These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Severe and mild mutations in cis for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, and description of five novel mutations in MTHFR.  

PubMed

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) catalyzes the synthesis of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, a methyl donor in the conversion of homocysteine to methionine. Patients with severe MTHFR deficiency have hyperhomocysteinemia, hypomethioninemia, and a range of neurological and vascular findings with a variable age at onset. We have previously described nine mutations in patients with severe MTHFR deficiency. A mild form of MTHFR deficiency, associated with a thermolabile enzyme, has been proposed as a genetic risk factor for cardiovascular disease and for neural tube defects. We have shown that a common missense mutation (an alanine-to-valine substitution) encodes this thermolabile variant. We now report an additional five mutations causing severe MTHFR deficiency and an analysis of genotype (alanine/valine status) and enzyme thermolability in 22 patients with this inborn error of metabolism. Six of these patients have four mutations in the MTHFR gene-two rare mutations causing severe deficiency and two mutations for the common alanine-to-valine mutation that results in thermolability. Even in severe MTHFR deficiency, the thermolabile variant is frequently observed, and there is a strong relationship between the presence of this variant and increased enzyme thermolability. PMID:8940272

Goyette, P; Christensen, B; Rosenblatt, D S; Rozen, R

1996-12-01

2

Severe and mild mutations in cis for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, and description of five novel mutations in MTHFR.  

PubMed Central

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) catalyzes the synthesis of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, a methyl donor in the conversion of homocysteine to methionine. Patients with severe MTHFR deficiency have hyperhomocysteinemia, hypomethioninemia, and a range of neurological and vascular findings with a variable age at onset. We have previously described nine mutations in patients with severe MTHFR deficiency. A mild form of MTHFR deficiency, associated with a thermolabile enzyme, has been proposed as a genetic risk factor for cardiovascular disease and for neural tube defects. We have shown that a common missense mutation (an alanine-to-valine substitution) encodes this thermolabile variant. We now report an additional five mutations causing severe MTHFR deficiency and an analysis of genotype (alanine/valine status) and enzyme thermolability in 22 patients with this inborn error of metabolism. Six of these patients have four mutations in the MTHFR gene-two rare mutations causing severe deficiency and two mutations for the common alanine-to-valine mutation that results in thermolability. Even in severe MTHFR deficiency, the thermolabile variant is frequently observed, and there is a strong relationship between the presence of this variant and increased enzyme thermolability. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8940272

Goyette, P.; Christensen, B.; Rosenblatt, D. S.; Rozen, R.

1996-01-01

3

The role of hyperhomocysteinemia and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T mutation in patients with retinal artery occlusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: Hyperhomocysteinemia has been established as an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether hyperhomocysteinemia and\\/or homozygosity for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T mutation are associated with an increased risk for retinal artery occlusion (RAO).DESIGN: Retrospective case-control study.METHODS: We studied 105 consecutive patients with retinal artery occlusion and 105 age and

Martin Weger; Olaf Stanger; Hannes Deutschmann; Franz Josef Leitner; Wilfried Renner; Otto Schmut; Jürgen Semmelrock; Anton Haas

2002-01-01

4

An association between the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T mutation and inflammation markers related to cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundProspective studies have identified many markers of systemic inflammation that are powerful predictors of future cardiovascular events. The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T genotype, a common polymorphism that induces hyperhomocysteinaemia, has been proposed as a genetic risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In this work, we evaluated the relationship between the levels of inflammation markers and MTHFR genotype among cardiovascular disease free

George V. Z. Dedoussis; Demosthenes B. Panagiotakos; Christos Pitsavos; Christina Chrysohoou; John Skoumas; Despoina Choumerianou; Christodoulos Stefanadis

2005-01-01

5

Combined heterozygosity for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) mutations C677T and A1298C is associated with abruptio placentae but not with intrauterine growth restriction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study was undertaken to investigate the involvement of MTHFR gene mutations C677T and A1298C implicated in vascular disease, in patients with abruptio placentae and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Study Design: DNA was extracted from blood samples of 54 patients with placental vasculopathy (18 patients with abruptio placentae and 36 with IUGR) and 114 control patients and amplified by

Gabriël S. Gebhardt; Charlotte L. Scholtz; Renate Hillermann; Hein J. Odendaal

2001-01-01

6

A Second Genetic Polymorphism in Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) Associated with Decreased Enzyme Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A common mutation in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), C677T, results in a thermolabile variant with reduced activity. Homozygous mutant individuals (approximately 10% of North Americans) are predisposed to mild hyperhomocysteinemia, when their folate status is low. This genetic–nutrient interactive effect is believed to increase the risk for neural tube defects and vascular disease. In this communication, we characterize a second common

Ilan Weisberg; Pamela Tran; Benedicte Christensen; Sahar Sibani; Rima Rozen

1998-01-01

7

MTHFR homozygous mutation and additional risk factors for cerebral infarction in a large Italian family.  

PubMed

Several cases with cerebral infarctions associated with the C677T mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) have been reported. Given the large number of asymptomatic individuals with the MTHFR mutation, additional risk factors for cerebral infarction should be considered. This study describes a large family with the MTHFR mutation and a combination of heterozygous factor V Leiden mutations and different additional exogenous and endogenous thrombogenic risk factors. Psychomotor retardation and a left fronto-insular infarct associated with the MTHFR mutation together with diminished factor VII and low level of protein C was documented in the first patient. In the second patient, generalized epilepsy and a malacic area in the right nucleus lenticularis was associated with the MTHFR mutation and a low level of protein C. In the third patient, right hemiparesis and a left fronto-temporal porencephalic cyst were documented, together with the MTHFR mutation and hyperhomocysteinemia. An extensive search of additional circumstantial and genetic thrombogenic risk factors should be useful for prophylaxis and prognosis of infants with cerebral infarctions associated with the MTHFR mutation and of their related family members. PMID:19068258

Del Balzo, Francesca; Spalice, Alberto; Perla, Massimo; Properzi, Enrico; Iannetti, Paola

2009-01-01

8

Metabolic effects of C677T and A1298C mutations at the MTHFR gene in Brazilian children with neural tube defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency leads to impairment in folate metabolism and is implicated as a risk factor for neural tube defects (NTDs). Both C677T and A1298C MTHFR mutations are associated with NTDs, in some populations. Methods: The frequencies of the C677T and A1298C MTHFR mutations were determined in 25 children with NTDs, case mothers and 75 healthy individuals from

Andrea L. A Cunha; Mario H Hirata; Chong A Kim; Elvira M Guerra-Shinohara; Kymio Nonoyama; Rosario D. C Hirata

2002-01-01

9

C677T MTHFR Mutation and Factor V Leiden Mutation in Patients with TIA\\/Minor Stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

A common C677T mutation in the gene for the enzyme 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (5,10-MTHFR) has been linked to elevated levels of homocysteine and was therefore suspected to be a candidate genetic risk factor for arterial occlusive disease. Another mutation, factor V Leiden, has been established as a common hereditary risk factor for venous thrombosis, but its role in arterial disease remains

Wolfgang Lalouschek; Susanne Aull; Wolfgang Serles; Peter Schnider; Christine Mannhalter; Ingrid Pabinger-Fasching; Lüder Deecke; Karl Zeiler

1999-01-01

10

Effects of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism on executive function in schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism has been associated with both overall schizophrenia risk and severity of negative symptoms. This study examined whether schizophrenia patients homozygous for the risk allele (T\\/T) exhibit greater impairment in executive function, and determined the extent to which MTHFR's effects on negative symptoms underlie this relationship.

Joshua L. Roffman; Anthony P. Weiss; Thilo Deckersbach; Oliver Freudenreich; David C. Henderson; Shaun Purcell; Donna H. Wong; Charles H. Halsted; Donald C. Goff

2007-01-01

11

A Common Mutation A1298C in Human Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Gene: Association with Plasma Total Homocysteine and Folate Concentrations1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is one of the main regulatory enzymes of homocys- teine metabolism. Previous studies revealed that a common mutation in MTHFR gene C677T is related to hyperhomocysteinemia and occlusive vascular pathology. In the current study, we determined the prevalence of a newly described mutation in the human MTHFR gene A1298C, and the already known C677T mutation, and related

Gideon Friedman; Netta Goldschmidt; Yechiel Friedlander; Arie Ben-Yehuda; Jacob Selhub; Sharona Babaey; Malka Mendel; Miriam Kidron; Hanoch Bar-On

12

Methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphisms in chronic myeloid leukemia: an Egyptian study.  

PubMed

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene plays a pivotal role in folate metabolism. Several genetic variations in MTHFR gene as MTHFR-C677T and MTHFR-A1298C result in decreased MTHFR activity, which could influence efficient DNA methylation and explain susceptibility to different cancers. The etiology of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is obscure and little is known about individual's susceptibility to CML. In order to assess the influence of these genetic polymorphisms on the susceptibility to CML and its effect on the course of the disease among Egyptians, we performed an age-gender-ethnic matched case-control study. The study included 97 CML patients and 130 healthy controls. Genotyping of MTHFR-C677T and -A1298C was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. The results showed no statistical difference in the distribution of MTHFR-C677T and -A1298C polymorphic genotypes between CML patients and controls. The frequency of MTHFR 677-TT homozygous variant was significantly higher in patients with accelerated/blastic transformation phase when compared to those in the chronic phase of the disease. In conclusion, our study revealed that MTHFR-C677T and -A1298C polymorphisms could not be considered as genetic risk factors for CML in Egyptians. However, MTHFR 677-TT homozygous variant might be considered as a molecular predictor for disease progression. PMID:24338216

Khorshied, Mervat Mamdooh; Shaheen, Iman Abdel Mohsen; Abu Khalil, Reham E; Sheir, Rania Elsayed

2014-01-01

13

The Association between Two Common Mutations C677T and A1298C in Human Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Gene and the Risk for Diabetic Nephropathy in Type II Diabetic Patients1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutations of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene have been shown to be associated with a predisposition to developing diabetic nephropathy (DN) in specific populations. The frequency of two MTHFR mutations, a recently described mutation in the human MTHFR gene A1298C and C677T, whose association with DN is already known, was determined in an Israeli Jewish population with type 2 diabetes

Vlad Shpichinetsky; Itamar Raz; Yechiel Friedlander; Neta Goldschmidt; Isaiah D. Wexler; Arie Ben-Yehuda; Gideon Friedman

14

Hyperhomocyst(e)inaemia, but not MTHFR C677T mutation, as a risk factor for non-arteritic ischaemic optic neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND\\/AIMSHyperhomocyst(e)inaemia has been identified as a strong risk factor for stroke, myocardial infarction, and deep vein thrombosis. A point mutation of methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T) has been associated with increased plasma homocyst(e)ine levels. To investigate whether hyperhomocyst(e)inaemia and\\/or MTHFR C677T mutation are associated with non-arteritic ischaemic optic neuropathy (NAION), a case-control study including 59 consecutive patients with NAION and

Martin Weger; Olaf Stanger; Hannes Deutschmann; Michael Simon; Wilfried Renner; Otto Schmut; Jürgen Semmelrock; Anton Haas

2001-01-01

15

Intermediate hyperhomocysteinemia resulting from compound heterozygosity of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase mutations.  

PubMed Central

Four subjects with thermolabile methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) were discovered among 16 "obligate" heterozygotes for severe MTHFR deficiency and their family members. All four subjects had less than 25% of normal mean MTHFR specific activity in lymphocyte extracts. Three of them with normal serum folate and cyanocobalamin had intermediate hyperhomocysteinemia, and one with high serum folate and cyanocobalamin had no excessive accumulation of serum homocysteine. The biochemical features in these four subjects are distinguishable from subjects homozygous for the thermolabile MTHFR, whose specific activity is approximately 50% of the normal mean, and from heterozygotes for severe MTHFR deficiency, in whom the enzyme is thermostable and has a specific activity of about 50% of the normal mean. We propose that these four subjects are genetic compounds of the allele for the severe mutation and the allele for thermolabile mutation of the MTHFR gene. It is postulated that subjects with this genetic compound are more susceptible to the development of intermediate hyperhomocysteinemia despite normal folate and B12 levels. Nonetheless, hyperhomocysteinemia due to this compound heterozygosity is correctable by oral folic acid therapy. PMID:1998340

Kang, S S; Wong, P W; Bock, H G; Horwitz, A; Grix, A

1991-01-01

16

Intermediate hyperhomocysteinemia resulting from compound heterozygosity of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase mutations.  

PubMed

Four subjects with thermolabile methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) were discovered among 16 "obligate" heterozygotes for severe MTHFR deficiency and their family members. All four subjects had less than 25% of normal mean MTHFR specific activity in lymphocyte extracts. Three of them with normal serum folate and cyanocobalamin had intermediate hyperhomocysteinemia, and one with high serum folate and cyanocobalamin had no excessive accumulation of serum homocysteine. The biochemical features in these four subjects are distinguishable from subjects homozygous for the thermolabile MTHFR, whose specific activity is approximately 50% of the normal mean, and from heterozygotes for severe MTHFR deficiency, in whom the enzyme is thermostable and has a specific activity of about 50% of the normal mean. We propose that these four subjects are genetic compounds of the allele for the severe mutation and the allele for thermolabile mutation of the MTHFR gene. It is postulated that subjects with this genetic compound are more susceptible to the development of intermediate hyperhomocysteinemia despite normal folate and B12 levels. Nonetheless, hyperhomocysteinemia due to this compound heterozygosity is correctable by oral folic acid therapy. PMID:1998340

Kang, S S; Wong, P W; Bock, H G; Horwitz, A; Grix, A

1991-03-01

17

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism (MTHFR C677T) and bone mineral density in Chinese men and women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between MTHFR (C677T) genotypes of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, bone mineral density (BMD), and vertebral fracture was studied in 657 Chinese men and women. No association between MTHFR (C677T) and BMD was found in postmenopausal women (aged 55–59 years, n = 178), elderly women (aged 70–79 years, n = 247), or elderly men (aged 70–79 years, n = 232)

M. Li; E. M. C. Lau; J. Woo

2004-01-01

18

Prevalence of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677C > T mutation in the Mediterranean Spanish population. Association with cardiovascular risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MT-HFR) is a key enzyme involved in folate metabolism. A common cytosine (C) to a thymine (T) mutation at nucleotide 677 (677C > T) in the MTHFR gene which converts an alanine residue to a valine, has been related with several biochemical phenotypes and with cardiovascular risk, depending on the population studied. Our objective was to estimate the

M. Guillén; D. Corella; O. Portolés; J. I. González; F. Mulet; C. Sáiz

2001-01-01

19

Factor V G1691A, Prothrombin G20210A, and Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase [MTHFR] C677T Gene Polymorphism in Angiographically Documented Coronary Artery Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Single point mutations in the genes coding for factor V [G1691A; Leiden], prothrombin [PRT; G20210A], and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase [MTHFR, C677T] were shown to be major inherited predisposing factors for venous thromboembolism. However, their contribution in the development of coronary artery disease [CAD] remains controversial. The aim of the study was to examine the association of these mutations in CAD.

Wassim Y. Almawi; Ghada Ameen; Hala Tamim; Ramzi R. Finan; Noha Irani-Hakime

2004-01-01

20

Association of Methylentetraydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) 677 C > T gene polymorphism and homocysteine levels in psoriasis vulgaris patients from Malaysia: a case-control study  

PubMed Central

Background The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) enzyme catalyzes the reduction of 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate and methyl donors. The methyl donors are required for the conversion of homocysteine to methionine. Mutation of MTHFR 677 C > T disrupts its thermostability therefore leads to defective enzyme activities and dysregulation of homocysteine levels. Methods This case-control study (n = 367) was conducted to investigate the correlation of the MTHFR gene polymorphism [NM_005957] and psoriasis vulgaris amongst the Malaysian population. Overnight fasting blood samples were collected from a subgroup of consented psoriasis vulgaris patients and matched controls (n = 84) for the quantification of homocysteine, vitamin B12 and folic acid levels. Results There was no significant increase of the MTHFR 677 C > T mutation in patients with psoriasis vulgaris compared with controls (?2 = 0.733, p = 0.392). No significant association between homocysteine levels and MTHFR gene polymorphism in cases and controls were observed (F = 0.91, df = 3, 80, p = 0.44). However, homocysteine levels in cases were negatively correlated with vitamin B12 (r = -0.173) and folic acid (r = -0.345) levels. Vitamin B12 and folic acid levels in cases were also negatively correlated (r = -0.164). Conclusions Our results indicate that there was no significant association between the MTHFR gene polymorphism and psoriasis vulgaris in the Malaysian population. There was no significant increase of the plasma homocysteine level in the psoriasis patients compared to the controls. PMID:22217364

2012-01-01

21

Hyperhomocysteinemia and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677CT mutation in patients under 50 years of age affected by central retinal vein occlusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo investigate the correlation between increased homocysteine plasma levels and the homozygosity for the 677C-T mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene in patients aged under 50 years affected by central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO).

Lorenzo Di Crecchio; Maurizio Battaglia Parodi; Giorgia Sanguinetti; Pierluigi Iacono; Giuseppe Ravalico

2004-01-01

22

A1298C methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase mutation and coronary artery disease: relationships with C677T polymorphism and homocysteine\\/folate metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

5, 10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a crucial enzyme in homocysteine\\/methionine metabolism. The most-studied\\u000a C677T polymorphism in the MTHFR gene results in a thermolabile variant with reduced activity, and is associated with increased\\u000a levels of total plasma homocysteine, a risk factor for coronary artery disease. A new mutation in the MTHFR gene (A1298C)\\u000a has also been reported to lower enzyme activity.

S. Friso; D. Girelli; E. Trabetti; C. Stranieri; O. Olivieri; E. Tinazzi; N. Martinelli; G. Faccini; P. F. Pignatti; R. Corrocher

2002-01-01

23

Seven novel mutations in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene and genotype/phenotype correlations in severe methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency  

SciTech Connect

5-Methyltetrahydrofolate, the major form of folate in plasma, is a carbon donor for the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine. This form of folate is generated from 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate through the action of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), a cytosolic flavoprotein. Patients with an autosomal recessive severe deficiency of MTHFR have homocystinuria and a wide range of neurological and vascular disturbances. We have recently described the isolation of a cDNA for MTHFR and the identification of two mutations in patients with severe MTHFR deficiency. We report here the characterization of seven novel mutations in this gene: six missense mutations and a 5{prime} splice-site defect that activates a cryptic splice in the coding sequence. We also present a preliminary analysis of the relationship between genotype and phenotype for all nine mutations identified thus far in this gene. A nonsense mutation and two missense mutations (proline to leucine and threonine to methionine) in the homozygous state are associated with extremely low activity (0%-3%) and onset of symptoms within the 1st year of age. Other missense mutations (arginine to cysteine and arginine to glutamine) are associated with higher enzyme activity and later onset of symptoms. 19 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Goyette, P.; Frosst, P.; Rosenblatt, D.S.; Rozen. R. [McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada)

1995-05-01

24

Riboflavin status modifies the effects of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) polymorphisms on homocysteine.  

PubMed

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR), riboflavin-dependent enzymes, participate in homocysteine metabolism. Reported effects of riboflavin status on the association between the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism and homocysteine vary, and the effects of the MTRR 66A>G or MTRR 524C>T polymorphisms on homocysteine are unclear. We tested the hypothesis that the effects of the MTHFR 677C>T, MTRR 66A>G and MTRR 524C>T polymorphisms on fasting plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) depend on riboflavin status (erythrocyte glutathionine reductase activation coefficient, optimum: <1.2; marginally deficient: 1.2-1.4; deficient: ?1.4) in 771 adults aged 18-75 years. MTHFR 677T allele carriers with middle or low tertile plasma folate (<14.7 nmol/L) had 8.2 % higher tHcy compared to the 677CC genotype (p < 0.01). This effect was eliminated when riboflavin status was optimal (p for interaction: 0.048). In the lowest cobalamin quartile (?273 pmol/L), riboflavin status modifies the relationship between the MTRR 66 A>G polymorphism and tHcy (p for interaction: 0.034). tHcy was 6.6 % higher in MTRR 66G allele carriers compared to the 66AA genotype with marginally deficient or optimal riboflavin status, but there was no difference when riboflavin status was deficient (p for interaction: 0.059). tHcy was 13.7 % higher in MTRR 524T allele carriers compared to the 524CC genotype when cobalamin status was low (p < 0.01), but no difference was observed when we stratified by riboflavin status. The effect of the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism on tHcy depends on riboflavin status, that of the MTRR 66A>G polymorphism on cobalamin and riboflavin status and that of the MTRR 524C>T polymorphism on cobalamin status. PMID:25322900

García-Minguillán, Carlos J; Fernandez-Ballart, Joan D; Ceruelo, Santiago; Ríos, Lídia; Bueno, Olalla; Berrocal-Zaragoza, Maria Isabel; Molloy, Anne M; Ueland, Per M; Meyer, Klaus; Murphy, Michelle M

2014-11-01

25

Factor V gene G1691A mutation, prothrombin gene G20210A mutation, and MTHFR gene C677T mutation are not risk factors for pulmonary thromboembolism in Chinese population  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mutation in coagulant factor V gene, a substitution in the 3? untranslated region of prothrombin gene, and a variant in 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene have been reported to be related to venous thromboembolism in Caucasians, but this relationship remains in debate in other populations. In this case–control study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of these three mutations in

Yanhui Lu; Yanfen Zhao; Guozhang Liu; Xiaoling Wang; Zhihong Liu; Baiping Chen; Rutai Hui

2002-01-01

26

The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism and cancer risk: The Croatian case–control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:Methylation abnormalities appear to be important for the pathogenesis of many cancer types. Since methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme in the methylation process catalyzing reduction of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate, C677T polymorphism, which decreases enzyme activity, may be associated with cancer susceptibility. The aim of this work was to investigate the distribution of MTHFR C677T polymorphism between various types

Ante Reljic; Ana-Maria Simundic; Elizabeta Topic; Nora Nikolac; Danijel Justinic; Mario Stefanovic

2007-01-01

27

Unilateral Renal Vein Thrombosis and Adrenal Hemorrhage in A Newborn with Homozygous Factor V Leiden and Heterozygous Of MTHFR-677T, MTHFR-1298C Gene Mutations.  

PubMed

Renal vein thrombosis (RVT) occurs as an acute and life-threatening event in neonates. RVT is the most common non-catheter-related thrombosis in infancy and occurs primarily in the newborn period. Non-catheter-related abdominal thrombosis on neonates has a higher incidence of genetic prothrombotic risk factors. RVT and adrenal hemorrhage can both be encountered in the neonatal period and they may occur at the same time (Bokenkamp et al., Eur J Pediatr 159:44-8, 2000; Lau et al. Pediatrics 120:1278-84, 2007). We report a case of unilateral RVT and adrenal hemorrhage in a newborn with homozygous factor V Leiden mutation and heterozygous of the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene mutations. PMID:25332602

Sandal, Gonca; Ar?kan, Elvan; Kuybulu, Ayça Esra; Ormec?, Ahmet Rifat

2014-09-01

28

The Common Mutations C677T and A1298C in the Human Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Gene Are Associated with Hyperhomocysteinemia and Cardiovascular Disease in Hemodialysis Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) level might be an important risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in dialysis patients. While both renal failure and mutations of the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene may result in hyperhomocysteinemia and CVD, the distinct roles of the thermolabile MTHFR mutation at nucleotide C677T and the more recently described mutation at nucleotide A1298C

Y. S. Haviv; V. Shpichinetsky; N. Goldschmidt; I. Abou Atta; A. Ben-Yehuda; G. Friedman

2002-01-01

29

Polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and susceptibility to pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a German study population  

PubMed Central

Background Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) has a major impact on the regulation of the folic acid pathway due to conversion of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate (methylene-THF) to 5-methyl-THF. Two common polymorphisms (677C>T and 1298A>C) in the gene coding for MTHFR have been shown to reduce MTHFR enzyme activity and were associated with the susceptibility to different disorders, including vascular disease, neural tube defects and lymphoid malignancies. Studies on the role of these polymorphisms in the susceptibility to acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) led to discrepant results. Methods We retrospectively evaluated the association of the MTHFR 677C>T and 1298A>C polymorphisms with pediatric ALL by genotyping a study sample of 443 ALL patients consecutively enrolled onto the German multicenter trial ALL-BFM 2000 and 379 healthy controls. We calculated odds ratios of MTHFR genotypes based on the MTHFR 677C>T and 1298A>C polymorphisms to examine if one or both of these polymorphisms are associated with pediatric ALL. Results No significant associations between specific MTHFR variants or combinations of variants and risk of ALL were observed neither in the total patient group nor in analyses stratified by gender, age at diagnosis, DNA index, immunophenotype, or TEL/AML1 rearrangement. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the MTHFR 677C>T and 1298A>C gene variants do not have a major influence on the susceptibility to pediatric ALL in the German population. PMID:15921520

Schnakenberg, Eckart; Mehles, Andrea; Cario, Gunnar; Rehe, Klaus; Seidemann, Kathrin; Schlegelberger, Brigitte; Elsner, Holger A; Welte, Karl H; Schrappe, Martin; Stanulla, Martin

2005-01-01

30

Neonatal and Fetal Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Genetic Polymorphisms: An Examination of C677T and A1298C Mutations  

PubMed Central

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) mutations are commonly associated with hyperhomocysteinemia, and, through their defects in homocysteine metabolism, they have been implicated as risk factors for neural tube defects and unexplained, recurrent embryo losses in early pregnancy. Folate sufficiency is thought to play an integral role in the phenotypic expression of MTHFR mutations. Samples of neonatal cord blood (n=119) and fetal tissue (n=161) were analyzed for MTHFR C677T and A1298C mutations to determine whether certain MTHFR genotype combinations were associated with decreased in utero viability. Mutation analysis revealed that all possible MTHFR genotype combinations were represented in the fetal group, demonstrating that 677T and 1298C alleles could occur in both cis and trans configurations. Combined 677CT/1298CC and 677TT/1298CC genotypes, which contain three and four mutant alleles, respectively, were not observed in the neonatal group (P=.0402). This suggests decreased viability among fetuses carrying these mutations and a possible selection disadvantage among fetuses with increased numbers of mutant MTHFR alleles. This is the first report that describes the existence of human MTHFR 677CT/1298CC and 677TT/1298CC genotypes and demonstrates their potential role in compromised fetal viability. PMID:10958762

Isotalo, Phillip A.; Wells, George A.; Donnelly, James G.

2000-01-01

31

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms and risk of molecularly defined subtypes of childhood acute leukemia  

PubMed Central

Low folate intake as well as alterations in folate metabolism as a result of polymorphisms in the enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) have been associated with an increased incidence of neural tube defects, vascular disease, and some cancers. Polymorphic variants of MTHFR lead to enhanced thymidine pools and better quality DNA synthesis that could afford some protection from the development of leukemias, particularly those with translocations. We now report associations of MTHFR polymorphisms in three subgroups of pediatric leukemias: infant lymphoblastic or myeloblastic leukemias with MLL rearrangements and childhood lymphoblastic leukemias with either TEL-AML1 fusions or hyperdiploid karyotypes. Pediatric leukemia patients (n = 253 total) and healthy newborn controls (n = 200) were genotyped for MTHFR polymorphisms at nucleotides 677 (C?T) and 1,298 (A?C). A significant association for carriers of C677T was demonstrated for leukemias with MLL translocations (MLL+, n = 37) when compared with controls [adjusted odd ratios (OR) = 0.36 with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.15–0.85; P = 0.017]. This protective effect was not evident for A1298C alleles (OR = 1.14). In contrast, associations for A1298C homozygotes (CC; OR = 0.26 with a 95% CI of 0.07–0.81) and C677T homozygotes (TT; OR = 0.49 with a 95% CI of 0.20–1.17) were observed for hyperdiploid leukemias (n = 138). No significant associations were evident for either polymorphism with TEL-AML1+ leukemias (n = 78). These differences in allelic associations may point to discrete attributes of the two alleles in their ability to alter folate and one-carbon metabolite pools and impact after DNA synthesis and methylation pathways, but should be viewed cautiously pending larger follow-up studies. The data provide evidence that molecularly defined subgroups of pediatric leukemias have different etiologies and also suggest a role of folate in the development of childhood leukemia. PMID:11274424

Wiemels, Joseph L.; Smith, Rosalyn N.; Taylor, G. Malcolm; Eden, Osborn B.; Alexander, Freda E.; Greaves, Mel F.

2001-01-01

32

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotypes and predisposition to atherothrombotic disease. Evidence that all three MTHFR C677T genotypes confer different levels of risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims Elevated plasma homocysteine is an independent risk factor for atherothrombotic disease. Individuals homozygous for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C allele exclusively accumulate 5- methyltetrahydrofolate, the methyl donor for homocysteine remethylation, in their red blood cells; this contrasts with 677 TT homozygotes who also accumulate significant levels of non-methylated folate derivatives. Those with the MTHFR 677 TT, CT and CC

L. A. J. Kluijtmans; A. S. Whitehead

2001-01-01

33

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphisms are associated with ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke: Dual effect of MTHFR polymorphisms C677T and A1298C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for ischemic stroke. The enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) plays a critical role in modulating the levels of plasma homocysteine. Two polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene, C677T, A1298C result in reduced enzyme activity. The mechanisms of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke are not well understood. Although controversial, previous studies have shown evidence of causality of both

Ali Sazci; Emel Ergul; Nese Tuncer; Gurler Akpinar; Ihsan Kara

2006-01-01

34

The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism and tumor risk: evidence from 134 case-control studies.  

PubMed

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is an important enzyme involved in folate metabolism, which is essential for DNA synthesis and methylation. Genetic variations in the MTHFR gene seem to contribute to a decreased activity of MTHFR, ultimately confer increased susceptibility to cancer. As the most extensively studied polymorphism, MTHFR C677T polymorphism was shown to contribute to cancer susceptibility but the results were inconsistent. The authors performed a meta-analysis including 134 studies (46,207 cases and 69,160 controls) to address the issue. Odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the association. Overall, a significant elevated risk of cancer was associated with the MTHFR C677T polymorphism in T-allele versus C-allele comparison (OR = 1.06, 95% CI 1.02-1.11, P(heterogeneity) < 0.001), homozygote model (OR = 1.08, 95% CI 1.01-1.17, P(heterogeneity) < 0.001) and dominant model (OR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.00-1.10, P(heterogeneity) < 0.001). In the stratified analyses, significantly increased cancer risks were indicated among Asians in all genetic models except for heterozygote model. Further analysis revealed that C677T was significantly associated with an increased risk of esophageal and stomach cancer. This meta-analysis supports an association between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and increased risk of esophageal and stomach cancer, especially among Asians. Additionally, more high-quality studies and that the covariates responsible for heterogeneity should be controlled to obtain a more conclusive response about the function of MTHFR C677T in cancer. PMID:24744129

Tang, Min; Wang, Shang-Qian; Liu, Bian-Jiang; Cao, Qiang; Li, Bing-Jie; Li, Peng-Chao; Li, Yong-Fei; Qin, Chao; Zhang, Wei

2014-07-01

35

Relationship between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) A1298C gene polymorphism and type 2 diabetic nephropathy risk: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Relationship between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) A1298C gene polymorphism and type 2 diabetic nephropathy (T2DN) risk is still unclear. This study was performed to evaluate if there is an association between the MTHFR A1298C gene polymorphism and T2DN risk using meta-analysis. The relevant reports were searched and identified from PubMed, Cochrane Library on 1 October 2013, and eligible studies were included and synthesized. Eight reports were recruited into this meta-analysis for the association of the MTHFR A1298C gene polymorphism with T2DN risk. The MTHFR A1298C C allele or CC genotype was shown to be not associated with T2DN risk (C allele: OR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.43-1.34, p = 0.34; CC genotype: OR = 1.18, 95% CI: 0.63-2.22, p = 0.60). Interestingly, AA genotype was associated with the T2DN risk (OR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.49-0.96, p = 0.03). In the sensitivity analysis according to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE), the results were consistent with those in non-sensitivity analysis. However, in the sensitivity analysis according to the control source from hospital, sample size of case (? 100), sample size of case (<100), the MTHFR A1298C gene polymorphism was not associated with T2DN risk. In conclusion, the MTHFR A1298C gene polymorphism was not associated with T2DN risk. However, additional studies are required to firmly establish a correlation between the MTHFR A1298C gene polymorphism and T2DN risk. PMID:24678913

Zhang, Jie; Xiao, Yan; Zhang, Xian-Wen; Gao, Zhi-Qing; Han, Jing-Hui

2014-07-01

36

C677T and A1298C Mutations in the MTHFR Gene and Survival in Colorectal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aims: Our preliminary results laboratory have shown some association between C677T and A1298C MTHFR mutations and factors influencing survival in colorectal cancer. We studied the survival of patients with colorectal cancer depending on the initial Dukes- MAC stage of the disease at the time of diagnosis and the MTHFR mutation present. Methods: We randomly selected 69 patients with

Gelu Osian; Lucia Procopciuc; Liviu Vlad; Cornel Iancu; Teodora Mocan; Lucian Mocan

37

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) c677t gene variant modulates the homocysteine folate correlation in a mild folate-deficient population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A large body of evidence links plasma concentrations of homocysteine and cardiovascular disease. Several genetic and environmental variables may modulate such relationship. We investigated the influence of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene variants C677T, A1298C, and T1317C on homocysteine, folate, and cobalamin concentrations in a sample of individuals from a mild folate deficiency population to better clarify the complex interactions

Alexandre C. Pereira; Isolmar Tadeu Schettert; Antônio Alberto F. Morandini Filho; Elvira Maria Guerra-Shinohara; José E. Krieger

2004-01-01

38

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and thymidylate synthase promoter (TSER) polymorphisms in Indonesian children with and without leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic variations in the polymorphic tandem repeat sequence of the enhancer region of the thymidylate synthase promoter (TSER), as well as in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism, influence methotrexate sensitivity. We studied these polymorphisms in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and in subjects without malignancy in Indonesia and Holland.The frequencies of TT and CT genotypes were two-fold higher in

Elisa Giovannetti; Dewa G. Ugrasena; Eddy Supriyadi; Laura Vroling; Antonino Azzarello; Desiree de Lange; Godefridus J. Peters; Anjo J. P. Veerman; Jacqueline Cloos

2008-01-01

39

Adaptive developmental plasticity in methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism limits its frequency in South Indians.  

PubMed

Methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism shows considerable heterogeneity in its distribution in humans worldwide. The current study was conducted to investigate whether this polymorphism exhibited adaptive developmental plasticity in the control of the TT-genotype frequency. We screened 1,818 South Indian subjects (895 males and 923 females) for MTHFR C677T polymorphism using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism approach. MTHFR 677T-allele frequency in males and females was 9.1 and 11.0%, respectively. Compared to females, males had lower frequency of TT-genotype [odds ratio 0.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08-1.01]. The frequency of MTHFR 677T-allele was highest in the age group of 20-40 years and it gradually decreased from 40-60 to 60-80 years (P trend<0.0001). MTHFR 677TT-genotype was associated with 7.02-folds (95% CI: 2.12-25.63, P<0.0001) cumulative risk for recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL), neural tube defects (NTDs) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Linear regression model suggested that male gender exhibited increased homocysteine levels by 9.35 ?mol/L while each MTHFR 677T-allele contributed to 4.63 ?mol/L increase in homocysteine. Plasma homocysteine showed inverse correlation with dietary folate (r=-0.17, P<0.0001), B2 (r=-0.14, P<0.0001) and B6 (r=-0.07, P=0.03). Examination of the spontaneously aborted fetuses (n=35) showed no significant association of fetal genotype on its in utero viability. From the current study, it was concluded that C677T seemed to have acquired adaptive developmental plasticity among South Indians due to environmental influences thus contributing to hyperhomocysteinemia and its associated complications such as RPL, NTDs, DVT, etc. PMID:24449370

Naushad, Shaik Mohammad; Krishnaprasad, Chintakindi; Devi, Akella Radha Rama

2014-05-01

40

Combined choroidal neovascularization and hypopituitarism in a patient with homozygous mutation in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene  

PubMed Central

We report a case of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene mutation in a 20-year-old male patient with hypopituitarism. Treatment with three consecutive injections of intravitreal ranibizumab (anti-vascular endothelial growth factor) resulted in significant improvement of the patient's vision and the appearance of the macula. A search of the literature produced no previously reported case of MTHFR gene mutation associated both CNV and possibly hypopituitarism. With hormone replacement therapy of hypopituitarism, acetyl salicylic acid 100 mg/day also was started. The patient was clinically stable both for CNV and other thromboembolic disorders over a 6-month follow-up and also 1-year follow-up period. PMID:24672570

Aydogdu, Aydogan; Haymana, Cem; Baskoy, Kamil; Durukan, Ali H.; Ozgur, Gokhan; Azal, Omer

2014-01-01

41

[Neonatal renal vein thrombosis in a heterozygous carrier of both factor V Leiden and the MTHFR gene mutation].  

PubMed

Renal vein thrombosis (RVT) is a rare but potentially serious neonatal disease. Its epidemiology and its clinical and biological expression are currently well known, but its etiological exploration, like that of venous thromboembolism, is increasingly complex. Perinatal risk factors such as prematurity, dehydration, and birth asphyxia have lost their direct accountability at the expense of their interaction with constitutional disorders of hemostasis. We report a case of RVT in a newborn who was a heterozygous carrier of both factor V Leiden and the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene mutation. We recall the clinical and epidemiological characteristics. A search for inborn blood coagulation disorders should be systematic in the newborn infant with venous thrombosis because of the risk of recurrence, taking into account perinatal factors and maternal thrombophilia (especially if RVT is established during the prenatal period). PMID:22361411

Wannes, S; Soua, H; Ghanmi, S; Braham, H; Hassine, M; Hamza, H A; Ben Hamouda, H; Sfar, M-T

2012-04-01

42

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and the risk of primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) in a Chinese population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), which is expressed in the liver, may be involved in both DNA methylation and\\u000a DNA synthesis. It is also indicated as a potential risk factor of liver cancer in patients with chronic liver disease. To\\u000a date, no study has been conducted on MTHFR and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using a population-based design. The objective\\u000a of this study was

Li-Na Mu; Wei Cao; Zuo-Feng Zhang; Lin Cai; Qing-Wu Jiang; Nai-Chieh You; Binh Yang Goldstein; Guo-Rong Wei; Chuan-Wei Chen; Qing-Yi Lu; Xue-Fu Zhou; Bao-Guo Ding; Jun Chang; Shun-Zhang Yu

2007-01-01

43

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T gene polymorphism as a possible factor for reducing clinical severity of psoriasis  

PubMed Central

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a crucial enzyme in homocysteine/methionine metabolism. It catalysis the formation of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methyl-THF), which is the methyl donor for synthesis of methionine from homocysteine (Hcy). Decreases in folate consumption due to MTHFR polymorphism may affect production rate of keratinocytes of which had faster reproduction rates with a continuous DNA turnover and this may affect the clinical picture of psoriasis. This study aimed to investigate correlation of C677T polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene with severity of psoriasis and to evaluate the status of plasma Hcy, folate and vitamin B12 levels in patient with chronic plaque psoriasis. The study included 60 patients with chronic plaque psoriasis. The C677T polymorphisms were genotyped using PCR (Qiagen). Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) score below 7 was defined as mild, between 7 and 12 as moderate, and above 12 as severe disease. There was a significant difference between the severity of disease classification (p<0.05) with respect to the C677T polymorphism in the MTHFR gene. Severe involvement (PASI score >12) was observed in 38.46% of wild type (CC), but only 12.50% of homozygote (TT) and 7.69% of heterozygote (CT) patients. Significant differences between gene polymorphism and Hcy levels were noted in TT and CT genotypes respectively (p=0.025 and p=0.040). Plasma Hcy, folate and vitamin B12 levels were not correlated with the PASI score. Our data indicate a possible correlation of MTHFR polymorphism with severity of psoriasis. PMID:24753765

Karabacak, Ercan; Aydin, Ersin; Ozcan, Omer; Dogan, Bilal; Gultepe, Mustafa; Cosar, Alpaslan; Muftuoglu, Tuba

2014-01-01

44

Role of 677C?T polymorphism a single substitution in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene in North Indian infertile men.  

PubMed

Failure or severe difficulty in conceiving a child is surprisingly common, worldwide problem. Half of these cases are due to male factors with defects in sperm (1 in 15 men) being the single most common cause. Also about 60-75 % of male infertility cases are idiopathic, since the molecular mechanisms underlying the defects remain unknown. DNA methylation is crucial for spermatogenesis and high methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) activity in adult testis than other organs in mouse, signifies its critical role in spermatogenesis. According to recent findings there is a correlation of epigenetic regulation of several imprinted genes with disturbed spermatogenesis and fertility. Consequently any change in the MTHFR gene sequence can modify the spermatogenesis including transmission of infertility to the carriers. The aim of the study is to analyze the distribution of the single nucleotide polymorphism C677T in the MTHFR gene in 637 North Indian infertile patients and 364 fertile North Indian men as controls by using PCR-RFLP technique and Chi Square test for statistical analysis. The average MTHFR 677CC, 677CT, 677TT genotype frequencies of total infertile men were 70.17, 24.17, 5.65 % in infertile men and 75.27, 21.7, 2.74 % in controls, respectively. The average frequency of the MTHFR 677T allele was 17.73 % in infertile men as compared to 13.59 % in controls. The statistical difference was significant. Disease risk was found 2.27-folds increased in patients who were carrying T allele. We found an association of C677T polymorphism with male infertility and that it may be a genetic risk factor for male infertility in North Indian population. PMID:24366618

Naqvi, Hena; Hussain, Syed Rizwan; Ahmad, Mohammad Kaleem; Mahdi, Farzana; Jaiswar, Shyam Pyari; Shankhwar, Satya Narayain; Mahdi, Abbas Ali

2014-02-01

45

The MTHFR C677T polymorphism modifies age at onset in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD) and may result from genetic mutations or/and environmental factors. 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a folate-dependent enzyme that catalyzed remethylation of homocysteine (Hcy) and the MTHFR C677T polymorphism makes the MTHFR enzyme thermolabile causing hyperhomocysteinemia. In this study we analyzed whether two functional polymorphisms of MTHFR gene, A1298C and C677T, affect age of onset in PD. We enrolled 120 patients with sporadic PD. Patients were divided into three groups based on MTHFR C677T polymorphisms: (a) homozygotes wild type (CC) (b) heterozygotes (CT) and (c) homozygotes carriers of mutation (TT). MTHFR SNPs were analyzed using High-Resolution Melt analysis and ANOVA was performed to assess whether polymorphisms of MTHFR gene could influence age of onset. The MTHFR A1298C polymorphism had no effect on PD age at onset (p = 1.0) while there was a significant association with MTHFR C677T (p = 0.019 Bonferroni-adjusted post hoc) showing an earlier onset in CC as compared with TT. (p = 0.024). No differences were found for vascular load assessed with magnetic resonance imaging, pharmacological therapy and cognitive state for two MTHFR SNPs. Our results suggest a possible association of MTHFR C677T with age at onset of PD and may have important implications regarding the role of MTHFR. PMID:24052451

Vallelunga, Annamaria; Pegoraro, Valentina; Pilleri, Manuela; Biundo, Roberta; De Iuliis, Angela; Marchetti, Mauro; Facchini, Silvia; Formento Dojot, Patrizia; Antonini, Angelo

2014-01-01

46

Molecular Analysis of Factor V Leiden, Factor V Hong Kong, Factor II G20210A, Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T, and A1298C Mutations Related to Turkish Thrombosis Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inherited gene disorders related to the hemostatic system have been documented as risk factors for thrombosis. The roles of factor V Hong Kong (FV Hong Kong), factor V Leiden (FV Leiden), factor II G20210A (FII G20210A), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T, and MTHFR A1298C mutations in Turkish patients with thrombosis (270 patients) compared with healthy controls (114 subjects) were evaluated. Polymerase

Bilgen Dölek; Serpil Eraslan; Sevim Ero?lu; Belgin Eroglu Kesim; Turgut Ulutin; Altan Yalç?ner; Yahya R. Laleli; Nermin Gözükirm?z?

2007-01-01

47

Effect of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase ( MTHFR 677C>T) polymorphism on plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy children is influenced by consumption of folate-fortified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo explore the influence of folate-fortified foods (ready-to-eat [RTE] breakfast cereals or fruit-juice drinks) on the relation between the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR 677C>T) polymorphism and plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations in healthy children.

Constantina Papoutsakis; Yannis Manios; Faidon Magkos; Evaggelos Papaconstantinou; Kleopatra H. Schulpis; Antonis Zampelas; Antonia L. Matalas; Nikos Yiannakouris

2010-01-01

48

The Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Polymorphism (MTHFR c.677C > T) and Elevated Plasma Homocysteine Levels in a U.S. Pediatric Population with Incident Thromboembolism  

PubMed Central

Objective Elevated plasma homocysteine (tHcy) and the MTHFR c.677C > T variant have been postulated to increase the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), although mechanisms and implications to pediatrics remain incompletely understood. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalences of elevated tHcy and MTHFR variant in a pediatric population with VTE or arterial ischemic stroke (AIS), and to determine associations with thrombus outcomes. Study Design Subjects were enrolled in an institution-based prospective cohort of children with VTE or AIS. Inclusion criteria consisted of objectively confirmed thrombus, ?21 years at diagnosis, tHcy measured and MTHFR c.677C > T mutation analysis. Clinical and laboratory data were collected. Frequencies for elevated tHcy and MTHFR variant were compared with NHANES values for healthy US children and also between study groups (VTE vs AIS, provoked vs idiopathic) and by age. Results The prevalences of hyperhomocysteinemia or MTHFR variant were not increased in comparison to NHANES. tHcy did not differ between those with wild-type MTHFR versus either c.677C > T heterozygotes or homozygotes. There was no association between tHcy or MTHFR variant and thrombus outcomes. Conclusion In this cohort of US children with VTE or AIS, neither the prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia nor that of MTHFR variant was increased relative to reference values, and adverse thrombus outcomes were not definitively associated with either. While it is important to consider that milder forms of pyridoxine-responsive classical homocystinuria will be detected only by tHcy, we suggest that routine testing of MTHFR c.677C > T genotype as part of a thrombophilia evaluation in children with incident thromboembolismis not warranted until larger studies have been performed in order to establish or refute a link between MTHFR and adverse outcomes. PMID:23866722

Joachim, Emily; Goldenberg, Neil A.; Bernard, Timothy J.; Armstrong-Wells, Jennifer; Stabler, Sally; Manco-Johnson, Marilyn J.

2014-01-01

49

[Prevalence of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism (C677T) in the Hungarian population].  

PubMed

MTHFR encodes a critical enzyme in folate and homocysteine metabolism and the C677T allele of the MTHFR gene has some association with an increased risk for neural-tube defects and for adult cardiovascular diseases. As part of an international collaborative study the prevalence of C677T homozygous genotype was 11.1% while the frequency of C677T heterozygous condition was 45.2% in the Hungarian neonate sample. These findings underscore the clinical importance of the C677T variant in the Hungarian population and urge population-based prevention of conditions related to such gene. PMID:11433922

Czeizel, E; Tímár, L; Botto, L

2001-06-10

50

Seven novel mutations in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene and genotype\\/phenotype correlations in severe methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

5-Methyltetrahydrofolate, the major form of folate in plasma, is a carbon donor for the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine. This form of folate is generated from 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate through the action of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), a cytosolic flavoprotein. Patients with an autosomal recessive severe deficiency of MTHFR have homocystinuria and a wide range of neurological and vascular disturbances. We have recently

P. Goyette; P. Frosst; D. S. Rosenblatt; Rozen. R

1995-01-01

51

A retrospective comparative exploratory study on two Methylentetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms in esophagogastric cancer: the A1298C MTHFR polymorphism is an independent prognostic factor only in neoadjuvantly treated gastric cancer patients  

PubMed Central

Background Methylentetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) plays a major role in folate metabolism and consequently could be an important factor for the efficacy of a treatment with 5-fluorouracil. Our aim was to evaluate the prognostic and predictive value of two well characterized constitutional MTHFR gene polymorphisms for primarily resected and neoadjuvantly treated esophagogastric adenocarcinomas. Methods 569 patients from two centers were analyzed (gastric cancer: 218, carcinoma of the esophagogastric junction (AEG II, III): 208 and esophagus (AEG I): 143). 369 patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery, 200 patients were resected without preoperative treatment. The MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms were determined in DNA from peripheral blood lymphozytes. Associations with prognosis, response and clinicopathological factors were analyzed retrospectively within a prospective database (chi-square, log-rank, cox regression). Results Only the MTHFR A1298C polymorphisms had prognostic relevance in neoadjuvantly treated patients but it was not a predictor for response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The AC genotype of the MTHFR A1298C polymorphisms was significantly associated with worse outcome (p?=?0.02, HR 1.47 (1.06-2.04). If neoadjuvantly treated patients were analyzed based on their tumor localization, the AC genotype of the MTHFR A1298C polymorphisms was a significant negative prognostic factor in patients with gastric cancer according to UICC 6th edition (gastric cancer including AEG type II, III: HR 2.0, 95% CI 1.3-2.0, p?=?0.001) and 7th edition (gastric cancer without AEG II, III: HR 2.8, 95% CI 1.5-5.7, p?=?0.003), not for AEG I. For both definitions of gastric cancer the AC genotype was confirmed as an independent negative prognostic factor in cox regression analysis. In primarily resected patients neither the MTHFR A1298C nor the MTHFR C677T polymorphisms had prognostic impact. Conclusions The MTHFR A1298C polymorphisms was an independent prognostic factor in patients with neoadjuvantly treated gastric adenocarcinomas (according to both UICC 6th or 7th definitions for gastric cancer) but not in AEG I nor in primarily resected patients, which confirms the impact of this enzyme on chemotherapy associated outcome. PMID:24490800

2014-01-01

52

Effect of Riboflavin Status on the Homocysteine-lowering Effect of Folate in Relation to the MTHFR (C677T) Genotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is the precursor for FAD, the cofactor for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR). MTHFR catalyzes the formation of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, which acts as a methyl donor for homocysteine remethylation. Individuals with the MTHFR 677C3 T mutation have increased plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations, particularly in as- sociation with low folate status. It has been proposed that riboflavin may act

Stuart J. Moat; Pauline A. L. Ashfield-Watt; Hilary J. Powers; Robert G. Newcombe; Ian F. W. McDowell

2003-01-01

53

Association of Corticosteroids and Factor V, Prothrombin, and MTHFR Gene Mutations With Avascular Osteonecrosis in Renal Allograft Recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of posttransplantation avascular osteonecrosis (AVN) is controversial. Besides an increased bone marrow pressure due to reduced blood supply, enhanced coagulation has been considered. We investigated the associations of factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, and MTHFR C677T mutations as well as cumulative corticosteroid doses with AVN in renal allograft recipients. The records of 39 volunteer patients and 11 patients

A. Celik; D. Tekis; F. Saglam; S. Tunali; N. Kabakci; D. Ozaksoy; M. Manisali; M. A. Ozcan; M. Meral; H. Gülay; T. Camsari

2006-01-01

54

Infant C677T mutation in MTHFR, maternal periconceptional vitamin use, and cleft lip.  

PubMed

Studies have reported an association between homozygosity for a variant form of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and risk for neural tube defects. Because of MTHFR's involvement with folate metabolism and evidence that maternal use of a multivitamin with folic acid in early pregnancy reduces risk for cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CLP), we hypothesized that infants homozygous for the C677T genotype would be at increased risk for CLP because of lower MTHFR enzymatic activity. Data were derived from a large population-based, case-control study of fetuses and liveborn infants among a cohort of 1987 to 1989 California births. The analyses involved 310 infants with isolated CLP whose mothers completed a telephone interview and whose DNA was available from newborn screening blood specimens and involved 383 control infants without a congenital anomaly whose mothers completed a telephone interview and whose DNA was available. Cases and controls were genotyped TT if homozygous for the C677T allele, CT if heterozygous for the C677T allele, and CC if homozygous for the C677 (wild-type) allele. Odds ratios for CLP were 0.89 (0.55 to 1.4) and 0.78 (0.56 to 1.1) for infants with TT versus CC and infants with CT versus CC genotypes, respectively. Compared with the CC genotype, the odds ratios for CLP among infants with the TT genotype were 0.74 (0.39 to 1.4) for those infants whose mothers were users and 1.4 (0.54 to 3.6) for those infants whose mothers were not users of multivitamins containing folic acid periconceptionally. The two estimates were not statistically heterogeneous (P = 0.30). Our results did not indicate increased risks for CLP among infants homozygous for the C677T genotype, nor do they indicate an interaction between infant C677T genotype and maternal multivitamin use on the occurrence of CLP. PMID:9843036

Shaw, G M; Rozen, R; Finnell, R H; Todoroff, K; Lammer, E J

1998-11-16

55

Recurrent cerebral venous thrombosis associated with heterozygote methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T mutation and sickle cell trait without homocysteinemia: an autopsy case report and review of literature.  

PubMed

Elevated blood homocysteine concentration and certain genetic mutations have been associated with increased risk for developing arterial and venous thrombosis. A common mutation of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, MTHFR C677T, has been associated with elevated homocysteine concentration and increased risk for developing thrombosis in homozygote carriers. Heterozygote carriers for this gene mutation, if associated with other major or minor risk factors for thrombophilia, appear to be prone to develop thrombosis. A postmortem genetic testing for common mutations resulting in thrombophilia should be performed in all individuals who die as a result of thrombosis, regardless of predisposing risk factors, to determine the true prevalence of mutations in these individuals, and to assess the true role of a certain mutation, such as heterozygote MTHFR C677T, in the pathogenesis of thrombosis. Postmortem genetic testing for common mutations associated with thrombophilia in selected cases has potentially life-saving importance to surviving family members. We report a case of recurrent cerebral venous thrombosis in a 19 year old male with history of sickle cell trait, obesity, and high normal blood homocysteine, who was heterozygote for MTHFR C677T mutation. PMID:25074331

Ali, Z; Troncoso, J C; Fowler, D R

2014-09-01

56

[Vascular diseases, spina bifida and schizophrenia in a single family associated with the heterozygote mutation of the heat-sensitive variant of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase].  

PubMed

Homozygous mutation of the thermolabile variant of methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) may result in hyperhomocystinemia, leading to an increased risk for early cardiovascular disease, neural tube defects, and possibly major depression, schizophrenia. According to recent studies heterozygosity for the thermolabile variant of the MTHFR gene mutation is also more frequent in patients with thrombotic disease compared to that in the average population. We report on a family with different types of early vascular disease. In four consecutive generations MTHFR heterozygosity was detected: in the proband and in her mother, grandfather and daughter. Further conditions of the family members, possibly due to carrying the mutation, came to light by the pedigree analysis and examinations. The patient had pulmonary emboli at young age, her aunt died of spina bifida shortly after birth. The patient's mother suffers from schizophrenia and depression. The grandfather had pulmonary emboli, her sister with spina bifida occulta also carries the same mutation, as does her daughter who is sofar asymptomatic. In other asymptomatic members of the family no mutations were found. Unexpectedly, hyperhomocystinemia was detected in all heterozygote individuals. Our study demonstrates the necessity for folic acid therapy in mutation carriers to prevent early vascular events, depression and schizophrenia, and also to reduce the risk for neural tube defects in a preconception setting. PMID:11481907

Horváth, A; Morava, E; Tóth, G; Czakó, M; Melegh, B; Kosztolányi, G

2001-07-01

57

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism and pre-eclampsia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A common missense mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, a C to T substitution at nucleotide 677, is responsible for reduced MTHFR activity and associated with modestly increased plasma homocysteine concentrations. Since underlying maternal vascular disease increases the risk of pre-eclampsia, we had the working hypothesis that pre-eclampsia patients would have an increased T677 allele frequency compared with controls.

