.91-1.11). There was no publication bias for C677T or A1298C polymorphism. Conclusions The present meta-analysis suggests that the C677T polymorphism, not A1298C, in MTHFR gene is associated with a decreased risk of ALL, particularly among children and Caucasians subjects. Our findings suggest that the influence of the C677T polymorphism on ALL susceptibility is modified by sex ratio in cases (M/F). Since folate intake may be a possible confounding factor, including this factor in future prospective studies is warranted. Further meta-analysis studies should be at least stratified for folate levels and gender to give more powerful and informative results. PMID:22943282

2012-01-01

212

Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase A1298C Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Risk: A Meta-analysis of 33 Studies.  

PubMed

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) enzyme is essential for DNA synthesis and DNA methylation, and its gene polymorphisms have been implicated as risk factors for birth defects, neurological disorders, and different types of cancers. Several studies have investigated the association between the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and breast cancer (BC) risk, but the results were inconclusive. To assess the risk associated with MTHFR A1298C polymorphism, a comprehensive meta-analysis was performed. PubMed, Google Scholar, Elsevier and Springer Link databases were searched for case-control studies relating the association between MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and BC risk and estimated summary odds ratios (ORs) with confidence intervals (CIs) for assessment. Up to January 2014, 33 case-control studies involving 15,919 BC patients and 19,700 controls were included in the present meta-analysis. The results showed that the A1298C polymorphism was not associated with BC risk in all the five genetic models (C vs. A allele (allele contrast): OR = 0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93-1.05; AC versus AA (heterozygote/codominant): OR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.89-1.04; CC versus AA (homozygote): OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.91-1.06; CC + AC versus AA (dominant model): OR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.90-1.05; and CC versus AC + AA (recessive model): OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.91-1.07). The present meta-analysis did not support any association between the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and BC risk. PMID:25506474

Rai, V

2014-11-01

213

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene C677T, A1298C polymorphisms and pre-eclampsia risk: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

To determine whether methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C polymorphisms are associated with pre-eclampsia susceptibility. Literature searches of the Pubmed, Embase, BIOSIS Previews and Web of Science were conducted to identify all eligible articles up to January 18th, 2013. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of five genetic models were calculated by fixed-effects or random-effects model. Publication bias, subgroup analysis, meta-regression and sensitivity analysis were also performed. A number of 49 studies including 51 samples consisted of 18,009 subjects (6,238 patients and 11,771 controls) were finally included. MTHFR C677T allele (TT or CT) carriers were 1.12 times more likely to develop pre-eclampsia (95% CI 1.04-1.21) compared with 677CC homozygous individuals. Similar results were obtained under other genetic models. Restricted to severe pre-eclampsia, there was an increased risk for 677TT homozygotes compared with 677CC homozygotes (OR 1.43; 95% CI 1.12-1.83). Subgroup analysis revealed a significant positive association between the C677T polymorphism (TT or CT) and pre-eclampsia in Asians (OR 1.41; 95% CI 1.11-1.79) and white population (OR 1.14; 95% CI 1.03-1.25). Meta-regression showed that study population, blinded genotyping, matching of cases and controls were not substantial sources of heterogeneity. For the MTHFR A1298C, ORs for all genetic models yielded a null association. This meta-analysis suggests that the MTHFR 677T allele might be associated with increased pre-eclampsia risk in Asian and white ethnicity and the subgroup of severe pre-eclampsia, while no association is observed between the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and pre-eclampsia. PMID:24898880

Li, Xing; Luo, Ya L; Zhang, Qiong H; Mao, Chen; Wang, Xi W; Liu, Shan; Chen, Qing

2014-08-01

214

Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase A1298C Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Risk: A Meta-analysis of 33 Studies  

PubMed Central

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) enzyme is essential for DNA synthesis and DNA methylation, and its gene polymorphisms have been implicated as risk factors for birth defects, neurological disorders, and different types of cancers. Several studies have investigated the association between the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and breast cancer (BC) risk, but the results were inconclusive. To assess the risk associated with MTHFR A1298C polymorphism, a comprehensive meta-analysis was performed. PubMed, Google Scholar, Elsevier and Springer Link databases were searched for case-control studies relating the association between MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and BC risk and estimated summary odds ratios (ORs) with confidence intervals (CIs) for assessment. Up to January 2014, 33 case-control studies involving 15,919 BC patients and 19,700 controls were included in the present meta-analysis. The results showed that the A1298C polymorphism was not associated with BC risk in all the five genetic models (C vs. A allele (allele contrast): OR = 0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93–1.05; AC versus AA (heterozygote/codominant): OR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.89–1.04; CC versus AA (homozygote): OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.91–1.06; CC + AC versus AA (dominant model): OR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.90–1.05; and CC versus AC + AA (recessive model): OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.91–1.07). The present meta-analysis did not support any association between the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and BC risk. PMID:25506474

Rai, V

2014-01-01

215

Maternal Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T Polymorphism and Down Syndrome Risk: A Meta-Analysis from 34 Studies  

PubMed Central

Background Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme of folate metabolic pathway which catalyzes the irreversible conversion of 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate. 5-methyltetrahydrofolate donates methyl group for the methylation of homocysteine to methionine. Several studies have investigated maternal MTHFR C677T polymorphism as a risk factor for DS, but the results were controversial and inconclusive. To come into a conclusive estimate, authors performed a meta-analysis. Aim A meta-analysis of published case control studies was performed to investigate the association between maternal MTHFR C677T polymorphism and Down syndrome. Methods PubMed, Google Scholar, Elsevier, Springer Link databases were searched to select the eligible case control studies using appropriate keywords. The pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95%confidence interval were calculated for risk assessment. Results Thirty four studies with 3,098 DS case mothers and 4,852 control mothers were included in the present meta-analysis. The pooled OR was estimated under five genetic models and significant association was found between maternal MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism and Down syndrome under four genetic models except recessive model (for T vs. C, OR?=?1.26, 95% CI?=?1.09–1.46, p?=?0.001; for TT vs. CC, OR?=?1.49, 95% CI?=?1.13–1.97, p?=?0.008; for CT vs. CC, OR?=?1.29, 95% CI?=?1.10–1.51, p?=?0.001; for TT+CT vs. CC, OR?=?1.35, 95% CI?=?1.13–1.60, p?=?0.0008; for TT vs. CT+CC, OR?=?0.76, 95% CI?=?0.60–0.94, p?=?0.01). Conclusion The results of the present meta-analysis support that maternal MTHFR C677T polymorphism is a risk factor for DS- affected pregnancy. PMID:25265565

Rai, Vandana; Yadav, Upendra; Kumar, Pradeep; Yadav, Sushil Kumar; Mishra, Om Prakesh

2014-01-01

216

Association of 677 C>T (rs1801133) and 1298 A>C (rs1801131) Polymorphisms in the MTHFR Gene and Breast Cancer Susceptibility: A Meta-Analysis Based on 57 Individual Studies  

PubMed Central

Objective The 677 C>T and 1298 A>C polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene have been widely reported and considered to have a significant effect on breast cancer risk, but the results are inconsistent. A meta-analysis based on 57 eligible studies was carried out to clarify the role of MTHFR gene polymorphisms in breast cancer. Methods and Results Eligible articles were identified by searching databases including PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, CNKI and CBM for the period up to August 2012. Finally, a total of 57 studies were included in this meta-analysis. Crude ORs with 95% CIs were used to assess the association between the MTHFR polymorphisms and breast cancer risk. The pooled ORs were performed with additive model, dominant model and recessive model, respectively. Subgroup analysis was also performed by ethnicity. The statistical heterogeneity across studies was examined with ?2-based Q-test. A meta-analysis was performed using the Stata 12.0 software. Overall, the 677 C allele was significantly associated with breast cancer risk (OR?=?0.942, 95%CI?=?0.898 to 0.988) when compared with the 677 T allele in the additive model, and the same results were also revealed under other genetic models. Simultaneously, the 1298 A allele was not associated with the breast cancer susceptibility when compared with the 1298 C allele (OR?=?0.993, 95%CI?=?0.978 to 1.009). Furthermore, analyses under the dominant, recessive and the allele contrast model yielded similar results. Conclusions The results of this meta-analysis suggest that 677 C>T polymorphism in the MTHFR gene may contribute to breast cancer development. However, the 1298 A>C polymorphism is not significantly associated with increased risks of breast cancer. PMID:24945727

Li, Kai; Li, Wusheng; Dong, Xi

2014-01-01

217

5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms and acute lymphoblastic leukemia risk: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

There is evidence supporting a role for 5-10 methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene variants in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). To provide a more robust estimate of the effect of MTHFR polymorphisms on the risk of ALL, we did a meta-analysis to reevaluate the association between the two most commonly studied MTHFR polymorphisms (C677T and A1298C) and ALL risk. All case-control studies investigating an association between the C677T or A1298C polymorphisms and risk of ALL were included. We applied both fixed-effects and random-effects models to combine odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Q-statistic was used to evaluate the homogeneity and both Egger and Begg-Mazumdar tests were used to assess publication bias. The meta-analysis of the C677T polymorphism and risk of childhood ALL included 13 studies with a total of 4,894 individuals. Under a fixed-effects model, the TT genotype failed to be associated with a statistically significant reduction of childhood ALL risk (TT versus CT + CC: OR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.73-1.06; P = 0.18). However, individuals homozygous for the 677T allele exhibited a 2.2-fold decrease in risk of adult ALL (TT versus CT + CC: OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.26-0.77; P = 0.004). In both cases, no evidence of heterogeneity was observed. No association between the A1298C variant and susceptibility to both adult and childhood ALL was disclosed. Our findings support the proposal that the common genetic C677T polymorphism in the MTHFR contributes to the risk of adult ALL, but not to the childhood ALL susceptibility. PMID:17035405

Pereira, Tiago Veiga; Rudnicki, Martina; Pereira, Alexandre Costa; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S; Franco, Rendrik França

2006-10-01

218

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and gastric cancer susceptibility  

PubMed Central

AIM: To identify the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms and gastric cancer (GC) susceptibility. METHODS: Systematic searches were performed on the electronic databases PubMed, ISI, Web of knowledge, CNKI and Wanfang, as well as manual searching of the references of the identified articles. A total of 26 papers were included in this meta-analysis. Overall and subgroup analyses were performed. Odds ratio (OR) and 95%CI were used to evaluate the associations between MTHFR polymorphisms and GC risk. The I2 statistics were used to evaluate between-study heterogeneity. Sensitivity analysis was also performed. RESULTS: Increased risk was found for the MTHFR C677T polymorphism under four genetic models (TT + CT vs CC: OR = 1.23, P = 0.002; T vs C: OR = 1.15, P = 0.001; TT vs CC: OR = 1.37, P = 0.0005; TT vs CT + CC: OR = 1.17, P = 0.0008). Subgroup analysis by ethnicity suggested that C677T polymorphism conferred a risk of GC in eastern but not in western populations. Stratification by tumor site showed an association between the C677T polymorphism and gastric cardia cancer and non-cardia GC in the worldwide population and in eastern populations. Regardless of comparisons with controls or diffuse-type GC, a positive association was found for the C677T polymorphism and an increased risk of intestinal-type GC in the whole population and in western populations. With regard to the A1298C polymorphism, we found that genotype CC was significantly decreased and conferred protection against GC in eastern populations (CC vs AA: OR = 0.44, P = 0.03; CC vs AC + AA: OR = 0.46, P = 0.04). CONCLUSION: MTHFR C677T polymorphism is a risk factor for GC, and the A1298C polymorphism may be a protective factor against GC in eastern populations. PMID:25170232

Xia, Lei-Zhou; Liu, Yi; Xu, Xiao-Zhou; Jiang, Peng-Cheng; Ma, Gui; Bu, Xue-Feng; Zhang, Yong-Jun; Yu, Feng; Xu, Ke-Sen; Li, Hua

2014-01-01

219

Development of novel LOXL1 genotyping method and evaluation of LOXL1, APOE and MTHFR polymorphisms in exfoliation syndrome/glaucoma in a Greek population  

PubMed Central

Purpose In the Greek population of Epirus, exfoliation syndrome (XFS) and exfoliation glaucoma (XFG) occur at a high prevalence. In this study, we validate a novel lysyl oxidase-like 1 (LOXL1) genotyping method, investigate the previously reported association of LOXL1 with XFS/XFG, and evaluate apolipoprotein E (APOE) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms as genetic risk factors for both conditions in our population. Methods Blood samples were collected from 82 patients with XFG, 69 patients with XFS, 52 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), and 107 controls. APOE and MTHFR 677C>T genotyping was performed from extracted genomic DNA with established methods. A novel methodology of real-time PCR and melting curve analysis was developed and validated to accurately genotype the LOXL1 G153D and R141L polymorphisms by using two different fluorescent channels of the LightCycler instrument (Roche) examining each SNP separately. Results No significant differences were observed for the APOE and MTHFR polymorphisms between the patients with XFS, the patients with XFG, and the control subjects. The APOE ?2 allele appears to be associated with elevated risk of POAG in our population. Our novel LOXL1 genotyping method was easy to perform, fast, and accurate. A statistically significant association was found for the LOXL1 gene with XFS/XFG in this Greek population. The association of XFS and XFG with G153D appeared to be less powerful in this population (XFS: odds ratio [OR]=2.162, p=0.039, XFG: OR=2.794, p=0.002) compared to other populations, and for R141L, the association was proven only with XFG (OR=3.592, p<0.001). Neither of the two LOXL1 SNPs was significantly associated with POAG. Conclusions We confirmed the association between LOXL1 and XFS/XFG, but the APOE and MTHFR polymorphisms are not significant risk factors for the development of XFS/XFG in our population of patients from Epirus (Greece). PMID:23687437

Chiras, Dimitrios; Tzika, Konstantina; Kokotas, Haris; Oliveira, Samantha C.; Grigoriadou, Maria; Kastania, Anastasia; Dima, Kleanthi; Stefaniotou, Maria; Aspiotis, Miltiadis; Kroupis, Christos; Kitsos, George

2013-01-01

220

Lack of association between MTHFR Ala222Val and Glu429Ala polymorphisms and bladder cancer risk: A meta-analysis of case-control studies  

PubMed Central

Bladder cancer is a commom malignancy in the urinary tract that is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. The role of functional polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene with bladder cancer risk remains to be determined. This meta-analysis was performed to derive a more precise estimation of MTHFR Ala222Val and Glu429Ala polymorphisms and bladder cancer risk. Data were collected with the last report up to September 2013. A total of 3,463 cases and 3,927 controls for Ala222Val, and 3,177 cases and 3,502 controls for Glu429Ala were analyzed. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated for the association with bladder cancer risk. Overall, no significant associations of Ala222Val and Glu429Ala polymorphisms with bladder cancer risk were found (for Ala222Val: Val/Val vs. Ala/Ala: OR, 1.02; 95% CI: 0.80–1.29; Val/Ala vs. Ala/Ala: OR, 1.02; 95% CI: 0.92–1.12; dominant model: OR, 1.01; 95% CI: 0.87–1.17; recessive model: OR, 1.00; 95% CI: 0.87–1.15; and for Glu429Ala: Ala/Ala vs. Glu/Glu: OR, 1.11; 95% CI: 0.78–1.58; Ala/Glu vs. Glu/Glu: OR, 1.16; 95% CI: 0.95–1.40; dominant model: OR, 1.15; 95% CI: 0.94–1.41; recessive model: OR, 0.96; 95% CI: 0.79–1.15). In stratified analyses by ethnicity, significant associations were observed for Glu429Ala polymorphism in individuals of Middle Eastern descent (Ala/Glu vs. Glu/Glu: OR, 2.11; 95% CI: 1.26–3.53; dominant model: OR, 2.16; 95% CI: 1.16–4.01; recessive model: OR, 1.82; 95% CI: 1.11–3.01). This meta-analysis demonstrated that overall there was no association of MTHFR Ala222Val and Glu429Ala polymorphisms with bladder cancer risk. However, in the stratified analysis by ethnicity the MTHFR Glu429Ala polymorphism was significantly associated with increased bladder cancer risk in individuals of Middle Eastern descent. PMID:24748982

SHI, RONG; ZHAO, ZHEN; ZHOU, HUI; ZHOU, JUEYU; TAN, WANLONG

2014-01-01

221

Correlations of MTHFR 677C>T Polymorphism with Cardiovascular Disease in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective This meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the correlations of a common polymorphism (677C>T) in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Method The following electronic databases were searched without language restrictions: Web of Science (1945?2013), the Cochrane Library Database (Issue 12, 2013), MEDLINE (1966?2013), EMBASE (1980?2013), CINAHL (1982?2013) and the Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM) (1982?2013). Meta-analysis was performed using STATA statistical software. Odds ratios (ORs) with their 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were calculated. Results Eight cohort studies met all inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. A total of 2,292 ESRD patients with CVD were involved in this meta-analysis. Our meta-analysis results revealed that the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism might increase the risk of CVD in ESRD patients (TT vs. CC: OR?=?2.75, 95%CI?=?1.35?5.59, P?=?0.005; CT+TT vs. CC: OR?=?1.39, 95%CI?=?1.09?1.78, P?=?0.008; TT vs. CC+CT: OR?=?2.52, 95%CI?=?1.25?5.09, P?=?0.010; respectively). Further subgroup analysis by ethnicity suggested that the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism was associated with an elevated risk for CVD in ESRD patients among Asians (TT vs. CC: OR?=?3.38, 95%CI?=?1.11?10.28, P?=?0.032; CT+TT vs. CC: OR?=?1.44, 95%CI?=?1.05?1.97, P?=?0.022; TT vs. CC+CT: OR?=?3.15, 95%CI?=?1.02?9.72, P?=?0.046; respectively), but not among Africans or Caucasians (all P>0.05). Conclusion Our findings indicate that the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism may be associated with an elevated risk for CVD in ESRD patients, especially among Asians. PMID:25050994

Gao, Xian-Hui; Zhang, Guo-Yi; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Hui-Ying

2014-01-01

222

Quinone Reductase 2 Is a Catechol Quinone Reductase  

SciTech Connect

The functions of quinone reductase 2 have eluded researchers for decades even though a genetic polymorphism is associated with various neurological disorders. Employing enzymatic studies using adrenochrome as a substrate, we show that quinone reductase 2 is specific for the reduction of adrenochrome, whereas quinone reductase 1 shows no activity. We also solved the crystal structure of quinone reductase 2 in complexes with dopamine and adrenochrome, two compounds that are structurally related to catecholamine quinones. Detailed structural analyses delineate the mechanism of quinone reductase 2 specificity toward catechol quinones in comparison with quinone reductase 1; a side-chain rotational difference between quinone reductase 1 and quinone reductase 2 of a single residue, phenylalanine 106, determines the specificity of enzymatic activities. These results infer functional differences between two homologous enzymes and indicate that quinone reductase 2 could play important roles in the regulation of catecholamine oxidation processes that may be involved in the etiology of Parkinson disease.

Fu, Yue; Buryanovskyy, Leonid; Zhang, Zhongtao (NYMEDCO)

2008-09-05

223

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene germ-line C677T and A1298C SNPs are associated with colorectal cancer risk in the Turkish population.  

PubMed

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cause of death due to cancer in the worldwide and the incidence is also increasing in Turkey. Our present aim was to investigate any association between germ-line methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and CRC risk in Turkey. A total of 86 CRC cases and 212 control individuals of the same ethnicity were included in the current study. Peripheral blood-DNA samples were used for genotyping by StripAssay technique, based on the reverse- hybridization principle and real-time PCR methods. Results were compared in Pearson Chi-square and multiple logistic regression models. The MTHFR 677TT (homozygous) genotype was found in 20.9% and the T allele frequency 4.2-fold increased in CRC when compared with the control group.The second SNP MTHFR 1298CC (homozygous) genotype was found in 14.0% and the C allele frequency 1.4-fold elevated in the CRC group. The current data suggest strong associations between both SNPs of germ-line MTHFR 677 C>T and 1298 A>C genotypes and CRC susceptibility in the Turkish population. Now the results need to be confirmed with a larger sample size. PMID:25292054

Ozen, Filiz; Sen, Metin; Ozdemir, Ozturk

2014-01-01

224

Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T Polymorphism and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Chinese Population: A Meta-Analysis of 29 Case-Control Studies  

PubMed Central

Background Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), a key enzyme in folate metabolism, had significant effects on the homocysteine levels. The common functional MTHFR C677T polymorphism had been extensively researched. Several studies had evaluated the relationship between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but the results were still controversial in the Chinese Han population. This meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the relationship between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and T2DM in the Chinese Han population. Methods We searched the relevant studies in multiple electronic databases, which published up to December 2013. We reviewed and extracted data from all the included studies on the relationship between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and T2DM in the Chinese Han population. The odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were used to evaluate the relationship. Fixed-effects and random-effects meta-analysis were used to pool ORs by the heterogeneity. Publication bias and sensitivity analysis were also examined. Results 29 studies were finally included in our meta-analysis, which contained 4656 individuals with T2DM and 2127 healthy controls. There was a significant relationship between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and T2DM under dominant (OR: 1.70, 95% CI: 1.42–2.02), recessive (OR: 1.48, 95% CI: 1.21–1.80), homozygous (OR: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.47–2.42), heterozygous (OR: 1.58, 95% CI: 1.33–1.87), and additive (OR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.28–1.68) genetic model in a random-effects model. Subgroup analysis also reached similar results. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the overall result were dependable. Conclusions There was a significant relationship between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and T2DM in the Chinese Han population. The results of our meta-analysis suggested that MTHFR 677T allele might be a risk genetic factor of T2DM in the Chinese Han population. PMID:25047451

Zhu, Bo; Wu, Xiaomei; Zhi, Xueyuan; Liu, Lei; Zheng, Quanmei; Sun, Guifan

2014-01-01

225

MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms are risk factors for Down's syndrome in Indian mothers.  

PubMed

Down's syndrome (DS), a chromosomal disorder due to trisomy 21, results mostly from nondisjunction in maternal meiosis. The present case-control study examined the association of genetic polymorphisms with predisposition to nondisjunction. Two common polymorphisms (SNPs), C677T and A1298C, in the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene involved in folate metabolism, are known to lower the activity of this enzyme. Three hundred and fourteen mothers (with DS children and controls), mostly from the eastern states of India, were genotyped for the two above-mentioned SNPs. Significant association with both of these SNPs were detected, more specifically, in the mothers of DS children homozygous for the polymorphic alleles 677 T and 1298 C. The relative risk of T (C677T) and C (A1298C) homozygosity in mothers for DS-affected pregnancy was 7 (OR 7.67, 95% CI 1.67-35.08, P=0.003) and 4 (OR 4.40, 95% CI 1.45-13.26, P=0.008), respectively. Moreover, all 677TT mothers studied were less than 31 years of age, whereas no correlation with maternal age was observed for A1298C genotypes. Interestingly, all of the young 677TT mothers had either a first- or secondborn child with DS. Thus, this study reports that young Indian mothers with TT genotypes are genetically predisposed to nondisjunction due to abnormal folate metabolism. PMID:16489479

Rai, Amit Kumar; Singh, Satya; Mehta, Stuti; Kumar, Ashok; Pandey, L K; Raman, Rajiva

2006-01-01

226

Maternal MTHFR C677T polymorphism and congenital heart defect risk in the Chinese Han population: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Numerous studies have evaluated the association between the maternal C677T polymorphism in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and congenital heart defect (CHD) risk in the Chinese Han population. However, the specific association is still controversial. Six separate studies with 1089 subjects in the Chinese Han population on the relationship between the C677T polymorphism and CHDs were analyzed by meta-analysis, upon database search. The fixed-effect model or random-effect model was selected to calculate the pooled odds ratio (ORs) and its corresponding 95% confidence interval (95%CI) when appropriate. The Begg test was used to measure publication bias. Sensitivity analyses were performed to insure authenticity of the outcome. Meta-analysis of the results showed significant associations between the maternal C677T polymorphism and CHD risk (CC vs TT: OR = 0.65, 95%CI = 0.44-0.96). Limiting the analysis to the studies with controls in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and the results indicate that the meta-analysis was statistically significant. Results of Begg's funnel plot showed that there was no publication bias (all P > 0.05). The present meta-analysis suggested that the maternal C677T polymorphism is a risk factor for CHDs in the Chinese Han population. PMID:24338416

Chen, K H; Chen, L L; Li, W G; Fang, Y; Huang, G Y

2013-01-01

227

Association of the APOE, MTHFR and ACE Genes Polymorphisms and Stroke in Zambian Patients  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of APOE, MTHFR and ACE polymorphisms with stroke in the Zambian population. We analyzed 41 stroke patients and 116 control subjects all of Zambian origin for associations between the genotype of the APOE, MTHFR and ACE polymorphisms and stroke. The APOE ?2?4 genotype showed increased risk for hemorrhagic stroke (P<0.05) and also a high risk for ischemic stroke (P=0.05). There was complete absence of the APOE ?2?2 and the MTHFR TT genotypes in the Zambian population. The difference between cases and controls was not significant for the other genetic variants when analyzed for relationship between stroke, stroke subtype and genotype. We show that genetic variation at the APOE locus affects susceptibility to stroke. No detectable association were observed for the MTHFR and ACE genotypes and stroke in the Zambian population. PMID:24416484

Atadzhanov, Masharip; Mwaba, Mwila H.; Mukomena, Patrice N.; Lakhi, Shabir; Rayaprolu, Sruti; Ross, Owen A.; Meschia, James F.

