Sample records for reductase mthfr mutation

  1. Pregnancy-associated osteoporosis with a heterozygous deactivating LDL receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) mutation and a homozygous methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Cook, Fiona J; Mumm, Steven; Whyte, Michael P; Wenkert, Deborah

    2014-04-01

    Pregnancy-associated osteoporosis (PAO) is a rare, idiopathic disorder that usually presents with vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) within 6 months of a first pregnancy and delivery. Spontaneous improvement is typical. There is no known genetic basis for PAO. A 26-year-old primagravida with a neonatal history of unilateral blindness attributable to hyperplastic primary vitreous sustained postpartum VCFs consistent with PAO. Her low bone mineral density (BMD) seemed to respond to vitamin D and calcium therapy, with no fractures after her next successful pregnancy. Investigation of subsequent fetal losses revealed homozygosity for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism associated both with fetal loss and with osteoporosis (OP). Because her neonatal unilateral blindness and OP were suggestive of loss-of-function mutation(s) in the gene that encodes LDL receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5), LRP5 exon and splice site sequencing was also performed. This revealed a unique heterozygous 12-bp deletion in exon 21 (c.4454_4465del, p.1485_1488del SSSS) in the patient, her mother and sons, but not her father or brother. Her mother had a normal BMD, no history of fractures, PAO, ophthalmopathy, or fetal loss. Her two sons had no ophthalmopathy and no skeletal issues. Her osteoporotic father (with a family history of blindness) and brother had low BMDs first documented at ages ?40 and 32 years, respectively. Serum biochemical and bone turnover studies were unremarkable in all subjects. We postulate that our patient's heterozygous LRP5 mutation together with her homozygous MTHFR polymorphism likely predisposed her to low peak BMD. However, OP did not cosegregate in her family with the LRP5 mutation, the homozygous MTHFR polymorphism, or even the combination of the two, implicating additional genetic or nongenetic factors in her PAO. Nevertheless, exploration for potential genetic contributions to PAO may explain part of the pathogenesis of this enigmatic disorder and identify some at-risk women. PMID:24014470

  2. Common Mutations of the Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) Gene in Non-Syndromic Cleft Lips and Palates Children in North-West of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahi-Fakhim, Shahin; Asghari Estiar, Mehrdad; Varghaei, Parizad; Alizadeh Sharafi, Mahdi; Sakhinia, Masoud; Sakhinia, Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Cleft lips and cleft palates are common congenital abnormalities in children. Various chromosomal loci have been suggested to be responsible the development of these abnormalities. The present study was carried out to investigate the association between the suspected genes (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase [MTHFR] A1298C and C677T) that might contribute into the etiology of these disorders through application of molecular methods. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional and explanatory study was carried out on a study population of 65 affected children, 130 respective parents and 50 healthy individuals between 2009 and 2012 at Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran. After DNA extraction, amplification refractory mutation system–polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)-PCR were used respectively to investigate the C677T and A1298C mutations for the MTHFR gene. Results: There was a significant difference in the rates of the C677T mutation when affected patients and their fathers were compared with the control group (odds ratio [OR]=0.44) (OR=0.64). However, there was no significant difference observed in the rate of this mutation between the patients’ mothers and the control group (OR=1.35). In addition, the abnormality rate was higher in patients with the A1298C mutation and their parents, when compared with the control group. This abnormality rate was higher for the affected children and their fathers in comparison with their mothers (Fathers, OR=0.26; Mothers, OR=0.65; Children, OR=0.55). No significant difference was seen in the rate of the polymorphism C677T in its CC, when the affected children and their parents were compared with the control group. However, there was a significant difference in the A1298C mutation. Conclusion: An association was seen between the A1298C mutation and cleft lip and cleft palate abnormalities in Iran. However, there seems to be a stronger relationship between the C67TT mutation and these abnormalities in other countries, which could be explained by racial differences. Moreover, this association was more notable between the affected children and their fathers than their mothers. The findings in this study may be helpful in future studies and screening programs.

  3. A Second Genetic Polymorphism in Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) Associated with Decreased Enzyme Activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilan Weisberg; Pamela Tran; Benedicte Christensen; Sahar Sibani; Rima Rozen

    1998-01-01

    A common mutation in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), C677T, results in a thermolabile variant with reduced activity. Homozygous mutant individuals (approximately 10% of North Americans) are predisposed to mild hyperhomocysteinemia, when their folate status is low. This genetic–nutrient interactive effect is believed to increase the risk for neural tube defects and vascular disease. In this communication, we characterize a second common

  4. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism: epidemiology, metabolism and the associated diseases.

    PubMed

    Liew, Siaw-Cheok; Gupta, Esha Das

    2015-01-01

    The Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism is associated with various diseases (vascular, cancers, neurology, diabetes, psoriasis, etc) with the epidemiology of the polymorphism of the C677T that varies dependent on the geography and ethnicity. The 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) locus is mapped on chromosome 1 at the end of the short arm (1p36.6). This enzyme is important for the folate metabolism which is an integral process for cell metabolism in the DNA, RNA and protein methylation. The mutation of the MTHFR gene which causes the C677T polymorphism is located at exon 4 which results in the conversion of valine to alanine at codon 222, a common polymorphism that reduces the activity of this enzyme. The homozygous mutated subjects have higher homocysteine levels while the heterozygous mutated subjects have mildly raised homocysteine levels compared with the normal, non-mutated controls. Hyperhomocysteinemia is an emerging risk factor for various cardiovascular diseases and with the increasing significance of this polymorphism in view of the morbidity and mortality impact on the patients, further prevention strategies and nutritional recommendations with the supplementation of vitamin B12 and folic acid which reduces plasma homocysteine level would be necessary as part of future health education. This literature review therefore focuses on the recent evidence-based reports on the associations of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and the various diseases globally. PMID:25449138

  5. Coexistence of Neurofibromatosis Type-1 and MTHFR C677T Gene Mutation in a Young Stroke Patient: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Halim; Erkin, Gulten; Gumus, Haluk; Nalbant, Lutfiye

    2013-01-01

    In neurofibromatosis type-1 (NF1), cerebrovascular disorders are rarely encountered although vasculopathy is a well-known complication. Several mutations seen in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) give rise to the formation of hyperhomocysteinemia and homocystinuria, a considerable risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disorders, by leading to enzymatic inactivation. In the paper, a 31-year-old young stroke female patient with the coexistence of neurofibromatosis and MTHFR C677T gene mutation was presented. PMID:23533858

  6. Association of MTHFR gene C677T mutation with diabetic peripheral neuropathy and diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Yigit, Serbulent; Inanir, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is one of the most common diabetic chronic complications. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene variants have been associated with vasculopathy that has been linked to diabetic neuropathy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible association between MTHFR gene C677T mutation and DPN and evaluate if there is an association with clinical features in a relatively large cohort of Turkish patients. Methods The study included 230 patients affected by DPN and 282 healthy controls. Genomic DNA was isolated and genotyped using the polymerase chain reaction–based restriction fragment length polymorphism assay for the MTHFR gene C677T mutation. Results The genotype and allele frequencies of the C677T mutation showed statistically significant differences between the patients with DPN and the controls (p=0.003 and p=0.002, respectively). After the patients with DPN were stratified according to clinical and demographic characteristics, a significant association was observed between the C677T mutation and history of retinopathy (p=0.039). Conclusions A high association between the MTHFR gene C677T mutation and DPN was observed in the present study. In addition, history of retinopathy was associated with the MTHFR C677T mutation in patients with DPN. PMID:23901246

  7. A second genetic polymorphism in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) associated with decreased enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Weisberg, I; Tran, P; Christensen, B; Sibani, S; Rozen, R