S Sohda; T Arinami; H Hamada; N Yamada; H Hamaguchi; T Kubo

1997-01-01

58

Association of a Common Allelic Polymorphism (C677T) in the Methylene Tetrahydrofolate Reductase Gene with a Reduced Risk of Osteoporotic Fractures. A Case Control Study in Danish Postmenopausal Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twin studies indicate a substantial genetic component in the development of osteoporosis. One of the latest studied candidate genes is the one coding for methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) (C677T) in which a point mutation gives rise to a thermolabile variant of MTHFR. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of this mutation on peripheral measures of bone

H. L. Jørgensen; J. S. Madsen; B. Madsen; M. M. A. Saleh; B. Abrahamsen; M. Fenger; J. B. Lauritzen

2002-01-01

59

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genetic variation and major depressive disorder prognosis: A five-year prospective cohort study of primary care attendees.  

PubMed

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genetic variation has been associated with the diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD) but no study to date has examined the effect MTHFR variation has on MDD prognosis. We sought to examine the prospective effects of two common MTHFR variants (C677T and A1298C) as well as seven haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNPs) on MDD prognosis over a 5-year (60-month) period. Participants were 147 depressed primary care attendees enrolled in the Diagnosis, Management and Outcomes of Depression in Primary Care (diamond) prospective cohort study. Prognosis of MDD was measured using three methods: (1) DSM-IV criteria, (2) Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and (3) Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD). DSM-IV criteria for MDD was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview at baseline and 24, 36, 48, and 60 months post-baseline; whereas, PHQ-9 and CESD measures were employed at baseline and 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months post-baseline. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed that PHQ-9 symptom severity trajectories differed by C677T genotype (F?=?3.34, df?=?2,144, P?=?0.038), with 677CC genotype showing the most severe symptom severity course over the 60 months of observation. Neither the A1298C polymorphism nor any of the htSNPs were associated with MDD prognosis regardless of measure used. Our results suggest that the MTHFR C677T polymorphism may serve as a marker for MDD prognosis pending independent replication. PMID:24123968

Bousman, Chad A; Potiriadis, Maria; Everall, Ian P; Gunn, Jane M

2014-01-01

60

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism is associated with osteoporotic vertebral fractures, but is a weak predictor of BMD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoporosis is a common disease with a strong genetic component. Linkage studies have suggested linkage between BMD and loci on chromosome 1. The MTHFR gene is located on chromosome 1. MTHFR catalyzes the conversion of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methylenetetrahydrofolate, which is used for homocysteine methylation to methionine. The rare genotype (TT) of the C677T polymorphism has previously been demonstrated to be

Morten M. Villadsen; Mathias H. Bünger; Mette Carstens; Liselotte Stenkjær; Bente L. Langdahl

2005-01-01

61

Investigation of MTHFR in birth defects : pharmacogenetic studies with valproic acid and MTHFR promoter analyses.  

E-print Network

??Valproic acid (VPA) during pregnancy leads to congenital anomalies, possibly by disrupting folate metabolism. Mild deficiency of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), an enzyme of folate-dependent homocysteine… (more)

Roy, Marc André, 1981-

2006-01-01

62

Elevated total plasma homocysteine and 667C{r_arrow}T mutation of the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene in thrombotic vascular disease  

SciTech Connect

Moderate elevation of total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) has been reported as an independent risk factor for thrombotic vascular disease, a well-known multifactorial disorder. Possible genetic causes of elevated tHcy include defects of the sulfur-containing amino acids metabolism due to deficiencies of cystathionine {Beta}-synthase, of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), and of the enzymes of cobalamin metabolism. An impaired activity of MTHFR due to a thermolabile form of the enzyme has been observed in {le}28% of hyperhomocysteinemic patients with premature vascular disease. More recently, the molecular basis of such enzymatic thermolability has been related to a common mutation of the MTHFR gene, causing a C-to-T substitution at nt 677 (677C{r_arrow}T). This mutation was found in 38% of unselected chromosomes from 57 French Canadian individuals. The homozygous state for the mutation was present in 12% of these subjects and correlated with significantly elevated tHcy. Preliminary evidence indicates that the frequency of homozygotes for the 677C{r_arrow}T mutation may vary significantly in populations from different geographic areas. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

De Franchis, R.; Sebastio, G.; Andria, G. [Universita Federico II, Naples (Italy)] [and others

1996-07-01

63

Stability of DNA methylation patterns in mouse spermatogonia under conditions of MTHFR deficiency and methionine supplementation.  

PubMed

Little is known about the conditions contributing to the stability of DNA methylation patterns in male germ cells. Altered folate pathway enzyme activity and methyl donor supply are two clinically significant factors that can affect the methylation of DNA. 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key folate pathway enzyme involved in providing methyl groups from dietary folate for DNA methylation. Mice heterozygous for a targeted mutation in the Mthfr gene (Mthfr(+/-)) are a good model for humans homozygous for the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism, which is found in 10% of the population and is associated with decreased MTHFR activity and infertility. High-dose folic acid is administered as an empirical treatment for male infertility. Here, we examined MTHFR expression in developing male germ cells and evaluated DNA methylation patterns and effects of a range of methionine concentrations in spermatogonia from Mthfr(+/-) as compared to wild-type, Mthfr(+/+) mice. MTHFR was expressed in prospermatogonia and spermatogonia at times of DNA methylation acquisition in the male germline; its expression was also found in early spermatocytes and Sertoli cells. DNA methylation patterns were similar at imprinted genes and intergenic sites across chromosome 9 in neonatal Mthfr(+/+) and Mthfr(+/-) spermatogonia. Using spermatogonia from Mthfr(+/+) and Mthfr(+/-) mice in the spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) culture system, we examined the stability of DNA methylation patterns and determined effects of low or high methionine concentrations. No differences were detected between early and late passages, suggesting that DNA methylation patterns are generally stable in culture. Twenty-fold normal concentrations of methionine resulted in an overall increase in the levels of DNA methylation across chromosome 9, suggesting that DNA methylation can be perturbed in culture. Mthfr(+/-) cells showed a significantly increased variance of DNA methylation at multiple loci across chromosome 9 compared to Mthfr(+/+) cells when cultured with 0.25- to 2-fold normal methionine concentrations. Taken together, our results indicate that DNA methylation patterns in undifferentiated spermatogonia, including SSCs, are relatively stable in culture over time under conditions of altered methionine and MTHFR levels. PMID:24048573

Garner, Justine L; Niles, Kirsten M; McGraw, Serge; Yeh, Jonathan R; Cushnie, Duncan W; Hermo, Louis; Nagano, Makoto C; Trasler, Jacquetta M

2013-11-01

64

MTHFR C677T and A1298C gene polymorphisms and hyperhomocysteinemia as risk factors of diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetes patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Point mutations in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and hyperhomocysteinemia were implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN) in many ethnic groups. This study addressed the association of C677T and A1298C single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of MTHFR gene with DN in Tunisian type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients. Study subjects comprised 93 DN patients, 267 patients with normoalbuminuria, and 400 control subjects.

Nabil Mtiraoui; Intissar Ezzidi; Molka Chaieb; Hela Marmouche; Zied Aouni; Arbi Chaieb; Touhami Mahjoub; Martine Vaxillaire; Wassim Y. Almawi

2007-01-01

65

Stromelysin-1 5A\\/6A and eNOS T-786C Polymorphisms, MTHFR C677T and A1298C Mutations, and Cigarette-Cannabis Smoking: A Pilot, Hypothesis-Generating Study of Gene-Environment Pathophysiological Associations With Buerger’s Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buerger’s disease (BD) etiologies are poorly understood. Beyond smoking cessation, medical-surgical treatments have limited success. We hypothesized that mutations associated with arterial vasospasm (stromelysin-1 5A\\/6A, eNOS T-786C) and C677T-A1298C methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) interacted with cigarette-cannabis smoking, reducing vasodilatory nitric oxide (NO), promoting arterial spasm-thrombosis. Of 21 smoking BD patients (14 men [2 siblings], 7 women; 20 white, 1 African-American),

Charles J. Glueck; Mofiz Haque; Magdalena Winarska; Swapna Dharashivkar; Robert N. Fontaine; Binghua Zhu; Ping Wang

2006-01-01

66

The methylentetrahydrofolate reductase C677T point mutation is a risk factor for vascular access thrombosis in hemodialysis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Many reports indicate that a high homocysteine (Hcy) level is a potential risk factor for such thrombotic diseases as arteriosclerosis, myocardial infarction, and cerebral infarction in healthy individuals or hemodialysis (HD) patients. The methylentetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism has been reported to be closely related to plasma Hcy level. Methods: Using a cross-sectional design in this study, the relationship

Mizuya Fukasawa; Kazumichi Matsushita; Manabu Kamiyama; Yuki Mikami; Isao Araki; Zentaro Yamagata; Masayuki Takeda

2003-01-01

67

Increased frequency of combined methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and A1298C mutated alleles in spontaneously aborted embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathogenesis of spontaneous abortion is complex, presumably involving the interaction of several genetic and environmental factors. The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene C677T and A1298C polymorphisms are commonly associated with defects in folate dependent homocysteine metabolism and have been implicated as risk factors for recurrent embryo loss in early pregnancy. In the present study we have determined the prevalence of

Henrik Zetterberg; Björn Regland; Mona Palmér; Anne Ricksten; Lars Palmqvist; Lars Rymo; Demetrios A Arvanitis; Demetrios A Spandidos; Kaj Blennow

2002-01-01

68

Ethnic variation of the C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase (MTHFR) gene in southwestern Mexico.  

PubMed

In this study, we examined the distribution of genotype and allele frequencies of the C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase gene (MTHFR) in two ethnic groups in the State of Guerrero, Mexico, which were compared with those of the Mestizo population of the region. A comparative study was conducted on 455 women from two ethnic groups and a group of Mestizo women of the State of Guerrero, Mexico: 135 Nahuas, 124 Mixtecas, and 196 Mestizas. Genotyping of both polymorphisms were performed by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism methods. We found that the 677TT genotype was more frequent in Nahua and Mixteca women compared to Mestiza women (P = 0.008), and the most prevalent genotype in both ethnic groups was the 1298AA genotype (P < 0.001). We also compared the 677T allele frequency obtained from the groups studied with the frequencies reported in other ethnic groups of Mexico (Huichol, Tarahumara, and Purepecha). There were significant differences between the three ethnic groups compared to Nahuas (Huicholes, P = 0.004; Tarahumaras, P < 0.001; Purepechas, P = 0.042). Our results indicated significant differences in the frequencies of the C677T and A1298C polymorphisms between the two ethnic groups and the Mestizo population of the State of Guerrero. In addition, we found strong differences with other ethnic groups in Mexico. These results could be useful for future studies investigating diseases related to folate metabolism, and could help the government to design specific nutrition programs for different ethnic groups. PMID:25299110

Antonio-Véjar, V; Del Moral-Hernández, O; Alarcón-Romero, L C; Flores-Alfaro, E; Leyva-Vázquez, M A; Hernández-Sotelo, D; Illades-Aguiar, B

2014-01-01

69

5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C polymorphisms: genotype frequency and association with homocysteine and folate levels in middle-southern Italian adults.  

PubMed

Two genetic polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene (C677T and A1298C) can influence the plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels, especially in the presence of an inadequate folate status. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequencies of C677T and of A1298C MTHFR polymorphisms and their correlation with Hcy and serum folate concentrations in a population of blood donors living in a region of middle-southern Italy (the Molise Region). One hundred ninety seven blood donors were studied for total plasma Hcy, serum folate and C677T and A1298C MTHFR genotypes. The frequency of C677T genotypes was 20.8% (CC), 49.8% (CT) and 29.4% (TT); for the A1298C genotypes: 48.7% (AA), 43.7% (AC) and 7.6% (CC). Hcy and serum folate concentrations were significantly different among genotypes of the C677T polymorphism (CC versus CT versus TT: <0.0001 both for Hcy and folate), with Hcy values increasing, and serum folate decreasing, from CC to TT subjects. Regarding to A1298C polymorphism, the difference among genotypes (AA versus AC versus CC; p: 0.026 for Hcy and 0.014 for serum folate), showed an opposite trend for both parameters, with Hcy higher in the wild-type and lower in the homozygotes and serum folate higher in CC than in AA subjects. In conclusion, we found a high frequency of MTHFR allele associated with high level of Hcy and low levels of folate in an Italian southern population. PMID:24277487

Zappacosta, Bruno; Graziano, Mirella; Persichilli, Silvia; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Iacoviello, Licia

2014-01-01

70

Methyltetrahydrofolate reductase C677T gene mutation and hyperhomocysteinemia as a novel risk factor for diabetic nephropathy.  

PubMed

Hyperhomocysteinemia is a well-defined risk factor for endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. A point mutation (677 C-T) of MTHFR gene results in a significant increase at plasma homocysteine levels. In this study we aimed to evaluate the effects of MTHFR gene mutation and consequent hyperhomocysteinemia on the development of diabetic microvascular complications in comparison with the other defined risk factors. Diabetic patients without a history of macrovascular complication or overt nephropathy enrolled into the study. The presence of MTHFR 677 C-T point mutation was evaluated by Real-Time PCR technique by using a LightCycler. MTHFR heterozygous mutation was present in 24 patients over 52. Patients with diabetes were divided into two groups according to the presence of MTHFR gene mutation. Both groups were well matched regarding age and diabetes duration. Metabolic parameters, plasma homocysteine, microalbuminuria, folic acid, and vitamin B12 levels were also studied. Presence of neuropathy and retinopathy were evaluated by specific tests. Duration of diabetes, BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, plasma CRP, HbA1c, and lipid levels were not different between the two groups. Plasma homocysteine (12.89 +/- 1.74 and 8.98 +/- 1.91 micromol/l; P < 0.0001) and microalbuminuria levels (73.40 +/- 98.15 and 29.53 +/- 5.08 mg/day; P = 0.021) were significantly higher in the group with MTHFR gene mutation while creatinine clearance levels (101.1 +/- 42.6 and 136.21 +/- 51.50 ml/min; P = 0.008) were significantly lower. Sixteen over 22 (73%) of the patients with diabetic nephropathy had MTHFR gene mutation, while this was only 27% (8 over 30) in normoalbuminuric patients (P = 0.017). There was a significant correlation of plasma homocysteine level with microalbuminuria (r = 0.54; P = 0.031) in the patients with diabetic nephropathy who had C677T polymorphism. We did not find any specific association of MTHFR gene mutation and hyperhomocysteinemia with retinopathy or neuropathy. PMID:19598005

Ukinc, Kubilay; Ersoz, Halil Onder; Karahan, Caner; Erem, Cihangir; Eminagaoglu, Selcuk; Hacihasanoglu, Arif Bayram; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Kocak, Mustafa

2009-10-01

71

A Case Control Study on the Contribution of Factor V-Leiden, Prothrombin G20210A, and MTHFR C677T Mutations to the Genetic Susceptibility of Deep Venous Thrombosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Insofar as the inherited prothrombotic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) factor V G1691A (FV-Leiden), prothrombin (PRT) G20210A, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), C677T are inherited risk factors of venous thromboembolism (VTE), the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of single and combined SNPs in 198 patients with documented deep venous thrombosis (DVT), and 697 control subjects, and to

Wassim Y. Almawi; Hala Tamim; Raghid Kreidy; Georgina Timson; Elias Rahal; Malak Nabulsi; Ramzi R. Finan; Noha Irani-Hakime

2005-01-01

72

Folate intake, alcohol consumption, and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T gene polymorphism: influence on prostate cancer risk and interactions  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Folate is essential to DNA methylation and synthesis and may have a complex dualistic role in prostate cancer. Alcohol use may increase risk and epigenetic factors may interact with lifestyle exposures. We aimed to characterize the independent and joint effects of folate intake, alcohol consumption, and the MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism on prostate cancer risk, while accounting for intakes of vitamins B2, B6, B12, methionine, total energy, and confounders. Methods: A case-control study was conducted at Kingston General Hospital of 80 incident primary prostate cancer cases and 334 urology clinic controls, all with normal age-specific PSA levels (to exclude latent prostate cancers). Participants completed a questionnaire on folate and alcohol intakes and potential confounders prior to knowledge of diagnosis, eliminating recall bias, and blood was drawn for MTHFR genotyping. Joint effects of exposures were assessed using unconditional logistic regression and significance of multiplicative and additive interactions using general linear models. Results: Folate, vitamins B2, B6, B12, methionine, and the CT and TT genotypes were not associated with prostate cancer risk. The highest tertile of lifetime alcohol consumption was associated with increased risk (OR = 2.08; 95% CI: 1.12–3.86). Consumption of >5 alcoholic drinks per week was associated with increased prostate cancer risk among men with low folate intake (OR = 2.38; 95% CI: 1.01–5.57), and higher risk among those with the CC MTHFR genotype (OR = 4.43; 95% CI: 1.15–17.05). Increased risk was also apparent for average weekly alcohol consumption when accounting for the multiplicative interaction between folate intake and MTHFR C677T genotype (OR = 3.22; 95% CI: 1.36–7.59). Conclusion: Alcohol consumption is associated with increased prostate cancer risk, and this association is stronger among men with low folate intake, with the CC MTHFR genotype, and when accounting for the joint effect of folate intake and MTHFR C677T genotype. PMID:22912935

Kobayashi, Lindsay C.; Limburg, Heather; Miao, Qun; Woolcott, Christy; Bedard, Leanne L.; Massey, Thomas E.; Aronson, Kristan J.

2012-01-01

73

Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome is caused by mutations in the 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase gene.  

PubMed Central

Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome is a frequently occurring autosomal recessive developmental disorder characterized by facial dysmorphisms, mental retardation, and multiple congenital anomalies. Biochemically, the disorder is caused by deficient activity of 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase, which catalyzes the final step in the cholesterol-biosynthesis pathway-that is, the reduction of the Delta7 double bond of 7-dehydrocholesterol to produce cholesterol. We identified a partial transcript coding for human 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase by searching the database of expressed sequence tags with the amino acid sequence for the Arabidopsis thaliana sterol Delta7-reductase and isolated the remaining 5' sequence by the "rapid amplification of cDNA ends" method, or 5'-RACE. The cDNA has an open reading frame of 1,425 bp coding for a polypeptide of 475 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 54.5 kD. Heterologous expression of the cDNA in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae confirmed that it codes for 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase. Chromosomal mapping experiments localized the gene to chromosome 11q13. Sequence analysis of fibroblast 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase cDNA from three patients with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome revealed distinct mutations, including a 134-bp insertion and three different point mutations, each of which was heterozygous in cDNA from the respective parents. Our data demonstrate that Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome is caused by mutations in the gene coding for 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase. PMID:9683613

Waterham, H R; Wijburg, F A; Hennekam, R C; Vreken, P; Poll-The, B T; Dorland, L; Duran, M; Jira, P E; Smeitink, J A; Wevers, R A; Wanders, R J

1998-01-01

74

The MTHFR C677T polymorphism is associated with depressive episodes in patients from Northern Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low plasma folate and its derivatives have been linked with depressive disorders in studies dating back over 30 years. A thermolabile variant (677C>T) of the enzyme 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is associated with low serum folate. The present study aimed to explore whether the thermolabile variant of MTHFR is associated with a vulnerability to depressive episodes. MTHFR C677T genotype frequencies in

Christopher B. Kelly; Anne P. McDonnell; Timothy G. Johnston; Ciaran Mulholland; Stephen J. Cooper; Dorothy McMaster; Alun Evans; Alexander S. Whitehead

2004-01-01

75

Prevalence of MTHFR gene polymorphisms (C677T and A1298C) among Tamilians  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the incidence of the C677T and A1298C methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the South Indian Tamil Nadu population with a total number of 72 individuals. The MTHFR genotyping was performed using the polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction enzyme analysis. Homozygosity for the MTHFR A1298C SNP was detected in 15.3% (11\\/72) of

T. Angeline; Nirmala Jeyaraj; Selena Granito; Gregory J. Tsongalis

2004-01-01

76

Influence of maternal MTHFR A1298C polymorphism on the risk in offspring of schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several lines of evidence have suggested that two functional methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) polymorphisms, C677T and A1298C, may be implicated in the etiology of schizophrenia. We examined these MTHFR polymorphisms in 111 families, composed of a patient and their parents, as well as 143 mothers of patients with schizophrenia and 235 age-matched mothers who had healthy children. The maternal MTHFR

Chen Zhang; Bin Xie; Yiru Fang; Wenhong Cheng; Yasong Du; Dongxiang Wang; Shunying Yu

2010-01-01

77

Heterozygous methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677C-T gene mutation with mild hyperhomocysteinemia associated with intrauterine iliofemoral artery thrombosis.  

PubMed

Neonatal thrombosis is a serious event that can cause mortality or severe morbidity. Newborn-related factors, including genetic prothrombotic risk factors, may affect the occurrence of neonatal thrombosis. In this report, a case of intrauterine iliofemoral arterial thrombosis associated with mild hyperhomocysteinemia caused by methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677C-T gene mutation is presented. We suggest that methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene mutation might be investigated in neonates and their families presenting with thromboembolic disease. PMID:16905956

Alioglu, Bulent; Ozyurek, Emel; Tarcan, Aylin; Atac, F Belgin; Gurakan, Berkan; Ozbek, Namik

2006-09-01

78

MTHFR C677T and A1298C variant genotypes and the risk of microsatellite instability among Iranian colorectal cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme in the folate metabolic pathway. We aimed to test the hypothesis that C677T and A1298C variants of MTHFR predispose to microsatellite instable (MSI) colorectal cancer. We determined MTHFR genotypes in 175 sporadic colorectal cancer patients and a total of 231 normal controls in Shiraz, Southern Iran. Among the genotypes found in our samples,

Fakhraddin Naghibalhossaini; Pooneh Mokarram; Islam Khalili; Mohammad Vasei; Seyed Vahid Hosseini; Hassan Ashktorab; Mozhgan Rasti; Kourosh Abdollahi

2010-01-01

79

Biological and clinical implications of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) directs folate species either to DNA synthesis or to homocysteine (Hcy) remethylation. The common MTHFR C677T polymorphism affects the activity of the enzyme and hence folate distribution. Under conditions of impaired folate status, the homozygous TT genotype has been regarded as harmful because it is associated with a high concentration of plasma total Hcy, increased

Per Magne Ueland; Steinar Hustad; Jørn Schneede; Helga Refsum; Stein Emil Vollset

2001-01-01

80

A1298C polymorphism in the MTHFR gene predisposes to cardiovascular risk in rheumatoid arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: We determined the contribution of the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677 C>T and 1298 A>C gene polymorphisms to the susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We also assessed whether these two MTHFR gene polymorphisms may be implicated in the development of cardiovascular (CV) events and subclinical atherosclerosis manifested by the presence of endothelial dysfunction, in a series of Spanish patients

Rogelio Palomino-Morales; Carlos Gonzalez-Juanatey; Tomas R Vazquez-Rodriguez; Luis Rodriguez; Jose A Miranda-Filloy; Benjamin Fernandez-Gutierrez; Javier Llorca; Javier Martin; Miguel A Gonzalez-Gay

2010-01-01

81

Study of MTHFR and MS polymorphisms as risk factors for NTD in the Italian population.  

PubMed

Homozygosity for the C677T mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase ( MTHFR) gene is a risk factor for neural tube defects (NTDs) in many populations, including Italians. Another common mutation on the MTHFR gene, A1298C, has also been described as a risk mutation. Furthermore, several studies have suggested that a defective methionine synthase ( MS) enzyme could be a critical defect in folate-related NTDs. An A-to-G transition at bp 2756 on the MS gene has also been reported. In this case-control study, we studied the frequencies of these two polymorphisms in 203 Italian probands with non-syndromic NTDs: 98 mothers, 67 fathers, and 210 control individuals. Although the A1298C polymorphism is common in the Italian population (0.25), the allelic frequency was significantly higher among NTD cases and their parents. Heterozygous patients and mothers have an odds ratio (OR) of 1.98 and 2.11, respectively. The risk associated with the 1298CC genotype was higher for cases (OR = 3.67), for fathers (OR = 3.28), and, above all, for mothers (OR = 6.23). The prevalence of the A2756G polymorphism of the MS gene was determined (0.15). No increased prevalence of the mutated G allele was found in NTD families. This study shows that the MTHFRA1298C polymorphism is a genetic determinant for NTD risk in Italy. No association between the MSA2756G and NTD susceptibility was found. PMID:12111380

De Marco, Patrizia; Calevo, Maria Grazia; Moroni, Anna; Arata, Lorenza; Merello, Elisa; Finnell, Richard H; Zhu, Huiping; Andreussi, Luciano; Cama, Armando; Capra, Valeria

2002-01-01

82

PYRIMETHAMINE-SULFADOXINE EFFICACY AND SELECTION FOR MUTATIONS IN PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUMDIHYDROFOLATE REDUCTASE AND DIHYDROPTEROATE SYNTHASE IN MALI  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine (PS) efficacy in Mali, and the role of mutations in Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) in in vivo PS resistance, 190 pa- tients with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria were treated with PS and monitored for 56 days. Mutation-specific polymerase chain reactions and digestion with restriction endonucleases were used to detect DHFR and DHPS

YACOUBA DIOURTE; ABDOULAYE DJIMDE; OGOBARA K. DOUMBO; ISSAKA SAGARA; YOUSSOUF COULIBALY; ALASSANE DICKO; MOUCTAR DIALLO; MAHAMADOU DIAKITE; JOSEPH F. CORTESE; CHRISTOPHER V. PLOWE

83

Mutations at several loci cause increased expression of ribonucleotide reductase in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Production of deoxyribonucleotides for DNA synthesis is an essential and tightly regulated process. The class Ia ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), the product of the nrdAB genes, is required for aerobic growth of Escherichia coli. In catalyzing the reduction of ribonucleotides, two of the cysteines of RNR become oxidized, forming a disulfide bond. To regenerate active RNR, the cell uses thioredoxins and glutaredoxins to reduce the disulfide bond. Strains that lack thioredoxins 1 and 2 and glutaredoxin 1 do not grow because RNR remains in its oxidized, inactive form. However, suppressor mutations that lead to RNR overproduction allow glutaredoxin 3 to reduce sufficient RNR for growth of these mutant strains. We previously described suppressor mutations in the dnaA and dnaN genes that had such effects. Here we report the isolation of new mutations that lead to increased levels of RNR. These include mutations that were not known to influence production of RNR previously, such as a mutation in the hda gene and insertions in the nrdAB promoter region of insertion elements IS1 and IS5. Bioinformatic analysis raises the possibility that IS element insertion in this region represents an adaptive mechanism in nrdAB regulation in E. coli and closely related species. We also characterize mutations altering different amino acids in DnaA and DnaN from those isolated before. PMID:22247510

Feeney, Morgan Anne; Ke, Na; Beckwith, Jon

2012-03-01

84

Hypercoagulable state mutation analysis in white patients with early first-trimester recurrent pregnancy loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Antiphospholipid antibodies (APA) and other coagulation abnormalities have been associated with an increased risk of venous, arterial, and placental thrombosis and recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). Factor V Leiden (a point mutation [1691G?A] in the factor V gene), the prothrombin 20210G?A mutation, and homozygosity for a common polymorphism in the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene (677C?T) have been associated with

William H Kutteh; Vicki M Park; Steven R Deitcher

1999-01-01

85

Hyperhomocysteinemia and of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (C677T) Genetic Polymorphism in Patients with Deep Vein Thrombosis  

PubMed Central

Aim: To determine the concentration of total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) as well as different genotypes of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase MTHFR (C677T) in healthy subjects and patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Material and methods: The investigation comprised a total of 160 subjects divided in two main groups: 80 healthy subjects (control group) and 80 patients with deep vein thrombosis. Concentration of tHcy was determined by spectrophotometric cyclic enzymatic method and mutation of MTHFR (C677T) gene was examined by polymerase chain reaction according to Schneider. Results: The results obtained for plasma tHcy in the control group were 11.62±3.43 ?mol/L, while tHcy level was significantly higher in patients with deep vein thrombosis as compared to the control group, 15.19±3.63 ?mol/L (?<0.001). The analysis of the results has shown that MTHFR (C677T) genetic polymorphism was responsible for mild to moderate hyperhomocysteinemia in the majority of subjects. Conclusion: The level of tHcy in the examined patients was significantly higher in comparison with the control group. Multiple regression analysis has shown that tHcy level in CT and TT genotypes of MTHFR (C677T) was statistically higher in comparison with CC genotype of MTHFR (C677T) in both, the control group and the DVT patients. PMID:24167429

Brezovska-Kavrakova, Julijana; Krstevska, Marija; Bosilkova, Gordana; Alabakovska, Sonja; Panov, Saso; Orovchanec, Nikola

2013-01-01

86

The gene encoding hydroxypyruvate reductase (GRHPR) is mutated in patients with primary hyperoxaluria type II.  

PubMed

Primary hyperoxaluria type II (PH2) is a rare monogenic disorder that is characterized by a lack of the enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of hydroxypyruvate to D-glycerate, the reduction of glyoxylate to glycolate and the oxidation of D-glycerate to hydroxypyruvate. The disease is characterized by an elevated urinary excretion of oxalate and L-glycerate. The increased oxalate excretion can cause nephrolithiasis and nephrocalci-nosis and can, in some cases, result in renal failure and systemic oxalate deposition. We identified a glyoxylate reductase/hydroxypyruvate reductase (GRHPR) cDNA clone from a human liver expressed sequence tag (EST) library. Nucleotide sequence analysis identified a 1198 nucleotide clone that encoded a 984 nucleotide open reading frame. The open reading frame encodes a predicted 328 amino acid protein with a mass of 35 563 Da. Transient transfection of the cDNA clone into COS cells verified that it encoded an enzyme with hydroxy-pyruvate reductase, glyoxylate reductase and D-glycerate dehydrogenase enzymatic activities. Database analysis of human ESTs reveals widespread tissue expression, indicating that the enzyme may have a previously unrecognized role in metabolism. The genomic structure of the human GRHPR gene was determined and contains nine exons and eight introns and spans approximately 9 kb pericentromeric on chromosome 9. Four PH2 patients representing two pairs of siblings from two unrelated families were analyzed for mutations in GRHPR by single strand conformation polymorphism analysis. All four patients were homozygous for a single nucleotide deletion at codon 35 in exon 2, resulting in a premature stop codon at codon 45. The cDNA that we have identified represents the first characterization of an animal GRHPR sequence. The data we present will facilitate future genetic testing to confirm the clinical diagnosis of PH2. These data will also facilitate heterozygote testing and prenatal testing in families affected with PH2 to aid in genetic counseling. PMID:10484776

Cramer, S D; Ferree, P M; Lin, K; Milliner, D S; Holmes, R P

1999-10-01

87

MTHFR A1298C polymorphism is associated with cardiovascular risk in end stage renal disease in North Indians  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T gene polymorphism has been shown to be associated with cardiovascular\\u000a disease and in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, the relationship between MTHFR polymorphisms and cardiovascular\\u000a disease (CVD) in patients on hemodialysis has not been examined. The aim of this study was to assess the association of polymorphisms\\u000a of MTHFR gene with homocysteine (Hcy)

Aruna Poduri; Debabrata Mukherjee; Kamal Sud; Harbir Singh Kohli; Vinay Sakhuja; Madhu Khullar

2008-01-01

88

Mutation in Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Reductase 1 Gene in Families with Cutis Laxa Type 2  

PubMed Central

Autosomal-recessive cutis laxa type 2 (ARCL2) is a multisystem disorder characterized by the appearance of premature aging, wrinkled and lax skin, joint laxity, and a general developmental delay. Cutis laxa includes a family of clinically overlapping conditions with confusing nomenclature, generally requiring molecular analyses for definitive diagnosis. Six genes are currently known to mutate to yield one of these related conditions. We ascertained a cohort of typical ARCL2 patients from a subpopulation isolate within eastern Canada. Homozygosity mapping with high-density SNP genotyping excluded all six known genes, and instead identified a single homozygous region near the telomere of chromosome 17, shared identically by state by all genotyped affected individuals from the families. A putative pathogenic variant was identified by direct DNA sequencing of genes within the region. The single nucleotide change leads to a missense mutation adjacent to a splice junction in the gene encoding pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1 (PYCR1). Bioinformatic analysis predicted a pathogenic effect of the variant on splice donor site function. Skipping of the associated exon was confirmed in RNA from blood lymphocytes of affected homozygotes and heterozygous mutation carriers. Exon skipping leads to deletion of the reductase functional domain-coding region and an obligatory downstream frameshift. PYCR1 plays a critical role in proline biosynthesis. Pathogenicity of the genetic variant in PYCR1 is likely, given that a similar clinical phenotype has been documented for mutation carriers of another proline biosynthetic enzyme, pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase. Our results support a significant role for proline in normal development. PMID:19576563

Guernsey, Duane L.; Jiang, Haiyan; Evans, Susan C.; Ferguson, Meghan; Matsuoka, Makoto; Nightingale, Mathew; Rideout, Andrea L.; Provost, Sylvie; Bedard, Karen; Orr, Andrew; Dube, Marie-Pierre; Ludman, Mark; Samuels, Mark E.

2009-01-01

89

Genetic Polymorphisms in the Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase and Thymidylate Synthase Genes and Risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and thymidylate synthase (TYMS) are known to play a role in DNA methylation, synthesis, and repair. The genetic mutations in MTHFR and TYMS genes may have influences on their respective enzyme activities. Data on the association studies of the MTHFR and TYMS genetic polymorphisms and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are sparse. MTHFR and TYMS genotypes were determined on 365 HCC cases and 457 healthy control subjects among Hispanic and non-Hispanic whites and African-Americans in Los Angeles County, California, and among Chinese in the city of Nanning, Guangxi, China. Relative to the high-activity genotype, each low-activity genotype of MTHFR was associated with a statistically nonsignificant 30% to 50% reduction in risk of HCC. Relative to the TYMS3?UTR +6/+6 genotype, individuals with 1 or 2 copies of the deletion allele had a statistically significant 50% reduction in risk of HCC. When we examined HCC risk by the total number of mutant alleles in the 3 polymorphic loci of MTHFR/TYMS (range, 0-4), there was a monotonic decrease in risk with increasing number of mutant alleles (P for trend = 0.003). Individuals possessing the maximum number of mutant alleles (i.e., 4) had an odds ratio of 0.46 (95% confidence interval = 0.23-0.93) for HCC compared with those with no or only 1 mutant allele. Conclusion This study supports the hypothesis that reduced MTHFR activity and enhanced TYMS activity, both of which are essential elements in minimizing uracil misincorporation into DNA, may protect against the development of HCC. PMID:17659576

Yuan, Jian-Min; Lu, Shelly C.; Van Den Berg, David; Govindarajan, Sugantha; Zhang, Zhen-Quan; Mato, Jose M.; Yu, Mimi C.

2008-01-01

90

Aerobic inactivation of fumarate reductase from Escherichia coli by mutation of the [3Fe-4S]-quinone binding domain.  

PubMed Central

Fumarate reductase from Escherichia coli functions both as an anaerobic fumarate reductase and as an aerobic succinate dehydrogenase. A site-directed mutation of E. coli fumarate reductase in which FrdB Pro-159 was replaced with a glutamine or histidine residue was constructed and overexpressed in a strain of E. coli lacking a functional copy of the fumarate reductase or succinate dehydrogenase complex. The consequences of these mutations on bacterial growth, assembly of the enzyme complex, and enzymatic activity were investigated. Both mutations were found to have no effect on anaerobic bacterial growth or on the ability of the enzyme to reduce fumarate compared with the wild-type enzyme. The FrdB Pro-159-to-histidine substitution was normal in its ability to oxidize succinate. In contrast, however, the FrdB Pro-159-to-Gln substitution was found to inhibit aerobic growth of E. coli under conditions requiring a functional succinate dehydrogenase, and furthermore, the aerobic activity of the enzyme was severely inhibited upon incubation in the presence of its substrate, succinate. This inactivation could be prevented by incubating the mutant enzyme complex in an anaerobic environment, separating the catalytic subunits of the fumarate reductase complex from their membrane anchors, or blocking the transfer of electrons from the enzyme to quinones. The results of these studies suggest that the succinate-induced inactivation occurs by the production of hydroxyl radicals generated by a Fenton-type reaction following introduction of this mutation into the [3Fe-4S] binding domain. Additional evidence shows that the substrate-induced inactivation requires quinones, which are the membrane-bound electron acceptors and donors for the succinate dehydrogenase and fumarate reductase activities. These data suggest that the [3Fe-4S] cluster is intimately associated with one of the quinone binding sites found n fumarate reductase and succinate dehydrogenase. PMID:7642483

Cecchini, G; Sices, H; Schroder, I; Gunsalus, R P

1995-01-01

91

Stromelysin-1 5A/6A and eNOS T-786C polymorphisms, MTHFR C677T and A1298C mutations, and cigarette-cannabis smoking: a pilot, hypothesis-generating study of gene-environment pathophysiological associations with Buerger's disease.  

PubMed

Buerger's disease (BD) etiologies are poorly understood. Beyond smoking cessation, medical-surgical treatments have limited success. We hypothesized that mutations associated with arterial vasospasm (stromelysin-1 5A/6A, eNOS T-786C) and C677T-A1298C methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) interacted with cigarette-cannabis smoking, reducing vasodilatory nitric oxide (NO), promoting arterial spasm-thrombosis. Of 21 smoking BD patients (14 men [2 siblings], 7 women; 20 white, 1 African-American), compared to 21 age-gender-race matched healthy controls, 5A/6A stromelysin- 1 homozygosity was present in 7 of 21 (33%) BD cases versus 5 of 21 (24%) controls (risk ratio 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.5-3.7), and eNOS T-786C homozygosity was present in 3 of 21 (14%) BD cases versus 1 of 21 (5%) controls (risk ratio 3.0; 95% CI 0.3-26.6). C677T MTHFR homozygosity or compound C677T-A1298C heterozygosity was present in 7 of 21 cases (33%) versus 11 of 21 controls (52%) (risk ratio 0.6; 95% CI 0.3-1.3). In 18 patients who stopped and 3 who continued smoking, all stromelysin-1 5A/6A and/or eNOS heterozygotes-homozygotes, superficial phlebitis, lower limb gangrenous ulcers, and intractable ischemic rest pain with arterial occlusion progressed despite conventional medical therapy, threatening amputation. In 15 patients, to increase vasodilatory NO via endothelial NO synthase, l-arginine (15 g/day) was given, along with folic acid (5 mg), vitamin B6 (100 mg), and B12 (2000 mg/day) to optimize homocysteine metabolism and reduce asymmetric dimethylarginine, a NO synthase inhibitor. Unexpectedly quickly and strikingly, within 8 weeks to 8 months receiving l-arginine-folic acid, 11 of 15 treated patients improved with uniform pain reduction, ulcer healing, and in 5, full recovery of previously absent peripheral pulses. In smokers homo/heterozygous for stromelysin-1 5A/6A and eNOS T-786C mutations, we speculate that the development and severity of BD are related to a gene-environment vasospastic interaction with reduced NO-mediated vasodilatation. Increasing NO production by l-arginine while optimizing homocysteine metabolism by folic acid-B6-B12 may have therapeutic benefit. Further blinded, placebo-controlled studies are needed to determine whether our observations can be generalized to larger BD cohorts. PMID:17000887

Glueck, Charles J; Haque, Mofiz; Winarska, Magdalena; Dharashivkar, Swapna; Fontaine, Robert N; Zhu, Binghua; Wang, Ping

2006-10-01

92

The association of p53 mutations and p53 codon 72, Her 2 codon 655 and MTHFR C677T polymorphisms with breast cancer in Northern Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to explore a possible association between p53 codon 72, Her 2 codon 655 and MTHFR C677T polymorphisms and breast cancer in Northern Greece. We examined 42 women with breast cancer and 51 controls. A total of 42 women with breast cancer as well as healthy controls were investigated and results showed that p53 codon

Theodora G. Kalemi; Alexandros F. Lambropoulos; Maria Gueorguiev; Sofia Chrisafi; Konstantinos T. Papazisis; Alexandros Kotsis

2005-01-01

93

Prevalence of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in Taiwanese patients with Type 2 diabetic mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesDeficiency and\\/or decreased activity of methyltetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) resulted from MTHFR variants are associated with hyperhomocysteinemia, an independent risk factor for vasculopathies in diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to examine MTHFR genotypes between healthy and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) subjects.

Yih-Hsin Chang; Wen-Mei Fu; Yu-Hui Wu; Chih-Jung Yeh; Chien-Ning Huang; Ming-Yuh Shiau

94

Effect of MTHFR 677C>T on plasma total homocysteine levels in renal graft recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of MTHFR 677C>T on plasma total homocysteine levels in renal graft recipients.BackgroundHyperhomocysteinemia is an established, independent risk factor for vascular disease morbidity and mortality. The 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism C677T has been shown to result in increased total homocysteine concentrations on the basis of low folate levels caused by a decreased enzyme activity. The effect of this polymorphism

MANUELA FÖDINGER; GABRIELE WÖLFL; GOTTFRIED FISCHER; SUSANNE RASOUL-ROCKENSCHAUB; RAINER SCHMID; WALTER H. HORL; GERE SUNDER-PLASSMANN

1999-01-01

95

Hyperhomocysteinaemia and MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism in renal transplant recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMTo study the effect of folate treatment on hyperhomocysteinaemia and the effect of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism on total homocysteine and folate concentrations after renal transplantation.METHODSA total of 30 transplanted children and adolescents were investigated for total homocysteine and folate serum concentrations before and after folate treatment, as well as for the presence of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism.RESULTSThe allele

A J Szabó; T Tulassay; B Melegh; T Szabó; Á Vannay; A Fekete; Z Süveges; G S Reusz

2001-01-01

96

Characterization of Disease-related 5?-Reductase (AKR1D1) Mutations Reveals Their Potential to Cause Bile Acid Deficiency*  

PubMed Central

Bile acid deficiency is a serious syndrome in newborns that can result in death if untreated. 5?-Reductase deficiency is one form of bile acid deficiency and is characterized by dramatically decreased levels of physiologically active 5?-reduced bile acids. AKR1D1 (aldo-keto reductase 1D1) is the only known human enzyme that stereo-specifically reduces the ?4 double bond in 3-keto steroids and sterols to yield the 5?-hydrogenated product. Analysis of the AKR1D1 gene in five patients with 5?-reductase deficiency revealed five different mutations resulting in an amino acid substitution in the protein. To investigate a causal role for these observed point mutations in AKR1D1 in 5?-reductase deficiency, we characterized their effect on enzymatic properties. Attempts to purify mutant enzymes by overexpression in Escherichia coli only yielded sufficient amounts of the P133R mutant for further characterization. This enzyme displayed a highly reduced Km and Vmax reminiscent of uncompetitive kinetics with 4-cholesten-7?-ol-3-one as substrate. In addition, this mutant displayed no change in cofactor affinity but was more thermolabile in the absence of NADPH as judged by CD spectroscopy. All mutants were compared following expression in HEK 293 cells. Although these enzymes were equally expressed based on mRNA levels, protein expression and functional activity were dramatically reduced. Cycloheximide treatment also revealed that several of the expressed mutants were less stable. Our findings show that the reported mutations in AKR1D1 in patients with 5?-reductase lead to significantly decreased levels of active enzyme and could be causal in the development of bile acid deficiency syndrome. PMID:20522910

Drury, Jason E.; Mindnich, Rebekka; Penning, Trevor M.

2010-01-01

97

Analysis of the MTHFR 1298A?C and 677C?T polymorphisms as risk factors for neural tube defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

  \\u000a The thermolabile variant (677TT) of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a known risk factor for neural tube defects\\u000a (NTDs). The relationship between a second MTHFR polymorphism (1298A?C) and NTD risk has been inconsistent between studies.\\u000a We genotyped 276 complete NTD triads (mother, father and child affected with an NTD) and 256 controls for MTHFR 1298A?C. Our\\u000a findings do not support

Anne Parle-McDermott; James L. Mills; Peadar N. Kirke; Valerie B. O'Leary; Deborah A. Swanson; Faith Pangilinan; Mary Conley; Anne M. Molloy; Christopher Cox; John M. Scott; Lawrence C. Brody

2003-01-01

98

Plasmodium falciparum: Gene Mutations and Amplification of Dihydrofolate Reductase Genes in Parasites Grown in Vitro in Presence of Pyrimethamine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thaithong, S., Ranford-Cartwright, L. C., Siripoon, N., Harnyuttanakorn, P., Kanchanakhan, N. S., Seugorn, A., Rungsihirunrat, K., Cravo, P. V. L., and Beale, G. H. 2001. Plasmodium falciparum: Gene mutations and amplification of dihydrofolate reductase genes in parasites grown in vitro in presence of pyrimethamine. Experimental Parasitology98, 59–70. Samples of three pyrimethamine-sensitive clones of Plasmodium falciparum were grown for periods of

S. Thaithong; L. C. Ranford-Cartwright; N. Siripoon; P. Harnyuttanakorn; N. S. Kanchanakhan; A. Seugorn; K. Rungsihirunrat; P. V. L. Cravo; G. H. Beale

2001-01-01

99

A child with Diamond-Blackfan anemia, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase mutation, and perinatal stroke.  

PubMed

Diamond-Blackfan anemia is a congenital hypoproliferative anemia known to be associated with diverse physical anomalies affecting the thumb, craniofacial bones, urogenital system, and heart; prematurity; and fetal demise. We report the case of a 16-month-old boy with Diamond-Blackfan anemia noted to have decreased use of his right side since birth. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a large area of encephalomalacia in the left middle cerebral artery territory. Magnetic resonance angiography showed marked attenuation of the left middle cerebral artery, suggesting a remote thromboembolic event. The laboratory results were remarkable for a decreased hemogolobin of 9.5 g/dL and increased platelets of 591,000/microL. He was heterozygous for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene C677T mutation. An echocardiogram demonstrated a patent foramen ovale versus an atrial septal defect with left to right shunting. Perinatal stroke may be a rare complication of Diamond-Blackfan anemia in the setting of other risk factors. PMID:14696910

Butrum, Matthew W; Williams, Linda S; Golomb, Meredith R

2003-11-01

100

The thermolabile variant of MTHFR is associated with depression in the British Women's Heart and Health Study and a meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low dietary folate intake has been implicated as a risk factor for depression. However, observational epidemiological studies are plagued by problems of confounding, reverse causality and measurement error. A common polymorphism (C677T) in MTHFR is associated with methyltetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) activity and circulating folate and homocysteine levels and offers insights into whether the association between low folate and depression is

S J Lewis; D A Lawlor; G Davey Smith; R Araya; N Timpson; I N M Day; S Ebrahim

2006-01-01

101

Maternal MTHFR polymorphisms and risk of spontaneous abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To asses the association between intake of folate and B vitamins and the incidence of spontaneous abortion (SA) according to the maternal methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms (677 C>T and 1298 A>C). Material and Methods. We conducted a nested case-control study within a perinatal cohort of women re - cruited in the state of Morelos, Mexico. Twenty-three women with SA

María del Rosario Rodríguez-Guillén; Luisa Torres-Sánchez; Jia Chen; Marcia Galván-Portillo; Julia Blanco-Muñoz; Miriam Aracely Anaya; Irma Silva-Zolezzi; María A Hernández-Valero; Lizbeth López-Carrillo

2009-01-01

102

Evaluation of the MTHFR C677T allele and the MTHFR gene locus in a German spina bifida population  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of recent studies have demonstrated that the occurrence and recurrence risk of neural tube defects (NTD) is reduced\\u000a by folic acid supplementation before and during pregnancy. Epidemiological studies have shown low plasma folate and raised\\u000a plasma homocysteine in women with spina bifida aperta (SB) children suggesting an abnormal folate metabolism. The 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate\\u000a reductase (MTHFR) variant C677T, resulting in

M. C. Koch; K. Stegmann; A. Ziegler; B. Schröter; A. Ermert

1998-01-01

103

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism and predisposition towards esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a German Caucasian and a northern Chinese population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose Folate deficiency is considered to increase the risk of developing esophageal cancer. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme involved in folate metabolism. A single C ? T substitution at nucleotide 677 of the MTHFR cDNA influences enzyme activity. The purpose of this study is to compare the association of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism with susceptibility to esophageal squamous

Jianhui Zhang; Rainer B. Zotz; Yan Li; Rui Wang; Sybille Kiel; Wolfgang A. Schulz; Denggui Wen; Zhifeng Chen; Liwei Zhang; Shijie Wang; Helmut E. Gabbert; Mario Sarbia

2004-01-01

104

Molecular analysis of the glyoxylate reductase (GRHPR) gene and description of mutations underlying primary hyperoxaluria type 2.  

PubMed

Primary hyperoxaluria type 2, an inherited autosomal recessive disorder of endogenous oxalate overproduction, is caused by mutations in the GRHPR gene encoding the glyoxylate/hydroxypyruvate reductase enzyme. The GRHPR genes from nineteen unrelated patients with PH2 were analysed for mutations using a combination of PCR-SSCP and sequence analysis of genomic and cDNA. Eleven mutations were identified, seven of which are novel. The mutations included five point mutations: c.84-2A>G, c.295C>T (R99X), c.494G>A (G165D), and c.904C>T (R302C) as well as six minor deletions: c.103delG, c.375delG, c.403_405+2 delAAGT, c.540delT, c.608_609delCT and a more complex mutation in intron 1: c.84-13_c.84-12del; c.84-8_c.84-5del. Aberrant transcripts were demonstrated in hepatic mRNA as a result of the c.403_405+2 delAAGT and c.84-2A>G mutations. In addition, a splice variant lacking 28 bp of exon 1 was expressed in a number of tissues but is of unknown function. Two polymorphisms, c.579A>G in exon 6 and a (CT)(n) microsatellite in intron 8 were identified. Expression studies showed that the G165D and R302C mutants had glyoxylate reductase activity 1.5 and 5.6% respectively of the wild type protein. Both mutant proteins were unstable on purification. Although there is wide expression of the GRHPR mRNA demonstrated by northern blot analysis, our study shows that GRHPR protein distribution is predominantly hepatic and concludes that PH2, like the related type 1 disease, is primarily a disorder affecting hepatic glyoxylate metabolism. PMID:14635115

Cregeen, David P; Williams, Emma L; Hulton, Sally; Rumsby, Gill

2003-12-01

105

Betaine rescue of an animal model with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency  

PubMed Central

MTHFR (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase) catalyses the synthesis of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, the folate derivative utilized in homocysteine remethylation to methionine. A severe deficiency of MTHFR results in hyperhomocysteinaemia and homocystinuria. Betaine supplementation has proven effective in ameliorating the biochemical abnormalities and the clinical course in patients with this deficiency. Mice with a complete knockout of MTHFR serve as a good animal model for homocystinuria; early postnatal death of these mice is common, as with some neonates with low residual MTHFR activity. We attempted to rescue Mthfr?/? mice from postnatal death by betaine supplementation to their mothers throughout pregnancy and lactation. Betaine decreased the mortality of Mthfr?/? mice from 83% to 26% and significantly improved somatic development from postnatal day 1, compared with Mthfr?/? mice from unsupplemented dams. Biochemical evaluations demonstrated higher availability of betaine in suckling pups, decreased accumulation of homocysteine, and decreased flux through the trans-sulphuration pathway in liver and brain of Mthfr?/? pups from betaine-supplemented dams. We observed disturbances in proliferation and differentiation in the cerebellum and hippocampus in the knockout mice; these changes were ameliorated by betaine supplementation. The dramatic effects of betaine on survival and growth, and the partial reversibility of the biochemical and developmental anomalies in the brains of MTHFR-deficient mice, emphasize an important role for choline and betaine depletion in the pathogenesis of homocystinuria due to MTHFR deficiency. PMID:15217352

2004-01-01

106

Association of MTHFR gene polymorphism C677T with susceptibility to late-onset alzheimer’s disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased total plasma homocysteine (t-Hcy) levels are found to be associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Because the methylenetetrahydrofolate\\u000a reductase (MTHFR) gene encodes a key enzyme that influences the metabolism of homocysteine, it has been considered as a possible genetic risk\\u000a factor for AD. Although the MTHFR gene C677T polymorphism has a significant impact on reducing enzyme activity and increasing t-Hcy

Binbin Wang; Feng Jin; Rui Kan; Shun Ji; Chuanfang Zhang; Zeping Lu; Chenguang Zheng; Ze Yang; Li Wang

2005-01-01

107

Screening for C677T and A1298C MTHFR polymorphisms in patients with epilepsy and risk of hyperhomocysteinemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperhomocysteinemia can result from decreased methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) enzyme activity, owing to genetic\\u000a polymorphisms and\\/or inadequate folate intake. This study was aimed at investigating the prevalence of C677T and A1298C MTHFR\\u000a polymorphisms, and their impact on hyperhomocysteinemia in 95 epileptic patients and 98 controls. Double gradient-denaturing\\u000a gradient gel electrophoresis screening revealed that the frequency of T677 polymorphic allele was similar

D. Caccamo; S. Condello; G. Gorgone; G. Crisafulli; V. Belcastro; S. Gennaro; P. Striano; F. Pisani; R. Ientile

2004-01-01

108

Folate intake and the MTHFR C677T genotype influence choline status in young Mexican American women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies have reported a relationship between folate status, the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C?T variant and disease risk. Although folate and choline metabolism are inter-related, only limited data are available on the relationship between choline and folate status in humans. This study sought to examine the influences of folate intake and the MTHFR 677C?T variant on choline status. Mexican-American women

Christian M. Abratte; Wei Wang; Rui Li; David J. Moriarty; Marie A. Caudill

2008-01-01

109

Review and pooled analysis of studies on MTHFR C677T polymorphism and esophageal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Esophageal cancer has been associated with tobacco and alcohol consumption, gastric reflux, exposure to nitrosamines from food or other environmental sources, and diets lacking folate. Susceptibility to esophageal cancer may be modified by functional polymorphisms in genes along the folate metabolic pathway, such as methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR). The C677T polymorphism is the most common functional variant, leading to a reduction

S. M. Langevin; D. Lin; K. Matsuo; C. M. Gao; T. Takezaki; R. Z. Stolzenberg-Solomon; M. Vasavi; Q. Hasan; E. Taioli

2009-01-01

110

Positive association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and oral cancer risk: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a central enzyme involved in regulating the metabolic function of folate, which plays a pivotal role in DNA synthesis, repair, and methylation. The role of MTHFR C677T polymorphism in oral cancer risk has been reported with conflicting evidence. We conducted this study to appropriately estimate the effect size. We searched eligible studies in medicine-specific databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Knowledge) using (polymorphism) OR (polymorphisms) AND (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase) OR (MTHFR) AND (oral cancer). A total of seven studies were summarized. This meta-analysis of the combined data showed a marginal association of MTHFR C677T polymorphism with oral cancer risk [odds ratio (OR)?=?0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI)?=?0.73-1.00 for CT vs. CC]. We also found decreased oral cancer risk in Asian population and hospital-based studies. Moreover, heavy drinkers were found to have a significantly higher risk of developing such cancer as compared to the non-heavy drinkers. These results suggest that MTHFR C677T polymorphism may play a role in oral cancer carcinogenesis in Asian population and heavy drinkers. PMID:24488626

Jia, Juan; Ma, Zheng; Wu, Shuangjiang

2014-05-01

111

MTHFR Gene Polymorphism and Age of Onset of Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective. Several studies with contradictory results from different cultures about association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism in schizophrenia and bipolar disorders. Little is known about this association in Arab culture and Egypt. So the present study aimed to assess the association of MTHFR C677T polymorphism in bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia in comparison to control group. The association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and the age at onset in schizophrenia or BD was also studied. Methods. Polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) were used to examine the genotype and allele frequencies of MTHFR C677T polymorphism in 149 healthy subjects and 134 bipolar and 103 schizophrenia patients. Results. In BD and schizophrenia, there was a higher prevalence of MTHFR C677T polymorphism than healthy subjects. Earlier age at onset was found in patients with BD, carrying one copy of the T allele or CT genotypes but not in patients with schizophrenia. Conclusion. The present findings suggest that the MTHFR C677T polymorphisms are likely to be associated with the risk of developing BD and schizophrenia and influence the age at onset of BD but not the age at onset of schizophrenia. PMID:25101272

El-Hadidy, Mohamed A.; Abdeen, Hanaa M.; Abd El-Aziz, Sherin M.