2013-01-01

228

Development of a PCR-based marker utilizing a deletion mutation in the dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) gene responsible for the lack of anthocyanin production in yellow onions ( Allium cepa )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bulb color in onions ( Allium cepa) is an important trait, but the mechanism of color inheritance is poorly understood at the molecular level. A previous study showed that inactivation of the dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) gene at the transcriptional level resulted in a lack of anthocyanin production in yellow onions. The objectives of the present study were the identification of

Sunggil Kim; Kil Sun Yoo; Leonard M. Pike

2005-01-01

229

Induction and Repression of Nitrate Reductase in Neurospora crassa  

PubMed Central

Synthesis of wild-type Neurospora crassa assimilatory nitrate reductase is induced in the presence of nitrate ions and repressed in the presence of ammonium ions. Effects of several Neurospora mutations on the regulation of this enzyme are shown: (i) the mutants, nit-1 and nit-3, involving separate lesions, lack reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADPH)-nitrate reductase activity and at least one of three other activities associated with the wild-type enzyme. The two mutants do not require the presence of nitrate for induction of their aberrant nitrate reductases and are constitutive for their component nitrate reductase activities in the absence of ammonium ions. (ii) An analog of the wild-type enzyme (similar to the nit-1 enzyme) is formed when wild type is grown in a medium in which molybdenum has been replaced by vanadium or tungsten; the resulting enzyme lacks NADPH-nitrate reductase activity. Unlike nit-1, wild type produced this analog only in the presence of nitrate. Contaminating nitrate does not appear to be responsible for the observed mutants' activities. Nitrate reductase is proposed to be autoregulated. (iii) Mutants (am) lacking NADPH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase activity partially escape ammonium repression of nitrate reductase. The presence of nitrate is required for the enzyme's induction. (iv) A double mutant, nit-1 am-2, proved to be an ideal test system to study the repressive effects of nitrogen-containing metabolites on the induction of nitrate reductase activity. The double mutant does not require nitrate for induction of nitrate reductase, and synthesis of the enzyme is not repressed by the presence of high concentrations of ammonium ions. It is, however, repressed by the presence of any one of six amino acids. Nitrogen metabolites (other than ammonium) appear to be responsible for the mediation of “ammonium repression.” PMID:146700

Dantzig, Anne H.; Zurowski, Wayne K.; Ball, Thomas M.; Nason, Alvin

1978-01-01

230

Association of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene A1298C polymorphism with male infertility: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Published data on the association between the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene A1298C (rs1801131) polymorphism and male infertility risk are inconclusive. To derive a more precise estimation of the relationship, a meta-analysis was performed. In this meta-analysis, a total of seven case-control studies including 1633 cases and 1735 controls were selected to evaluate the possible association. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of association in the additive model, dominant model, recessive model, and allele-frequency genetic model. In the overall analysis, the frequency of the C1298 allele (C vs. A) was significantly associated with susceptibility to male infertility (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.00-1.26). A subgroup analysis of the subjects showed that MTHFR 1298C was associated with significant increased risk of azoospermia in homozygote comparison (CC vs. AA) and recessive mode (CC vs. AA/AC) (OR = 1.66 for CC vs. AA genotype; OR = 1.67 for CC vs. AA/AC genotype). However, no statistically significant increased risk of oligoasthenoteratozoospermia was found in any of the genetic models. In conclusion, this meta-analysis supports that the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism is capable of causing male infertility susceptibility, especially azoospermia. PMID:22175540

Shen, Ouxi; Liu, Renping; Wu, Wei; Yu, Lugang; Wang, Xinru

2012-01-01

231

Effect of multivitamins on plasma homocysteine in patients with the 5,10 methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T homozygous state.  

PubMed

The role of hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) as a cardiovascular risk factor remains a matter of debate, while it correlates with folates, it demonstrates inverse correlation with plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels and vitamin B12 levels and reduces plasma Hcy levels following supplementation with multivitamins. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that administering multivitamins at specific doses for 90 days restores normal plasma Hcy levels in women who are homozygous for the thermolabile variant of 5,10 methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T). We enrolled 106 healthy females aged between 30 and 42 years, who were non-smokers, non-vegetarian, normotensive and who had no history of food abuse in the previous months. Only females were enrolled in order to rule out any bias due to the variation in Hcy plasma concentrations between males and females. Patient blood sampling was performed in order to determine plasma Hcy, serum folic acid and vitamin B12 levels. Furthermore, molecular characterization of the C677T polymorphism present in the MTHFR gene, was also performed. The results of this study demonstrated that supplementation with specific multivitamins restores normal plasma Hcy levels, regardless of the MTHFR genotype. Furthermore, it is unnecessary to adminster high doses of folate to reduce plasma Hcy levels, and administering high doses of folate may cause pro-inflammatory and pro-proliferative effects. PMID:23818036

Dell'edera, Domenico; Tinelli, Andrea; Milazzo, Giusi Natalia; Malvasi, Antonio; Domenico, Carone; Pacella, Elena; Pierluigi, Compagnoni; Giuseppe, Tarantino; Marcello, Guido; Francesco, Lomurno; Epifania, Annunziata Anna

2013-08-01

232

Analysis of Polymorphisms in Genes (AGT, MTHFR, GPIIIa, and GSTP1) Associated with Hypertension, Thrombophilia and Oxidative Stress in Mestizo and Amerindian Populations of México  

PubMed Central

Several polymorphisms related to hypertension, thrombophilia, and oxidative stress has been associated with the development of cardiovascular disease. We analyzed the frequency of M235T angiotensinogen (AGT), A222V 5,10 methylenete-trahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), L33P glycoprotein IIIa (GPIIIa), and I105V glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) polymorphisms in 285 individuals belonging to Mexican-Mestizo and five Amerindian population from México, by real time PCR allelic discrimination. Allele and genotype frequencies were compared using ?2 tests. All populations followed the Hardy Weinberg equilibrium for assay markers with the exception of the Triki, whose were in Hardy Weinberg dysequilibrium for the glutathione S-transferase P1 polymorphism. Interestingly, according to all the analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the Triki population was the most differentiated and homogeneous group of the six populations analyzed. A comparison of our data with those previously published for some Caucasian, Asian and Black populations showed quite significant differences. These differences were remarkable with all the Mexican populations having a lower frequency of the 105V allele of the glutathione S-transferase P1 and reduced occurrence of the 222A allele of the 5,10 methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase. Our results show the genetic diversity among different Mexican populations and with other racial groups. PMID:20592457

Juárez-Velázquez, Rocio; Canto, Patricia; Canto-Cetina, Thelma; Rangel-Villalobos, Hector; Rosas-Vargas, Haydee; Rodríguez, Maricela; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Velázquez Wong, Ana Claudia; Ordoñez-Razo, Rosa María; Vilchis-Dorantes, Guadalupe; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón Mauricio

2010-01-01

233

Influence of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T Polymorphism on the Risk of Lung Cancer and the Clinical Response to Platinum-Based Chemotherapy for Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: An Updated Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Purpose Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) has been implicated in lung cancer risk and response to platinum-based chemotherapy in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the results are controversial. We performed meta-analysis to investigate the effect of MTHFR C677T polymorphism on lung cancer risk and response to platinum-based chemotherapy in advanced NSCLC. Materials and Methods The databases of PubMed, Ovid, Wanfang and Chinese Biomedicine were searched for eligible studies. Nineteen studies on MTHFR C677T polymorphism and lung cancer risk and three articles on C677T polymorphism and response to platinum-based chemotherapy in advanced NSCLC, were identified. Results The results indicated that the allelic contrast, homozygous contrast and recessive model of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism were associated significantly with increased lung cancer risk. In the subgroup analysis, the C677T polymorphism was significantly correlated with an increased risk of NSCLC, with the exception of the recessive model. The dominant model and the variant T allele showed a significant association with lung cancer susceptibility of ever smokers. Male TT homozygote carriers had a higher susceptibility, but the allelic contrast and homozygote model had a protective effect in females. No relationship was observed for SCLC in any comparison model. In addition, MTHFR 677TT homozygote carriers had a better response to platinum-based chemotherapy in advanced NSCLC in the recessive model. Conclusion The MTHFR C677T polymorphism might be a genetic marker for lung cancer risk or response to platinum-based chemotherapy in advanced NSCLC. However, our results require further verification. PMID:24142642

Zhu, Ning; Gong, Yi; He, Jian; Xia, Jingwen

2013-01-01

234

Carbon-carbon double-bond reductases in nature.  

PubMed

Reduction of C = C bonds by reductases, found in a variety of microorganisms (e.g. yeasts, bacteria, and lower fungi), animals, and plants has applications in the production of metabolites that include pharmacologically active drugs and other chemicals. Therefore, the reductase enzymes that mediate this transformation have become important therapeutic targets and biotechnological tools. These reductases are broad-spectrum, in that, they can act on isolation/conjugation C = C-bond compounds, ?,?-unsaturated carbonyl compounds, carboxylic acids, acid derivatives, and nitro compounds. In addition, several mutations in the reductase gene have been identified, some associated with diseases. Several of these reductases have been cloned and/or purified, and studies to further characterize them and determine their structure in order to identify potential industrial biocatalysts are still in progress. In this study, crucial reductases for bioreduction of C = C bonds have been reviewed with emphasis on their principal substrates and effective inhibitors, their distribution, genetic polymorphisms, and implications in human disease and treatment. PMID:24750117

Huang, Minmin; Hu, Haihong; Ma, Li; Zhou, Quan; Yu, Lushan; Zeng, Su

2014-08-01

235

Homocysteine and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in Tunisian patients with severe coronary artery disease.  

PubMed

Elevation in homocysteine and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene variants, C677T and A1298C, have been linked with atherothrombosis. However their exact contribution to coronary artery disease (CAD) remains controversial. Moreover, data from Tunisian patients are scarse. We examined the association of MTHFR C677T and A1298C, and changes in plasma homocysteine in 352 Tunisian patients with angiographically-demonstrated CAD, and 390 age and gender-matched healthy subjects. Significantly higher frequency of 677T allele and homozygous 677T/T genotype were seen in patients vs. control subjects; the distribution of A1298C alleles and genotypes being comparable in the two groups. Specific MTHFR haplotypes comprising 677C/1298A (P < 0.001) and 677T/1298A (P < 0.001) were negatively and positively associated with CAD, respectively. Plasma homocysteine concentration was significantly higher in 677T/T genotype with respect to 677C/C and 677C/T genotypes in patients and controls, but homocysteine levels were generally comparable between both groups. Univariate analysis identified 677T/1298A (P = 0.033) haplotype to be positively associated with CAD, which remained significant by multivariate analysis after adjusting for a number of covariates (P = 0.038). MTHFR C677T, but not A1298C SNPs, is associated with CAD and with elevated homocysteine levels in a Tunisian population. The negative and positive association of the 1298A allele with CAD being indicative of a neutral (absent) effect of the A1298C SNP on disease pathogenesis. PMID:18204887

Ghazouani, Lakhdar; Abboud, Nesrine; Mtiraoui, Nabil; Zammiti, Walid; Addad, Faouzi; Amin, Haitham; Almawi, Wassim Y; Mahjoub, Touhami

2009-02-01

236

Impact of methionine synthase gene and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphisms on the risk of sudden sensorineural hearing loss.  

PubMed

Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) represents a frequently encountered otological disease of unknown etiology. In recent years, several inherited risk factors have been found in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. In the present study, we determined whether specific polymorphism or the combination of polymorphisms in folate-dependent homocysteine metabolism genes can act as predisposing inherited vascular risk factors in the development of SSNHL. We conducted a prospective case-control study using DNA samples extracted from 81 patients diagnosed as suffering from SSNHL and 264 healthy control subjects. Three functional polymorphisms were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction amplification, restriction enzyme digestion, and DNA fragment separation by electrophoresis: methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T, MTHFR A1298C, and methionine synthase (MTR) A2756G polymorphisms. The prevalence of the homozygous genotype of MTR 2756GG in the SSNHL patients (9%) was significantly higher than in the control group (4%) (p = 0.011). The allelic frequency of the G allele of the MTR A2756G polymorphism among SSNHL patients (12.5%) was also significantly higher than in the control group (5%) (p = 0.033). The prevalence of patients possessing two polymorphisms (31%) and three polymorphisms (17%) in the SSNHL group was significantly higher than in the control group (23 and 9%, respectively; p = 0.019). The frequency of patients with a very high rank risk (double homozygous) was significantly higher in the SSNHL group, MTHFR 677TT/MTR 2675GG--7%, than the frequency of patients in the control group, MTHFR 677TT/MTR 2675GG--3% (p = 0.030). Certain polymorphisms in genes encoding enzymes in the folate-dependent homocysteine metabolism are associated with SSNHL. In our case-control study, a significant association between MTR 2756GG genotype and SSNHL was found which may represent an inherited vascular risk factor in the pathogenesis of SSNHL. PMID:16778415

Gross, Menachem; Friedman, Gideon; Eliashar, Ron; Koren-Morag, Nira; Goldschmidt, Neta; Atta, Iman Abou; Ben-Yehuda, Arie

2006-01-01

237

A common variant of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (1p36) is associated with an increased risk of cancer.  

PubMed

Folate metabolism is thought to play an important role in carcinogenesis through its involvement in both DNA methylation and nucleotide synthesis. A common Ala(222)/Val variant in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene leads to a disturbed folate metabolism and is associated with decreased genomic DNA methylation. We previously reported that the MTHFR Val/Val genotype was associated with increased cancer mortality in men from a population-based cohort of subjects ages > or = 85 years. To further explore the deleterious effects of the MTHFR genotype, we studied the association of the genotype with cancer risk in 860 men ages 65-84 years who were followed >10 years (Zutphen Elderly Study). During follow-up, 149 new cases of cancer occurred among the 793 men without cancer at baseline. The risk of developing cancer was 1.80-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.09-3.00) higher among men with the Val/Val genotype than among men with the Ala/Ala genotype. Except for lung cancer [relative risk (RR), 1.15], the risks of common forms of cancers were significantly increased among men with the Val/Val genotype [cancer of the prostate (RR, 3.48); the colorectum (RR, 3.65); the kidney and bladder (RR, 5.48)]. The risks of cancer were particularly increased among men with a lower folate and a higher alcohol intake and men of an older age. In conclusion, our current and previous studies in two independent populations indicate that a common Ala/Val variant in the MTHFR gene is a risk factor for cancer in elderly men from the general population. The mechanism underlying this association might involve genomic instability as a result of insufficient methylation of genomic DNA. PMID:12649184

Heijmans, Bastiaan T; Boer, Jolanda M A; Suchiman, H Eka D; Cornelisse, Cees J; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Kromhout, Daan; Feskens, Edith J M; Slagboom, P Eline

2003-03-15

238

Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase 677TT Genotype may be Associated with an Increased Lung Cancer Risk in North China: An Updated Meta  

PubMed Central

Background Although many epidemiology studies have investigated the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphisms and their associations with lung cancer (LC), definite conclusions cannot be drawn. To clarify the effects of MTHFR polymorphisms on the risk of LC, we performed a meta-analysis in Chinese populations. Material/Methods Related studies were identified from PubMed, Springer Link, Ovid, Chinese Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Chinese Biology Medicine (CBM) until 16 February 2014. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of the associations. Results A total of 11 studies with 2487 LC cases and 3228 controls were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, no significant association was found between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and LC risk when all studies in Chinese populations were pooled into this meta-analysis. In subgroup analyses stratified by geographical location and source of controls, significantly increased risk was found in North China (T vs. C: OR=1.28, 95% CI: 1.14–1.44; TT vs. CC: OR=1.67, 95% CI: 1.33–2.10; TT + CT vs. CC, OR=1.39, 95% CI=1.15–1.69; TT vs. CC + CT: OR=1.46, 95% CI: 1.03–2.06) and in population-based studies (TT vs. CC: OR=1.37, 95% CI: 1.14–1.65; TT vs. CC + CT: OR=1.25, 95% CI: 1.07–1.45). Conclusions This meta-analysis provides evidence that MTHFR C677T polymorphism may contribute to LC development in North China. Studies with larger sample sizes and wider spectrum of populations are warranted to verify this finding. PMID:25544260

Liu, Nan-Bo; Li, Jun; Qi, Jia-Feng; Zhang, Zhen-Zhong; Wu, Xu; Zhang, Jun-Hua

2014-01-01

239

Association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and A1298C polymorphisms with colorectal cancer risk: A meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common types of cancer worldwide and a leading cause of cancer-related mortality. This meta-analysis was conducted to determine the effect of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) mutants on the risk of CRC. A literature search was conducted on PubMed, Medline and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases. Eligible studies were collected based on rigorous criteria of inclusion. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by the fixed- or random-effects model. After all the studies were pooled, the OR of CRC for individuals carrying the MTHFR 677TT genotype, compared to the CC genotype, was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.82-0.97). When analyzed by ethnicity, Asians with the MTHFR 1298CC genotype exhibited a decreased risk of CRC (OR=0.69; 95% CI: 0.54-0.89). In a mixed population, a significantly reduced risk of CRC was observed among carriers of the 677TT (OR=0.86; 95% CI: 0.76-0.96) and the 1298CC (OR=0.82; 95% CI: 0.69-0.98) genotypes, compared to the wild-type homozygous genotype. In the subgroup of colon cancer, the OR of 677TT vs. CC+CT was 0.83 (95% CI: 0.72-0.96) and the OR of 1298CC vs. AA+AC was 0.81 (95% CI: 0.69-0.96). In the rectal cancer subgroup, the OR of 677TT vs. CC+CT was 0.86 (95% CI: 0.77-0.97). Therefore, this meta-analysis suggested that the MTHFR 677T and 1298C alleles were associated with a low risk of CRC. PMID:24649029

Zhao, Mengmeng; Li, Xuelian; Xing, Chengzhong; Zhou, Baosen

2013-09-01

240

Association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and A1298C polymorphisms with colorectal cancer risk: A meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common types of cancer worldwide and a leading cause of cancer-related mortality. This meta-analysis was conducted to determine the effect of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) mutants on the risk of CRC. A literature search was conducted on PubMed, Medline and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases. Eligible studies were collected based on rigorous criteria of inclusion. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by the fixed- or random-effects model. After all the studies were pooled, the OR of CRC for individuals carrying the MTHFR 677TT genotype, compared to the CC genotype, was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.82–0.97). When analyzed by ethnicity, Asians with the MTHFR 1298CC genotype exhibited a decreased risk of CRC (OR=0.69; 95% CI: 0.54–0.89). In a mixed population, a significantly reduced risk of CRC was observed among carriers of the 677TT (OR=0.86; 95% CI: 0.76–0.96) and the 1298CC (OR=0.82; 95% CI: 0.69–0.98) genotypes, compared to the wild-type homozygous genotype. In the subgroup of colon cancer, the OR of 677TT vs. CC+CT was 0.83 (95% CI: 0.72–0.96) and the OR of 1298CC vs. AA+AC was 0.81 (95% CI: 0.69–0.96). In the rectal cancer subgroup, the OR of 677TT vs. CC+CT was 0.86 (95% CI: 0.77–0.97). Therefore, this meta-analysis suggested that the MTHFR 677T and 1298C alleles were associated with a low risk of CRC. PMID:24649029

ZHAO, MENGMENG; LI, XUELIAN; XING, CHENGZHONG; ZHOU, BAOSEN

2013-01-01

241

Associations of MTHFR Gene Polymorphisms with Hypertension and Hypertension in Pregnancy: A Meta-Analysis from 114 Studies with 15411 Cases and 21970 Controls  

PubMed Central

Background Several epidemiological studies have investigated the associations of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C polymorphisms with hypertension (H) or hypertension in pregnancy (HIP). However, the results were controversial. We therefore performed a comprehensive meta-analysis to provide empirical evidences on the associations. Methodologies The English and Chinese databases were systematically searched to identify relevant studies. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate the strength of the associations. Meta-regression, subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, cumulative meta-analysis and assessment of publication bias were performed in our study. Principal Findings A total of 114 studies with 15411 cases and 21970 controls were included, 111 studies with 15094 cases and 21633 controls for the C677T polymorphism and 21 with 2533 cases and 2976 controls for the A1298C polymorphism. Overall, the C677T polymorphism was significantly associated with H and HIP (H & HIP: OR?=?1.26, 95% CI?=?1.17–1.34; H: OR?=?1.36, 95% CI?=?1.20–1.53; HIP: OR?=?1.21, 95% CI?=?1.08–1.32). Stratified analysis by ethnicity revealed a significant association among East Asians and Caucasians, but not among Latinos, Black Africans, and Indians and Sri Lankans. In the stratified analyses according to source of controls, genotyping method, sample size and study quality, significant associations were observed in all the subgroups, with the exception of population based subgroup in H studies and large sample size and “others” genotyping method subgroups in HIP studies. For the A1298C polymorphism, no significant association was observed either in overall or subgroup analysis under all genetic models. Conclusions This meta-analysis suggests that the MTHFR C677T rather than A1298C polymorphism may be associated with H & HIP, especially among East Asians and Caucasians. PMID:24505291

Yang, Boyi; Fan, Shujun; Zhi, Xueyuan; Li, Yongfang; Liu, Yuyan; Wang, Da; He, Miao; Hou, Yongyong; Zheng, Quanmei; Sun, Guifan

2014-01-01

242

Investigation of MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism, biochemical and clinical parameters in Turkish migraine patients: association with allodynia and fatigue.  

PubMed

We investigated whether there is any relationship between biochemical and clinical parameters of migraine and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene C677T polymorphism, associated with the migraine subtypes, symptoms, and gender. A total of 150 migraine patients with and without aura (MA and MO) and 107 non-sufferers were included in the study. Biochemical and clinical parameters were measured and genetic analysis was performed. The MTFHR C677T genotype was significantly higher in the migraine group (p = 0.000). The CT genotype frequency of individuals with a family history of migraine was significantly higher (p = 0.025). This genotype frequency was higher in patients who suffer from compression, allodynia, fatigue, and sleeplessness (p = 0.027, 0.023, 0.006, and 0.05, respectively). Homocysteine and total cholesterol levels were significantly higher in the migraine group than the control group (p = 0.007 and 0.010, respectively). However, the other biochemical and clinical parameters did not differ from each other (p > 0.05), with only attack frequency being significantly higher in the MO group (p = 0.005). While the folate and HDL levels were significantly higher in females (p = 0.001 and 0.000, respectively), the homocysteine and triglyceride levels were significantly higher in males (p = 0.000 for each one). BMIs were significantly lower in the control than the migraine group (p = 0.021); however, an association between the C677T variant and BMI was not found (p = 0.787) in the migraine group. An association between the MTHFR C667T polymorphism and migraine susceptibility was found. Additional studies including genetic, clinic, and biochemical parameters should be conducted to better understand the disease. PMID:23975093

Bahadir, Anzel; Eroz, Recep; Dikici, Suber

2013-11-01

243

A common 1317TC polymorphism in MTHFR can lead to erroneous 1298AC genotyping by PCR-RE and TaqMan probe assays.  

PubMed

Multiple polymorphisms of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) have been documented, and some are associated with decreased enzyme activity. One polymorphism, 677CT, is commonly tested in the context of thrombosis. Recently, consideration has also been extended to 1298AC, which is also associated with reduced catalytic activity. This report describes problems arising during the development of a PCR restriction enzyme assay for 1298AC. In the process of validating a PCR-MboII assay, it was realized that a nearby 1317TC polymorphism rendered a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) pattern that was virtually indistinguishable from a 1298A allele. An alternate approach, involving primer mutagenesis and Fnu4HI digestion, resolved the problem. To validate the latter assay, samples were obtained from a CLIA-approved facility that had developed a multiplexed real-time PCR using TaqMan probes for simultaneous assessment of 677CT and 1298AC. Interlaboratory results concurred for 10 out of 11 samples; however, one sample was consistently heterozygous by PCR-Fnu4HI and homozygous 1298CC by real-time PCR. Bidirectional sequencing confirmed that the sample was a compound 1298AC/1317TC heterozygote. It is likely that the 1317C variant, residing with 1298A on one chromosome, disrupted primer annealing in the TaqMan assay, leading to preferential amplification of the 1298C/1317T chromosome and hence an aberrant homozygous 1298CC genotype. This validation exercise emphasizes the need for comprehensive appraisal and continual reassessment of the optimal performance of molecular diagnostic assays. It is hoped that laboratories offering MTHFR 1298AC testing are cognizant of some of the inherent problems in published methods. PMID:17627388

Allen, Richard A; Gatalica, Zoran; Knezetic, Joseph; Hatcher, Lori; Vogel, John S; Dunn, S Terence

2007-01-01

244

Isolation and characterization of the nitrate reductase structural gene of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.  

PubMed Central

The nitrate reductase structural gene of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has been isolated from a genomic library by using a nitrate reductase cDNA probe from barley. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses mapped the Chlamydomonas clone (B6a) to the nitrate reductase structural gene locus nit-1. Overlapping inserts cover a region of the genome of about 24 kilobases containing the entire gene, which spans approximately 5-8 kilobases. Sequence analysis of DNA fragments from the B6a clone demonstrated a high degree of sequence similarity at the amino acid level with regions corresponding to portions of the heme and FAD/NADH-binding domains of tobacco and Arabidopsis thaliana nitrate reductases and human NADH cytochrome b5 reductase. The identity of the cloned gene as nitrate reductase was confirmed by its ability to complement a nit-1 mutation upon transformation. The nitrate reductase gene produced a 3.4-kilobase transcript in cells derepressed with nitrate; the transcript was undetectable in cells grown in the presence of ammonium. In cells that contain a mutation in the putative regulatory gene nit-2, significantly lower levels of the 3.4-kilobase transcript were found, indicating that the wild-type nit-2 gene is involved in the control of nitrate reductase transcript levels. Images PMID:2475871

Fernández, E; Schnell, R; Ranum, L P; Hussey, S C; Silflow, C D; Lefebvre, P A

1989-01-01

245

MTHFR C677T genotype as a risk factor for epilepsy including post-traumatic epilepsy in a representative military cohort.  