    1998-07-01

    A common mutation in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), C677T, results in a thermolabile variant with reduced activity. Homozygous mutant individuals (approximately 10% of North Americans) are predisposed to mild hyperhomocysteinemia, when their folate status is low. This genetic-nutrient interactive effect is believed to increase the risk for neural tube defects and vascular disease. In this communication, we characterize a second common variant in MTHFR (A1298C), an E to A substitution. Homozygosity was observed in approximately 10% of Canadian individuals. This polymorphism was associated with decreased enzyme activity; homozygotes had approximately 60% of control activity in lymphocytes. Heterozygotes for both the C677T and the A1298C mutation, approximately 15% of individuals, had 50-60% of control activity, a value that was lower than that seen in single heterozygotes for the C677T variant. No individuals were homozygous for both mutations. Additional studies of the A1298C mutation, in the absence and presence of the C677T mutation, are warranted, to adequately address the role of this new genetic variant in complex traits. A silent genetic variant, T1317C, was identified in the same exon. It was relatively infrequent (allele frequency 5%) in our study group, but was quite common in a small sample of African individuals (allele frequency 39%). PMID:9719624

  8. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphisms and FOLFOX response in colorectal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Etienne-Grimaldi, Marie-Christine; Milano, Gérard; Maindrault-Gœbel, Frédérique; Chibaudel, Benoist; Formento, Jean-Louis; Francoual, Mireille; Lledo, Gérard; André, Thierry; Mabro, May; Mineur, Laurent; Flesch, Michel; Carola, Elisabeth; de Gramont, Aimery

    2010-01-01

    AIMS To test prospectively the predictive value of germinal gene polymorphisms related to fluorouracil (FU) and oxaliplatin (Oxa) pharmacodynamics on toxicity and responsiveness of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients receiving FOLFOX therapy. METHODS Advanced CRC patients (n= 117) receiving FOLFOX 7 therapy were enrolled. Gene polymorphisms relevant for FU [thymidylate synthase (TYMS, 28 bp repeats including the G?C mutation + 6 bp deletion in 3'UTR), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR, 677C?T, 1298A?C), dihydropyrimidine deshydrogenase (IVS14+1G?A) and Oxa: glutathione S-transferase (GST) ? (105Ile?Val, 114Ala?Val), excision repair cross-complementing group 1 (ERCC1) (118AAT?AAC), ERCC2 (XPD, 751Lys?Gln) and XRCC1 (399Arg?Gln)] were determined (blood mononuclear cells). RESULTS None of the genotypes was predictive of toxicity. Response rate (54.7% complete response + partial response) was related to FU pharmacogenetics, with both 677C?T (P= 0.042) and 1298A?C (P= 0.004) MTHFR genotypes linked to clinical response. Importantly, the score of favourable MTHFR alleles (677T and 1298C) was positively linked to response, with response rates of 37.1, 53.3, 62.5 and 80.0% in patients bearing no, one, two or three favourable alleles, respectively (P= 0.040). Polymorphisms of genes related to Oxa pharmacodynamics showed an influence on progression-free survival, with a better outcome in patients bearing GST? 105 Val/Val genotype or XPD 751Lys-containing genotype (P= 0.054). CONCLUSIONS These results show that response to FOLFOX therapy in CRC patients may be driven by MTHFR germinal polymorphisms. PMID:20078613

  9. Mutated methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase as a risk factor for spina bifida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. M. J. van der Put; F. J. M. Trijbels; L. P. van den Heuvel; H. J. Blom; R. P. M. Steegers-Theunissen; T. K. A. B. Eskes; E. C. M. Mariman; M. den Heyer; P. Frosst; R. Rozen

    1995-01-01

    Periconceptional folate supplementation reduces the risk of neural-tube defects. We studied the frequency of the 677C?T mutation in the 5,10–methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene in 55 patients with spina bifida and parents of such patients (70 mothers, 60 fathers), 5% of 207 controls were homozygous for the 677C?T mutation compared with 16% of mothers, 10% of fathers, and 13% of patients.

  10. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphism susceptibility to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: an updated meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Cai-Yun; Qian, Zhen-Zhong; Gong, Feng-Feng; Lu, Shan-Shan; Feng, Fang; Wu, Yi-Le; Yang, Hui-Yun; Sun, Ye-Huan

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies examining the possible role of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms in the development of schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BPD) have provided inconclusive findings, this meta-analysis was therefore designed to get a more reliable assessment. A total of 38 articles were identified through a search of electronic databases, up to 27 February 2014. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence interval (CIs) were calculated using random effects models. Meta-analysis showed that MTHFR C677T was significantly associated with SZ, the highest OR was found for the recessive model (for TT vs. CT + CC: OR = 1.34, 95 % CI: 1.18-1.53); a marginal association of MTHFR C677T with increased risk of BPD has also been found for the recessive model (OR = 1.26, 95 % CI: 1.00-1.59). Subgroup analysis by ethnicity indicated that the significant association with SZ and BPD existed among Asian and African populations, but not for the white. MTHFR A1298C was significant associated with SZ, the highest OR for the dominant model (OR = 1.13, 95 % CI: 1.03-1.24). Subgroup analysis indicated a significant association with SZ existed in Asian populations, not among the white populations and no significant association was detected between the MTHFR A1298C and BPD in all groups. We conclude that MTHFR polymorphism is associated with SZ and BPD among Asian, African populations, but not the white. PMID:24938371

  11. Plasma folate, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), and colorectal cancer risk in three large nested case-control studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Few prospective studies have examined the associations between blood levels of folate, in conjunction with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms, and colorectal cancer. We evaluated the associations between plasma folate, MTHFR C677T, and A1298C, and colorectal cancer in three la...

  12. 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase (MTRR), and methionine synthase reductase (MTR) gene polymorphisms and adult meningioma risk.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Zhou, Yan-Wen; Shi, Hua-Ping; Wang, Yan-Zhong; Li, Gui-Ling; Yu, Hai-Tao; Xie, Xin-You

    2013-11-01

    The causes of meningiomas are not well understood. Folate metabolism gene polymorphisms have been shown to be associated with various human cancers. It is still controversial and ambiguous between the functional polymorphisms of folate metabolism genes 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase (MTRR), and methionine synthase reductase (MTR) and risk of adult meningioma. A population-based case–control study involving 600 meningioma patients (World Health Organization [WHO] Grade I, 391 cases; WHO Grade II, 167 cases; WHO Grade III, 42 cases) and 600 controls was done for the MTHFR C677T and A1298C, MTRR A66G, and MTR A2756G variants in Chinese Han population. The folate metabolism gene polymorphisms were determined by using a polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Meningioma cases had a significantly lower frequency of MTHFR 677 TT genotype [odds ratio (OR) = 0.49, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.33–0.74; P = 0.001] and T allele (OR = 0.80, 95 % CI 0.67–0.95; P = 0.01) than controls. A significant association between risk of meningioma and MTRR 66 GG (OR = 1.41, 95 % CI 1.02–1.96; P = 0.04) was also observed. When stratifying by the WHO grade of meningioma, no association was found. Our study suggested that MTHFR C677T and MTRR A66G variants may affect the risk of adult meningioma in Chinese Han population. PMID:23959833

  13. Intermediate hyperhomocysteinaemia and compound heterozygosity for the common variant c.677C>T and a MTHFR gene mutation.