2014-01-01

112

Evaluation of GenoFlow Thrombophilia Array Test Kit in Its Detection of Mutations in Factor V Leiden (G1691A), Prothrombin G20210A, MTHFR C677T and A1298C in Blood Samples from 113 Turkish Female Patients.  

PubMed

Thrombophilia is a heritable blood disease characterized by an increased tendency to form abnormal blood clots that can block blood vessels. In obstetrics and gynecology, it has been shown by a number of reports that a proportion of recurrent miscarriages involve thrombophilia-related mutations, in particular, Factor V G1691A, prothrombin G20210A, and MTHFR C677T and A1298C. In this study, we examined the frequency of these four mutations in 113 female Turkish patients who had prior complications in pregnancy, using the DiagCor GenoFlow Thrombophilia Array Test kit. Heterozygous MTHFR C677T and A1298C mutations were detected in 46% of the patients, and among these patients, 60% of them carried double heterozygous mutations. In contrast, the heterozygous Factor V G1691A and prothrombin G20210A were detected only in a smaller number of patients, respectively, 13% and 3%. The GenoFlow kit demonstrated 100% concordance with results from Sanger sequencing, which can be translated into sensitivity and specificity both at 100% within this series of patients. PMID:25153695

Aytekin, Ebru; Ergun, Sezen Guntekin; Ergun, Mehmet Ali; Percin, Ferda E

2014-11-01

113

Synergistic effects of the MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms on the increased risk of micro- and macro-albuminuria and progression of diabetic nephropathy among Iranians with type 2 diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo find whether polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C are risk factors for diabetic nephropathy (DN) among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients from Western Iran.

Mehrali Rahimi; Ali Hasanvand; Zohreh Rahimi; Asad Vaisi-Raygani; Hadi Mozafari; Mansour Rezaei; Javad Zargooshi; Farid Najafi; Ebrahim Shakiba

2010-01-01

114

A1298C polymorphism in the MTHFR gene predisposes to cardiovascular risk in rheumatoid arthritis  

PubMed Central

Introduction We determined the contribution of the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677 C>T and 1298 A>C gene polymorphisms to the susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We also assessed whether these two MTHFR gene polymorphisms may be implicated in the development of cardiovascular (CV) events and subclinical atherosclerosis manifested by the presence of endothelial dysfunction, in a series of Spanish patients with RA. Methods Six hundred and twelve patients fulfilling the 1987 American College of Rheumatology classification criteria for RA, seen at the rheumatology outpatient clinics of Hospital Xeral-Calde, Lugo and Hospital San Carlos, Madrid, were studied. Patients and controls (n = 865) were genotyped using predesigned TaqMan SNP genotyping assays. Results No significant differences in allele or genotype frequencies for the MTHFR gene polymorphisms between RA patients and controls were found. Also, no association between the MTHFR 677 C>T polymorphism and CV events or endothelial dysfunction was observed. However, the MTHFR 1298 allele C frequency was increased in patients with CV events after 5 years (38.7% versus 30.3%; odds ratio = 1.45; 95% confidence interval = 1.00 to 2.10; P = 0.04) and 10 years (42.2% versus 31.0%; odds ratio = 1.62; 95% confidence interval = 1.08 to 2.43; P = 0.01) follow up. Moreover, patients carrying the MTHFR 1298 AC and CC genotypes had a significantly decreased flow-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilatation (4.3 ± 3.9%) compared with those carrying the MTHFR 1298 AA genotype (6.5 ± 4.4%) (P = 0.005). Conclusions Our results show that the MTHFR 1298 A>C gene polymorphism confers an increased risk for subclinical atherosclerosis and CV events in patients with RA. PMID:20423475

2010-01-01

115

Quantitative assessment of the association between MTHFR rs1801131 polymorphism and risk of liver cancer.  

PubMed

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is one of the most important enzymes for folate metabolism which plays a key role in cell metabolism. MTHFR rs1801131 (A1298C) polymorphism can decrease in vitro MTHFR enzyme activity and has been hypothesized to be associated with liver cancer risk. This study aimed to quantify the strength of the association between MTHFR rs1801131 polymorphism and liver cancer risk by performing a meta-analysis. We searched the PubMed and Wanfang databases for studies relating on the association between MTHFR rs1801131 polymorphism and risk of liver cancer. Seven studies with 2,030 cases of liver cancer and 3,096 controls were finally included into the meta-analysis. Meta-analysis of a total of seven studies showed that the homozygote genotype CC of MTHFR rs1801131 polymorphism was significantly associated with decreased risk of liver cancer (for CC versus AA: odds ratio (OR)?=?0.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.47-0.89, P?=?0.007; for CC versus AA?+?AC: OR?=?0.65, 95% CI 0.48-0.89, P?=?0.006). Subgroup by race showed that the homozygote genotype CC of MTHFR rs1801131 polymorphism was significantly associated with decreased risk of liver cancer in Asians (CC versus AA: OR?=?0.64, 95% CI 0.46-0.90, P?=?0.010; for CC versus AA?+ AC: OR?=?0.63, 95% CI 0.45-0.88, P?=?0.007). However, the association in Caucasians was still unclear owing to the limited data available now. Thus, Asian individuals with the homozygote genotype CC of MTHFR rs1801131 polymorphism are significantly associated with decreased risk of liver cancer. The association in Caucasians needs further studies. PMID:24014085

Liang, Tie-Jun; Liu, Hui; Zhao, Xiao-Qian; Tan, Yan-Rong; Jing, Kai; Qin, Cheng-Yong

2014-01-01

116

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and A1298C variants do not affect ongoing pregnancy rates following IVF  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is concern that IVF could compromise normal imprinting and methylation of DNA. Methyl- enetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) regulates the flow of folic acid-derived, one-carbon moieties for methylation and is critical to early embryonic development. Therefore, we hypothesized that common polymorphisms in MTHFR could associate with IVF outcome. METHODS: MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphism genotyping was per- formed on 374

A. T. Dobson; R. M. Davis; M. P. Rosen; S. Shen; P. F. Rinaudo; J. Chan; M. I. Cedars

2006-01-01

117

The C677T mutation of the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene is a moderate risk factor for spina bifida in Italy.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the risk for spina bifida associated with the common mutation C677T of the MTHFR gene in a country with a relatively low prevalence of NTDs. DESIGN: Case-control study. SUBJECTS: Cases: 203 living patients affected with spina bifida (173 myelomeningocele and 30 lipomeningocele); controls: 583 subjects (306 young adults and 277 unselected newborns) from northern and central-southern Italy. SETTING: Cases: three spina bifida centres; young adult controls: DNA banks; newborn controls: regional neonatal screening centres. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of the C677T genotypes in cases and controls by place of birth; odds ratios for spina bifida and estimated attributable fraction. RESULTS: The prevalence of T/T, T/C, and C/C genotype was 16.6%, 53.7%, and 29.7% in controls and 25.6%, 43.8%, and 30.6% in cases, respectively. We found no differences between type of defect or place of birth. The odds ratio for spina bifida associated with the T/T genotype v C/C plus T/C was 1.73 (95% CI 1.15, 2.59) and the corresponding attributable fraction was 10.8%. No increased risk was found for heterozygous patients (OR=0.79, 95% CI 0.53-1.18). CONCLUSION: This study, as well as the meta-analysis we updated, shows that homozygosity for the MTHFR C677T mutation is a moderate risk factor in Europe, and even in Italy where there is a relatively low prevalence of spina bifida. The estimated attributable fraction associated with this risk factor explains only a small proportion of cases preventable by periconceptional folic acid supplementation. Thus, other genes involved in folate-homocysteine metabolism, their interaction, and the interaction between genetic and environmental factors should be investigated further. PMID:9863598

de Franchis, R; Buoninconti, A; Mandato, C; Pepe, A; Sperandeo, M P; Del Gado, R; Capra, V; Salvaggio, E; Andria, G; Mastroiacovo, P

1998-01-01

118

Novel mutation of SRD5A2 gene in a patient with 5?-reductase 2 deficiency from India  

PubMed Central

Master N had genital malformation at birth and had bilateral gonads in the labial fold. He was reared as a boy and corrective surgery was done at the age of 4?years and was reassessed at the age of 14?years. His testosterone/dihydrotestosterone (DHT) was 11.8 (reference range <=10). Molecular analysis of SRD5A2 gene indicated the presence of a novel heterozygous missense mutation of p.A52T in exon 1, which was also detected in mother. The father, sister and maternal grandfather were found to have normal SRD5A2 gene sequence. We also detected an intronic (1–2) homozygous T>C transition in patient, whereas both parents were found to have the same transition in heterozygous form. Although 5?-steroid reductase 2 deficiency is an autosomal-recessive disorder, in this case, it appears that there may be a dominant inheritance because only one identified mutation was present which was passed from mother to son. PMID:23112260

Shabir, Iram; Marumudi, Eunice; Khurana, Madan L; Khadgawat, Rajesh

2012-01-01

119

Mutations in the Antifolate-Resistance-Associated Genes Dihydrofolate Reductase and Dihydropteroate Synthase in Plasmodium vivax Isolates from Malaria-Endemic Countries  

PubMed Central

Parasite dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) are known target enzymes of antifolate drugs used for the treatment and prophylaxis of persons with malaria. We sequenced the Plasmodium vivax dihydrofolate reductase (pvdhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (pvdhps) genes to examine the prevalence and extent of point mutations in isolates from malaria-endemic countries. Double mutations (S58R and S117N) or quadruple mutations (F57L/I, S58R, T61M, and S117T) in the pvdhfr gene were found in isolates from Thailand (96.4%) and Myanmar (71.4%), but in only one isolate (1.0%) from Korea, where sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine has never been used. The pvdhfr point mutations correlated strongly with the pvdhps point mutations and ranged from single to triple mutations (S382A, A383G, and A553G), among isolates from Thailand, Myanmar, and Korea. These findings suggests that the prevalence of mutations in pvdhfr and pvdhps in P. vivax isolates from different malaria-endemic countries is associated with selection pressure imposed by sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. PMID:20810806

Lu, Feng; Lim, Chae Seung; Nam, Deok Hwa; Kim, Kwonkee; Lin, Khin; Kim, Tong-Soo; Lee, Hyeong-Woo; Chen, Jun-Hu; Wang, Yue; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Han, Eun-Taek

2010-01-01

120

Effects of the C677T and A1298C polymorphisms of the MTHFR gene on the genetic predisposition for diabetic nephropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a regulatory enzyme of homocysteine metabolism. The C677T polymorphism of the MTHFR gene has been reported to be associated with elevated plasma homocysteine in patients with low folic acid intake. A recently reported second common poly- morphism, A1298C, may increase homocysteine, but only in individuals carryingthe T677 allele. This study aimed to investigate the influence

Dariusz Moczulski; Hanna Fojcik; Ewa Zukowska-Szczechowska; Ilona Szydlowska; Wladyslaw Grzeszczak

2003-01-01

121

Maternal vitamin use, genetic variation of infant methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, and risk for spina bifida.  

PubMed

Maternal periconceptional use of vitamin supplements containing folic acid substantially reduces the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) in the offspring. The mechanism underlying this reduction in risk is unknown. Several recent studies have reported an association between homozygosity for a variant form (the C677T genotype) of the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and risk for NTDs in individuals. It has been hypothesized that maternal folic acid supplementation prevents NTDs by partially correcting reduced MTHFR activity associated with the variant form of the enzyme. Using data from two California case-control interview studies (1987-1991 birth cohorts), the authors investigated whether an interaction for spina bifida risk existed between infant MTHFR C677T genotype and maternal use of supplements containing folic acid. The authors genotyped the allelic variants of MTHFR in 214 liveborn case infants with spina bifida and 503 control infants for whom information on maternal periconceptional vitamin use was available. The percentage of all case infants with the C677T MTHFR mutation, for both homozygous (TT) and heterozygous (TC) genotypes, was slightly higher than that of controls. The C677T genotype was substantially more frequent among both case and control Hispanic infants than among non-Hispanic infants. Among all infants whose mothers did not periconceptionally use vitamins containing folic acid, the risk of spina bifida, as measured by the odds ratio, was 1.6 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.8-3.1) for all infants with the TT genotype and 2.0 (95% CI 0.5-7.4) for non-Hispanic white infants with the TT genotype, as compared with infants with the CC genotype. This result indicates a modestly increased risk associated with the C677T genotype. A lower risk estimate (odds ratio=1.2, 95% CI 0.4-4.0) was observed among infants whose mothers periconceptionally used vitamin supplements containing folic acid. This population-based California study found a modestly increased risk of spina bifida among infants who were homozygous for the C677T genotype, but only minimal evidence of an interaction between the C677T genotype and maternal folic acid intake in the occurrence of spina bifida. If this mutant MTHFR genotype plays a role in the association between maternal vitamin use and NTD risk, it may be a small role, or it may be conditional on maternal genotype. PMID:9663401

Shaw, G M; Rozen, R; Finnell, R H; Wasserman, C R; Lammer, E J

1998-07-01

122

Folate Intake, MTHFR C677T Polymorphism, Alcohol Consumption, and Risk for Sporadic Colorectal Adenoma (United States)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether folate intake is associated with risk for incident sporadic colorectal adenoma, and whether the association differs according to methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genotypes or is modified by intakes of alcohol or other micronutrients in the folate metabolism pathway.

Sonia M. Boyapati; Roberd M. Bostick; Katherine A. McGlynn; Michael F. Fina; Walter M. Roufail; Kim R. Geisinger; James R. Hebert; Ann L. Coker; Michael Wargovich

2004-01-01

123

Prevalence of MTHFR C677T Polymorphism in North Indian Mothers Having Babies with Trisomy 21 Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent studies have evaluated possible links between polymorphisms in maternal folate metabolism genes and Down syndrome. Some of these studies show a significantly increased prevalence of the C677T polymorphism of the 5,10-methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (NADPH) gene (MTHFR) among mothers who have had babies with Down syndrome. This study…

Kohli, Utkarsh; Arora, Sadhna; Kabra, Madhulika; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmy; Gulati, Sheffali; Pandey, Ravindra

2008-01-01

124

Association of Polymorphisms in BDNF, MTHFR, and Genes Involved in the Dopaminergic Pathway with Memory in a Healthy Chinese Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The contribution of genetic factors to the memory is widely acknowledged. Research suggests that these factors include genes involved in the dopaminergic pathway, as well as the genes for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR). The activity of the products of these genes is affected by single…

Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Hu, Chung-Yi; Yeh, Ting-Chi; Lin, Pei-Jung; Wu, Chung-Hsin; Lee, Po-Lei; Chang, Chun-Yen

2012-01-01

125

Frequency of APOE, MTHFR and ACE polymorphisms in the Zambian population  

PubMed Central

Background Polymorphisms within the apolipoprotein-E (APOE), Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) genes has been associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disorders, Alzheimer’s disease and other complex diseases in various populations. The aim of the study was to analyze the allelic and genotypic frequencies of APOE, MTHFR C677T and ACE I/D gene polymorphisms in the Zambian population. Results The allele frequencies of APOE polymorphism in the Zambian populations were 13.8%, 59.5% and 26.7% for the ?2, ?3 and ?4 alleles respectively. MTHFR C677T and ACE I/D allele frequencies were 8.6% and 13.8% for the T and D minor alleles respectively. The ?2?2 genotype and TT genotype were absent in the Zambian population. The genetic distances between Zambian and other African and non-African major populations revealed an independent variability of these polymorphisms. Conclusion We found that the APOE ?3 allele and the I allele of the ACE were significantly high in our study population while there were low frequencies observed for the MTHFR 677 T and ACE D alleles. Our analysis of the APOE, MTHFR and ACE polymorphisms may provide valuable insight into the understanding of the disease risk in the Zambian population. PMID:24679048

2014-01-01

126

Association between MTHFR gene polymorphism and NTDs in Chinese Han population  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study aims to investigate the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and neural tube defects (NTDs) in Chinese population. Method: A total of 271 NTDs cases and 192 healthy controls were used in this study. Fifty-two selected single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites in the MTHFR gene were analyzed with next-generation sequencing method. A series of statistical methods were carried out to investigate the correlation between the SNPs and the patient susceptibility to NTDs. Results: Statistical analysis showed a significant correlation between the SNP sites rs1801133 in MTHFR gene and NTDs. The GG genotype, G allele of rs1801133 in MTHFR significantly decreased the incidence of NTDs (OR = 0.449, 95% CI: 0.255-0.789 with genotype, and OR = 0.669, 95% CI: 0.508-0.881 with allele). Conclusions: The gene polymorphism loci rs1801133 in MTHFR gene maybe potential risk factors for NTD in Chinese population.

Yu, Yang; Wang, Fang; Bao, Yihua; Lu, Xiaolin; Quan, Li; Lu, Ping

2014-01-01

127

Targeted Mutations of Bacillus anthracis Dihydrofolate Reductase Condense Complex Structure-Activity Relationships  

SciTech Connect

Several antifolates, including trimethoprim (TMP) and a series of propargyl-linked analogues, bind dihydrofolate reductase from Bacillus anthracis (BaDHFR) with lower affinity than is typical in other bacterial species. To guide lead optimization for BaDHFR, we explored a new approach to determine structure-activity relationships whereby the enzyme is altered and the analogues remain constant, essentially reversing the standard experimental design. Active site mutants of the enzyme, Ba(F96I)DHFR and Ba(Y102F)DHFR, were created and evaluated with enzyme inhibition assays and crystal structures. The affinities of the antifolates increase up to 60-fold with the Y102F mutant, suggesting that interactions with Tyr 102 are critical for affinity. Crystal structures of the enzymes bound to TMP and propargyl-linked inhibitors reveal the basis of TMP resistance and illuminate the influence of Tyr 102 on the lipophilic linker between the pyrimidine and aryl rings. Two new inhibitors test and validate these conclusions and show the value of the technique for providing new directions during lead optimization.

J Beierlein; N Karri; A Anderson

2011-12-31

128

Point mutation of the xylose reductase (XR) gene reduces xylitol accumulation and increases citric acid production in Aspergillus carbonarius.  

PubMed

Aspergillus carbonarius accumulates xylitol when it grows on D-xylose. In fungi, D-xylose is reduced to xylitol by the NAD(P)H-dependent xylose reductase (XR). Xylitol is then further oxidized by the NAD(+)-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH). The cofactor impairment between the XR and XDH can lead to the accumulation of xylitol under oxygen-limiting conditions. Most of the XRs are NADPH dependent and contain a conserved Ile-Pro-Lys-Ser motif. The only known naturally occurring NADH-dependent XR (from Candida parapsilosis) carries an arginine residue instead of the lysine in this motif. In order to overcome xylitol accumulation in A. carbonarius a Lys-274 to Arg point mutation was introduced into the XR with the aim of changing the specificity toward NADH. The effect of the genetic engineering was examined in fermentation for citric acid production and xylitol accumulation by using D-xylose as the sole carbon source. Fermentation with the mutant strain showed a 2.8-fold reduction in xylitol accumulation and 4.5-fold increase in citric acid production compared to the wild-type strain. The fact that the mutant strain shows decreased xylitol levels is assumed to be associated with the capability of the mutated XR to use the NADH generated by the XDH, thus preventing the inhibition of XDH by the high levels of NADH and ensuring the flux of xylose through the pathway. This work shows that enhanced production of citric acid can be achieved using xylose as the sole carbon source by reducing accumulation of other by-products, such as xylitol. PMID:24570325

Weyda, István; Lübeck, Mette; Ahring, Birgitte K; Lübeck, Peter S

2014-04-01

129

A New Strategy to Produce a Defensin: Stable Production of Mutated NP-1 in Nitrate Reductase-Deficient Chlorella ellipsoidea  

PubMed Central

Defensins are small cationic peptides that could be used as the potential substitute for antibiotics. However, there is no efficient method for producing defensins. In this study, we developed a new strategy to produce defensin in nitrate reductase (NR)-deficient C. ellipsoidea (nrm-4). We constructed a plant expression vector carrying mutated NP-1 gene (mNP-1), a mature ?-defensin NP-1 gene from rabbit with an additional initiator codon in the 5?-terminus, in which the selection markers were NptII and NR genes. We transferred mNP-1 into nrm-4 using electroporation and obtained many transgenic lines with high efficiency under selection chemicals G418 and NaNO3. The mNP-1 was characterized using N-terminal sequencing after being isolated from transgenic lines. Excitingly, mNP-1 was produced at high levels (approximately 11.42 mg/l) even after 15 generations of continuous fermentation. In addition, mNP-1 had strong activity against Escherichia coli at 5 µg/ml. This research developed a new method for producing defensins using genetic engineering. PMID:23383016

Chen, Yu-Hong; Niu, Li-Li; Sun, Yong-Ru; Zhao, Shi-Min; Yang, Fu-Quan; Wang, Richard R.-C.; Wu, Qing; Zhang, Xiang-Qi; Hu, Zan-Min

2013-01-01

130

Maternal MTHFR genotype and haplotype predict deficits in early cognitive development in a lead-exposed birth cohort in Mexico City1234  

PubMed Central

Background: Maternal folate nutritional status and prenatal lead exposure can influence fetal development and subsequent health. The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene is important for folate metabolism, and 2 common polymorphisms, C677T and A1298C, reduce enzymatic activity; C677T is present at high penetrance in Mexican populations. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine potential links between maternal and child MTHFR polymorphisms and child neurodevelopment in a lead-exposed population. Design: Data regarding MTHFR polymorphisms C677T and A1298C, peri- and postnatal lead measures, and Bayley Mental Development Index at 24 mo of age (MDI-24) scores were available for 255 mother-child pairs who participated in the ELEMENT (Early Life Exposures in Mexico to Environmental Toxicants) study during 1994–1995. Results: In covariate-adjusted regression models, maternal MTHFR 677 genotype predicted MDI-24 scores, in which each copy of the maternal MTHFR 677T variant allele was associated with lower MDI-24 scores (? = ?3.52; 95% CI: ?6.12, ?0.93; P = 0.004). Maternal MTHFR haplotype also predicted MDI-24 scores (mean ± SE: 93.3 ± 1.2 for 677C-1298A compared with 89.9 ± 0.8 for 677T-1298A; P < 0.05). MDI-24 scores were not associated with maternal MTHFR 1298 genotype or child MTHFR genotypes. We did not observe significant MTHFR genotype × lead interactions with respect to any of the subject biomarkers of lead exposure. Conclusions: The maternal MTHFR 677T allele is an independent predictor of poorer child neurodevelopment at 24 mo. These results suggest that maternal genetic variations in folate metabolism during pregnancy may program offspring neurodevelopment trajectories. Further research is warranted to determine the generalizability of these results across other populations. PMID:20504979

Hu, Howard; Wright, Robert O; Kordas, Katarzyna; Ettinger, Adrienne S; Sanchez, Brisa N; Cantonwine, David; Lazarus, Alicia L; Cantoral, Alejandra; Schnaas, Lourdes; Tellez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Hernandez-Avila, Mauricio

2010-01-01

131

Association between dietary intake of folate and MTHFR and MTR genotype with risk of breast cancer.  

PubMed

We investigated the association between dietary intake of folate, vitamin B6, and the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genotype with breast cancer. A matched case-control study was conducted, and 413 patients with newly diagnosed and histologically confirmed breast cancer and 436 controls were recruited. Folate intake, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 levels were calculated, and the MTHFR C677T and A1298C and MTR A2756G polymorphisms were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Breast cancer cases were generally older, older at first live birth, and younger at menarche, had a higher body mass index, were smokers, had higher energy intake, and more first-degree relatives with breast cancer as well as more live births compared to controls. With respect to energy intake, we found that higher energy intake were more likely to increase the risk of breast cancer. The MTHFR 667TT genotype was associated with a moderately increased risk of breast cancer when compared with the CC genotype, and a significant odds ratio (OR; 95% confidence interval, CI) was found (OR = 1.70, 95%CI = 1.06-2.73). Individuals carrying T allele were associated with higher risk of breast cancer when compared with C allele (OR = 1.34, 95%CI = 1.06-1.70). We did not find a significant effect of the MTHFR A1298C and MTR A2756G on the risk of breast cancer. We did not find any association between folate intake and MTHFR C677T polymorphisms. In conclusion, we found that the MTHFR C667T polymorphism is associated with the risk of breast cancer, indicating that this genotype plays a role in breast cancer development. PMID:25366783

He, J M; Pu, Y D; Wu, Y J; Qin, R; Zhang, Q J; Sun, Y S; Zheng, W W; Chen, L P

2014-01-01

132

Interaction between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and traumatic childhood events predicts depression  

PubMed Central

Childhood trauma is associated with the onset and recurrence of major depressive disorder (MDD). The thermolabile T variant of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism (rs1801133) is associated with a limited (oxidative) stress defense. Therefore, C677T MTHFR could be a potential predictor for depressive symptomatology and MDD recurrence in the context of traumatic stress during early life. We investigated the interaction between the C677T MTHFR variant and exposure to traumatic childhood events (TCEs) on MDD recurrence during a 5.5-year follow-up in a discovery sample of 124 patients with recurrent MDD and, in an independent replication sample, on depressive symptomatology in 665 healthy individuals from the general population. In the discovery sample, Cox regression analysis revealed a significant interaction between MTHFR genotype and TCEs on MDD recurrence (P=0.017). Over the 5.5-year follow-up period, median time to recurrence was 191 days for T-allele carrying patients who experienced TCEs (T+ and TCE+); 461 days for T? and TCE+ patients; 773 days for T+ and TCE? patients and 866 days for T? and TCE? patients. In the replication sample, a significant interaction was present between the MTHFR genotype and TCEs on depressive symptomatology (P=0.002). Our results show that the effects of TCEs on the prospectively assessed recurrence of MDD and self-reported depressive symptoms in the general population depend on the MTHFR genotype. In conclusion, T-allele carriers may be at an increased risk for depressive symptoms or MDD recurrence after exposure to childhood trauma. PMID:23900311

Lok, A; Bockting, C L H; Koeter, M W J; Snieder, H; Assies, J; Mocking, R J T; Vinkers, C H; Kahn, R S; Boks, M P; Schene, A H

2013-01-01

133

Maternal mutation 677C > T in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene associated with severe brain injury in offspring.  

PubMed

A frequent polymorphism in the gene coding for 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase is the substitution 677C > T which produces a thermolabile and inefficient enzyme. Homozygosity for the 677C > T allele is the most important determinant of hyperhomocys-teinemia, when folic acid intake is reduced. Most studies on the relationship between the 677C > T variant in the mother and defects in the offspring have focused on neural-tube defects. This study is a retrospective case-control investigation of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy of the newborn (HIEN) with reference to the 677C > T polymorphism as a genetic risk for this condition. The prevalence of the 677C > T allele was studied in 11 children with HIEN, their respective mothers, and 85 healthy individuals. Plasma homocysteine levels after fasting and methionine loading were determined in both mothers and controls. Ten of 11 patients were evaluated using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and all showed multicystic encephalomalacia and severe brain vasculopathy. Seven mothers were homozygous and four heterozygous for the 677C > T allele. Five of the children were homozygous and six heterozygous for this polymorphism. The variant allele frequency was higher in the group of mothers with affected children than in the controls and was associated with an increase in plasma homocysteine after methionine loading, in the group of mothers than in controls. The 677C > T mutation in mothers, either in a homozygous or heterozygous state, together with poor nutritional status (probable folate deficiency) may represent a risk factor for irreversible HIEN in the offspring. PMID:15617551

Dodelson de Kremer, R; Grosso, C

2005-01-01

134

Epistasis effects of COMT and MTHFR on inter-individual differences in mental health: under the inverted U-shaped prefrontal dopamine model.  

PubMed

Higher cognitive performance, maintenance of mental health and psychological well-being require adequate prefrontal cortex (PFC) function. "Inverted U-shaped" dopamine model indicates optimal PFC dopamine level is important to attain its function while high or low levels have adverse effects. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) may be involved in this complex non-linear PFC dopamine regulation. We addressed whether genetic variation reflecting COMT and MTHFR activities can explain the inter-individual mental health differences in healthy Japanese men (n=188). The mental health was measured by Mental Health Inventory (MHI)-5 score. The rs4633-rs4818-rs4680 haplotypes were used to represent the multilevel COMT activities, while for MTHFR, the functional single polymorphism, rs1801133 (C677T), was used. We examined the effectiveness of haplotype-based association analysis of COMT on mental health together with studying its interaction with MTHFR-C677T. As a result, the relation between activity-ranked COMT genotype and MHI-5 score showed a tendency to fit into an "inverted U-shaped" quadratic curve (P=0.054). This curvilinear correlation was significant in the subjects with MTHFR-CC (P<0.001), but not with MTHFR T-allele carriers (P=0.793). Our pilot study implies a potential influence of COMT and MTHFR genotypic combination on normal variation of mental health. PMID:25124664

Htun, Nay Chi; Miyaki, Koichi; Zhao, Chenxi; Muramatsu, Masaaki; Sato, Noriko

2014-09-01

135

Mutations within the membrane domain of HMG-CoA reductase confer resistance to sterol-accelerated degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pivotal event for sterol-induced degradation of the cholesterol biosynthetic enzyme HMG-CoA reductase is binding of its membrane domain to Insig proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. Insigs are carriers for gp78, an E3 ubiquitin ligase that marks reductase for proteasomal deg- radation. We report here the isolation of mutant Chinese hamster ovary cell lines, designated SRD-16, -17, and -18, in

Peter C. W. Lee; Andrew D. Nguyen; Russell A. DeBose-Boyd

2006-01-01

136

The Importance of Homozygous Polymorphisms of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Gene in Romanian Patients with Idiopathic Venous Thromboembolism  

PubMed Central

Background: Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms have recently raised the interest as a possible thrombophilic factors. Aims: We aimed to assess the frequency of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in idiopathic venous thromboembolism (VTE) in a Romanian population and the associated risk of VTE. Study Design: We performed a case-control transversal study including 90 patients diagnosed with VTE and 75 sex- and age-matched controls. Methods: MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms were detected using PCR-RFLP method. Results: The homozygous MTHFR 677TT genotype, present in 18.8% of patients with VTE versus 6.6% of controls, was significantly associated with VTE (p= 0.021, OR= 3.26, 95%CI (1.141–9.313)). The heterozygous MTHFR A1298C genotype, presenting the highest prevalence in the VTE group (34.4%) as well as in controls (37.3%), was not associated with VTE (p=0.7). No associations were found for heterozygous MTHFR C677T (with a frequency of 32.2% in VTE and 37.3% in controls, p=0.492), respective homozygous MTHFR A1298C genotype (with a frequency of 1.1% in VTE and 2.6% in controls, p=0.456). Conclusion: Among MTHFR polymorphisms, only homozygosity for MTHFR 677TT may be considered a risk factor for VTE; the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism is not significantly associated with an increased risk of VTE.

Hotoleanu, Cristina; Trifa, Adrian; Popp, Radu; Fodor, Daniela

2013-01-01

137

The 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism interacts with smoking to increase homocysteine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevated homocysteine is a risk marker for several human pathologies. Risk factors for elevated homocysteine include low folate and homozygosity for the T allele of the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism. Because nitric oxide may inhibit folate catabolism and endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity is reduced in smokers, we postulated that smoking status might modify the impact of the MTHFR

Karen S Brown; Leo A. J Kluijtmans; Ian S Young; Liam Murray; Dorothy McMaster; Jayne V Woodside; John W. G Yarnell; Colin A Boreham; Helene McNulty; J. J. Strain; Joseph McPartlin; John M Scott; Laura E Mitchell; Alexander S Whitehead

2004-01-01

138

Lack of association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene A1298C polymorphism and breast cancer susceptibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Published data on the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) A1298C polymorphism and breast\\u000a cancer risk are inconclusive. To derive a more precise estimation of the relationship, a meta-analysis was performed. Medline,\\u000a PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were searched. Crude ORs with 95% CIs were used to assess the strength of association between\\u000a the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and breast

Li-Xin QiuJian; Jian Zhang; Wen-Hua Li; Qun-Ling Zhang; Hui Yu; Bi-Yun Wang; Lei-Ping Wang; Jia-Lei Wang; Hui-Jie Wang; Xiao-Jian Liu; Zhi-Guo Luo; Xiang-Hua Wu

2011-01-01

139

Further evidence that methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase A1298C polymorphism is a risk factor for schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work suggests that the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) functional polymorphism A1298C may be a risk factor for schizophrenia. In this study, the genetic association between the\\u000a MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and schizophrenia was investigated in 379 patients with schizophrenia and 380 age- and sex-matched controls\\u000a subjects. The results showed an association between the 1298C allele and the disorder (OR 1.39,

Chen ZhangBin; Bin Xie; Yasong Du; Wenhong Cheng; Yiru Fang; Shunying Yu

2010-01-01

140

Enrichment of MTHFR 677?T in a Chinese long-lived cohort and its association with lipid modulation  

PubMed Central

Background Variants in the Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene may result in a lowered catalytic activity and associate with subsequent elevated serum homocysteine (Hcy) concentration, abnormal DNA synthesis and methylation, cardiovascular risk, and unhealthy aging. Several investigations on the relationship of MTHFR C677T polymorphism with serum lipid profile and longevity have been conducted in some populations, but the findings remain mixed. Herein, we sought to look at the association between MTHFR C677T and lipid profile in a longevous cohort in Bama, a well-known home of longevity in China. Methods Genotyping of MTHFR C677T was undertaken in 516 long-lived inhabitants (aged 90 and older, long-lived group, LG) and 493 healthy controls (aged 60–75, non-long-lived group, non-LG) recruited from Bama area. Correlation between MTHFR genotypes and lipids was then evaluated. Results T allele and TT genotype were significantly more prevalent in LG (P?=?0.001 and 0.002, respectively), especially in females, than in non-LG. No difference in the tested lipid measures among MTHFR C677T genotypes was observed in LG, non-LG and total population (P?>?0.05 for all). However, female but not male T carriers exhibited higher TC and LDL-C levels than did T noncarriers in the total population and in LG after stratification by sex (P?MTHFR 677?T genotypes and its modest unfavorable impact on lipids in Bama long-lived individuals may imply an existence of other protective genotypes which require further determination. PMID:24968810

2014-01-01

141

Hyperhomocysteinemia and MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms are associated with chronic allograft nephropathy in renal transplant recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperhomocysteine has been reported to be an important risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis. Identification of risk factors, such as hyperhomocysteinemia, is crucial for a better understanding of the events that lead to degenerative processes in the vascular system and for a correct understanding of the potential role of methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase enzymes (MTHFR) to help in the treatment of

E. C. Pavarino-Bertelli; M. P. Sanches de Alvarenga; E. M. Goloni-Bertollo; M. A. S. F. Baptista; R. Haddad; N. F. Hoerh; M. N. Eberlin; M. Abbud-Filho

2004-01-01

142

Polymorphisms C677T and A1298C in the MTHFR gene in Mexican patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with methotrexate: implication with elevation of transaminases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the prototype of the rheumatic diseases worldwide. Methotrexate (MTX) is the drug of first choice in the treatment of this disease due to its immunosuppressant effect. However, side events are present in 30% of the patients. The C677T and A1298C polymorphisms of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene are involved in the metabolism of MTX. Earlier studies

J P Mena; M Salazar-Páramo; L González-López; J I Gámez-Nava; L Sandoval-Ramirez; J D Sánchez; L E Figuera; F J Muñoz-Valle; M Vazquez del Mercado; I P Dávalos

2011-01-01

143

MTHFR C677T Polymorphism and Risk of Congenital Heart Defects: Evidence from 29 Case-Control and TDT Studies  

PubMed Central

Background Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is an important enzyme for folate metabolism in humans; it is encoded by the MTHFR gene. Several studies have assessed the association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and the risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs), while the results were inconsistent. Methods and Findings Multiple electronic databases were searched to identify relevant studies published up to July 22, 2012. Data from case-control and TDT studies were integrated in an allelic model using the Catmap and Metafor software. Twenty-nine publications were included in this meta-analysis. The overall meta-analysis showed significant association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and CHDs risk in children with heterogeneity (Pheterogeneity?=?0.000) and publication bias (Pegger?=?0.039), but it turned into null after the trim-and-fill method was implemented (OR?=?1.12, 95% CI?=?0.95–1.31). Nevertheless, positive results were obtained after stratified by ethnicity and sample size in all subgroups except the mixed population. For mothers, there was significant association between the variant and CHDs without heterogeneity (Pheterogeneity?=?0.150, OR?=?1.16, 95% CI?=?1.05–1.29) and publication bias (Pegger?=?0.981). However, the results varied across each subgroup in the stratified analysis of ethnicity and sample size. Conclusions Both infant and maternal MTHFR C677T polymorphisms may contribute to the risk of CHDs. PMID:23536781

Gong, Fangqi; Zhu, Weihua; Fu, Songling

2013-01-01

144

Is the prevalence of MTHFR C677T polymorphism associated with ultraviolet radiation in Eurasia?  

PubMed

The methylenetetrahydrofolic acid reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism causes an amino-acid change from alanine to valine and results in the enzyme becoming thermolabile and half decreased activity. Its prevalence varies among global population. We collected data about MTHFR C677T polymorphism prevalence from epidemiology studies, as well as ultraviolet (UV) radiations and some other climatological factors from the internet. The results of the correlation and quadric regression showed that there was inverse U-shape relationship between T allele frequency and UV radiation. The explanatory power of UV radiation was stronger than latitude and all climatological factors. Our results supported the hypothesis that the distribution pattern of MTFHR C677T polymorphism in Eurasia might be the result of interaction of genetic and environmental natural selection, especially the UV radiation. PMID:22992775

Yafei, Wang; Lijun, Pei; Jinfeng, Wang; Xiaoying, Zheng

2012-12-01

145

Screening of polymorphisms for MTHFR and DHFR genes in spina bifida children and their mothers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanism underlying the beneficial effect of folic acid supplementation in reducing the risk of neural tube defect is still not well understood. Current evidences show the involvement of folic acid metabolic gene's polymorphism as contributing factors that regulate this pathway. Therefore, the objective of this research was to determine the presence of C677T polymorphism for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR-19 bp deletion) genes between mother-children pairs of case and control. With the approval of UKMMC ethic committee, genomic DNA was extracted from one hundred and forty consented bloods. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), PCR-RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) and sequencing were employed to verify each nucleotide change. Our result shows that mutant MTHFR and DHFR alleles are present in all Malaysian sub-ethnic groups, case and control. Even though mutant MTHFR are found to be slightly higher in the case groups, 75% of the affected child is a non carrier for this allele and 62.5% of the mothers with an affected child are genotypically normal. For DHFR, almost all (87.5-100%) investigated samples are a carrier or having a double DHFR deletion be it a case or control pairs. However, strong maternal inheritance shown by the deleted allele might be due to a cascade effect of lacks of folate consumption or maternal uniparental disomy. In conclusion, the use of MTHFR and DHFR as markers in determining the risk of having spina bifida baby is uninformative and plays a small indirect role as the genetic causes of spina bifida. Therefore, spina bifida remains etiologically unknown polygenic and quantitative developmental trait whereby the searches for positive genetic marker need to be continued.

Husna, M. Z.; Endom, I.; Ibrahim, S.; Selvi, N. Amaramalar; Fakhrurazi, H.; Htwe, R. Ohnmar; Kanehaswari, Y.; Halim, A. R. Abdul; Wong, S. W.; Subashini, K.; Syahira, O. Nur; Aishah, S.

2013-11-01

146

MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms are risk factors for Down’s syndrome in Indian mothers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Downs syndrome (DS), a chromosomal disorder due to trisomy 21, results mostly from nondisjunction in maternal meiosis. The present case-control study examined the association of genetic polymorphisms with predisposition to nondisjunction. Two common polymorphisms (SNPs), C677T and A1298C, in the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene involved in folate metabolism, are known to lower the activity of this enzyme. Three hundred and

Amit Kumar Rai; Satya Singh; Stuti Mehta; Ashok Kumar; L. K. Pandey; Rajiva Raman

2006-01-01

147

C677T and A1298C MTHFR polymorphisms, a challenge for antifolate and fluoropyrimidine-based therapy personalisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pharmacogenetics represents an exciting, new promising tool for the individualisation of therapy. Several genetic polymorphisms and haplotypes have been considered in an attempt to optimise therapy with specific drugs but, up to now, their clinical applications remain limited.5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), a key enzyme of one-carbon metabolism, catalyses the irreversible conversion of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate. Two common non-synonymous variants, the C677T

Elena De Mattia; Giuseppe Toffoli

2009-01-01

148

Association of the MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms with methotrexate toxicity in rheumatoid arthritis: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to explore whether the C677T and A1298C polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) play a role in methotrexate (MTX) toxicity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). MEDLINE and EMBASE database searches and subsequent manual searches were utilized to identify articles in which C677T and A1298C MTHFR polymorphisms were evaluated in RA patients taking MTX. A meta-analysis was conducted to identify associations between MTHFR polymorphisms and MTX toxicity. Twelve studies comprising a total of 2,288 RA patients were included in our meta-analysis. Meta-analysis revealed an association between the overall toxicity of MTX and the MTHFR 677TT genotype (odds ratio [OR]?=?1.615, 95 % confidence interval [CI]?=?1.185-2.200, p?=?0.002). Stratification by ethnicity indicated an association between the MTHFR 677TT genotype and the overall toxicity of MTX in East Asians (OR?=?1.583, 95 % CI?=?1.075-2.331, p?=?0.020). The toxicity of MTX also was found to be associated with the TT genotype in patients taking folate (OR?=?1.893, 95 % CI?=?1.283-2.793, p?=?0.001). Stratification by toxicity type indicated an association between the MTHFR 677TT genotype and any adverse effects (OR?=?1.716, 95 % CI?=?1.127-2.612, p?=?0.012). Meta-analysis stratified by toxicity type indicated an association between the MTHFR 1298CC genotype and any adverse effects (OR?=?0.501, 95 % CI?=?0.284-0.886, p?=?0.017). The results of our meta-analysis suggest that the MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms are associated with MTX toxicity in RA patients. PMID:24794492

Song, Gwan Gyu; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Lee, Young Ho

2014-12-01

149

High frequency of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677TT genotype in Hungarian HELLP syndrome patients determined by quantitative real-time PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our aim was to determine the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism in hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. We conducted our experiments on isolated DNA samples of 73 healthy pregnant, 101 severe pre-eclamptic and 63 HELLP syndrome women in this study. The MTHFR C677T polymorphism was determined by quantitative real-time PCR method. A significantly higher number of the TT genotype (25.4%) was

B Nagy; P Hupuczi; Z Papp

2007-01-01

150

Methionine synthase A2756G and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase A1298C polymorphisms are not risk factors for idiopathic venous thromboembolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperhomocysteinemia is a defined risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Several polymorphisms of genes encoding for enzymes acting in the remethylation pathway of homocysteine metabolism, ie, methionine synthase (MS) A2756G, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and MTHFR A1298C, can cause increased homocysteine levels particularly in patients with deficiencies of folic acid, vitamin B6, or B12 and hence be potential risk factors

Ophira Salomon; Nurit Rosenberg; Ariella Zivelin; David M Steinberg; Nurit Kornbrot; Rima Dardik; Aida Inbal; Uri Seligsohn

2001-01-01

151

Pharmacogenetics of methotrexate: toxicity among marrow transplantation patients varies with the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated whether a polymor- phism in the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofo- late reductase (MTHFR) gene (C677T) modi- fies responses to methotrexate (MTX) in patients undergoing bone marrow transplan- tation. About 10% to 12% of the population carry the MTHFR TT genotype (enzyme activ- ity, 30% of wild type (CC)). Patients (n 5 220) with chronic myelogenous leukemia under- went marrow allografts

Cornelia M. Ulrich; Yutaka Yasui; Rainer Storb; Mark M. Schubert; John L. Wagner; Jeannette Bigler; Kiley S. Ariail; Cassie L. Keener; Sue Li; Hao Liu; Federico M. Farin; John D. Potter

2001-01-01

152

Homocysteine and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in Tunisian patients with severe coronary artery disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevation in homocysteine and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene variants, C677T and A1298C, have been linked\\u000a with atherothrombosis. However their exact contribution to coronary artery disease (CAD) remains controversial. Moreover,\\u000a data from Tunisian patients are scarse. We examined the association of MTHFR C677T and A1298C, and changes in plasma homocysteine\\u000a in 352 Tunisian patients with angiographically-demonstrated CAD, and 390 age and

Lakhdar Ghazouani; Nesrine Abboud; Nabil Mtiraoui; Walid Zammiti; Faouzi Addad; Haitham Amin; Wassim Y. Almawi; Touhami Mahjoub

2009-01-01

153

Isolation of mutants of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus deficient in wax ester synthesis and complementation of one mutation with a gene encoding a fatty acyl coenzyme A reductase.  

PubMed Central

Acinetobacter calcoaceticus BD413 accumulates wax esters and triacylglycerol under conditions of mineral nutrient limitation. Nitrosoguanidine-induced mutants of strain BD413 were isolated that failed to accumulate wax esters under nitrogen-limited growth conditions. One of the mutants, Wow15 (without wax), accumulated wax when grown in the presence of cis-11-hexadecenal and hexadecanol but not hexadecane or hexadecanoic acid. This suggested that the mutation may have inactivated a gene encoding either an acyl-acyl carrier protein or acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) reductase. The Wow15 mutant was complemented with a cosmid genomic library prepared from wild-type A. calcoaceticus BD413. The complementary region was localized to a single gene (acr1) encoding a protein of 32,468 Da that is 44% identical over a region of 264 amino acids to a product of unknown function encoded by an open reading frame associated with mycolic acid synthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra. Extracts of Escherichia coli cells expressing the acr1 gene catalyzed the reduction of acyl-CoA to the corresponding fatty aldehyde, indicating that the gene encodes a novel fatty acyl-CoA reductase. PMID:9139916

Reiser, S; Somerville, C

1997-01-01

154

MTHFR C677T Predisposes to POAG but Not to PACG in a North Indian Population: A Case Control Study  

PubMed Central

Hyperhomocysteinemia induced by the C677T genetic variant in MTHFR (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase) has been implicated in neuronal cell death of retinal ganglion cells (RGC), which is a characteristic feature of glaucoma. However, association of MTHFR C677T with glaucoma has been controversial because of inconsistent results across association studies. Association between MTHFR C677T and glaucoma has not been reported in Indian population. Therefore, with a focus on neurodegenerative death of RGC in glaucoma, the current study aimed to investigate association of MTHFR C677T with Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG) and Primary Angle Closure Glaucoma (PACG) in a North Indian population. A total of 404 participants (231 patients and 173 controls) were included in this study. Genotyping was performed by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism. A few random samples were also tested by direct sequencing. Genotypic and allelic distributions of the POAG and PACG cohorts were compared to that of controls by chi-square test and odds ratios were reported with 95% confidence intervals. Genotypic and allelic distributions between POAG cases and controls were significantly different (p?=?0.03 and p?=?0.01 respectively). Unlike POAG, we did not find significant difference in the genotypic and allelic distributions of C677T between PACG cases and controls (p>0.05). We also observed a higher proportion of TT associated POAG in females than that in males. However, this is a preliminary indication of gender specific risk of C677T that needs to be replicated in a larger cohort of males and females. The present investigation on MTHFR C677T and glaucoma reveals that the TT genotype and T allele of this polymorphism are significant risk factors for POAG but not for PACG in North Indian population. Ours is the first report demonstrating association of MTHFR C677T with POAG but not PACG in individuals from North India. PMID:25054348

Gupta, Shashank; Bhaskar, Pradeep Kumar; Bhardwaj, Ritu; Chandra, Abhishek; Chaudhry, Vidya Nair; Chaudhry, Prashaant; Ali, Akhtar; Mukherjee, Ashim; Mutsuddi, Mousumi

2014-01-01

155

MTHFR C677T polymorphism: association with lymphoid neoplasm and effect on methotrexate therapy.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to detect the possible role of methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphism (MTHFR C677T) in the pathogenesis of lymphoid neoplasms and to investigate the influence of this polymorphism on methotrexate toxicity in adult ALL patients treated with methotrexate maintenance therapy. There was a statistically significant increase in the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in patients with CT genotype (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.3-6.3; P = 0.007) and combined CT + TT genotype (OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.5-6.6; P = 0.006). While no significant association was found between this polymorphism and ALL risk. The patients with ALL treated with methotrexate during maintenance therapy were observed for signs of toxicity. MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism (CT + TT) was significantly overrepresented among cases with hepatic toxicity (OR = 15.6; 95% CI, 2.6-81.3; P = 0.001). In addition, they were overrepresented among cases with mucositis, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and leukopenia. However, it did not reach statistical significance level. Further studies on larger number of subjects are necessary. Additional studies on the role of MTHFR gene polymorphism with environment (folate intake) interaction are needed to confirm the role of these genetic polymorphisms. PMID:24592886

Ayad, Mona W; El Naggar, Amel A; El Naggar, Mostafa

2014-07-01

156

MTHFR gene polymorphism and risk of myeloid leukemia: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

An increasing body of evidence has shown that the amino acid changes at position 1298 might eliminate methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) enzyme activity, leading to insufficient folic acid and subsequent human chromosome breakage. Epidemiological studies have linked MTHFR single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1801131 to myeloid leukemia risk, with considerable discrepancy in their results. We therefore were prompted to clarify this issue by use of a meta-analysis. The search terms were used to cover the possible reports in the MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases. Odds ratios were estimated to assess the association of SNP rs1801131 with myeloid leukemia risk. Statistical heterogeneity was detected using the Q-statistic and I (2) metric. Subgroup analysis was performed by ethnicity, histological subtype, and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). This meta-analysis of eight publications with a total of 1,114 cases and 3,227 controls revealed no global association. Nor did the subgroup analysis according to histological subtype and HWE show any significant associations. However, Asian individuals who harbored the CC genotype were found to have 1.66-fold higher risk of myeloid leukemia (odds ratio, 1.66; 95 % confidence interval, 1.10 to 2.49; P h?=?0.342; I (2)?=?0.114). Our meta-analysis has presented evidence supporting a possible association between the CC genotype of MTHFR SNP rs1801131 and myeloid leukemia in Asian populations. PMID:24894669

Dong, Song; Liu, Yueling; Chen, Jieping

2014-09-01

157

Association between MTHFR Polymorphisms and Acute Myeloid Leukemia Risk: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Previous observational studies investigating the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms and acute myeloid leukemia risk (AML) have yielded inconsistent results. The aim of this study is to derive a more precise estimation of the association between MTHFR (C677T and A1298C) polymorphisms and acute myeloid leukemia risk. PubMed and Embase databases were systematically searched to identify relevant studies from their inception to August 2013. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were the metric of choice. Thirteen studies were selected for C677T polymorphism (1838 cases and 5318 controls) and 9 studies (1335 patients and 4295 controls) for A1298C polymorphism. Overall, pooled results showed that C677T polymorphism was not significant associated with AML risk(OR, 0.98–1.04; 95% CI, 0.86–0.92 to 1.09–1.25). Similar results were observed for the A1298C polymorphism and in subgroup analysis. All comparisons revealed no substantial heterogeneity nor did we detect evidence of publication bias. In summary, this meta-analysis provides evidence that MTHFR polymorphisms were not associated with AML risk. Further investigations are needed to offer better insight into the role of these polymorphisms in AML carcinogenesis. PMID:24586405

Su, Yan; Lu, Ge-Ning; Wang, Ren-Sheng

2014-01-01

158

Association between MTHFR polymorphisms and acute myeloid leukemia risk: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Previous observational studies investigating the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms and acute myeloid leukemia risk (AML) have yielded inconsistent results. The aim of this study is to derive a more precise estimation of the association between MTHFR (C677T and A1298C) polymorphisms and acute myeloid leukemia risk. PubMed and Embase databases were systematically searched to identify relevant studies from their inception to August 2013. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were the metric of choice. Thirteen studies were selected for C677T polymorphism (1838 cases and 5318 controls) and 9 studies (1335 patients and 4295 controls) for A1298C polymorphism. Overall, pooled results showed that C677T polymorphism was not significant associated with AML risk(OR, 0.98-1.04; 95% CI, 0.86-0.92 to 1.09-1.25). Similar results were observed for the A1298C polymorphism and in subgroup analysis. All comparisons revealed no substantial heterogeneity nor did we detect evidence of publication bias. In summary, this meta-analysis provides evidence that MTHFR polymorphisms were not associated with AML risk. Further investigations are needed to offer better insight into the role of these polymorphisms in AML carcinogenesis. PMID:24586405

Qin, Yu-Tao; Zhang, Yong; Wu, Fang; Su, Yan; Lu, Ge-Ning; Wang, Ren-Sheng

2014-01-01

159

Association of the A1298C polymorphism in MTHFR gene with ischemic stroke.  

PubMed

A meta-analysis was performed to assess the association between the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) A1298C genetic polymorphism and ischemic stroke. A comprehensive search was conducted to identify all case-control or cohort studies. The fixed or random effect pooled measure was selected based on the homogeneity between studies, as assessed by I(2). Meta-regression was used to explore the potential sources of between-study heterogeneity. Publication bias was estimated using Egger's linear regression test. Thirteen case-control studies corresponded to the inclusion criteria comprising 2133 patients and 2572 controls which were included in the present meta-analysis. After excluding articles that deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in controls and the key contributors to between-study heterogeneity, significant associations between MTHFR A1298C genetic polymorphism and risk of ischemic stroke were observed in dominant (odds ratio [OR] 1.227, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.062-1.416) and codominant (OR 1.138, 95% CI 1.007-1.286) inheritance models. Moreover, in the subgroup analysis based on region (Asia and Europe), significant associations were observed in most genetic models in Asia but not in Europe. This meta-analysis suggests that MTHFR A1298C genetic polymorphism is associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke, and the C allele may be an important risk factor for ischemic stroke. PMID:24128767

Kang, Shan; Wu, Yili; Liu, Lingling; Zhao, Xinxin; Zhang, Dongfeng

2014-02-01

160

Hyperhomocysteinaemia and MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism in renal transplant recipients  

PubMed Central

AIM—To study the effect of folate treatment on hyperhomocysteinaemia and the effect of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism on total homocysteine and folate concentrations after renal transplantation.?METHODS—A total of 30 transplanted children and adolescents were investigated for total homocysteine and folate serum concentrations before and after folate treatment, as well as for the presence of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism.?RESULTS—The allele frequency of C677T polymorphism in the MTHFR gene in the study population (0.33) was not different to that in controls (0.38). Before folate treatment the homocysteine concentration was raised in all groups; following folate supplementation it was significantly decreased in the CC and CT groups, but not in the TT group. In patients with CC genotype, serum homocysteine correlated with serum creatinine and cholesterol, and time since transplantation before treatment.?CONCLUSION—Folate supplementation appears to be an effective strategy to normalise total homocysteine concentration in renal transplanted children and adolescents.?? PMID:11420199

Szabo, A; Tulassay, T; Melegh, B; Szabo, T; Szabo, A; Vannay, A; Fekete, A; Suveges, Z; Reusz, G

2001-01-01

161

Mutations defective in ribonucleotide reductase activity interfere with pollen plastid DNA degradation mediated by DPD1 exonuclease.  