PubMed

The well-studied C677T variant in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) enzyme is a biologically plausible genetic risk factor for seizures or epilepsy. First, plasma/serum levels of homocysteine, a pro-convulsant, are moderately elevated in individuals with the homozygote TT genotype. Furthermore, the TT genotype has been previously linked with migraine with aura-a comorbid condition-and with alcohol withdrawal seizures. Finally, several small studies have suggested that the TT genotype may be overrepresented in epilepsy patients. In this study, we consider whether the MTHFR C677T or A1298C variants are associated with risk of epilepsy including post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE) in a representative military cohort. Study subjects were selected from the cohort of military personnel on active duty during the years 2003 through 2007 who had archived serum samples at the DoD Serum Repository, essentially all active duty personnel during this time frame. We randomly selected 800 epilepsy patients and 800 matched controls based on ICD-9-CM diagnostic codes. We were able to isolate sufficient genetic material from the archived sera to genotype approximately 85% of our study subjects. The odds of epilepsy were increased in subjects with the TT versus CC genotype (crude OR=1.52 [1.04-2.22], p=0.031; adjusted OR=1.57 [1.07-2.32], p=0.023). In our sensitivity analysis, risk was most evident for patients with repeated rather than single medical encounters for epilepsy (crude OR=1.85 [1.14-2.97], p=0.011, adjusted OR=1.95 [1.19-3.19], p=0.008), and particularly for PTE (crude OR=3.14 [1.41-6.99], p=0.005; adjusted OR=2.55 [1.12-5.80], p=0.026). Our early results suggest a role for the common MTHFR C677T variant as a predisposing factors for epilepsy including PTE. Further exploration of baseline homocysteine and folate levels as predictors of seizure risk following traumatic brain injury is warranted. PMID:21787169

Scher, Ann I; Wu, Holly; Tsao, Jack W; Blom, Henk J; Feit, Preethy; Nevin, Remington L; Schwab, Karen A

2011-09-01

246

Associations of variants in MTHFR and MTRR genes with male infertility in the Jordanian population.  

PubMed

Folate pathway is expected to play an important role in spermatogenesis since it is involved in DNA synthesis, repair and methylation. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between male infertility and the MTHFR (C677T and A1298C) and MTRR (A66G) polymorphisms. A group of 300 males was recruited in this study from different Jordanian infertility clinics. Of these, 150 cases of infertile men that included oligozoospermia cases (n=45), severe oligozoospermia (n=71) and azoospermia (n=34) were studied. The other 150 males were age matched fertile controls. Genotyping of MTHFR and MTRR polymorphisms was performed using PCR-RFLP technique. The results showed an association between MTHFR 677TT genotype and male infertility (P<0.05). However, the distribution of MTHFR A1298C and MTRR A66G genotypes were not different between the fertile and infertile groups (P>0.05). In addition, none of the examined polymorphisms was related to any of the semen parameters in the infertile group. In conclusion, this study showed that MTHFR C677T polymorphism is associated with male infertility in Jordanians. PMID:24334125

Mfady, Doaa S; Sadiq, May F; Khabour, Omar F; Fararjeh, Abdulfattah S; Abu-Awad, Aymen; Khader, Yousef

2014-02-15

247

Effects of MTHFR gene polymorphism on the clinical and electrophysiological characteristics of migraine  

PubMed Central

Background It was previously shown that the MTHFR gene polymorphism correlated with an increased risk of migraine, particularly migraine with aura. The substitution of cytosine for thymine at the position 677 of the MTHFR gene leads to formation of the thermolabile form of the protein and development of hyperhomocysteinemia, which increases the probability of migraine. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the replacement of C677T in the gene MTHFR influenced any particular symptoms of the disease. Methods We have analyzed clinical and electrophysiological characteristics of 83 patients with migraine (migraine with aura (MA), 19 patients, and migraine without aura (MO), 64 patients, according to the ICHD-II (2003)) taking into account their genotypes of C677T variant of MTHFR. Results We have shown that MA was significantly more prevalent among the T-allele carriers (37.2%), as compared to the ?? genotype patients (0%), ? < 0.0001. Patients with TT genotype were not only more likely to have accompanying symptoms (significant differences were found only for photophobia), but also more sensitive to migraine attack triggers. In RP-VEP test results we observed a trend that the T-allele carriers were presented with the decreased N75/P100 amplitudes and a positive habituation index, as compared to the ?? genotype patients. Conclusions Thus, according to our data, the MTHFR genotypes are associated with several clinical and electrophysiological characteristics of migraine. PMID:23915182

2013-01-01

248

Congenital heart defects and genetic variants in the methylenetetrahydroflate reductase gene  

PubMed Central

Background Most non?syndromic congenital heart defects (CHD) are caused by a complex interaction between maternal lifestyle factors, environmental exposures, and maternal and fetal genetic variants. Maternal periconceptional intake of folic acid containing vitamin supplements is reported to decrease the risk of CHD. The 677C?T and 1298A?C polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene decrease enzyme activity. Objective To examine the relation between CHD and maternal and fetal MTHFR polymorphisms Methods 375 nuclear families were studied. The transmission/disequilibrium test was used to test for transmission distortion in complete triads. A log?linear approach was used to test for associations between CHD and maternal and offspring polymorphisms, and to estimate independently the contributions of maternal and fetal variants to relative risks. Haplotype frequencies were estimated and a haplotype transmission disequilibrium test carried out. Results The 1298C allele was transmitted less often than expected (p?=?0.0013). There was no distortion in the transmission of the 677T allele, neither was there evidence of a parent of origin effect in the transmission of either of the single nucleotide polymorphisms. The 677C–1298C haplotype was also transmitted less often than expected (p?=?0.0020). The relative risk associated with inheriting one copy of the 1298C allele was 0.64 (95% confidence interval, 0.48 to 0.87) and the that associated with inheriting two copies of the 1298C allele, 0.38 (0.21 to 0.70). Conclusions The apparent protective effect of the MTHFR 1298C allele against CHD could have several explanations and further study is needed. PMID:15951337

Hobbs, C A; James, S J; Parsian, A; Krakowiak, P A; Jernigan, S; Greenhaw, J J; Lu, Y; Cleves, M A

2006-01-01

249

Genetic Association between Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Gene Polymorphism and Risk of Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head  

PubMed Central

Background. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) SNP rs1801133 has been frequently investigated in recent years. Relevant candidate gene association studies with this SNP and osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) reported conflicting results. Meta-analysis provides a method to combine these data and to determine the association in a larger sample size. Method. We conducted a systematic search to identify possible studies. Four pooled ORs (odds ratios, T versus C, TT versus CC, TT/CT versus CC, and TT versus CT/CC), along with 95% confidence interval (CI), were calculated to evaluate the association between SNP rs1801133 and ONFH susceptibility. Both fixed effects model and random effects model were used. Findings. We eventually included twelve studies in this analysis, with results showing no overall association between ONFH susceptibility and SNP rs1801133 (T versus C: OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 0.97–1.38; TT versus CC: OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 0.91–1.46; TT/CT versus CC: OR = 1.09, 95% CI = 0.95–1.25; and TT versus CT/CC: OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.93–1.45). When stratified based on ethnicity, the results were still not significant. Conclusion. Our findings are generally supportive of no association between MTHFR SNP rs1801133 and the etiology of ONFH.

Chai, Wei; Zhang, Zhendong; Ni, Ming; Geng, Peiliang; Lian, Zijian; Zhang, Guoqiang; Shi, Lewis L.; Chen, Jiying

2015-01-01

250

Genetics Home Reference: 5-alpha reductase deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > 5-alpha reductase deficiency On this page: Description Genetic changes ... Glossary definitions Reviewed April 2008 What is 5-alpha reductase deficiency? 5-alpha reductase deficiency is a ...

251

Association between factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T mutations and events of the arterial circulatory system: a meta-analysis of published studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe association between the inherited gene mutations of factor V, prothrombin, and homocysteine metabolism and venous thromboembolic events is accepted widely; however, their influence on the arterial circulatory system remains controversial.

Robert J Kim; Richard C Becker

2003-01-01

252

Comparing Techniques for the Identification of the MTHFR A1298C Polymorphism  

PubMed Central

The restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique with the MboII enzyme is used by a number of researchers as a methodology for the identification of the genetic polymorphism MTHFR A1298C. However, the reliability of this enzyme for genotyping this polymorphism has been questioned, since the silent polymorphism T1317C, located close to the polymorphic region A1298C on gene MTHFR, also has a recognition site for MboII. Thus, the fragments formed by the digestion of MboII present similar sizes, making it difficult to differentiate the allele MTHFR 1298A in the presence of the allele MTHFR 1317C. Hence, we investigated the A1298C polymorphism in a Brazilian population of renal transplant patients, using the RFLP technique with digestion by Mbo II and using sequencing, in order to examine the concordance between the two techniques. Our results showed an 8.6% difference in genotyping between RFLP and sequencing, but the statistical concordance test presented a kappa coefficient equal to 0.81 (CI 95% 0.74–88), which indicates a virtually perfect concordance, according to the criterion of Landis and Koch. Therefore, we concluded that the RFLP technique is concordant with automated sequencing in the detection of polymorphism A1298C under our laboratory conditions. PMID:19137091

de Alvarenga, Maria Paula Sanches; Pavarino-Bertelli, Érika Cristina; Goloni-Bertollo, Eny Maria

2008-01-01

253

NADH-ferric reductase activity associated with dihydropteridine reductase.  

PubMed

In mammals dietary ferric iron is reduced to ferrous iron for more efficient absorption by the intestine. Analysis of a pig duodenal membrane fraction revealed two NADH-dependent ferric reductase activities, one associated with a b-type cytochrome and the other not. Purification and characterization of the non-cytochrome ferric reductase identified a 31 kDa protein. MALDI-MS analysis and amino acid sequencing identified the ferric reductase as being related to the 26 kDa liver NADH-dependent quinoid dihydropteridine reductase (DHPR). The NADH-dependent DHPR ferric reductase activity was found to be pteridine-independent since exhaustive dialysis did not reduce activity and heat-inactivation destroyed activity. In intestinal Caco-2 cells, DHPR mRNA levels were found to be regulated by iron. Thus, DHPR appears to be a dual function enzyme, a NADH-dependent dihydopteridine reductase and an iron-regulated, NADH-dependent, pteridine-independent ferric reductase. PMID:10814540

Lee, P L; Halloran, C; Cross, A R; Beutler, E

2000-05-19

254

Nitrate Reductase and Soluble Cytochrome c Reductase(s) in Higher Plants 1  

PubMed Central

The 4S cytochrome c (Cyt c) reductase activity of several plant species was markedly stimulated by cyanide and ferrocyanide but those of the 8S nitrate reductase component and other particulate components of the maize (Zea mays L.) scutellum by comparison, were increased only slightly. The effect of cyanide and ferrocyanide was not due to elimination of cytochrome oxidase interference but resulted from the stimulation of NADH-dependent reduction of Cyt c. A 4S Cyt c reductase component which could be isolated by ammonium sulfate fractionation and diethyl-aminoethyl-cellulose chromatography was found to be stimulated markedly by cyanide and ferrocyanide. The remaining 4S Cyt c reductase, which was insensitive to cyanide and ferrocyanide, was also fractionated with ammonium sulfate into two components. One of these, like the 8S Cyt c reductase, was sensitive to a protease from the maize roots which is relatively specific for nitrate reductase. This 4S Cyt c reductase species could be a subunit of nitrate reductase. PMID:16660377

Wallace, William; Johnson, Christopher B.

1978-01-01

255

Heterozygote advantage of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms on clinical outcomes in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy.  

PubMed

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) enzyme is essential for transmethylation reactions including DNA methylation and DNA synthesis and thereby may contribute to cancer prognosis. In our study, a total of 1,004 advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients receiving first-line, platinum-based chemotherapy regimens were used for genotyping 10 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of MTHFR. Association was assessed between the SNPs and treatment outcomes. We found that polymorphism of rs1537514 showed the most significant effect: heterozygote associated with better clinical benefit (P = 0.002) and decreased risk of grade 3 or 4 gastrointestinal toxicity (P = 0.027), while the mutant homozygote associated with increased risk of severe gastrointestinal toxicity (P = 0.031) and thrombocytopenia (P = 009). The heterozygotes of exon polymorphisms (rs1801131, rs1801133) also yielded better clinical benefit (P = 0.030 for rs1801131) and decreased risk of severe gastrointestinal toxicity (P = 0.004 for rs1801131) or thrombocytopenia (P = 0.016 for 1801133). However, overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) did not differ for the MTHFR polymorphisms, except for heterozygote of rs1537514 showing significant effects with better PFS (P = 0.022). Clinical factors as age, gender, and smoking status had significant effects for the OS (P = 0.003, 0.002, and 0.012, respectively) while performance status and chemotherapy regimens for PFS (P = 0.001 and 3.9 × 10(-6), respectively). The results indicate that a heterozygous advantage may exist in certain MTHFR variants, and the polymorphisms (especially rs1537514) may play a predictive role of treatment efficacy and adverse effects in NSCLC patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. PMID:25104092

Li, Xiaoying; Shao, Minhua; Wang, Shiming; Zhao, Xueying; Chen, Hongyan; Qian, Ji; Song, Xiao; Wang, Jiucun; Jin, Li; Wu, Junjie; Li, Qiang; Bai, Chunxue; Han, Baohui; Gao, Zhiqiang; Lu, Daru

2014-11-01

256

Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Variants Associated with Hypertension and Cardiovascular Disease Interact with Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids to Modulate Plasma Homocysteine in Puerto Rican Adults123  

PubMed Central

Although methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genetic variants are associated with plasma homocysteine (Hcy) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), little is known whether dietary fatty acid intake modulates these associations. The goal was to examine the interaction of MTHFR variants with dietary fatty acids influencing plasma Hcy in 995 Boston Puerto Rican adults. We found that plasma Hcy concentration was negatively correlated with (n-3) PUFA intake (r = ?0.117; P = 0.022), and the ratio of (n-3):(n-6) PUFA in the diet (r = ?0.122; P = 0.009). Further, 2 functional MTHFR variants, 1298A>C and 677C>T, which are not in linkage disequilibrium in this population, were significantly associated with hypertension (OR = 1.72, P = 0.024, and OR = 1.60, P = 0.002, respectively). In addition, the 1298A>C variant was significantly associated with CVD (OR = 3.32; P = 0.030). Importantly, this variant exhibited significant interactions with intakes of total and (n-6) PUFA and the (n-3):(n-6) PUFA ratio of the diet. The plasma Hcy concentration of carriers of risk allele 1298C was greater than that of noncarriers only when participants had consumed a high-PUFA diet (>7.8% energy) but was not greater when they had low intake of PUFA (?7.8% energy). In addition, participants with combined genotypes of both SNP (677 TT with 1298 AC or CC) who consumed high levels of (n-3) PUFA (>0.66% energy) had lower plasma Hcy compared with those who had the same genotype and consumed low levels of (n-3) PUFA (?0.66% energy). Our study suggests that dietary PUFA intake modulates the effect of 2 MTHFR variants on plasma Hcy in Boston Puerto Rican adults. PMID:21270364

Huang, Tao; Tucker, Katherine L.; Lee, Yu-Chi; Crott, Jimmy W.; Parnell, Laurence D.; Shen, Jian; Smith, Caren E.; Ordovas, Jose M.; Li, Duo; Lai, Chao-Qiang

2011-01-01

257

Nitrate and periplasmic nitrate reductases  

PubMed Central

The nitrate anion is a simple, abundant and relatively stable species, yet plays a significant role in global cycling of nitrogen, global climate change, and human health. Although it has been known for quite some time that nitrate is an important species environmentally, recent studies have identified potential medical applications. In this respect the nitrate anion remains an enigmatic species that promises to offer exciting science in years to come. Many bacteria readily reduce nitrate to nitrite via nitrate reductases. Classified into three distinct types – periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap), respiratory nitrate reductase (Nar) and assimilatory nitrate reductase (Nas), they are defined by their cellular location, operon organization and active site structure. Of these, Nap proteins are the focus of this review. Despite similarities in the catalytic and spectroscopic properties Nap from different Proteobacteria are phylogenetically distinct. This review has two major sections: in the first section, nitrate in the nitrogen cycle and human health, taxonomy of nitrate reductases, assimilatory and dissimilatory nitrate reduction, cellular locations of nitrate reductases, structural and redox chemistry are discussed. The second section focuses on the features of periplasmic nitrate reductase where the catalytic subunit of the Nap and its kinetic properties, auxiliary Nap proteins, operon structure and phylogenetic relationships are discussed. PMID:24141308

Sparacino-Watkins, Courtney; Stolz, John F.; Basu, Partha

2014-01-01

258

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T gene polymorphism and essential hypertension: A meta-analysis of 10,415 subjects  

PubMed Central

The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T gene polymorphism has been suggested to be associated with the risk of essential hypertension (EH), however, results remain inconclusive. To investigate this association, the present meta-analysis of 27 studies including 5,418 cases and 4,997 controls was performed. The pooled odds ratio (OR) and its corresponding 95% confidence interval were calculated using the random-effects model. A significant association between the MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism and EH was found under the allelic (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.20–1.45; P=0.000), dominant (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.25–1.55; P=0.000), recessive (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.18–1.62; P=0.000), homozygote (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.32–1.92; P=0.000), and heterozygote (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.20–1.45; P=0.000) genetic models. A strong association was also revealed in subgroups, including Asian, Caucasian and Chinese. The Japanese subgroup did not show any significant association under all models. Meta-regression analyses suggested that the study design was a potential source of heterogeneity, whereas the subgroup analysis additionally indicated that the population origin may also be an explanation. Another subgroup analysis revealed that hospital-based studies have a stronger association than population-based studies, however, the former suffered a greater heterogeneity. Funnel plot and Egger’s test manifested no evidence of publication bias. In conclusion, the present study supports the evidence for the association between the MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism and EH in the whole population, as well as in subgroups, such as Asian, Caucasian and Chinese. The carriers of the 677T allele are susceptible to EH. PMID:25054014

YANG, KE-MING; JIA, JIAN; MAO, LI-NA; MEN, CHEN; TANG, KANG-TING; LI, YAN-YAN; DING, HAI-XIA; ZHAN, YI-YANG

2014-01-01

259

Distribution of 1298A>C polymorphism of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene in patients with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.  

PubMed

We investigated the genotype frequency of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 1298A>C polymorphism in the group of patients with bipolar disorder type I (BDI) (n=200) and schizophrenia (n=200) and in the control group (n=300). Odds ratio (OR) for patients with BD and schizophrenia in 1298CC homozygous state was 3.768 (95% CI=1.752-8.104); P=0.0003; (P=0.0006 after Bonferroni correction) and 2.694; (95% CI=1.207-6.013); P=0.0123 (P=0.0246 after Bonferroni correction), respectively. The stratification of patients based on gender revealed significant association of 1298CC genotype with female patients only with BDI (OR=7.293; 95% CI=2.017-26.363; P=0.0005). Our results confirm association of BD and schizophrenia with the 1p36.3 MTHFR locus and with the methyl group transfer using folate-dependent one-carbon pathway. PMID:17188847

Kempisty, Bartosz; Bober, Anna; ?uczak, Marta; Czerski, Piotr; Szczepankiewicz, Aleksandra; Hauser, Joanna; Jagodzi?ski, Pawe? P

2007-01-01

260

Isolated menthone reductase and nucleic acid molecules encoding same  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides isolated menthone reductase proteins, isolated nucleic acid molecules encoding menthone reductase proteins, methods for expressing and isolating menthone reductase proteins, and transgenic plants expressing elevated levels of menthone reductase protein.

Croteau, Rodney B; Davis, Edward M; Ringer, Kerry L

2013-04-23

261

No association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and completed suicide.  

PubMed

MTHFR C677T polymorphism (rs1801133) was associated with numerous psychiatric conditions but no prior study investigated whether it predisposes to completed suicide. We typed rs1801133 in 692 suicide victims and 3257 controls representative of a Polish adult population (the WOBASZ cohort). Although we had a power of 0.8 to detect (at alpha 0.05) an allelic OR=1.19, we did not find significant difference among suicides vs. controls in the prevalence of the MTHFR 677T allele (OR=1.02, p=0.759) or the TT genotype (OR=1.01, p=0.926). Since among controls we found an association between TT and depression defined by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, OR=1.61, p=0.049) we also compared suicides with controls without signs of depression (BDI ? 11) but found no association (OR=1.0, p=0.976). Analyses within suicides showed trends (not significant after Bonferroni correction) for correlations between the dose of the T allele and age at death among males and blood ethanol concentration among females, who committed suicide under the influence of alcohol. We conclude that MTHFR C677T polymorphism is not a risk factor for completed suicide. The sex-specific trends for correlations between rs1801133 and age at death, and blood ethanol concentration should be studied further. PMID:22982411

Chojnicka, Izabela; Sobczyk-Kopcio?, Agnieszka; Fudalej, Marcin; Fudalej, Sylwia; Wojnar, Marcin; Wa?kiewicz, Anna; Broda, Gra?yna; Strawa, Katarzyna; Pawlak, Aleksandra; Krajewski, Pawe?; P?oski, Rafa?

2012-12-10

262

Characterization of the norCBQD genes, encoding nitric oxide reductase, in the nitrogen fixing bacterium Bradyrhizobium japonicum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genes norCBQD that encode the bc-type nitric oxide reductase from Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA110 have been isolated and characterized. norC and norB encode the cytochrome c-containing subunit II and cytochrome b-containing subunit I of nitric oxide reductase, respectively. norQ encodes a protein with an ATP\\/GTP-binding motif, and the predicted norD gene product shows similarity with NorD from other denitrifiers. Mutational

Socorro Mesa; Leonardo Velasco; Maximino E. Manzanera; J. Delgado; Eulogio J. Bedmar

2002-01-01

263

Evaluation of Factor V G1691A, prothrombin G20210A, Factor XIII V34L, MTHFR A1298C, MTHFR C677T and PAI-1 4G/5G genotype frequencies of patients subjected to cardiovascular disease (CVD) panel in south-east region of Turkey.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, such as arterial hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia or diabetes mellitus, as well as CVDs, including myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease or stroke, are the most prevalent diseases and account for the major causes of death worldwide. In the present study, 4,709 unrelated patients subjected to CVD panel in south-east part of Turkey between the years 2010 and 2013 were enrolled and DNA was isolated from the blood samples of these patients. Mutation analyses were conducted using the real-time polymerase chain reaction method to screen six common mutations (Factor V G1691A, PT G20210A, Factor XIII V34L, MTHFR A1298C and C677T and PAI-1 -675 4G/5G) found in CVD panel. The prevalence of these mutations were 0.57, 0.25, 2.61, 13.78, 9.34 and 24.27 % in homozygous form, respectively. Similarly, the mutation percent of them in heterozygous form were 7.43, 3.44, 24.91, 44.94, 41.09 and 45.66%, respectively. No mutation was detected in 92 (1.95%) patients in total. Because of the fact that this is the first study to screen six common mutations in CVD panel in south-east region of Turkey, it has a considerable value on the diagnosis and treatment of these diseases. Upon the results of the present and previous studied a careful examination for these genetic variants should be carried out in thrombophilia screening programs, particularly in Turkish population. PMID:24532105

Oztuzcu, Serdar; Ergun, Sercan; Ula?l?, Mustafa; Nacarkahya, Gülper; I?ci, Yusuf Ziya; I?ci, Mehri; Bayraktar, Recep; Tamer, Ali; Çakmak, Ecir Ali; Arslan, Ahmet

2014-06-01

264

Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Gene Polymorphism and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

Objective This review aimed to comprehensively assess the literature examining a possible link between the rs1801133 polymorphism (677C?T) in the gene encoding the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Research Design and Methods Several research databases were systematically searched for studies examining the genotype at the rs1801133 polymorphism in healthy control individuals and individuals with type 2 DM. Genotype frequency data were examined across all studies and across subsets of studies according to ethnicity and presence of serious DM-related complications. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Results A total of 4855 individuals with type 2 DM and 5242 healthy controls from 15 countries comprising Asian, Caucasian and African ethnicities were found to satisfy the inclusion criteria and included in the review. Genotype at the rs1801133 polymorphism was not consistently associated with either increased or reduced risk of type 2 DM; the OR across all studies was 0.91 (95%CI 0.82 to 1.00) for the C- vs. T-allele, 0.88 (0.75 to 1.03) for CC vs. CT+TT, 0.82 (0.71 to 0.95) for CC vs. TT, and 1.15 (1.03 to 1.29) for TT vs. CC+CT. Similar results were found when the meta-analysis was repeated separately for each ethnic subgroup, and for subgroups with or without serious DM-related complications. Conclusions There does not appear to be compelling evidence of an association between the genotype at the rs1801133 polymorphism of the MTHFR gene and risk of type 2 DM. PMID:24023947

Yang, Na-Na; Li, Le-Qun

2013-01-01

265

Association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations  

PubMed Central

Background The association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism and serum lipid profiles is still controversial in diverse ethnics. Bai Ku Yao is an isolated subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The aim of the present study was to eveluate the association of MTHFR C677T polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 780 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 686 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the MTHFR C677T was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) AI and ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.05-0.001). The frequency of C and T alleles was 77.4% and 22.6% in Bai Ku Yao, and 60.9% and 39.1% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The frequency of CC, CT and TT genotypes was 58.7%, 37.3% and 4.0% in Bai Ku Yao, and 32.6%, 56.4% and 11.0% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The levels of TC and LDL-C in both ethnic groups were significant differences among the three genotypes (P < 0.05-0.01). The T allele carriers had higher serum TC and LDL-C levels than the T allele noncarriers. The levels of ApoB in Han were significant differences among the three genotypes (P < 0.05). The T allele carriers had higher serum ApoB levels as compared with the T allele noncarriers. The levels of TC, TG and LDL-C in Bai Ku Yao were correlated with genotypes (P < 0.05-0.001), whereas the levels of LDL-C in Han were associated with genotypes (P < 0.001). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with sex, age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and blood pressure in the both ethnic groups. Conclusions The differences in serum TC, TG, LDL-C and ApoB levels between the two ethnic groups might partly result from different genotypic and allelic frequencies of the MTHFR C677T or different MTHFR gene-enviromental interactions. PMID:20977771

2010-01-01

266

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and A1298C polymorphism and changes in homocysteine concentrations in women with idiopathic recurrent pregnancy losses.  