    PubMed

    Rummel, T; Suormala, T; Häberle, J; Koch, H G; Berning, C; Perrett, D; Fowler, B

    2007-06-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme in the regulation of plasma homocysteine levels. MTHFR deficiency, an autosomal recessive disorder, results in homocystinuria and hypomethioninaemia and presents with highly variable symptoms affecting many organs but predominantly the central nervous system. The common polymorphism of the MTHFR gene, c.677C>T, a known risk factor for elevated plasma homocysteine levels, occurs frequently in the caucasian population. In this study we investigated three subjects with moderate hyperhomocysteinaemia (total plasma homocysteine 72 micromol/L in case 1 and 90 micromol/L in case 3, total non-protein-bound homocysteine 144-186 micromol/L in case 2) but different clinical presentation with no symptoms in case 1, muscle weakness at 17 years of age in case 2, and syncopes and cerebral convulsions at 18 years of age in case 3. Each subject was compound heterozygous for the c.677C>T polymorphism and a novel mutation of the MTHFR gene (case 1: c.883G>A [p.D291N]; case 2: c.1552_c.1553delGA [p.E514fsX536]; case 3: c.616C>T [p.P202S]). Moderately decreased fibroblast MTHFR activity was associated with severely reduced affinity for NADPH and increased sensitivity to inhibition by S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) in case 2, and with mild FAD responsiveness in case 3. In case 1, fibroblast MTHFR activity was normal but the sensitivity to inhibition by AdoMet was slightly reduced. This study indicates that the sequence alteration c.677C>T combined with severe MTHFR mutations in compound heterozygous state may lead to moderate biochemical and clinical abnormalities exceeding those attributed to the c.677TT genotype and might require in addition to folate substitution further therapy to normalize homocysteine levels. PMID:17457696

  14. Folate Metabolism Gene 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) Is Associated with ADHD in Myelomeningocele Patients

    PubMed Central

    Spellicy, Catherine J.; Northrup, Hope; Fletcher, Jack M.; Cirino, Paul T.; Dennis, Maureen; Morrison, Alanna C.; Martinez, Carla A.; Au, Kit Sing

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relation between the 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and behaviors related to attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in individuals with myelomeningocele. The rationale for the study was twofold: folate metabolizing genes, (e.g. MTHFR), are important not only in the etiology of neural tube defects but are also critical to cognitive function; and individuals with myelomeningocele have an elevated incidence of ADHD. Here, we tested 478 individuals with myelomeningocele for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder behavior using the Swanson Nolan Achenbach Pelham-IV ADHD rating scale. Myelomeningocele participants in this group for whom DNAs were available were genotyped for seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the MTHFR gene. The SNPs were evaluated for an association with manifestation of the ADHD phenotype in children with myelomeningocele. The data show that 28.7% of myelomeningocele participants exhibit rating scale elevations consistent with ADHD; of these 70.1% had scores consistent with the predominantly inattentive subtype. In addition, we also show a positive association between the SNP rs4846049 in the 3?-untranslated region of the MTHFR gene and the attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder phenotype in myelomeningocele participants. These results lend further support to the finding that behavior related to ADHD is more prevalent in patients with myelomeningocele than in the general population. These data also indicate the potential importance of the MTHFR gene in the etiology of the ADHD phenotype. PMID:23227261

  15. Association of C677T transition of the human methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene with male infertility.

    PubMed

    Karimian, Mohammad; Colagar, Abasalt Hosseinzadeh

    2014-11-21

    The human methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene encodes one of the key enzymes in folate metabolism. This gene is located on chromosome 1 (1p36.3), which has 12 exons. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible association of the two (C677T and A1298C) polymorphisms of this gene with male infertility. In a case-control study, 250 blood samples were collected from IVF centres in Sari and Babol (Iran): 118 samples were from oligospermic men and 132 were from controls. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms of the MTHFR genotype were detected using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. There was no association found between the A1298C variant and male infertility. However, carriers of the 677T allele (CT and TT genotypes) were at a higher risk of infertility than individuals with other genotypes (odds ratio 1.84; 95% confidence interval 1.11-3.04; P=0.0174). Structural analysis of human MTHFR flavoprotein showed that C677T transition played an important role in the change in affinity of the MTHFR-Flavin adenine dinucleotide binding site. Based on our results, we suggest that C677T transition in MTHFR may increase the risk of male infertility, and detection of the C677T polymorphism biomarker may be helpful in the screening of idiopathic male infertility. PMID:25412139

  16. Is methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene A1298C polymorphism related with varicocele risk?

    PubMed

    Ucar, V B; Nami, B; Acar, H; Kilinç, M

    2015-02-01

    Varicocele is one of the main reasons for male infertility the exact aetiology of which remains unclear. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is important for DNA synthesis and methylation, which has a key role during spermatogenesis. Numerous literature suggests that the MTHFR polymorphism may be genetic risk factors for male infertility. In this study, we evaluated C677T and A1298C MTHFR gene polymorphism frequency in patients with varicocele and normal men. A total of 107 varicocele patients and 109 fertile healthy individuals were included. Genotyping of the MTHFR gene in C677T and A1298C base pairs carried out by using real-time PCR technique and afterwards, the statistical analysis accomplished. There is a statistical difference for the frequency of 1298AA genotype in patients with varicocele compared with normal controls (P = 0.0051, OR = 2.2750). Instead, subsequently, 1298/A allel frequency in patient group was significantly higher in comparison with control group (P = 0.0174). According to our results, 1298AA genotype in MTHFR gene raises the risk of varicocele approximately 2.3 times more compared with men carrying other genotypes. The results show that genetic factors have an important role in the molecular basis of varicocele. PMID:24456105

  17. Seven novel mutations in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene and genotype/phenotype correlations in severe methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Goyette, P.; Frosst, P.; Rosenblatt, D.S.; Rozen. R. [McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada)

    1995-05-01

    5-Methyltetrahydrofolate, the major form of folate in plasma, is a carbon donor for the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine. This form of folate is generated from 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate through the action of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), a cytosolic flavoprotein. Patients with an autosomal recessive severe deficiency of MTHFR have homocystinuria and a wide range of neurological and vascular disturbances. We have recently described the isolation of a cDNA for MTHFR and the identification of two mutations in patients with severe MTHFR deficiency. We report here the characterization of seven novel mutations in this gene: six missense mutations and a 5{prime} splice-site defect that activates a cryptic splice in the coding sequence. We also present a preliminary analysis of the relationship between genotype and phenotype for all nine mutations identified thus far in this gene. A nonsense mutation and two missense mutations (proline to leucine and threonine to methionine) in the homozygous state are associated with extremely low activity (0%-3%) and onset of symptoms within the 1st year of age. Other missense mutations (arginine to cysteine and arginine to glutamine) are associated with higher enzyme activity and later onset of symptoms. 19 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) Polymorphisms and Susceptibility for Cervical Lesions: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaojiao; Yang, Pei

    2012-01-01

    Background The association between the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T/A1298C polymorphisms and the susceptibility to cervical lesions was unclear. This study was designed to investigate their precise association using a large-scale meta-analysis. Methods The previous 16 studies were identified by searching PubMed, Embase and CBM databases. The crude odds ratios and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to estimate the association between the MTHFR C677T/A1298C polymorphisms and the susceptibility to the cervical lesions. The subgroup analyses were made on the following: pathological history, geographic region, ethnicity, source of controls and source of DNA for genotyping. Results Neither of the polymorphisms had a significant association with the susceptibility to the cervical lesions in all genetic models. Similar results were found in the subgroup analyses. No association was found between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and the cervical lesions in the Asia or the America populations though a significant inverse association was found in the Europe population (additive model: P?=?0.006, OR?=?0.83, 95% CI?=?0.72–0.95; CT vs. CC: P?=?0.05, OR?=?0.83, 95% CI?=?0.69–1.00; TT vs. CC: P?=?0.05, OR?=?0.73, 95% CI?=?0.53–1.00). Interestingly, women with the MTHFR A1298C polymorphisms had a marginally increased susceptibility to invasive cancer (ICC) when compared with no carriers but no statistically significant difference in the dominant model (P?=?0.06, OR?=?1.21, 95% CI?=?0.99–1.49) and AC vs. AA (P?=?0.09, OR?=?1.21, 95% CI?=?0.97–1.51). Conclusions The MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms may not increase the susceptibility to cervical lesions. However, the meta-analysis reveals a negative association between the MTHFR C677T polymorphisms and the cervical lesions, especially in the European populations. The marginal association between the MTHFR A1298C polymorphisms and the susceptibility to cervical cancer requires a further study. PMID:23285018