PubMed

Organellar DNAs in mitochondria and plastids are present in multiple copies and make up a substantial proportion of total cellular DNA despite their limited genetic capacity. We recently demonstrated that organellar DNA degradation occurs during pollen maturation, mediated by the Mg(2+) -dependent organelle exonuclease DPD1. To further understand organellar DNA degradation, we characterized a distinct mutant (dpd2). In contrast to the dpd1 mutant, which retains both plastid and mitochondrial DNAs, dpd2 showed specific accumulation of plastid DNAs. Multiple abnormalities in vegetative and reproductive tissues of dpd2 were also detected. DPD2 encodes the large subunit of ribonucleotide reductase, an enzyme that functions at the rate-limiting step of de novo nucleotide biosynthesis. We demonstrated that the defects in ribonucleotide reductase indirectly compromise the activity of DPD1 nuclease in plastids, thus supporting a different regulation of organellar DNA degradation in pollen. Several lines of evidence provided here reinforce our previous conclusion that the DPD1 exonuclease plays a central role in organellar DNA degradation, functioning in DNA salvage rather than maternal inheritance during pollen development. PMID:22239102

Tang, Lay Yin; Matsushima, Ryo; Sakamoto, Wataru

2012-05-01

162

Association of the C677T and A1298C polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene with schizophrenia: Association is significant in men but not in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schizophrenia is a complex and common psychiatric disorder with a polygenic inheritance. In our previous report, we showed an association between the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and schizophrenia in patients from Bakirkoy in Istanbul, Turkey [Sazci, A., Ergul, E., Guzelhan, Y., Kaya, G., Kara, I., 2003. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphisms in patients with schizophrenia. Mol. Brain

Ali Sazci; Emel Ergul; Ismail Kucukali; Ihsan Kara; Guner Kaya

2005-01-01

163

Contribution of GSTM1, GSTT1, and MTHFR polymorphisms to end-stage renal disease of unknown etiology in Mexicans  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress is increased in chronic kidney disease, owing to an imbalance between the oxidative and antioxidant pathways as well as a state of persistent hyperhomocysteinemia. The enzymes glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) are implicated in the regulation of these pathways. This study investigates the association between polymorphisms in the Glutathione S-transferase Mu 1 (GSTM1), glutathione S-transferase theta 1 (GSTT1), and MTHFR genes and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) of unknown etiology in patients in Mexico. A Case-control study included 110 ESRD patients and 125 healthy individuals. GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes were determined using the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The MTHFR C677T polymorphism was studied using a PCR/restriction fragment length polymorphism method. In ESRD patients, GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotype frequencies were 61% and 7% respectively. GSTM1 genotype frequencies differed significantly between groups, showing that homozygous deletion of the GSTM1 gene was associated with susceptibility to ESRD of unknown etiology (P = 0.007, odds ratios = 2.05, 95% confidence interval 1.21-3.45). The MTHFR C677T polymorphism genotype and allele distributions were similar in both groups (P > 0.05), and the CT genotype was the most common genotype in both groups (45.5% and 46.6%). Our findings suggest that the GSTM1 null polymorphism appears to be associated with the ESRD of unknown etiology in patients in Mexico. PMID:24339523

Gutierrez-Amavizca, B. E.; Orozco-Castellanos, R.; Ortiz-Orozco, R.; Padilla-Gutierrez, J.; Valle, Y.; Gutierrez-Gutierrez, N.; Garcia-Garcia, G.; Gallegos-Arreola, M.; Figuera, L. E.

2013-01-01

164

Directed Evolution and Structural Analysis of NADPH-Dependent Acetoacetyl Coenzyme A (Acetoacetyl-CoA) Reductase from Ralstonia eutropha Reveals Two Mutations Responsible for Enhanced Kinetics  

PubMed Central

NADPH-dependent acetoacetyl-coenzyme A (acetoacetyl-CoA) reductase (PhaB) is a key enzyme in the synthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)], along with ?-ketothiolase (PhaA) and polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase (PhaC). In this study, PhaB from Ralstonia eutropha was engineered by means of directed evolution consisting of an error-prone PCR-mediated mutagenesis and a P(3HB) accumulation-based in vivo screening system using Escherichia coli. From approximately 20,000 mutants, we obtained two mutant candidates bearing Gln47Leu (Q47L) and Thr173Ser (T173S) substitutions. The mutants exhibited kcat values that were 2.4-fold and 3.5-fold higher than that of the wild-type enzyme, respectively. In fact, the PhaB mutants did exhibit enhanced activity and P(3HB) accumulation when expressed in recombinant Corynebacterium glutamicum. Comparative three-dimensional structural analysis of wild-type PhaB and highly active PhaB mutants revealed that the beneficial mutations affected the flexibility around the active site, which in turn played an important role in substrate recognition. Furthermore, both the kinetic analysis and crystal structure data supported the conclusion that PhaB forms a ternary complex with NADPH and acetoacetyl-CoA. These results suggest that the mutations affected the interaction with substrates, resulting in the acquirement of enhanced activity. PMID:23913421

Matsumoto, Ken'ichiro; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Motohashi, Ren; Ikeda, Koji; Tobitani, Kota; Yao, Min; Tanaka, Isao

2013-01-01

165

Ferric reductases or flavin reductases?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assimilation of iron by microorganisms requires the presence of ferric reductases which participate in the mobilization of iron from ferrisiderophores. The common structural and catalytic properties of these enzymes are described and shown to be identical to those of flavin reductases. This strongly suggests that, in general, the reduction of iron depends on reduced flavins provided by flavin reductases.

Marc Fontecave; Jacques Covès; Jean-Louis Pierre

1994-01-01

166

[6S]-5-methyltetrahydrofolate increases plasma folate more effectively than folic acid in women with the homozygous or wild-type 677C?T polymorphism of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is responsible for the synthesis of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF). The 677C?T mutation of MTHFR reduces the activity of this enzyme. The aim of this study was, first, to compare pharmacokinetic parameters of [6S]-5-MTHF and folic acid (FA) in women with the homozygous (TT) and wild-type (CC) 677C?T mutation, and second, to explore genotype differences. The metabolism of [6S]-5-MTHF and FA was evaluated by measuring plasma folate derivatives. Experimental approach: Healthy females (TT, n= 16; CC, n= 8) received a single oral dose of FA (400 µg) and [6S]-5-MTHF (416 µg) in a randomized crossover design. Plasma folate was measured up to 8 h after supplementation. Concentration-time-profile [area under the curve of the plasma folate concentration vs. time (AUC)], maximum concentration (Cmax) and time-to-reach-maximum (tmax) were calculated. Key results: AUC and Cmax were significantly higher, and tmax significantly shorter for [6S]-5-MTHF compared with FA in both genotypes. A significant difference between the genotypes was observed for tmax after FA only (P < 0.05). Plasma folate consisted essentially of 5-MTHF irrespective of the folate form given. Unmetabolized FA in plasma occurs regularly following FA supplementation, but rarely with [6S]-5-MTHF. Conclusions and implications: These data suggest that [6S]-5-MTHF increases plasma folate more effectively than FA irrespective of the 677C?T mutation of the MTHFR. This natural form of folate could be an alternative to FA supplementation or fortification. PMID:19917061

Prinz-Langenohl, R; Brämswig, S; Tobolski, O; Smulders, YM; Smith, DEC; Finglas, PM; Pietrzik, K

2009-01-01

167

Folate Intake, MTHFR Polymorphisms, and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background. The objective was to determine whether relationships exist between the methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) and examine whether the risk is modified by level of folate intake. Methods. MEDLINE, Embase, and SCOPUS were searched to May 2012 using the terms “folic acid,” “folate,” “colorectal cancer,” “methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase,” “MTHFR.” Observational studies were included which (1) assessed the risk of CRC for each polymorphism and/or (2) had defined levels of folate intake for each polymorphism and assessed the risk of CRC. Results. From 910 references, 67 studies met our criteria; hand searching yielded 10 studies. The summary risk estimate comparing the 677CT versus CC genotype was 1.02 (95% CI 0.95–1.10) and for 677TT versus CC was 0.88 (95% CI 0.80–0.96) both with heterogeneity. The summary risk estimates for A1298C polymorphisms suggested no reduced risk. The summary risk estimate for high versus low total folate for the 677CC genotype was 0.70 (95% CI 0.56–0.89) and the 677TT genotype 0.63 (95% CI 0.41–0.97). Conclusion. These results suggest that the 677TT genotype is associated with a reduced risk of developing CRC, under conditions of high total folate intake, and this associated risk remains reduced for both MTHFR 677 CC and TT genotypes. PMID:23125859

Kennedy, Deborah A.; Stern, Seth J.; Matok, Ilan; Moretti, Myla E.; Sarkar, Moumita; Adams-Webber, Thomasin; Koren, Gideon

2012-01-01

168

Association of Tagging SNPs in the MTHFR Gene with Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Serum Homocysteine Levels in a Chinese Population  

PubMed Central

Diabetes is a global public health crisis, and the prevalence is increasing rapidly. Folate supplementation is proved to be effective in reducing the risk of diabetes or improving its symptoms. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase is an important enzyme involved in folate metabolism. The aim of this study is to examine whether polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene are associated with risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and fasting total serum homocysteine (tHcy) levels. We genotyped nine tagging SNPs in the MTHFR gene in a case-control study, including 595 T2DM cases and 681 healthy controls in China. We found that C allele of rs9651118 had significant decreased risk of T2DM (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.55–0.87, P = 0.002) compared with T allele. Haplotype analysis also showed that MTHFR CTCCGA haplotype (rs12121543-rs13306553-rs9651118-rs1801133-rs2274976-rs1801131) had significant reduced risk of T2DM (adjusted OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.58–0.87, P = 0.001) compared with CTTTGA haplotype. Besides, the MTHFR rs1801133 was significantly associated with serum levels of tHcy in healthy controls (P = 0.0002). These associations were still significant after Bonferroni corrections (P < 0.0056). These findings suggest that variants in the MTHFR gene may influence the risk of T2DM and tHcy levels. PMID:25165408

Wang, Han; Wan, Bin

2014-01-01

169

Association between MTHFR C677T and A1298C Polymorphisms and NSCL/P Risk in Asians: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective Several studies have reported the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without palate (NSCL/P) in Asian populations. However, findings have been conflicting. In order to investigate the association, a meta-analysis was performed. Methods We searched Pubmed, MedLine and EmBase database to selected eligible studies. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were calculated using fixed effects model or random effects model to assess the association between MTHFR polymorphisms and NSCL/P in both Asian children and mothers. Results Finally, nine case-control studies were included. Overall, the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and NSCL/P showed pooled ORs (95%CI) of 1.41(1.23–1.61) in Asian children, and 1.70(1.19–2.42) in Asian mothers. Subgroup analyses by geographical locations further identified the association in Eastern Asian children, Western/Central Asian children and mothers, but not in Eastern Asian mothers. However, no significant relationship between MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and NSCL/P was found in this meta-analysis. Conclusions The MTHFR 677T allele was associated with an increased risk of NSCL/P in Asian populations. PMID:24658649

Zhao, Mengmeng; Ren, Yangwu; Shen, Li; Zhang, Yue; Zhou, Baosen

2014-01-01

170

Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Polymorphisms and Therapy Response in Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant portion of patients treated for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) relapse. We hypothesized that common polymorphisms with moderate effect sizes and large attributive risks could explain an important fraction of ALL relapses. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR )i s central to folate metabolism and has two common functional polymorphisms (C677T and A1298G). Methotrexate (MTX), which interrupts folate metabolism, is a

Richard Aplenc; Jennifer Thompson; Peggy Han; Mei La; Huaqing Zhao; Beverly Lange; Timothy Rebbeck

171

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism C677T is not associated to the risk of cervical dysplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to explore a possible association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism and cervical neoplasia. A total of 229 women were subjected to cytologic and colposcopic evaluation. Ninety-one of them were found to be normal, and served as the control group, while the other 138 of them had present or past histologically proven cervical pathology

A. F Lambropoulos; T Agorastos; Z. J Foka; S Chrisafi; T. C Constantinidis; J Bontis; A Kotsis

2003-01-01

172

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T genotype affects promoter methylation of tumor-specific genes in sporadic colorectal cancer through an interaction with folate\\/vitamin B12 status  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To evaluate joint effects of Methylentetra- hydrofolate reductase (MTHFR ) C677T genotypes, and serum folate\\/vitamin B12 concentrations on promoter methylation of tumor-associated genes among Iranian colorectal cancer patients. METHODS: We examined the associations between MTHFR C677T genotype, and promoter methylation of P16 , hMLH1 , and hMSH2 tumor-related genes among 151 sporadic colorectal cancer patients. The promoter methylation of

Pooneh Mokarram; Fakhraddin Naghibalhossaini

2008-01-01

173

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene, homocysteine and coronary artery disease: The A1298C polymorphism does matter. Inferences from a case study (Madeira, Portugal)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevated levels of plasma homocysteine, an independent risk factor and a strong predictor of mortality in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), can result from nutritional deficiencies or genetic errors, including methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C polymorphisms. The contribution of these polymorphisms in the development of CAD remains controversial. We analysed the impact of MTHFR C677T and A1298C on

Ana I. Freitas; Isabel Mendonça; Graça Guerra; Maria Brión; Roberto P. Reis; Angel Carracedo; António Brehm

2008-01-01

174

Vitamin B12 Status Is Inversely Associated with Plasma Homocysteine in Young Women with C677T and\\/or A1298C Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Polymorphisms1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms may negatively influence one-carbon metabolism and increase health risks in women of reproductive age. The effect of MTHFR single nucleotide polymorphisms at bp 677 and\\/or 1298 and differences in folate and vitamin B-12 status on plasma homocysteine concentration in women of reproductive age (20 -30 y; n 186) were investigated. From the multivariate regression model, homozygotes

Lynn B. Bailey; Robert L. Duhaney; David R. Maneval; Gail P. A. Kauwell; Eoin P. Quinlivan; Steven R. Davis; Aisha Cuadras; Alan D. Hutson; Jesse F. Gregory

175

Association of the C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in the 5,10 methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene in patients with migraine risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although controversial, diminished activity of 5,10 methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), a regulatory enzyme of homocysteine metabolism, may predispose to migraine in Turkish people. In a case-control study, we determined the prevalence of two common MTHFR polymorphisms,C677T and A1298C, in 102 migraine patients (23 migraine with aura, 70 migraine without aura and nine with tension-type headache) and compared it to that of

Ihsan Kara; Ali Sazci; Emel Ergul; Guner Kaya; Gamze Kilic

2003-01-01

176

The common MTHFR C677T and A1298C variants are not associated with the risk of non-syndromic cleft lip\\/palate in northern Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (nsCL\\/P) is among the most common major birth defects, with complex inheritance involving multiple genes and environmental factors. Numerous studies of MTHFR, encoding methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, which catalyzes the rate-limiting step of folic acid biosynthesis, have shown inconsistent association of two common hypomorphic allelic variants, C677T and A1298C, in nsCL\\/P patients and, in

Mehmet A. Sözen; Marie M. Tolarova; Richard A. Spritz

2009-01-01

177

MTHFR gene C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and homocysteine levels in primary open angle and primary closed angle glaucoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To investigate the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C genotypes and plasma concentrations of total homocysteine (tHcy) in Pakistani patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and primary closed angle glaucoma (PCAG). METHODS: This was a prospective case-control study. A total of 295 patients (173 POAG, 122 PCAG) and 143 age- and sex-matched controls were subdivided into two ethnic

Shazia Micheal; Raheel Qamar; Farah Akhtar; Muhammad Imran Khan; Wajid Ali Khan; Asifa Ahmed

2009-01-01

178

Evaluation of the contribution of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotypes to Taiwan breast cancer.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the genotypic polymorphisms in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and its interaction with early-onset breast cancer risk in Taiwan. Two well-known polymorphic variants of MTHFR, C677T (rs1801133) and A1298C (rs1801131), were analyzed and their joint effects with individual age- and estrogen-related factors on breast cancer risk were discussed. In total, 1,232 patients with breast cancer and 1,232 healthy controls were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The MTHFR C677T genotype, but not the A1298C, was differently distributed between cancer and control groups. The T allele of MTHFR C677T was significantly more frequently found in controls than in patients with cancer. In addition, females carrying MTHFR C677T CT or TT genotypes had a higher odds ratio of 1.21 (95% confidence interval=1.03-1.42, p=1.85E-5) for breast cancer, especially before the age of 45.4 years (odds ratio=1.51 and 95% confidence interval=1.20-1.90). Our results indicate that MTHFR C677T T allele was associated with increased risk of breast cancer in Taiwan, especially in cases who were 45.4 old or younger and with earlier menarche age (<12.2 years). PMID:25075036

Huang, Chung-Yu; Chang, Wen-Shin; Shui, Hao-Ai; Hsieh, Yung-Hung; Loh, Ching-Hui; Wang, Hwei-Chung; Ji, Hong-Xue; Hsiao, Chieh-Lun; Hsu, Chin-Mu; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Bau, Da-Tian

2014-08-01

179

The effect of MTHFR(C677T) genotype on plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy children is influenced by gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To explore the influence of gender, together with folate status, on the relation between the common methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism and plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations in healthy children.Design:Cross-sectional study by face-to-face interview.Setting and subjects:A total of 186 sixth-grade students participated from twelve randomly selected primary schools in Volos, Greece.Methods:Fasting tHcy, folate, and vitamin B12 were measured in plasma.

C Papoutsakis; N Yiannakouris; Y Manios; E Papaconstantinou; F Magkos; K H Schulpis; A Zampelas; A L Matalas

2006-01-01

180

Hyperhomocyst(e)inemia and MTHFR C677T genotypes in patients with central retinal vein occlusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Elevated plasma homocyst(e)ine is a major risk factor for venous thrombosis and cardiovascular disease. Homozygosity for the MTHFR C677T mutation and low plasma folate levels increase plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations. The aim of this retrospective case-control study was to investigate a possible association between hyperhomocyst(e)inemia and central retinal vein occlusion. Methods: Our study included 78 consecutive patients with central retinal

Martin Weger; Olaf Stanger; Hannes Deutschmann; Werner Temmel; Wilfried Renner; Otto Schmut; Jürgen Semmelrock; Anton Haas

2002-01-01

181

Effect of the MTHFR 677C/T polymorphism on homocysteinemia in response to creatine supplementation: a case study.  

PubMed

Creatine (Cr) is recommended as a dietary supplement especially for athletes but its therapeutic potential is also discussed. It is assumed that human body uses Cr for the formation of phosphocreatine, which is necessary for muscular work as a source of energy. Production of Cr in a body is closely connected to methionine cycle where guanidinoacetate (GAA) is in a final step methylated from S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). Increased availability of SAM for phosphatidylcholine (PC) and sarcosine synthesis can potentially stimulate endogenous production of betaine a thus methylation of homocysteine (HCy) to form methionine. Our subject who was methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677TT homozygote lowered plasma HCy from 33.3 micromol/l to 17.1 micromol/l following one-month Cr supplementation (5 g/day) opposite to 677CC and CT genotypes whose HCy levels tended to increase (but still in normal ranges). We suppose that Cr supplementation stimulates pathways leading to production of sarcosine which can serve to regenerate tetrahydrofolate (THF) to form 5,10-methylene-THF. This could potentially increase MTHFR enzyme activity which may later result in increased HCy methylation. Cr supplementation significantly effects metabolism of one carbon unit and potentially lower body´s demands for methyl groups. This could be beneficial as in the case of reduced enzyme activity such as MTHFR 677C/T polymorphism. PMID:23869894

Petr, M; Steffl, M; Kohlíková, E

2013-12-20

182

Variable contribution of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism to non-syndromic cleft lip and palate risk in China.  

PubMed

Non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (nsCL/P) is one of the most common craniofacial malformations among newborn infants. It has been demonstrated that periconceptional folic acid supplementation may reduce the occurrence of offspring with clefts, particularly in the North China; however, the mechanism remains unknown. Our study of a thermolabile polymorphism (C677T) of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene in 170 Chinese case-parent triads revealed a moderate association between this MTHFR polymorphism and nsCL/P in a population from North China, but not in a population from South China. Moreover, the study revealed that the heterozygous parents in the North were about twice as likely to transmit the high-risk T allele to affected cases, as that observed in the South (OR = 2.24, 95% CI: 1.08-4.65). Thus, the MTHFR polymorphism is a significant risk factor for nsCL/P in this Northern Chinese population. Our study suggested possible genetic heterogeneity in the development of nsCL/P among Northern and Southern populations in China. PMID:16470725

Zhu, JiangHui; Ren, AiGuo; Hao, Ling; Pei, LiJun; Liu, JianMeng; Zhu, HuiPing; Li, Song; Finnell, Richard H; Li, Zhu

2006-03-15

183

A Functional Role for the Conformationally Mobile Phenylalanine 223 in the Reaction of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase from E. coli†  

PubMed Central

The flavoprotein methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase from Escherichia coli catalyzes the reduction of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate (CH2-H4folate) by NADH via a ping-pong reaction mechanism. Structures of the reduced enzyme in complex with NADH and of the oxidized Glu28Gln enzyme in complex with CH3-H4folate [Pejchal, R., Sargeant, R., and Ludwig, M. L. (2005) Biochemistry 44, 11447-11457] have revealed Phe223 as a conformationally mobile active site residue. In the NADH complex, the NADH adopts an unusual hairpin conformation and is wedged between the isoalloxazine ring of the FAD and the side chain of Phe223. In the folate complex, Phe223 swings out from its position in the NADH complex in order to stack against the p-aminobenzoate ring of the folate. Although Phe223 contacts each substrate in E. coli MTHFR, this residue is not invariant; for example, a leucine occurs at this site in the human enzyme. To examine the role of Phe223 in substrate binding and catalysis, we have constructed mutants Phe223Ala and Phe223Leu. As predicted, our results indicate that Phe223 participates in the binding of both substrates. The Phe223Ala mutation impairs NADH and CH2-H4folate binding each 40-fold, yet slows catalysis of both half-reactions less than 2-fold. Affinity for CH2-H4folate is unaffected by the Phe223Leu mutation, and the variant catalyzes the oxidative half-reaction 3-fold faster than the wild-type enzyme. Structures of ligand-free Phe223Leu and Phe223Leu/Glu28Gln MTHFR in complex with CH3-H4folate have been determined at 1.65 Å and 1.70 Å resolution, respectively. The structures show that the folate is bound in a catalytically competent conformation, and Leu223 undergoes a conformational change similar to that observed for Phe223 in the Glu28Gln-CH3-H4folate structure. Taken together, our results suggest that Leu may be a suitable replacement for Phe223 in the oxidative half-reaction of E. coli MTHFR. PMID:19610625

Lee, Moon N.; Takawira, Desire; Nikolova, Andriana P.; Ballou, David P.; Furtado, Vivek C.; Phung, Ngoc L.; Still, Brady R.; Thorstad, Melissa K.; Tanner, John J.; Trimmer, Elizabeth E.

2009-01-01

184

Prospective study of homocysteine and MTHFR 677TT genotype and risk for venous thrombosis in a general population--results from the HUNT 2 study.  

PubMed

This case-cohort designed study prospectively investigated whether elevated homocysteine levels measured in blood samples drawn before the event and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism (MTHFR C677T) were associated with subsequent first venous thrombosis (VT) in a general population. Between August 1995 and June 1997, blood was collected from 66 140 people in the second Norwegian Health Study of Nord-Trøndelag (HUNT2). During a seven-year follow-up, 505 VT cases were identified. 1458 age- and sex-matched controls were selected from the original cohort. Serum total homocysteine (tHcy) and MTHFR genotype were measured in stored samples that were drawn a median of 33 months before the events. The overall odds ratio (OR) was 1.50 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97-2.30] for homocysteine levels above versus below the 95th percentile. There was no graded association with VT over quintiles of homocysteine. In men the OR was 2.17 (95% CI 1.20-3.91) for levels above versus below the 95th percentile, but no association was found in women (OR 1.00). Stratification by age, predisposing risk factors or time to event did not change these results. The MTHFR 677TT genotype was not related to risk for VT. In conclusion, elevated homocysteine levels in the general population predicted subsequent first VT in men but not in women. PMID:18318759

Naess, Inger Anne; Christiansen, Sverre C; Romundstad, Pål R; Cannegieter, Suzanne C; Blom, Henk J; Rosendaal, Frits R; Hammerstrøm, Jens

2008-05-01

185

MTHFR A1298C and C677T gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to chronic myeloid leukemia in Egypt  

PubMed Central

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme regulating the intracellular folate metabolism which plays an important role in carcinogenesis through DNA methylation. We aimed to evaluate the association between MTHFR A1298C and C677T polymorphisms and the risks of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Eighty-five patients with CML and a control group containing 100 healthy, age and sex matched individuals were examined for MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length (PCR-RFLP) method. The frequency of 677TT genotype in patients with CML was significantly higher compared to controls (OR = 2.513, 95% CI: 0.722-4.086, P = 0.025). No such association was shown for heterozygous 677CT (OR = 1.010, 95% CI: 0.460-2.218, P = 0.981). Moreover, for A1298C genotype, a statistically significant higher frequency of 1298CC was also detected in CML patients compared to control group (OR = 1.1816, 95% CI: 0.952-3.573, P = 0.036), 0.036). No such statistical significance was demonstrable for heterozygote 1298AC (OR = 1.046, 95% CI: 0.740-1.759, P = 0.092). In addition, patients with joint 677CT/1298AC or 677TT/1298CC genotypes showed an association with increased risk of CML (OR = 1.849, 95% CI: 0.935-2.540, P = 0.024; OR = 1.915, 95% CI: 1.202-3.845, P = 0.020 respectively). .A statistically significant increased risk of resistant to therapy was observed with 677CT and 1298AC genotypes (P = 0.001, P = 0.002 respectively). We conclude that both MTHFR 677TT and 1298CC polymorphisms have been associated with risk of CML and both 677CT and 1298AC genotypes are associated with higher risk of resistant to therapy. PMID:24966971

Aly, Rabab M; Taalab, Mona M; Ghazy, Hayam F

2014-01-01

186

Prediction of Methotrexate Clinical Response in Portuguese Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: Implication of MTHFR rs1801133 and ATIC rs4673993 Polymorphisms  

PubMed Central

Objective. Methotrexate (MTX), the most used drug in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment, showing variability in clinical response, is often associated with genetic polymorphisms. This study aimed to elucidate the role of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and aminoimidazole carboxamide adenosine ribonucleotide transformylase (ATIC) T675C polymorphisms and clinicopathological variables in clinical response to MTX in Portuguese RA patients. Methods. Study included 233 RA patients treated with MTX for at least six months. MTHFR C677T and ATIC T675C polymorphisms were genotyped and clinicopathological variables were collected. Statistical analyses were performed and binary logistic regression method adjusted to possible confounding variables. Results. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that MTHFR 677TT (OR = 4.63; P = 0.013) and ATIC 675T carriers (OR = 5.16; P = 0.013) were associated with over 4-fold increased risk for nonresponse. For clinicopathological variables, noncurrent smokers (OR = 7.98; P = 0.001), patients positive to anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (OR = 3.53; P = 0.004) and antinuclear antibodies (OR = 2.28; P = 0.045), with higher health assessment questionnaire score (OR = 2.42; P = 0.007), and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug users (OR = 2.77; P = 0.018) were also associated with nonresponse. Contrarily, subcutaneous administration route (OR = 0.11; P < 0.001) was associated with response. Conclusion. Our study suggests that MTHFR C677T and ATIC T675C genotyping combined with clinicopathological data may help to identify patients whom will not benefit from MTX treatment and, therefore, assist clinicians in personalizing RA treatment. PMID:24967362

Lima, Aurea; Monteiro, Joaquim; Bernardes, Miguel; Sousa, Hugo; Azevedo, Rita; Seabra, Vitor; Medeiros, Rui

2014-01-01

187

Carboxin resistance in Paracoccus denitrificans conferred by a mutation in the membrane-anchor domain of succinate:quinone reductase (complex II)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Succinate:quinone reductase is a membrane-bound enzyme of the citric acid cycle and the respiratory chain. Carboxin is a\\u000a potent inhibitor of the enzyme of certain organisms. The bacterium Paracoccus denitrificans was found to be sensitive to carboxin in vivo, and mutants that grow in the presence of 3?-methyl carboxin were isolated.\\u000a Membranes of the mutants showed resistant succinate:quinone reductase activity.

Mikael Matsson; Brian A. C. Ackrell; Bruce Cochran; Lars Hederstedt

1998-01-01

188

Copper-containing nitrite reductase from Pseudomonas aureofaciens is functional in a mutationally cytochrome cd 1 -free background (NirS ? ) of Pseudomonas stutzeri  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structural gene, nirK, for the respiratory Cu-containing nitrite reductase from denitrifying Pseudomonas aureofaciens was isolated and sequenced. It encodes a polypeptide of 363 amino acids including a signal peptide of 24 amino acids for protein export. The sequence showed 63.8% positional identity with the amino acid sequence of “Achromobacter cycloclastes” nitrite reductase. Ligands for the blue, type I Cu-binding

Andrea B. Glockner; Angelika Jiingst; Walter G. Zumft

1993-01-01

189

Folate Levels and Polymorphisms in the Genes MTHFR, MTR, and TS in Colorectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

AIM The aim of the study was to explore and describe the effect of polymorphisms in folate-associated genes regarding the levels of different folate forms and their distribution in tumors and mucosa in patients with colorectal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS Tumor and mucosa tissues from 53 patients with colorectal cancer were analyzed. The concentrations of tetrahydrofolate (THF), 5-methylTHF, and 5,10-methyleneTHF were measured by liquid chromatography—mass spectrometry. Genotyping of polymorphisms in the folate-associated genes methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR, C677T), methionine synthase (MTR, A2756G), and thymidylate synthase (TS, 5?-TSER 28 bp tandem repeat and 3?-TSUTR 6 bp deletion/insertion), were done by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Folate levels and distributions were determined in the total patient cohort and after subgrouping by genotypes. RESULTS The total folate level, as well as the THF and 5,10-methyleneTHF levels, were significantly higher in the tumor compared with mucosa tissue (P = 0.030, 0.031, and 0.015, respectively). The individual variation in folate levels in both tumor and mucosa were larger than the variation found when the patients were subgrouped by the gene polymorphisms. No significant differences in the mean concentration of any folate in the mucosa or tumor tissue were found in relation to the analyzed polymorphisms. The percentage level of 5,10-methyleneTHF in tumors was highest in patients with the MTHFR 677 CC genotype, and lowest in patients with the TT genotype (P = 0.033). A significantly lower percentage level of the 5,10-methyleneTHF level was found in tumors of patients with the 5?-TSER 3R/3R genotype (P = 0.0031). CONCLUSION A significant difference was found between the percentage level of 5,10-methyleneTHF in tumor tissues in relation to the MTHFR C677T and 5?-TSER 28 bp repeat polymorphisms. However, no differences were found in the actual tissue folate levels, or in their distribution, in relation to the polymorphisms in the MTHFR, MTR, or TS genes. These findings could be of importance for further research in the field by explaining some of the difficulties of obtaining reproducible and uniform results when using a few selected polymorphisms as predictive markers. PMID:24596472

Taflin, Helena; Wettergren, Yvonne; Odin, Elisabeth; Carlsson, Goran; Derwinger, Kristoffer

2014-01-01

190

Alteration of the Alkaloid Profile in Genetically Modified Tobacco Reveals a Role of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase in Nicotine N-Demethylation1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme of the tetrahydrofolate (THF)-mediated one-carbon (C1) metabolic network. This enzyme catalyzes the reduction of 5,10-methylene-THF to 5-methyl-THF. The latter donates its methyl group to homocysteine, forming methionine, which is then used for the synthesis of S-adenosyl-methionine, a universal methyl donor for numerous methylation reactions, to produce primary and secondary metabolites. Here, we demonstrate that manipulating tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) MTHFR gene (NtMTHFR1) expression dramatically alters the alkaloid profile in transgenic tobacco plants by negatively regulating the expression of a secondary metabolic pathway nicotine N-demethylase gene, CYP82E4. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and alkaloid analyses revealed that reducing NtMTHFR expression by RNA interference dramatically induced CYP82E4 expression, resulting in higher nicotine-to-nornicotine conversion rates. Conversely, overexpressing NtMTHFR1 suppressed CYP82E4 expression, leading to lower nicotine-to-nornicotine conversion rates. However, the reduced expression of NtMTHFR did not affect the methionine and S-adenosyl-methionine levels in the knockdown lines. Our finding reveals a new regulatory role of NtMTHFR1 in nicotine N-demethylation and suggests that the negative regulation of CYP82E4 expression may serve to recruit methyl groups from nicotine into the C1 pool under C1-deficient conditions. PMID:23221678

Hung, Chiu-Yueh; Fan, Longjiang; Kittur, Farooqahmed S.; Sun, Kehan; Qiu, Jie; Tang, She; Holliday, Bronwyn M.; Xiao, Bingguang; Burkey, Kent O.; Bush, Lowell P.; Conkling, Mark A.; Roje, Sanja; Xie, Jiahua

2013-01-01

191

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene haplotypes affect toxicity during maintenance therapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Japanese patients.  

PubMed

Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of daily 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) and low-dose weekly methotrexate (MTX) combination treatment and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) haplotypes on toxicity during maintenance therapy in Japanese childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We retrospectively analyzed the MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and influence of haplotypes on toxicity in 73 patients. Patients with the MTHFR 677TT and 677CT + 1298AC were associated with severe liver toxicity (p = 0.014, odds ratio [OR] = 3.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.27-11.46) and more rapid onset of liver toxicity (p = 0.010). Patients with MTHFR 677TT and 677CT + 1298AC were associated with lower frequency of 6-MP and MTX dose reduction due to leukopenia (p < 0.05). No difference was observed in average drug doses in the MTHFR genotypes. In conclusion, the MTHFR C677T and A1298C haplotypes might be useful for monitoring adverse effects in childhood ALL maintenance therapy in Japanese patients. PMID:23865834

Tanaka, Yoichi; Manabe, Atsushi; Nakadate, Hisaya; Kondoh, Kensuke; Nakamura, Kozue; Koh, Katsuyoshi; Kikuchi, Akira; Komiyama, Takako

2014-05-01

192

Meta-analyses of blood homocysteine levels for gender and genetic association studies of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Previous studies suggest that elevated blood homocysteine levels and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism are risk factors for schizophrenia. However, the effects of gender and MTHFR C677T genotypes on blood homocysteine levels in schizophrenia have not been consistent. We first investigated whether plasma total homocysteine levels were higher in patients with schizophrenia than in controls with stratification by gender and by the MTHFR C677T genotypes in a large cohort (N = 1379). Second, we conducted a meta-analysis of association studies between blood homocysteine levels and schizophrenia separately by gender (N = 4714). Third, we performed a case-control association study between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and schizophrenia (N = 4998) and conducted a meta-analysis of genetic association studies based on Japanese subjects (N = 10 378). Finally, we assessed the effect of plasma total homocysteine levels on schizophrenia by a mendelian randomization approach. The ANCOVA after adjustment for age demonstrated a significant effect of diagnosis on the plasma total homocysteine levels in all strata, and the subsequent meta-analysis for gender demonstrated elevated blood homocysteine levels in both male and female patients with schizophrenia although antipsychotic medication might influence the outcome. The meta-analysis of the Japanese genetic association studies demonstrated a significant association between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and schizophrenia. The mendelian randomization analysis in the Japanese populations yielded an OR of 1.15 for schizophrenia per 1-SD increase in plasma total homocysteine. Our study suggests that increased plasma total homocysteine levels may be associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia. PMID:24535549

Nishi, Akira; Numata, Shusuke; Tajima, Atsushi; Kinoshita, Makoto; Kikuchi, Kumiko; Shimodera, Shinji; Tomotake, Masahito; Ohi, Kazutaka; Hashimoto, Ryota; Imoto, Issei; Takeda, Masatoshi; Ohmori, Tetsuro

2014-09-01

193

Meta-analyses of Blood Homocysteine Levels for Gender and Genetic Association Studies of the MTHFR C677T Polymorphism in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Previous studies suggest that elevated blood homocysteine levels and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism are risk factors for schizophrenia. However, the effects of gender and MTHFR C677T genotypes on blood homocysteine levels in schizophrenia have not been consistent. We first investigated whether plasma total homocysteine levels were higher in patients with schizophrenia than in controls with stratification by gender and by the MTHFR C677T genotypes in a large cohort (N = 1379). Second, we conducted a meta-analysis of association studies between blood homocysteine levels and schizophrenia separately by gender (N = 4714). Third, we performed a case-control association study between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and schizophrenia (N = 4998) and conducted a meta-analysis of genetic association studies based on Japanese subjects (N = 10 378). Finally, we assessed the effect of plasma total homocysteine levels on schizophrenia by a mendelian randomization approach. The ANCOVA after adjustment for age demonstrated a significant effect of diagnosis on the plasma total homocysteine levels in all strata, and the subsequent meta-analysis for gender demonstrated elevated blood homocysteine levels in both male and female patients with schizophrenia although antipsychotic medication might influence the outcome. The meta-analysis of the Japanese genetic association studies demonstrated a significant association between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and schizophrenia. The mendelian randomization analysis in the Japanese populations yielded an OR of 1.15 for schizophrenia per 1-SD increase in plasma total homocysteine. Our study suggests that increased plasma total homocysteine levels may be associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia. PMID:24535549

Nishi, Akira; Numata, Shusuke; Tajima, Atsushi; Kinoshita, Makoto; Kikuchi, Kumiko; Shimodera, Shinji; Tomotake, Masahito; Ohi, Kazutaka; Hashimoto, Ryota; Imoto, Issei; Takeda, Masatoshi; Ohmori, Tetsuro

2014-01-01

194

MTHFR 677 (C?T) polymorphism is not relevant for prognosis or therapy-associated toxicity in pediatric NHL: results from 484 patients of multicenter trial NHL-BFM 95  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed the relationship of genetic variation within the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR 677 C?T) with clinical characteristics, outcome, and therapy-related toxicity in pediatric non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) in our\\u000a multicenter trial NHL-BFM 95. In this trial, high-dose methotrexate (MTX) infusion regimens were randomized (4- vs 24-h infusion)\\u000a in patients with B-cell lymphoma; MTX was applied as 24-h infusion in all

Kathrin Seidemann; Martin Zimmermann; Ulrike Meyer; Karl Welte; Martin Stanulla; Alfred Reiter

2006-01-01

195

The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677TT genotype and folate intake interact to lower global leukocyte DNA methylation in young Mexican American women  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA methylation is an epigenetic feature associated with X chromosome inactivation, genomic imprinting, transcriptional silencing of genes, and genomic stability. Folate provides a labile source of methyl groups that may be used for cellular methylation reactions, including DNA methylation. The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C?T variant is an important determinant of folate nutriture and may influence DNA methylation. This study sought

Juan Axume; Steven S. Smith; Igor P. Pogribny; David J. Moriarty; Marie A. Caudill

2007-01-01

196

Diets, polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, and the susceptibility of colon cancer and rectal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the association of environmental factors (dietary folate, methionine and drinking status) and polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T and A1298C) gene, as well as the combination of these factors, with the risk of colon cancer and rectal cancer. A case-control study of 53 colon cancer patients, 73 rectal cancer patients and

Qinting Jiang; Kun Chen; Xinyuan Ma; Qilong Li; Weiping Yu; Guotong Shu; Kaiyan Yao

2005-01-01

197

Thioredoxin reductase.  

PubMed Central

The mammalian thioredoxin reductases (TrxRs) are a family of selenium-containing pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductases with mechanistic and sequence identity, including a conserved -Cys-Val-Asn-Val-Gly-Cys- redox catalytic site, to glutathione reductases. TrxRs catalyse the NADPH-dependent reduction of the redox protein thioredoxin (Trx), as well as of other endogenous and exogenous compounds. The broad substrate specificity of mammalian TrxRs is due to a second redox-active site, a C-terminal -Cys-SeCys- (where SeCys is selenocysteine), that is not found in glutathione reductase or Escherichia coli TrxR. There are currently two confirmed forms of mammalian TrxRs, TrxR1 and TrxR2, and it is possible that other forms will be identified. The availability of Se is a key factor determining TrxR activity both in cell culture and in vivo, and the mechanism(s) for the incorporation of Se into TrxRs, as well as the regulation of TrxR activity, have only recently begun to be investigated. The importance of Trx to many aspects of cell function make it likely that TrxRs also play a role in protection against oxidant injury, cell growth and transformation, and the recycling of ascorbate from its oxidized form. Since TrxRs are able to reduce a number of substrates other than Trx, it is likely that additional biological effects will be discovered for TrxR. Furthermore, inhibiting TrxR with drugs may lead to new treatments for human diseases such as cancer, AIDS and autoimmune diseases. PMID:10657232

Mustacich, D; Powis, G

2000-01-01

198

MTHFR polymorphisms in Puerto Rican children with isolated congenital heart disease and their mothers  

PubMed Central

Congenital heart defects (CHD) are among the most common birth defects. There is evidence suggesting that polymorphisms in folate metabolism could alter susceptibility to CHD. The MTHFR 677TT genotype has been associated with the development of structural congenital heart malformations. The objective of this study was to identify common polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene in children with isolated CHD and their mothers. The DNA analysis for the C677T and A1298C mutations was performed. The study group included 27 mothers, 27 children with CHD, and 220 controls. The prevalence of the TT polymorphism was higher in mothers (22%) than in controls (10%). Compound heterozygosity for both polymorphisms was 3.7 times more common in children with CHD than in the newborn controls. Mothers of children with CHD were more likely to be compound heterozygotes. The higher prevalence of C677T polymorphisms in mothers of children with CHD and of compound heterozygosity for both polymorphisms suggests the possible role of folic acid in the prevention of CHD. Due to the relation of this enzyme to folate metabolism, current folate recommendations for women in childbearing age in Puerto Rico to reduce neural tube defects may need to be extended to the prevention of CHD. PMID:20657745

Garcia-Fragoso, Lourdes; Garcia-Garcia, Ines; Leavitt, Gloria; Renta, Jessicca; Ayala, Miguel A.; Cadilla, Carmen L.

2010-01-01

199

Association of MTHFR C677T and SHMT 1 C1420T with susceptibility to ESCC and GCA in a high incident region of Northern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To assess the association between the C to T transition in the methylenetetrahydro folate reductase gene (MTHFR C677T) and the C to T transition in the serine hydroxymethyltransferase\\u000a \\u000a 1\\u000a gene (SHMT\\u000a \\u000a 1\\u000a C1420T) and the increased risk of carcinogenesis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma\\u000a (GCA) in a population of high incident region of Northern China.

Yimin Wang; Wei Guo; Yutong He; Zhifeng Chen; Denggui Wen; Xiufeng Zhang; Na Wang; Yan Li; Hui Ge; Jianhui Zhang

2007-01-01

200

The Frequent 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T Polymorphism Is Associated with a Common Haplotype in Whites, Japanese, and Africans  

PubMed Central

The common 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism causes decreased activity of this enzyme and can be associated with mild-to-moderate hyperhomocysteinemia in homozygotes, particularly when there is folic acid deficiency, as well as with vascular dementia, arterial thrombosis, venous thrombosis, neural-tube defects, and fetal loss. When folic acid intake is sufficient, homozygotes for MTHFR 677T appear to be protected against colon cancer and acute lymphatic leukemia, and fetuses bearing this genotype have an augmented survival. The distribution of MTHFR 677T is worldwide, but its frequency in different populations varies extensively. In the present study, we addressed the question of whether the MTHFR 677T alteration has an ancestral origin or has occurred repeatedly. We analyzed the frequency distribution of the previously described polymorphism A1298C in exon 7 and of three intronic dimorphisms, in white Israelis (Jews and Arabs), Japanese, and Ghanaian Africans. The 677T allele was, remarkably, associated with one haplotype, G-T-A-C, in white and Japanese homozygotes. Among the Africans, analysis of maximum likelihood also disclosed an association with the G-T-A-C haplotype, although none of the 174 subjects examined was homozygous for MTHFR 677T. These results suggest that the MTHFR 677T alteration occurred on a founder haplotype that may have had a selective advantage. PMID:11781870

Rosenberg, Nurit; Murata, Mitsuru; Ikeda, Yasuo; Opare-Sem, Ohene; Zivelin, Ariella; Geffen, Eli; Seligsohn, Uri

2002-01-01

201

Unique holoenzyme dimers of the tetrameric enzyme Escherichia coli methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase: characterization of structural features associated with modulation of the enzyme's function.  

PubMed

Impaired functioning of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) can cause high levels of homocysteine in plasma or hyperhomocysteinemia, which is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and neural tube defects. We have studied in detail the effect of modulation of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions of Escherichia coli MTHFR on its structure and function. Alterations in hydrophobic interactions of MTHFR, using urea, lead to dissociation of the native tetramer, resulting in stabilization of enzymatically active holoenzyme dimers followed by unfolding of the holoenzyme dimer to the denatured monomer along with dissociation of FAD from the enzyme. This is the first report of an enzymatically active dimer of E. coli MTHFR and suggests that the dimer rather than tetramer is the smallest functionally active unit of the enzyme. Furthermore, these results also demonstrate that dissociation of the FAD cofactor from the enzyme occurs only on unfolding of the dimer to denatured monomers. Modulation of electrostatic interactions, using NaCl, leads to dissociation of the native enzyme, resulting in stabilization of an enzymatically inactive partially unfolded holoenzyme dimer. Comparative analysis of loss of enzymatic activity and changes in structural features of MTHFR demonstrate a very good correlation between enhanced flexibility of the enzyme-bound FAD and loss of enzymatic activity, suggesting the importance of rigidity of the FAD cofactor in maintenance of the enzymatic activity of MTHFR. PMID:12667083

Misra, Sandeep K; Bhakuni, Vinod

2003-04-01

202

The allele frequency of mutations in four genes that confer enhanced susceptibility to venous thromboembolism in an unselected group of New York State newborns.  

PubMed

The frequencies of Factor V G1691A (FVL), prothrombin (PT) G20210A, 5'10'methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T, and methionine synthase (MS) A2756G (four mutations associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism [VTE]) were determined in a sample of approximately 1500 New York State residents. Dried blood spots from approximately equal numbers of Caucasians, African-Americans and Hispanics were anonymously obtained from the New York State Department of Health Newborn Screening Program. Following PCR amplification of dried blood spot DNA, allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization was used to detect mutant alleles. The total number of individuals at increased genetic risk for VTE was 271 (17.5%) of the 1553 persons tested. Increased genetic risk was defined as the heterozygous state for FVL or PT and the homozygous state for the MTHFR or MS polymorphisms. Sixteen individuals had more than one genetic risk factor. The MS gene variant allele frequencies for African-Americans and Hispanics are the first to be reported. This report also provides an estimate of the variant PT allele in the largest group of Hispanics studied to date. PMID:10963782

Conroy, J M; Trivedi, G; Sovd, T; Caggana, M

2000-08-15

203

Laboratory informatics based evaluation of methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase C677T genetic test overutilization  

PubMed Central

Background: Laboratory data can provide a wide range of information to estimate adherence to guidelines and proper utilization of genetic testing. The methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T variant has been demonstrated to have negligible utility in patient management. However, the testing of this variant remains pervasive. The purpose of this study was to develop methods to analyze concordance of clinician ordering practices with national guidelines. Methods: We used laboratory data to extract specific data elements including patient demographics, timestamps, physician ordering logs and temporal relationship to chemistry requests to examine 245 consecutive MTHFR tests ordered in 2011 at an academic tertiary center. A comprehensive chart review was used to identify indications for testing. These results were correlated with a retrospective analysis of 4,226 tests drawn at a range of hospitals requesting testing from a national reference laboratory over a 2-year period. MTHFR ordering practices drawn from 17 institutions were examined longitudinally from 2002 to 2011. Results: Indications for testing included cerebrovascular events (40.0%) and venous thrombosis (39.1%). Family history prompted testing in eight cases. Based on acceptable hypercoagulability guidelines recommending MTHFR C677T testing only in the presence of elevated serum homocysteine, 10.6% (22/207) of adult patients met an indicated threshold at an academic tertiary center. Among 77 institutions, 14.5% (613/4226) of MTHFR testing met recommendations. Conclusion: We demonstrate an effective method to examine discreet elements of a molecular diagnostics laboratory information system at a tertiary care institution and to correlate these findings at a national level. Retrospective examination of clinicians’ request of MTHFR C677T genetic testing strongly suggests that clinicians have failed to adjust their ordering practices in light of evolving scientific and professional organization recommendations. PMID:24392247

Cohen, David A.; Shirts, Brian H.; Jackson, Brian R.; Parker, Lisa S.

2013-01-01

204

Characterization and site-directed mutation of a novel aldo-keto reductase from Lodderomyces elongisporus NRRL YB-4239 with high production rate of ethyl (R)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate.  

PubMed

A novel aldo-keto reductase (LEK) from Lodderomyces elongisporus NRRL YB-4239 (ATCC 11503) was discovered by genome database mining for carbonyl reduction. LEK was overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), purified to homogeneity and the catalytic properties were studied. Among the substrates, ethyl 4-chloro-3-oxobutanoate was converted to ethyl (R)-4-chloro-3- hydroxybutanoate ((R)-CHBE), an important pharmaceutical intermediate, with an excellent enantiomeric excess (e.e.) (>99 %). The mutants W28A and S209G obtained by site-directed mutation were identified with much higher molar conversion yields and lower Km values. Further, the constructed coenzyme regeneration system with glucose as co-substrate resulted in a yield of 100 %, an enantioselectivity of >99 %, and the calculated production rate of 56.51 mmol/L/H. These results indicated the potential of LEK for the industrial production of (R)-CHBE and other valuable chiral alcohols. PMID:25189809

Wang, Qiuyan; Ye, Tingting; Ma, Zhuanzhuan; Chen, Rong; Xie, Tian; Yin, Xiaopu

2014-11-01

205

Polymorphisms in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in a multi-ethnic population.  

PubMed

An imbalance in folate metabolism can adversely affect DNA synthesis and methylation systems which can lead to susceptibility to non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and their haplotypes in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) are associated with NHL, remain inconclusive. We investigated the association between MTHFR C677T and A1298C SNPs and NHL risk in a population which is made up of Malay, Chinese and Indian ethnic subgroups. A total of 372 NHL patients and 722 controls were genotyped using the Sequenom MassARRAY platform. Our results of the pooled subjects failed to demonstrate significant association between the MTHFR C677T and A1298C SNPs with NHL and its subtypes. The results were in agreement with the previous meta-analyses. In the Indian ethnic subgroup however, single locus analysis of MTHFR A1298C appears to confer risk to NHL (Odds ratio (OR) 1.91, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.22-3.00, P=0.006). The risk is almost doubled in homozygous carrier of MTHFR 1298CC (OR 4.03, 95% CI 1.56-10.43, P=0.004). Haplotype analysis revealed higher frequency of CC in the Indian NHL patients compared with controls (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.18-2.93, P=0.007). There is lack of evidence to suggest an association between MTHFR C677T and A1298C with the risk of NHL in the Malays and Chinese. In the Indians however, the MTHFR A1298C confers risk to NHL. This study suggests ethnicity modifies the relationship between polymorphisms in the folate-metabolizing gene and NHL. PMID:24646728

Suthandiram, Sujatha; Gan, Gin Gin; Zain, Shamsul Mohd; Haerian, Batoul Sadat; Bee, Ping Chong; Lian, Lay Hoong; Chang, Kian Meng; Ong, Tee Chuan; Mohamed, Zahurin

2014-05-01

206

Diet folate, DNA methylation and polymorphisms in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase in association with the susceptibility to gastric cancer.  

PubMed

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) has been reported to be associated with DNA methylation, an epigenetic feature frequently found in gastric cancer. We conducted a case-control study to explore the association of MTHFR C677T polymorphisms with gastric cancer risk and its relation with the DNA methylation of COX-2, MGMT, and hMLH1 genes. Genotyping of P16, MGMT and HMLH1 was determined by methylation-specific PCR after sodium bisulfate modification of DNA, and genotyping of MTHFR C677T was conducted by TaqMan assays using the ABI Prism 7911HT Sequence Detection System. Folate intake was calculated with the aid of a questionnaire. Compared with the MTHFR 677CC genotype, the TT genotype was significantly associated with 2.08 fold risk of gastric cancer when adjusting for potential risk factors. Individuals who had an intake of folate above 310 ?g/day showed protective effects against gastric cancer risk. The effect of MTHFR C677T polymorphisms on the risk of gastric cancer was modified by folate intake and methylation status of MGMT (P for interaction <0.05). PMID:23534741

Gao, Shang; Ding, Li-Hong; Wang, Jian-Wei; Li, Cun-Bao; Wang, Zhao-Yang

2013-01-01

207

The maize brown midrib2 (bm2) gene encodes a methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase that contributes to lignin accumulation.  

PubMed

The midribs of maize brown midrib (bm) mutants exhibit a reddish-brown color associated with reductions in lignin concentration and alterations in lignin composition. Here, we report the mapping, cloning, and functional and biochemical analyses of the bm2 gene. The bm2 gene was mapped to a small region of chromosome 1 that contains a putative methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, which is down-regulated in bm2 mutant plants. Analyses of multiple Mu-induced bm2-Mu mutant alleles confirmed that this constitutively expressed gene is bm2. Yeast complementation experiments and a previously published biochemical characterization show that the bm2 gene encodes a functional MTHFR. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses demonstrated that the bm2 mutants accumulate substantially reduced levels of bm2 transcript. Alteration of MTHFR function is expected to influence accumulation of the methyl donor S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM). Because SAM is consumed by two methyltransferases in the lignin pathway (Ye et al., ), the finding that bm2 encodes a functional MTHFR is consistent with its lignin phenotype. Consistent with this functional assignment of bm2, the expression patterns of genes in a variety of SAM-dependent or -related pathways, including lignin biosynthesis, are altered in the bm2 mutant. Biochemical assays confirmed that bm2 mutants accumulate reduced levels of lignin with altered composition compared to wild-type. Hence, this study demonstrates a role for MTHFR in lignin biosynthesis. PMID:24286468

Tang, Ho Man; Liu, Sanzhen; Hill-Skinner, Sarah; Wu, Wei; Reed, Danielle; Yeh, Cheng-Ting; Nettleton, Dan; Schnable, Patrick S

2014-02-01

208

Association of MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms with non-Hodgkin lymphoma susceptibility: evidence from a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is an important enzyme involved in folate metabolism and DNA synthesis. A number of studies have examined the association of MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) susceptibility; however, the conclusions were contradictory. We searched available publications assessing the polymorphisms of MTHFR and NHL susceptibility from MEDLINE, EMBASE and CBM. Genotype-based mRNA expression analysis was performed using data from 270 individuals with three different ethnicities. Ultimately, a total of 7448 cases and 11146 controls from 25 studies were included for the C677T polymorphism, 6173 cases and 9725 controls from 19 studies for the A1298C polymorphism. Pooled results indicated that neither C677T nor A1298C polymorphism was associated with NHL susceptibility. However, C677T polymorphism showed a statistically significantly increased risk for Caucasians, but a decreased risk for Asians in the subgroup analysis by ethnicity. The same variants may confer increased susceptibility to develop follicular lymphoma (FL). Moreover, A1298C polymorphism was associated with increased NHL risk for Asians. This meta-analysis indicated that C677T polymorphism was associated with altered NHL susceptibility for Caucasians, Asians and FL. Increased NHL risk was also shown for A1298C among Asians. These findings warrant validation in large and well-designed prospective studies. PMID:25146845

He, Jing; Liao, Xiao-Yu; Zhu, Jin-Hong; Xue, Wen-Qiong; Shen, Guo-Ping; Huang, Shao-Yi; Chen, Wei; Jia, Wei-Hua

2014-01-01

209

Association of the MTHFR 1298A>C (rs1801131) polymorphism with speed and strength sports in Russian and Polish athletes.  