PubMed

Because they have been described as strong risk factors for idiopathic recurrent pregnancy losses (RPLs), we assessed the association between the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) C677T and A1298C and hyperhomocysteinemia in Tunisian women with idiopathic RPL. Study subjects comprised 200 patients with more than three consecutive RPLs, and 200 age-matched parous control women. C677T and A1298C SNPs were analyzed by PCR-RFLP analysis, and fasting serum homocysteine was measured with ELISA. The frequency of MTHFR 677T/T (30.0 vs 7.0%) and 1298C/C (13.5 vs 4.0%) genotypes was significantly higher in patients. While it was similar among patients and controls (P = 0.095), higher homocysteine was seen with the T/T (but not 1298A/C and 1298C/C) genotype among patients and controls compared with non-T/T carriers (P < 0.05), and in patients vs controls. Higher prevalence of MTHFR 677T/T was seen in late (P < 0.05) and early-late (P < 0.001) RPL, while higher prevalence of 1298C/C genotype was seen only in early-late RPL (P < 0.001), and the prevalence of double heterozygotes was statistically not significant between patients and controls (P = 0.10; odds ratio = 2.73). Logistic regression analysis showed that, after adjusting for all variables, homozygosity for MTHFR C677T was associated with late (P < 0.001), and combined early-late (P < 0.001), while homozygosity for A1298C was associated only with combined early-late (P = 0.026), as was secondary-level education, which was associated with early (P = 0.005), late (P = 0.026) and combined early-late (P = 0.004) abortions. Homozygosity for MTHFR C677T (late and early-late) and A1298C (early-late) are risk factor for RPLs, irrespectively of total homocysteine levels. PMID:16452733

Mtiraoui, N; Zammiti, W; Ghazouani, L; Braham, N Jmili; Saidi, S; Finan, R R; Almawi, W Y; Mahjoub, T

2006-02-01

267

Involvement of ribonucleotide reductase activity in the senescence of normal human diploid fibroblasts.  

PubMed

The levels of intracellular ribonucleotide reductase activity, a highly regulated rate-limiting step in DNA synthesis, were investigated during serial subculture of normal human diploid fibroblasts in vitro. This key enzyme activity was found to decline significantly during cellular senescence. This observation along with previous findings of a mutator gene associated with mammalian ribonucleotide reductase suggests a possible mutation mechanism for aging which involves changes in reductase activity during cellular senescence. Furthermore, in keeping with the decrease in enzyme activity, we show that cell resistance to the antitumor agent hydroxyurea, whose site of action is ribonucleotide reductase, decreases progressively with increasing passage numbers. This indicates that an important factor to be considered in drug therapy aimed at the reductase is the increased sensitivity of normal cells to drug with cell age, due to a decline in enzyme activity. Much remains to be determined about age-dependent factors involved in drug therapy; cultured normal human diploid fibroblasts provide a useful system in which to investigate these important parameters. PMID:6757589

Dick, J E; Wright, J A

1982-10-01

268

Multiloculated hydrocephalus of intrauterine-onset: a case report of an unexpected MTHFR A1298C positive test result.  

PubMed

Loculated hydrocephalus is a condition in which discrete fluid-filled compartments form in association with the ventricular system of the brain. Multiloculated hydrocephalus is a subgroup of this entity involving more than one segment of the ventricular system. Abnormal descent of the cerebellar components can cause multiloculated hydrocephalus due to various pathogenesis. However, studies report no more than 10% of correlation between cerebellar herniation and hydrocephalus. We report an infant with MTHFR A1298C homozygosity, who had hydrocephalus of intrauterine-onset. Alterations in the folate metabolism might lead to congenital hydrocephalus and there is growing data on the prothrombotic effects of MTHFR polymorphisms. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no reported case of MTHFR A1298C homozygosity and intrauterine-onset multiloculated hydrocephalus as a co-existence in the literature. PMID:24341140

Cizmeci, M N; Akelma, A Z; Kosehan, D; Kutukoglu, I; Sonmez, F M

2013-01-01

269

TPMT and MTHFR Genotype is not Associated With Altered Risk of Thioguanine-Related Sinusoidal Obstruction Syndrome in Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Report from the Children’s Oncology Group  

PubMed Central

Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome is a complication of therapy for pediatric ALL and may be modified by thiopurine methyltransferase activity as well as by MTHFR genotype. We assessed TPMT * 3A, * 3B, * 3C, and MTHFR C677T and A1298C germline genetic polymorphisms among 351 patients enrolled in the thioguanine treatment arm of CCG-1952 clinical trial. TPMT and MTHFR C677T genotypes were not associated with SOS risk. The combination of MTHFR and TPMT variant genotypes was not associated with SOS risk. These suggest that germline genetic variation in TPMT and MTHFR do not significantly alter SOS risk in patients exposed to thioguanine. PMID:24737678

Wray, Lisa; Vujkovic, Marijana; McWilliams, Thomas; Cannon, Shannon; Devidas, Meenakshi; Stork, Linda; Aplenc, Richard

2014-01-01

270

TPMT and MTHFR genotype is not associated with altered risk of thioguanine-related sinusoidal obstruction syndrome in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.  

PubMed

Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome is a complication of therapy for pediatric ALL and may be modified by thiopurine methyltransferase activity as well as by MTHFR genotype. We assessed TPMT *3A, *3B, *3C, and MTHFR C677T and A1298C germline genetic polymorphisms among 351 patients enrolled in the thioguanine treatment arm of CCG-1952 clinical trial. TPMT and MTHFR C677T genotypes were not associated with SOS risk. The combination of MTHFR and TPMT variant genotypes was not associated with SOS risk. These suggest that germline genetic variation in TPMT and MTHFR do not significantly alter SOS risk in patients exposed to thioguanine. PMID:24737678

Wray, Lisa; Vujkovic, Marijana; McWilliams, Thomas; Cannon, Shannon; Devidas, Meenakshi; Stork, Linda; Aplenc, Richard

2014-11-01

271

MTHFR polymorphisms C677T and A1298C and associations with IVF outcomes in Brazilian women.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MTHFR gene polymorphisms and IVF outcomes in Brazilian women undergoing assisted reproduction treatment. A prospective study was conducted in the Human Reproduction Department at the ABC University School of Medicine and the Ideia Fertility Institute between December 2010 and April 2012. The patient population was 82 women undergoing assisted reproduction cycles. The MTHFR polymorphisms C677T and A1298C were evaluated and compared with laboratory results and pregnancy rates. The C677T variant was associated with proportions of mature (P=0.006) and immature (P=0.003) oocytes whereas the A1298C variant was associated with number of oocytes retrieved (P=0.044). The polymorphisms, whether alone or in combination, were not associated with normal fertilization, good-quality embryo or clinical pregnancy rates. This study suggests that the number and maturity of oocytes retrieved may be related to the MTHFR polymorphisms C677T and A1298C. It is believed that folate has a crucial function in human reproduction and that folate deficiency can compromise the function of the metabolic pathways it is involved in, leading to an accumulation of homocysteine. The gene MTHFR encodes the 5-MTHFR enzyme, which is involved in folate metabolism, and C677T/A1298C polymorphisms of this gene are related to decreased enzyme activity and consequent changes in homocysteine concentration. Folate deficiency and hyperhomocysteinaemia can also compromise fertility and lead to pregnancy complications by affecting the development of oocytes, preparation of endometrial receptivity, implantation of the embryo and pregnancy. In folliculogenesis, hyperhomocysteinaemia can activate apoptosis, leading to follicular atresia and affecting the maturity of oocytes and the quality of embryos cultured in vitro. This study was performed to investigate the association between MTHFR polymorphisms and IVF outcomes in women undergoing assisted reproduction treatment. PMID:24746944

D'Elia, Priscila Queiroz; dos Santos, Aline Amaro; Bianco, Bianca; Barbosa, Caio Parente; Christofolini, Denise Maria; Aoki, Tsutomu

2014-06-01

272

Prevalence of MTHFR C677T and MS A2756G polymorphisms in major depressive disorder, and their impact on response to fluoxetine treatment  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the prevalence of the C677T polymorphism of the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and the A2756G polymorphism of methionine synthase (MS), and their impact on antidepressant response. Methods We screened 224 subjects (52% female, mean age 39 ± 11 years) with SCID-diagnosed major depressive disorder (MDD), and obtained 194 genetic samples. 49 subjects (49% female, mean age 36 ± 11 years) participated in a 12-week open clinical trial of fluoxetine 20–60 mg/day. Association between clinical response and C677T and A2756G polymorphisms, folate, B12, and homocysteine was examined. Results Prevalence of the C677T and A2756G polymorphisms was consistent with previous reports (C/C=41%, C/T=47%, T/T=11%, A/A=66%, A/G=29%, G/G=4%). In the fluoxetine-treated subsample (n=49), intent-to-treat (ITT) response rates were 47% for C/C subjects and 46% for pooled C/T and T/T subjects (nonsignificant). ITT response rates were 38% for A/A subjects and 60% for A/G subjects (nonsignificant), with no subjects exhibiting the G/G homozygote. Mean baseline plasma B12 was significantly lower in A/G subjects compared to A/A, but folate and homocysteine levels were not affected by genetic status. Plasma folate was negatively associated with treatment response. Conclusion The C677T and A2756G polymorphisms did not significantly affect antidepressant response. These preliminary findings require replication in larger samples. PMID:22789065

Mischoulon, David; Lamon-Fava, Stefania; Selhub, Jacob; Katz, Judith; Papakostas, George I.; Iosifescu, Dan V.; Yeung, Albert S.; Dording, Christina M.; Farabaugh, Amy H.; Clain, Alisabet J.; Baer, Lee; Alpert, Jonathan E.; Nierenberg, Andrew A.; Fava, Maurizio

2014-01-01

273

Association of methylenetetrahydrofolate (MTHFR) and apolipoprotein E (apo E) genotypes with homocysteine, vitamin and lipid levels in carotid stenosis.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to investigate the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate (MTHFR) genotypes and levels of homocysteine (Hcy), folate, vitamin B12 and lipids as well as the association between apolipoprotein E (apo E) genotypes and levels of lipids in a Croatian healthy control group and a group of patients with > 70% carotid stenosis (CS). The study included 98 Croats, 38 patients with > 70% carotid stenosis and 60 age- and sex-matched controls. The MTHFR and apo E genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), Hcy by enzyme immunoassay, vitamins by immunochemiluminiscence, and lipids by spectrophotometric method. There was no difference between control subjects and CS patients in the distribution of C677T MTHFR genotypes (p=0. 786) and alleles (p=0.904), however, differences in the frequencies of apo E genotypes (p=0.012) and alleles (p=0.029) were statistically significant. The odds ratio for apo E 3/4 genotype was 3.93 (95% CI 1.23-12.61). Hyperhomocysteinemia (> or =15 micromol/L) was found in 11% of CS patients and 5% of control subjects. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, vitamin B12 and folate were statistically different in "all MTHFR genotypes" (p<0.001, p<0.01, p=0.044 and p=0.036, respectively), and in TC/TT (p<0.001, p=0.003, p=0.030 and p=0.032, respectively) groups. The levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides in the apo E 3/3, and total cholesterol in the apo E 3/4 group yielded statistical difference. An association was found of apo E 3/4 genotype but not of MTHFR genotypes with the risk of CS. MTHFR and apo E affect blood lipid levels, which was statistically confirmed. An association was also recorded between hyperhomocysteinemia and patients with CS. Vitamin status in CS showed a statistically verified association with TC/TT MTHFR genotype. In the group of patients with TC/TT MTHFR genotype, lower vitamin B12 and higher folate values were recorded. The results of multiple logistic analysis showed that there was no statistical significance of Hcy levels (OR 2.403, p=0.334) or conventional vascular risk factors such as smoking habit (OR 0.505, p=0.149), age (OR 1.048, p=0.087) or sex (OR 2.037, p=0.112) in predicting CS. PMID:17243563

Zuntar, Irena; Antoljak, Natasa; Vrki?, Nada; Topi?, Elizabeta; Kujundzi?, Nikola; Demarin, Vida; Vukovi?, Vlasta

2006-12-01

274

Polymorphisms of MTHFR C677T and A1298C association with oral carcinoma risk: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Investigations regarding association of MTHFR polymorphisms with oral carcinoma risk have yielded inconclusive results. Thus, meta-analyses were performed. Results showed that no associations of C677T polymorphisms with oral carcinoma were observed for the overall data. In subgroup analyses by drinking status, homozygous TT alleles exhibited elevated oral cancer susceptibility in heavy drinkers. For A1298C polymorphism, CC alleles presented a possible preventive role for oral cancer. Collectively, results suggest that MTHFR 677TT polymorphism might be a low-penetrant risk factor for oral carcinoma only in heavy drinkers. Conversely, 1298CC alleles might play a preventive role for oral cancer. PMID:22536935

Zhuo, Xianlu; Ling, Junjun; Zhou, Yan; Zhao, Houyu; Song, Yufeng; Tan, Yinghui

2012-07-01

275

Genetic Variability in the MTHFR gene and colorectal cancer risk using the Colorectal Cancer Family Registry  

PubMed Central

Background The MTHFR C677T TT genotype is associated with a 15%–18% reduction in colorectal cancer (CRC) risk but it is not clear if other variants of the gene are associated with CRC risk. Methods We used a tagSNP approach to comprehensively evaluate associations between variation in the MTHFR gene and CRC risk using a large family-based case control study of 1,750 population-based and 245 clinic-based families from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR).We assessed 22 TagSNPs, selected based on pairwise r2>95%, using Haploview Tagger and genotyped on the Illumina GoldenGate or Sequenom platforms. The association between SNPs and colorectal cancer was assessed using log additive, co-dominant, and recessive models. Results From studying the population-based families, the C677T (rs1801133) and A1298C (rs1801131) polymorphisms were associated with a decreased CRC risk overall (OR=0.81, 95% CI=0.63–1.04 and OR=0.82, 95% CI=0.64–1.07, respectively). The 677 TT genotype was associated with a decreased risk of microsatellite stable/microsatellite low tumors (OR=0.69, 95% CI=0.49–0.97) and an increased risk of microsatellite high tumors (OR= 2.22, 95% CI=0.91–5.43) (interaction p-value = 0.01), as well as an increased risk of proximal cancers and a decreased risk of distal and rectal cancers (interaction p-value = 0.02). No other SNP was associated with risk overall or within subgroups. Conclusion The 677 TT and 1298 CC genotypes may each be associated with a decrease in CRC risk. We observed little evidence of additional genetic variability in the MTHFR gene relevant to CRC risk. PMID:20056627

Levine, A. Joan; Figueiredo, Jane C.; Lee, Won; Poynter, Jenny N.; Conti, David; Duggan, David J; Campbell, Peter T.; Newcomb, Polly; Martinez, Maria Elena; Hopper, John L.; Le Marchand, Loic; Baron, John A.; Limburg, Paul J.; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Haile, Robert W

2009-01-01

276

Acceleration of an aldo-keto reductase by minimal loop engineering.  

PubMed

Aldo-keto reductases tighten coenzyme binding by forming a hydrogen bond across the pyrophosphate group of NAD(P)(H). Mutation of the hydrogen bonding anchor Lys24 in Candida tenuis xylose reductase prevents fastening of the "safety belt" around NAD(H). The loosened NAD(H) binding leads to increased turnover numbers (k(cat)) for reductions of bulky-bulky ketones at constant substrate and coenzyme affinities (i.e. K(m Ketone), K(m NADH)). PMID:24951537

Krump, C; Vogl, M; Brecker, L; Nidetzky, B; Kratzer, R

2014-07-01

277

Nitrate reductase from Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides.  

PubMed Central

The facultative phototroph Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides DSM158 was incapable of either assimilating or dissimilating nitrate, although the organism could reduce it enzymatically to nitrite either anaerobically in the light or aerobically in the dark. Reduction of nitrate was mediated by a nitrate reductase bound to chromatophores that could be easily solubilized and functioned with chemically reduced viologens or photochemically reduced flavins as electron donors. The enzyme was solubilized, and some of its kinetic and molecular parameters were determined. It seemed to be nonadaptive, ammonia did not repress its synthesis, and its activity underwent a rapid decline when the cells entered the stationary growth phase. Studies with inhibitors and with metal antagonists indicated that molybdenum and possibly iron participate in the enzymatic reduction of nitrate. The conjectural significance of this nitrate reductase in phototrophic bacteria is discussed. PMID:6978883

Kerber, N L; Cardenas, J

1982-01-01

278

A Hypomethylating Variant of MTHFR, 677C.T, Blunts the Neural Response to Errors in Patients with  

E-print Network

A Hypomethylating Variant of MTHFR, 677C.T, Blunts the Neural Response to Errors in Patients Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts, United States of America Abstract Background: Responding to errors is a critical first step

Manoach, Dara S.

279

Higher incidence of C677T polymorphism of the MTHFR gene in North Indian patients with vascular disease.  

PubMed

Homocysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid, which is derived from dietary methionine. Hyperhomocysteinemia has been implicated in vascular disease for over a decade now, and can be treated with B vitamins. Among its causes is polymorphism of the MTHFR gene, the most common being the cytidine to thymidine at position 677 (MTHFR C677T), which gives rise to three genotypes - normal homozygous CC, heterozygous CT and homozygous variant TT. An attempt was made to ascertain the prevalence of this MTHFR C677T in our population so that preventive measures may accordingly be instituted. Blood samples from 70 patients with vascular disease and 70 healthy controls were analyzed for plasma homocysteine levels (chemiluminescent immunoassay) and for the presence of MTHFR C677T (polymerase chain reaction analysis). Homocysteine was higher in the homozygous subjects (TT genotype) than in the heterozygous (CT genotype). In patients, the frequency of the C allele was significantly lower, and that of the T allele was significantly higher than the corresponding frequencies in controls. In conclusion, the North Indian urban population has higher homocysteine levels associated with the TT genotype. Hence, instituting measures towards reduction of homocysteine levels in the population would probably reduce the incidence and morbidity of vascular disease in our population. PMID:22375042

Bhargava, S; Ali, A; Parakh, R; Saxena, R; Srivastava, L M

2012-04-01

280

Nitrogen fixation in transposon mutants from Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 110 impaired in nitrate reductase.  

PubMed

Tn5 transposon mutagenesis was carried out in Bradyrhizobium japonicum strain USDA 110 to produce defective mutants. From over one thousand clones expressing low levels of nitrate reductase activity as free-living bacteria, approximately five percent had significantly different ratios of nodulation, N2 fixation or nitrate reductase activity compared to the wild strain when determined in bacteroids from soybean nodules. Tn5 insertions were checked previously and mutants were arranged into four different groups. Only one of these groups, designated AN, was less effective at N2 fixation than the wild strain, suggesting a mutation in a domain shared by nitrogenase and NR. The remaining groups of insertions successfully nodulated and were as effective at N2 fixation as the wild strain, but showed diminished ability to reduce nitrate both in nodules and in the isolated bacteroids when assayed in vitro with NADH or methyl viologen as electron donors. PCR amplification demonstrated that Tn5 insertions took place in different genes on each mutant group and the type of mutant (CC) expressing almost no nitrate reductase activity under all treatments seemed to possess transposable elements in two genes. Induction of nitrate reductase activity by nitrate was observed only in those clones expressing a low constitutive activity (AN and AE). Nitrate reductase activity in bacteroids along nodule growth decreased in all groups including the ineffective AN group, whose nodulation was highly inhibited by nitrate at 5 mmol/L N. Host-cultivar interaction seemed to influence the regulation of nitrate reductase activity in bacteroids. Total or partial repression of nitrate reductase activity in bacteroids unaffected by N2 fixation (CC, AJ and AE groups) improved nodule resistance to nitrate and N yields of shoots over those of the wild strain. These observations may suggest that some of the energy supplied to bacteroids was wasted by its constitutive NRA. PMID:12756917

Camacho, María; Burgos, Araceli; Chamber-Pérez, Manuel A

2003-04-01

281

Role of Aldo-Keto Reductase Family 1 (AKR1) Enzymes in Human Steroid Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Human aldo-keto reductases AKR1C1-AKR1C4 and AKR1D1 play essential roles in the metabolism of all steroid hormones, the biosynthesis of neurosteroids and bile acids, the metabolism of conjugated steroids, and synthetic therapeutic steroids. These enzymes catalyze NADPH dependent reductions at the C3, C5, C17 and C20 positions on the steroid nucleus and side-chain. AKR1C1-AKR1C4 act as 3-keto, 17-keto and 20-ketosteroid reductases to varying extents, while AKR1D1 acts as the sole ?4-3-ketosteroid-5?-reductase (steroid 5?-reductase) in humans. AKR1 enzymes control the concentrations of active ligands for nuclear receptors and control their ligand occupancy and trans-activation, they also regulate the amount of neurosteroids that can modulate the activity of GABAA and NMDA receptors. As such they are involved in the pre-receptor regulation of nuclear and membrane bound receptors. Altered expression of individual AKR1C genes is related to development of prostate, breast, and endometrial cancer. Mutations in AKR1C1 and AKR1C4 are responsible for sexual development dysgenesis and mutations in AKR1D1 are causative in bile-acid deficiency. PMID:24189185

Rižner, Tea Lanišnik; Penning, Trevor M.

2013-01-01

282

Effect of Mutation on Enzyme Motion in Dihydrofolate James B. Watney, Pratul K. Agarwal, and Sharon Hammes-Schiffer*  

E-print Network

Effect of Mutation on Enzyme Motion in Dihydrofolate Reductase James B. Watney, Pratul K. Agarwal- folate reductase enzyme are presented. Although residue 121 is on the exterior of the enzyme for the mutant than for the wild-type enzyme by an amount that is consistent with the experimentally observed

Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

283

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms and interaction with smoking and alcohol consumption in lung cancer risk: a case-control study in a Japanese population  

PubMed Central

Background Cigarette smoking is an established risk factor of lung cancer development while the current epidemiological evidence is suggestive of an increased lung cancer risk associated with alcohol consumption. Dietary folate, which is present in a wide range of fresh fruits and vegetables, may be a micronutrient that has a beneficial impact on lung carcinogenesis. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) plays a crucial role in regulating folate metabolism, which affects both DNA synthesis/repair and methylation. We examined if smoking or alcohol consumption modify associations between MTHFR polymorphisms and lung cancer risk. Methods We evaluated the role of the MTHFR C677T (rs1801133) and A1298C (rs1801131) polymorphisms in a case-control study comprised of 462 lung cancer cases and 379 controls in a Japanese population. Logistic regression was used to assess the adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results The TT genotype of the C677T polymorphism was significantly associated with an increased risk of lung cancer (OR = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.42 - 3.62, P < 0.01) while the A1298C polymorphism was not associated with lung cancer risk. The minor alleles of both polymorphisms behaved in a recessive fashion. The highest risks were seen for 677TT-carriers with a history of smoking or excessive drinking (OR = 6.16, 95% CI = 3.48 - 10.9 for smoking; OR = 3.09, 95% CI = 1.64 - 5.81 for drinking) compared with C-carriers without a history of smoking or excessive drinking, but no interactions were seen. The 1298CC genotype was only associated with increased risk among non-smokers (P < 0.05), and smoking was only associated with increased risks among 1298A-carriers (P < 0.01), but no significant interaction was seen. There was a synergistic interaction between the A1298C polymorphism and drinking (P < 0.05). The highest risk was seen for the CC-carriers with excessive drinking (OR = 7.24, 95% CI = 1.89 - 27.7) compared with the A-carriers without excessive drinking). Conclusions The C677T polymorphism was significantly associated with lung cancer risk. Although the A1298C polymorphism was not associated with lung cancer risk, a significant interaction with drinking was observed. Future studies incorporating data on folate intake may undoubtedly lead to a more thorough understanding of the role of the MTHFR polymorphisms in lung cancer development. PMID:22024018

2011-01-01

284

Common folate gene variant, MTHFR C677T, is associated with brain structure in two independent cohorts of people with mild cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

A commonly carried C677T polymorphism in a folate-related gene, MTHFR, is associated with higher plasma homocysteine, a well-known mediator of neuronal damage and brain atrophy. As homocysteine promotes brain atrophy, we set out to discover whether people carrying the C677T MTHFR polymorphism which increases homocysteine, might also show systematic differences in brain structure. Using tensor-based morphometry, we tested this association in 359 elderly Caucasian subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (mean age: 75 ± 7.1 years) scanned with brain MRI and genotyped as part of Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. We carried out a replication study in an independent, non-overlapping sample of 51 elderly Caucasian subjects with MCI (mean age: 76 ± 5.5 years), scanned with brain MRI and genotyped for MTHFR, as part of the Cardiovascular Health Study. At each voxel in the brain, we tested to see where regional volume differences were associated with carrying one or more MTHFR 'T' alleles. In ADNI subjects, carriers of the MTHFR risk allele had detectable brain volume deficits, in the white matter, of up to 2-8% per risk T allele locally at baseline and showed accelerated brain atrophy of 0.5-1.5% per T allele at 1 year follow-up, after adjusting for age and sex. We replicated these brain volume deficits of up to 5-12% per MTHFR T allele in the independent cohort of CHS subjects. As expected, the associations weakened after controlling for homocysteine levels, which the risk gene affects. The MTHFR risk variant may thus promote brain atrophy by elevating homocysteine levels. This study aims to investigate the spatially detailed effects of this MTHFR polymorphism on brain structure in 3D, pointing to a causal pathway that may promote homocysteine-mediated brain atrophy in elderly people with MCI. PMID:24179750

Rajagopalan, Priya; Jahanshad, Neda; Stein, Jason L; Hua, Xue; Madsen, Sarah K; Kohannim, Omid; Hibar, Derrek P; Toga, Arthur W; Jack, Clifford R; Saykin, Andrew J; Green, Robert C; Weiner, Michael W; Bis, Joshua C; Kuller, Lewis H; Riverol, Mario; Becker, James T; Lopez, Oscar L; Thompson, Paul M

2012-01-01

285

Structure, function, and inhibition of enoyl reductases  

E-print Network

and tuberculosis. One integral component of the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway, enoyl acyl-carrier-protein (ACP) reductase, has repeatedly been validated as an appropriate drug target in other organisms. The 2.4 Å crystal structure of the enoyl-ACP reductase from...