  19. Evidence of Paternal N5, N10 - Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) C677T Gene Polymorphism in Couples with Recurrent Spontaneous Abortions (RSAs) in Kolar District- A South West of India

    PubMed Central

    Vanilla, Shiny; Kotur, Pushpa F; Kutty, Moideen A; Vegi, Pradeep Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) is a multifactorial clinical obstetrics complication commonly occurring in pregnancy. Many research studies have noted the mutations such as C677T in N5, N10 - Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR)gene which is regarded as RSA risk factor. This study was carried out to determine the occurrence of frequency of C677T of the MTHFR gene mutations with RSA. Aim: The purpose of present study is to determine the frequency of MTHFR C677T polymorphisms in couples with recurrent pregnancy loss and the impact of paternal polymorphisms of MTHFR C677T in recurrent pregnancy loss in population of couples living in Kolar district of Karnataka with RSA. Design: A total of 15 couples with a history of two or more unexplained RSA were enrolled as subjects in the study and a total of 15 couples with normal reproductive history, having two or more children and no history of miscarriages were enrolled as controls. Materials and Methods: DNA extraction from samples case and control group couples and its quantification by Agarose gel electrophoresis, assessment of DNA purity, MTHFR C 677T gene mutation detection by PCR-RFLP method. Statistical analysis: Carried out by web based online SPSS tool. Results: The frequency of C677T genotype showed homozygous wild type CC (80%), heterozygous CT type (13.3%) and homozygous mutation TT type (6.67%) observed in males. Similarly from female’s homozygous wild type CC (86.6%), heterozygous type (13.3%), and homozygous type mutations TT (0%) was recorded. In couple control groups, we observed homozygous wild type CC (86.6%), heterozygous CT type (13.3%) and homozygous type mutations TT type (0%). Conclusion: We noticed a high frequency of MTHFR specifically T allele associated with paternal side.Therefore, the present study indicated the impact of paternal gene polymorphism of MTHFR C677T on screening in couples with recurrent pregnancy loss.

  20. Association between the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase gene C677T mutation and colchicine unresponsiveness in Behcet’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Yigit, Serbulent; Kalkan, Goknur; Rustemoglu, Aydin; Inanir, Ahmet; Gul, Ulker; Pancar, Gunseli Sefika; Akkanet, Songul; Ates, Omer

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Behcet’s disease (BD) is a multisystemic immunoinflammatory disorder characterized by mucocutaneous, ocular, vascular, and central nervous system manifestations. The common methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene C677T mutation is a known risk factor for thrombosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the MTHFR gene C677 mutation in patients with BD and evaluate if there was an association with clinical features, especially thrombosis, in a relatively large cohort of patients with BD. Methods The study included 318 patients with BD and 207 healthy controls. Genomic DNA was isolated and genotyped using PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism assay for the MTHFR gene C677T mutation. Results The genotype and allele frequencies of the C677T mutation showed a statistically significant difference between BD patients and controls (p=0.003 and p=0.001, respectively). There was also a significant association between C677T alteration and response to colchicine in BD patients (p=0.046). Conclusions The results of this study showed that there was a high association between the MTHFR gene C677T mutation and BD. Stratification analysis according to clinical features for this disease did not reveal an association except response to colchicine that was shown to be influenced by the MTHFR C677T mutation. PMID:22773907

  1. Primer-engineered multiplex PCR-RFLP for detection of MTHFR C677T, prothrombin G20210A and factor V Leiden mutations.

    PubMed

    Koksal, Vedat; Baris, Ibrahim; Etlik, Ozdal

    2007-08-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes that code for coagulation factors V (factor V Leiden) and II (prothrombin, G20210A), as well as the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR, C677T) gene, have been implicated in the majority of cases of hereditary thrombophilia. We have developed a multiplex PCR-RFLP assay based on MnlI endonuclease digestion for the simultaneous detection of mutations in the FV, FII, and MTHFR genes. Digested amplification products were analyzed by gel electrophoresis in a single gel lane and visualized by ethidium bromide. This approach is a rapid and convenient method, hence economic, that alternate to others described for the detection of FVL, G20210A and C677T mutations. PMID:17275807

  2. Adaptive developmental plasticity in methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism limits its frequency in South Indians.

    PubMed

    Naushad, Shaik Mohammad; Krishnaprasad, Chintakindi; Devi, Akella Radha Rama

    2014-05-01

    Methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism shows considerable heterogeneity in its distribution in humans worldwide. The current study was conducted to investigate whether this polymorphism exhibited adaptive developmental plasticity in the control of the TT-genotype frequency. We screened 1,818 South Indian subjects (895 males and 923 females) for MTHFR C677T polymorphism using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism approach. MTHFR 677T-allele frequency in males and females was 9.1 and 11.0%, respectively. Compared to females, males had lower frequency of TT-genotype [odds ratio 0.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08-1.01]. The frequency of MTHFR 677T-allele was highest in the age group of 20-40 years and it gradually decreased from 40-60 to 60-80 years (P trend<0.0001). MTHFR 677TT-genotype was associated with 7.02-folds (95% CI: 2.12-25.63, P<0.0001) cumulative risk for recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL), neural tube defects (NTDs) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Linear regression model suggested that male gender exhibited increased homocysteine levels by 9.35 ?mol/L while each MTHFR 677T-allele contributed to 4.63 ?mol/L increase in homocysteine. Plasma homocysteine showed inverse correlation with dietary folate (r=-0.17, P<0.0001), B2 (r=-0.14, P<0.0001) and B6 (r=-0.07, P=0.03). Examination of the spontaneously aborted fetuses (n=35) showed no significant association of fetal genotype on its in utero viability. From the current study, it was concluded that C677T seemed to have acquired adaptive developmental plasticity among South Indians due to environmental influences thus contributing to hyperhomocysteinemia and its associated complications such as RPL, NTDs, DVT, etc. PMID:24449370

  3. Role of 677C?T polymorphism a single substitution in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene in North Indian infertile men.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, Hena; Hussain, Syed Rizwan; Ahmad, Mohammad Kaleem; Mahdi, Farzana; Jaiswar, Shyam Pyari; Shankhwar, Satya Narayain; Mahdi, Abbas Ali

    2014-02-01

    Failure or severe difficulty in conceiving a child is surprisingly common, worldwide problem. Half of these cases are due to male factors with defects in sperm (1 in 15 men) being the single most common cause. Also about 60-75 % of male infertility cases are idiopathic, since the molecular mechanisms underlying the defects remain unknown. DNA methylation is crucial for spermatogenesis and high methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) activity in adult testis than other organs in mouse, signifies its critical role in spermatogenesis. According to recent findings there is a correlation of epigenetic regulation of several imprinted genes with disturbed spermatogenesis and fertility. Consequently any change in the MTHFR gene sequence can modify the spermatogenesis including transmission of infertility to the carriers. The aim of the study is to analyze the distribution of the single nucleotide polymorphism C677T in the MTHFR gene in 637 North Indian infertile patients and 364 fertile North Indian men as controls by using PCR-RFLP technique and Chi Square test for statistical analysis. The average MTHFR 677CC, 677CT, 677TT genotype frequencies of total infertile men were 70.17, 24.17, 5.65 % in infertile men and 75.27, 21.7, 2.74 % in controls, respectively. The average frequency of the MTHFR 677T allele was 17.73 % in infertile men as compared to 13.59 % in controls. The statistical difference was significant. Disease risk was found 2.27-folds increased in patients who were carrying T allele. We found an association of C677T polymorphism with male infertility and that it may be a genetic risk factor for male infertility in North Indian population. PMID:24366618