PubMed

It has been suggested that DNA hypomethylation because of poorer effectiveness of the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) enzyme induces muscular growth. We hypothesised that the common, functional 1298A>C polymorphism in the MTHFR gene is associated with athletic status. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the distribution of the 1298A>C variant in Polish (n = 302) and Russian (n = 842) athletes divided into four groups: endurance, strength-endurance, sprint-strength and strength-endurance, as well as in 1540 control participants. We found different genotypes (the AC heterozygote advantage) and allele distributions among sprint-strength athletes and strength athletes than the groups of sedentary controls for each nationality. In the combined study, the allelic frequencies for the 1298C variant were 35.6% in sprint-strength athletes (OR 1.18 [1.02-1.36], P = 0.024 vs. controls) and 38.6% in strength athletes (OR 1.34 [1.10-1.64], P = 0.003 vs. controls). The results of the initial and repetition studies as well as the combined analysis suggest that the functional 1298A>C polymorphism in the MTHFR gene is associated with athletic status. The presence of the C allele seems to be beneficial in sprint-strength and strength athletes. It needs to be established whether and to what extent this effect is mediated by alteration in DNA methylation status. PMID:24015812

Zarebska, Aleksandra; Ahmetov, Ildus I; Sawczyn, Stanislaw; Weiner, Alexandra S; Kaczmarczyk, Mariusz; Ficek, Krzysztof; Maciejewska-Karlowska, Agnieszka; Sawczuk, Marek; Leonska-Duniec, Agata; Klocek, Tomasz; Voronina, Elena N; Boyarskikh, Uljana A; Filipenko, Maksim L; Cieszczyk, Pawel

2014-01-01

210

Association between Hcy levels and the CBS844ins68 and MTHFR C677T polymorphisms with essential hypertension  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between the homocysteine (Hcy) levels and polymorphisms of the CBS844ins68 and MTHFR C677T genes in essential hypertension (EH). The effects of the MTHFR C677T and CBS844ins68 haploid genotypes and the combined genotypes on EH and levels of Hcy were further explored. The polymorphisms of CBS844ins68 and MTHFR C677T genes in 200 EH and 200 normal tensive (NT) patients were detected using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and analysis of the distribution of genotypes. An automated biochemical analyzer was used to measure the plasma Hcy levels and the clinical biochemistry data. The plasma Hcy levels in EH were significantly higher than those of the NT group (P<0.05). There were no significant differences (P>0.05) between males and females. Two genotypes, deletion/deletion (DD) and deletion/insertion (DI), of the CBS844ins68 polymorphism were found in two groups with no clear differences in two genotypes and allele frequency distribution (P>0.05). There were significant differences in the three genotype frequencies (?2=6.658, ?2=4.410, P<0.05) for MTHFR C677T locus genotypes CC, CT and TT. The Hcy levels in genotypes DD and DI had no significant differences (P>0.05) and the CT and TT types were significantly higher compared to the CC genotype (P<0.05). The CC/DD combined genotype in the two groups was significantly different (P<0.05), and the odds ratio (OR), 0.569 showed that the CC/DD genotype may be a protective factor of hypertension. In the two groups, the Hcy levels for combined genotypes CC/DD, CT/DD, TT/DD and TT/DI were significantly different (P<0.05). The SHEsis software analysis linkage disequilibrium coefficient=0.216, indicates that there is probably a weak linkage for MTHFR C677T and CBS844ins68. Haplotype analysis suggested that the C-D haplotype was negatively correlated with EH (OR, 0.727) and that there was a positive correlation between T-D haplotype and EH (OR, 1.376). MTHFR C677T and CBS844ins68 polymorphisms were present in the populations studied and the CBS844ins68 homozygous mutation was not present. Therefore, there is a correlation between the polymorphisms of the MTHFR C677T gene and EH, and allele T may be one of the predisposing factors. MTHFR C677T and CBS844ins68 may exist with a certain linkage and the T-D haplotype may be a risk factor for EH. PMID:25279160

CAI, WEIJUAN; YIN, LIANG; YANG, FANG; ZHANG, LEI; CHENG, JIANG

2014-01-01

211

The Genetic Diversity and Structure of Linkage Disequilibrium of the MTHFR Gene in Populations of Northern Eurasia  

PubMed Central

The structure of the haplotypes and linkage disequilibrium (LD) of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) in 9 population groups from Northern Eurasia and populations of the international HapMap project was investigated in the present study. The data suggest that the architecture of LD in the human genome is largely determined by the evolutionary history of populations; however, the results of phylogenetic and haplotype analyses seems to suggest that in fact there may be a common “old” mechanism for the formation of certain patterns of LD. Variability in the structure of LD and the level of diversity of MTHFRhaplotypes cause a certain set of tagSNPs with an established prognostic significance for each population. In our opinion, the results obtained in the present study are of considerable interest for understanding multiple genetic phenomena: namely, the association of interpopulation differences in the patterns of LD with structures possessing a genetic susceptibility to complex diseases, and the functional significance of the pleiotropicMTHFR gene effect. Summarizing the results of this study, a conclusion can be made that the genetic variability analysis with emphasis on the structure of LD in human populations is a powerful tool that can make a significant contribution to such areas of biomedical science as human evolutionary biology, functional genomics, genetics of complex diseases, and pharmacogenomics. PMID:22708063

Trifonova, E.A.; Eremina, E.R.; Urnov, F.D.; Stepanov, V.A.

2012-01-01

212

Homocysteine and nitrite levels are modulated by MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism in obese women treated with simvastatin.  

PubMed

Higher homocysteine (Hcy) levels are associated with cardiovascular risk. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of simvastatin treatment on circulating Hcy levels in obese women without hypertension, diabetes or dyslipidaemia; and to determine whether the 677C>T polymorphism located in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (NAD(P)H) (MTHFR) gene modulates the effects of this treatment on Hcy and nitrite (as a biomarker of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability). Twenty-five obese women (body mass index ? 30 kg/m(2) ) who had received 20 mg/day simvastatin for 6 weeks were enrolled in the study. Venous blood samples were collected to measure plasma biomarkers and gene polymorphisms. Simvastatin treatment significantly reduced total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and Hcy, whereas nitrite levels were increased. The reduction in Hcy levels in carriers of the T allele was -20.3% compared with -9.4% in patients with the CC genotype. Importantly, before treatment, nitrite levels were significantly higher in patients with the CC genotype compared with T allele carriers, whereas after treatment these levels were similar between groups. Our findings demonstrate that obese women without comorbidities and carrying the T variant of the 677C>T polymorphism of MTHFR exhibit benefits with simvastatin treatment, mainly in terms of increased NO levels. PMID:25115547

Villela, Maria P; Andrade, Vanessa L; Eccard, Bryelle; Jordão, Alceu A; Sertório, Jonas T; Tanus-Santos, Jose E; Silva, Ieda Fo; Silveira, Josianne N; Sandrim, Valéria C

2014-10-01

213

Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G and the MTHFR 677C/T polymorphisms and susceptibility to polycystic ovary syndrome: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to explore whether the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) 4G/5G and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C/T polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Meta-analyses were conducted to determine the association between the PAI-1 4G/5G and MTHFR 677C/T polymorphisms and PCOS using: (1) allele contrast (2) homozygote contrast, (3) recessive, and (4) dominant models. For meta-analysis, nine studies of the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism with 2384 subjects (PCOS, 1615; controls, 769) and eight studies of the MTHFR 677C/T polymorphism with 1270 study subjects were included. Meta-analysis of all study subjects showed no association between PCOS and the PAI-1 4G allele (OR=0.949, 95% CI=0.671-1.343, p=0.767). Stratification by ethnicity, however, indicated a significant association between the PAI-1 4G allele and PCOS in Turkish and Asian populations (OR=0.776, 95% CI=0.602-0.999, p=0.049; OR=1.749, 95% CI=1.297-2.359, p=2.5×10(-5) respectively). In addition, meta-analysis indicated an association between PCOS and the PAI-1 4G4G+4G5G genotype in Europeans (OR=1.406, 95% CI=1.025-1.928, p=0.035). However, meta-analysis of all study subjects showed no association between PCOS and the MTHFR 677T allele (OR=0.998, 95% CI=0.762-1.307, p=0.989), including Europeans (OR=0.806, 95% CI=0.610-1.063, p=0.126). Meta-analysis showed no association between PCOS and the MTHFR 677C/T polymorphism using homozygote contrast, and recessive and dominant models. In conclusion, meta-analysis suggests the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to PCOS in European, Turkish, and Asian populations, but the MTHFR 677C/T polymorphism is not associated with susceptibility to PCOS in Europeans. PMID:24439532

Lee, Young Ho; Song, Gwan Gyu

2014-04-01

214

Association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms and the relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Relapse is a threat in patients treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) activity may affect the sensitivity of patients to folate-based chemotherapeutic drugs, thus influencing the relapse risk. Two polymorphisms of the gene encoding MTHFR, C677T and A1298C, alter MTHFR enzyme activity and may be associated with ALL relapse. The aim of this meta-analysis was to clarify the correlation between the C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and ALL relapse. To this end, data were collected from studies of the association between these two polymorphisms and ALL relapse. Analysis of the data revealed a serious contradiction among the results. A recessive model demonstrated that the ALL relapse risk was significantly increased in carriers of the 677?TT genotype, especially for pediatric ALL, but was unaffected by the A1298C polymorphism. These findings confirm that the MTHFR C677T polymorphism could be considered as a good marker of the pediatric ALL relapse risk. PMID:24637499

He, H-R; Chen, S-Y; You, H-S; Hu, S-S; Sun, J-Y; Dong, Y-L; Lu, J

2014-10-01

215

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism is not risk factor for Down syndrome in North India  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Down syndrome (DS) is the most common cause of mental retardation of genetic etiology with the prevalence rate of 1/700 to 1/1000 live births worldwide. Several polymorphisms in folate/homocysteine metabolism pathways genes have been reported as a risk factor in women for bearing DS child, but very few studies investigated these polymorphisms in DS cases whether there are a risk factor for being DS or not. OBJECTIVE: We have investigated the association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) with the occurrence of DS in Indian population. MTHFR is one of the key regulatory enzymes involved in the metabolic pathway of homocysteine responsible for the reduction of methyltetrahydrofolate. A total of 32 DS cases and 64 age, sex matched controls were genotyped for MTHFR C677T polymorphism by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. RESULTS: The observed genotype frequencies were CC = 0.81; CT = 0.17 and TT = 0.02 in controls and CC = 0.81 and CT = 0.19 in DS cases. Frequency of T allele in DS and controls were 0.09 and 0.1, respectively. Significant difference in the distribution of mutant 677T allele was not observed between DS cases and controls (odds ratio = 0.915; 95% confidence intervals: 0.331-2.53; P = 0.864). CONCLUSION: Results of this study indicate that MTHFR C677T polymorphism is not risk factor for DS.

Rai, Vandana; Yadav, Upendra; Kumar, Pradeep; Yadav, Sushil Kumar

2014-01-01

216

Significance of dietary folate intake, homocysteine levels and MTHFR 677 C>T genotyping in South African patients diagnosed with depression: test development for clinical application.  

PubMed

Low folate intake in the presence of the functional MTHFR 677 C > T (rs1801133) polymorphism is an important cause of elevated homocysteine levels previously implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD) and many other chronic diseases. In this study the clinical relevance and inter-relationship of these aspects were evaluated in 86 South African patients diagnosed with MDD and 97 population-matched controls participating in a chronic diseases screening program. A questionnaire-based clinical and nutrition assessment was performed, homocysteine levels determined, and all study participants genotyped for MTHFR 677 C > T (rs1801133) using allele-specific TaqMan technology. The folate score was found to be significantly lower in the patient group compared to controls (p?=?0.003) and correlated with increased body mass index (BMI), particularly in females with MDD (p?=?0.009). BMI was significantly higher in the MDD patients compared with controls after adjustment for age and sex (p?=?0.015), but this association was no longer significant after further adjustment for the level of folate intake in the diet. In MDD patients but not controls, the minor T-allele of MTHFR 677 C > T was associated with increased BMI (p?=?0.032), which in turn correlated significantly with increased homocysteine levels. The significant association between BMI and homocysteine levels was observed in both the MDD patient (p?=?0.049) and control (p?=?0.018) study groups. The significantly higher homocysteine levels observed in MDD patients compared to controls after adjustment for age and sex (p?=?0.030), therefore appears to be mediated by the effects of MTHFR 677 C > T and low folate intake on BMI. Detection of the low-penetrance MTHFR 677 C > T mutation reinforces the importance of folate intake above the recommended daily dose to prevent or restore dysfunction of the methylation pathway. PMID:24532086

Delport, Darnielle; Schoeman, Renata; van der Merwe, Nicole; van der Merwe, Lize; Fisher, Leslie R; Geiger, Dieter; Kotze, Maritha J

2014-06-01

217

Conversion of Human Steroid 5[beta]-Reductase (AKR1D1) into 3[beta]-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase by Single Point Mutation E120H: Example of Perfect Enzyme Engineering  

SciTech Connect

Human aldo-keto reductase 1D1 (AKR1D1) and AKR1C enzymes are essential for bile acid biosynthesis and steroid hormone metabolism. AKR1D1 catalyzes the 5{beta}-reduction of {Delta}{sup 4}-3-ketosteroids, whereas AKR1C enzymes are hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs). These enzymes share high sequence identity and catalyze 4-pro-(R)-hydride transfer from NADPH to an electrophilic carbon but differ in that one residue in the conserved AKR catalytic tetrad, His120 (AKR1D1 numbering), is substituted by a glutamate in AKR1D1. We find that the AKR1D1 E120H mutant abolishes 5{beta}-reductase activity and introduces HSD activity. However, the E120H mutant unexpectedly favors dihydrosteroids with the 5{alpha}-configuration and, unlike most of the AKR1C enzymes, shows a dominant stereochemical preference to act as a 3{beta}-HSD as opposed to a 3{alpha}-HSD. The catalytic efficiency achieved for 3{beta}-HSD activity is higher than that observed for any AKR to date. High resolution crystal structures of the E120H mutant in complex with epiandrosterone, 5{beta}-dihydrotestosterone, and {Delta}{sup 4}-androstene-3,17-dione elucidated the structural basis for this functional change. The glutamate-histidine substitution prevents a 3-ketosteroid from penetrating the active site so that hydride transfer is directed toward the C3 carbonyl group rather than the {Delta}{sup 4}-double bond and confers 3{beta}-HSD activity on the 5{beta}-reductase. Structures indicate that stereospecificity of HSD activity is achieved because the steroid flips over to present its {alpha}-face to the A-face of NADPH. This is in contrast to the AKR1C enzymes, which can invert stereochemistry when the steroid swings across the binding pocket. These studies show how a single point mutation in AKR1D1 can introduce HSD activity with unexpected configurational and stereochemical preference.

Chen, Mo; Drury, Jason E.; Christianson, David W.; Penning, Trevor M. (UPENN)

2012-10-10

218

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677 C->T polymorphism: a link between birth weight and insulin resistance in obese adolescents.  

PubMed

The goal of this study is to determine whether cardiovascular risk and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677 C->T polymorphism (MTHFR), an enzyme involved in folate metabolism and in epigenetics, are linked in morbidly obese non-diabetic adolescents. One-hundred and thirteen obese (BMI = 39.1 ± 6.4 kg/m(2)) adolescents aged 14.4 ± 1.5 years were investigated before entering a weight reduction program. Information on growth obtained from individual health records was available at birth (n = 107), 1 (n = 102), 2 (n = 106), 4 (n = 91) and 8 (n = 73) years of age. Fifty-nine subjects were heterozygote (CT, 52.2%) and 8 were homozygote for the mutation (TT, 7.0%). Birth weights were lower in TT (2.95 ± 0.48 kg, p = 0.004) than in CC (3.34 ± 0.43 kg) and CT (3.38 ± 0.50 kg) subjects, as well as birth lengths (CC: 0.50 ± 0.02 m, CT : 0.50 ± 0.02 m, TT: 0.47 ± 0.03 m, p = 0.01). These differences persisted until 1 year of age. Median and mean fasting glycaemia were similar. Insulin levels were higher in TT (median: 26.4 UI/mL) than in CC (median: 15.0 UI/mL) or CT (median: 16.0 UI/mL) (p = 0.017) subjects, as well as HOMA IR (p = 0.04). Body composition, blood pressure, plasma lipids, homocysteine and leptin concentrations were similar among the three genotypes in both boys and girls. The common 677 C->T mutation seems therefore to represent a link between altered early growth and enhanced degree of insulin resistance that occurs later in obese adolescents. PMID:20608880

Frelut, Marie-Laure; Nicolas, Jean-Pierre; Guilland, Jean-Claude; de Courcy, Genevieve Potier

2011-06-01

219

MTHFR Gene C677T Polymorphism in Autism Spectrum Disorders  

PubMed Central

Aim. Autism is a subgroup of autism spectrum disorders, classified as a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder and symptoms occur in the first three years of life. The etiology of autism is largely unknown, but it has been accepted that genetic and environmental factors may both be responsible for the disease. Recent studies have revealed that the genes involved in the folate/homocysteine pathway may be risk factors for autistic children. In particular, C677T polymorphism in the MTHFR gene as a possible risk factor for autism is still controversial. We aimed to investigate the possible effect of C677T polymorphism in a Turkish cohort. Methods. Autism patients were diagnosed by child psychiatrists according to DSM-IV and DSM-V criteria. A total of 98 children diagnosed as autistic and 70 age and sex-matched children who are nonautistic were tested for C677T polymorphism. This polymorphism was studied by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods. Results. MTHFR 677T-allele frequency was found to be higher in autistic children compared with nonautistic children (29% versus 24%), but it was not found statistically significant. Conclusions. We conclude that other MTHFR polymorphisms such as A1298C or other folate/homocysteine pathway genes may be studied to show their possible role in autism.

Oztop, Didem Behice; Ozkul, Yusuf

2014-01-01

220

Regulation of reductase formation in Proteus mirabilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prteus mirabilis can form four reductases after anaerobic growth: nitrate reductase A, chlorate reductase C, thiosulfate reductase and tetrathionate reductase. The last three enzymes are formed constitutively. Nitrate reductase is formed only after growth in the presence of nitrate, which causes repression of the formation of thiosulfate reductase, chlorate reductase C, tetrathionate reductase and hydrogenase. Formic dehydrogenase assayed with methylene

G. N. Groot; A. H. Stouthamer

1969-01-01

221

The polymorphism of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T but not A1298C contributes to gastric cancer.  

PubMed

Increasing epidemiological studies have revealed the important role of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) in carcinogenesis. The association of MTHFR A1298C and MTHFR C677T polymorphisms with the risk for gastric cancer remains obscure due to inconsistent findings in independent studies among diverse ethnicities. A meta-analysis based on all available publications on this genetic association was performed. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated to estimate the effect of MTHFR variants on gastric carcinogenesis. Totally, 25 eligible case-control studies were included into the meta-analysis according to the inclusion criteria. The MTHFR C677T polymorphism was demonstrated to significantly increase the susceptibility to gastric cancer (OR(T vs. C)?=?1.21, 95% CI 1.10-1.34; OR(TT vs. CC?)=?1.47, 95% CI 1.22-1.76; OR(TC vs. CC?)=?1.20, 95% CI 1.03-1.40; OR(TT + TC vs. CC)?=?1.27, 95% CI 1.10-1.47; OR(TT vs. CC + TC?)=?1.29, 95% CI 1.15-1.46), whereas no significant correlation was observed when assessing the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism (OR(C vs. A?)=?1.00, 95% CI 0.90-1.10; OR(CC vs. AA)?=?0.99, 95% CI 0.75-1.31; OR(CA vs. AA?)=?1.01, 95% CI 0.89-1.14; OR(CC + CA vs. AA)?=?1.00, 95% CI 0.89-1.13; OR(CC vs. AA + CA)?=?0.97, 95% CI 0.74-1.27). Subgroup analyses by ethnicity and source of controls further confirmed the findings in overall analysis. The meta-analysis suggests that the polymorphism of MTHFR C677T but not MTHFR A1298C confers a risk effect on the development of gastric cancer among Asians and Caucasians, which provides a new insight into the gastric cancer pathogenesis. PMID:23897558

Lv, Long; Wang, Ping; Sun, Beicheng; Chen, Gong

2014-01-01

222

The role of point mutations in the genes, predisposing inherited thrombophilia in the pathogeneses of proximal and distal deep vein thrombosis in Georgian population.  

PubMed

Duration of treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and prevention of its recurrence represent significant problems of contemporary medicine, as the basic method of treatment - anticoagulation is frequently complicated by hemorrhage. Therefore, its duration is strictly defined and depends on existence of risk factors related to recurrence of thrombosis. Purpose of the conducted study was to establish the role of point mutations of prothrombin (PHG) - 20210G/A; Factor V Leiden (FVL) - 1691G/A and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) - 677C/T genes, i.e. inherited thrombophilia in the pathogenesis of proximal and distal lower extremity deep vein thrombosis in patients of the Georgian population, as in case of proximal thrombosis there is a higher risk of recurrent thrombosis. The above mutations were detected by PCR and single nucleotide primer extension reaction, followed by Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay (ELISA) in 61 patients with venous thromboembolism of various localizations, out of which: 49 patients were diagnosed with unprovoked proximal thromboembolism confirmed by objective studies and 12 patients were diagnosed with distal thromboembolism. The difference between the groups was evaluated by F (Fisher) precise criterion. According to statistical analysis of the results, incidence of FVL mutation in the group of patients with proximal thrombosis was significantly higher compared to patients with distal thrombosis 0.43 and 0.08 (p=0.0256), respectively. Similar tendencies were observed in case of carriage of prothrombin gene and MTHFR gene mutations, as their presence was higher in the group of patients having proximal thrombosis than in patients with distal thrombosis, however, this difference was not found to be statistically significant. It should be particularly mentioned that double or triple heterozygous or homozygous carriage of studied mutations with various options was confirmed in 15 of 61 patients and the above genotypes were observed only in the group of patients having proximal thrombosis. According to the results obtained from this investigation, it is possible to consider inherited thrombophilia, especially Leiden mutation and double or triple heterozygous and homozygous carriage of studied mutations in the Georgian population as an independent risk factor of development of proximal thrombosis, which on its part, represents one of the risk factors of development of recurrent thrombosis and conduct proper long-standing anticoagulation therapy and take secondary preventive measures in patients of similar genotype to reduce the risk of recurrent thrombosis. PMID:24632657

Pirtskhelani, N; Kochiashvili, N; Makhaldiani, L; Pargalava, N; Gaprindashvili, E; Kartvelishvili, K

2014-02-01

223

Migraine and MTHFR C677T genotype in a population-based sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Migraine with aura is associated with increased risk of stroke. The MTHFR C677T genotype has been associated with increased risk of migraine in selected clinical samples and with elevated homocysteine, a risk factor for stroke. We assessed the association of the MTHFR C677T variant with migraine and the mediating effect of cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic markers of genotype

Ann I. Scher; Gisela M. Terwindt; W. M. Monique Verschuren; Mark C. Kruit; Henk J. Blom; Hisanori Kowa; Rune R. Frants; Arn M. J. M. van den Maagdenberg; Mark van Buchem; Michel D. Ferrari; Lenore J. Launer

2006-01-01

224

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene C677T and A1298C polymorphisms, plasma homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B 12 levels and the extent of coronary artery disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question of whether mild hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD) has long been debated and is still unclear. We investigated whether there is a link between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene C677T and A1298C polymorphisms or plasma homocysteine and CAD. This is a case-control study that included 2,121 consecutive patients (cases) with angiographically proved CAD and

Klaus Kölling; Gjin Ndrepepa; Werner Koch; Siegmund Braun; Julinda Mehilli; Albert Schömig; Adnan Kastrati

2004-01-01

225

Meta and pooled analyses of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and gastric cancer risk: A Huge-GSEC review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme in the metabolism of folate, whose role in gastric carcinogenesis is controversial. The authors performed a meta-analysis and individual data pooled analysis of case-control studies that examined the association between C677T and A1298C polymorphisms (the former being associated with low folate serum levels) and gastric cancer (meta-analyses: 16 studies, 2,727 cases and 4,640

Stefania Boccia; Rayjean Hung; Gualtiero Ricciardi; Francesco Gianfagna; Matthias P. A. Ebert; Jing-Yuan Fang; Chang-Ming Gao; T. Götze; Francesco Graziano; M. Lacasaña-Navarro; Dongxin Lin; L. López-Carrillo; You-Lin Qiao; Hongbing Shen; Rachael Stolzenberg-Solomon; Toshiro Takezaki; Yu-Rong Weng; Fang Fang Zhang; P. Tikka-Kleemola; Paolo Boffetta; Emanuela Taioli

2008-01-01

226

Meta-analyses of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and risk of head and neck and lung cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Authors report the results of four meta-analyses of studies that examined the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and head and neck cancer (nine studies, 2076 cases and 4834 controls for C677T; four studies, 1439 cases and 3941 controls for A1298C), and lung cancer (ten studies, 5274 cases and 7435 controls for C677T; seven studies, 5098 cases

Stefania Boccia; Paolo Boffetta; Paul Brennan; Gualtiero Ricciardi; Francesco Gianfagna; Keitaro Matsuo; Cornelia M. van Duijn; Rayjean J. Hung

2009-01-01

227

Exploring the Effects of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Gene Variants C677T and A1298C on the Risk of Orofacial Clefts in 261 Norwegian Case-Parent Triads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Folic acid and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene have both been implicated in the etiology of orofacial clefts. The authors selected 261 case-parent triads (173 cases with cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL\\/P) and 88 cases with cleft palate only (CPO)) from a Norwegian population-based study of orofacial clefts (May 1996-1998). A case-parent triad design was used to

Astanand Jugessur; Allen J. Wilcox; Rolv T. Lie; Jeffrey C. Murray; Jack A. Taylor

2003-01-01

228

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and A1298C polymorphism and changes in homocysteine concentrations in women with idiopathic recurrent pregnancy losses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because they have been described as strong risk factors for idiopathic recurrent pregnancy losses (RPLs), we assessed the association between the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) C677T and A1298C and hyperhomocysteinemia in Tunisian women with idiopathic RPL. Study subjects comprised 200 patients with more than three consecutive RPLs, and 200 age-matched parous control women. C677T and A1298C SNPs were

N Mtiraoui; L Ghazouani; R R Finan; W Y Almawi; T Mahjoub

2006-01-01

229

Plasma homocysteine, methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and factor II G20210A polymorphisms, factor VIII, and VWF in central retinal vein occlusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMSTo determine whether plasma homocysteine, methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and factor II G20210A polymorphisms, factor VIII, and vWF are risk factors for central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO).METHODProspective comparison of 63 consecutive patients with central retinal vein occlusion and 63 age matched controls. Plasma homocysteine and vWF were estimated by ELISA, the MTFHR and factor II G20210A polymorphisms determined by

S Boyd; D Owens; T Gin; K Bunce; H Sherafat; D Perry; P G Hykin

2001-01-01

230

Association of MTHFR C677T polymorphism and risk of cerebrovascular disease in Chinese population: an updated meta-analysis.  

PubMed

A variety of epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene C677T polymorphism and cerebrovascular disease, but the results were inconsistent. The present meta-analysis was therefore performed to investigate the relationship between C677T polymorphism and cerebrovascular disease in Chinese population. Systematically searching for related studies from PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, CBMdisc and CNKI databases up to 20 September 2013 and manual searching of the reference lists of identified articles was performed. Information was extracted to calculate for the additive, dominant, and recessive models using the pooled odds ratios (ORs) along with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs), using Review Manager 5.0, STATA 11.0 and SPSS 17. Logistic regression, fixed or random effects model, subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, meta-regression analysis and publication bias were conducted to improve the comprehensive analysis. A total of 68 case-control studies containing 7,990 cases and 6,941 controls were included in the final meta-analysis. Evidence of significant association between C677T polymorphism and risk of cerebrovascular disease was found in all three genetic models (additive model OR 1.472, 95 % CI 1.368-1.585, P L < 0.001 (CT vs. CC); OR 1.819, 95 % CI 1.666-1.985, P L < 0.001 (TT vs. CC); dominant model OR 1.77, 95 % CI 1.57-1.98, p < 0.00001; and recessive model OR 1.54, 95 % CI 1.39-1.71, p < 0.00001, respectively) based on the overall population. In addition, the results were verified by the subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis. The present meta-analysis suggests that MTHFR gene C677T polymorphism is significantly associated with increased risk of cerebrovascular disease. TT genotype may act as an independent risk factor for cerebrovascular disease in Chinese population. PMID:24603976

Zhang, Ming-Jie; Li, Jing-Cheng; Yin, Yan-Wei; Li, Bing-Hu; Liu, Yun; Liao, Shao-Qiong; Gao, Chang-Yue; Zhang, Li-Li

2014-05-01

231

Homocysteine and Coronary Heart Disease: Meta-analysis of MTHFR Case-Control Studies, Avoiding Publication Bias  

PubMed Central

Background Moderately elevated blood levels of homocysteine are weakly correlated with coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, but causality remains uncertain. When folate levels are low, the TT genotype of the common C677T polymorphism (rs1801133) of the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) appreciably increases homocysteine levels, so “Mendelian randomization” studies using this variant as an instrumental variable could help test causality. Methods and Findings Nineteen unpublished datasets were obtained (total 48,175 CHD cases and 67,961 controls) in which multiple genetic variants had been measured, including MTHFR C677T. These datasets did not include measurements of blood homocysteine, but homocysteine levels would be expected to be about 20% higher with TT than with CC genotype in the populations studied. In meta-analyses of these unpublished datasets, the case-control CHD odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI comparing TT versus CC homozygotes was 1.02 (0.98–1.07; p?=?0.28) overall, and 1.01 (0.95–1.07) in unsupplemented low-folate populations. By contrast, in a slightly updated meta-analysis of the 86 published studies (28,617 CHD cases and 41,857 controls), the OR was 1.15 (1.09–1.21), significantly discrepant (p?=?0.001) with the OR in the unpublished datasets. Within the meta-analysis of published studies, the OR was 1.12 (1.04–1.21) in the 14 larger studies (those with variance of log OR<0.05; total 13,119 cases) and 1.18 (1.09–1.28) in the 72 smaller ones (total 15,498 cases). Conclusions The CI for the overall result from large unpublished datasets shows lifelong moderate homocysteine elevation has little or no effect on CHD. The discrepant overall result from previously published studies reflects publication bias or methodological problems. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:22363213

Verhoef, Petra; Dotsch-Klerk, Mariska; Lathrop, Mark; Xu, Peng; Nordestgaard, B?rge G.; Holm, Hilma; Hopewell, Jemma C.; Saleheen, Danish; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Anand, Sonia S.; Chambers, John C.; Kleber, Marcus E.; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Yamada, Yoshiji; Elbers, Clara; Peters, Bas; Stewart, Alexandre F. R.; Reilly, Muredach M.; Thorand, Barbara; Yusuf, Salim; Engert, James C.; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Kooner, Jaspal; Danesh, John; Watkins, Hugh; Samani, Nilesh J.

2012-01-01

232

Effects of Maternal 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T and A1298C Polymorphisms and Tobacco Smoking on Infant Birth Weight in a Japanese Population  

PubMed Central

Background Intracellular folate hemostasis depends on the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene. Because 5,10-MTHFR 677TT homozygosity and tobacco smoking are associated with low folate status, we tested the hypothesis that smoking in mothers with 5,10-MTHFR C677T or A1298C polymorphisms would be independently associated with lower birth weight among their offspring. Methods We assessed 1784 native Japanese mother-child pairs drawn from the ongoing birth cohort of The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children’s Health. Data (demographic information, hospital birth records, and biological specimens) were extracted from recruitments that took place during the period from February 2003 to March 2006. Maternal serum folate were assayed by chemiluminescent immunoassay, and genotyping of 5,10-MTHFR C677T/A1298C polymorphisms was done using a TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. Results The prevalence of folate deficiency (<6.8 nmol/L) was 0.3%. The 5,10-MTHFR 677CT genotype was independently associated with an increase of 36.40 g (95% CI: 2.60 to 70.30, P = 0.035) in mean infant birth weight and an increase of 90.70 g (95% CI: 6.00 to 175.50, P = 0.036) among male infants of nonsmokers. Female infants of 677TT homozygous passive smokers were 99.00 g (95% CI: ?190.26 to ?7.56, P = 0.034) lighter. The birth weight of the offspring of smokers with 5,10-MTHFR 1298AA homozygosity was lower by 107.00 g (95% CI: ?180.00 to ?33.90, P = 0.004). Conclusions The results suggest that, in this population, maternal 5,10-MTHFR C677T polymorphism, but not the 5,10-MTHFR A1298C variant, is independently associated with improvement in infant birth weight, especially among nonsmokers. However, 5,10-MTHFR 1298AA might be associated with folate impairment and could interact with tobacco smoke to further decrease birth weight. PMID:22277790

Yila, Thamar Ayo; Sasaki, Seiko; Miyashita, Chihiro; Braimoh, Titilola Serifat; Kashino, Ikuko; Kobayashi, Sumitaka; Okada, Emiko; Baba, Toshiaki; Yoshioka, Eiji; Minakami, Hisanori; Endo, Toshiaki; Sengoku, Kazuo; Kishi, Reiko

2012-01-01

233

Maternal Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T Polymorphism and Down Syndrome Risk: A Meta-Analysis from 34 Studies  

PubMed Central

Background Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme of folate metabolic pathway which catalyzes the irreversible conversion of 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate. 5-methyltetrahydrofolate donates methyl group for the methylation of homocysteine to methionine. Several studies have investigated maternal MTHFR C677T polymorphism as a risk factor for DS, but the results were controversial and inconclusive. To come into a conclusive estimate, authors performed a meta-analysis. Aim A meta-analysis of published case control studies was performed to investigate the association between maternal MTHFR C677T polymorphism and Down syndrome. Methods PubMed, Google Scholar, Elsevier, Springer Link databases were searched to select the eligible case control studies using appropriate keywords. The pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95%confidence interval were calculated for risk assessment. Results Thirty four studies with 3,098 DS case mothers and 4,852 control mothers were included in the present meta-analysis. The pooled OR was estimated under five genetic models and significant association was found between maternal MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism and Down syndrome under four genetic models except recessive model (for T vs. C, OR?=?1.26, 95% CI?=?1.09–1.46, p?=?0.001; for TT vs. CC, OR?=?1.49, 95% CI?=?1.13–1.97, p?=?0.008; for CT vs. CC, OR?=?1.29, 95% CI?=?1.10–1.51, p?=?0.001; for TT+CT vs. CC, OR?=?1.35, 95% CI?=?1.13–1.60, p?=?0.0008; for TT vs. CT+CC, OR?=?0.76, 95% CI?=?0.60–0.94, p?=?0.01). Conclusion The results of the present meta-analysis support that maternal MTHFR C677T polymorphism is a risk factor for DS- affected pregnancy. PMID:25265565

Rai, Vandana; Yadav, Upendra; Kumar, Pradeep; Yadav, Sushil Kumar; Mishra, Om Prakesh

2014-01-01

234

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene C677T, A1298C polymorphisms and pre-eclampsia risk: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

To determine whether methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C polymorphisms are associated with pre-eclampsia susceptibility. Literature searches of the Pubmed, Embase, BIOSIS Previews and Web of Science were conducted to identify all eligible articles up to January 18th, 2013. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of five genetic models were calculated by fixed-effects or random-effects model. Publication bias, subgroup analysis, meta-regression and sensitivity analysis were also performed. A number of 49 studies including 51 samples consisted of 18,009 subjects (6,238 patients and 11,771 controls) were finally included. MTHFR C677T allele (TT or CT) carriers were 1.12 times more likely to develop pre-eclampsia (95% CI 1.04-1.21) compared with 677CC homozygous individuals. Similar results were obtained under other genetic models. Restricted to severe pre-eclampsia, there was an increased risk for 677TT homozygotes compared with 677CC homozygotes (OR 1.43; 95% CI 1.12-1.83). Subgroup analysis revealed a significant positive association between the C677T polymorphism (TT or CT) and pre-eclampsia in Asians (OR 1.41; 95% CI 1.11-1.79) and white population (OR 1.14; 95% CI 1.03-1.25). Meta-regression showed that study population, blinded genotyping, matching of cases and controls were not substantial sources of heterogeneity. For the MTHFR A1298C, ORs for all genetic models yielded a null association. This meta-analysis suggests that the MTHFR 677T allele might be associated with increased pre-eclampsia risk in Asian and white ethnicity and the subgroup of severe pre-eclampsia, while no association is observed between the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and pre-eclampsia. PMID:24898880

Li, Xing; Luo, Ya L; Zhang, Qiong H; Mao, Chen; Wang, Xi W; Liu, Shan; Chen, Qing

2014-08-01

235

Association of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene A1298C polymorphism with stroke risk based on a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Several independent studies have reported the role of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) A1298C polymorphism in strokes, but the results are inconclusive. To derive a more precise estimation of the relationship, a meta-analysis was performed in the present study. In this meta-analysis, a total of 13 studies, including 1974 cases and 2660 controls, were selected to evaluate the possible association. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to assess the strength of the association in additive, dominant, and recessive models. The overall analysis showed that MTHFR A1298C was associated with a significant increase in the risk of stroke in the heterozygote comparison (AC vs AA: OR = 1.17; 95%CI = 1.03-1.34) and in the dominant model (AC/CC vs AA: OR = 1.22; 95%CI = 1.01-1.49). Stratified analysis showed a significantly strong association between the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and stroke risk in Asian populations (OR = 1.32 for AC vs AA; OR = 1.94 for CC vs AA; OR = 1.37 for AC/CC vs AA; OR = 1.33 for C vs A allele), but not in Caucasian populations. Additionally, the MTHFR 1298C allele was found to be a risk factor for developing ischemic strokes. However, no statistically significant increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke was found in any of the genetic models. In conclusion, this meta-analysis supported that the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism could be capable of increasing stroke susceptibility in Asian, but not in Caucasian, populations. PMID:24391036

Lv, Q; Lu, J; Wu, W; Sun, H; Zhang, J

2013-01-01

236

Association of 677 C>T (rs1801133) and 1298 A>C (rs1801131) Polymorphisms in the MTHFR Gene and Breast Cancer Susceptibility: A Meta-Analysis Based on 57 Individual Studies  

PubMed Central

Objective The 677 C>T and 1298 A>C polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene have been widely reported and considered to have a significant effect on breast cancer risk, but the results are inconsistent. A meta-analysis based on 57 eligible studies was carried out to clarify the role of MTHFR gene polymorphisms in breast cancer. Methods and Results Eligible articles were identified by searching databases including PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, CNKI and CBM for the period up to August 2012. Finally, a total of 57 studies were included in this meta-analysis. Crude ORs with 95% CIs were used to assess the association between the MTHFR polymorphisms and breast cancer risk. The pooled ORs were performed with additive model, dominant model and recessive model, respectively. Subgroup analysis was also performed by ethnicity. The statistical heterogeneity across studies was examined with ?2-based Q-test. A meta-analysis was performed using the Stata 12.0 software. Overall, the 677 C allele was significantly associated with breast cancer risk (OR?=?0.942, 95%CI?=?0.898 to 0.988) when compared with the 677 T allele in the additive model, and the same results were also revealed under other genetic models. Simultaneously, the 1298 A allele was not associated with the breast cancer susceptibility when compared with the 1298 C allele (OR?=?0.993, 95%CI?=?0.978 to 1.009). Furthermore, analyses under the dominant, recessive and the allele contrast model yielded similar results. Conclusions The results of this meta-analysis suggest that 677 C>T polymorphism in the MTHFR gene may contribute to breast cancer development. However, the 1298 A>C polymorphism is not significantly associated with increased risks of breast cancer. PMID:24945727

Li, Kai; Li, Wusheng; Dong, Xi

2014-01-01

237

Normal Weight Obese syndrome: role of single nucleotide polymorphism of IL-1 5Ralpha and MTHFR 677C-->T genes in the relationship between body composition and resting metabolic rate.  

PubMed

We have identified a subset of metabolically obese, but normal weight individuals, with potentially increased risks of developing the metabolic syndrome, despite their normal body mass index. We determined the relationship among body fat distribution, resting metabolic rate (RMR), total body water amount (%TBW), selected gene polymorphism on interleukin-15 receptor-alpha (IL-15Ralpha) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677C-->T (MTHFR 677C-->T), to distinguish normal weight obese (NWO) from nonobese with a normal metabolic profile and obese individuals. We analysed anthropometric variables, body composition by Dual energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA), RMR by indirect calorimetry, %TBW by bioimpedence analysis (BIA), MTHFR 677C-->T and IL-15Ralpha genotypes of 128 clinically healthy Caucasian individuals. We compared a group of female, defined as NWO and characterised by a BMI < or = 25 kg/m(2) and FM > or = 30% with groups of others female, and males, represented by nonobese with a BMI < or = 25 kg/m(2) and FM < or = 30%, and preobese-obese individuals with BMI > or = 25 kg/m(2) and %FM > or = 30%; none of the males was classified as NWO. Significant correlations were found among body fat mass distribution, metabolic variables, percentage of total body water distribution and selected genetic variations. The variables that contributed significantly to the separation of classes were body tissue (Tissue), %TBW, RMR, the volumes of both oxygen (VO2) and carbon dioxide (VCO2). The distribution of MTHFR 677C-->T and IL-15 genotypes was significantly different between classes. Our data highlight that NWO individuals showed a significant relationship between the decrease in the basal metabolism (RMR), body fat mass increasing and total water amount. Possession of wild type homozygotes genotypes regarding IL-15Ralpha cytokine and 677C-->T MTHFR enzyme characterised NWO individuals. PMID:17121316

Di Renzo, L; Bigioni, M; Bottini, F G; Del Gobbo, V; Premrov, M G; Cianci, R; De Lorenzo, A

2006-01-01

238

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and gastric cancer susceptibility  

PubMed Central

AIM: To identify the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms and gastric cancer (GC) susceptibility. METHODS: Systematic searches were performed on the electronic databases PubMed, ISI, Web of knowledge, CNKI and Wanfang, as well as manual searching of the references of the identified articles. A total of 26 papers were included in this meta-analysis. Overall and subgroup analyses were performed. Odds ratio (OR) and 95%CI were used to evaluate the associations between MTHFR polymorphisms and GC risk. The I2 statistics were used to evaluate between-study heterogeneity. Sensitivity analysis was also performed. RESULTS: Increased risk was found for the MTHFR C677T polymorphism under four genetic models (TT + CT vs CC: OR = 1.23, P = 0.002; T vs C: OR = 1.15, P = 0.001; TT vs CC: OR = 1.37, P = 0.0005; TT vs CT + CC: OR = 1.17, P = 0.0008). Subgroup analysis by ethnicity suggested that C677T polymorphism conferred a risk of GC in eastern but not in western populations. Stratification by tumor site showed an association between the C677T polymorphism and gastric cardia cancer and non-cardia GC in the worldwide population and in eastern populations. Regardless of comparisons with controls or diffuse-type GC, a positive association was found for the C677T polymorphism and an increased risk of intestinal-type GC in the whole population and in western populations. With regard to the A1298C polymorphism, we found that genotype CC was significantly decreased and conferred protection against GC in eastern populations (CC vs AA: OR = 0.44, P = 0.03; CC vs AC + AA: OR = 0.46, P = 0.04). CONCLUSION: MTHFR C677T polymorphism is a risk factor for GC, and the A1298C polymorphism may be a protective factor against GC in eastern populations. PMID:25170232

Xia, Lei-Zhou; Liu, Yi; Xu, Xiao-Zhou; Jiang, Peng-Cheng; Ma, Gui; Bu, Xue-Feng; Zhang, Yong-Jun; Yu, Feng; Xu, Ke-Sen; Li, Hua

2014-01-01

239

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene variants and antipsychotic-induced weight gain and metabolic disturbances.  

PubMed

Weight gain and metabolic disturbances represent serious side-effects in antipsychotic (AP) treatment, particularly with clozapine and olanzapine. The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene is a key determinant in the folate metabolism and previous studies reported a significant effect on AP-induced weight gain and related metabolic abnormalities. Thus, we investigated MTHFR gene variants and changes in several important metabolic parameters in AP-treated patients. In this study, two functional MTHFR polymorphisms, rs1801133 (C677T) and rs1801131 (A1298C), were investigated for changes in weight and metabolic parameters. Genotypic associations were evaluated in a large population (n = 347 including 66 first episode psychosis, FEP patients) treated mostly with clozapine and olanzapine. We did not detect any genotypic association with weight changes (p > 0.05) in our total sample and in the sample refined for ancestry and medication. In our allelic analyses, we observed a trend for the 677-C allele to be associated with weight gain in the total sample (p = 0.03). This effect appeared to be driven by the FEP patients where those carrying the C-allele gained, on average, twice as much weight. Exploratory analyses revealed a significant association between the C677T and the A1298C polymorphism with HDL cholesterol serum levels in patients (p = 0.031). Overall we did not detect a major effect of two functional MTHFR gene variants and AP-induced weight gain. However, our findings suggest an effect of the C677T polymorphism in FEP patients and changes in weight and cholesterol levels. Further investigations in a larger sample are required. PMID:24725652

Kao, A C C; Rojnic Kuzman, M; Tiwari, A K; Zivkovic, M V; Chowdhury, N I; Medved, V; Kekin, I; Zai, C C; Lieberman, J A; Meltzer, H Y; Bozina, T; Bozina, N; Kennedy, J L; Sertic, J; Müller, D J

2014-07-01

240

Correlations of MTHFR 677C>T Polymorphism with Cardiovascular Disease in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective This meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the correlations of a common polymorphism (677C>T) in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Method The following electronic databases were searched without language restrictions: Web of Science (1945?2013), the Cochrane Library Database (Issue 12, 2013), MEDLINE (1966?2013), EMBASE (1980?2013), CINAHL (1982?2013) and the Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM) (1982?2013). Meta-analysis was performed using STATA statistical software. Odds ratios (ORs) with their 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were calculated. Results Eight cohort studies met all inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. A total of 2,292 ESRD patients with CVD were involved in this meta-analysis. Our meta-analysis results revealed that the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism might increase the risk of CVD in ESRD patients (TT vs. CC: OR?=?2.75, 95%CI?=?1.35?5.59, P?=?0.005; CT+TT vs. CC: OR?=?1.39, 95%CI?=?1.09?1.78, P?=?0.008; TT vs. CC+CT: OR?=?2.52, 95%CI?=?1.25?5.09, P?=?0.010; respectively). Further subgroup analysis by ethnicity suggested that the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism was associated with an elevated risk for CVD in ESRD patients among Asians (TT vs. CC: OR?=?3.38, 95%CI?=?1.11?10.28, P?=?0.032; CT+TT vs. CC: OR?=?1.44, 95%CI?=?1.05?1.97, P?=?0.022; TT vs. CC+CT: OR?=?3.15, 95%CI?=?1.02?9.72, P?=?0.046; respectively), but not among Africans or Caucasians (all P>0.05). Conclusion Our findings indicate that the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism may be associated with an elevated risk for CVD in ESRD patients, especially among Asians. PMID:25050994

Gao, Xian-Hui; Zhang, Guo-Yi; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Hui-Ying

2014-01-01

241

Molecular genetic analysis and human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation tests in the diagnosis of prepubertal patients with partial 5?-reductase deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduced conversion of testosterone (T) to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) results in defective virilization in karyotypic males. Different mutations in the 5?-reductase type 2 gene cause the phenotypic variability of the disease. In this report we describe four prepubertal patients with a predominantly male phenotype who carry homozygous point mutations in the 5?-reductase type 2 gene and address the specific T and

Olaf Hiort; Holger Willenbring; Norbert Albers; Wolfgang Hecker; Jiirgen Engert; Leif Dibbelt; Gernot H. G. Sinnecker

1996-01-01

242

Polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and glutathione S-transferase are not associated with the risk of papillary thyroid cancer in Korean population.  

PubMed

Korea has the highest incidence of thyroid cancer of any nation. We conducted a population-based, case-control study of the association between the risk of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) in the Korean population and polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T, glutathione S-transferase class mu (GSTM1), and glutathione S-transferase class theta (GSTT1). The study subjects consisted of 2,194 newly diagnosed PTC cases and 1,669 population-based healthy controls. Odds ratios adjusted by age, sex, body mass index, smoking, drinking, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone level, family history of thyroid cancer, and previous history of thyroid disease, with 95% confidence intervals, were estimated using logistic regression analysis. The frequencies of MTHFR 677TT genotypes, and null genotypes of GSTM1 and GSTT1 were 19.2, 56.8, and 51.4% among PTC cases and 17.4, 54.1, and 50.6% among the controls, respectively. No significant associations between PTC and TT genotypes of MTHFR C677T, null genotypes of GSTM1 and GSTT1, or double-null (GSTM1-GSTT1) genotypes were found. These findings suggest that polymorphisms of the MTHFR C677T, GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes do not contribute to the development of PTC susceptibility in the Korean population. PMID:24535271

Kweon, Sun-Seog; Shin, Min-Ho; Kim, Hee-Nam; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Kang, Ho-Cheol

2014-06-01

243

Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Gene Germ-Line C677T and A1298C SNPs are Associated with Colorectal Cancer Risk in the Turkish Population.  

PubMed

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cause of death due to cancer in the worldwide and the incidence is also increasing in Turkey. Our present aim was to investigate any association between germ-line methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and CRC risk in Turkey. A total of 86 CRC cases and 212 control individuals of the same ethnicity were included in the current study. Peripheral blood-DNA samples were used for genotyping by StripAssay technique, based on the reverse- hybridization principle and real-time PCR methods. Results were compared in Pearson Chi-square and multiple logistic regression models. The MTHFR 677TT (homozygous) genotype was found in 20.9% and the T allele frequency 4.2-fold increased in CRC when compared with the control group.The second SNP MTHFR 1298CC (homozygous) genotype was found in 14.0% and the C allele frequency 1.4-fold elevated in the CRC group. The current data suggest strong associations between both SNPs of germ-line MTHFR 677 C>T and 1298 A>C genotypes and CRC susceptibility in the Turkish population. Now the results need to be confirmed with a larger sample size. PMID:25292054

Ozen, Filiz; Sen, Metin; Ozdemir, Ozturk

2014-01-01

244

Practical approach to steroid 5alpha-reductase type 2 deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this article is to review the literature on steroid 5alpha-reductase type 2 deficiency (5?-RD2) to provide clinicians\\u000a with information to guide their management of patients with this disorder. The 5alpha-reductase type 2 is encoded by the 5alpha-reductase\\u000a type 2 gene (SRD5A2) on chromosome 2 and is predominantly expressed in external genital tissues and the prostate. Mutations of

Chong Kun Cheon

2011-01-01

245

Chloroplast glutathione reductase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.2) activity is present in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) chloroplasts. The pH dependence and substrate concentration for half-maximal rate are reported and a possible role in chloroplasts is proposed.

M. Schaedle; J. A. Bassham

1977-01-01

246

Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T Polymorphism and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Chinese Population: A Meta-Analysis of 29 Case-Control Studies  

PubMed Central

Background Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), a key enzyme in folate metabolism, had significant effects on the homocysteine levels. The common functional MTHFR C677T polymorphism had been extensively researched. Several studies had evaluated the relationship between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but the results were still controversial in the Chinese Han population. This meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the relationship between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and T2DM in the Chinese Han population. Methods We searched the relevant studies in multiple electronic databases, which published up to December 2013. We reviewed and extracted data from all the included studies on the relationship between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and T2DM in the Chinese Han population. The odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were used to evaluate the relationship. Fixed-effects and random-effects meta-analysis were used to pool ORs by the heterogeneity. Publication bias and sensitivity analysis were also examined. Results 29 studies were finally included in our meta-analysis, which contained 4656 individuals with T2DM and 2127 healthy controls. There was a significant relationship between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and T2DM under dominant (OR: 1.70, 95% CI: 1.42–2.02), recessive (OR: 1.48, 95% CI: 1.21–1.80), homozygous (OR: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.47–2.42), heterozygous (OR: 1.58, 95% CI: 1.33–1.87), and additive (OR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.28–1.68) genetic model in a random-effects model. Subgroup analysis also reached similar results. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the overall result were dependable. Conclusions There was a significant relationship between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and T2DM in the Chinese Han population. The results of our meta-analysis suggested that MTHFR 677T allele might be a risk genetic factor of T2DM in the Chinese Han population. PMID:25047451

Zhu, Bo; Wu, Xiaomei; Zhi, Xueyuan; Liu, Lei; Zheng, Quanmei; Sun, Guifan

2014-01-01

247

C677T polymorphism of the MTHFR gene and variant hemoglobins: a study in newborns from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

The C677T polymorphism in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) is associated with an increase in total homocysteine serum levels (tHcy), described as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Eight hundred forty-three neonates from two different maternity hospitals, one public and another private, in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil were screened for this polymorphism by PCR and RFLP. The T-allele frequency in the total sample was 0.23, and the prevalence rates of heterozygous and homozygous carriers were 36.2% and 5.3%, respectively. The T-allele frequency differed and the T/T genotype was more prevalent at the private maternity hospital. The hemoglobin (Hb) profile was investigated by HPLC in 763 newborns. The frequency of variant Hb was higher at the public than at the private maternity hospital. The association of the C677T polymorphism and the Hb profile was investigated in 683 newborns, showing a relatively high frequency of variant Hbs and the T allele. These data could provide an important basis for further studies focusing on potential risks of vaso-occlusive events in these individuals. PMID:15073633

Couto, Fábio David; Adorno, Elisângela Vitória; Menezes, Joelma Figueiredo; Moura Neto, José Pereira; Rêgo, Marco Antônio Vasconcelos; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão dos; Gonçalves, Marilda Souza

2004-01-01

248

Catalysis in fumarate reductase  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the absence of oxygen many bacteria are able to utilise fumarate as a terminal oxidant for respiration. In most known organisms the fumarate reductases are membrane-bound iron-sulfur flavoproteins but Shewanella species produce a soluble, periplasmic flavocytochrome c3 that catalyses this reaction. The active sites of all fumarate reductases are clearly conserved at the structural level, indicating a common mechanism.

Graeme A. Reid; Caroline S. Miles; Ruth K. Moysey; Katherine L. Pankhurst; Stephen K. Chapman

2000-01-01

249

Quinone Reductase 2 Is a Catechol Quinone Reductase  

SciTech Connect

The functions of quinone reductase 2 have eluded researchers for decades even though a genetic polymorphism is associated with various neurological disorders. Employing enzymatic studies using adrenochrome as a substrate, we show that quinone reductase 2 is specific for the reduction of adrenochrome, whereas quinone reductase 1 shows no activity. We also solved the crystal structure of quinone reductase 2 in complexes with dopamine and adrenochrome, two compounds that are structurally related to catecholamine quinones. Detailed structural analyses delineate the mechanism of quinone reductase 2 specificity toward catechol quinones in comparison with quinone reductase 1; a side-chain rotational difference between quinone reductase 1 and quinone reductase 2 of a single residue, phenylalanine 106, determines the specificity of enzymatic activities. These results infer functional differences between two homologous enzymes and indicate that quinone reductase 2 could play important roles in the regulation of catecholamine oxidation processes that may be involved in the etiology of Parkinson disease.

Fu, Yue; Buryanovskyy, Leonid; Zhang, Zhongtao (NYMEDCO)

2008-09-05

250

C677T and A1298C Polymorphisms of the Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Gene: Incidence and Effect of Combined Genotypes on Plasma Fasting and Post-Methionine Load Homocysteine in Vascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Moderately increased plasma concentra- tions of total homocysteine (tHcy) have been shown to be an important risk factor for vascular diseases. Two common polymorphisms of the methylenetetrahydro- folate reductase (MTHFR) gene, the thermolabile C677T and a more recently reported A1298C polymorphism, may contribute to hyperhomocysteinemia. Methods: Using PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, we studied the prevalence of

Naomi Q. Hanson; Omer Aras; Feng Yang; Michael Y. Tsai

251

Effect of multivitamins on plasma homocysteine in patients with the 5,10 methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T homozygous state.  