Kuo, Mack Ryan

2009-05-15

286

Correlation of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms with homocysteine metabolism in healthy Lebanese adults.  

PubMed

Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with several vascular and teratogenic conditions. Determinants of total homocysteine concentrations include genetic and nutritional factors. This study assesses the relation between homocysteine concentrations and MTHFR gene polymorphisms at two common alleles (C677T (rs1801133) and A1298C (rs1801131)) as well as other predictors of homocysteine (folate, vitamin B(12), body mass index (BMI), age, and gender) in a group of healthy Lebanese: 109 males and 124 females aged 17-55years. We used serum for the determination of homocysteine, folate and vitamin B(12) levels and blood drawn in EDTA tubes for molecular analysis of MTHFR polymorphisms. Hyperhomocysteinemia was present in 59/233 (25.3%) of the subjects, with male/female ratio of 1.95. Multivariable regression analysis showed that homocysteine levels were negatively related to folate and vitamin B(12) and positively related to male gender and C677T homozygosity; but not A1298C polymorphism, BMI or age. The prevalence of wild, heterozygous, and homozygous C677T genotypes was 45.0%, 43.3% and 11.6%, respectively; with a carrier frequency of 54.9% and allelic frequency of 33.3%. The A1298C genotypic prevalence was 39.5%, 30.9%, and 29.6% respectively; with a carrier frequency of 60.5% and allelic frequency of 45.1%. C677T/A1289C compound heterozygosity was present in 47/233 (20.2%) of volunteers. In this first pilot study, gender, folate, vitamin B(12) and C677T mutational status could explain around 32% of homocysteine variations. Future larger studies are recommended to investigate other predictors of homocysteine variation and combine them with markers explored in this and other studies, in order to evaluate their impact on vascular and/or congenital diseases. PMID:22652272

Mahfouz, Rami A; Cortas, Najwa K; Charafeddine, Khalil M; Abdul Khalik, Rabab N; Sarieddine, Doja S; Kadi, Raneem H; Daher, Rose T

2012-08-10

287

Tetrathionate reductase of Salmonella thyphimurium: a molybdenum containing enzyme  

SciTech Connect

Use of radioactive molybdenum demonstrates that the tetrathionate reductase of Salmonella typhimurium is a molydenum containing enzyme. It is proposed that this enzyme shares with other molybdo-proteins, such as nitrate reductase, a common molybdenum containing cofactor the defect of which leads to the loss of the tetrathionate reductase and nitrate reductase activities.

Hinojosa-Leon, M.; Dubourdieu, M.; Sanchez-Crispin, J.A.; Chippaux, M.

1986-04-29

288

Livedoid vasculopathy associated with combined prothrombin G20210A and factor V (Leiden) heterozygosity and MTHFR C677T homozygosity.  

PubMed

Livedoid vasculopathy (LV) is an occlusive thrombotic disease of lower extremities. A 34-year-old woman presented with 4-year history of recurrent necrotic and painful lesions with violaceous and purpuric border on both legs. Initial treatment with hydroxychloroquine, dapsone and prednisone were unsuccessful. Skin biopsy showed inflammatory infiltrate with epidermal necrosis. Prothrombin G20210A and factor V-Leiden heterozygosity, and MTHFR C677T homozygosity with hyperhomocysteinemia were confirmed. LV diagnosis was made; acetylsalicylic acid, folic acid, vitamin B12, and prednisone treatement resulted in complete healing. This is the first report on coexistence of prothrombin G20210A, factor V-Leiden, and homozygous MTHFR C677T with hyperhomocysteinemia in LV. PMID:18360788

Irani-Hakime, Noha A; Stephan, Farid; Kreidy, Raghid; Jureidini, Isabelle; Almawi, Wassim Y

2008-08-01

289

Inefficient Translation Renders the Enterococcus faecalis fabK Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase Phenotypically Cryptic  

PubMed Central

Enoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase catalyzes the last step of the bacterial fatty acid elongation cycle. Enterococcus faecalis is unusual in that it encodes two unrelated enoyl-ACP reductases, FabI and FabK. We recently reported that deletion of the gene encoding FabI results in an unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) auxotroph despite the presence of fabK, a gene encoding a second fully functional enoyl-ACP reductase. By process of elimination, our prior report argued that poor expression was the reason that fabK failed to functionally replace FabI. We now report that FabK is indeed poorly expressed and that the expression defect is at the level of translation rather than transcription. We isolated four spontaneous mutants that allowed growth of the E. faecalis ?fabI strain on fatty acid-free medium. Each mutational lesion (single base substitution or deletion) extended the fabK ribosome binding site. Inactivation of fabK blocked growth, indicating that the mutations acted only on fabK rather than a downstream gene. The mutations activated fabK translation to levels that supported fatty acid synthesis and hence cell growth. Furthermore, site-directed and random mutagenesis experiments showed that point mutations that resulted in increased complementarity to the 3? end of the 16S rRNA increased FabK translation to levels sufficient to support growth, whereas mutations that decreased complementarity blocked fabK translation. PMID:24163335

Bi, Hongkai; Zhu, Lei

2014-01-01

290

Inefficient translation renders the Enterococcus faecalis fabK enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase phenotypically cryptic.  

PubMed

Enoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase catalyzes the last step of the bacterial fatty acid elongation cycle. Enterococcus faecalis is unusual in that it encodes two unrelated enoyl-ACP reductases, FabI and FabK. We recently reported that deletion of the gene encoding FabI results in an unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) auxotroph despite the presence of fabK, a gene encoding a second fully functional enoyl-ACP reductase. By process of elimination, our prior report argued that poor expression was the reason that fabK failed to functionally replace FabI. We now report that FabK is indeed poorly expressed and that the expression defect is at the level of translation rather than transcription. We isolated four spontaneous mutants that allowed growth of the E. faecalis ?fabI strain on fatty acid-free medium. Each mutational lesion (single base substitution or deletion) extended the fabK ribosome binding site. Inactivation of fabK blocked growth, indicating that the mutations acted only on fabK rather than a downstream gene. The mutations activated fabK translation to levels that supported fatty acid synthesis and hence cell growth. Furthermore, site-directed and random mutagenesis experiments showed that point mutations that resulted in increased complementarity to the 3' end of the 16S rRNA increased FabK translation to levels sufficient to support growth, whereas mutations that decreased complementarity blocked fabK translation. PMID:24163335

Bi, Hongkai; Zhu, Lei; Wang, Haihong; Cronan, John E

2014-01-01

291

Evolution alters the enzymatic reaction coordinate of dihydrofolate reductase.  

PubMed

How evolution has affected enzyme function is a topic of great interest in the field of biophysical chemistry. Evolutionary changes from Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase (ecDHFR) to human dihydrofolate reductase (hsDHFR) have resulted in increased catalytic efficiency and an altered dynamic landscape in the human enzyme. Here, we show that a subpicosecond protein motion is dynamically coupled to hydride transfer catalyzed by hsDHFR but not ecDHFR. This motion propagates through residues that correspond to mutational events along the evolutionary path from ecDHFR to hsDHFR. We observe an increase in the variability of the transition states, reactive conformations, and times of barrier crossing in the human system. In the hsDHFR active site, we detect structural changes that have enabled the coupling of fast protein dynamics to the reaction coordinate. These results indicate a shift in the DHFR family to a form of catalysis that incorporates rapid protein dynamics and a concomitant shift to a more flexible path through reactive phase space. PMID:25369552

Masterson, Jean E; Schwartz, Steven D

2015-01-22

292

Structure of a bacterial homologue of vitamin K epoxide reductase  

SciTech Connect

Vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) generates vitamin K hydroquinone to sustain {gamma}-carboxylation of many blood coagulation factors. Here, we report the 3.6 {angstrom} crystal structure of a bacterial homologue of VKOR from Synechococcus sp. The structure shows VKOR in complex with its naturally fused redox partner, a thioredoxin-like domain, and corresponds to an arrested state of electron transfer. The catalytic core of VKOR is a four transmembrane helix bundle that surrounds a quinone, connected through an additional transmembrane segment with the periplasmic thioredoxin-like domain. We propose a pathway for how VKOR uses electrons from cysteines of newly synthesized proteins to reduce a quinone, a mechanism confirmed by in vitro reconstitution of vitamin K-dependent disulphide bridge formation. Our results have implications for the mechanism of the mammalian VKOR and explain how mutations can cause resistance to the VKOR inhibitor warfarin, the most commonly used oral anticoagulant.

Li, Weikai; Schulman, Sol; Dutton, Rachel J.; Boyd, Dana; Beckwith, Jon; Rapoport, Tom A. (Harvard-Med); (HHMI)

2010-03-19

293

Isolation, sequence identification and tissue expression profile of two novel soybean (glycine max) genes-vestitone reductase and chalcone reductase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete mRNA sequences of two soybean (glycine max) genes-vestitone reductase and chalcone reductase, were amplified\\u000a using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends methods. The sequence analysis of these two genes revealed that soybean vestitone\\u000a reductase gene encodes a protein of 327 amino acids which has high homology with the vestitone reductase of Medicago sativa\\u000a (77%). The soybean chalcone reductase

G. Y. Liu

2009-01-01

294

Characterization of multiple Chinese hamster carbonyl reductases.  

PubMed

Carbonyl reductase (CR) is an enzyme which can catalyze the oxidoreduction of various carbonyl compounds in the presence of NAD(P)H. With the PCR method, using primers carrying the conserved nucleotide sequence among mammalian CRs, we isolated three different cDNAs (CHCR1, CHCR2 and CHCR3) which encode a unique carbonyl reductase from the Chinese hamster. The PCR products of CHCR1 and CHCR2 were clearly isolated with Bpu1102I, BspEI and XmaI restriction enzymes. The nucleotide-sequence of CHCR3 was completely different from those of CHCR1 and CHCR2. The predicted double-wound betaalphabetaalpha-structures of the CHCRs suggests the presence of a typical NADP(+)-binding motif and is similar to the corresponding region of 3alpha,20beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and mouse lung tetrameric carbonyl reductase. The deduced amino acid sequence of CHCR1 showed a high homology to CHCR2 (>96%) and the other mammalian CRs (>81%). However, CHCR3 showed a high homology to human CBR3 (>86%) and a relatively lower homology to the other CHCRs (<76%). Bacterial recombinant CHCRs showed typical carbonyl reductase activities towards 4-benzoylpyridine, 4-nitrobenzaldehyde and pyridine 4-carboxyaldehyde. These three CRs showed not only 3-keto reductase of steroids, but also 20-keto reductase. However, these CRs did not show any activity of 17-keto reductase activity. Both CHCR1 and CHCR2 have prostaglandin 9-keto reductase and 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase activities towards PGE(2) and PGF(2alpha) from the analyses of enzymatic reaction products. The results of Western blotting and RT-PCR suggest these CHCRs have a tissue-dependent-distribution in the Chinese hamster. PMID:11306100

Terada, T; Sugihara, Y; Nakamura, K; Sato, R; Sakuma, S; Fujimoto, Y; Fujita, T; Inazu, N; Maeda, M

2001-01-30

295

The effect of polymorphisms of MTHER gene and vitamin B on hyperhomocysteinemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The relationship between hyperhomocysteinemia and coronary artery disease (CAD) was investigated and the influence of environmental\\u000a factors (Folate, VitB12) and genetic factors [N5, N10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) or MTHFR gene mutation]\\u000a on plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels and the risk of CAD observed. Fifty-one CAD patients and 30 CAD-free subjects were recruited\\u000a in the study. The polymorphisms of MTHFR gene were

Chen Jian; Zhang Jinzhi; Cheng Longxian; Li Yushu

2001-01-01

296

Recurrent Abortions in Asian Indians: No Role of Factor V Leiden Hong Kong\\/Cambridge Mutation and MTHFR Polymorphism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recurrent fetal loss is a frequent health problem. Data accumulated over the past few years have suggested a possible correlation between thrombophilia and fetal loss. Although a clear association has been established between fetal loss and certain thrombophilic states, such as antiphospholipid antibody syndromes, antithrombin deficiency, and combined defects, reports on the prevalence of inherited prothrombotic defects such as factor

Arijit Biswas; Priya Choudhry; Anuradha Mittal; Arvind Meena; Ravi Ranjan; V. P. Choudhry; Renu Saxena

2008-01-01

297

Construction and growth properties of a yeast strain defective in sterol 14-reductase.  

PubMed

We have transformed Saccharomyces cerevisiae with a genomic library contained in the replicative vector pFL44. The resulting transformants were screened for resistance to fenpropidin, a specific inhibitor of sterol 14-reductase. A plasmid was isolated that transformed yeast both to resistance to fenpropidin and to an increased specific activity of sterol 14-reductase. Sterol analysis of transformed cells grown in the presence of increasing concentrations of the inhibitor confirmed that resistance was a consequence of over-production of sterol 14-reductase. By chromosomal gene disruption, we have, for the first time, constructed yeast strains defective in sterol 14-reductase. As expected, since yeast in unable to take up sterols in aerobiosis, the disrupted strains do not grow in the presence of oxygen, even if exogenous sterols are supplied. However, disrupted cells grow in anaerobiosis with exogenous oleic acid and ergosterol supplements. They also grow in aerobiosis if they bear an additional mutation allowing sterol uptake. In this last growth condition the cells require a "sparking" ergosterol supplementation (25 nM) and accumulate ignosterol (ergosta-8,14-dienol) as the end-product of the sterol pathway. These results reveal that ignosterol is not obviously toxic to yeast membranes and strongly suggest that the molecular basis of the antifungal-activity morpholine and piperidine is directly related to the specific inhibition of ergosterol formation. PMID:1394506

Marcireau, C; Guyonnet, D; Karst, F

1992-10-01

298

A phase II trial of sequential ribonucleotide reductase inhibition in aggressive myeloproliferative neoplasms  

PubMed Central

Myeloproliferative neoplasms are a varied group of disorders that can have prolonged chronic phases, but eventually accelerate and can transform into a secondary acute myeloid leukemia that is ultimately fatal. Triapine is a novel inhibitor of the M2 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase. Sequential inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase with triapine and an M1 ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor (fludarabine) was noted to be safe, and led to a 29% complete plus partial response rate in myeloproliferative neoplasms. This article reports the findings of a phase II trial of triapine (105 mg/m2/day) followed by fludarabine (30 mg/m2/day) daily for 5 consecutive days in 37 patients with accelerated myeloproliferative neoplasms and secondary acute myeloid leukemia. The overall response rate was 49% (18/37), with a complete remission rate of 24% (9/37). Overall response rates and complete remissions were seen in all disease subsets, including secondary acute myeloid leukemia, in which the overall response rate and complete remission rate were 48% and 33%, respectively. All patients with known JAK2 V617F mutations (6/6) responded. The median overall survival of the entire cohort was 6.9 months, with a median overall survival of both overall responders and complete responders of 10.6 months. These data further demonstrate the promise of sequential inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase in patients with accelerated myeloproliferative neoplasms and secondary acute myeloid leukemia. This study was registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00381550). PMID:24362550

Zeidner, Joshua F.; Karp, Judith E.; Blackford, Amanda L.; Smith, B. Douglas; Gojo, Ivana; Gore, Steven D.; Levis, Mark J.; Carraway, Hetty E.; Greer, Jacqueline M.; Ivy, S. Percy; Pratz, Keith W.; McDevitt, Michael A.

2014-01-01

299

Response of serum and red blood cell folate concentrations to folic acid supplementation depends on methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T genotype: Results from a crossover trial  

PubMed Central

Scope By increasing blood folate concentrations, folic acid supplementation reduces risk for neural tube defect-affected pregnancies, and lowers homocysteine concentrations. We assessed response of red blood cell (RBC) and serum folate to folic acid supplementation, and examined association of response with the genetic polymorphism C677T of the methylenetetrahydrofolate NAD(P)H (MTHFR) gene. Methods and Results Randomized, controlled, crossover trial with two folic acid supplement treatment periods and a 30-week washout period. The primary outcome is blood folate (serum and RBC) concentrations. Volunteers (n=142) aged 18-69 were randomized to two of three doses (0, 200, and 400 ?g) of folic acid for twelve weeks. Serum folate response depended on treatment period with significant responses to 200 ?g seen only in the second treatment periods (4.4 ng/mL or 3.4 ng/mL). Additionally, serum folate increased as folic acid dose increased to 400 ?g (p< 0.01) and response was greater after the washout period (8.7 ng/mL), than after a 6-week run-in (2.3 ng/mL). The differential change attributable to a daily supplement of 400 ?g compared to 200 ?g was 96.8 ng/mL; while the change attributable to 400 ?g compared to 0 ?g was 121.4. Increases in RBC folate concentrations with 400 ?g occurred within MTHFR gene mutation (C677T); and in the African American group. Conclusions Serum folate concentration is responsive to modest increases in folic acid intake. Red blood cell folate increases only with higher additional doses of folic acid supplementation, and this is true for each MTHFR C677T genotype. PMID:23456769

Anderson, Cheryl A.M.; Beresford, Shirley A. A.; McLerran, Dale; Lampe, Johanna W.; Deeb, Samir; Feng, Ziding; Motulsky, Arno G.

2013-01-01

300

Atomic Structure of Salutaridine Reductase from the Opium Poppy (Papaver somniferum)  

SciTech Connect

The opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) is one of the oldest known medicinal plants. In the biosynthetic pathway for morphine and codeine, salutaridine is reduced to salutaridinol by salutaridine reductase (SalR; EC 1.1.1.248) using NADPH as coenzyme. Here, we report the atomic structure of SalR to a resolution of {approx}1.9 {angstrom} in the presence of NADPH. The core structure is highly homologous to other members of the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase family. The major difference is that the nicotinamide moiety and the substrate-binding pocket are covered by a loop (residues 265-279), on top of which lies a large 'flap'-like domain (residues 105-140). This configuration appears to be a combination of the two common structural themes found in other members of the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase family. Previous modeling studies suggested that substrate inhibition is due to mutually exclusive productive and nonproductive modes of substrate binding in the active site. This model was tested via site-directed mutagenesis, and a number of these mutations abrogated substrate inhibition. However, the atomic structure of SalR shows that these mutated residues are instead distributed over a wide area of the enzyme, and many are not in the active site. To explain how residues distal to the active site might affect catalysis, a model is presented whereby SalR may undergo significant conformational changes during catalytic turnover.

Higashi, Yasuhiro; Kutchan, Toni M.; Smith, Thomas J. (Danforth)

2011-11-18

301

Thioredoxin Reductase and its Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Thioredoxin plays a crucial role in a wide number of physiological processes, which span from reduction of nucleotides to deoxyriboucleotides to the detoxification from xenobiotics, oxidants and radicals. The redox function of Thioredoxin is critically dependent on the enzyme Thioredoxin NADPH Reductase (TrxR). In view of its indirect involvement in the above mentioned physio/pathological processes, inhibition of TrxR is an important clinical goal. As a general rule, the affinities and mechanisms of binding of TrxR inhibitors to the target enzyme are known with scarce precision and conflicting results abound in the literature. A relevant analysis of published results as well as the experimental procedures is therefore needed, also in view of the critical interest of TrxR inhibitors. We review the inhibitors of TrxR and related flavoreductases and the classical treatment of reversible, competitive, non competitive and uncompetitive inhibition with respect to TrxR, and in some cases we are able to reconcile contradictory results generated by oversimplified data analysis. PMID:24875642

Saccoccia, Fulvio; Angelucci, Francesco; Boumis, Giovanna; Carotti, Daniela; Desiato, Gianni; Miele, Adriana E; Bellelli, Andrea

2014-01-01

302

Superoxide reductase: fact or fiction?  

PubMed

It was recently proposed that anaerobic microorganisms contain a new pathway for detoxification of reactive oxygen species. This is centered around a novel mononuclear iron-containing enzyme, superoxide reductase (SOR), which catalyzes the reduction, rather than the dismutation, of superoxide to hydrogen peroxide. A surprisingly large amount of relevant data has accumulated in the two years or so since the proposal was made. Herein we address the questions: to what extent has the pathway been validated, and what fundamental issues have yet to be answered in considering the response of anaerobes to reactive oxygen species? The evidence for superoxide reduction by SOR is now overwhelming and comes from a variety of anaerobic and microaerophilic species. Moreover, the available spectroscopic and structural information provide a convincing case that the catalytic Fe site of SOR is structurally and electronically tuned to mediate superoxide reduction rather than oxidation. Kinetic analyses also support the original proposal of NAD(P)H, via rubredoxin and NAD(P)H:rubredoxin oxidoreductase, as the source of reductant. What is still to be determined is the fate of the peroxide generated by the SOR reaction. In particular, the role of otherwise well-characterized proteins like rubrerythrin, NADH peroxidase, and rubredoxin:oxygen oxidoreductase in "anaerobic" oxygen metabolism has yet to be established. PMID:12072972

Adams, Michael W W; Jenney, Francis E; Clay, Michael D; Johnson, Michael K

2002-06-01

303

Pseudomonas stutzeri outer membrane proteins inserts copper into N/sub 2/O reductase  

SciTech Connect

Among a set of frameshift mutagen (ICR-191; Polysciences, Inc.)-induced mutations that confer inability to grown anaerobically with N/sub 2/O as the sole electron acceptor, one class was found that produced an inactive N/sub 2/O reductase which lacked copper. All of these mutant strains failed to produce a 61,000-M/sub r/ protein located in the outer membrane. This protein, termed NosA, seems not to be responsible for bringing copper into the cell because the mutant strains and their parent were similarly sensitive to the copper content of the growth medium and no intermediate copper concentration in the medium permitted the mutant strains (nosA) to grow anaerobically with N/sub 2/O as the sole electron acceptor. We conclude that NosA is necessary to insert copper into N/sub 2/O reductase or to maintain it there.

Mokhele, K.; Tang, Y.J.; Clark, M.A.; Ingraham, J.L.

1987-12-01

304

FACKEL is a sterol C-14 reductase required for organized cell division and expansion in Arabidopsis embryogenesis  

PubMed Central

In flowering plants, the developing embryo consists of growing populations of cells whose fates are determined in a position-dependent manner to form the adult organism. Mutations in the FACKEL (FK) gene affect body organization of the Arabidopsis seedling. We report that FK is required for cell division and expansion and is involved in proper organization of the embryo. We isolated FK by positional cloning. Expression analysis in embryos revealed that FK mRNA becomes localized to meristematic zones. FK encodes a predicted integral membrane protein related to the vertebrate lamin B receptor and sterol reductases across species, including yeast sterol C-14 reductase ERG24. We provide functional evidence that FK encodes a sterol C-14 reductase by complementation of erg24. GC/MS analysis confirmed that fk mutations lead to accumulation of intermediates in the biosynthetic pathway preceding the C-14 reductase step. Although fk represents a sterol biosynthetic mutant, the phenotype was not rescued by feeding with brassinosteroids (BRs), the only plant sterol signaling molecules known so far. We propose that synthesis of sterol signals in addition to BRs is important in mediating regulated cell growth and organization during embryonic development. Our results indicate a novel role for sterols in the embryogenesis of plants. PMID:10859166

Schrick, Kathrin; Mayer, Ulrike; Horrichs, Andrea; Kuhnt, Christine; Bellini, Catherine; Dangl, Jeff; Schmidt, Jürgen; Jürgens, Gerd

2000-01-01

305

MTHFR/p53 polymorphisms as genetic factors for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer in HPV-infected Mexican women.  