  4. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphism A1298C (Glu429Ala) predicts decline in renal function over time in the African-American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) Trial and Veterans Affairs Hypertension Cohort (VAHC)

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Rany M.; Lipkowitz, Michael S.; Bhatnagar, Vibha; Pandey, Braj; Schork, Nicholas J.; O’Connor, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with increased venous thrombosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Mutations in the human methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene have been associated with increased homocysteine levels and risks of CVD in various populations including those with kidney disease. Here, we evaluated the influence of MTHFR variants on progressive loss of kidney function. Methods. We analyzed 821 subjects with hypertensive nephrosclerosis from the longitudinal National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases African-American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) Trial to determine whether decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) over ?4.2 years was predicted by common genetic variation within MTHFR at non-synonymous positions C677T (Ala222Val) and A1298C (Glu429Ala) or by MTHFR haplotypes. The effect on GFR decline was then supported by a study of 1333 subjects from the San Diego Veterans Affairs Hypertension Cohort (VAHC), followed over ?4.5 years. Linear effect models were utilized to determine both genotype [single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)] and genotype (SNP)-by-time interactions. Results. In AASK, the polymorphism at A1298C predicted the rate of GFR decline: A1298/A1298 major allele homozygosity resulted in a less pronounced decline of GFR, with a significant SNP-by-time interaction. An independent follow-up study in the San Diego VAHC subjects supports that A1298/A1298 homozygotes have the greatest estimated GFR throughout the study. Haplotype analysis with C677T yielded concurring results. Conclusion. We conclude that the MTHFR-coding polymorphism at A1298C is associated with renal decline in African-Americans with hypertensive nephrosclerosis and is supported by a veteran cohort with a primary care diagnosis of hypertension. Further investigation is needed to confirm such findings and to determine what molecular mechanism may contribute to this association. PMID:21613384

  5. The 19-bp deletion of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T, Factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A polymorphisms in cancer patients with and without thrombosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aydan Eroglu; Yonca Egin; Ragip Çam; Nejat Akar

    2009-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common complication in cancer patients. Several genetic risk factors related to thrombophilia\\u000a are known; however, their contributions to thrombotic tendency in cancer patients have conflicting results. In the present\\u000a study, we have focused on the prevalence of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR)\\u000a 19-bp deletion within intron 1, factor V Leiden (FVL), and prothrombin

  6. Prevalence of prothrombin G20210A, factor V G1691A (Leiden), and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T in seven different populations determined by multiplex allele-specific PCR.

    PubMed

    Hessner, M J; Luhm, R A; Pearson, S L; Endean, D J; Friedman, K D; Montgomery, R R

    1999-05-01

    Individuals belonging to six racial groups (African American, Asian Indian, Caucasian, Hispanic, Korean, Native American), and a seventh group comprised of referred patients with thrombosis were genotyped for the prothrombin G20210A mutation, the factor V G1691A (Leiden) mutation, and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T mutation by multiplexed allele-specific PCR. The prothrombin 20210A and factor V 1691A allele frequencies in the thrombosis patients, 3.2% and 9.5%, were significantly higher than those in the random Caucasians, 1.3% and 1.8%, (p = 0.043 and p <0.001, respectively). The relative risk of venous thrombosis was determined to be 2.4-fold for carriers of the prothrombin 20210A allele (odds ratio = 2.54; 95% confidence interval = 0.94, 6.82) and 4.5-fold for carriers of the factor V 1691A allele (odds ratio = 5.06; 95% confidence interval = 2.25, 11.36). Among the seven populations, significant differences were observed in the MTHFR 677T allele distribution, however this mutation was not determined to be a risk factor for venous thrombosis in the patient group studied, either alone or in combination with the prothrombin 20210A and/or the factor V 1691A allele(s). PMID:10365746

  7. Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T and A1298C Mutations in Women with Recurrent Spontaneous Abortions in the Northwest of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Poursadegh Zonouzi, Ahmad; Chaparzadeh, Nader; Asghari Estiar, Mehrdad; Mehrzad Sadaghiani, Mahzad; Farzadi, Laya; Ghasemzadeh, Alieh; Sakhinia, Masoud; Sakhinia, Ebrahim

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) is a significant obstetrical complication that may occur during pregnancy. Various studies in recent years have indicated that two common mutations (C677T and A1298C) of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene are risk factor for RSA. This study was carried out to determine the influence of (C677T and A1298C) of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene mutations with RSA. Materials and Methods. A total of 139 women were included in this study: 89 women with two or more consecutive miscarriages and 50 healthy controls. Total genomic DNA was isolated from blood leukocytes. To determine the frequency of the two common C677T and A1298C MTHFR gene mutations in the patients and controls, we used two methods, amplification refractory mutation system-PCR and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results. There is no significant difference in the prevalence of 677T/T genotype among women with RSA and healthy controls (P = 0.285). Also no statistically significant difference in the frequency of A1298C MTHFR gene mutation was detected between the two groups (P = 0.175 ). Conclusion. In conclusion, the results indicate that the Amplification Refractory Mutation System-PCR method was in complete concordance with the results obtained by standard PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. The results also show no significant difference in MTHFR C677T/A1298C genotype distribution among the two groups; therefore, further studies on larger population and other genetic variants to better understand the pathobiology of RSA are needed. PMID:23209927

  8. Association of PHB 1630 C>T and MTHFR 677 C>T polymorphisms with breast and ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers: results from a multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Jakubowska, A; Rozkrut, D; Antoniou, A; Hamann, U; Scott, R J; McGuffog, L; Healy, S; Sinilnikova, O M; Rennert, G; Lejbkowicz, F; Flugelman, A; Andrulis, I L; Glendon, G; Ozcelik, H; Thomassen, M; Paligo, M; Aretini, P; Kantala, J; Aroer, B; von Wachenfeldt, A; Liljegren, A; Loman, N; Herbst, K; Kristoffersson, U; Rosenquist, R; Karlsson, P; Stenmark-Askmalm, M; Melin, B; Nathanson, K L; Domchek, S M; Byrski, T; Huzarski, T; Gronwald, J; Menkiszak, J; Cybulski, C; Serrano, P; Osorio, A; Cajal, T R; Tsitlaidou, M; Benítez, J; Gilbert, M; Rookus, M; Aalfs, C M; Kluijt, I; Boessenkool-Pape, J L; Meijers-Heijboer, H E J; Oosterwijk, J C; van Asperen, C J; Blok, M J; Nelen, M R; van den Ouweland, A M W; Seynaeve, C; van der Luijt, R B; Devilee, P; Easton, D F; Peock, S; Frost, D; Platte, R; Ellis, S D; Fineberg, E; Evans, D G; Lalloo, F; Eeles, R; Jacobs, C; Adlard, J; Davidson, R; Eccles, D; Cole, T; Cook, J; Godwin, A; Bove, B; Stoppa-Lyonnet, D; Caux-Moncoutier, V; Belotti, M; Tirapo, C; Mazoyer, S; Barjhoux, L; Boutry-Kryza, N; Pujol, P; Coupier, I; Peyrat, J-P; Vennin, P; Muller, D; Fricker, J-P; Venat-Bouvet, L; Johannsson, O Th; Isaacs, C; Schmutzler, R; Wappenschmidt, B; Meindl, A; Arnold, N; Varon-Mateeva, R; Niederacher, D; Sutter, C; Deissler, H; Preisler-Adams, S; Simard, J; Soucy, P; Durocher, F; Chenevix-Trench, G; Beesley, J; Chen, X; Rebbeck, T; Couch, F; Wang, X; Lindor, N; Fredericksen, Z; Pankratz, V S; Peterlongo, P; Bonanni, B; Fortuzzi, S; Peissel, B; Szabo, C; Mai, P L; Loud, J T; Lubinski, J