PubMed

The role of hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) as a cardiovascular risk factor remains a matter of debate, while it correlates with folates, it demonstrates inverse correlation with plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels and vitamin B12 levels and reduces plasma Hcy levels following supplementation with multivitamins. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that administering multivitamins at specific doses for 90 days restores normal plasma Hcy levels in women who are homozygous for the thermolabile variant of 5,10 methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T). We enrolled 106 healthy females aged between 30 and 42 years, who were non-smokers, non-vegetarian, normotensive and who had no history of food abuse in the previous months. Only females were enrolled in order to rule out any bias due to the variation in Hcy plasma concentrations between males and females. Patient blood sampling was performed in order to determine plasma Hcy, serum folic acid and vitamin B12 levels. Furthermore, molecular characterization of the C677T polymorphism present in the MTHFR gene, was also performed. The results of this study demonstrated that supplementation with specific multivitamins restores normal plasma Hcy levels, regardless of the MTHFR genotype. Furthermore, it is unnecessary to adminster high doses of folate to reduce plasma Hcy levels, and administering high doses of folate may cause pro-inflammatory and pro-proliferative effects. PMID:23818036

Dell'edera, Domenico; Tinelli, Andrea; Milazzo, Giusi Natalia; Malvasi, Antonio; Domenico, Carone; Pacella, Elena; Pierluigi, Compagnoni; Giuseppe, Tarantino; Marcello, Guido; Francesco, Lomurno; Epifania, Annunziata Anna

2013-08-01

252

Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C667T Polymorphism is Associated with Increased Risk of Coronary Artery Disease in a Chinese Population.  

PubMed

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a complex disease resulting from a combination of environmental and genetic factors. We hypothesized that polymorphisms in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) rs1801133 C/T, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-2, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-?, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) rs755622 G/C and cyclin D1 (CCND1) rs678653 G/C contribute to CAD susceptibility. We examined the association between the five polymorphisms and the risk of CAD in a Chinese population of 435 CAD patients and 480 controls. Genotyping was performed using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI/TOF MS). When the MTHFR rs1801133 CC homozygote genotype was used as the reference group, the TT or CT/TT genotypes were associated with a significantly increased risk for CAD. The CT heterozygote genotype was not associated with the risk for CAD. Logistic regression analyses revealed that MMP-2 rs243865 C/T, TNF-? rs1800629 A/G, MIF rs755622 G/C and CCND1 rs678653 G/C polymorphisms were not associated with the risk of CAD. These findings suggest that the MTHFR rs1801133 C/T polymorphism is associated with CAD development. Future larger studies with other ethnic populations are required to confirm current findings. PMID:25124382

Chen, W; Hua, K; Gu, H; Zhang, J; Wang, L

2014-11-01

253

5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Polymorphisms and Colon Cancer Risk: a Meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Previous studies investigating the association between 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphisms and colon cancer risk have generated conflicting results. The aim of our meta-analysis was to clarify the precise association. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify all relevant studies. Pooled odds ratio (ORs) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to estimate the strength of the association. In this meta-analysis, a total of 13 articles, involving 5,386 cases and 8,017 controls met the inclusion criteria. Overall, a significant association was found between colon cancer risk and the MTHFR C667 polymorphism (TT vs CC+CT: OR=0.79; 95%CI=0.65-0.96; p=0.017). Stratification by ethnicity revealed that MTHFRC667 was associated with colon cancer risk in the non-Asian group (TT vs CC+CT:OR=0.77, 95%CI=0.68-0.89, p=0.000; TT vs CC: OR=0.84, 95%CI=0.73-0.97, p=0.016). Stratification by source of control indicated that MTHFR C667 also correlated with colon cancer risk in the population-based subgroup (TT vs CC: OR=0.85, 95%CI=0.74-0.97, p=0.017; TT vs CC+CT: OR=0.78, 95%CI=0.68-0.89, p=0.000) and hospital-based subgroup (TT vs CC+CT: OR=0.65, 95%CI=0.49-0.86, p=0.003). However, risk was significantly increased for MTHFR A1298C polymorphisms and colon cancer risk in hospital-based studies (C vs A: OR=1.52, 95%CI=1.26-1.83, p=0.000; CC+AC vs AA: OR=1.93, 95%CI=1.47-2.49, p=0.000) but reduced in population-based studies (CC vs AA: OR=0.83, 95%CI=0.70-0.99, p=0.042). In conclusion, the results of our meta-analysis suggest that the MTHFR C667 polymorphism is associated with reduced colon cancer risk, especially for non-Asian populations. PMID:25339013

Fang, Xin-Yu; Xu, Wang-Dong; Huang, Qian; Yang, Xiao-Ke; Liu, Yan-Yan; Leng, Rui-Xue; Pan, Hai-Feng; Ye, Dong-Qing

2014-01-01

254

Association of dietary intake of folate and MTHFR genotype with breast cancer risk.  

PubMed

We conducted a hospital-based case-control study to investigate the associations of dietary intake of folate and MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms with breast cancer in a Chinese population. A 1:1-matched case-control study was conducted. Two hundred and thirty patients who were newly diagnosed and histologically confirmed breast cancer and 230 controls were enrolled from Xinxiang Central Hospital. Folate intake was calculated by standard portion size and relative size for each food item in the questionnaire. Genotyping of MTHFR C677T and A1298C was performed by PCR-RFLP. MTHFR 677TT (OR = 2.26, 95%CI = 1.09-4.87, P = 0.02) and T allele (OR = 1.40, 95%CI = 1.03-1.90, P = 0.03) had an increased risk of laryngeal cancer when compared with the CC genotype. We found any interaction between MTHFR C677T and folate intake (P for interaction = 0.02). In conclusion, our study demonstrated that MTHFR C677T polymorphism and folate are associated with risk of breast cancer. PMID:25078601

Wang, Z G; Cui, W; Yang, L F; Zhu, Y Q; Wei, W H

2014-01-01

255

MTHFR C677T polymorphism and osteoporotic fracture in postmenopausal women: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Numerous studies have evaluated the association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and osteoporotic fracture risk in postmenopausal women. However, the results have been inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis of the association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and osteoporotic fracture risk in postmenopausal women. Only seven case-control studies were retrieved, with a total of 4258 patients and 3454 healthy controls. Meta-analysis results showed no significant association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and osteoporotic fracture risk in postmenopausal women for all genetic models (for TT vs CC: OR=0.99, 95%CI=0.72-1.39; for TT vs TC: OR=1.02, 95%CI=0.87-1.20; for CC+TC vs TT: OR=0.96, 95%CI=0.71-1.28; for TT+TC vs CC: OR=0.93, 95%CI=0.84-1.03). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, the results also showed no significant association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and susceptibility to osteoporotic fracture in postmenopausal women in both Caucasian and Asian populations. In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggests that MTHFR C677T polymorphism may not be associated with susceptibility to osteoporotic fracture in postmenopausal women. PMID:25222234

Guan, J Z; Wu, M; Xiao, Y Z; Zhou, J S; Wang, Z D

2014-01-01

256

Associations of variants in MTHFR and MTRR genes with male infertility in the Jordanian population.  

PubMed

Folate pathway is expected to play an important role in spermatogenesis since it is involved in DNA synthesis, repair and methylation. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between male infertility and the MTHFR (C677T and A1298C) and MTRR (A66G) polymorphisms. A group of 300 males was recruited in this study from different Jordanian infertility clinics. Of these, 150 cases of infertile men that included oligozoospermia cases (n=45), severe oligozoospermia (n=71) and azoospermia (n=34) were studied. The other 150 males were age matched fertile controls. Genotyping of MTHFR and MTRR polymorphisms was performed using PCR-RFLP technique. The results showed an association between MTHFR 677TT genotype and male infertility (P<0.05). However, the distribution of MTHFR A1298C and MTRR A66G genotypes were not different between the fertile and infertile groups (P>0.05). In addition, none of the examined polymorphisms was related to any of the semen parameters in the infertile group. In conclusion, this study showed that MTHFR C677T polymorphism is associated with male infertility in Jordanians. PMID:24334125

Mfady, Doaa S; Sadiq, May F; Khabour, Omar F; Fararjeh, Abdulfattah S; Abu-Awad, Aymen; Khader, Yousef

2014-02-15

257

Effects of MTHFR gene polymorphism on the clinical and electrophysiological characteristics of migraine  

PubMed Central

Background It was previously shown that the MTHFR gene polymorphism correlated with an increased risk of migraine, particularly migraine with aura. The substitution of cytosine for thymine at the position 677 of the MTHFR gene leads to formation of the thermolabile form of the protein and development of hyperhomocysteinemia, which increases the probability of migraine. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the replacement of C677T in the gene MTHFR influenced any particular symptoms of the disease. Methods We have analyzed clinical and electrophysiological characteristics of 83 patients with migraine (migraine with aura (MA), 19 patients, and migraine without aura (MO), 64 patients, according to the ICHD-II (2003)) taking into account their genotypes of C677T variant of MTHFR. Results We have shown that MA was significantly more prevalent among the T-allele carriers (37.2%), as compared to the ?? genotype patients (0%), ? < 0.0001. Patients with TT genotype were not only more likely to have accompanying symptoms (significant differences were found only for photophobia), but also more sensitive to migraine attack triggers. In RP-VEP test results we observed a trend that the T-allele carriers were presented with the decreased N75/P100 amplitudes and a positive habituation index, as compared to the ?? genotype patients. Conclusions Thus, according to our data, the MTHFR genotypes are associated with several clinical and electrophysiological characteristics of migraine. PMID:23915182

2013-01-01

258

The association between first trimester micronutrient intake, MTHFR genotypes, and global DNA methylation in pregnant women  

PubMed Central

Objective Our aim was to evaluate possible associations between consumption of micronutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism, MTHFR genotypes, and global DNA methylation in pregnant women. Methods A semi-quantitative dietary questionnaire was administered to 195 women during their first trimester in Morelos, Mexico. Two functional polymorphisms of the key folate-metabolizing gene, i.e. MTHFR 677 C>T and 1298 A>C, as well as global DNA methylation were assessed in peripheral blood drawn during the interview. Results Independent of maternal age and caloric intake, vitamin B6 deficiency was associated with 1.8 fold increased risk of hypomethylation in women carrying the MTHFR 677 T allele. Conclusions There exists a subpopulation that is more susceptible to B vitamin deficiencies. PMID:21443409

La Merrill, Michele; Torres-Sanchez, Luisa; Ruiz-Ramos, Ruben; Lopez-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Cebrian, Mariano E; Chen, Jia

2012-01-01

259

Congenital heart defects and genetic variants in the methylenetetrahydroflate reductase gene  

PubMed Central

Background Most non?syndromic congenital heart defects (CHD) are caused by a complex interaction between maternal lifestyle factors, environmental exposures, and maternal and fetal genetic variants. Maternal periconceptional intake of folic acid containing vitamin supplements is reported to decrease the risk of CHD. The 677C?T and 1298A?C polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene decrease enzyme activity. Objective To examine the relation between CHD and maternal and fetal MTHFR polymorphisms Methods 375 nuclear families were studied. The transmission/disequilibrium test was used to test for transmission distortion in complete triads. A log?linear approach was used to test for associations between CHD and maternal and offspring polymorphisms, and to estimate independently the contributions of maternal and fetal variants to relative risks. Haplotype frequencies were estimated and a haplotype transmission disequilibrium test carried out. Results The 1298C allele was transmitted less often than expected (p?=?0.0013). There was no distortion in the transmission of the 677T allele, neither was there evidence of a parent of origin effect in the transmission of either of the single nucleotide polymorphisms. The 677C–1298C haplotype was also transmitted less often than expected (p?=?0.0020). The relative risk associated with inheriting one copy of the 1298C allele was 0.64 (95% confidence interval, 0.48 to 0.87) and the that associated with inheriting two copies of the 1298C allele, 0.38 (0.21 to 0.70). Conclusions The apparent protective effect of the MTHFR 1298C allele against CHD could have several explanations and further study is needed. PMID:15951337

Hobbs, C A; James, S J; Parsian, A; Krakowiak, P A; Jernigan, S; Greenhaw, J J; Lu, Y; Cleves, M A

2006-01-01

260

MTHFR polymorphisms and serum cobalamin affect plasma homocysteine concentrations differentially in females and males.  

PubMed

A total of 523 subjects (297 females and 226 males) from the Canary Islands Nutrition Study (ENCA) were studied in order to examine the effect of the MTHFR 677C>T, 1298A>C and 1793G>A polymorphisms, adjusted for age, serum (S)?folate and S?cobalamin levels, on total plasma homocysteine concentrations (tHcy). Genotyping was performed with Pyrosequencing® technology. The MTHFR 677T?allele was associated with increased tHcy concentrations only in males (P=0.005). The MTHFR 1298C?allele was found to be associated with higher tHcy levels but similarly, only in males (P=0.025). The MTHFR 1793A?allele was associated with decreased tHcy concentrations in the younger males (P=0.042). A haplotype?based approach was marginally superior in explaining the genetic interaction of the MTHFR polymorphisms on tHcy plasma levels (R2 0.352 vs. 0.342 for a simple genotype?based approach). A nutrigenetic interaction between the MTHFR 677C>T genotype and S?cobalamin on tHcy levels was demonstrated in both genders. The increase in tHcy was more pronounced with decreasing S?cobalamin quintiles in 677TT homozygotes (P=0.005 for males and P=0.015 for females) than with decreasing S?folate quintiles (P for trend not significant). It was concluded that gene?nutrient interactions may differ depending on the sex and age of the subjects. The transferability of gene?nutrient interactions from one community to others may therefore be limited not only by different food patterns but also by different ages, genders and genotype distributions. PMID:25176448

Nilsson, Torbjörn K; Böttiger, Anna K; Henríquez, Patricia; Serra Majem, Lluís

2014-11-01

261

Molecular genetics of steroid 5 alpha-reductase 2 deficiency.  

PubMed Central

Two isozymes of steroid 5 alpha-reductase encoded by separate loci catalyze the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. Inherited defects in the type 2 isozyme lead to male pseudohermaphroditism in which affected males have a normal internal urogenital tract but external genitalia resembling those of a female. The 5 alpha-reductase type 2 gene (gene symbol SRD5A2) was cloned and shown to contain five exons and four introns. The gene was localized to chromosome 2 band p23 by somatic cell hybrid mapping and chromosomal in situ hybridization. Molecular analysis of the SRD5A2 gene resulted in the identification of 18 mutations in 11 homozygotes, 6 compound heterozygotes, and 4 inferred compound heterozygotes from 23 families with 5 alpha-reductase deficiency. 6 apparent recurrent mutations were detected in 19 different ethnic backgrounds. In two patients, the catalytic efficiency of the mutant enzymes correlated with the severity of the disease. The high proportion of compound heterozygotes suggests that the carrier frequency of mutations in the 5 alpha-reductase type 2 gene may be higher than previously thought. Images PMID:1522235

Thigpen, A E; Davis, D L; Milatovich, A; Mendonca, B B; Imperato-McGinley, J; Griffin, J E; Francke, U; Wilson, J D; Russell, D W

1992-01-01

262

Detection of Thrombophilic Mutations Related to Spontaneous Abortions by a Multiplex SNaPshot Method  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous abortion is a significant clinical problem of different etiologies. Certain thrombophilia gene mutations have been associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion. Also, mutations in folate-related genes can lead to abnormal chromosomal segregation during meiosis which is the most common cause of spontaneous abortion. We have developed a multiplex single-base extension reaction assay that allows simultaneous analysis of 10 different mutations in thrombophilia- and folate-related genes (Factor V Leiden G1691A, Factor V H1299R, Factor II G20210A, Factor XIII V34L, PAI-I -675 4G/5G, FGB -455G/A, MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C, MTR A2756G, and MTRR A66G). Using this method we have studied 232 women who had a spontaneous abortion and 209 of their male partners. Prevalence of Factor II G20210A and Factor V H1299R mutations was significantly higher in the women than in their male partners (2.4% and 0.7%, respectively [p=0.0499] for the Factor II mutation and 9.3% and 5.7%, respectively [p=0.0485] for the Factor V mutation). The prevalence of MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C, MTR A2756G, and MTRR A66G mutations did not differ between the studied groups. In conclusion, we have developed a rapid, simple, reliable, and inexpensive multiplex SNaPshot method for determination of 10 thrombophilic mutations that may result in spontaneous abortions. PMID:22023244

Madjunkova, Svetlana; Volk, Marija; Peterlin, Borut

2012-01-01

263

Fetal folate C677T methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphism and low birth weight.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine if fetal C677T methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genotype contributes to low birth weight. The study group consisted of 243 term babies with a birth weight<10th centile for gestational age, with subgroup analyses for those <1st centile. The control group consisted of 132 term babies with a birth weight 3.3-3.8 kg. Odds ratio analyses with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for carriage of the t allele and overall genotype frequencies. There was no significant difference in carriage of the t allele between study and control groups, odds ratio (OR) 0.79 (95% CI, 0.57-1.09). No differences were observed for frequencies of heterozygote and recessive homozygote genotypes for the two populations. In the subgroup analyses, no statistical differences were observed in the t allele frequency, frequency of the heterozygote or homozygote genotype. Trends were seen and the study suggests that fetal C677T MTHFR genotype may be a factor contributing to birth weight. The potential may exist to influence clinical outcome by maternal folate supplementation. PMID:16390701

Glanville, T; Yates, Z; Ovadia, L; Walker, J J; Lucock, M; Simpson, N A B

2006-01-01

264

Association between factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T mutations and events of the arterial circulatory system: a meta-analysis of published studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe association between the inherited gene mutations of factor V, prothrombin, and homocysteine metabolism and venous thromboembolic events is accepted widely; however, their influence on the arterial circulatory system remains controversial.

Robert J Kim; Richard C Becker

2003-01-01

265

Methylation pattern of methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase and small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide N promoters in oligoasthenospermia: a case-control study.  

PubMed

Alterations in DNA methylation patterns in several genes may lead to abnormal male sexual development and infertility. This study investigated the promoter methylation status of MTHFR and SNRPN in infertile men from Romania by quantitative methylation-specific PCR in order to investigate possible correlations with sperm abnormalities. The study groups included patients (n=27) with a median age of 31 years (range 26-41 years) as well as controls (n=11) with a median age of 30 years (range 24-37 years) recruited from couples seeking advice for infertility. DNA was isolated from sperm samples and promoter methylation was assessed using direct. Significant trends were detected for both genes that indicate a tendency towards promoter hypermethylation in spermatozoa with low motility (MTHFR P=0.0032, r=0.23; SNRPN P=0.0003, r=0.32) and poor morphology (MTHFR P=0.0012, r=0.27; SNRPN P=0.0003, r=0.33) but no trend was found in cases of low sperm count (MTHFR r=0.007; SNRPN r=0.06). The data indicate that the methylation patterns of the promoters of MTHFR and SNRPN are associated with changes in sperm motility and morphology, which could lead to male infertility. A large number of studies are now focused on the causes of male infertility. Among these are epigenetic modifications, which are important contributors to reproductive pathology in the male by providing dynamic changes of the phenotype according to the environmental and metabolic factors. The most known epigenetic modification is DNA methylation and alterations in this pattern in several genes could induce male infertility. The present study aims to investigate the promoter methylation status of the genes for methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide N (SNRPN) in infertile males from Romania, in order to establish a correlation with sperm parameters. MTHFR is an enzyme involved in the folate pathway and in de novo nucleotide biosynthesis but also a good example for gene-environment interaction in phenotype development. SNRPN is involved in both somatic cell expression and inheritance of the imprint and the methylation pattern of its gene seems to correlate not only with imprinted disorders but also with infertility. Our study includes patients (n=27, median age 31 years, range 26-41 years) recruited from men seeking advice for couple infertility and control group (n=11, median age 30.5 years, range 24-37 years). The data we obtained indicated significant correlations between hypermethylation of the investigated genes and sperm motility and morphology. No significant correlation between DNA methylation and sperm number was found. Our data suggest that methylation pattern of MTHFR and SNRPN is linked with sperm anomalies of motility and morphology and therefore male infertility. PMID:24365028

Botezatu, Anca; Socolov, Razvan; Socolov, Demetra; Iancu, Iulia Virginia; Anton, Gabriela

2014-02-01

266

Development and Characterization of Reference Materials for MTHFR, SERPINA1, RET, BRCA1, and BRCA2 Genetic Testing  

PubMed Central

Well-characterized reference materials (RMs) are integral in maintaining clinical laboratory quality assurance for genetic testing. These RMs can be used for quality control, monitoring of test performance, test validation, and proficiency testing of DNA-based genetic tests. To address the need for such materials, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention established the Genetic Testing Reference Material Coordination Program (GeT-RM), which works with the genetics community to improve public availability of characterized RMs for genetic testing. To date, the GeT-RM program has coordinated the characterization of publicly available genomic DNA RMs for a number of disorders, including cystic fibrosis, Huntington disease, fragile X, and several genetic conditions with relatively high prevalence in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. Genotypic information about a number of other cell lines has been collected and is also available. The present study includes the development and commutability/genotype characterization of 10 DNA samples for clinically relevant mutations or sequence variants in the following genes: MTHFR; SERPINA1; RET; BRCA1; and BRCA2. DNA samples were analyzed by 19 clinical genetic laboratories using a variety of assays and technology platforms. Concordance was 100% for all samples, with no differences observed between laboratories using different methods. All DNA samples are available from Coriell Cell Repositories and characterization information can be found on the GeT-RM website. PMID:19767587

Barker, Shannon D.; Bale, Sherri; Booker, Jessica; Buller, Arlene; Das, Soma; Friedman, Kenneth; Godwin, Andrew K.; Grody, Wayne W.; Highsmith, Edward; Kant, Jeffery A.; Lyon, Elaine; Mao, Rong; Monaghan, Kristin G.; Payne, Deborah A.; Pratt, Victoria M.; Schrijver, Iris; Shrimpton, Antony E.; Spector, Elaine; Telatar, Milhan; Toji, Lorraine; Weck, Karen; Zehnbauer, Barbara; Kalman, Lisa V.

2009-01-01

267

A meta-analysis of genotypes and haplotypes of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphisms in breast cancer.  

PubMed

The association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphisms and breast cancer risk has been extensively explored, but their results are conflicting rather than conclusive. To derive a more precise estimation, we carried out not only an updated meta-analysis but also a combined analysis based on all the available studies estimating the association between MTHFR C677T and/or A1298C and breast cancer risk. With respect to C677T polymorphism, the results suggested that 677T allele was associated with significantly elevated breast cancer risk in overall analysis (T vs. C: OR 1.073, 95 % CI 1.028-1.120; TT vs. CC: OR 1.177, 95 % CI 1.072-1.293; TT vs. CC + CT: OR 1.175, 95 % CI 1.073-1.288); Stratifying by ethnicity, significantly increased risk was only found in East Asians (T vs. C: OR 1.150, 95 % CI 1.039-1.273; TT vs. CC: OR 1.441, 95 % CI 1.145-1.814; TT vs. CC + CT: OR 1.413, 95 % CI 1.148-1.739); When stratified by menopausal status, statistically significant association was found for postmenopausal women (CT + TT vs. CC: OR 1.092, 95 % CI 1.011-1.179). In regard to A1298C polymorphism, no significant associations were found between the polymorphism and breast cancer risk. With respect to MTHFR haplotypes, significantly elevated breast cancer risk was associated with 677T-1298C for overall result (OR 1.498, 95 % CI 1.143-1.962) and for Caucasians (OR 2.088, 95 % CI 1.277-3.416) when compared with 677C-1298A; Haplotype 677C-1298C might provide higher protection than 677C-1298A in East Asians (OR 0.840, 95 % CI 0.742-0.949). The combined genotypes for C677T and A1298C produced a significant OR for the 677TT/1298AC relative to 677CC/1298AA in overall population (OR 2.047, 95 % CI 1.275-3.288); When stratified by ethnicity, significant ORs were only found for East Asians (677CC/1298CC vs. 677CC/1298AA: OR 0.686, 95 % CI 0.478-0.985; 677TT/1298AC vs. 677CC/1298AA: OR 2.181, 95 % CI 1.179-4.035). The findings suggest that the MTHFR C677T polymorphism but not A1298C, and some variants on their combined genotypes or haplotypes may be involved with the development of breast cancer. PMID:24973876

Zhong, Shanliang; Chen, Zhiyuan; Yu, Xinnian; Li, Wenjing; Tang, Jinhai; Zhao, Jianhua

2014-09-01

268

Acceleration of an aldo-keto reductase by minimal loop engineering  

PubMed Central

Aldo-keto reductases tighten coenzyme binding by forming a hydrogen bond across the pyrophosphate group of NAD(P)(H). Mutation of the hydrogen bonding anchor Lys24 in Candida tenuis xylose reductase prevents fastening of the “safety belt” around NAD(H). The loosened NAD(H) binding leads to increased turnover numbers (kcat) for reductions of bulky-bulky ketones at constant substrate and coenzyme affinities (i.e. Km Ketone, Km NADH). PMID:24951537

Krump, C.; Vogl, M.; Brecker, L.; Nidetzky, B.; Kratzer, R.

2014-01-01

269

Association between dietary intake of folate, vitamin B6, B12 & MTHFR, MTR Genotype and breast cancer risk  

PubMed Central

Objective: we conducted a case-control study to investigate the association between dietary folate, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 intake, MTHFR and MTR genotype, and breast cancer risk. Methods: Genotyping for MTHFR C677T and A1298C and MTR A2756G polymorphisms were performed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PCR-RFLP) method. The intake of folate, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 were calculated by each food item from questionnaire. Results: Subjects with breast cancer tended to have more first-degree relatives (?2=30.77, P<0.001) and have high intake of folate (t=2.42, P=0.008) and Vitamin B6 (t=2.94, P=0.002). Compared to the reference group, women with MTHFR 677 TT genotype and T allele had a significantly increased risk of breast cancer, with ORs (95%CI) of 1.8(1.08-2.27) and 1.39(1.02-1.92), respectively. For those who had folate intake?450 ug/day, MTHFR 667TT genotype was associated with a higher risk of breast cancer (OR=2.45, 95% CI=1.09-5.82, P=0.02). Similarly, subjects with Vitamin B6 intake?0.84 mg/day and MTHFR 667T allele genotype was correlated with a marginally increased risk of breast cancer. A significant interaction was observed between MTHFR C667T polymorphism and folate intake on the risk of breast cancer (P for interaction was 0.025). Conclusion: This case-control study found a significant association between MTHFR C667T polymorphism, folate intake and vitamin B6 and breast cancer risk, and a significant interaction was observed between MTHFR C667T polymorphism and folate intake on the risk of breast cancer. PMID:24639841

Weiwei, Zheng; Liping, Chen; Dequan, Li

2014-01-01

270

MTHFR ( C677T and A1298C ) Polymorphisms and Risk of Sporadic Distal Colorectal Adenoma in the UK Flexible Sigmoidoscopy Screening Trial (United Kingdom)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The purpose of this study was to further evaluate the role of low activity MTHFR variants as well as to explore interactive effects between alcoholic drink consumption and MTHFR variants and risk of distal colorectal adenomatous polyps.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We examined the relationship between MTHFR C677T and A1298C gene polymorphisms and risk of distal adenomas in one of the largest case control

Panagiota N. Mitrou; Mark A. Watson; Alexandre S. Loktionov; Christopher Cardwell; Marc J. Gunter; Wendy S. Atkin; Christopher P. Macklin; Tom Cecil; Timothy D. Bishop; John Primrose; Sheila A. Bingham

2006-01-01

271

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T gene polymorphism and essential hypertension: A meta-analysis of 10,415 subjects  

PubMed Central

The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T gene polymorphism has been suggested to be associated with the risk of essential hypertension (EH), however, results remain inconclusive. To investigate this association, the present meta-analysis of 27 studies including 5,418 cases and 4,997 controls was performed. The pooled odds ratio (OR) and its corresponding 95% confidence interval were calculated using the random-effects model. A significant association between the MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism and EH was found under the allelic (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.20–1.45; P=0.000), dominant (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.25–1.55; P=0.000), recessive (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.18–1.62; P=0.000), homozygote (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.32–1.92; P=0.000), and heterozygote (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.20–1.45; P=0.000) genetic models. A strong association was also revealed in subgroups, including Asian, Caucasian and Chinese. The Japanese subgroup did not show any significant association under all models. Meta-regression analyses suggested that the study design was a potential source of heterogeneity, whereas the subgroup analysis additionally indicated that the population origin may also be an explanation. Another subgroup analysis revealed that hospital-based studies have a stronger association than population-based studies, however, the former suffered a greater heterogeneity. Funnel plot and Egger’s test manifested no evidence of publication bias. In conclusion, the present study supports the evidence for the association between the MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism and EH in the whole population, as well as in subgroups, such as Asian, Caucasian and Chinese. The carriers of the 677T allele are susceptible to EH. PMID:25054014

YANG, KE-MING; JIA, JIAN; MAO, LI-NA; MEN, CHEN; TANG, KANG-TING; LI, YAN-YAN; DING, HAI-XIA; ZHAN, YI-YANG

2014-01-01

272

DNA methylation in schizophrenia subjects: gender and MTHFR 677C/T genotype differences  

PubMed Central

Aim In schizophrenia, metabolic syndrome incidence is double that of the general population, with women having a higher incidence. Pharmacogenetically regulated folic acid may be related to this risk. DNA methylation and metabolic syndrome within this group has not been previously studied. Methods Metabolic syndrome was evaluated with fasting laboratory measurements, and dietary and lifestyle assessments. Methylation analysis used a peripheral sample for the LINE-1 assay. DNA was also genotyped for MTHFR 677C/T. Results This analysis included 133 subjects. We found a significant relationship between LINE-1 methylation, and an interaction between MTHFR and gender, controlling for serum folate (p = 0.008). Females with the 677TT genotype had the lowest methylation (56%) compared with the other groups (75%). Conclusion TT genotype females had the lowest methylation, which may explain metabolic syndrome gender differences in schizophrenia. Folate supplementation may be a suggested intervention within schizophrenia; however, additional work is required. PMID:22690662

Burghardt, Kyle J; Pilsner, J Richard; Bly, Michael J; Ellingrod, Vicki L

2012-01-01

273

Ribonucleotide reductases: essential enzymes for bacterial life  

PubMed Central

Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) is a key enzyme that mediates the synthesis of deoxyribonucleotides, the DNA precursors, for DNA synthesis in every living cell. This enzyme converts ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides, the building blocks for DNA replication, and repair. Clearly, RNR enzymes have contributed to the appearance of genetic material that exists today, being essential for the evolution of all organisms on Earth. The strict control of RNR activity and dNTP pool sizes is important, as pool imbalances increase mutation rates, replication anomalies, and genome instability. Thus, RNR activity should be finely regulated allosterically and at the transcriptional level. In this review we examine the distribution, the evolution, and the genetic regulation of bacterial RNRs. Moreover, this enzyme can be considered an ideal target for anti-proliferative compounds designed to inhibit cell replication in eukaryotic cells (cancer cells), parasites, viruses, and bacteria. PMID:24809024

Torrents, Eduard

2014-01-01

274

Association of genetic variants of MTHFR, ENPP1, and ADIPOQ with myocardial infarction in Egyptian patients.  

PubMed

The study aimed to investigate the association between MTHFR C677T, ENPP1 K121Q, and ADIPOQ 45 T/G gene polymorphisms and incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) in Egyptian patients. The study included 60 unrelated patients suffering from their first MI and 60 unrelated controls. Patients were recruited from Kasr-El Eini hospital, Cairo University. The previously mentioned polymorphisms were determined in all participants by PCR-RFLP. There was no significant difference in the distribution of genotypes and alleles of MTHFR C677T between groups. In contrast, significant difference was found in the distributions of genotypes and alleles of ENPP1 K121Q and ADIPOQ 45 T/G between MI patients and controls (P = 0.01, P = 0.004, P = 0.009, P = 0.001, respectively). Univariate analysis revealed that 121Q ENPP1 and 45 G ADIPOQ alleles were associated with the increased risk of MI (OR = 3; 95 % CI = 1.45-6.2; P = 0.004 and OR = 5.8; 95 % CI = 1.92-17.54; P = 0.001, respectively). The mutant homozygous genotypes of MTHFR, ENPP1, and ADIPOQ were more prevalent in diabetic hypertensive MI patients than it was among non-diabetic normotensive MI patients. Regarding the coagulation profile, INR (P = 0.009) and PC % (P = 0.022) were significantly different among the three genotypes of MTHFR C677T. The 677 T, 121 Q, and 45G variants were associated with MI in Egyptian patients; however, more studies are needed to determine the possible protective effect for these polymorphisms in our population. PMID:24242286

Shaker, Olfat Gamil; Ismail, Manal Fouad

2014-06-01

275

Characterization of mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase from C. elegans  

SciTech Connect

Thioredoxin reductase catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of the catalytic disulfide bond of thioredoxin. In mammals and other higher eukaryotes, thioredoxin reductases contain the rare amino acid selenocysteine at the active site. The mitochondrial enzyme from Caenorhabditis elegans, however, contains a cysteine residue in place of selenocysteine. The mitochondrial C. elegans thioredoxin reductase was cloned from an expressed sequence tag and then produced in Escherichia coli as an intein-fusion protein. The purified recombinant enzyme has a k {sub cat} of 610 min{sup -1} and a K {sub m} of 610 {mu}M using E. coli thioredoxin as substrate. The reported k {sub cat} is 25% of the k {sub cat} of the mammalian enzyme and is 43-fold higher than a cysteine mutant of mammalian thioredoxin reductase. The enzyme would reduce selenocysteine, but not hydrogen peroxide or insulin. The flanking glycine residues of the GCCG motif were mutated to serine. The mutants improved substrate binding, but decreased the catalytic rate.

Lacey, Brian M. [Department of Biochemistry, 89 Beaumont Ave, Given Laboratory, Room B413, Burlington, VT 05405 (United States); Hondal, Robert J. [Department of Biochemistry, 89 Beaumont Ave, Given Laboratory, Room B413, Burlington, VT 05405 (United States)]. E-mail: Robert.Hondal@uvm.edu

2006-08-04

276

Evaluation of Factor V G1691A, prothrombin G20210A, Factor XIII V34L, MTHFR A1298C, MTHFR C677T and PAI-1 4G/5G genotype frequencies of patients subjected to cardiovascular disease (CVD) panel in south-east region of Turkey.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, such as arterial hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia or diabetes mellitus, as well as CVDs, including myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease or stroke, are the most prevalent diseases and account for the major causes of death worldwide. In the present study, 4,709 unrelated patients subjected to CVD panel in south-east part of Turkey between the years 2010 and 2013 were enrolled and DNA was isolated from the blood samples of these patients. Mutation analyses were conducted using the real-time polymerase chain reaction method to screen six common mutations (Factor V G1691A, PT G20210A, Factor XIII V34L, MTHFR A1298C and C677T and PAI-1 -675 4G/5G) found in CVD panel. The prevalence of these mutations were 0.57, 0.25, 2.61, 13.78, 9.34 and 24.27 % in homozygous form, respectively. Similarly, the mutation percent of them in heterozygous form were 7.43, 3.44, 24.91, 44.94, 41.09 and 45.66%, respectively. No mutation was detected in 92 (1.95%) patients in total. Because of the fact that this is the first study to screen six common mutations in CVD panel in south-east region of Turkey, it has a considerable value on the diagnosis and treatment of these diseases. Upon the results of the present and previous studied a careful examination for these genetic variants should be carried out in thrombophilia screening programs, particularly in Turkish population. PMID:24532105

Oztuzcu, Serdar; Ergun, Sercan; Ula?l?, Mustafa; Nacarkahya, Gülper; I?ci, Yusuf Ziya; I?ci, Mehri; Bayraktar, Recep; Tamer, Ali; Çakmak, Ecir Ali; Arslan, Ahmet

2014-06-01

277

MTHFR gene C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and homocysteine levels in primary open angle and primary closed angle glaucoma  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C genotypes and plasma concentrations of total homocysteine (tHcy) in Pakistani patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and primary closed angle glaucoma (PCAG). Methods This was a prospective case-control study. A total of 295 patients (173 POAG, 122 PCAG) and 143 age- and sex-matched controls were subdivided into two ethnic groups, Punjabis (Punjab province, central Pakistan) and Pathans (North-West Frontier Province, northern Pakistan). Genotypes of the MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms were detected by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine the total serum homocysteine (tHcy) levels. Associations were determined by logistic regression analysis. Results Frequency distributions of genotypes and combined genotypes as well as homocysteine levels were obtained. The overall distribution of the C677T genotype was found to be significantly associated with PCAG (CC 69%, CT 21%, TT 10%; p=0.001, ?2=12.6), but not with POAG (CC 71%, CT 28%, TT 1%; p=0.98, ?2=0.02) as compared to the controls (CC 71%, CT 29%, TT 1%). The Pathan cohorts revealed no association with the disease; however, the Punjabis demonstrated a significant association with PCAG (CC 75%, CT 11%, TT 13%; p<0.001, ?2=17.2). PCAG in the Punjabi subjects was also significantly associated with the A1298C polymorphism (AA 43%, AC 54%, CC 3%; p<0.001, ?2=33.9) as compared to the controls. Combined genotype data showed no association with POAG; however, a significant association with all combined genotypes was observed in the overall PCAG subjects (p<0.05, ?2=20.1). This difference was particularly apparent in the TTAA and TTAC combinations that were completely absent in the control groups (p<0.05. ?2=49.6). Mean serum tHcy levels were found to be significantly increased in the POAG (15.2±1.28 µmol/l, p<0.001) and PCAG (20.8±4.8 µmol/l) groups as compared to the controls (10.0±0.97 µmol/l). The tHcy levels in the TT and AC genotype were significantly elevated in the PCAG group (67±12.39 µmol/l, p<0.001; 23±5.94 µmol/l, p=0.027) as compared to the controls. Conclusion The TT and AC genotypes of MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and the combined genotype TTAC were associated with PCAG in Punjabi subjects of Pakistani origin and correlated with the high serum tHcy levels seen in these patients. PMID:19936026

Micheal, Shazia; Qamar, Raheel; Akhtar, Farah; Khan, Muhammad Imran; Khan, Wajid Ali

2009-01-01

278

Role of plasma homocysteine levels and MTHFR polymorphisms on IQ scores in children and young adults with epilepsy treated with antiepileptic drugs.  

PubMed

Homocysteine (Hcy) is a sulfur-containing amino acid involved in methionine metabolism. High plasma total Hcy (tHcy) has been quite frequently reported in patients with epilepsy treated with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) mainly related to plasma folate reduction induced by AEDs themselves. The role of C677T and A1298C polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) on the increase of plasma tHcy in patients with epilepsy taking AEDs is still controversial. Cognitive impairment may be associated with epilepsy either as the result of the epileptic syndrome per se or as a side effect induced by the AEDs. High plasma tHcy levels were associated with lower cognitive performances in patients affected by Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment and in healthy elderly. We searched for a correlation between plasma tHcy levels with the intelligence quotient (IQ) scores in a population of children and young adults with epilepsy treated with old and/or newer AEDs. The study group encompassed 179 patients (92 M, 51.5%) followed at our Unit of Child Neuropsychiatry and aged between 4 and 25years (mean+SD: 14.03±4.25). The inclusion criteria included the following: 1) diagnosis of epilepsy of "unknown cause" (cryptogenic) according to the ILAE classification, 2) age older than 3years, 3) stabilized antiepileptic treatment for at least 6months, and 4) clinical records of cognitive tests, plasma tHcy value, and results of MTHFR polymorphisms. Patients' mean tHcy value was 9.71±3.13?M/L (tHcy<9?M/L as our laboratory cutoff in nonepileptic controls). The mean TIQ score was 85.22 (SD±24.12); the mean VIQ score was 86.32 (SD±20.86); and the mean PIQ score was 86.94 (SD±21.51). C677T and A1298C MTHFR polymorphisms were detected in 74/92 (80%) examined patients and distributed into the following: CT (22.3%), TT (14.9%), CC (10.3%) for C677T, AC (16%), CC (1.1%), and AA (30.3%) for A1298C. Plasma tHcy levels were not significantly related to the IQ scores (TIQ, VIQ, or PIQ). Two significant findings came out. First, patients on AED polytherapy showed significantly lower TIQ, VIQ, and PIQ scores compared with the ones with AED monotherapy (p=0.032; p=0.008; p=0.005, respectively). However, this significant difference was not observed with the plasma tHcy levels compared with AED treatment. Second, patients with the 677TT genotype showed significantly higher tHcy levels versus those with the wt ones (p=0.049). In the latter group of patients, although the mean TIQ score was lower compared with the mean TIQ score in those with the wt ones, the difference only approached statistical significance (p=0.056). To our knowledge, this is the first study investigating the relationship between tHcy levels and cognitive scores in children with epilepsy treated with AEDs. Analysis of wider samples, selective neuropsychological tests, and prospective recruitment of patients might be encouraged. PMID:24183735

Di Rosa, Gabriella; Lenzo, Patrizia; Parisi, Eleonora; Neri, Milena; Guerrera, Silvia; Nicotera, Antonio; Alibrandi, Angela; Germanò, Eva; Caccamo, Daniela; Spanò, Maria; Tortorella, Gaetano

2013-12-01

279

Association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations  

PubMed Central

Background The association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism and serum lipid profiles is still controversial in diverse ethnics. Bai Ku Yao is an isolated subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The aim of the present study was to eveluate the association of MTHFR C677T polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 780 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 686 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the MTHFR C677T was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) AI and ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.05-0.001). The frequency of C and T alleles was 77.4% and 22.6% in Bai Ku Yao, and 60.9% and 39.1% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The frequency of CC, CT and TT genotypes was 58.7%, 37.3% and 4.0% in Bai Ku Yao, and 32.6%, 56.4% and 11.0% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The levels of TC and LDL-C in both ethnic groups were significant differences among the three genotypes (P < 0.05-0.01). The T allele carriers had higher serum TC and LDL-C levels than the T allele noncarriers. The levels of ApoB in Han were significant differences among the three genotypes (P < 0.05). The T allele carriers had higher serum ApoB levels as compared with the T allele noncarriers. The levels of TC, TG and LDL-C in Bai Ku Yao were correlated with genotypes (P < 0.05-0.001), whereas the levels of LDL-C in Han were associated with genotypes (P < 0.001). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with sex, age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and blood pressure in the both ethnic groups. Conclusions The differences in serum TC, TG, LDL-C and ApoB levels between the two ethnic groups might partly result from different genotypic and allelic frequencies of the MTHFR C677T or different MTHFR gene-enviromental interactions. PMID:20977771

2010-01-01

280

TPMT and MTHFR genotype is not associated with altered risk of thioguanine-related sinusoidal obstruction syndrome in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.  

PubMed

Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome is a complication of therapy for pediatric ALL and may be modified by thiopurine methyltransferase activity as well as by MTHFR genotype. We assessed TPMT *3A, *3B, *3C, and MTHFR C677T and A1298C germline genetic polymorphisms among 351 patients enrolled in the thioguanine treatment arm of CCG-1952 clinical trial. TPMT and MTHFR C677T genotypes were not associated with SOS risk. The combination of MTHFR and TPMT variant genotypes was not associated with SOS risk. These suggest that germline genetic variation in TPMT and MTHFR do not significantly alter SOS risk in patients exposed to thioguanine. PMID:24737678

Wray, Lisa; Vujkovic, Marijana; McWilliams, Thomas; Cannon, Shannon; Devidas, Meenakshi; Stork, Linda; Aplenc, Richard

2014-11-01

281

MTHFR polymorphisms C677T and A1298C and associations with IVF outcomes in Brazilian women.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MTHFR gene polymorphisms and IVF outcomes in Brazilian women undergoing assisted reproduction treatment. A prospective study was conducted in the Human Reproduction Department at the ABC University School of Medicine and the Ideia Fertility Institute between December 2010 and April 2012. The patient population was 82 women undergoing assisted reproduction cycles. The MTHFR polymorphisms C677T and A1298C were evaluated and compared with laboratory results and pregnancy rates. The C677T variant was associated with proportions of mature (P=0.006) and immature (P=0.003) oocytes whereas the A1298C variant was associated with number of oocytes retrieved (P=0.044). The polymorphisms, whether alone or in combination, were not associated with normal fertilization, good-quality embryo or clinical pregnancy rates. This study suggests that the number and maturity of oocytes retrieved may be related to the MTHFR polymorphisms C677T and A1298C. It is believed that folate has a crucial function in human reproduction and that folate deficiency can compromise the function of the metabolic pathways it is involved in, leading to an accumulation of homocysteine. The gene MTHFR encodes the 5-MTHFR enzyme, which is involved in folate metabolism, and C677T/A1298C polymorphisms of this gene are related to decreased enzyme activity and consequent changes in homocysteine concentration. Folate deficiency and hyperhomocysteinaemia can also compromise fertility and lead to pregnancy complications by affecting the development of oocytes, preparation of endometrial receptivity, implantation of the embryo and pregnancy. In folliculogenesis, hyperhomocysteinaemia can activate apoptosis, leading to follicular atresia and affecting the maturity of oocytes and the quality of embryos cultured in vitro. This study was performed to investigate the association between MTHFR polymorphisms and IVF outcomes in women undergoing assisted reproduction treatment. PMID:24746944

D'Elia, Priscila Queiroz; dos Santos, Aline Amaro; Bianco, Bianca; Barbosa, Caio Parente; Christofolini, Denise Maria; Aoki, Tsutomu

2014-06-01

282

Development of Transformation System of Verticillium lecanii ( Lecanicillium spp.) (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) Based on Nitrate Reductase Gene of Aspergillus nidulans  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heterologous transformation system was developed for V. lecanii based on the complementation of a nitrate reductase mutant. Nitrate reductase mutants were obtained by resistance to chlorate\\u000a in a rate of 23.24% when compared to other mutations that lead to the chlorate resistance. Mutant no. 01 and 04 was chosen\\u000a for the transformation experiments. Plasmid pBT was used as transformation

Saba HasanRana; Rana Inder Singh; Sandhu Sardul Singh

283

Structural basis of substrate specificity in human glyoxylate reductase/hydroxypyruvate reductase.  

PubMed

Human glyoxylate reductase/hydroxypyruvate reductase (GRHPR) is a D-2-hydroxy-acid dehydrogenase that plays a critical role in the removal of the metabolic by-product glyoxylate from within the liver. Deficiency of this enzyme is the underlying cause of primary hyperoxaluria type 2 (PH2) and leads to increased urinary oxalate levels, formation of kidney stones and renal failure. Here we describe the crystal structure of human GRHPR at 2.2 A resolution. There are four copies of GRHPR in the crystallographic asymmetric unit: in each homodimer, one subunit forms a ternary (enzyme+NADPH+reduced substrate) complex, and the other a binary (enzyme+NADPH) form. The spatial arrangement of the two enzyme domains is the same in binary and ternary forms. This first crystal structure of a true ternary complex of an enzyme from this family demonstrates the relationship of substrate and catalytic residues within the active site, confirming earlier proposals of the mode of substrate binding, stereospecificity and likely catalytic mechanism for these enzymes. GRHPR has an unusual substrate specificity, preferring glyoxylate and hydroxypyruvate, but not pyruvate. A tryptophan residue (Trp141) from the neighbouring subunit of the dimer is projected into the active site region and appears to contribute to the selectivity for hydroxypyruvate. This first crystal structure of a human GRHPR enzyme also explains the deleterious effects of naturally occurring missense mutations of this enzyme that lead to PH2. PMID:16756993

Booth, Michael P S; Conners, R; Rumsby, Gill; Brady, R Leo

2006-06-30

284

The second naphthol reductase of fungal melanin biosynthesis in Magnaporthe grisea: tetrahydroxynaphthalene reductase.  

PubMed

Mutants of Magnaporthe grisea harboring a defective gene for 1,3, 8-trihydroxynaphthalene reductase retain the capability to produce scytalone, thus suggesting the existence of a second naphthol reductase that can catalyze the reduction of 1,3,6, 8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene to scytalone within the fungal melanin biosynthetic pathway. The second naphthol reductase gene was cloned from M. grisea by identification of cDNA fragments with weak homology to the cDNA of trihydroxynaphthalene reductase. The amino acid sequence for the second naphthol reductase is 46% identical to that of trihydroxynaphthalene reductase. The second naphthol reductase was produced in Esherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Substrate competition experiments indicate that the second reductase prefers tetrahydroxynaphthalene over trihydroxynaphthalene by a factor of 310; trihydroxynaphthalene reductase prefers trihydroxynaphthalene over tetrahydroxynaphthalene by a factor of 4.2. On the basis of the 1300-fold difference in substrate specificities between the two reductases, the second reductase is designated tetrahydroxynaphthalene reductase. Tetrahydroxynaphthalene reductase has a 200-fold larger K(i) for the fungicide tricyclazole than that of trihydroxynaphthalene reductase, and this accounts for the latter enzyme being the primary physiological target of the fungicide. M. grisea mutants lacking activities for both trihydroxynaphthalene and tetrahydroxynaphthalene reductases do not produce scytalone, indicating that there are no other metabolic routes to scytalone. PMID:10956664

Thompson, J E; Fahnestock, S; Farrall, L; Liao, D I; Valent, B; Jordan, D B

2000-11-10

285

Superoxide reductase: fact or fiction?  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was recently proposed that anaerobic microorganisms contain a new pathway for detoxification of reactive oxygen species. This is centered around a novel mononuclear iron-containing enzyme, superoxide reductase (SOR), which catalyzes the reduction, rather than the dismutation, of superoxide to hydrogen peroxide. A surprisingly large amount of relevant data has accumulated in the two years or so since the proposal

Michael W. Adams; Francis E. Jenney; Michael D. Clay; Michael K. Johnson

2002-01-01

286

Inheritance of nitrite reductase and regulation of nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, and glutamine synthetase isozymes.  

PubMed

Banding patterns of nitrate reductase (NR), nitrite reductase (NiR), and glutamine synthetase (GS) from leaves of diploid barley (Hordeum vulgare), tetraploid wheat (Triticum durum), hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum), and tetraploid wild oats (Avena barbata) were compared following starch gel electrophoresis. Two NR isozymes, which appeared to be under different regulatory control, were observed in each of the three species. The activity of the more slowly migrating nitrate reductase isozyme (NR1) was induced by NO3- in green seedlings and cycloheximide inhibited induction. However, the activity of the faster NR isozyme (NR2) was unaffected by addition of KNO3, and it was not affected by treatments of cycloheximide or chloramphenicol. Only a single isozyme of nitrite reductase was detected in surveys of three tetraploid and 18 hexaploid wheat, and 48 barley accessions; however, three isozymes associated with different ecotypes were detected in the wild oats. Inheritance patterns showed that two of the wild oat isozymes were governed by a single Mendelian locus with two codominant alleles; however, no variation was detected for the third isozyme. Treatment of excised barely and wild oat seedlings with cycloheximide and chloramphenicol showed that induction of NiR activity was greatly inhibited by cycloheximide, but only slightly by chloramphenicol. Only a single GS isozyme was detected in extracts of green leaves of wheat, barley, and wild oat seedlings. No electrophoretic variation was observed within or among any of these three species. Thus, this enzyme appears to be the most structurally conserved of the three enzymes. PMID:11541965

Heath-Pagliuso, S; Huffaker, R C; Allard, R W

1984-10-01

287

The 4G\\/4G polymorphism of the hypofibrinolytic plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 gene: An independent risk factor for serious pregnancy complications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The specific aim of the current study of 133 women with at least 1 pregnancy and measures of hypofibrinolytic and thrombophilic gene mutations was to determine retrospectively whether the mutations were associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes including prematurity, miscarriage, stillbirth, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), eclampsia, and abruptio placentae. Four gene mutations (factor V Leiden, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase [MTHFR], prothrombin, and 4G\\/5G

C. J. Glueck; Harvey Phillips; Dan Cameron; Ping Wang; Robert N. Fontaine; Sarah K. Moore; Luann Sieve-Smith; Trent Tracy

2000-01-01

288

Methylation loss at H19 imprinted gene correlates withmethylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene promoter hypermethylation in semen samples from infertile males  

PubMed Central

Aberrant methylation at the H19 paternal imprinted gene has been identified in different cohorts of infertile males. The causes of H19 methylation errors are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the methylation status of the H19 gene in semen DNA samples from infertile males affected by MTHFR gene promoter hypermethylation. DNA from normal and abnormal semen samples harbouring MTHFR gene promoter hypermethylated, hmMTHFR-nor and hmMTHFR-abn, and without MTHFR methylation, MTHFR-nor and MTHFR-abn, were investigated for methylation status in the H19 locus using bisulfite-treated DNA PCR, followed by cloning and sequencing. The prevalence of H19 hypomethylated clones was 20% in hmMTHFR-nor and 0% in MTHFR-nor semen samples (p < 0.05), and 28% in hmMTHFR-abn compared with 16% in MTHFR-abn semen samples (p > 0.05). These results underscore the association between H19 methylation defects and hypermethylation of the MTHFR gene promoter in normal semen samples and suggest that aberrant methylation at H19 may occur in the normal sperm of infertile males affected by MTHFR gene dysfunction. These findings provide new insights into the mechanisms causing abnormal methylation in imprinted genes and, in turn, male infertility. PMID:23975186

Rotondo, John C; Selvatici, Rita; Di Domenico, Maura; Marci, Roberto; Vesce, Fortunato; Tognon, Mauro; Martini, Fernanda

2013-01-01

289

A Hypomethylating Variant of MTHFR, 677C.T, Blunts the Neural Response to Errors in Patients with  

E-print Network

A Hypomethylating Variant of MTHFR, 677C.T, Blunts the Neural Response to Errors in Patients Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts, United States of America Abstract Background: Responding to errors is a critical first step

Manoach, Dara S.

290

A novel point mutation in a 3{prime} splice site of the NADH-cytochrome b{sub 5} reductase gene results in immunologically undetectable enzyme and impaired NADH-dependent ascorbate regeneration in cultured fibroblasts of a patient with type II hereditary methemoglobinemia  

SciTech Connect

Hereditary methemoglobinemia with generalized deficiency of NADH-cytochrome b{sub 5} reductase (b{sub 5}R) (type II) is a rare disease characterized by severe developmental abnormalities, which often lead to premature death. Although the molecular relationship between the symptoms of this condition and the enzyme deficit are not understood, it is thought that an important cause is the loss of the lipid metabolizing activities of the endoplasmic reticulum-located reductase. However, the functions of the form located on outer mitochondrial membranes have not been considered previously. In this study, we have analyzed the gene of an Italian patient and identified a novel G{r_arrow}T transversion at the splice-acceptor site of the 9th exon, which results in the complete absence of immunologically detectable b{sub 5}R in blood cells and skin fibroblasts. In cultured fibroblasts of the patient, NADH-dependent cytochrome c reductase, ferricyanide reductase, and semidehydroascorbate reductase activities were severely reduced. The latter activity is known to be due to b{sub 5}R located on outer mitochondrial membranes. Thus, our results demonstrate that the reductase in its two membrane locations, endoplasmic reticulum and outer mitochondrial membranes, is the product of the same gene and suggest that a defect in ascorbate regeneration may contribute to the phenotype of hereditary methemoglobinemia of generalized type. 37 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Shirabe, Komie; Takeshita, Masazumi [Oita Medical Univ. (Japan); Landi, M.T. [Univ. of Milano, Milan (Italy)] [and others

1995-08-01

291

Fatty acyl-CoA reductase  

SciTech Connect

The present invention relates to bacterial enzymes, in particular to an acyl-CoA reductase and a gene encoding an acyl-CoA reductase, the amino acid and nucleic acid sequences corresponding to the reductase polypeptide and gene, respectively, and to methods of obtaining such enzymes, amino acid sequences and nucleic acid sequences. The invention also relates to the use of such sequences to provide transgenic host cells capable of producing fatty alcohols and fatty aldehydes.