PubMed

We performed a case-control association study to evaluate the association between common polymorphisms in MTHFR (C677T and A1298C) and the Arg72Pro polymorphism in the p53 gene and the risk for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or invasive cervical cancer (ICC) in Mexican HPV-infected women. We included 131 women with diagnosis of CIN grade I-II and 78 with CIN III or ICC; as controls we also included 274 women with normal Pap smear and negative HPV test. Genotyping for MTHFR and p53 polymorphisms was performed by PCR-RFPLs. HPV was tested by Hybrid Capture II. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated. Genotype frequencies for the 3 studied polymorphisms were distributed according to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The A1298C-MTHFR polymorphism showed significant differences for the heterozygous AC genotype and the C allele, whereas the AA genotype and A allele resulted to be genetic risk factors for CIN or ICC (p<0.03). The Arg72Pro-p53 polymorphism showed for the genotypes Arg/Pro and Pro/Pro, and for the Pro allele, a significant association only to the risk for CIN (p<0.03). The MTHFR/p53 interaction showed that the genotype combinations AA/ArgArg and AA/ArgPro were associated, respectively, to the risk of ICC and CIN (p<0.05). This study suggests that the A1298C-MTHFR polymorphism contributes to the genetic risk for both CIN and ICC, whereas the Arg72Pro-p53 polymorphism only contributes to the risk for CIN. The MTHFR/p53 genetic combinations AA/ArgArg and AA/ArgPro are associated genetic risk factors for ICC and CIN in Mexican HPV-infected women. PMID:24474455

González-Herrera, Lizbeth; Rodríguez-Morales, Patricia; Gonza Lez-Losa, María Del Refugio; Pérez-Mendoza, Gerardo; Canul-Canché, Jaqueline; Rosado-López, Iván; Cetina, Thelma Canto de

2014-01-01

306

Structural basis of stereospecific reduction by quinuclidinone reductase  

PubMed Central

Chiral molecule (R)-3-quinuclidinol, a valuable compound for the production of various pharmaceuticals, is efficiently synthesized from 3-quinuclidinone by using NADPH-dependent 3-quinuclidinone reductase (RrQR) from Rhodotorula rubra. Here, we report the crystal structure of RrQR and the structure-based mutational analysis. The enzyme forms a tetramer, in which the core of each protomer exhibits the ?/? Rossmann fold and contains one molecule of NADPH, whereas the characteristic substructures of a small lobe and a variable loop are localized around the substrate-binding site. Modeling and mutation analyses of the catalytic site indicated that the hydrophobicity of two residues, I167 and F212, determines the substrate-binding orientation as well as the substrate-binding affinity. Our results revealed that the characteristic substrate-binding pocket composed of hydrophobic amino acid residues ensures substrate docking for the stereospecific reaction of RrQR in spite of its loose interaction with the substrate. PMID:24507746

2014-01-01

307

21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...used to determine the activity of the enzyme glutathione reductase in serum, plasma, or erythrocytes by such techniques as fluorescence and photometry. The results of this assay are used in the diagnosis of liver disease, glutathione reductase...

2010-04-01

308

21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.  

...determine the activity of the enzyme glutathione reductase in serum, plasma, or erythrocytes by such techniques as fluorescence and photometry. The results of this assay are used in the diagnosis of liver disease, glutathione reductase deficiency, or...

2014-04-01

309

IN VITRO INHIBITION OF GLUTATHIONE REDUCTASE BY ARSENOTRI-GLUTATHIONE  

EPA Science Inventory

Arsenotriglutathione, a product of the reduction of arsenate and the complexation of arsenite by glutathione, is a mixed type inhibitor of the reduction of glutathione disulfide by purified yeast glutathione reductase or the glutathione reductase activity in rabbit erythrocyte ly...

310

Loss of the Thioredoxin Reductase Trr1 Suppresses the Genomic Instability of Peroxiredoxin tsa1 Mutants  

PubMed Central

The absence of Tsa1, a key peroxiredoxin that scavenges H2O2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, causes the accumulation of a broad spectrum of mutations. Deletion of TSA1 also causes synthetic lethality in combination with mutations in RAD51 or several key genes involved in DNA double-strand break repair. In the present study, we propose that the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the primary cause of genome instability of tsa1? cells. In searching for spontaneous suppressors of synthetic lethality of tsa1? rad51? double mutants, we identified that the loss of thioredoxin reductase Trr1 rescues their viability. The trr1? mutant displayed a CanR mutation rate 5-fold lower than wild-type cells. Additional deletion of TRR1 in tsa1? mutant reduced substantially the CanR mutation rate of tsa1? strain (33-fold), and to a lesser extent, of rad51? strain (4-fold). Loss of Trr1 induced Yap1 nuclear accumulation and over-expression of a set of Yap1-regulated oxido-reductases with antioxidant properties that ultimately re-equilibrate intracellular redox environment, reducing substantially ROS-associated DNA damages. This trr1? -induced effect was largely thioredoxin-dependent, probably mediated by oxidized forms of thioredoxins, the primary substrates of Trr1. Thioredoxin Trx1 and Trx2 were constitutively and strongly oxidized in the absence of Trr1. In trx1? trx2? cells, Yap1 was only moderately activated; consistently, the trx1? trx2? double deletion failed to efficiently rescue the viability of tsa1? rad51?. Finally, we showed that modulation of the dNTP pool size also influences the formation of spontaneous mutation in trr1? and trx1? trx2? strains. We present a tentative model that helps to estimate the respective impact of ROS level and dNTP concentration in the generation of spontaneous mutations. PMID:25247923

Ragu, Sandrine; Dardalhon, Michèle; Sharma, Sushma; Iraqui, Ismail; Buhagiar-Labarchède, Géraldine; Grondin, Virginie; Kienda, Guy; Vernis, Laurence; Chanet, Roland; Kolodner, Richard D.; Huang, Meng-Er; Faye, Gérard

2014-01-01

311

Loss of the thioredoxin reductase Trr1 suppresses the genomic instability of peroxiredoxin tsa1 mutants.  

PubMed

The absence of Tsa1, a key peroxiredoxin that scavenges H2O2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, causes the accumulation of a broad spectrum of mutations. Deletion of TSA1 also causes synthetic lethality in combination with mutations in RAD51 or several key genes involved in DNA double-strand break repair. In the present study, we propose that the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the primary cause of genome instability of tsa1? cells. In searching for spontaneous suppressors of synthetic lethality of tsa1? rad51? double mutants, we identified that the loss of thioredoxin reductase Trr1 rescues their viability. The trr1? mutant displayed a Can(R) mutation rate 5-fold lower than wild-type cells. Additional deletion of TRR1 in tsa1? mutant reduced substantially the Can(R) mutation rate of tsa1? strain (33-fold), and to a lesser extent, of rad51? strain (4-fold). Loss of Trr1 induced Yap1 nuclear accumulation and over-expression of a set of Yap1-regulated oxido-reductases with antioxidant properties that ultimately re-equilibrate intracellular redox environment, reducing substantially ROS-associated DNA damages. This trr1? -induced effect was largely thioredoxin-dependent, probably mediated by oxidized forms of thioredoxins, the primary substrates of Trr1. Thioredoxin Trx1 and Trx2 were constitutively and strongly oxidized in the absence of Trr1. In trx1? trx2? cells, Yap1 was only moderately activated; consistently, the trx1? trx2? double deletion failed to efficiently rescue the viability of tsa1? rad51?. Finally, we showed that modulation of the dNTP pool size also influences the formation of spontaneous mutation in trr1? and trx1? trx2? strains. We present a tentative model that helps to estimate the respective impact of ROS level and dNTP concentration in the generation of spontaneous mutations. PMID:25247923

Ragu, Sandrine; Dardalhon, Michèle; Sharma, Sushma; Iraqui, Ismail; Buhagiar-Labarchède, Géraldine; Grondin, Virginie; Kienda, Guy; Vernis, Laurence; Chanet, Roland; Kolodner, Richard D; Huang, Meng-Er; Faye, Gérard

2014-01-01

312

Risk of venous thromboembolism associated with single and combined effects of Factor V Leiden, Prothrombin 20210A and Methylenetethraydrofolate reductase C677T: a meta-analysis involving over 11,000 cases and 21,000 controls  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Genetic and environmental factors interact in determining the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The risk associated with the polymorphic variants G1691A of factor V (Factor V Leiden,FVL), G20210A of prothrombin (PT20210A) and C677T of methylentetrahydrofolate reductase (C677T MTHFR) genes has been investigated in many studies. METHODS We performed a pooled analysis of case-control and cohort studies investigating in adults the association between each variant and VTE, published on Pubmed, Embase or Google through January 2010. Authors of eligible papers, were invited to provide all available individual data for the pooling. The Odds Ratio (OR) for first VTE associated with each variant, individually and combined with the others, were calculated with a random effect model, in heterozygotes and homozygotes (dominant model for FVL and PT20210A; recessive for C677T MTHFR). RESULTS We analysed 31 databases, including 11,239 cases and 21,521 controls. No significant association with VTE was found for homozygous C677T MTHFR (OR: 1.38; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.98–1.93), whereas the risk was increased in carriers of either heterozygous FVL or PT20210 (OR=4.22; 95% CI: 3.35–5.32; and OR=2.79;95% CI: 2.25–3.46, respectively), in double hterozygotes (OR=3.42; 95%CI 1.64-7.13), and in homozygous FVL or PT20210A (OR=11.45; 95%CI: 6.79-19.29; and OR: 2.79; 95%CI: 2.25 – 3.46, respectively). The stratified analyses showed a stronger effect of FVL on individuals ?45 years (p-value for interaction = 0.036) and of PT20210A in women using oral contraceptives (p-value for interaction = 0.045). CONCLUSIONS In this large pooled analysis, inclusive of large studies like MEGA, no effect was found for C677T MTHFR on VTE; FVL and PT20210A were confirmed to be moderate risk factors. Notably, double carriers of the two genetic variants produced an impact on VTE risk significantly increased but weaker than previously thought. PMID:23900608

Simone, B; De Stefano, V; Leoncini, E; Zacho, J; Martinelli, I; Emmerich, J; Rossi, E; Folsom, AR; Almawi, WY; Scarabin, PY; den Heijer, M; Cushman, M; Penco, S; Vaya, A; Angchaisuksiri, P; Okumus, G; Gemmati, D; Cima, S; Akar, N; Oguzulgen, KI; Ducros, V; Lichy, C; Fernandez-Miranda, C; Szczeklik, A; Nieto, JA; Torres, JD; Le Cam-Duchez, V; Ivanov, P; Cantu, C; Shmeleva, VM; Stegnar, M; Ogunyemi, D; Eid, SS; Nicolotti, N; De Feo, E; Ricciardi, W; Boccia, S

2014-01-01

313

Risk of venous thromboembolism associated with single and combined effects of Factor V Leiden, Prothrombin 20210A and Methylenetethraydrofolate reductase C677T: a meta-analysis involving over 11,000 cases and 21,000 controls.  

PubMed

Genetic and environmental factors interact in determining the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The risk associated with the polymorphic variants G1691A of factor V (Factor V Leiden, FVL), G20210A of prothrombin (PT20210A) and C677T of methylentetrahydrofolate reductase (C677T MTHFR) genes has been investigated in many studies. We performed a pooled analysis of case-control and cohort studies investigating in adults the association between each variant and VTE, published on Pubmed, Embase or Google through January 2010. Authors of eligible papers, were invited to provide all available individual data for the pooling. The Odds Ratio (OR) for first VTE associated with each variant, individually and combined with the others, were calculated with a random effect model, in heterozygotes and homozygotes (dominant model for FVL and PT20210A; recessive for C677T MTHFR). We analysed 31 databases, including 11,239 cases and 21,521 controls. No significant association with VTE was found for homozygous C677T MTHFR (OR: 1.38; 95 % confidence intervals [CI]: 0.98-1.93), whereas the risk was increased in carriers of either heterozygous FVL or PT20210 (OR = 4.22; 95 % CI: 3.35-5.32; and OR = 2.79;95 % CI: 2.25-3.46, respectively), in double heterozygotes (OR = 3.42; 95 %CI 1.64-7.13), and in homozygous FVL or PT20210A (OR = 11.45; 95 %CI: 6.79-19.29; and OR: 6.74 (CI 95 % 2.19-20.72), respectively). The stratified analyses showed a stronger effect of FVL on individuals ? 45 years (p value for interaction = 0.036) and of PT20210A in women using oral contraceptives (p-value for interaction = 0.045). In this large pooled analysis, inclusive of large studies like MEGA, no effect was found for C677T MTHFR on VTE; FVL and PT20210A were confirmed to be moderate risk factors. Notably, double carriers of the two genetic variants produced an impact on VTE risk significantly increased but weaker than previously thought. PMID:23900608

Simone, Benedetto; De Stefano, Valerio; Leoncini, Emanuele; Zacho, Jeppe; Martinelli, Ida; Emmerich, Joseph; Rossi, Elena; Folsom, Aaron R; Almawi, Wassim Y; Scarabin, Pierre Y; den Heijer, Martin; Cushman, Mary; Penco, Silvana; Vaya, Amparo; Angchaisuksiri, Pantep; Okumus, Gulfer; Gemmati, Donato; Cima, Simona; Akar, Nejat; Oguzulgen, Kivilcim I; Ducros, Véronique; Lichy, Christoph; Fernandez-Miranda, Consuelo; Szczeklik, Andrzej; Nieto, José A; Torres, Jose Domingo; Le Cam-Duchez, Véronique; Ivanov, Petar; Cantu-Brito, Carlos; Shmeleva, Veronika M; Stegnar, Mojka; Ogunyemi, Dotun; Eid, Suhair S; Nicolotti, Nicola; De Feo, Emma; Ricciardi, Walter; Boccia, Stefania

2013-08-01

314

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism C677T is a protective factor for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia in the Chinese population: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Two polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, C677T and A1298C, were hypothesized to decrease the risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Studies examining the associations between these two polymorphisms and ALL susceptibility drew inconsistent results. To obtain a reliable conclusion in a Chinese population, we carried out a meta-analysis. In total, 11 studies on C677T polymorphism (1597 cases and 2295 controls) and 10 studies on A1298C polymorphism (1553 cases and 2224 controls) were included in the meta-analysis. We found a significant association between the 677T variant and reduced ALL risk in Chinese children (Dominant model: odds ratio [OR(FE)]=0.73, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.63-0.86, p<0.01). Heterogeneity between the studies in the children subgroup was weak and vanished after excluding one study deviating from HWE in the control group (p>0.1). In the adult subgroup, there was no significant association between the C677T variant and ALL risk (Dominant model: OR(RE)=0.88, 95% CI: 0.45-1.72, p=0.72). Significant heterogeneity was found in the adult subgroup in all the genetic model tests (p<0.1). The A1298C polymorphism had an effect on ALL risk neither in adults (Dominant model: OR(FE)=0.95, 95% CI: 0.71-1.27, p=0.72) nor in children (Dominant model: OR(FE)=1.02, 95% CI: 0.87-1.21, p=0.77). No significant heterogeneity between studies on A1298C polymorphism was found in the meta-analysis (p>0.1). The results showed that there was a protective effect of the MTHFR C677T variant on ALL risk in Chinese children. PMID:23061880

Wang, Haigang; Meng, Lujing; Zhao, Lixia; Wang, Jiali; Liu, Xinchun; Mi, Wenjie

2012-12-01

315

Characterization of the Chlorate Reductase from Pseudomonas chloritidismutans  

PubMed Central

A chlorate reductase has been purified from the chlorate-reducing strain Pseudomonas chloritidismutans. Comparison with the periplasmic (per)chlorate reductase of strain GR-1 showed that the cytoplasmic chlorate reductase of P. chloritidismutans reduced only chlorate and bromate. Differences were also found in N-terminal sequences, molecular weight, and subunit composition. Metal analysis and electron paramagnetic resonance measurements showed the presence of iron and molybdenum, which are also found in other dissimilatory oxyanion reductases. PMID:12730181

Wolterink, Arthur F. W. M.; Schiltz, Emile; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; Hagen, Wilfred R.; Kengen, Servé W. M.; Stams, Alfons J. M.

2003-01-01

316

Evaluation of nitrate reductase activity in Rhizobium japonicum  

SciTech Connect

Nitrate reductase activity was evaluated by four approaches, using four strains of Rhizobium japonicum and 11 chlorate-resistant mutants of the four strains. It was concluded that in vitro assays with bacteria or bacteroids provide the most simple and reliable assessment of the presence or absence of nitrate reductase. Nitrite reductase activity with methyl viologen and dithionite was found, but the enzyme activity does not confound the assay of nitrate reductase. 18 references

Streeter, J.G.; DeVine, P.J.

1983-08-01

317

Respiratory arsenate reductase as a bidirectional enzyme  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The haloalkaliphilic bacterium Alkalilimnicola ehrlichii is capable of anaerobic chemolithoautotrophic growth by coupling the oxidation of arsenite (As(III)) to the reduction of nitrate and carbon dioxide. Analysis of its complete genome indicates that it lacks a conventional arsenite oxidase (Aox), but instead possesses two operons that each encode a putative respiratory arsenate reductase (Arr). Here we show that one homolog is expressed under chemolithoautotrophic conditions and exhibits both arsenite oxidase and arsenate reductase activity. We also demonstrate that Arr from two arsenate respiring bacteria, Alkaliphilus oremlandii and Shewanella sp. strain ANA-3, is also biochemically reversible. Thus Arr can function as a reductase or oxidase. Its physiological role in a specific organism, however, may depend on the electron potentials of the molybdenum center and [Fe–S] clusters, additional subunits, or constitution of the electron transfer chain. This versatility further underscores the ubiquity and antiquity of microbial arsenic metabolism.

Richey, C.; Chovanec, P.; Hoeft, S.E.; Oremland, R.S.; Basu, P.; Stolz, J.F.

2009-01-01

318

Enhancement of nitrate reductase activity by benzyladenine in Agrostemma githago  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrate reductase activity in excised embryos of Agrostemma githago increases in response to both NOâ⁻ and cytokinins. Discussed was whether cytokinins affected nitrate reductase activity directly or through NOâ⁻, either by amplifying the effect of low endogenous NOâ⁻ levels, or by making NOâ⁻ available for induction from a metabolically inactive compartment. Nitrate reductase activity was enhanced on the average by

H. Kende; H. Hahn; S. E. Kays

1971-01-01

319

Regulation of Nitrate Reductase in Neurospora crassa: Stability In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, reduced form (NADPH)-nitrate reductase and its related enzyme activities, NADPH-cytochrome c reductase and reduced benzyl viologen-nitrate reductase, are all induced following the transfer of ammonia-grown wild-type Neurospora mycelia to nitrate medium. After nitrate reductase is induced to the maximal level, the addition of an ammonium salt to, or the removal of nitrate from, the cultures results in a rapid inactivation of nitrate reductase and its two partial component activities. This rapid inactivation is slowed down by the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide. Experiments on the mixing of extracts in vitro rule out the presence of an inhibitor of nitrate reductase in free form in extracts containing inactivated nitrate reductase. Ammonia does not inhibit the uptake of nitrate by the mycelia. Inactivation of nitrate reductase in vivo by ammonia depends on the concentration of the ammonium salt and is not reversed by increasing the nitrate concentration of the medium. The nitrate-inducible NADPH-cytochrome c reductase activity and reduced benzyl viologen-nitrate reductase activity respectively of the nitrate-nonutilizing mutants nit-1 and nit-3 are not inactivated in vivo by the addition of an ammonium salt or the withdrawal of nitrate. This finding suggests that the integrity of the nitrate reductase complex is required for the in vivo inactivation of nitrate reductase and its associated activities. PMID:4401813

Subramanian, K. N.; Sorger, G. J.

1972-01-01

320

Human genetic selection on the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of genotypes of the 677C>T polymorphism for the MTHFR gene varies among humans. In previous studies, we found changes in the genotypic frequencies of this polymorphism in populations of different ages, suggesting that this could be caused by an increase in the intake of folate and multivitamins by women during the periconceptional period. The aim was to analyze changes in the allelic frequencies of this polymorphism in a Spanish population, including samples from spontaneous abortions (SA). Methods A total of 1305 subjects born in the 20th century were genotyped for the 677C>T polymorphism using allele specific real-time PCR with Taqman® probes. A section of our population (n = 276) born in 1980–1989 was compared with fetal samples (n = 344) from SA of unknown etiology from the same period. Results An increase in the frequency of the T allele (0.38 vs 0.47; p < 0.001) and of the TT genotype (0.14 vs 0.24; p < 0.001) in subjects born in the last quarter of the century was observed. In the 1980–1989 period, the results show that the frequency of the wild type genotype (CC) is about tenfold lower in the SA samples than in the controls (0.03 vs 0.33; p < 0.001) and that the frequency of the TT genotype increases in the controls (0.19 to 0.27) and in the SA samples (0.20 to 0.33 (p < 0.01)); r = 0.98. Conclusion Selection in favor of the T allele has been detected. This selection could be due to the increased fetal viability in early stages of embryonic development, as is deduced by the increase of mutants in both living and SA populations. PMID:19040733

Mayor-Olea, Álvaro; Callejón, Gonzalo; Palomares, Arturo R; Jiménez, Ana J; Gaitán, María Jesús; Rodríguez, Alfonso; Ruiz, Maximiliano; Reyes-Engel, Armando

2008-01-01

321

Computational design of Candida boidinii xylose reductase for altered cofactor specificity  

PubMed Central

In this study we introduce a computationally-driven enzyme redesign workflow for altering cofactor specificity from NADPH to NADH. By compiling and comparing data from previous studies involving cofactor switching mutations, we show that their effect cannot be explained as straightforward changes in volume, hydrophobicity, charge, or BLOSUM62 scores of the residues populating the cofactor binding site. Instead, we find that the use of a detailed cofactor binding energy approximation is needed to adequately capture the relative affinity towards different cofactors. The implicit solvation models Generalized Born with molecular volume integration and Generalized Born with simple switching were integrated in the iterative protein redesign and optimization (IPRO) framework to drive the redesign of Candida boidinii xylose reductase (CbXR) to function using the non-native cofactor NADH. We identified 10 variants, out of the 8,000 possible combinations of mutations, that improve the computationally assessed binding affinity for NADH by introducing mutations in the CbXR binding pocket. Experimental testing revealed that seven out of ten possessed significant xylose reductase activity utilizing NADH, with the best experimental design (CbXR-GGD) being 27-fold more active on NADH. The NADPH-dependent activity for eight out of ten predicted designs was either completely abolished or significantly diminished by at least 90%, yielding a greater than 104-fold change in specificity to NADH (CbXR-REG). The remaining two variants (CbXR-RTT and CBXR-EQR) had dual cofactor specificity for both nicotinamide cofactors. PMID:19693930

Khoury, George A; Fazelinia, Hossein; Chin, Jonathan W; Pantazes, Robert J; Cirino, Patrick C; Maranas, Costas D

2009-01-01

322

The MTHFR 1298CC and 677TT genotypes have opposite associations with red cell folate levels.  

PubMed

Individuals homozygous for the thermolabile variant (677TT) of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase exhibit reduced folate status as evidenced by a drop in the biomarker red cell folate (RCF) compared to those who carry at least one 677C allele. We now report that a different polymorphism in the same enzyme, namely 1298A>C, is associated with increased RCF levels. Thus, these two common polymorphisms change a metabolic phenotype in opposite directions suggesting that their cancer protective associations are by different mechanisms. PMID:16621645

Parle-McDermott, Anne; Mills, James L; Molloy, Anne M; Carroll, Nicola; Kirke, Peadar N; Cox, Christopher; Conley, Mary R; Pangilinan, Faith J; Brody, Lawrence C; Scott, John M

2006-07-01

323

Structural prototypes for an extended family of flavoprotein reductases: comparison of phthalate dioxygenase reductase with ferredoxin reductase and ferredoxin.  

PubMed Central

The structure of phthalate dioxygenase reductase (PDR), a monomeric iron-sulfur flavoprotein that delivers electrons from NADH to phthalate dioxygenase, is compared to ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase (FNR) and ferredoxin, the proteins that reduce NADP+ in the final reaction of photosystem I. The folding patterns of the domains that bind flavin, NAD(P), and [2Fe-2S] are very similar in the two systems. Alignment of the X-ray structures of PDR and FNR substantiates the assignment of features that characterize a family of flavoprotein reductases whose members include cytochrome P-450 reductase, sulfite and nitrate reductases, and nitric oxide synthase. Hallmarks of this subfamily of flavoproteins, here termed the FNR family, are an antiparallel beta-barrel that binds the flavin prosthetic group, and a characteristic variant of the classic pyridine nucleotide-binding fold. Despite the similarities between FNR and PDR, attempts to model the structure of a dissociable FNR:ferredoxin complex by analogy with PDR reveal features that are at odds with chemical crosslinking studies (Zanetti, G., Morelli, D., Ronchi, S., Negri, A., Aliverti, A., & Curti, B., 1988, Biochemistry 27, 3753-3759). Differences in the binding sites for flavin and pyridine nucleotides determine the nucleotide specificities of FNR and PDR. The specificity of FNR for NADP+ arises primarily from substitutions in FNR that favor interactions with the 2' phosphate of NADP+. Variations in the conformation and sequences of the loop adjoining the flavin phosphate affect the selectivity for FAD versus FMN. The midpoint potentials for reduction of the flavin and [2Fe-2S] groups in PDR are higher than their counterparts in FNR and spinach ferredoxin, by about 120 mV and 260 mV, respectively. Comparisons of the structure of PDR with spinach FNR and with ferredoxin from Anabaena 7120, along with calculations of electrostatic potentials, suggest that local interactions, including hydrogen bonds, are the dominant contributors to these differences in potential. PMID:8298460

Correll, C. C.; Ludwig, M. L.; Bruns, C. M.; Karplus, P. A.