    2012-01-01

    Background: The variable penetrance of breast cancer in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers suggests that other genetic or environmental factors modify breast cancer risk. Two genes of special interest are prohibitin (PHB) and methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), both of which are important either directly or indirectly in maintaining genomic integrity. Methods: To evaluate the potential role of genetic variants within PHB and MTHFR in breast and ovarian cancer risk, 4102 BRCA1 and 2093 BRCA2 mutation carriers, and 6211 BRCA1 and 2902 BRCA2 carriers from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 (CIMBA) were genotyped for the PHB 1630 C>T (rs6917) polymorphism and the MTHFR 677 C>T (rs1801133) polymorphism, respectively. Results: There was no evidence of association between the PHB 1630 C>T and MTHFR 677 C>T polymorphisms with either disease for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers when breast and ovarian cancer associations were evaluated separately. Analysis that evaluated associations for breast and ovarian cancer simultaneously showed some evidence that BRCA1 mutation carriers who had the rare homozygote genotype (TT) of the PHB 1630 C>T polymorphism were at increased risk of both breast and ovarian cancer (HR 1.50, 95%CI 1.10–2.04 and HR 2.16, 95%CI 1.24–3.76, respectively). However, there was no evidence of association under a multiplicative model for the effect of each minor allele. Conclusion: The PHB 1630TT genotype may modify breast and ovarian cancer risks in BRCA1 mutation carriers. This association need to be evaluated in larger series of BRCA1 mutation carriers. PMID:22669161

  9. The Prevalence of Factor V Leiden (G1691A) and Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T Mutations in Sickle Cell Disease in Western India.

    PubMed

    Kangne, Harshada K; Jijina, Farah F; Italia, Yazdi M; Jain, Dipti L; Nadkarni, Anita H; Ghosh, Kanjaksha K; Colah, Roshan B

    2015-03-01

    The prevalence of the Factor V Leiden (FVL; G1691A) mutation and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR; C677T) mutation was determined in 180 patients with sickle cell (SS) disease (126 sickle homozygous and 54 sickle ?-thalassaemia-age 1-47 years) and in 130 healthy controls. The FVL mutation in the heterozygous state was present in only 3 patients with SS disease and was absent in the controls. Genotyping of MTHFR 677C > T revealed increased frequency of the C allele than the T allele in patients as well as in controls. This suggests that these genetic markers may not be major risk factors for a hypercoagulable state in Indian patients with SS disease. PMID:23869056

  10. Association of methylenetetrahytrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C polymorphisms with the susceptibility of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the polymorphisms of the methylenetetrahytrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and susceptibility to childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Methods A case–control study was conducted among 98 children with ALL and 93 age- and sex- matched non-ALL controls. Genotyping of MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The odds ratios (ORs) of MTHFR genotypes were used to assess the associations of these polymorphisms with childhood ALL susceptibility. Results No significant differences were observed for frequencies of the 677CC, 677CT and 677TT genotypes between patients and controls. Frequencies of the 1298AA, 1298 AC and 1298CC genotypes between the two groups were significantly different. The risk of ALL with the 1298C allele carriers (AC?+?CC) was elevated by 1.1 times compared with the AA genotype [OR?=?2.100; 95% CI (1.149; 3.837); P?=?0.015]. Conclusions The MTHFR A1298C polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to childhood ALL in the Chinese population. PMID:24476575

  11. A COMMON POLYMORPHISM IN THE METHYLENETETRAHYDROFOLATE REDUCTASE (MTHFR) GENE IS ASSOCIATED WITH QUANTITATIVE ULTRASOUND IN THOSE WITH LOW PLASMA FOLATE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study of a polymorphism in the MTHFR gene, plasma folate, and bone phenotypes in 1632 individuals revealed that the genotype effect on BMD and quantitative ultrasound was dependent on the level of folate. Our findings support the hypothesis that the association between an MTHFR polymorphism and bo...

  12. C677T mutation in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene and neural tube defects: should Japanese women undergo gene screening before pregnancy?

    PubMed

    Kondo, Atsuo; Fukuda, Hiromi; Matsuo, Takuya; Shinozaki, Keiko; Okai, Ikuyo

    2014-02-01

    We analyzed the role of maternal C677T mutation in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene on spina bifida development in newborns. A total of 115 mothers who had given birth to a spina bifida child (SB mothers) gave 10?mL of blood together with written informed consent. The genotype distribution of C677T mutation was assessed and compared with that of the 4517 control individuals. The prevalence of the homozygous genotype (TT) among SB mothers was not significantly different from that among the controls (odds ratio [OR]?=?0.65; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?0.31-1.25; P?=?0.182), suggesting that MTHFR 677TT genotype in Japan is not associated with spina bifida development in newborns. The T allele frequency was not increased in SB mothers (34.8%) as compared to that of the control individuals (38.2%). Further, the internationally reported association between the two groups was found to be similar in all 15 countries studied except the Netherlands, where the TT genotype was found to be a genetic risk factor for spina bifida. For the prevention of affected pregnancy every woman planning to conceive has to take folic acid supplements 400??g a day and the government is asked to take action in implementing food fortification with folic acid in the near future. In conclusion, it is not necessary for Japanese women to undergo genetic screening C677T mutation of the MTHFR gene as a predictive marker for spina bifida prior to pregnancy, because the TT genotype is not a risk factor for having an affected infant. PMID:24588777

  13. Role of polymorphisms in factor V (FV Leiden), prothrombin, plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS) genes as risk factors for thrombophilias.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Vilela, A L

    2012-09-01

    Thrombophilias are defined as a predisposition to thrombosis due to hematological changes which induce blood hypercoagulability; they can be inherited or acquired. They are individually characterized by a large phenotypic variability, even when they occur within the same family. Hereditary thrombophilias are, in most cases, due to changes related to physiological coagulation inhibitors or mutations in the genes of coagulation factors. High levels of plasma homocysteine may also be responsible for vaso-occlusive episodes and may have acquired (nutritional deficiencies of folate and vitamins B6 and B12) and/or genetic causes (mutations in the genes responsible for expression of enzymes involved in the intracellular metabolism of homocysteine). Considering that: (1) thromboses are events of multigenic and multifactorial etiopathology; (2) the presence of mutations in several genes significantly increases the risk of their occurrence; (3) the vascular territory (venous and/or arterial) affected involves different pathophysiological mechanisms and treatments, knowledge of genetic variants that may contribute to the risk and variability of the phenotypic manifestations of these diseases is extremely important. This understanding may provide support for a more individualized and therefore more effective treatment for thrombophilia carriers. Thus, this mini-review aims to address a comprehensive summary of thrombophilias and thrombosis, and discuss the role of polymorphisms in Factor V (FV Leiden), Prothrombin, Plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1), Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and Cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS) genes as risk factors for thrombophilias. PMID:22512572

  14. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in branch retinal artery occlusion in a 15-year-old boy with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase mutation.