Reiser, Steven E.; Somerville, Chris R.

1998-12-01

292

Association of polymorphisms MTHFR C677T and A1298C with risk of colorectal cancer, genetic and epigenetic characteristic of tumors, and response to chemotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aims  The enzyme MTHFR plays an important role in folate metabolism, and folate is implicated in carcinogenesis due to its role in DNA methylation,\\u000a repair, and synthesis. We analyze the relationship of MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms with biological, clinicopathological, genetic and epigenetic features of tumors, and the patient\\u000a outcome after treatment with 5-FU-based chemotherapy to determine the contribution

Antonia M. Fernández-Peralta; Lydia Daimiel; Nargisse Nejda; Daniel Iglesias; Vicente Medina Arana; Juan J. González-Aguilera

2010-01-01

293

The nitrate-sensing NasST system regulates nitrous oxide reductase and periplasmic nitrate reductase in Bradyrhizobium japonicum.  

PubMed

The soybean endosymbiont Bradyrhizobium japonicum is able to scavenge the greenhouse gas N2 O through the N2 O reductase (Nos). In previous research, N2 O emission from soybean rhizosphere was mitigated by B.?japonicum?Nos(++) strains (mutants with increased Nos activity). Here, we report the mechanism underlying the Nos(++) phenotype. Comparative analysis of Nos(++) mutant genomes showed that mutation of bll4572 resulted in Nos(++) phenotype. bll4572 encodes NasS, the nitrate (NO3 (-) )-sensor of the two-component NasST regulatory system. Transcriptional analyses of nosZ (encoding Nos) and other genes from the denitrification process in nasS and nasST mutants showed that, in the absence of NO3 (-) , nasS mutation induces nosZ and nap (periplasmic nitrate reductase) via nasT. NO3 (-) addition dissociated the NasS-NasT complex in vitro, suggesting the release of the activator NasT. Disruption of nasT led to a marked decrease in nosZ and nap transcription in cells incubated in the presence of NO3 (-) . Thus, although NasST is known to regulate the NO3 (-) -mediated response of NO3 (-) assimilation genes in bacteria, our results show that NasST regulates the NO3 (-) -mediated response of nosZ and napE genes, from the dissimilatory denitrification pathway, in B.?japonicum. PMID:24947409

Sánchez, Cristina; Itakura, Manabu; Okubo, Takashi; Matsumoto, Takashi; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Gotoh, Aina; Hidaka, Masafumi; Uchida, Takafumi; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

2014-10-01

294

The biochemical structure and function of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase provide the rationale to interpret the epidemiological results on the risk for infants with Down syndrome.  

PubMed

Studies on the structure of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and the mechanisms by which folate may reduce homocysteine levels in bacteria and in humans have provided a rationale to understand the conflicting epidemiological observations between the studies on the 677C-T and 1298A-C MTHFR polymorphic variants, and the risk of having an infant with Down syndrome (DS). However, three of the combined genotypes (CTCC, TTAC, and TTCC) are very infrequent in the human population. In fact, these three rare genotypes were only observed in two of the eight epidemiological studies that analyzed these genotype combinations and the risk of DS. In a study of the Indian population these three genotypes were identified in mothers of DS children but not in control mothers demonstrating a statistically significant increase in the risk of giving birth to DS infants. Conversely, the CTCC and TTAC genotypes were only observed in control mothers and not in mothers of DS infants in the Spanish study, while the TTCC genotype was not observed in any Spanish mother analyzed. These results were not related to the frequency of the T allele, since this was lower in the Indian population (21.4% among case mothers and 12.4% in control mothers) than in the Spanish population (33.9%). At present, several important biological aspects on the Hcy cycle are known, including: (a) the biochemical structure and function of the MTHFR enzyme, (b) the biological basis for the effect of the different 677C-T and 1298A-C MTHFR genotype combinations on Hcy levels, (c) that folate is not synthesized by the organism that obtained it from the diet, (d) that TT homozygotes will be at particular risk when their folate status is low because the mutant enzyme requires much higher levels of folate than the physiological one to stabilize the binding of flavin-adenosine-dinucleotide (FAD), (e) that the release of flavin is prevented by increasing the levels of folate, and (f) that the cystathionine-beta-synthase gene is located on chromosome 21. Together, these facts suggest that destabilization of the Hcy cycle in function of the levels of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), may be modified by some embryonic and maternal genotypes, as well as by maternal nutritional status and life style. This may also influence the probability that some embryos survive to birth, but in different way for those with and without trisomy 21, as is discussed in this article. PMID:18446861

Martínez-Frías, M L

2008-06-01

295

Hereditary Male Pseudohermaphroditism Associated with an Unstable Form of 5?-Reductase  

PubMed Central

The properties of 5?-reductase have been compared in genital skin fibroblasts cultured from five patients from three families (Los Angeles, Dallas, and Dominican Republic) in which hereditary male pseudohermaphroditism has been established to result from deficient conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. Despite the fact that 5?-reductase was immeasurable in a homogenate of epididymis removed from one of the Los Angeles patients, 5?-reductase activity was normal in intact fibroblasts and fibroblast extracts from both patients from the Los Angeles family. Although the apparent Km for testosterone was also near normal, the apparent Km for NADPH in these mutants is elevated some 40-fold above normal. Furthermore, the enzyme is not protected against denaturation at 45°C by concentrations of NADPH that stabilize normal 5?-reductase, and in intact fibroblasts from these patients (but not from controls), enzyme activity decreases promptly when protein synthesis is inhibited. We conclude that the mutation in this family results in an unstable enzyme. In contrast 5?-reductase activity in fibroblast extracts from a patient from the Dominican Republic family is similar to that previously described in two members of the Dallas family, namely total enzyme activity is low at the optimal pH for the normal reaction, and the apparent Km for testosterone is some 20-fold higher than that of the controls. We conclude that the mutations in the Dallas and Dominican Republic families are similar and result in low activity of the enzyme as the result of a decreased affinity for testosterone. Thus, two distinct types of mutations can produce male pseudohermaphroditism due to deficient dihydrotestosterone formation. PMID:29056

Leshin, Mark; Griffin, James E.; Wilson, Jean D.

1978-01-01

296

?????? ??? ???????? MTHFR ??? MTRR ???? ???????? ???????????? ??? ?????????????? ?????.  

E-print Network

??Osteoporosis and atherosclerosis are two multifactorial and degenerative diseases, which constitute major problems to the public health. These age-related diseases, share common risk factors and… (more)

?????????, ?????????? ???????

2011-01-01

297

Hydroxylamine Reductase Enzymes from Maize Scutellum and Their Relationship to Nitrite Reductase 1  

PubMed Central

Three enzymes contribute to the total hydroxylamine reductase activity of corn (Zea mays L.) scutellum extracts. Two of these resemble enzymes previously prepared from leaves, while the third, which accounts for a major part of the activity, appears to have no counterpart in leaf tissue. One of the hydroxylamine reductases found only in small amounts is associated with nitrite reductase and is induced, together with nitrite reductase, by nitrite. The other two enzymes are noninducible by nitrite and can be totally separated from nitrite reductase, which subsequently remains capable of catalyzing the reduction of nitrite to ammonia. Possible causes of the decline of hydroxylamine reductase activity during the induction of nitrite reductase are discussed. PMID:16659553

Hucklesby, Dereck P.; Hageman, Richard H.

1976-01-01

298

Effect of Mutation on Enzyme Motion in Dihydrofolate James B. Watney, Pratul K. Agarwal, and Sharon Hammes-Schiffer*  

E-print Network

Effect of Mutation on Enzyme Motion in Dihydrofolate Reductase James B. Watney, Pratul K. Agarwal- folate reductase enzyme are presented. Although residue 121 is on the exterior of the enzyme for the mutant than for the wild-type enzyme by an amount that is consistent with the experimentally observed

Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

299

Polymorphisms of MTHFR Associated with Higher Relapse/Death Ratio and Delayed Weekly MTX Administration in Pediatric Lymphoid Malignancies  

PubMed Central

Backgrounds. Outcome of childhood malignancy has been improved mostly due to the advances in diagnostic techniques and treatment strategies. While methotrexate (MTX) related polymorphisms have been under investigation in childhood malignancies, many controversial results have been offered. Objectives. To evaluate associations of polymorphisms related MTX metabolisms and clinical course in childhood lymphoid malignancies. Method. Eighty-two acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 21 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma children were enrolled in this study. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms in 2 genes (MTHFR (rs1801133/c.677C>T/p.Ala222Val and rs1801131/c.1298A>C/p.Glu429Ala) and SLCO1B1 (rs4149056/c.521T>C/p.V174A and rs11045879/c.1865+4846T>C)) were genotyped by Taqman PCR method or direct sequencing. Clinical courses were reviewed retrospectively. Results. No patient who had the AC/CC genotype of rs1801131 (MTHFR) had relapsed or died, in which distribution was statistically different among the AA genotype of rs1801131 (P = 0.004). Polymorphisms of SLCO1B1 (rs11045879 and rs4149056) were not correlated with MTX concentrations, adverse events, or disease outcome. Conclusions. Polymorphisms of MTHFR (rs1801131) could be the plausive candidate for prognostic predictor in childhood lymphoid malignancies. PMID:24386571

Fukushima, Takashi; Sakai, Aiko; Suzuki, Ryoko; Nakajima-Yamaguchi, Ryoko; Kobayashi, Chie; Iwabuchi, Atsushi; Saito, Makoto; Yoshimi, Ai; Nakao, Tomohei; Kato, Keisuke; Tsuchida, Masahiro; Takahashi, Hideto; Koike, Kazutoshi; Kiyokawa, Nobutaka; Noguchi, Emiko; Sumazaki, Ryo

2013-01-01

300

Arabidopsis Peptide Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase2 Prevents Cellular Oxidative Damage in Long Nights  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase (PMSR) is a ubiquitous enzyme that repairs oxidatively damaged proteins. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), a null mutation inPMSR2(pmsr2-1), encoding a cytosolic isoform of theenzyme, exhibited reduced growth in short-day conditions. In wild-type plants, a diurnally regulated peak of total PMSR activity occurred at the end of the 16-h dark period that was absent in pmsr2-1 plants.

Ulrike Bechtold; Denis J. Murphy; Philip M. Mullineaux

2004-01-01

301

Functional Role of Aspartic Acid27 in Dihydrofolate Reductase Revealed by Mutagenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crystal structures and enzymic properties of two mutant dihydrofolate reductases (Escherichia coli) were studied in order to clarify the functional role of an invariant carboxylic acid (aspartic acid at position 27) at the substrate binding site. One mutation, constructed by oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis, replaces Asp27 with asparagine; the other is a primary-site revertant to Ser27. The only structural perturbations involve

Elizabeth E. Howell; Jesus E. Villafranca; Mark S. Warren; Stuart J. Oatley; Joseph Kraut

1986-01-01

302

Alkyl hydroperoxide reductase repair by Helicobacter pylori methionine sulfoxide reductase.  

PubMed

Protein exposure to oxidants such as HOCl leads to formation of methionine sulfoxide (MetSO) residues, which can be repaired by methionine sulfoxide reductase (Msr). A Helicobacter pylori msr strain was more sensitive to HOCl-mediated killing than the parent. Because of its abundance in H. pylori and its high methionine content, alkyl hydroperoxide reductase C (AhpC) was hypothesized to be prone to methionine oxidation. AhpC was expressed as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli. AhpC activity was abolished by HOCl, while all six methionine residues of the enzyme were fully to partially oxidized. Upon incubation with a Msr repair mixture, AhpC activity was restored to nonoxidized levels and the MetSO residues were repaired to methionine, albeit to different degrees. The two most highly oxidized and then Msr-repaired methionine residues in AhpC, Met101 and Met133, were replaced with isoleucine residues by site-directed mutagenesis, either individually or together. E. coli cells expressing variant versions were more sensitive to t-butyl hydroperoxide than cells expressing native protein, and purified AhpC variant proteins had 5% to 39% of the native enzyme activity. Variant proteins were still able to oligomerize like the native version, and circular dichroism (CD) spectra of variant proteins revealed no significant change in AhpC conformation, indicating that the loss of activity in these variants was not related to major structural alterations. Our results suggest that both Met101 and Met133 residues are important for AhpC catalytic activity and that their integrity relies on the presence of a functional Msr. PMID:24097943

Benoit, Stéphane L; Bayyareddy, Krishnareddy; Mahawar, Manish; Sharp, Joshua S; Maier, Robert J

2013-12-01

303

Alkyl Hydroperoxide Reductase Repair by Helicobacter pylori Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase  

PubMed Central

Protein exposure to oxidants such as HOCl leads to formation of methionine sulfoxide (MetSO) residues, which can be repaired by methionine sulfoxide reductase (Msr). A Helicobacter pylori msr strain was more sensitive to HOCl-mediated killing than the parent. Because of its abundance in H. pylori and its high methionine content, alkyl hydroperoxide reductase C (AhpC) was hypothesized to be prone to methionine oxidation. AhpC was expressed as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli. AhpC activity was abolished by HOCl, while all six methionine residues of the enzyme were fully to partially oxidized. Upon incubation with a Msr repair mixture, AhpC activity was restored to nonoxidized levels and the MetSO residues were repaired to methionine, albeit to different degrees. The two most highly oxidized and then Msr-repaired methionine residues in AhpC, Met101 and Met133, were replaced with isoleucine residues by site-directed mutagenesis, either individually or together. E. coli cells expressing variant versions were more sensitive to t-butyl hydroperoxide than cells expressing native protein, and purified AhpC variant proteins had 5% to 39% of the native enzyme activity. Variant proteins were still able to oligomerize like the native version, and circular dichroism (CD) spectra of variant proteins revealed no significant change in AhpC conformation, indicating that the loss of activity in these variants was not related to major structural alterations. Our results suggest that both Met101 and Met133 residues are important for AhpC catalytic activity and that their integrity relies on the presence of a functional Msr. PMID:24097943

Benoit, Stephane L.; Bayyareddy, Krishnareddy; Mahawar, Manish; Sharp, Joshua S.

2013-01-01

304

Severe Arterial Thrombophilia Associated With a Homozygous MTHFR Gene Mutation (A1298C) in a Young Man With Klinefelter Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is the most common sex chromosome disorder in men. It may be associated with an increased risk for venous thrombosis and thromboembolism, which is partially explained by hypofibrinolysis due to androgen deficiency. Additional genetic or acquired thrombophilic states have been shown in KS patients complicated with venous thrombosis as isolated case reports. Arterial thrombotic events had not

Mustafa Ozbek; M. Akif Öztürk; Kemal Ureten; Ozcan Ceneli; Mehmet Erdogan; Ibrahim C. Haznedaroglu

2008-01-01

305

Imine Reductases: A Comparison of Glutamate Dehydrogenase to Ketimine Reductases in the Brain  

PubMed Central

A key intermediate in the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH)-catalyzed reaction is an imine. Mechanistically, therefore, GDH exhibits similarities to the ketimine reductases. In the current review, we briefly discuss (a) the metabolic importance of the GDH reaction in liver and brain, (b) the mechanistic similarities between GDH and the ketimine reductases, (c) the metabolic importance of the brain ketimine reductases, and (d) the neurochemical consequences of defective ketimine reductases. Our review contains many historical references to the early work on amino acid metabolism. This work tends to be overlooked nowadays, but is crucial for a contemporary understanding of the central importance of ketimines in nitrogen and intermediary metabolism. The ketimine reductases are important enzymes linking nitrogen flow among several key amino acids, yet have been little studied. The cerebral importance of the ketimine reductases is an area of biomedical research that deserves far more attention. PMID:23314864

Jamie, Joanne F.; Cooper, Arthur J. L.

2013-01-01

306

Molecular simulation to investigate the cofactor specificity for pichia stipitis Xylose reductase.  

PubMed

Xylose is one of the most abundant carbohydrates in nature, and widely used to produce bioethanol via fermentation in industry. Xylulose can produce two key enzymes: xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase. Owing to the disparate cofactor specificities of xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase, intracellular redox imbalance is detected during the xylose fermentation, resulting in low ethanol yields. To overcome this barrier, a common strategy is applied to artificially modify the cofactor specificity of xylose reductase. In this study, we utilized molecular simulation approaches to construct a 3D (three-dimensional) structural model for the NADP-dependent Pichia stipitis xylose reductase (PsXR). Based on the 3D model, the favourable binding modes for both cofactors NAD and NADP were obtained using the flexible docking procedure and molecular dynamics simulation. Structural analysis of the favourable binding modes showed that the cofactor binding site of PsXR was composed of 3 major components: a hydrophilic pocket, a hydrophobic pocket as well as a linker channel between the aforementioned two pockets. The hydrophilic pocket could recognize the nicotinamide moiety of the cofactors by hydrogen bonding networks, while the hydrophobic pocket functioned to position the adenine moiety of the cofactors by hydrophobic and ?-? stacking interactions. The linker channel contained some key residues for ligand-binding; their mutation could have impact to the specificity of PsXR. Finally, it was found that any of the two single mutations, K21A and K270N, might reverse the cofactor specificity of PsXR from major NADP- to NADdependent, which was further confirmed by the additional experiments. Our findings may provide useful insights into the cofactor specificity of PsXR, stimulating new strategies for better designing xylose reductase and improving ethanol production in industry. PMID:23521003

Xia, Xiao-Le; Cong, Shan; Weng, Xiao-Rong; Chen, Jin-Hua; Wang, Jing-Fang; Chou, Kuo-Chen

2013-11-01

307

Inefficient Translation Renders the Enterococcus faecalis fabK Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase Phenotypically Cryptic  

PubMed Central

Enoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase catalyzes the last step of the bacterial fatty acid elongation cycle. Enterococcus faecalis is unusual in that it encodes two unrelated enoyl-ACP reductases, FabI and FabK. We recently reported that deletion of the gene encoding FabI results in an unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) auxotroph despite the presence of fabK, a gene encoding a second fully functional enoyl-ACP reductase. By process of elimination, our prior report argued that poor expression was the reason that fabK failed to functionally replace FabI. We now report that FabK is indeed poorly expressed and that the expression defect is at the level of translation rather than transcription. We isolated four spontaneous mutants that allowed growth of the E. faecalis ?fabI strain on fatty acid-free medium. Each mutational lesion (single base substitution or deletion) extended the fabK ribosome binding site. Inactivation of fabK blocked growth, indicating that the mutations acted only on fabK rather than a downstream gene. The mutations activated fabK translation to levels that supported fatty acid synthesis and hence cell growth. Furthermore, site-directed and random mutagenesis experiments showed that point mutations that resulted in increased complementarity to the 3? end of the 16S rRNA increased FabK translation to levels sufficient to support growth, whereas mutations that decreased complementarity blocked fabK translation. PMID:24163335

Bi, Hongkai; Zhu, Lei

2014-01-01

308

Identification, Characterization, and Classification of Genes Encoding Perchlorate Reductase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reduction of perchlorate to chlorite, the first enzymatic step in the bacterial reduction of perchlorate, is catalyzed by perchlorate reductase. The genes encoding perchlorate reductase (pcrABCD )i n twoDechloromonas species were characterized. Sequence analysis of the pcrAB gene products revealed similarity to - and -subunits of microbial nitrate reductase, selenate reductase, dimethyl sulfide dehydrogenase, ethylbenzene dehydrogenase, and chlorate reductase,

Kelly S. Bender; Ching Shang; Romy Chakraborty; Sara M. Belchik; John D. Coates; Laurie A. Achenbach

2005-01-01

309

The K(C) channel in the cbb3-type respiratory oxygen reductase from Rhodobacter capsulatus is required for both chemical and pumped protons.  

PubMed

The heme-copper superfamily of proton-pumping respiratory oxygen reductases are classified into three families (A, B, and C families) based on structural and phylogenetic analyses. Most studies have focused on the A family, which includes the eukaryotic mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase as well as many bacterial homologues. Members of the C family, also called the cbb3-type oxygen reductases, are found only in prokaryotes and are of particular interest because of their presence in a number of human pathogens. All of the heme-copper oxygen reductases require proton-conducting channels to convey chemical protons to the active site for water formation and to convey pumped protons across the membrane. Previous work indicated that there is only one proton-conducting input channel (the K(C) channel) present in the cbb3-type oxygen reductases, which, if correct, must be utilized by both chemical protons and pumped protons. In this work, the effects of mutations in the K(C) channel of the cbb3-type oxygen reductase from Rhodobacter capsulatus were investigated by expressing the mutants in a strain lacking other respiratory oxygen reductases. Proton pumping was evaluated by using intact cells, and catalytic oxygen reductase activity was measured in isolated membranes. Two mutations, N346M and Y374F, severely reduced catalytic activity, presumably by blocking the chemical protons required at the active site. One mutation, T272A, resulted in a substantially lower proton-pumping stoichiometry but did not inhibit oxygen reductase activity. These are the first experimental data in support of the postulate that pumped protons are taken up from the bacterial cytoplasm through the K(C) channel. PMID:24563037

Y?ld?z, Gülgez Gökçe; Gennis, Robert B; Daldal, Fevzi; Öztürk, Mehmet

2014-05-01

310

The KC Channel in the cbb3-Type Respiratory Oxygen Reductase from Rhodobacter capsulatus Is Required for Both Chemical and Pumped Protons  

PubMed Central

The heme-copper superfamily of proton-pumping respiratory oxygen reductases are classified into three families (A, B, and C families) based on structural and phylogenetic analyses. Most studies have focused on the A family, which includes the eukaryotic mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase as well as many bacterial homologues. Members of the C family, also called the cbb3-type oxygen reductases, are found only in prokaryotes and are of particular interest because of their presence in a number of human pathogens. All of the heme-copper oxygen reductases require proton-conducting channels to convey chemical protons to the active site for water formation and to convey pumped protons across the membrane. Previous work indicated that there is only one proton-conducting input channel (the KC channel) present in the cbb3-type oxygen reductases, which, if correct, must be utilized by both chemical protons and pumped protons. In this work, the effects of mutations in the KC channel of the cbb3-type oxygen reductase from Rhodobacter capsulatus were investigated by expressing the mutants in a strain lacking other respiratory oxygen reductases. Proton pumping was evaluated by using intact cells, and catalytic oxygen reductase activity was measured in isolated membranes. Two mutations, N346M and Y374F, severely reduced catalytic activity, presumably by blocking the chemical protons required at the active site. One mutation, T272A, resulted in a substantially lower proton-pumping stoichiometry but did not inhibit oxygen reductase activity. These are the first experimental data in support of the postulate that pumped protons are taken up from the bacterial cytoplasm through the KC channel. PMID:24563037

Y?ld?z, Gulgez Gokce; Gennis, Robert B.; Daldal, Fevzi

2014-01-01

311

Comparative electrochemical study of superoxide reductases.  

PubMed

Superoxide reductases are involved in relevant biological electron transfer reactions related to protection against oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species. The electrochemical features of metalloproteins belonging to the three different classes of enzymes were studied by potentio-dynamic techniques (cyclic and square wave voltammetry): desulfoferrodoxin from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, class I superoxide reductases and neelaredoxin from Desulfovibrio gigas and Treponema pallidum, namely class II and III superoxide reductases, respectively. In addition, a small protein, designated desulforedoxin from D. gigas, which has high homology with the N-terminal domain of class I superoxide reductases, was also investigated. A comparison of the redox potentials and redox behavior of all the proteins is presented, and the results show that SOR center II is thermodynamically more stable than similar centers in different proteins, which may be related to an intramolecular electron transfer function. PMID:22143105

Cordas, Cristina M; Raleiras, Patrícia; Auchère, Françoise; Moura, Isabel; Moura, José J G

2012-02-01

312

Methemoglobin reductase in three species of bovidae  

E-print Network

METHEMOGIOBIN REDUCTASE IN THREE SPECIES OF BOVIDAE A Thesis by RONALD DALE FULTON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas Allb1 University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1976 Ma...Jor Subject: Animal Breeding METHEMOGLOBIN REDUCTASE IN THREE SPECIES OF BOVIDAE A Thesis by RONALD DALE FULTON Approved as to style and content by: Ch rman of' Committee () ead of' De ar ment) Member (Member December 1976 ABSTRACT Methemoglobin...

Fulton, Ronald Dale

2012-06-07

313

MTHFR/p53 polymorphisms as genetic factors for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer in HPV-infected Mexican women.  

PubMed

We performed a case-control association study to evaluate the association between common polymorphisms in MTHFR (C677T and A1298C) and the Arg72Pro polymorphism in the p53 gene and the risk for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or invasive cervical cancer (ICC) in Mexican HPV-infected women. We included 131 women with diagnosis of CIN grade I-II and 78 with CIN III or ICC; as controls we also included 274 women with normal Pap smear and negative HPV test. Genotyping for MTHFR and p53 polymorphisms was performed by PCR-RFPLs. HPV was tested by Hybrid Capture II. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated. Genotype frequencies for the 3 studied polymorphisms were distributed according to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The A1298C-MTHFR polymorphism showed significant differences for the heterozygous AC genotype and the C allele, whereas the AA genotype and A allele resulted to be genetic risk factors for CIN or ICC (p<0.03). The Arg72Pro-p53 polymorphism showed for the genotypes Arg/Pro and Pro/Pro, and for the Pro allele, a significant association only to the risk for CIN (p<0.03). The MTHFR/p53 interaction showed that the genotype combinations AA/ArgArg and AA/ArgPro were associated, respectively, to the risk of ICC and CIN (p<0.05). This study suggests that the A1298C-MTHFR polymorphism contributes to the genetic risk for both CIN and ICC, whereas the Arg72Pro-p53 polymorphism only contributes to the risk for CIN. The MTHFR/p53 genetic combinations AA/ArgArg and AA/ArgPro are associated genetic risk factors for ICC and CIN in Mexican HPV-infected women. PMID:24474455

González-Herrera, Lizbeth; Rodríguez-Morales, Patricia; Gonza Lez-Losa, María Del Refugio; Pérez-Mendoza, Gerardo; Canul-Canché, Jaqueline; Rosado-López, Iván; Cetina, Thelma Canto de

2014-01-01

314

A phase II trial of sequential ribonucleotide reductase inhibition in aggressive myeloproliferative neoplasms  

PubMed Central

Myeloproliferative neoplasms are a varied group of disorders that can have prolonged chronic phases, but eventually accelerate and can transform into a secondary acute myeloid leukemia that is ultimately fatal. Triapine is a novel inhibitor of the M2 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase. Sequential inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase with triapine and an M1 ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor (fludarabine) was noted to be safe, and led to a 29% complete plus partial response rate in myeloproliferative neoplasms. This article reports the findings of a phase II trial of triapine (105 mg/m2/day) followed by fludarabine (30 mg/m2/day) daily for 5 consecutive days in 37 patients with accelerated myeloproliferative neoplasms and secondary acute myeloid leukemia. The overall response rate was 49% (18/37), with a complete remission rate of 24% (9/37). Overall response rates and complete remissions were seen in all disease subsets, including secondary acute myeloid leukemia, in which the overall response rate and complete remission rate were 48% and 33%, respectively. All patients with known JAK2 V617F mutations (6/6) responded. The median overall survival of the entire cohort was 6.9 months, with a median overall survival of both overall responders and complete responders of 10.6 months. These data further demonstrate the promise of sequential inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase in patients with accelerated myeloproliferative neoplasms and secondary acute myeloid leukemia. This study was registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00381550). PMID:24362550

Zeidner, Joshua F.; Karp, Judith E.; Blackford, Amanda L.; Smith, B. Douglas; Gojo, Ivana; Gore, Steven D.; Levis, Mark J.; Carraway, Hetty E.; Greer, Jacqueline M.; Ivy, S. Percy; Pratz, Keith W.; McDevitt, Michael A.

2014-01-01

315

Tissue distribution and ontogeny of steroid 5 alpha-reductase isozyme expression.  

PubMed Central

The synthesis of dihydrotestosterone is catalyzed by steroid 5 alpha-reductase isozymes, designated types 1 and 2. Mutation of type 2 results in male pseudohermaphroditism, in which the external genitalia are phenotypically female at birth. Two striking and unexplained features of this disorder are that external genitalia of affected males undergo virilization during puberty and that these individuals have less temporal hair regression. The tissue-specific and developmental expression patterns of the 5 alpha-reductase isozymes were investigated by immunoblotting. The type 1 isozyme is not detectable in the fetus, is transiently expressed in newborn skin and scalp, and permanently expressed in skin from the time of puberty. There was no qualitative difference in 5 alpha-reductase type 1 expression between adult balding vs. nonbalding scalp. The type 2 isozyme is transiently expressed in skin and scalp of newborns. Type 2 is the predominant isozyme detectable in fetal genital skin, male accessory sex glands, and in the prostate, including benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate adenocarcinoma tissues. Both isozymes are expressed in the liver, but only after birth. These results are consistent with 5 alpha-reductase type 1 being responsible for virilization in type 2-deficient subjects during puberty, and suggest that the type 2 isozyme may be an initiating factor in development of male pattern baldness. Images PMID:7688765

Thigpen, A E; Silver, R I; Guileyardo, J M; Casey, M L; McConnell, J D; Russell, D W

1993-01-01

316

Superoxide reductase: fact or fiction?  

PubMed

It was recently proposed that anaerobic microorganisms contain a new pathway for detoxification of reactive oxygen species. This is centered around a novel mononuclear iron-containing enzyme, superoxide reductase (SOR), which catalyzes the reduction, rather than the dismutation, of superoxide to hydrogen peroxide. A surprisingly large amount of relevant data has accumulated in the two years or so since the proposal was made. Herein we address the questions: to what extent has the pathway been validated, and what fundamental issues have yet to be answered in considering the response of anaerobes to reactive oxygen species? The evidence for superoxide reduction by SOR is now overwhelming and comes from a variety of anaerobic and microaerophilic species. Moreover, the available spectroscopic and structural information provide a convincing case that the catalytic Fe site of SOR is structurally and electronically tuned to mediate superoxide reduction rather than oxidation. Kinetic analyses also support the original proposal of NAD(P)H, via rubredoxin and NAD(P)H:rubredoxin oxidoreductase, as the source of reductant. What is still to be determined is the fate of the peroxide generated by the SOR reaction. In particular, the role of otherwise well-characterized proteins like rubrerythrin, NADH peroxidase, and rubredoxin:oxygen oxidoreductase in "anaerobic" oxygen metabolism has yet to be established. PMID:12072972

Adams, Michael W W; Jenney, Francis E; Clay, Michael D; Johnson, Michael K

2002-06-01

317

Atomic Structure of Salutaridine Reductase from the Opium Poppy (Papaver somniferum)  

SciTech Connect

The opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) is one of the oldest known medicinal plants. In the biosynthetic pathway for morphine and codeine, salutaridine is reduced to salutaridinol by salutaridine reductase (SalR; EC 1.1.1.248) using NADPH as coenzyme. Here, we report the atomic structure of SalR to a resolution of {approx}1.9 {angstrom} in the presence of NADPH. The core structure is highly homologous to other members of the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase family. The major difference is that the nicotinamide moiety and the substrate-binding pocket are covered by a loop (residues 265-279), on top of which lies a large 'flap'-like domain (residues 105-140). This configuration appears to be a combination of the two common structural themes found in other members of the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase family. Previous modeling studies suggested that substrate inhibition is due to mutually exclusive productive and nonproductive modes of substrate binding in the active site. This model was tested via site-directed mutagenesis, and a number of these mutations abrogated substrate inhibition. However, the atomic structure of SalR shows that these mutated residues are instead distributed over a wide area of the enzyme, and many are not in the active site. To explain how residues distal to the active site might affect catalysis, a model is presented whereby SalR may undergo significant conformational changes during catalytic turnover.

Higashi, Yasuhiro; Kutchan, Toni M.; Smith, Thomas J. (Danforth)

2011-11-18

318

Changes in lifestyle and total homocysteine in relation to MTHFR(C677T) genotype: the Inter99 study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Reduction in total homocysteine (tHcy) may be clinically relevant in the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population.Objective:To examine the effects of changes in various lifestyle habits and lifestyle related biological CVD risk markers on changes in tHcy in relation to MTHFR(C677T) genotype.Design:A 1 year follow-up study.Setting:Copenhagen County, Denmark.Subjects:Statistical analyses were based on a population-based sample of 915

L L N Husemoen; T F Thomsen; M Fenger; T Jørgensen; LLN Husemoen

2006-01-01

319

Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T Polymorphism and Susceptibility to Cervical Cancer and Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background A number of studies have explored the association between methyl enetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism and susceptibility to cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). However, results remained controversial. To address this gap, we decided to conduct a meta-analysis of all available published studies. Methods Electronic literature searches of the PubMed, EmBase and Medline databases were performed up to April 30, 2012. Fixed-effects or random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled ORs for different genetic models. Results A total of 12 case-control studies were ultimately identified. No statistical correlation was found between C677T variants and cervical cancer for the overall population. However, subgroup analyses on the White women pointed to a significant protective effect for individuals heterozygous or homozygous for the T-allele (for CT vs. CC: OR?=?0.72, 95% CI 0.59–0.88; for TT vs. CC: OR?=?0.69, 95% CI?=?0.49–0.97; for CT+TT vs. CC: OR?=?0.71, 95% CI 0.59–0.86). C677T variants were associated with neither combined nor stratified CIN among the overall population. Conclusions This meta-analysis suggests that White women with mutant C677T genotypes might have a lower risk of cervical cancer, yet lacking enough statistical robustness. Further investigations are needed to get more insight into the role of this polymorphism in cervical carcinogenesis. PMID:23029458

Zhang, Qiong Hua; Hu, Ting Ting; Luo, Min Hong; Li, Mei Qing; Chen, Qing

2012-01-01

320

Structural basis of stereospecific reduction by quinuclidinone reductase  

PubMed Central

Chiral molecule (R)-3-quinuclidinol, a valuable compound for the production of various pharmaceuticals, is efficiently synthesized from 3-quinuclidinone by using NADPH-dependent 3-quinuclidinone reductase (RrQR) from Rhodotorula rubra. Here, we report the crystal structure of RrQR and the structure-based mutational analysis. The enzyme forms a tetramer, in which the core of each protomer exhibits the ?/? Rossmann fold and contains one molecule of NADPH, whereas the characteristic substructures of a small lobe and a variable loop are localized around the substrate-binding site. Modeling and mutation analyses of the catalytic site indicated that the hydrophobicity of two residues, I167 and F212, determines the substrate-binding orientation as well as the substrate-binding affinity. Our results revealed that the characteristic substrate-binding pocket composed of hydrophobic amino acid residues ensures substrate docking for the stereospecific reaction of RrQR in spite of its loose interaction with the substrate. PMID:24507746

2014-01-01

321

Respiratory arsenate reductase as a bidirectional enzyme  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The haloalkaliphilic bacterium Alkalilimnicola ehrlichii is capable of anaerobic chemolithoautotrophic growth by coupling the oxidation of arsenite (As(III)) to the reduction of nitrate and carbon dioxide. Analysis of its complete genome indicates that it lacks a conventional arsenite oxidase (Aox), but instead possesses two operons that each encode a putative respiratory arsenate reductase (Arr). Here we show that one homolog is expressed under chemolithoautotrophic conditions and exhibits both arsenite oxidase and arsenate reductase activity. We also demonstrate that Arr from two arsenate respiring bacteria, Alkaliphilus oremlandii and Shewanella sp. strain ANA-3, is also biochemically reversible. Thus Arr can function as a reductase or oxidase. Its physiological role in a specific organism, however, may depend on the electron potentials of the molybdenum center and [Fe–S] clusters, additional subunits, or constitution of the electron transfer chain. This versatility further underscores the ubiquity and antiquity of microbial arsenic metabolism.

Richey, C.; Chovanec, P.; Hoeft, S.E.; Oremland, R.S.; Basu, P.; Stolz, J.F.

2009-01-01

322

Temperature-sensitive DNA mutant of Chinese hamster ovary cells with a thermolabile ribonucleotide reductase activity.  

PubMed Central

JB3-B is a Chinese hamster ovary cell mutant previously shown to be temperature sensitive for DNA replication (J. J. Dermody, B. E. Wojcik, H. Du, and H. L. Ozer, Mol. Cell. Biol. 6:4594-4601, 1986). It was chosen for detailed study because of its novel property of inhibiting both polyomavirus and adenovirus DNA synthesis in a temperature-dependent manner. Pulse-labeling studies demonstrated a defect in the rate of adenovirus DNA synthesis. Measurement of deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) pools as a function of time after shift of uninfected cultures from 33 to 39 degrees C revealed that all four dNTP pools declined at similar rates in extracts prepared either from whole cells or from rapidly isolated nuclei. Ribonucleoside triphosphate pools were unaffected by a temperature shift, ruling out the possibility that the mutation affects nucleoside diphosphokinase. However, ribonucleotide reductase activity, as measured in extracts, declined after cell cultures underwent a temperature shift, in parallel with the decline in dNTP pool sizes. Moreover, the activity of cell extracts was thermolabile in vitro, consistent with the model that the JB3-B mutation affects the structural gene for one of the ribonucleotide reductase subunits. The kinetics of dNTP pool size changes after temperature shift are quite distinct from those reported after inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase with hydroxyurea. An indirect effect on ribonucleotide reductase activity in JB3-B has not been excluded since human sequences other than those encoding the enzyme subunits can correct the temperature-sensitive growth defect in the mutant. Images PMID:2233712

Wojcik, B E; Dermody, J J; Ozer, H L; Mun, B; Mathews, C K

1990-01-01

323

Folate supplementation, MTHFR gene polymorphism and neural tube defects: a community based case control study in North India.  

PubMed

The present study analyses the potential role of MTHFR gene polymorphism, folate supplementation and dietary pattern among the mothers of NTD neonates and controls in heterogeneous populations of North India, with the special focus on their ethnic labels. Results indicated significant increased risk for neural tube defects with respect to low folic acid supplementation and vegetarian diet in univariate and multivariate analyses. There was no significant difference in the genotypic or allelic distribution of MTHFR C677T polymorphism, however, high frequency of CT genotype, as observed, among controls suggests heterozygous advantage probably due to supplementary folate. Among the two communities, Muslim NTD mothers had higher TT genotype showing increased risk for neural tube defects (adjusted OR: 12.9; 95% CI: 1.21-136.8) and lower folic acid supplementation (adjusted OR: 3.5; 95% CI: 1.18-10.22). Whereas, marginal increased risk for NTDs with vegetarian diet was observed among Hindus. Cultural and ethnic variation in the risk factors for neural tube defects is highlighted in the study. PMID:21792640

Deb, Roumi; Arora, Jyoti; Meitei, Sanjenbam Yaiphaba; Gupta, Sangeeta; Verma, Vanita; Saraswathy, Kallur Nava; Saran, Sunil; Kalla, Aloke Kumar

2011-09-01

324

MTHFR 677C>T effects on anterior cingulate structure and function during response monitoring in schizophrenia: a preliminary study  

PubMed Central

Patients with schizophrenia exhibit deficient response monitoring as indexed by blunted activation of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and functionally related regions during error commission. This pattern may reflect heritable alterations of dACC function. We examined whether the hypofunctional 677C>T variant in MTHFR, a candidate schizophrenia risk gene, contributed to our previous findings of blunted error-related dACC activation and reduced microstructural integrity of dACC white matter. Eighteen medicated outpatients with schizophrenia underwent diffusion tensor imaging and performed an antisaccade paradigm during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). T allele carriers exhibited significantly less error-related activation than C/C patients in bilateral dACC and substantia nigra, regions that are thought to mediate dopamine-dependent error-based reinforcement learning. T carrier patients also showed significantly lower fractional anisotropy in bilateral dACC. These findings suggest that the MTHFR 677T allele blunts response monitoring in schizophrenia, presumably via effects on dopamine signaling and dACC white matter microstructural integrity. PMID:21190096

Brohawn, David G.; Friedman, Jesse S.; Dyckman, Kara A.; Thakkar, Katharine N.; Agam, Yigal; Vangel, Mark G.; Goff, Donald C.; Manoach, Dara S.

2014-01-01

325

Loss of the Thioredoxin Reductase Trr1 Suppresses the Genomic Instability of Peroxiredoxin tsa1 Mutants  

PubMed Central

The absence of Tsa1, a key peroxiredoxin that scavenges H2O2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, causes the accumulation of a broad spectrum of mutations. Deletion of TSA1 also causes synthetic lethality in combination with mutations in RAD51 or several key genes involved in DNA double-strand break repair. In the present study, we propose that the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the primary cause of genome instability of tsa1? cells. In searching for spontaneous suppressors of synthetic lethality of tsa1? rad51? double mutants, we identified that the loss of thioredoxin reductase Trr1 rescues their viability. The trr1? mutant displayed a CanR mutation rate 5-fold lower than wild-type cells. Additional deletion of TRR1 in tsa1? mutant reduced substantially the CanR mutation rate of tsa1? strain (33-fold), and to a lesser extent, of rad51? strain (4-fold). Loss of Trr1 induced Yap1 nuclear accumulation and over-expression of a set of Yap1-regulated oxido-reductases with antioxidant properties that ultimately re-equilibrate intracellular redox environment, reducing substantially ROS-associated DNA damages. This trr1? -induced effect was largely thioredoxin-dependent, probably mediated by oxidized forms of thioredoxins, the primary substrates of Trr1. Thioredoxin Trx1 and Trx2 were constitutively and strongly oxidized in the absence of Trr1. In trx1? trx2? cells, Yap1 was only moderately activated; consistently, the trx1? trx2? double deletion failed to efficiently rescue the viability of tsa1? rad51?. Finally, we showed that modulation of the dNTP pool size also influences the formation of spontaneous mutation in trr1? and trx1? trx2? strains. We present a tentative model that helps to estimate the respective impact of ROS level and dNTP concentration in the generation of spontaneous mutations. PMID:25247923

Ragu, Sandrine; Dardalhon, Michele; Sharma, Sushma; Iraqui, Ismail; Buhagiar-Labarchede, Geraldine; Grondin, Virginie; Kienda, Guy; Vernis, Laurence; Chanet, Roland; Kolodner, Richard D.; Huang, Meng-Er; Faye, Gerard

2014-01-01

326

Evaluation of nitrate reductase activity in Rhizobium japonicum  

SciTech Connect

Nitrate reductase activity was evaluated by four approaches, using four strains of Rhizobium japonicum and 11 chlorate-resistant mutants of the four strains. It was concluded that in vitro assays with bacteria or bacteroids provide the most simple and reliable assessment of the presence or absence of nitrate reductase. Nitrite reductase activity with methyl viologen and dithionite was found, but the enzyme activity does not confound the assay of nitrate reductase. 18 references

Streeter, J.G.; DeVine, P.J.

1983-08-01

327

Dietary folate intake in combination with MTHFR C677T genotype and promoter methylation of tumor suppressor and DNA repair genes in sporadic colorectal adenomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methylation of the promoter region of tumor suppressor genes is increasingly recognized to play a role in cancer development through silencing of gene transcription. We examined the associations between dietary folate intake, MTHFR C677T genotype, and promoter methylation of six tumor suppressor and DNA repair genes. Patients with colorectal adenoma (n = 149) and controls (n = 286) with folate

M. van den Donk; M. van Engeland; E. P. M. Pellis; B. J. M. Witteman; F. J. Kok; J. Keijer; E. Kampman

2007-01-01

328

Plasma homocysteine, MTHFR C677T, CBS 844ins68bp, and MTHFD1 G1958A polymorphisms in spontaneous cervical artery dissections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mild hyperhomocysteinemia is a probable risk factor for atherosclerotic diseases and stroke. Recently, associations of elevated plasma homocysteine concentrations in the acute phase and of MTHFR 677 TT genotype with spontaneous cervical artery dissections (sCAD) have been reported. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis in the currently largest sample of patients with sCAD, taking into account

Carsten Konrad; Georg A. Müller; Claus Langer; Gregor Kuhlenbäumer; Klaus Berger; Darius G. Nabavi; Rainer Dziewas; Florian Stögbauer; Erich B. Ringelstein; Ralf Junker

2004-01-01

329

Genotypes of the C677T and A1298C polymorphisms of the MTHFR gene as a cause of human spontaneous embryo loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Polymorphisms C677T and A1298C of the MTHFR gene have been implicated in fetal viability. In this study, we determined the allele and genotype frequencies of these polymorphisms in different populations, includ- ing spontaneous abortion (SA) fetal tissues, with the objective of evaluating their impact on fetal viability. METHODS: 342 samples of fetal tissues, selected from SA occurring during the

G. Callejon; A. Mayor-Olea; A. J. Jimenez; M. J. Gaitan; A. R. Palomares; F. Martinez; M. Ruiz; Armando Reyes-Engel

2007-01-01

330

Enhancement of nitrate reductase activity by benzyladenine in Agrostemma githago  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrate reductase activity in excised embryos of Agrostemma githago increases in response to both NOâ⁻ and cytokinins. Discussed was whether cytokinins affected nitrate reductase activity directly or through NOâ⁻, either by amplifying the effect of low endogenous NOâ⁻ levels, or by making NOâ⁻ available for induction from a metabolically inactive compartment. Nitrate reductase activity was enhanced on the average by

H. Kende; H. Hahn; S. E. Kays

1971-01-01

331

KRAS Mutation  

PubMed Central

Treatment of colon carcinoma with the anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibody Cetuximab is reported to be ineffective in KRAS-mutant tumors. Mutation testing techniques have therefore become an urgent concern. We have compared three methods for detecting KRAS mutations in 59 cases of colon carcinoma: 1) high resolution melting, 2) the amplification refractory mutation system using a bifunctional self-probing primer (ARMS/Scorpion, ARMS/S), and 3) direct sequencing. We also evaluated the effects of the methods of sectioning and coring of paraffin blocks to obtain tumor DNA on assay sensitivity and specificity. The most sensitive and specific combination of block sampling and mutational analysis was ARMS/S performed on DNA derived from 1-mm paraffin cores. This combination of tissue sampling and testing method detected KRAS mutations in 46% of colon tumors. Four samples were positive by ARMS/S, but initially negative by direct sequencing. Cloned DNA samples were retested by direct sequencing, and in all four cases KRAS mutations were identified in the DNA. In six cases, high resolution melting abnormalities could not be confirmed as specific mutations either by ARMS/S or direct sequencing. We conclude that coring of the paraffin blocks and testing by ARMS/S is a sensitive, specific, and efficient method for KRAS testing. PMID:20007845

Franklin, Wilbur A.; Haney, Jerry; Sugita, Michio; Bemis, Lynne; Jimeno, Antonio; Messersmith, Wells A.

2010-01-01

332

Resveratrol, a remarkable inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resveratrol, a natural phytoalexin found in grapes, is well known for its presumed role in the prevention of heart disease, associated with red wine consumption. We show here that it is a remarkable inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase and DNA synthesis in mammalian cells, which might have further applications as an antiproliferative or a cancer chemopreventive agent in humans.

Marc Fontecave; Michel Lepoivre; Eric Elleingand; Catherine Gerez; Olivier Guittet

1998-01-01

333

Methemoglobin reductase in three species of Bovidae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isoelectric focusing of red cell hemolysates revealed several isozymes that stain for NADH-methemoglobin reductase. Evidence for two different genetic loci controlling the banding patterns was obtained. One locus controlled a single band present in all animals tested. The second locus controlled ten different banding patterns that could be accounted for by four codominant alleles. Band B occurred in Bison bison.

Ronald D. Fulton; J. Caldwell; D. F. Weseli

1978-01-01

334

Ribonucleotide reductases: the evolution of allosteric regulation.  

PubMed

Ribonucleotide reductases catalyze in all living organisms the production of the deoxyribonucleotides required for DNA replication and repair. Their appearance during evolution was a prerequisite for the transition from the "RNA world," where RNA sufficed for both catalysis and information transfer, to today's situation where life depends on the interplay among DNA, RNA, and protein. Three classes of ribonucleotide reductases exist today, widely differing in their primary and quaternary structures but all with a highly similar allosteric regulation of their substrate specificity. Here, I discuss the diversities between the three classes, describe their allosteric regulation, and discuss the evidence for their evolution. The appearance of oxygen on earth provided the likely driving force for enzyme diversification. From today's characteristics of the three classes, including their allosteric regulation, I propose that the anaerobic class III reductases with their iron-sulfur cluster and the requirement for S-adenosylmethionine for the generation of a glycyl protein free radical are the closest relatives to an ancestor ribonucleotide reductase. PMID:11795865

Reichard, Peter

2002-01-15

335

Ribonucleotide reductases: radical enzymes with suicidal tendencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ribonucletide reductases catalyze a key step in DNA biosynthesis, using a diverse array of unprecedented metallo-cofactors to generate a transient protein radical that initiates nucleotide reduction. The new understanding of the chemistry and biochemistry of the system has allowed rational design of inhibitors of this process, which function as antitumor and antiviral agents.

JoAnne Stubbe; Wilfred A. van der Donk

1995-01-01

336

Structure, function, and inhibition of enoyl reductases  

E-print Network

A active site. Finally, high-throughput screening approaches using enoyl acyl-carrier-protein reductases as the targets were utilized to identify new lead compounds for future generations of drugs. The 2.7 Å crystal structure of InhA bound with Genz-10850...

Kuo, Mack Ryan

2009-05-15

337

Population study of erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activity of erythrocyte glutathione reductase (GR) was determined in a group of 87 prisoners from northern Thailand (65 with normal, 22 with deficient erythrocyte G-6-PD) without and with added FAD. The amount of stimulation by FAD was inversely related to the original activity suggesting that FAD stimulation in vivo is one of the main determinants of GR activity. 4

Gebhard Flatz

1971-01-01

338

Functional significance of evolving protein sequence in dihydrofolate reductase from bacteria to humans  

PubMed Central

With the rapidly growing wealth of genomic data, experimental inquiries on the functional significance of important divergence sites in protein evolution are becoming more accessible. Here we trace the evolution of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and identify multiple key divergence sites among 233 species between humans and bacteria. We connect these sites, experimentally and computationally, to changes in the enzyme’s binding properties and catalytic efficiency. One of the identified evolutionarily important sites is the N23PP modification (?mid-Devonian, 415–385 Mya), which alters the conformational states of the active site loop in Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase and negatively impacts catalysis. This enzyme activity was restored with the inclusion of an evolutionarily significant lid domain (G51PEKN in E. coli enzyme; ?2.4 Gya). Guided by this evolutionary genomic analysis, we generated a human-like E. coli dihydrofolate reductase variant through three simple mutations despite only 26% sequence identity between native human and E. coli DHFRs. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the overall conformational motions of the protein within a common scaffold are retained throughout evolution, although subtle changes to the equilibrium conformational sampling altered the free energy barrier of the enzymatic reaction in some cases. The data presented here provide a glimpse into the evolutionary trajectory of functional DHFR through its protein sequence space that lead to the diverged binding and catalytic properties of the E. coli and human enzymes. PMID:23733948

Liu, C. Tony; Hanoian, Philip; French, Jarrod B.; Pringle, Thomas H.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon; Benkovic, Stephen J.

2013-01-01

339

Gene Polymorphisms of Homocysteine Metabolism-Related Enzymes in Chinese Patients with Occlusive Coronary Artery or Cerebral Vascular Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mutations in homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism-related enzyme genes including methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T, cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS) 844ins68, and methionine synthase (MS) A2756G have been identified as genetic risk factors for thromboembolic events. It has been noticed that these gene mutations have heterogeneous distributions among different ethnic groups or geographic areas. The data on the prevalence of the gene mutations in

Guangsen Zhang; Chongwen Dai

2001-01-01

340

Efficacies of Lipophilic Inhibitors of Dihydrofolate Reductase against Parasitic Protozoa  

PubMed Central

Competitive inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) are used in chemotherapy or prophylaxis of many microbial pathogens, including the eukaryotic parasites Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii. Unfortunately, point mutations in the DHFR gene can confer resistance to inhibitors specific to these pathogens. We have developed a rapid system for testing inhibitors of DHFRs from a variety of parasites. We replaced the DHFR gene from the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae with the DHFR-coding region from humans, P. falciparum, T. gondii, Pneumocystis carinii, and bovine or human-derived Cryptosporidium parvum. We studied 84 dicyclic and tricyclic 2,4-diaminopyrimidine derivatives in this heterologous system and identified those most effective against the DHFR enzymes from each of the pathogens. Among these compounds, six tetrahydroquinazolines were effective inhibitors of every strain tested, but they also inhibited the human DHFR and were not selective for the parasites. However, two quinazolines and four tetrahydroquinazolines were both potent and selective inhibitors of the P. falciparum DHFR. These compounds show promise for development as antimalarial drugs. PMID:11120964

Lau, Hollis; Ferlan, Jill T.; Brophy, Victoria Hertle; Rosowsky, Andre; Sibley, Carol Hopkins

2001-01-01

341

Characterization of the amino acids involved in substrate specificity of methionine sulfoxide reductase A.  

PubMed

Methionine sulfoxide reductases (Msrs) are ubiquitous enzymes that catalyze the thioredoxin-dependent reduction of methionine sulfoxide (MetSO) back to methionine. In vivo, Msrs are essential in protecting cells against oxidative damages on proteins and in the virulence of some bacteria. There exists two structurally unrelated classes of Msrs. MsrAs are stereo-specific toward the S epimer on the sulfur of the sulfoxide, whereas MsrBs are specific toward the R isomer. Both classes of Msrs display a similar catalytic mechanism of sulfoxide reduction by thiols via the sulfenic acid chemistry and a better affinity for protein-bound MetSO than for free MetSO. Recently, the role of the amino acids implicated in the catalysis of the reductase step of Neisseria meningitidis MsrA was determined. In the present study, the invariant amino acids potentially involved in substrate binding, i.e. Phe-52, Trp-53, Asp-129, His-186, Tyr-189, and Tyr-197, were substituted. The catalytic parameters under steady-state conditions and of the reductase step of the mutated MsrAs were determined and compared with those of the wild type. Altogether, the results support the presence of at least two binding subsites. The first one, whose contribution is major in the efficiency of the reductase step and in which the epsilon-methyl group of MetSO binds, is the hydrophobic pocket formed by Phe-52 and Trp-53, the position of the indole ring being stabilized by interactions with His-186 and Tyr-189. The second subsite composed of Asp-129 and Tyr-197 contributes to the binding of the main chain of the substrate but to a lesser extent. PMID:17500063

Gand, Adeline; Antoine, Mathias; Boschi-Muller, Sandrine; Branlant, Guy

2007-07-13

342

Characterization of erythrose reductases from filamentous fungi  

PubMed Central

Proteins with putative erythrose reductase activity have been identified in the filamentous fungi Trichoderma reesei, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium graminearum by in silico analysis. The proteins found in T. reesei and A. niger had earlier been characterized as glycerol dehydrogenase and aldehyde reductase, respectively. Corresponding genes from all three fungi were cloned, heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified. Subsequently, they were used to establish optimal enzyme assay conditions. All three enzymes strictly require NADPH as cofactor, whereas with NADH no activity could be observed. The enzymatic characterization of the three enzymes using ten substrates revealed high substrate specificity and activity with D-erythrose and D-threose. The enzymes from T. reesei and A. niger herein showed comparable activities, whereas the one from F. graminearum reached only about a tenth of it for all tested substrates. In order to proof in vivo the proposed enzyme function, we overexpressed the erythrose reductase-encoding gene in T. reesei. An increased production of erythritol by the recombinant strain compared to the parental strain could be detected. PMID:23924507

2013-01-01

343

The co-chaperone and reductase ERdj5 facilitates rod opsin biogenesis and quality control.  