1993-01-01

324

Post-translational Regulation of Nitrate Reductase  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nitrate reductase (NR) catalyzes the reduction of nitrate to nitrite, which is the first step in the nitrate assimilation pathway, but can also reduce nitrite to nitric oxide (NO), an important signaling molecule that is thought to mediate a wide array of of developmental and physiological processes...

325

Stretching exercises — flexibility in dihydrofolate reductase catalysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase performs two tasks: transformation of its substrate dihydrofolate or folate to tetrahydrofolate, using NADPH as a cofactor, and regeneration of the enzyme for a subsequent round of catalysis. Studies discussed in this review highlight the role of conformational flexibility in both of these enzymatic functions.

Grover Paul Miller; Stephen J. Benkovic

1998-01-01

326

Ferrisiderophore reductase activity in Agrobacterium tumefaciens.  

PubMed Central

Reduction of the iron in ferriagrobactin by the cytoplasmic fraction of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strictly required NaDH as the reductant. Addition of flavin mononucleotide and anaerobic conditions were necessary for the reaction; when added with flavin mononucleotide, magnesium was stimulatory. This ferrisiderophore reductase activity may be a part of the iron assimilation process in A. tumefaciens. PMID:7056702

Lodge, J S; Gaines, C G; Arceneaux, J E; Byers, B R

1982-01-01

327

Ferrisiderophore reductase activity in Agrobacterium tumefaciens.  

PubMed

Reduction of the iron in ferriagrobactin by the cytoplasmic fraction of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strictly required NaDH as the reductant. Addition of flavin mononucleotide and anaerobic conditions were necessary for the reaction; when added with flavin mononucleotide, magnesium was stimulatory. This ferrisiderophore reductase activity may be a part of the iron assimilation process in A. tumefaciens. PMID:7056702

Lodge, J S; Gaines, C G; Arceneaux, J E; Byers, B R

1982-02-01

328

Association between MTHFR C677T and A1298C, and MTRR A66G polymorphisms and susceptibility to schizophrenia in a Syrian study cohort.  

PubMed

The folate-homocystiene metabolic pathway has been shown to be involved in the susceptibility for developing schizophrenia by several studies. In the present study we investigated the role of three common polymorphisms of the folate-homocysteine metabolic pathway in an Arab population from Syria consisting of 85 schizophrenic patients and 126 healthy controls. The studied polymorphisms included the MTHFR C677T and A1298C, and MTRR A66G, all of which result into amino acid changes, and were previously shown to yield decreased enzymatic activity and alter plasma homocysteine concentration. While MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms were not previously studied in an Arab population with respect to the susceptibility for developing schizophrenia, the MTRR A66G was not previously investigated in any population around the world. Our results indicated a strong association between MTHFR A1298C and schizophrenia. The variant C allele frequency was significantly higher in the patients group (40% vs 29.4%, OR=1.6, 95% CI (1.06-2.41), p=0.023). A statistically significant association was found for MTHFR 677TT genotype under the recessive model in the male patients subgroup (OR=2.6, 95% CI (1.04-6.5), p=0.036), and MTHFR 677CT genotype under the overdominant model in the total patients group (OR=0.52 95% CI (0.29-0.92), p=0.024). No statistically significant association was found for MTRR A66G polymorphism on an individual basis. However, a borderline association was found for the CC/GG (C677T/A66G) compound genotype (OR=2.24, 95% CI (0.97-5.15), p=0.053). Our results support the hypothesis of association between schizophrenia and folate-homocystiene metabolic pathway genes. PMID:22813657

Lajin, Bassam; Alhaj Sakur, Amir; Michati, Roula; Alachkar, Amal

2012-06-01

329

Engineering steroid 5 beta-reductase activity into rat liver 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

Delta 4-3-Ketosteroid-5 beta-reductase (5 beta-reductase) precedes 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3 alpha-HSD) in steroid hormone metabolism. Both enzymes are members of the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily and possess catalytic tetrads differing by a single amino acid. In 3 alpha-HSD, the tetrad consists of Tyr55, Lys84, Asp50, and His117, but a glutamic acid replaces His117 in 5 beta-reductase. By introducing the H117E point mutation into 3 alpha-HSD, we engineered 5 beta-reductase activity into the dehydrogenase. Homogeneous H117E 3 alpha-HSD reduced the double bond in testosterone to form 5 beta-dihydrotestosterone with kcat = 0.25 min-1 and Km = 19.0 microM and reduced the double bond in progesterone to generate 5 beta-dihydroprogesterone with kcat = 0.97 min-1 and Km = 33.0 microM. These kinetic parameters were similar to those reported for homogeneous rat liver 5 beta-reductase [Okuda, A., and Okuda, R. (1984) J. Biol. Chem. 259, 7519-7524]. The H117E mutant also reduced 5beta-dihydrosteroids to 5 beta, 3 alpha-tetrahydrosteroids with a 600-1000-fold decrease in kcat/Km versus wild-type 3 alpha-HSD. The ratio of 5 beta-reductase:3 alpha-HSD activity in the H117E mutant was approximately 1:1. Although the H117A mutant reduced Delta 4-3-ketosteroids, the 3 alpha-HSD activity predominated because the 5 beta-dihydrosteroids were rapidly converted to the 5 beta,3 alpha-tetrahydrosteroids. The pH-rate profiles for carbon-carbon double-bond and ketone reduction catalyzed by the H117E mutant were superimposable, suggesting a common titratable group (pKb = 6.3) for both reactions. In wild-type 3 alpha-HSD, the titratable group responsible for 3-ketosteroid reduction has a pKb = 6.9 and is assignable to Tyr55. The pH-rate profiles for 3-ketosteroid reduction by the H117A mutant were pH-independent. Our data indicate that Tyr55 functions as a general acid for both 3 alpha-HSD and 5 beta-reductase activities. We suggest that a protonated Glu117 increases the acidity of Tyr55 to promote acid-catalyzed enolization of the Delta 4-3-ketosteroid substrate. Further, the identity of amino acid 117 determines whether an AKR can function as a 5 beta-reductase by reorienting the substrate relative to the nicotinamide cofactor. This study provides functional evidence that utilization of modified catalytic residues on an identical protein scaffold is important for evolution of enzymatic activities within the same metabolic pathway. PMID:9657682

Jez, J M; Penning, T M

1998-07-01

330

FRUCTOSE-6-PHOSPHATE REDUCTASE FROM SALMONELLA GALLINARUM  

PubMed Central

Zancan, Glaci T. (Universidade do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil), and Metry Bacila. Fructose-6-phosphate reductase from Salmonella gallinarum. J. Bacteriol. 87:614–618. 1964.—A fructose-6-phosphate reductase present in cell-free extracts of Salmonella gallinarum was purified approximately 42 times. The optimal pH for this enzyme is 8.0. The enzyme is specific for fructose-6-phosphate and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). The dissociation constants are 1.78 × 10?4m for fructose-6-phosphate and 8.3 × 10?5m for NADH. The Q10, reaction order, and equilibrium constant were determined. The enzyme is sensitive to p-chloromercuribenzoic acid, but not to o-iodosobenzoic acid nor to N-ethylmaleimide. PMID:14127579

Zancan, Glaci T.; Bacila, Metry

1964-01-01

331

5Alpha Reductase Inhibitors in Prostate Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Androgenic effects in prostate cancer cells depend on the synthesis and metabolism of hormones and the presence of androgen\\u000a receptor. 5-alpha reductase isoenzymes I and II differ in chromosomal localization, pH optimum, enzyme kinetics, and expression\\u000a in benign and malignant prostate tissue. In prostate cancer tissues, there is an increased expression of the isoenzyme type\\u000a I. The possibilities for pharmacological

Zoran Culig

332

Characterization of erythrose reductases from filamentous fungi  

PubMed Central

Proteins with putative erythrose reductase activity have been identified in the filamentous fungi Trichoderma reesei, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium graminearum by in silico analysis. The proteins found in T. reesei and A. niger had earlier been characterized as glycerol dehydrogenase and aldehyde reductase, respectively. Corresponding genes from all three fungi were cloned, heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified. Subsequently, they were used to establish optimal enzyme assay conditions. All three enzymes strictly require NADPH as cofactor, whereas with NADH no activity could be observed. The enzymatic characterization of the three enzymes using ten substrates revealed high substrate specificity and activity with D-erythrose and D-threose. The enzymes from T. reesei and A. niger herein showed comparable activities, whereas the one from F. graminearum reached only about a tenth of it for all tested substrates. In order to proof in vivo the proposed enzyme function, we overexpressed the erythrose reductase-encoding gene in T. reesei. An increased production of erythritol by the recombinant strain compared to the parental strain could be detected. PMID:23924507

2013-01-01

333

A peroxisomal disorder of severe intellectual disability, epilepsy, and cataracts due to fatty acyl-CoA reductase 1 deficiency.  

PubMed

Rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata (RCDP) is a group of disorders with overlapping clinical features including rhizomelia, chondrodysplasia punctata, coronal clefts, cervical dysplasia, congenital cataracts, profound postnatal growth retardation, severe intellectual disability, and seizures. Mutations in PEX7, GNPAT, and AGPS, all involved in the plasmalogen-biosynthesis pathway, have been described in individuals with RCDP. Here, we report the identification of mutations in another gene in plasmalogen biosynthesis, fatty acyl-CoA reductase 1 (FAR1), in two families affected by severe intellectual disability, early-onset epilepsy, microcephaly, congenital cataracts, growth retardation, and spasticity. Exome analyses revealed a homozygous in-frame indel mutation (c.495_507delinsT [p.Glu165_Pro169delinsAsp]) in two siblings from a consanguineous family and compound-heterozygous mutations (c.[787C>T];[1094A>G], p.[Arg263(?)];[Asp365Gly]) in a third unrelated individual. FAR1 reduces fatty acids to their respective fatty alcohols for the plasmalogen-biosynthesis pathway. To assess the pathogenicity of the identified mutations, we transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells with plasmids encoding FAR1 with either wild-type or mutated constructs and extracted the lipids from the cells. We screened the lipids with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry and found that all three mutations abolished the reductase activity of FAR1, given that no fatty alcohols could be detected. We also observed reduced plasmalogens in red blood cells in one individual to a range similar to that seen in individuals with RCDP, further supporting abolished FAR1 activity. We thus expand the spectrum of clinical features associated with defects in plasmalogen biosynthesis to include FAR1 deficiency as a cause of syndromic severe intellectual disability with cataracts, epilepsy, and growth retardation but without rhizomelia. PMID:25439727

Buchert, Rebecca; Tawamie, Hasan; Smith, Christopher; Uebe, Steffen; Innes, A Micheil; Al Hallak, Bassam; Ekici, Arif B; Sticht, Heinrich; Schwarze, Bernd; Lamont, Ryan E; Parboosingh, Jillian S; Bernier, Francois P; Abou Jamra, Rami

2014-11-01

334

ABSENCE OF FACTOR V A RG306?THR AND LOW FACTOR V ARG306?GLY MUTATION PREVALENCE IN THAI BLOOD DONORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thrombosis among the Thai population is much lower than in western countries. The Thai population is protected to some extent against familial thrombophilia as by the very low prevalence of factor V Leiden, G20210A prothrombin and C677T methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase mutations. The present study reports the prevalence of two mutations of the factor V gene involving the codon for Arg 306

Ampaiwan Chuansumrit; Wasana Jarutwachirakul; Werasak Sasanakul; Saranya Rurgkhum; Praguywan Kadegasem; Pimpan Kitpoka; Nongnuch Sirachainan

335

Identification, Characterization, and Classification of Genes Encoding Perchlorate Reductase  

PubMed Central

The reduction of perchlorate to chlorite, the first enzymatic step in the bacterial reduction of perchlorate, is catalyzed by perchlorate reductase. The genes encoding perchlorate reductase (pcrABCD) in two Dechloromonas species were characterized. Sequence analysis of the pcrAB gene products revealed similarity to ?- and ?-subunits of microbial nitrate reductase, selenate reductase, dimethyl sulfide dehydrogenase, ethylbenzene dehydrogenase, and chlorate reductase, all of which are type II members of the microbial dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) reductase family. The pcrC gene product was similar to a c-type cytochrome, while the pcrD gene product exhibited similarity to molybdenum chaperone proteins of the DMSO reductase family members mentioned above. Expression analysis of the pcrA gene from Dechloromonas agitata indicated that transcription occurred only under anaerobic (per)chlorate-reducing conditions. The presence of oxygen completely inhibited pcrA expression regardless of the presence of perchlorate, chlorate, or nitrate. Deletion of the pcrA gene in Dechloromonas aromatica abolished growth in both perchlorate and chlorate but not growth in nitrate, indicating that the pcrABCD genes play a functional role in perchlorate reduction separate from nitrate reduction. Phylogenetic analysis of PcrA and other ?-subunits of the DMSO reductase family indicated that perchlorate reductase forms a monophyletic group separate from chlorate reductase of Ideonella dechloratans. The separation of perchlorate reductase as an activity distinct from chlorate reductase was further supported by DNA hybridization analysis of (per)chlorate- and chlorate-reducing strains using the pcrA gene as a probe. PMID:16030201

Bender, Kelly S.; Shang, Ching; Chakraborty, Romy; Belchik, Sara M.; Coates, John D.; Achenbach, Laurie A.

2005-01-01

336

Pharmacogenetic variants in the DPYD, TYMS, CDA and MTHFR genes are clinically significant predictors of fluoropyrimidine toxicity  

PubMed Central

Background: Fluoropyrimidine drugs are extensively used for the treatment of solid cancers. However, adverse drug reactions are a major clinical problem, often necessitating treatment discontinuation. The aim of this study was to identify pharmacogenetic markers predicting fluoropyrimidine toxicity. Methods: Toxicity in the first four cycles of 5-fluorouracil or capecitabine-based chemotherapy were recorded for a series of 430 patients. The association between demographic variables, DPYD, DPYS, TYMS, MTHFR, CDA genotypes, and toxicity were analysed using logistic regression models. Results: Four DPYD sequence variants (c.1905+1G>A, c.2846A>T, c.1601G>A and c.1679T>G) were found in 6% of the cohort and were significantly associated with grade 3–4 toxicity (P<0.0001). The TYMS 3?-untranslated region del/del genotype substantially increased the risk of severe toxicity (P=0.0123, odds ratio (OR)=3.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.38–6.87). For patients treated with capecitabine, a MTHFR c.1298CC homozygous variant genotype predicted hand–foot syndrome (P=4.1 × 10?6, OR=9.99, 95% CI: 3.84–27.8). The linked CDA c.?92A>G and CDA c.?451C>T variants predicted grade 2–4 diarrhoea (P=0.0055, OR=2.3, 95% CI: 1.3–4.2 and P=0.0082, OR=2.3, 95% CI: 1.3–4.2, respectively). Conclusion: We have identified a panel of clinically useful pharmacogenetic markers predicting toxicity to fluoropyrimidine therapy. Dose reduction should be considered in patients carrying these sequence variants. PMID:23736036

Loganayagam, A; Arenas Hernandez, M; Corrigan, A; Fairbanks, L; Lewis, C M; Harper, P; Maisey, N; Ross, P; Sanderson, J D; Marinaki, A M

2013-01-01

337

Isobutyraldehyde production from Escherichia coli by removing aldehyde reductase activity  

PubMed Central

Background Increasing global demand and reliance on petroleum-derived chemicals will necessitate alternative sources for chemical feedstocks. Currently, 99% of chemical feedstocks are derived from petroleum and natural gas. Renewable methods for producing important chemical feedstocks largely remain unaddressed. Synthetic biology enables the renewable production of various chemicals from microorganisms by constructing unique metabolic pathways. Here, we engineer Escherichia coli for the production of isobutyraldehyde, which can be readily converted to various hydrocarbons currently derived from petroleum such as isobutyric acid, acetal, oxime and imine using existing chemical catalysis. Isobutyraldehyde can be readily stripped from cultures during production, which reduces toxic effects of isobutyraldehyde. Results We adopted the isobutanol pathway previously constructed in E. coli, neglecting the last step in the pathway where isobutyraldehyde is converted to isobutanol. However, this strain still overwhelmingly produced isobutanol (1.5?g/L/OD600 (isobutanol) vs 0.14?g/L/OD600 (isobutyraldehyde)). Next, we deleted yqhD which encodes a broad-substrate range aldehyde reductase known to be active toward isobutyraldehyde. This strain produced isobutanol and isobutyraldehyde at a near 1:1 ratio, indicating further native isobutyraldehyde reductase (IBR) activity in E. coli. To further eliminate isobutanol formation, we set out to identify and remove the remaining IBRs from the E. coli genome. We identified 7 annotated genes coding for IBRs that could be active toward isobutyraldehyde: adhP, eutG, yiaY, yjgB, betA, fucO, eutE. Individual deletions of the genes yielded only marginal improvements. Therefore, we sequentially deleted all seven of the genes and assessed production. The combined deletions greatly increased isobutyraldehyde production (1.5?g/L/OD600) and decreased isobutanol production (0.4?g/L/OD600). By assessing production by overexpression of each candidate IBR, we reveal that AdhP, EutG, YjgB, and FucO are active toward isobutyraldehyde. Finally, we assessed long-term isobutyraldehyde production of our best strain containing a total of 15 gene deletions using a gas stripping system with in situ product removal, resulting in a final titer of 35?g/L after 5?days. Conclusions In this work, we optimized E. coli for the production of the important chemical feedstock isobutyraldehyde by the removal of IBRs. Long-term production yielded industrially relevant titers of isobutyraldehyde with in situ product removal. The mutational load imparted on E. coli in this work demonstrates the versatility of metabolic engineering for strain improvements. PMID:22731523

2012-01-01

338

Cloning and expression of succinic semialdehyde reductase from human brain. Identity with aflatoxin B1 aldehyde reductase.  

PubMed

The neuromodulator gamma-hydroxybutyrate is synthesized in vivo from gamma-aminobutyrate by transamination to succinic semialdehyde and subsequent reduction of the aldehyde group. In human brain, succinic semialdehyde reductase is thought to be responsible for the conversion of succinic semialdehyde to gamma-hydroxybutyrate. In the present work, we cloned the cDNA coding for succinic semialdehyde reductase and expressed it in Escherichia coli. A data bank search indicated that the enzyme is identical with aflatoxin B1-aldehyde reductase, an enzyme implicated in the detoxification of xenobiotic carbonyl compounds. Structurally, succinic semialdehyde reductase thus belongs to the aldo-keto reductase superfamily. The recombinant protein was indistinguishable from native human brain succinic semialdehyde reductase by SDS/PAGE. In addition to succinic semialdehyde, it readily catalyzed the reduction 9,10-phenanthrene quinone, phenylglyoxal and 4-nitrobenzaldehyde, typical substrates of aflatoxin B1 aldehyde reductase. The results suggest multiple functions of succinic semialdehyde reductase/aflatoxin B1 aldehyde reductase in the biosynthesis of gamma-hydroxybutyrate and the detoxification of xenobiotic carbonyl compounds, respectively. PMID:10518801

Schaller, M; Schaffhauser, M; Sans, N; Wermuth, B

1999-11-01

339

Influence of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphisms on the outcome of pediatric patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma treated with high-dose methotrexate.  

PubMed

High-dose methotrexate (MTX) is a key component of most treatment protocols for childhood and adolescent non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Recent studies have suggested that the toxicity of antifolate drugs, such as MTX, is affected by inherited single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in folate metabolizing genes. The aim of our study was to investigate the potential influence of the C677T and A1298C genetic variants of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene on the clinical toxicity and efficacy of MTX in pediatric patients with NHL (n = 95) treated with therapeutic protocols Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica (AIEOP) LNH-97 and EURO LB-02. We demonstrated that patients with the 677T genotype had an approximately six-fold greater risk of developing hematological toxicity compared with wild-type carriers, especially in the 1 g/m(2) treatment group (p = 0.01). Moreover, we identified a correlation between the risk of relapse and the T genotype: T carriers had reduced disease-free survival compared with wild-type patients (67% vs. 100%). Our data suggest a pharmacogenetic influence on the adverse effects of high-dose MTX in the 1 g/m(2) treatment group. PMID:23488607

D'Angelo, Velia; Ramaglia, Maria; Iannotta, Adriana; Francese, Matteo; Pota, Elvira; Affinita, Maria Carmen; Pecoraro, Giulia; Indolfi, Cristiana; Di Martino, Martina; Di Pinto, Daniela; Buffardi, Salvatore; Poggi, Vincenzo; Indolfi, Paolo; Casale, Fiorina

2013-12-01

340

The orphan protein bis-?-glutamylcystine reductase joins the pyridine nucleotide-disulfide reductase family  

PubMed Central

Facile DNA sequencing became possible decades after many enzymes had been purified and characterized. Consequently, there are still “orphan” enyzmes whose activity is known but the genes that encode them have not been identified. Identification of the genes encoding orphan enzymes is important because it allows correct annotation of genes of unknown function or with mis-assigned function. Bis-?-glutamylcystine reductase (GCR) is an orphan protein that was purified in 1988. This enzyme catalyzes the reduction of bis-?-glutamylcystine. ?-Glutamylcysteine (?-Glu-Cys) is the major low molecular weight thiol in halobacteria. We purified GCR from Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 and identified the sequence of 23 tryptic peptides by NanoLC electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. These peptides cover 62% of the protein predicted to be encoded by a gene in Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 that is annotated as mercuric reductase. GCR and mercuric reductase activities were assayed using enzyme that was expressed in E. coli and re-folded from inclusion bodies. The enzyme had robust GCR activity, but no mercuric reductase activity. The genomes of most, but not all, halobacteria for which whole genome sequences are available have close homologs of GCR, suggesting that there is more to be learned about the low molecular weight thiols used in halobacteria. PMID:23560638

Kim, Juhan; Copley, Shelley D.

2014-01-01

341

Influence of Nitrous Oxide Anesthesia, B-Vitamins, and MTHFR gene polymorphisms on Perioperative Cardiac Events: The Vitamins in Nitrous Oxide (VINO) Randomized Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Nitrous oxide causes an acute increase in plasma homocysteine that is more pronounced in patients with the MTHFR C677T or A1298C gene variant. In this randomized controlled trial we sought to determine if patients carrying the MTHFR C677T or A1298C variant had a higher risk for perioperative cardiac events after nitrous oxide anesthesia and if this risk could be mitigated by B-vitamins. Methods We randomized adult patients with cardiac risk factors undergoing noncardiac surgery to receive nitrous oxide plus intravenous B-vitamins before and after surgery or to nitrous oxide and placebo. Serial cardiac biomarkers and 12-lead electrocardiograms were obtained. The primary study endpoint was the incidence of myocardial injury, as defined by cardiac troponin I elevation within the first 72 hours after surgery. Results A total of 500 patients completed the trial. Patients who were homozygous for either MTHFR C677T or A1298C gene variant (n= 98; 19.6%) had no increased rate of postoperative cardiac troponin I elevation compared to wild-type and heterozygous patients (11.2% vs. 14.0%; relative risk 0.96, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.07, p=0.48). B-vitamins blunted the rise in homocysteine, but had no effect on cardiac troponin I elevation compared to patients receiving placebo (13.2% vs. 13.6%; relative risk 1.02, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.32, p=0.91). Conclusions Neither MTHFR C677T and A1298C gene variant nor acute homocysteine increase are associated with perioperative cardiac troponin elevation after nitrousoxide anesthesia. B-vitamins blunt nitrous oxide-induced homocysteine increase but have no effect on cardiac troponin elevation. PMID:23856660

Nagele, Peter; Brown, Frank; Francis, Amber; Scott, Mitchell G.; Gage, Brian F.; Miller, J. Philip

2013-01-01

342

Pharmacogenetic evaluation of ABCB1, Cyp2C9, Cyp2C19 and methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms in teratogenicity of anti-epileptic drugs in women with epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Aim: Pregnancy in women with epilepsy (WWE) who are on anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) has two- to three-fold increased risk of fetal malformations. AEDs are mostly metabolized by Cyp2C9, Cyp2C19 and Cyp3A4 and transported by ABCB1. Patients on AED therapy can have folate deficiency. We hypothesize that the polymorphisms in ABCB1, Cyp2C9, Cyp2C19 and methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) might result in differential expression resulting in differential drug transport, drug metabolism and folate metabolism, which in turn may contribute to the teratogenic impact of AEDs. Materials and Methods: The ABCB1, Cyp2C9, Cyp2C19 and MTHFR polymorphisms were genotyped for their role in teratogenic potential and the nature of teratogenecity in response to AED treatment in WWE. The allelic, genotypic associations were tested in 266 WWE comprising of 143 WWE who had given birth to babies with WWE-malformation (WWE-M) and 123 WWE who had normal offsprings (WWE-N). Results: In WWE-M, CC genotype of Ex07 + 139C/T was overrepresented (P = 0.0032) whereas the poor metabolizer allele *2 and *2 *2 genotype of CYP2C219 was significantly higher in comparison to WWE-N group (P = 0.007 and P = 0.005, respectively). All these observations were independent of the nature of malformation (cardiac vs. non cardiac malformations). Conclusion: Our study indicates the possibility that ABCB1 and Cyp2C19 may play a pivotal role in the AED induced teratogenesis, which is independent of nature of malformation. This is one of the first reports indicating the pharmacogenetic role of Cyp2C19 and ABCB1 in teratogenesis of AED in pregnant WWE. PMID:25221392

Jose, Manna; Banerjee, Moinak; Mathew, Anila; Bharadwaj, Tashi; Vijayan, Neetha; Thomas, Sanjeev V.