    PubMed

    Celebi, Ali Riza Cenk; Kadayifcilar, Sibel; Eldem, Bora

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To report the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy in a case of branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) in a 15-year-old boy. Methods. We report a 15-year-old boy with sudden loss of vision due to BRAO. Examination included laboratory evaluation for systemic risk factors. Follow-up exams included visual acuity, fundus examination, fundus fluorescein angiography, and visual field testing. HBO therapy was employed for treatment. Results. Medical history was positive for isolated glucocorticoid deficiency. Laboratory evaluation disclosed hyperhomocysteinemia and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) mutation. The visual acuity 0.05 at presentation improved to 0.8 after 20 days of HBO therapy. There was no change on visual fields. Conclusion. In this pediatric case, HBO therapy was useful in the treatment of BRAO. PMID:25722905

  15. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion in a 15-Year-Old Boy with Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Kadayifcilar, Sibel; Eldem, Bora

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To report the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy in a case of branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) in a 15-year-old boy. Methods. We report a 15-year-old boy with sudden loss of vision due to BRAO. Examination included laboratory evaluation for systemic risk factors. Follow-up exams included visual acuity, fundus examination, fundus fluorescein angiography, and visual field testing. HBO therapy was employed for treatment. Results. Medical history was positive for isolated glucocorticoid deficiency. Laboratory evaluation disclosed hyperhomocysteinemia and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) mutation. The visual acuity 0.05 at presentation improved to 0.8 after 20 days of HBO therapy. There was no change on visual fields. Conclusion. In this pediatric case, HBO therapy was useful in the treatment of BRAO. PMID:25722905

  16. MTHFR (C677T) polymorphism and PR (PROGINS) mutation as genetic factors for preterm delivery, fetal death and low birth weight: A Northeast Indian population based study

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Diptika; Bose, Purabi Deka; Das, Somdatta; Das, Chandana Ray; Datta, Ratul; Bose, Sujoy

    2015-01-01

    Preterm delivery (PTD) is one of the most significant contributors to neonatal mortality, morbidity, and long-term adverse consequences for health; with highest prevalence reported from India. The incidence of PTD is alarmingly very high in Northeast India. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the associative role of MTHFR gene polymorphism and progesterone receptor (PR) gene mutation (PROGINS) in susceptibility to PTD, negative pregnancy outcome and low birth weights (LBW) in Northeast Indian population. Methods A total of 209 PTD cases {extreme preterm (< 28 weeks of gestation, n = 22), very preterm (28–32 weeks of gestation, n = 43) and moderate preterm (32–37 weeks of gestation, n = 144) and 194 term delivery cases were studied for MTHFR C677T polymorphism and PR (PROGINS) gene mutation. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. Results Distribution of MTHFR and PR mutation was higher in PTD cases. Presence of MTHFR C677T polymorphism was significantly associated and resulted in the increased risk of PTD (p < 0.001), negative pregnancy outcome (p < 0.001) and LBW (p = 0.001); more significantly in extreme and very preterm cases. Presence of PR mutation (PROGINS) also resulted in increased risk of PTD and negative pregnancy outcome; but importantly was found to increase the risk of LBW significantly in case of very preterm (p < 0.001) and moderately preterm (p < 0.001) delivery cases. Conclusions Both MTHFR C677T polymorphism and PR (PROGINS) mutation are evident genetic risk factors associated with the susceptibility of PTD, negative pregnancy outcome and LBW. MTHFR C677T may be used as a prognostic marker to stratify subpopulation of pregnancy cases predisposed to PTD; thereby controlling the risks associated with PTD. PMID:25709895

  17. Meta-analysis on MTHFR polymorphism and lung cancer susceptibility in East Asian populations

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, XUE-DE; LI, YAN-TING; YANG, SHUAN-YING; LI, WEI

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most frequently occurring type of cancer worldwide and the leading cause of cancer mortality. Environmental and genetic factors play important roles in lung carcinogenesis. The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphism and the risk of lung cancer in East Asian populations. Related articles were identified through searching literature databases, such as PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Chinese Biomedicine and CNKI. The odds ratio (OR) values in those studies were incorporated by meta-analysis to assess lung cancer susceptibility associated with the MTHFR mutation genotype. The MTHFR C677TT genotype exhibited a significantly increased risk of lung cancer compared to the MTHFR 677CC/CT genotype (OR=1.24; 95% CI, 1.01–1.52). No relationship was identified between the other MTHFR C677T genetic models and the risk of lung cancer and there was no significantly increased risk of lung cancer in A1298C genetic models. In a subgroup of hospital-based controls, according to the source of controls, the C677TT genotype exhibited a significantly increased risk of lung cancer, compared to the C677CC genotype (OR=3.01; 95% CI, 1.07–8.46). In the stratified analysis, the study indicated that the MTHFR 677TT genotype was associated with a significant increase in the risk of lung squamous carcinoma (OR=1.53; 95% CI, 1.09–2.14), whereas no association was observed between the MTHFR C677TT genotype and the risk of lung adenocarcinoma. No association was observed between MTHFR C677TT polymorphism and the risk of lung cancer when smoking was considered. In conclusion, the meta-analysis results suggested that MTHFR C677T polymorphisms exhibit a significantly increased risk of lung cancer and that the MTHFR 677TT genotype is associated with a significantly increased risk of lung squamous carcinoma. PMID:24648965

  18. Compensatory Mutations Restore Fitness during the Evolution of Dihydrofolate Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Kyle M.; Costanzo, Marna S.; Xu, Wenxin; Roy, Scott; Lozovsky, Elena R.; Hartl, Daniel L.

    2010-01-01

    Whether a trade-off exists between robustness and evolvability is an important issue for protein evolution. Although traditional viewpoints have assumed that existing functions must be compromised by the evolution of novel activities, recent research has suggested that existing phenotypes can be robust to the evolution of novel protein functions. Enzymes that are targets of antibiotics that are competitive inhibitors must evolve decreased drug affinity while maintaining their function and sustaining growth. Utilizing a transgenic Saccharomyces cerevisiae model expressing the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) enzyme from the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum, we examine the robustness of growth rate to drug-resistance mutations. We assay the growth rate and resistance of all 48 combinations of 6 DHFR point mutations associated with increased drug resistance in field isolates of the parasite. We observe no consistent relationship between growth rate and resistance phenotypes among the DHFR alleles. The three evolutionary pathways that dominate DHFR evolution show that mutations with increased resistance can compensate for initial declines in growth rate from previously acquired mutations. In other words, resistance mutations that occur later in evolutionary trajectories can compensate for the fitness consequences of earlier mutations. Our results suggest that high levels of resistance may be selected for without necessarily jeopardizing overall fitness. PMID:20576759

  19. Rate of T alleles and TT genotype at MTHFR 677C->T locus or C alleles and CC genotype at MTHFR 1298A->C locus among healthy subjects in Turkey: impact on homocysteine and folic acid status and reference intervals.