PubMed

Mutations in rhodopsin, the light-sensitive protein of rod cells, are the most common cause of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP). Many rod opsin mutations, such as P23H, lead to misfolding of rod opsin with detrimental effects on photoreceptor function and viability. Misfolded P23H rod opsin and other mutations in the intradiscal domain are characterized by the formation of an incorrect disulphide bond between C185 and C187, as opposed to the correct and highly conserved C110-C187 disulphide bond. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that incorrect disulphide bond formation might be a factor that affects the biogenesis of rod opsin by studying wild-type (WT) or P23H rod opsin in combination with amino acid substitutions that prevent the formation of incorrect disulphide bonds involving C185. These mutants had altered traffic dynamics, suggesting a requirement for regulation of disulphide bond formation/reduction during rod opsin biogenesis. Here, we show that the BiP co-chaperone and reductase protein ERdj5 (DNAJC10) regulates this process. ERdj5 overexpression promoted the degradation, improved the endoplasmic reticulum mobility and prevented the aggregation of P23H rod opsin. ERdj5 reduction by shRNA delayed rod opsin degradation and promoted aggregation. The reductase and co-chaperone activity of ERdj5 were both required for these effects on P23H rod opsin. Furthermore, mutations in these functional domains acted as dominant negatives that affected WT rod opsin biogenesis. Collectively, these data identify ERdj5 as a member of the proteostasis network that regulates rod opsin biogenesis and supports a role for disulphide bond formation/reduction in rod opsin biogenesis and disease. PMID:25055872

Athanasiou, Dimitra; Bevilacqua, Dalila; Aguila, Monica; McCulley, Caroline; Kanuga, Naheed; Iwawaki, Takao; Paul Chapple, J; Cheetham, Michael E

2014-12-15

344

Flavodiiron Oxygen Reductase from Entamoeba histolytica: MODULATION OF SUBSTRATE PREFERENCE BY TYROSINE 271 AND LYSINE 53.  

PubMed

Flavodiiron proteins (FDPs) are a family of enzymes endowed with bona fide oxygen- and/or nitric-oxide reductase activity, although their substrate specificity determinants remain elusive. After a comprehensive comparison of available three-dimensional structures, particularly of FDPs with a clear preference toward either O2 or NO, two main differences were identified near the diiron active site, which led to the construction of site-directed mutants of Tyr(271) and Lys(53) in the oxygen reducing Entamoeba histolytica EhFdp1. The biochemical and biophysical properties of these mutants were studied by UV-visible and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopies coupled to potentiometry. Their reactivity with O2 and NO was analyzed by stopped-flow absorption spectroscopy and amperometric methods. These mutations, whereas keeping the overall properties of the redox cofactors, resulted in increased NO reductase activity and faster inactivation of the enzyme in the reaction with O2, pointing to a role of the mutated residues in substrate selectivity. PMID:25151360

Gonçalves, Vera L; Vicente, João B; Pinto, Liliana; Romão, Célia V; Frazão, Carlos; Sarti, Paolo; Giuffrè, Alessandro; Teixeira, Miguel

2014-10-10

345

Dietary intake of folate and riboflavin, MTHFR C677T Genotype, and colorectal adenoma risk: a Dutch case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the associations between dietary intake of folate and vitamin B2, MTHFR C677T genotype, and colorectal adenomas in a Dutch case-control study. Data of cases with at least one histologically confirmed colorectal adenoma (n = 768) and controls with no history of any type of colorectal polyp (n = 709) were included. Dietary intake was assessed using a food-frequency

M. van den Donk; G. M. Buijsse; S. W. van den Berg; M. C. Ocké; J. L. Harryvan; F. M. Nagengast; F. J. Kok; E. Kampman

2005-01-01

346

Assessment of tailor-made prevention of atherosclerosis with folic acid supplementation: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in each MTHFR C677T genotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed at assessing the effect of folic acid supplementation quantitatively in each MTHFR C677T genotype and considered the efficiency of tailor-made prevention of atherosclerosis. Study design was genotype-stratified, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. The setting was a Japanese company in the chemical industry. Subjects were 203 healthy men after exclusion of those who took folic acid or drugs known

Koichi Miyaki; Mitsuru Murata; Haruhito Kikuchi; Izumi Takei; Takeo Nakayama; Kiyoaki Watanabe; Kazuyuki Omae

2005-01-01

347

MTHFR 677T Is a Strong Determinant of the Degree of Hearing Loss Among Polish Males with Postlingual Sensorineural Hearing Impairment  

PubMed Central

Hearing impairment (HI) is the most common sensory handicap. Congenital HI often has a genetic basis, whereas the etiology of nonsyndromic postlingual HI (npHI) usually remains unidentified. Our purpose was to test whether the MTHFR C677T (rs1801133) polymorphism affecting folate metabolism is associated with the occurrence or severity of npHI. We studied rs1801133 genotypes in 647 npHI patients (age <40, sudden sensorineural loss excluded, HI characterized as mean of better ear hearing thresholds for 0.5–8 kHz) and 3273 adult controls from the background population. Genotype distribution among patients and controls was similar, but among male cases (n=302) we found a dose-dependent correlation of MTHFR 677T with the degree of HI (mean thresholds in dB: 38.8, 44.9, and 53.3, for CC, CT, and TT genotypes, respectively; p=0.0013, pcor.=0.017). Among male patients rs1801133 TT significantly increased the risk of severe/profound HI (odds ratio=4.88, p=0.001). Among controls the known effect of MTHFR 677T on plasma total homocysteine was more pronounced in men than in women (p<0.00004 for genotype-sex interaction) suggesting that in Poland folate deficiency is more prevalent in males. In conclusion, we report a novel strong effect of MTHFR 677T among males with npHI. The functional significance of rs1801133 suggests that these patients may benefit from folate supplementation—an intervention which is simple, cheap, and devoid of side effects. PMID:22424391

Pollak, Agnieszka; Mueller-Malesinska, Malgorzata; Lechowicz, Urszula; Skorka, Agata; Korniszewski, Lech; Sobczyk-Kopciol, Agnieszka; Waskiewicz, Anna; Broda, Grazyna; Iwanicka-Pronicka, Katarzyna; Oldak, Monika; Skarzynski, Henryk

2012-01-01

348

Structural interconversions modulate activity of Escherichia coli ribonucleotide reductase  

E-print Network

Essential for DNA biosynthesis and repair, ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) convert ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides via radical-based chemistry. Although long known that allosteric regulation of RNR activity is ...

Ando, Nozomi

349

Influence of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphisms on the outcome of pediatric patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma treated with high-dose methotrexate.  

PubMed

High-dose methotrexate (MTX) is a key component of most treatment protocols for childhood and adolescent non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Recent studies have suggested that the toxicity of antifolate drugs, such as MTX, is affected by inherited single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in folate metabolizing genes. The aim of our study was to investigate the potential influence of the C677T and A1298C genetic variants of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene on the clinical toxicity and efficacy of MTX in pediatric patients with NHL (n = 95) treated with therapeutic protocols Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica (AIEOP) LNH-97 and EURO LB-02. We demonstrated that patients with the 677T genotype had an approximately six-fold greater risk of developing hematological toxicity compared with wild-type carriers, especially in the 1 g/m(2) treatment group (p = 0.01). Moreover, we identified a correlation between the risk of relapse and the T genotype: T carriers had reduced disease-free survival compared with wild-type patients (67% vs. 100%). Our data suggest a pharmacogenetic influence on the adverse effects of high-dose MTX in the 1 g/m(2) treatment group. PMID:23488607

D'Angelo, Velia; Ramaglia, Maria; Iannotta, Adriana; Francese, Matteo; Pota, Elvira; Affinita, Maria Carmen; Pecoraro, Giulia; Indolfi, Cristiana; Di Martino, Martina; Di Pinto, Daniela; Buffardi, Salvatore; Poggi, Vincenzo; Indolfi, Paolo; Casale, Fiorina

2013-12-01

350

[Homocysteinemia and its relationship with the methylentetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism in various ethnic groups from western Venezuela].  

PubMed

The prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia and C677T MTHFR polymorphism was studied in various ethnic groups from Western Venezuela (60 Wayuu Indians, 42 italian immigrants and 77 Venezuelan mestizos) in relation with the prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia and the C677T MTHFR polymorphism. Homocysteinemia was determined by polarized fluorescence immunoassay in an IMX system, serum folate was measured by radioimmunoanalysis and the MTHFR genotype was determined by PCR and restriction analysis. Hyperhomocysteinemia was defined as a value over 2 SD above the mean value for normal MTHFR (CC677) in each group. The prevalence of MTHFR variants (C677T and 677TT) was elevated in all ethnic groups (78% among the wayuu, 76% among Italians and 63% among mestizos) with a significant association between the concentrations of homocysteine and the levels of serum folate among the wayuu (p < 0.0001) and the mestizos (p < 0.001) only. Hyperhomocysteinemia was associated with MTHFR variants in 23% of the wayuu (OR: 6.17, CI 95: 0.74-51.36), 9.5% of the Italians (OR: 0.93, CI 95: 0.085-10.10) and 20.7 of the Venezuelans mestizos (OR: 5.2, CI 95: 1.08-24.90, p > 0.03). There was no relationship between hyperhomocysteinemia and folate deficiency in any of the groups studied. In conclusion, despite a high prevalence of C677T MTHFR variants in these ethnic groups of western Venezuela, the lack of no evidence of hyperhomocysteinemia combined with folate deficiency may imply that the nutritional status of these groups plays an important role in the control of hyperhomocysteinemia as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. PMID:16353542

Vizcaíno, Gilberto; Diez-Ewald, María; Herrmann, Falko H; Schuster, Gudrun; Torres-Guerra, Enrique; Arteaga-Vizcaíno, Melvis

2005-12-01

351

The orphan protein bis-?-glutamylcystine reductase joins the pyridine nucleotide-disulfide reductase family  

PubMed Central

Facile DNA sequencing became possible decades after many enzymes had been purified and characterized. Consequently, there are still “orphan” enyzmes whose activity is known but the genes that encode them have not been identified. Identification of the genes encoding orphan enzymes is important because it allows correct annotation of genes of unknown function or with mis-assigned function. Bis-?-glutamylcystine reductase (GCR) is an orphan protein that was purified in 1988. This enzyme catalyzes the reduction of bis-?-glutamylcystine. ?-Glutamylcysteine (?-Glu-Cys) is the major low molecular weight thiol in halobacteria. We purified GCR from Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 and identified the sequence of 23 tryptic peptides by NanoLC electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. These peptides cover 62% of the protein predicted to be encoded by a gene in Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 that is annotated as mercuric reductase. GCR and mercuric reductase activities were assayed using enzyme that was expressed in E. coli and re-folded from inclusion bodies. The enzyme had robust GCR activity, but no mercuric reductase activity. The genomes of most, but not all, halobacteria for which whole genome sequences are available have close homologs of GCR, suggesting that there is more to be learned about the low molecular weight thiols used in halobacteria. PMID:23560638

Kim, Juhan; Copley, Shelley D.

2014-01-01

352

No association between MTHFR A1298C and MTRR A66G polymorphisms, and MS in an Australian cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex neurological disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS) resulting in debilitating neuropathology. Pathogenesis is primarily defined by CNS inflammation and demyelination of nerve axons. Methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) is an enzyme that catalyzes the remethylation of homocysteine (Hcy) to methionine via cobalamin and folate dependant reactions. Cobalamin acts as an intermediate methyl carrier

A. L. Szvetko; J. Fowdar; J. Nelson; N. Colson; L. Tajouri; P. A. Csurhes; M. P. Pender; L. R. Griffiths

2007-01-01

353

Reduced Impact of Pyrimethamine Drug Pressure on Plasmodium malariae Dihydrofolate Reductase Gene  

PubMed Central

Molecular investigations performed following the emergence of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) resistance in Plasmodium falciparum have allowed the identification of the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) enzyme as the target of pyrimethamine. Although clinical cases of Plasmodium malariae are not usually treated with antifolate therapy, incorrect diagnosis and the high frequency of undetected mixed infections has probably exposed non-P. falciparum parasites to antifolate therapy in many areas. In this context, we aimed to assess the worldwide genetic diversity of the P. malariae dhfr gene in 123 samples collected in Africa and Asia, areas with different histories of SP use. Among the 10 polymorphic sites found, we have observed 7 new mutations (K55E, S58R, S59A, F168S, N194S, D207G, and T221A), which led us to describe 6 new DHFR proteins. All isolates from African countries were classified as wild type, while new mutations and haplotypes were recognized as exclusive to Madagascar (except for the double mutations at nucleotides 341 and 342 [S114N] found in one Cambodian isolate). Among these nonsynonymous mutations, two were likely related to pyrimethamine resistance: S58R (corresponding to C59R in P. falciparum and S58R in Plasmodium vivax; observed in one Malagasy sample) and S114N (corresponding to S108N in P. falciparum and S117N in P. vivax; observed in three Cambodian samples). PMID:22123682

Khim, Nimol; Kim, Saorin; Bouchier, Christiane; Tichit, Magali; Ariey, Frederic; Fandeur, Thierry; Chim, Pheaktra; Ke, Sopheakvatey; Sum, Sarorn; Man, Somnang; Ratsimbasoa, Arsene; Durand, Remy

2012-01-01

354

Giardia, Entamoeba, and Trichomonas Enzymes Activate Metronidazole (Nitroreductases) and Inactivate Metronidazole (Nitroimidazole Reductases) ? †  

PubMed Central

Infections with Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, and Trichomonas vaginalis, which cause diarrhea, dysentery, and vaginitis, respectively, are each treated with metronidazole. Here we show that Giardia, Entamoeba, and Trichomonas have oxygen-insensitive nitroreductase (ntr) genes which are homologous to those genes that have nonsense mutations in metronidazole-resistant Helicobacter pylori isolates. Entamoeba and Trichomonas also have nim genes which are homologous to those genes expressed in metronidazole-resistant Bacteroides fragilis isolates. Recombinant Giardia, Entamoeba, and Trichomonas nitroreductases used NADH rather than the NADPH used by Helicobacter, and two recombinant Entamoeba nitroreductases increased the metronidazole sensitivity of transformed Escherichia coli strains. Conversely, the recombinant nitroimidazole reductases (NIMs) of Entamoeba and Trichmonas conferred very strong metronidazole resistance to transformed bacteria. The Ehntr1 gene of the genome project HM-1:IMSS strain of Entamoeba histolytica had a nonsense mutation, and the same nonsense mutation was present in 3 of 22 clinical isolates of Entamoeba. While ntr and nim mRNAs were variably expressed by cultured Entamoeba and Trichomonas isolates, there was no relationship to metronidazole sensitivity. We conclude that microaerophilic protists have bacterium-like enzymes capable of activating metronidazole (nitroreductases) and inactivating metronidazole (NIMs). While Entamoeba and Trichomonas displayed some of the changes (nonsense mutations and gene overexpression) associated with metronidazole resistance in bacteria, these changes did not confer metronidazole resistance to the microaerophilic protists examined here. PMID:19015349

Pal, Dibyarupa; Banerjee, Sulagna; Cui, Jike; Schwartz, Aaron; Ghosh, Sudip K.; Samuelson, John

2009-01-01

355

Giardia, Entamoeba, and Trichomonas enzymes activate metronidazole (nitroreductases) and inactivate metronidazole (nitroimidazole reductases).  

PubMed

Infections with Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, and Trichomonas vaginalis, which cause diarrhea, dysentery, and vaginitis, respectively, are each treated with metronidazole. Here we show that Giardia, Entamoeba, and Trichomonas have oxygen-insensitive nitroreductase (ntr) genes which are homologous to those genes that have nonsense mutations in metronidazole-resistant Helicobacter pylori isolates. Entamoeba and Trichomonas also have nim genes which are homologous to those genes expressed in metronidazole-resistant Bacteroides fragilis isolates. Recombinant Giardia, Entamoeba, and Trichomonas nitroreductases used NADH rather than the NADPH used by Helicobacter, and two recombinant Entamoeba nitroreductases increased the metronidazole sensitivity of transformed Escherichia coli strains. Conversely, the recombinant nitroimidazole reductases (NIMs) of Entamoeba and Trichmonas conferred very strong metronidazole resistance to transformed bacteria. The Ehntr1 gene of the genome project HM-1:IMSS strain of Entamoeba histolytica had a nonsense mutation, and the same nonsense mutation was present in 3 of 22 clinical isolates of Entamoeba. While ntr and nim mRNAs were variably expressed by cultured Entamoeba and Trichomonas isolates, there was no relationship to metronidazole sensitivity. We conclude that microaerophilic protists have bacterium-like enzymes capable of activating metronidazole (nitroreductases) and inactivating metronidazole (NIMs). While Entamoeba and Trichomonas displayed some of the changes (nonsense mutations and gene overexpression) associated with metronidazole resistance in bacteria, these changes did not confer metronidazole resistance to the microaerophilic protists examined here. PMID:19015349

Pal, Dibyarupa; Banerjee, Sulagna; Cui, Jike; Schwartz, Aaron; Ghosh, Sudip K; Samuelson, John

2009-02-01

356

Ammonium inactivation of nitrate reductase in Lemna minor L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The addition of ammonium to nitrate induced plants of Lemna minor L. brings about a rapid loss in extractable nitrate reductase activity. This inactivation is reversible both in vivo and in vitro. Inhibitors of RNA and protein synthesis do not protect nitrate reductase against ammonium inactivation. It is suggested that factors, in addition to ammonium ions, are components of the

T. O. Orebamjo; G. R. Stewart

1975-01-01

357

Original Articles Cytometric Quantification of Nitrate Reductase by  

E-print Network

Original Articles Cytometric Quantification of Nitrate Reductase by Immunolabeling in the Marine November 1999; Accepted 24 November 1999 Background: The uptake of nitrate by phytoplankton is a central of biogenic carbon. Nitrate reductase catalyzes the first step of nitrate assimilation, the reduction of NO3

Jochem, Frank J.

358

Nitrite reductase genes in halobenzoate degrading denitrifying bacteria  

E-print Network

(specific to the two different types of respiratory nitrite reductase, nirS and nirK), cloned and sequenced different nirS genes were cloned from one consortium. Three nirS gene clones were closely related to nir Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Denitri¢cation; Nitrite reductase; nirS; nirK; Halobenzoate 1

Ward, Bess

359

Biochemical characterization of thioredoxin reductase from Babesia bovis.  

PubMed

This paper addresses the identification, cloning, expression, purification and functional characterization of thioredoxin reductase from Babesia bovis, the etiological agent of babesiosis. The work deals with in vitro steady state kinetic studies and other complementary analyses of the thioredoxin reductase found in the pathogenic protist. Thioredoxin reductase from B. bovis was characterized as a homodimeric flavoprotein that catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of Trx with a high catalytic efficiency. Moreover, the enzyme exhibited a disulfide reductase activity using DTNB as substrate, being this activity highly sensitive to inhibition by Eosin B. The thioredoxin reductase/thioredoxin system can reduce oxidized glutathione and S-nitrosoglutathione. Our in vitro data suggest that antioxidant defense in B. bovis could be supported by this enzyme. We have performed an enzymatic characterization, searching for targets for rational design of inhibitors. This work contributes to the better understanding of the redox biochemistry occurring in the parasite. PMID:24239559

Regner, Erika L; Thompson, Carolina S; Iglesias, Alberto A; Guerrero, Sergio A; Arias, Diego G

2014-04-01

360

Enzyme toolbox: novel enantiocomplementary imine reductases.  

PubMed

Reducing reactions are among the most useful transformations for the generation of chiral compounds in the fine-chemical industry. Because of their exquisite selectivities, enzymatic approaches have emerged as the method of choice for the reduction of C?O and activated C?C bonds. However, stereoselective enzymatic reduction of C?N bonds is still in its infancy-it was only recently described after the discovery of enzymes capable of imine reduction. In our work, we increased the spectrum of imine-reducing enzymes by database analysis. By combining the currently available knowledge about the function of imine reductases with the experimentally uncharacterized diversity stored in protein sequence databases, three novel imine reductases with complementary enantiopreference were identified along with amino acids important for catalysis. Furthermore, their reducing capability was demonstrated by the reduction of the pharmaceutically relevant prochiral imine 2-methylpyrroline. These novel enzymes exhibited comparable to higher catalytic efficiencies than previously described enzymes, and their biosynthetic potential is highlighted by the full conversion of 2-methylpyrroline in whole cells with excellent selectivities. PMID:25163890

Scheller, Philipp N; Fademrecht, Silvia; Hofelzer, Sebastian; Pleiss, Jürgen; Leipold, Friedemann; Turner, Nicholas J; Nestl, Bettina M; Hauer, Bernhard

2014-10-13

361

Expression of bacterial glutathione reductase in tobacco  

SciTech Connect

Glutathione reductase is the enzyme catalyzing the reduction of oxidized gluthione (GSSG) by NADP. In higher plants glutathione reductase (GR) activity has been associated with several subcellular fractions, but is most notably identified as a chloroplast protein. The enzyme functions in the maintenance of the redox state inside chloroplasts where nearly all of the glutathione present is thought to exist in the reduced form, GSH. Since oxidative stress disturbs the redox status of a chloroplast, GR may play a role in a plant's response to this adversity. We are studying this potential role of GR in transgenic plants. The coding region of the E. coli GR gene was ligated to the coding region of a chloroplast (stromal) transit peptide coding sequence thereby targeting the gene product to the correct subcellular location. This new gene construct was cloned in the Ti plasmid binary vector, pH575, and introduced into the tobacco genome. Expression of this gene product in stress-challenged plants is under investigation.

Unger, E.A.; Talbot, D.R. (Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs (USA))

1989-04-01

362

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genetic polymorphisms and toxicity to 5-FU-based chemoradiation in rectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Background: There is a large degree of variation in tumour response and host toxicities associated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation for rectal cancer patients. We performed a complimentary pharmacogenetic study to investigate germline polymorphisms of genes involved in 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and irinotecan pathways and their potential association with clinical outcomes and toxicities from neoadjuvant chemoradiation in patients with rectal cancer treated in a prospective genotype-directed study. Methods: The germline DNA of 131 patients was genotyped for 10 variants in TYMS, MTHFR, DPYD, UGT1A1, ABCC1 and SLCO1B1 genes. Ninety-six patients were treated with 5-FU/radiotherapy (RT) and 35 received 5-FU/RT/irinotecan. Relationships between genetic variants and adverse events, tumour response, overall and disease-free survivals were assessed. Results: MTHFR 1298A>C and MTHFR diplotypes (for 677C>T and 1298A>C) were associated with chemoradiation-related toxicity when 5-FU was used alone. MTHFR haplotypes (677C–1298C) and diplotypes (CA–TA and TA–TA) showed, respectively, a protective and a negative effect on the incidence of severe diarrhoea or mucositis. No association was observed between genetic markers and drug response. Conclusion: MTHFR polymorphisms can potentially predict toxicity in patients treated with 5-FU as a single chemotherapeutic drug. PMID:22045187

Thomas, F; Motsinger-Reif, A A; Hoskins, J M; Dvorak, A; Roy, S; Alyasiri, A; Myerson, R J; Fleshman, J W; Tan, B R; McLeod, H L

2011-01-01

363

Mutation and the environment  

SciTech Connect

This book is covered under the following topics: Somatic Mutation: Animal Model; Somatic Mutation: Human; Heritable Mutation: Animal Model; Heritable Mutation: Approaches to Human Induction Rates; Heritable Mutation: Human Risk; Epidemiology: Population Studies on Genotoxicity; and Epidemiology: Workplace Studies of Genotoxicity.

Mendelsohn, M.L. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Albertini, R.J. (Vermont Univ., Burlington, VT (United States))

1990-01-01

364

A high-throughput assay format for determination of nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase enzyme activities  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe a microplate-based high-throughput procedure for rapid assay of the enzyme activities of nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase, using extremely small volumes of reagents. The new procedure offers the advantages of rapidity, small sample size-nanoliter volumes, low cost, and a dramatic increase in the throughput sample number that can be analyzed simultaneously. Additional advantages can be accessed by using microplate reader application software packages that permit assigning a group type to the wells, recording of the data on exportable data files and exercising the option of using the kinetic or endpoint reading modes. The assay can also be used independently for detecting nitrite residues/contamination in environmental/food samples. 10 refs., 2 figs.

McNally, N.; Liu, Xiang Yang; Choudary, P.V. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

1997-01-01

365

Transcripts of Anthocyanidin Reductase and Leucoanthocyanidin Reductase and Measurement of Catechin and Epicatechin in Tartary Buckwheat  

PubMed Central

Anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR) play an important role in the monomeric units biosynthesis of proanthocyanidins (PAs) such as catechin and epicatechin in several plants. The aim of this study was to clone ANR and LAR genes involved in PAs biosynthesis and examine the expression of these two genes in different organs under different growth conditions in two tartary buckwheat cultivars, Hokkai T8 and T10. Gene expression was carried out by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, and catechin and epicatechin content was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. The expression pattern of ANR and LAR did not match the accumulation pattern of PAs in different organs of two cultivars. Epicatechin content was the highest in the flowers of both cultivars and it was affected by light in only Hokkai T8 sprouts. ANR and LAR levels in tartary buckwheat might be regulated by different mechanisms for catechin and epicatechin biosynthesis under light and dark conditions. PMID:24605062

Kim, Yeon Bok; Thwe, Aye Aye; Kim, YeJi; Li, Xiaohua; Cho, Jin Woong; Park, Phun Bum; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Naif; Kim, Sun-Ju; Suzuki, Tastsuro; Hyun Jho, Kwang; Park, Sang Un

2014-01-01

366

A role for a menthone reductase in resistance against microbial pathogens in plants.  

PubMed

Plants elaborate a vast array of enzymes that synthesize defensive secondary metabolites in response to pathogen attack. Here, we isolated the pathogen-responsive CaMNR1 [menthone: (+)-(3S)-neomenthol reductase] gene, a member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily, from pepper (Capsicum annuum) plants. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed that purified CaMNR1 and its ortholog AtSDR1 from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) catalyze a menthone reduction with reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate as a cofactor to produce neomenthol with antimicrobial activity. CaMNR1 and AtSDR1 also possess a significant catalytic activity for neomenthol oxidation. We examined the cellular function of the CaMNR1 gene by virus-induced gene silencing and ectopic overexpression in pepper and Arabidopsis plants, respectively. CaMNR1-silenced pepper plants were significantly more susceptible to Xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria and Colletotrichum coccodes infection and expressed lower levels of salicylic acid-responsive CaBPR1 and CaPR10 and jasmonic acid-responsive CaDEF1. CaMNR1-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants exhibited enhanced resistance to the hemibiotrophic pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 and the biotrophic pathogen Hyaloperonospora parasitica isolate Noco2, accompanied by the induction of AtPR1 and AtPDF1.2. In contrast, mutation in the CaMNR1 ortholog AtSDR1 significantly enhanced susceptibility to both pathogens. Together, these results indicate that the novel menthone reductase gene CaMNR1 and its ortholog AtSDR1 positively regulate plant defenses against a broad spectrum of pathogens. PMID:18599651

Choi, Hyong Woo; Lee, Byung Gil; Kim, Nak Hyun; Park, Yong; Lim, Chae Woo; Song, Hyun Kyu; Hwang, Byung Kook

2008-09-01

367

Purification and Characterization of a Novel Erythrose Reductase from Candida magnoliae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erythritol biosynthesis is catalyzed by erythrose reductase, which converts erythrose to erythritol. Erythrose reductase, however, has never been characterized in terms of amino acid sequence and kinetics. In this study, NAD(P)H-dependent erythrose reductase was purified to homogeneity from Candida magnoliae KFCC 11023 by ion exchange, gel filtration, affinity chromatography, and preparative electrophoresis. The molecular weights of erythrose reductase determined by

Jung-Kul Lee; Sang-Yong Kim; Yeon-Woo Ryu; Jin-Ho Seo; Jung-Hoe Kim

2003-01-01

368

Enhancement of Nitrate Reductase Activity by Benzyladenine in Agrostemma githago.  

PubMed

Nitrate reductase activity in excised embryos of Agrostemma githago increases in response to both NO(3) (-) and cytokinins. We asked the question whether cytokinins affected nitrate reductase activity directly or through NO(3) (-), either by amplifying the effect of low endogenous NO(3) (-) levels, or by making NO(3) (-) available for induction from a metabolically inactive compartment. Nitrate reductase activity was enhanced on the average by 50% after 1 hour of benzyladenine treatment. In some experiments, the cytokinin response was detectable as early as 30 minutes after addition of benzyladenine. Nitrate reductase activity increased linearly for 4 hours and began to decay 13 hours after start of the hormone treatment. When embryos were incubated in solutions containing mixtures of NO(3) (-) and benzyladenine, additive responses were obtained. The effects of NO(3) (-) and benzyladenine were counteracted by abscisic acid. The increase in nitrate reductase activity was inhibited at lower abscisic acid concentrations in embryos which were induced with NO(3) (-), as compared to embryos treated with benzyladenine. Casein hydrolysate inhibited the development of nitrate reductase activity. The response to NO(3) (-) was more susceptible to inhibition by casein hydrolysate than the response to the hormone. When NO(3) (-) and benzyladenine were withdrawn from the medium after maximal enhancement of nitrate reductase activity, the level of the enzyme decreased rapidly. Nitrate reductase activity increasd again as a result of a second treatment with benzyladenine but not with NO(3) (-). At the time of the second exposure to benzyladenine, no NO(3) (-) was detectable in extracts of Agrostemma embryos. This is taken as evidence that cytokinins enhance nitrate reductase activity directly and not through induction by NO(3) (-). PMID:16657864

Kende, H; Hahn, H; Kays, S E

1971-12-01

369

Maternal dietary intake of folate, vitamin B12 and MTHFR 677C>T genotype: their impact on newborn's anthropometric parameters.  

PubMed

In this study, we evaluated the effects of dietary intake of vitamin B12 and folate during pregnancy and their interactions with maternal polymorphism of MTHFR (677C>T; 1298A>C) on intrauterine development. Anthropometric parameters were obtained from 231 newborns that belong to a prospective birth cohort in Morelos, Mexico. Maternal dietary intake of vitamin B12 and folate was assessed using a semi-quantitative questionnaire administered during the first and third trimesters of the pregnancy. Maternal MTHFR 677C>T and 1298 A>C genotypes were determined by PCR-RFLP. The associations between deficient dietary intake of vitamin B12 (<2.0 ?g/d) and folate (<400 ?g/d) in the first and third trimesters and maternal polymorphisms of MTHFR on anthropometric parameters at birth were estimated using a multivariate linear regression model. During pregnancy, the deficient dietary intake was roughly 60 % for folate and 19 % for vitamin B12. Allelic frequencies of 677T and 1298C were 59 and 10 %, respectively. After adjusting for confounders, deficiency in maternal dietary intake of vitamin B12 (<2.0 ?g/d) was associated with a significant reduction in length (? ~ -2.4; 95 % CI -4.3; -0.6) and length-for-age at birth (? ~ -1.2; 95 % CI -2.3; -0.1) among infants whose mothers were carriers of the 677TT genotype (p for interaction = 0.02). In contrast, no association was observed between deficiency in maternal dietary intake of folate (<400 ?g/d) and any anthropometric parameter of newborns. These results suggest that supplementation with vitamin B12 during pregnancy could have a favorable impact on intrauterine fetal development mainly in populations that are genetically susceptible. PMID:25173112

Torres-Sánchez, Luisa; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Blanco-Muñoz, Julia; Chen, Jia

2014-09-01

370

Structural and functional insights into Saccharomyces cerevisiae riboflavin biosynthesis reductase RIB7.  

PubMed

Saccharomyces cerevisiae RIB7 (ScRIB7) is a potent target for anti-fungal agents because of its involvement in the riboflavin biosynthesis pathway as a NADPH-dependent reductase. However, the catalytic mechanism of riboflavin biosynthesis reductase (RBSRs) is controversial, and enzyme structure information is still lacking in eukaryotes. Here we report the crystal structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RIB7 at 2.10 Å resolution and its complex with NADPH at 2.35 Å resolution. ScRIB7 exists as a stable homodimer, and each subunit consists of nine central ?-sheets flanked by five helices, resembling the structure of RIB7 homologues. A conserved G(76)-X-G(78)-Xn-G(181)-G(182) motif is present at the NADPH pyrophosphate group binding site. Activity assays confirmed the necessity of Thr79, Asp83, Glu180 and Gly182 for the activity of ScRIB7. Substrate preference of ScRIB7 was altered by mutating one residue (Thr35) to a Lysine, implying that ScRIB7 Thr35 and its corresponding residue, a lysine in bacteria, are important in substrate-specific recognition. PMID:23620735

Lv, Zongyang; Sun, Jian; Liu, Yingfang

2013-01-01

371

Structural and Functional Insights into Saccharomyces cerevisiae Riboflavin Biosynthesis Reductase RIB7  

PubMed Central

Saccharomyces cerevisiae RIB7 (ScRIB7) is a potent target for anti-fungal agents because of its involvement in the riboflavin biosynthesis pathway as a NADPH-dependent reductase. However, the catalytic mechanism of riboflavin biosynthesis reductase (RBSRs) is controversial, and enzyme structure information is still lacking in eukaryotes. Here we report the crystal structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RIB7 at 2.10 Å resolution and its complex with NADPH at 2.35 Å resolution. ScRIB7 exists as a stable homodimer, and each subunit consists of nine central ?-sheets flanked by five helices, resembling the structure of RIB7 homologues. A conserved G76-X-G78-Xn-G181-G182 motif is present at the NADPH pyrophosphate group binding site. Activity assays confirmed the necessity of Thr79, Asp83, Glu180 and Gly182 for the activity of ScRIB7. Substrate preference of ScRIB7 was altered by mutating one residue (Thr35) to a Lysine, implying that ScRIB7 Thr35 and its corresponding residue, a lysine in bacteria, are important in substrate-specific recognition. PMID:23620735

Liu, Yingfang

2013-01-01

372

Effect of lifestyle factors on plasma total homocysteine concentrations in relation to MTHFR(C677T) genotype. Inter99 (7)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine the associations between various lifestyle factors—smoking habits, physical activity, dietary habits, coffee, tea, and alcohol consumption—and homocysteine (tHcy) in relation to MTHFR(C677T) genotype.Design: Cross-sectional population-based study.Setting: Residents of Copenhagen County, Denmark.Subjects: A random sample of 6457 men and women aged 30–60 years drawn from the Civil Registration System and invited to a health examination in 1999–2001. A

L L N Husemoen; T F Thomsen; M Fenger; T Jørgensen; LLN Husemoen

2004-01-01

373

Different roles of MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in colorectal adenoma and colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Association studies on the MTHFR polymorphisms (C677T and A1298C) in colorectal cancer (CRC) and colorectal adenoma have shown conflicting results. We performed\\u000a a meta-analysis to better assess the purported associations. Overall, the 677T allele (10,131 patients and 15,362 controls)\\u000a showed a small but significant protective effect against CRC compared to the 677C allele [P=0.0003, odds ratio (OR)=0.93; 95% confidence interval

Yan Huang; Shizhong Han; Yao Li; Yumin Mao; Yi Xie

2007-01-01

374

Efficient a priori identification of drug resistant mutations using Dead-End Elimination and MM-PBSA.  

PubMed

Active site mutations that disrupt drug binding are an important mechanism of drug resistance. Computational methods capable of predicting resistance a priori are poised to become extremely useful tools in the fields of drug discovery and treatment design. In this paper, we describe an approach to predicting drug resistance on the basis of Dead-End Elimination and MM-PBSA that requires no prior knowledge of resistance. Our method utilizes a two-pass search to identify mutations that impair drug binding while maintaining affinity for the native substrate. We use our method to probe resistance in four drug-target systems: isoniazid-enoyl-ACP reductase (tuberculosis), ritonavir-HIV protease (HIV), methotrexate-dihydrofolate reductase (breast cancer and leukemia), and gleevec-ABL kinase (leukemia). We validate our model using clinically known resistance mutations for all four test systems. In all cases, the model correctly predicts the majority of known resistance mutations. PMID:22651699

Safi, Maria; Lilien, Ryan H

2012-06-25

375

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphism as a risk factor for diabetic nephropathy: a meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations into the association between diabetic nephropathy (DN) and MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism in several case–control\\u000a studies has yielded contradictory results. To shed light on these inconclusive findings, a meta-analysis of all available\\u000a studies relating the C677T polymorphism to the risk of developing DN was conducted. The PubMed database was searched, and\\u000a case–control studies investigating the association between MTHFR C677T

Elias Zintzaras; Katrin Uhlig; George N. Koukoulis; Afroditi A. Papathanasiou; Ioannis Stefanidis

2007-01-01

376

Identification and Characterization of an Inborn Error of Metabolism Caused by Dihydrofolate Reductase Deficiency  

PubMed Central

Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is a critical enzyme in folate metabolism and an important target of antineoplastic, antimicrobial, and antiinflammatory drugs. We describe three individuals from two families with a recessive inborn error of metabolism, characterized by megaloblastic anemia and/or pancytopenia, severe cerebral folate deficiency, and cerebral tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency due to a germline missense mutation in DHFR, resulting in profound enzyme deficiency. We show that cerebral folate levels, anemia, and pancytopenia of DHFR deficiency can be corrected by treatment with folinic acid. The characterization of this disorder provides evidence for the link between DHFR and metabolism of cerebral tetrahydrobiopterin, which is required for the formation of dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine and for the hydroxylation of aromatic amino acids. Moreover, this relationship provides insight into the role of folates in neurological conditions, including depression, Alzheimer disease, and Parkinson disease. PMID:21310276

Banka, Siddharth; Blom, Henk J.; Walter, John; Aziz, Majid; Urquhart, Jill; Clouthier, Christopher M.; Rice, Gillian I.; de Brouwer, Arjan P.M.; Hilton, Emma; Vassallo, Grace; Will, Andrew; Smith, Desiree E.C.; Smulders, Yvo M.; Wevers, Ron A.; Steinfeld, Robert; Heales, Simon; Crow, Yanick J.; Pelletier, Joelle N.; Jones, Simon; Newman, William G.

2011-01-01

377

Structure of conjugated polyketone reductase from Candida parapsilosis IFO 0708 reveals conformational changes for substrate recognition upon NADPH binding.  

PubMed

Conjugated polyketone reductase C2 (CPR-C2) from Candida parapsilosis IFO 0708, identified as a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent ketopantoyl lactone reductase, belongs to the aldo-keto reductase superfamily. This enzyme reduces ketopantoyl lactone to D-pantoyl lactone in a strictly stereospecific manner. To elucidate the structural basis of the substrate specificity, we determined the crystal structures of the apo CPR-C2 and CPR-C2/NADPH complex at 1.70 and 1.80 Å resolutions, respectively. CPR-C2 adopted a triose-phosphate isomerase barrel fold at the core of the structure. Binding with the cofactor NADPH induced conformational changes in which Thr27 and Lys28 moved 15 and 5.0 Å, respectively, in the close vicinity of the adenosine 2'-phosphate group of NADPH to form hydrogen bonds. Based on the comparison of the CPR-C2/NADPH structure with 3-?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and mutation analyses, we constructed substrate binding models with ketopantoyl lactone, which provided insight into the substrate specificity by the cofactor-induced structure. The results will be useful for the rational design of CPR-C2 mutants targeted for use in the industrial manufacture of ketopantoyl lactone. PMID:23828603

Qin, Hui-Min; Yamamura, Akihiro; Miyakawa, Takuya; Kataoka, Michihiko; Nagai, Takahiro; Kitamura, Nahoko; Urano, Nobuyuki; Maruoka, Shintaro; Ohtsuka, Jun; Nagata, Koji; Shimizu, Sakayu; Tanokura, Masaru

2014-01-01

378

COMPARISON OF THE METHYL REDUCTASE GENES AND GENE PRODUCTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The DNA sequences encoding component C of methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcr genes) in Methanothermus fervidus, Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum, Methanococcus vannielii, and Methanosarcina barkeri have been published. omparisons of transcription initiation and termination site...

379

Nitrate content and nitrate reductase activity in Rumex obtusifolius L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of nitrogen starvation and subsequent fentilization with nitrate or ammonium on nitrate content and nitrate reductase activity of Rumex obtusifolius L. under natural conditions.

A. Melzer; G. Gebauer; H. Rehder

1984-01-01

380

Redox-Linked Structural Changes in Ribonucleotide Reductase  

E-print Network

Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) catalyzes the reduction of ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides. Class I RNRs are composed of two homodimeric proteins, ?2 and ?2. The class Ia E. coli ?2 contains dinuclear, antiferromagnetically ...

Offenbacher, A. R.

381

A new approach against sugar cataract through aldose reductase inhibitors.  

PubMed

Aldose reductase inhibition is one of the therapeutic strategies that has been proposed to prevent or ameliorate long term diabetic complications including retinopathy and sugar cataract. Rats were fed with a galactose rich diet and the aldose reductase inhibitor Tolrestat was topically delivered by ocular instillation. The levels of lens aldose reductase activity, galactitol and the onset of cataract were evaluated during and after treatment with the inhibitor. Topical application of 1-3% Tolrestat (10 microl) four times daily resulted, after 9 days, in a significant decrease in the enzyme activity. Well after interrupting treatment with the drug, the enzyme activity remained impaired and galactose induced cataract was prevented. Our findings may represent the basis for therapeutic plans to prevent sugar cataract by long term cyclic treatments with aldose reductase inhibitors, with reduction in drug doses and side effects. PMID:10548473

Banditelli, S; Boldrini, E; Vilardo, P G; Cecconi, I; Cappiello, M; Dal Monte, M; Marini, I; Del Corso, A; Mura, U

1999-11-01

382

21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.  

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7375 Glutathione reductase assay. (a) Identification....

2014-04-01

383

21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7375 Glutathione reductase assay. (a) Identification....

2013-04-01

384

21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7375 Glutathione reductase assay. (a) Identification....

2011-04-01

385

21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7375 Glutathione reductase assay. (a) Identification....

2012-04-01

386

Aldose reductase: a window to the treatment of diabetic complications?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinetic studies on the aldose reductase protein (AR2) have shown that it does not behave as a classical enzyme in relation to ring aldose sugars. These results have been confirmed by X-ray crystallography studies, which have pinpointed binding sites for pharmacological “aldose reductase inhibitors” (ARIs). As with non-enzymic glycation reactions, there is probably a free-radical element involved derived from monosaccharide

M. James C. Crabbe; Derek Goode

1998-01-01

387

Some characteristics of nitrate reductase induction in Lemna minor L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low levels of nitrate reductase can be detected in plants of Lemna minor grown on some organic nitrogen sources. Nitrogen-starvation does not lead to a derepression of nitrate reductase activity. Nitrate ions are necessary for the development of maximum enzyme activity and the maintenance of high enzyme levels. Nitrogen-starvation of ammonia-grown plants increases the subsequent rate of nitrate-mediated induction. It

T. O. Orebamjo; G. R. Stewart

1974-01-01

388

Expression of bacterial mercuric ion reductase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed Central

The gene merA coding for bacterial mercuric ion reductase was cloned under the control of the yeast promoter for alcohol dehydrogenase I in the yeast-Escherichia coli shuttle plasmid pADH040-2 and transformed into Saccharomyces cerevisiae AH22. The resulting transformant harbored stable copies of the merA-containing hybrid plasmid, displayed a fivefold increase in the MIC of mercuric chloride, and synthesized mercuric ion reductase activity. Images PMID:1735719

Rensing, C; Kües, U; Stahl, U; Nies, D H; Friedrich, B

1992-01-01

389

Genetically modified lactic acid bacteria having modified diacetyl reductase activities  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Genetically modified lactic acid bacteria having a reduced or lacking or enhanced diacetyl reductase activity, acetoin reductase activity and/or butanediol dehydrogenase activity are provided. Such bacteria are used in starter cultures in the production of food products including dairy products where it is desired to have a high content of diacetyl and for reducing or completely removing diacetyl in beverages including beers, fruit juices and certain types of wine, where the presence of diacetyl is undesired.

2002-07-02

390

A comparison of the methyl reductase genes and gene products.  

PubMed

The DNA sequences encoding component C of methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcr genes) in Methanothermus fervidus, Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum, Methanococcus vannielii, and Methanosarcina barkeri have been published. Comparisons of transcription initiation and termination sites and of the amino acid sequences of the mcr gene products are presented. Structural features conserved within the amino acid sequences are identified and a comparison of methyl reductase with other disulfide bond synthesizing enzymes is presented. PMID:2720489

Weil, C F; Sherf, B A; Reeve, J N

1989-01-01

391

Comparative anatomy of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily.  

PubMed Central

The aldo-keto reductases metabolize a wide range of substrates and are potential drug targets. This protein superfamily includes aldose reductases, aldehyde reductases, hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases and dihydrodiol dehydrogenases. By combining multiple sequence alignments with known three-dimensional structures and the results of site-directed mutagenesis studies, we have developed a structure/function analysis of this superfamily. Our studies suggest that the (alpha/beta)8-barrel fold provides a common scaffold for an NAD(P)(H)-dependent catalytic activity, with substrate specificity determined by variation of loops on the C-terminal side of the barrel. All the aldo-keto reductases are dependent on nicotinamide cofactors for catalysis and retain a similar cofactor binding site, even among proteins with less than 30% amino acid sequence identity. Likewise, the aldo-keto reductase active site is highly conserved. However, our alignments indicate that variation ofa single residue in the active site may alter the reaction mechanism from carbonyl oxidoreduction to carbon-carbon double-bond reduction, as in the 3-oxo-5beta-steroid 4-dehydrogenases (Delta4-3-ketosteroid 5beta-reductases) of the superfamily. Comparison of the proposed substrate binding pocket suggests residues 54 and 118, near the active site, as possible discriminators between sugar and steroid substrates. In addition, sequence alignment and subsequent homology modelling of mouse liver 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and rat ovary 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase indicate that three loops on the C-terminal side of the barrel play potential roles in determining the positional and stereo-specificity of the hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases. Finally, we propose that the aldo-keto reductase superfamily may represent an example of divergent evolution from an ancestral multifunctional oxidoreductase and an example of convergent evolution to the same active-site constellation as the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily. PMID:9307009

Jez, J M; Bennett, M J; Schlegel, B P; Lewis, M; Penning, T M

1997-01-01

392

Glutathione reductase: solvent equilibrium and kinetic isotope effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutathione reductase catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of oxidized glutathione (GSSG). The kinetic mechanism is ping-pong, and we have investigated the rate-limiting nature of proton-transfer steps in the reactions catalyzed by the spinach, yeast, and human erythrocyte glutathione reductases using a combination of alternate substrate and solvent kinetic isotope effects. With NADPH or GSSG as the variable substrate, at a fixed,

Kenny K. Wong; Maria A. Vanoni; John S. Blanchard

1988-01-01

393

The Aldo-Keto Reductases and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aldo-keto reductases (AKRs), are monomeric 37 kDa oxidoreductases that catalyze the NADP + -dependent oxidation of PAH trans -dihydrodiol proximate carcinogens to their reactive and redox-active o -quinones. Five human isoforms have been cloned and expressed as purified recombinant enzymes (AKR1C1-AKR1C4 and AKR1A1). Of these the general metabolic enzyme aldehyde reductase (AKR1A1) displays the highest utilization ratio for the

Trevor M. Penning; Nisha T. Palackal; Ian A. Blair; Ronald G. Harvey

2002-01-01

394

Towards the Understanding of Resistance Mechanisms in Clinically Isolated Trimethoprim-resistant, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Dihydrofolate Reductase  

SciTech Connect

Resistance to therapeutics such as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole has become an increasing problem in strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Clinically isolated trimethoprim-resistant strains reveal a double mutation, H30N/F98Y, in dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). In order to develop novel and effective therapeutics against these resistant strains, we evaluated a series of propargyl-linked antifolate lead compounds for inhibition of the mutant enzyme. For the propargyl-linked antifolates, the F98Y mutation generates minimal (between 1.2- and 6-fold) losses of affinity and the H30N mutation generates greater losses (between 2.4- and 48-fold). Conversely, trimethoprim affinity is largely diminished by the F98Y mutation (36-fold) and is not affected by the H30N mutation. In order to elucidate a mechanism of resistance, we determined a crystal structure of a complex of this double mutant with a lead propargyl-linked antifolate. This structure suggests a resistance mechanism consistent both for the propargyl-linked class of antifolates and for trimethoprim that is based on the loss of a conserved water-mediated hydrogen bond.

Frey, K.; Lombardo, M; Wright, D; Anderson, A

2010-01-01

395

Relative adrenal insufficiency in mice deficient in 5?-reductase 1  

PubMed Central

Patients with critical illness or hepatic failure exhibit impaired cortisol responses to ACTH, a phenomenon known as ‘relative adrenal insufficiency’. A putative mechanism is that elevated bile acids inhibit inactivation of cortisol in liver by 5?-reductases type 1 and type 2 and 5?-reductase, resulting in compensatory downregulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and adrenocortical atrophy. To test the hypothesis that impaired glucocorticoid clearance can cause relative adrenal insufficiency, we investigated the consequences of 5?-reductase type 1 deficiency in mice. In adrenalectomised male mice with targeted disruption of 5?-reductase type 1, clearance of corticosterone was lower after acute or chronic (eightfold, P<0.05) administration, compared with WT control mice. In intact 5?-reductase-deficient male mice, although resting plasma corticosterone levels were maintained, corticosterone responses were impaired after ACTH administration (26% lower, P<0.05), handling stress (2.5-fold lower, P<0.05) and restraint stress (43% lower, P<0.05) compared with WT mice. mRNA levels of Nr3c1 (glucocorticoid receptor), Crh and Avp in pituitary or hypothalamus were altered, consistent with enhanced negative feedback. These findings confirm that impaired peripheral clearance of glucocorticoids can cause ‘relative adrenal insufficiency’ in mice, an observation with important implications for patients with critical illness or hepatic failure, and for patients receiving 5?-reductase inhibitors for prostatic disease. PMID:24872577

Livingstone, Dawn E W; Di Rollo, Emma M; Yang, Chenjing; Codrington, Lucy E; Mathews, John A; Kara, Madina; Hughes, Katherine A; Kenyon, Christopher J; Walker, Brian R; Andrew, Ruth

2014-01-01

396

Flavoprotein disulfide reductases: advances in chemistry and function.  

PubMed

The flavoprotein disulfide reductases represent a family of enzymes that show high sequence and structural homology. They catalyze the pyridine-nucleotide-dependent reduction of a variety of substrates, including disulfide-bonded substrates (lipoamide dehydrogenase, glutathione reductase and functional homologues, thioredoxin reductase, and alkylhydroperoxide reductase), mercuric ion (mercuric ion reductase), hydrogen peroxide (NADH peroxidase), molecular oxygen (NADH oxidase), and the reductive cleavage of a carbonyl-activated carbon-sulfur bond followed by carboxylation (2-ketopropyl-coenzyme-M carboxylase?oxidoreductase). They use at least one nonflavin redox center to transfer electrons from reduced pyridine nucleotide to their substrate through flavin adenine dinucleotide. The nature of the nonflavin redox center located adjacent to the flavin varies and three types have been identified: an enzymic disulfide (most commonly), an enzymic cysteine sulfenic acid (NADH peroxidase and NADH oxidase), and a mixed Cys-S-S-CoA disulfide (coenzyme A disulfide reductase). Selection of the particular nonflavin redox center and utilization of a second, or even a third, nonflavin redox center in some cases presumably represents the most efficient strategy for reduction of the individual substrate. PMID:15210329

Argyrou, Argyrides; Blanchard, John S

2004-01-01

397

Relative adrenal insufficiency in mice deficient in 5?-reductase 1.  

PubMed

Patients with critical illness or hepatic failure exhibit impaired cortisol responses to ACTH, a phenomenon known as 'relative adrenal insufficiency'. A putative mechanism is that elevated bile acids inhibit inactivation of cortisol in liver by 5?-reductases type 1 and type 2 and 5?-reductase, resulting in compensatory downregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and adrenocortical atrophy. To test the hypothesis that impaired glucocorticoid clearance can cause relative adrenal insufficiency, we investigated the consequences of 5?-reductase type 1 deficiency in mice. In adrenalectomised male mice with targeted disruption of 5?-reductase type 1, clearance of corticosterone was lower after acute or chronic (eightfold, P<0.05) administration, compared with WT control mice. In intact 5?-reductase-deficient male mice, although resting plasma corticosterone levels were maintained, corticosterone responses were impaired after ACTH administration (26% lower, P<0.05), handling stress (2.5-fold lower, P<0.05) and restraint stress (43% lower, P<0.05) compared with WT mice. mRNA levels of Nr3c1 (glucocorticoid receptor), Crh and Avp in pituitary or hypothalamus were altered, consistent with enhanced negative feedback. These findings confirm that impaired peripheral clearance of glucocorticoids can cause 'relative adrenal insufficiency' in mice, an observation with important implications for patients with critical illness or hepatic failure, and for patients receiving 5?-reductase inhibitors for prostatic disease. PMID:24872577

Livingstone, Dawn E W; Di Rollo, Emma M; Yang, Chenjing; Codrington, Lucy E; Mathews, John A; Kara, Madina; Hughes, Katherine A; Kenyon, Christopher J; Walker, Brian R; Andrew, Ruth

2014-08-01

398

Inhibition of Both Thioredoxin Reductase and Glutathione Reductase may Contribute to the Anticancer Mechanism of TH-302  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selenium-containing thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) is an important target of cancer therapy. Many useful anticancer agents including\\u000a bis-alkylating agents, cisplatin, and arsenic trioxide are known to interact with the selenocysteine dipeptide in the carboxy\\u000a terminal region of thioredoxin reductase and inactivate its ability to reduce thioredoxin. Some investigators have postulated\\u000a that the inactivation of TrxR may add to the cytotoxic potential

Shengrong Li; Jinsong Zhang; Jun Li; Dongming Chen; Mark Matteucci; John Curd; Jian-Xin Duan

2010-01-01

399

Are effects of MTHFR (C677T) genotype on BMD confined to women with low folate and riboflavin intake? Analysis of food records from the Danish osteoporosis prevention study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously found BMD and fracture risk to be significantly associated with the MTHFR (C677T) polymorphism in healthy postmenopausal women in the first years after menopause. Since then, other cohort studies have suggested that sufficient intake of riboflavin and\\/or folate may have the potential to prevent development of low BMD in women with the TT genotype. This could to

Bo Abrahamsen; Jonna Skov Madsen; Charlotte Landbo Tofteng; Lis Stilgren; Else Marie Bladbjerg; Søren Risom Kristensen; Kim Brixen; Leif Mosekilde

2005-01-01

400

Control of Nitrite Reductase Activity in Excised Embryos of Agrostemma githago.  

PubMed

When excised embryos of Agrostemma githago were incubated with nitrate, the activities of both nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase were enhanced. By contrast, benzyladenine induced nitrate reductase only. Our data suggest that nitrate affected nitrite reductase activity directly, without first being reduced to nitrite. When the endogenous nitrite production was increased by raising the level of nitrate reductase through simultaneous treatment with nitrate and benzyladenine, the activity of nitrite reductase was not higher than in embryos treated with nitrate alone. On the other hand, tungstate given together with nitrate drastically inhibited the development of nitrate reductase activity without reducing the enhancement of nitrite reductase activity. Nitrite enhanced nitrite reductase activity, though less efficiently than nitrate. PMID:16658983

Dilworth, M F; Kende, H

1974-12-01

401

Control of Nitrite Reductase Activity in Excised Embryos of Agrostemma githago12  

PubMed Central

When excised embryos of Agrostemma githago were incubated with nitrate, the activities of both nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase were enhanced. By contrast, benzyladenine induced nitrate reductase only. Our data suggest that nitrate affected nitrite reductase activity directly, without first being reduced to nitrite. When the end