2014-01-01

343

Original Articles Cytometric Quantification of Nitrate Reductase by  

E-print Network

Original Articles Cytometric Quantification of Nitrate Reductase by Immunolabeling in the Marine November 1999; Accepted 24 November 1999 Background: The uptake of nitrate by phytoplankton is a central of biogenic carbon. Nitrate reductase catalyzes the first step of nitrate assimilation, the reduction of NO3

Jochem, Frank J.

344

Multipyrene Tandem Probes for Point Mutations Detection in DNA  

PubMed Central

Here we report design, synthesis and characterization of highly sensitive, specific and stable in biological systems fluorescent probes for point mutation detection in DNA. The tandems of 3?- and 5?-mono- and bis-pyrene conjugated oligo(2?-O-methylribonucleotides), protected by 3?-“inverted” thymidine, were constructed and their potential as new instruments for genetic diagnostics was studied. Novel probes have been shown to exhibit an ability to form stable duplexes with DNA target due to the stabilizing effect of multiple pyrene units at the junction. The relationship between fluorescent properties of developed probes, the number of pyrene residues at the tandem junction, and the location of point mutation has been studied. On the basis of the data obtained, we have chosen the probes possessing the highest fluorescence intensity along with the best mismatch discrimination and deletion and insertion detection ability. Application of developed probes for detection of polymorphism C677T in MTHFR gene has been demonstrated on model systems. PMID:24455205

Kholodar, Svetlana A.; Novopashina, Darya S.; Meschaninova, Mariya I.; Venyaminova, Alya G.

2013-01-01

345

A STD-NMR study of the interaction of the Anabaena ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase with the coenzyme.  

PubMed

Ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase (FNR) catalyzes the electron transfer from ferredoxin to NADP+ via its flavin FAD cofactor. To get further insights in the architecture of the transient complexes produced during the hydride transfer event between the enzyme and the NADP+ coenzyme we have applied NMR spectroscopy using Saturation Transfer Difference (STD) techniques to analyze the interaction between FNRox and the oxidized state of its NADP+ coenzyme. We have found that STD NMR, together with the use of selected mutations on FNR and of the non-FNR reacting coenzyme analogue NAD+, are appropriate tools to provide further information about the the interaction epitope. PMID:24402199

Antonini, Lara V; Peregrina, José R; Angulo, Jesús; Medina, Milagros; Nieto, Pedro M

2014-01-01

346

Enhanced silver nanoparticle synthesis by optimization of nitrate reductase activity.  

PubMed

Nanostructure materials are attracting a great deal of attention because of their potential for achieving specific processes and selectivity, especially in biological and pharmaceutical applications. The generation of silver nanoparticles using optimized nitrate reductase for the reduction of Ag(+) with the retention of enzymatic activity in the complex is being reported. This report involves the optimization of enzyme activity to bring about enhanced nanoparticle synthesis. Response surface methodology and central composite rotary design (CCRD) were employed to optimize a fermentation medium for the production of nitrate reductase by Bacillus licheniformis at pH 8. The four variables involved in the study of nitrate reductase were Glucose, Peptone, Yeast extract and KNO(3). Glucose had a significant effect on nitrate reductase production. The optimized medium containing (%) Glucose: 1.5, Peptone: 1, Yeast extract: 0.35 and KNO(3): 0.35 resulted in a nitrate reductase activity of 452.206 U/ml which is same as that of the central level. The medium A (showing least nitrate reductase activity) and the medium B (showing maximum nitrate reductase activity) were compared for the synthesis. Spectrophotometric analysis revealed that the particles exhibited a peak at 431 nm and the A(431) for the medium B was 2-fold greater than that of the medium A. The particles were also characterized using TEM. The particles synthesized using the optimized enzyme activity ranged from 10 to 80 nm and therefore can be extended to various medicinal applications. PMID:19796922

Vaidyanathan, Ramanathan; Gopalram, Shubaash; Kalishwaralal, Kalimuthu; Deepak, Venkataraman; Pandian, Sureshbabu Ram Kumar; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi

2010-01-01

347

Hydroxylated naphthoquinones as substrates for Escherichia coli anaerobic reductases.  

PubMed Central

We have used two hydroxylated naphthoquinol menaquinol analogues, reduced plumbagin (PBH2, 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinol) and reduced lapachol [LPCH2, 2-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-1, 4-naphthoquinol], as substrates for Escherichia coli anaerobic reductases. These compounds have optical, solubility and redox properties that make them suitable for use in studies of the enzymology of menaquinol oxidation. Oxidized plumbagin and oxidized lapachol have well resolved absorbances at 419 nm (epsilon=3.95 mM-1. cm-1) and 481 nm (epsilon=2.66 mM-1.cm-1) respectively (in Mops/KOH buffer, pH 7.0). PBH2 is a good substrate for nitrate reductase A (Km=282+/-28 microM, kcat=120+/-6 s-1) and fumarate reductase (Km=155+/-24 microM, kcat=30+/-2 s-1), but not for DMSO reductase. LPCH2 is a good substrate for nitrate reductase A (Km=57+/-35 microM, kcat=68+/-13 s-1), fumarate reductase (Km=85+/-27 microM, kcat=74+/-6 s-1) and DMSO reductase (Km=238+/-30 microM, kcat=191+/-21 s-1). The sensitivity of enzymic LPCH2 and PBH2 oxidation to 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide inhibition is consistent with their oxidation occurring at sites of physiological quinol binding. PMID:9576848

Rothery, R A; Chatterjee, I; Kiema, G; McDermott, M T; Weiner, J H

1998-01-01

348

Transcripts of Anthocyanidin Reductase and Leucoanthocyanidin Reductase and Measurement of Catechin and Epicatechin in Tartary Buckwheat  

PubMed Central

Anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR) play an important role in the monomeric units biosynthesis of proanthocyanidins (PAs) such as catechin and epicatechin in several plants. The aim of this study was to clone ANR and LAR genes involved in PAs biosynthesis and examine the expression of these two genes in different organs under different growth conditions in two tartary buckwheat cultivars, Hokkai T8 and T10. Gene expression was carried out by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, and catechin and epicatechin content was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. The expression pattern of ANR and LAR did not match the accumulation pattern of PAs in different organs of two cultivars. Epicatechin content was the highest in the flowers of both cultivars and it was affected by light in only Hokkai T8 sprouts. ANR and LAR levels in tartary buckwheat might be regulated by different mechanisms for catechin and epicatechin biosynthesis under light and dark conditions. PMID:24605062

Kim, Yeon Bok; Thwe, Aye Aye; Kim, YeJi; Li, Xiaohua; Cho, Jin Woong; Park, Phun Bum; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Naif; Kim, Sun-Ju; Suzuki, Tastsuro; Hyun Jho, Kwang; Park, Sang Un

2014-01-01

349

A high-throughput assay format for determination of nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase enzyme activities.  

PubMed

The authors describe a microplate-based high-throughput procedure for rapid assay of the enzyme activities of nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase, using extremely small volumes of reagents. The new procedure offers the advantages of rapidity, small sample size-nanoliter volumes, low cost, and a dramatic increase in the throughput sample number that can be analyzed simultaneously. Additional advantages can be accessed by using microplate reader application software packages that permit assigning a group type to the wells, recording of the data on exportable data files and exercising the option of using the kinetic or endpoint reading modes. The assay can also be used independently for detecting nitrite residues/contamination in environmental/food samples. PMID:9103606

McNally, N; Liu, X Y; Choudary, P V

1997-01-01

350

Enhancement of Nitrate Reductase Activity by Benzyladenine in Agrostemma githago.  

PubMed

Nitrate reductase activity in excised embryos of Agrostemma githago increases in response to both NO(3) (-) and cytokinins. We asked the question whether cytokinins affected nitrate reductase activity directly or through NO(3) (-), either by amplifying the effect of low endogenous NO(3) (-) levels, or by making NO(3) (-) available for induction from a metabolically inactive compartment. Nitrate reductase activity was enhanced on the average by 50% after 1 hour of benzyladenine treatment. In some experiments, the cytokinin response was detectable as early as 30 minutes after addition of benzyladenine. Nitrate reductase activity increased linearly for 4 hours and began to decay 13 hours after start of the hormone treatment. When embryos were incubated in solutions containing mixtures of NO(3) (-) and benzyladenine, additive responses were obtained. The effects of NO(3) (-) and benzyladenine were counteracted by abscisic acid. The increase in nitrate reductase activity was inhibited at lower abscisic acid concentrations in embryos which were induced with NO(3) (-), as compared to embryos treated with benzyladenine. Casein hydrolysate inhibited the development of nitrate reductase activity. The response to NO(3) (-) was more susceptible to inhibition by casein hydrolysate than the response to the hormone. When NO(3) (-) and benzyladenine were withdrawn from the medium after maximal enhancement of nitrate reductase activity, the level of the enzyme decreased rapidly. Nitrate reductase activity increasd again as a result of a second treatment with benzyladenine but not with NO(3) (-). At the time of the second exposure to benzyladenine, no NO(3) (-) was detectable in extracts of Agrostemma embryos. This is taken as evidence that cytokinins enhance nitrate reductase activity directly and not through induction by NO(3) (-). PMID:16657864

Kende, H; Hahn, H; Kays, S E

1971-12-01

351

Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) Reductase, a Member of the DMSO Reductase Family of Molybdenum Enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Herein we describe the application of continuous wave (CW) and pulsed EPR spectroscopy to the structural (geometric and electronic)\\u000a characterization of the Mo(V) active site within dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) reductase and where appropriate, model molybdenum(V)\\u000a complexes. Specifically, the electronic and geometric structure of the Low-g and High-g EPR signals and their relevance to\\u000a the enzymes’ catalytic cycle are described. CW and

Graeme R. Hanson

352

Recombinant expression of molybdenum reductase fragments of plant nitrate reductase at high levels in Pichia pastoris.  

PubMed

Mo reductase (MoR; formerly cytochrome c reductase) fragments of NADH:NO(3) reductase (NR; EC1.6.6.1) were cytosolically expressed in Pichia pastoris, a methylotrophic yeast, using spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and corn (Zea maize) cDNAs. In fermenter cultures, spinach MoR was expressed at 420 mg L(-1), corn MoR at 32 mg L(-1), and corn MoR plus with putative NR interface domain N terminus (MoR+) at 17 mg L(-1). Constitutively expressed MoR+ was structurally stable while it was degraded when expressed by methanol induction, which suggests methanol growth produces more proteinase. Methanol-induced expression yielded more target protein. All three MoR were purified to homogeneity and their polypeptides were approximately 41 (MoR) and approximately 66 (MoR+) kD. MoR was monomeric and MoR+ dimeric, confirming the predicted role for dimer interface domain of NR. MoR+, although differing in quaternary structure from MoR, has similar kinetic properties for ferricyanide and cytochrome c reductase activities and visible spectra, which were like NR. Redox potentials of MoR and MoR+ were similar for flavin, whereas MoR+ had a more negative potential for heme-iron. Reaction schemes for MoR catalyzed reactions were proposed based on fast-reaction rapid-scan stopped-flow kinetic analysis of MoR. P. pastoris is an excellent system for producing the large amounts of NR fragments needed for detailed biochemical studies. PMID:10859204

Mertens, J A; Shiraishi, N; Campbell, W H

2000-06-01

353

Two Thioredoxin Reductases, trxr-1 and trxr-2, Have Differential Physiological Roles in Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

Thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) is a member of the pyridine nucleotide-disulfide reductase family, which mainly functions in the thioredoxin system. TrxR is found in all living organisms and exists in two major ubiquitous isoenzymes in higher eukaryotic cells; One is cytosolic and the other mitochondrial. Mitochondrial TrxR functions to protect mitochondria from oxidative stress, where reactive oxidative species are mainly generated, while cytosolic TrxR plays a role to maintain optimal oxido-reductive status in cytosol. In this study, we report differential physiological functions of these two TrxRs in C. elegans. trxr-1, the cytosolic TrxR, is highly expressed in pharynx, vulva and intestine, whereas trxr-2, the mitochondrial TrxR, is mainly expressed in pharyngeal and body wall muscles. Deficiency of the non-selenoprotein trxr-2 caused defects in longevity and delayed development under stress conditions, while deletion mutation of the selenoprotein trxr-1 resulted in interference in acidification of lysosomal compartment in intestine. Interestingly, the acidification defect of trxr-1(jh143) deletion mutant was rescued, not only by selenocystein-containing wild type TRXR-1, but also cysteine-substituted mutant TRXR-1. Both trxr-1 and trxr-2 were up-regulated when worms were challenged by environmental stress such as heat shock. These results suggest that trxr-1 and trxr-2 function differently at organismal level presumably by their differential sub-cellular localization in C. elegans. PMID:22836943

Li, Weixun; Bandyopadhyay, Jaya; Hwaang, Hyun Sook; Park, Byung-Jae; Cho, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Jin Il; Ahnn, Joohong; Lee, Sun-Kyung

2012-01-01

354

Different functions between human monomeric carbonyl reductase 3 and carbonyl reductase 1.  

PubMed

Monomeric carbonyl reductases (CBRs) are enzymes that catalyze the reduction of many endogenous and xenobiotic carbonyl compounds, including steroids and prostaglandins. There are two monomeric CBR genes in the human genome, cbr1 and cbr3, which exhibit high homology in their amino acid sequences. Human CBR1 (hCBR1) is known as prostaglandin 9-keto reductase and 15-hydroxy dehydrogenase, and regulates the metastasis of cancer cells through the regulation of prostaglandin metabolism. However, there is little information concerning the molecular and enzymatic characteristics of human CBR3 (hCBR3). The present study demonstrated the tissue and cellular localization, and catalytic activity of hCBR3. Semi-quantitative PCR revealed the ubiquitous but lower expression of hCBR3 compared with that of hCBR1. Bacterially expressed hCBR3 exhibited limited catalytic activity toward menadione, 4-benzoylpyridine, and 4-nitrobenzaldehyde. Similar results were obtained when the cell lysates of CBR-overexpressing HEK293 cells were examined. Additionally, neither the prostaglandin 9-keto reductase nor the 15-hydroxy dehydrogenase activities of hCBR3 were significant. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that ectopically expressed hCBR3 proteins were localized in the cytosol of HEK293 cells. These results suggested that hCBR3 and hCBR1 play distinct physiological roles. This study expands our understanding of the relationship between the two monomeric hCBRs and prostaglandin metabolism. PMID:18493841

Miura, Takeshi; Nishinaka, Toru; Terada, Tomoyuki

2008-08-01

355

Synthetic Lethal Interactions Involving Loss of the Yeast ERG24- the Sterol C-14 Reductase Gene.  

PubMed Central

ERG2 and ERG24 are yeast sterol biosynthetic genes and are targets of the morpholine antifungals. ERG2 and ERG24 encode the C-8 sterol isomerase and the C-14 reductase, respectively. ERG2 is considered a non-essential gene but the viability of ERG24 is dependent upon genetic background, type of medium, and CaCl2 concentration. We demonstrate that erg2 and erg24 mutants are viable in the deletion consortium background but are lethal when combined into the same haploid strain. The erg2erg24 double mutant can be suppressed by mutations in the sphingolipid gene ELO3 but not ELO2. However, suppression occurs on rich but not on synthetic complete medium. We also demonstrate that the suppressed elo3erg2erg24 does not show a sterol composition markedly different from erg24. Further genetic analysis indicates that erg24 when combined with mutations in erg6 or erg28 are synthetically lethal but when combined with mutations in erg3 are weakly viable. These results suggest that novel sterol intermediates likely contribute to the synthetic lethality observed in this investigation. PMID:17393212

Shah Alam Bhuiyan, M.; Eckstein, James; Barbuch, Robert; Bard, Martin

2006-01-01

356

Impact of residues remote from the catalytic centre on enzyme catalysis of copper nitrite reductase  

PubMed Central

Enzyme mechanisms are often probed by structure-informed point mutations and measurement of their effects on enzymatic properties to test mechanistic hypotheses. In many cases, the challenge is to report on complex, often inter-linked elements of catalysis. Evidence for long-range effects on enzyme mechanism resulting from mutations remains sparse, limiting the design/redesign of synthetic catalysts in a predictable way. Here we show that improving the accessibility of the active site pocket of copper nitrite reductase by mutation of a surface-exposed phenylalanine residue (Phe306), located 12?Å away from the catalytic site type-2 Cu (T2Cu), profoundly affects intra-molecular electron transfer, substrate-binding and catalytic activity. Structures and kinetic studies provide an explanation for the lower affinity for the substrate and the alteration of the rate-limiting step in the reaction. Our results demonstrate that distant residues remote from the active site can have marked effects on enzyme catalysis, by driving mechanistic change through relatively minor structural perturbations. PMID:25022223

Leferink, Nicole G. H.; Antonyuk, Svetlana V.; Houwman, Joseline A.; Scrutton, Nigel S.; Eady, Robert R.; Hasnain, S. Samar

2014-01-01

357

The effect of polymorphisms of MTHER gene and vitamin B on hyperhomocysteinemia.  

PubMed

The relationship between hyperhomocysteinemia and coronary artery disease (CAD) was investigated and the influence of environmental factors (Folate, VitB12) and genetic factors [N5, N10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) or MTHFR gene mutation] on plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels and the risk of CAD observed. Fifty-one CAD patients and 30 CAD-free subjects were recruited in the study. The polymorphisms of MTHFR gene were analyzed by PCR-RFLP and plasma total Hcy levels were measured by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Plasma folate and vitamin B12 concentrations were measured by an automated chemiluminescence method. It was found that mean total plasma Hcy concentrations were significantly higher in CAD patients than in CAD-free subjects (P < 0.01). The differences were also apparent among the three genotypes of MTHFR gene in CAD group (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the genotype distributions and allele frequencies between the two groups. A strong inverse correlation was found between folate or vitamin B12 and plasma Hcy levels according to MTHFR genotype (P < 0.01). It was concluded that hyperhomocysteinemia is a new independent risk factor for CAD. However, MTHFR gene mutation alone does not relate significantly to the morbidity of CAD since hyperhomocysteinemia and its influence on the risk of CAD are decided by both environmental and genetic factors. Supplementary treatment with vitamins B can effectively lower the plasma levels of Hcy, thus maybe reducing the risk of CAD. PMID:11523237

Chen, J; Zhang, I; Cheng, L; Li, Y

2001-01-01

358

Lack of correlation between deoxyribonucleotide pool sizes, spontaneous mutation rates and malignant potential in Chinese hamster ovary cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the relationship between altered spontaneous mutation rates and malignant characteristics of cells, two hydroxyurea-resistant Chinese hamster ovary cell lines, with alterations in ribonucleotide reductase, were examined for their rates of spontaneous mutation to 6-thioguanine and ouabain resistance, tumor growth rates and their ability to form experimental lung metastases. The most resistant cell line, HR-R2T, showed no changes in

Aaron Y. Tagger; Jacqueline E. Damen; Arnold H. Greenberg; Jim A. Wright

1989-01-01

359

A metal-binding site in the catalytic subunit of anaerobic ribonucleotide reductase  

PubMed Central

A Zn(Cys)4 center has been found in the C-terminal region of the crystal structure of the anaerobic class III ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) from bacteriophage T4. The metal center is structurally related to the zinc ribbon motif and to rubredoxin and rubrerythrin. Mutant enzymes of the homologous RNR from Escherichia coli, in which the coordinating cysteines, conserved in almost all known class III RNR sequences, have been mutated into alanines, are shown to be inactive as the result of their inability to generate the catalytically essential glycyl radical. The possible roles of the metal center are discussed in relationship to the currently proposed reaction mechanism for generation of the glycyl radical in class III RNRs. PMID:12655046

Logan, Derek T.; Mulliez, Etienne; Larsson, Karl-Magnus; Bodevin, Sabrina; Atta, Mohamed; Garnaud, Pierre Emmanuel; Sjöberg, Britt-Marie; Fontecave, Marc

2003-01-01

360

Binding to large enzyme pockets: small-molecule inhibitors of trypanothione reductase.  

PubMed

The causative agents of the parasitic disease human African trypanosomiasis belong to the family of trypanosomatids. These parasitic protozoa exhibit a unique thiol redox metabolism that is based on the flavoenzyme trypanothione reductase (TR). TR was identified as a potential drug target and features a large active site that allows a multitude of possible ligand orientations, which renders rational structure-based inhibitor design highly challenging. Herein we describe the synthesis, binding properties, and kinetic analysis of a new series of small-molecule inhibitors of TR. The conjunction of biological activities, mutation studies, and virtual ligand docking simulations led to the prediction of a binding mode that was confirmed by crystal structure analysis. The crystal structures revealed that the ligands bind to the hydrophobic wall of the so-called "mepacrine binding site". The binding conformation and potency of the inhibitors varied for TR from Trypanosoma brucei and T.?cruzi. PMID:24788386

Persch, Elke; Bryson, Steve; Todoroff, Nickolay K; Eberle, Christian; Thelemann, Jonas; Dirdjaja, Natalie; Kaiser, Marcel; Weber, Maria; Derbani, Hassan; Brun, Reto; Schneider, Gisbert; Pai, Emil F; Krauth-Siegel, R Luise; Diederich, François

2014-08-01

361

A Novel SRD5A2 Mutation with Loss of Function Identified in Chinese Patients with Hypospadias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the functional change of SRD5A2 gene mutations identified in patients with 5?-reductase type 2 deficiency. Patients and Methods: Three unrelated subjects born with ambiguous genitalia were included. All patients were initially reared as girls, but they gradually exhibited variable degrees of virilization at puberty without breast development, followed by a change of gender role. Sequencing analysis of

Manna Zhang; Jun Yang; Huijie Zhang; Guang Ning; Xiaoying Li; Shouyue Sun

2011-01-01

362

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Dihydrofolate Reductase Is Not a Target Relevant to the Antitubercular Activity of Isoniazid?  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium tuberculosis enoyl-acyl-ACP reductase (InhA) has been demonstrated to be the primary target of isoniazid (INH). Recently, it was postulated that M. tuberculosis dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is also a target of INH, based on the findings that a 4R-INH-NADP adduct synthesized from INH by a nonenzymatic approach showed strong inhibition of DHFR in vitro, and overexpression of M. tuberculosis dfrA in M. smegmatis conferred a 2-fold increase of resistance to INH. In the present study, a plasmid expressing M. tuberculosis dfrA was transformed into M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis strains, respectively. The transformant strains were tested for their resistance to INH. Compared to the wild-type strains, overexpression of dfrA in M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis did not confer any resistance to INH based on the MIC values. Similar negative results were obtained with 14 other overexpressed proteins that have been proposed to bind some form of INH-NAD(P) adduct. An Escherichia coli cell-based system was designed that allowed coexpression of both M. tuberculosis katG and dfrA genes in the presence of INH. The DHFR protein isolated from the experimental sample was not found bound with any INH-NADP adduct by enzyme inhibition assay and mass spectroscopic analysis. We also used whole-genome sequencing to determine whether polymorphisms in dfrA could be detected in six INH-resistant clinical isolates known to lack mutations in inhA and katG, but no such mutations were found. The dfrA overexpression experiments, together with the biochemical and sequencing studies, conclusively demonstrate that DHFR is not a target relevant to the antitubercular activity of INH. PMID:20566771

Wang, Feng; Jain, Paras; Gulten, Gulcin; Liu, Zhen; Feng, Yicheng; Ganesula, Krishna; Motiwala, Alifiya S.; Ioerger, Thomas R.; Alland, David; Vilchèze, Catherine; Jacobs, William R.; Sacchettini, James C.

2010-01-01

363

Nitrate content and nitrate reductase activity in Rumex obtusifolius L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of nitrogen starvation and subsequent fentilization with nitrate or ammonium on nitrate content and nitrate reductase activity of Rumex obtusifolius L. under natural conditions.

A. Melzer; G. Gebauer; H. Rehder

1984-01-01

364

21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7375 Glutathione reductase assay. (a) Identification....

2011-04-01

365

21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7375 Glutathione reductase assay. (a) Identification....

2012-04-01

366

21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7375 Glutathione reductase assay. (a) Identification....

2013-04-01

367

Regulation of 7-Dehydrocholesterol Reductase by Vitamin D3.  

E-print Network

??7-Dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) is the substrate of 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR7) in the cholesterol synthesis pathway. Keratinocytes in human skin possess the enzymes necessary for cholesterol synthesis… (more)

Zou, Ling

2013-01-01

368

Redox-Linked Structural Changes in Ribonucleotide Reductase  

E-print Network

Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) catalyzes the reduction of ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides. Class I RNRs are composed of two homodimeric proteins, ?2 and ?2. The class Ia E. coli ?2 contains dinuclear, antiferromagnetically ..