    PubMed

    Ozarda, Yesim; Sucu, Derya Kaynak; Hizli, Banu; Aslan, Diler

    2009-12-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is important for folate and homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism. MTHFR 677C->T and 1298A->C MTHFR are two most common mutations which can affect folate and total homocysteine (tHcy) status. This study was designed to determine the rate of MTHFR 677C->T and 1298A->C mutations, and their influence on serum folate, Hcy and vitamin B12 status and the reference intervals in 402 healthy Turkish adults. The rate of MTHFR 677C->T or 1298A->C mutations was 50.7% or 54.7%, respectively. The MTHFR 677C->T mutation-specific reference intervals for serum folate and tHcy were characterized by marked shifts in their upper limits. In homozygote subjects for MTHFR 677C->T serum folate concentration was lower and serum tHcy concentration was higher than those in the wild genotype; all subjects had lower serum folate and 54% of the subjects had higher tHcy concentrations than the cutoff values of or=12 micromol/L, respectively. Serum vitamin B12 status was similar in all genotypes. Serum tHcy concentrations were inversely correlated with serum folate and vitamin B12 concentrations in all genotypes. These data show that the rate of MTHFR 677C->T and 1298A->C mutations is very high in Turks and serum folate and tHcy status are impaired by these mutations. PMID:19764044

  20. Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Gene Polymorphisms in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gokcen, Cem; Kocak, Nadir; Pekgor, Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between 5,10- methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in a sample of Turkish children. Study Design: MTHFR gene polymorphisms were assessed in 40 patients with ADHD and 30 healty controls. Two mutations in the MTHFR gene were investigated using polymerase chain reactions and restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Results: Although there were no statistically significant differences in genotype distributions of the C677T alleles between the ADHD and the control groups (p=0,678) but the genotypic pattern of the distributions of the A1298C alleles was different between the ADHD patients and the controls (p=0,033). Conclusions: Preliminary data imply a possible relationship between A1298C MTHFR polymorphisms and the ADHD. PMID:21897766

  1. Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome is caused by mutations in the 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Waterham, H R; Wijburg, F A; Hennekam, R C; Vreken, P; Poll-The, B T; Dorland, L; Duran, M; Jira, P E; Smeitink, J A; Wevers, R A; Wanders, R J

    1998-01-01

    Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome is a frequently occurring autosomal recessive developmental disorder characterized by facial dysmorphisms, mental retardation, and multiple congenital anomalies. Biochemically, the disorder is caused by deficient activity of 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase, which catalyzes the final step in the cholesterol-biosynthesis pathway-that is, the reduction of the Delta7 double bond of 7-dehydrocholesterol to produce cholesterol. We identified a partial transcript coding for human 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase by searching the database of expressed sequence tags with the amino acid sequence for the Arabidopsis thaliana sterol Delta7-reductase and isolated the remaining 5' sequence by the "rapid amplification of cDNA ends" method, or 5'-RACE. The cDNA has an open reading frame of 1,425 bp coding for a polypeptide of 475 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 54.5 kD. Heterologous expression of the cDNA in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae confirmed that it codes for 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase. Chromosomal mapping experiments localized the gene to chromosome 11q13. Sequence analysis of fibroblast 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase cDNA from three patients with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome revealed distinct mutations, including a 134-bp insertion and three different point mutations, each of which was heterozygous in cDNA from the respective parents. Our data demonstrate that Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome is caused by mutations in the gene coding for 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase. PMID:9683613

  2. Folate intake, alcohol consumption, and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T gene polymorphism: influence on prostate cancer risk and interactions

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Lindsay C.; Limburg, Heather; Miao, Qun; Woolcott, Christy; Bedard, Leanne L.; Massey, Thomas E.; Aronson, Kristan J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Folate is essential to DNA methylation and synthesis and may have a complex dualistic role in prostate cancer. Alcohol use may increase risk and epigenetic factors may interact with lifestyle exposures. We aimed to characterize the independent and joint effects of folate intake, alcohol consumption, and the MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism on prostate cancer risk, while accounting for intakes of vitamins B2, B6, B12, methionine, total energy, and confounders. Methods: A case-control study was conducted at Kingston General Hospital of 80 incident primary prostate cancer cases and 334 urology clinic controls, all with normal age-specific PSA levels (to exclude latent prostate cancers). Participants completed a questionnaire on folate and alcohol intakes and potential confounders prior to knowledge of diagnosis, eliminating recall bias, and blood was drawn for MTHFR genotyping. Joint effects of exposures were assessed using unconditional logistic regression and significance of multiplicative and additive interactions using general linear models. Results: Folate, vitamins B2, B6, B12, methionine, and the CT and TT genotypes were not associated with prostate cancer risk. The highest tertile of lifetime alcohol consumption was associated with increased risk (OR = 2.08; 95% CI: 1.12–3.86). Consumption of >5 alcoholic drinks per week was associated with increased prostate cancer risk among men with low folate intake (OR = 2.38; 95% CI: 1.01–5.57), and higher risk among those with the CC MTHFR genotype (OR = 4.43; 95% CI: 1.15–17.05). Increased risk was also apparent for average weekly alcohol consumption when accounting for the multiplicative interaction between folate intake and MTHFR C677T genotype (OR = 3.22; 95% CI: 1.36–7.59). Conclusion: Alcohol consumption is associated with increased prostate cancer risk, and this association is stronger among men with low folate intake, with the CC MTHFR genotype, and when accounting for the joint effect of folate intake and MTHFR C677T genotype. PMID:22912935

  3. Severe scoliosis in a patient with severe methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Tatiana; Patel, Jinesh; Badilla-Porras, Ramses; Kronick, Jonathan; Mercimek-Mahmutoglu, Saadet

    2015-01-01

    Severe methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessively inherited inborn error of folate metabolism. We report a new patient with severe MTHFR deficiency who presented at age 4 months with early onset severe scoliosis associated with severe hypotonia. Markedly decreased MTHFR enzyme activity (0.3 nmoles CHO/mg protein/h; reference range>9) and compound heterozygous mutations (c. 1304T>C; p.Phe435Ser and c.1539dup; p.Glu514Argfs?24) in the MTHFR gene confirmed the diagnosis. She was treated with vitamin B12, folic acid and betaine supplementation and showed improvements in her developmental milestones and hypotonia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first patient with MTHFR deficiency reported with severe early onset scoliosis. Despite the late diagnosis and treatment initiation, she showed favorable short-term neurodevelopmental outcome. This case suggests that homocysteine measurement should be included in the investigations of patients with developmental delay, hypotonia and scoliosis within first year of life prior to organizing genetic investigations. PMID:24726568

  4. Short Report: Detection of the Dihydrofolate Reductase–164L Mutation in Plasmodium falciparum Infections from Malawi by Heteroduplex Tracking Assay

    PubMed Central

    Juliano, Jonathan J.; Trottman, Paul; Mwapasa, Victor; Meshnick, Steven R.

    2008-01-01

    Standard polymerase chain reaction methods often cannot detect drug-resistance mutations in Plasmodium falciparum infections if the mutation is present in ? 20% of the parasites. A heteroduplex tracking assay was developed that can detect dihydrofolate reductase 164-L mutations in variants representing 1% of the parasites in an individual host. Using this assay, we confirmed the presence of the mutation in P. falciparum infections in Malawi. PMID:18541765

  5. Molecular surveillance of mutations in dihydrofolate reductase and dihydropteroate synthase genes of Plasmodium falciparum in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gebru-Woldearegai, Tamirat; Hailu, Asrat; Grobusch, Martin P; Kun, Jürgen F J

    2005-12-01

    Point mutations in the genes for dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) of Plasmodium falciparum isolates are associated with sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) treatment failure, respectively. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of SP resistance in P. falciparum isolates collected at the Jimma Health Center in southwestern Ethiopia. In this study, the genetic profile of P. falciparum isolates with respect to DHFR and DHPS genes was assessed in 124 individuals. The prevalence of single, double, and multiple mutations in these genes was calculated. The sequence profile showed that all samples carried a double mutation at the positions 51 and 108 (I51N108) in the DHFR gene. Sixty-seven (54.03%) of the isolates had an additional third mutation at position 59, resulting in the triple mutant I51R59N108. All isolates carried mutations G437 and E540 in the DHPS gene. Two isolates (1.61%) had additional mutations at codon 581 (A581). PMID:16354825

  6. Relationship of MTHFR gene polymorphisms with renal and cardiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Trovato, Francesca M; Catalano, Daniela; Ragusa, Angela; Martines, G Fabio; Pirri, Clara; Buccheri, Maria Antonietta; Di Nora, Concetta; Trovato, Guglielmo M

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of different methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T gene polymorphism and hyperhomocysteinemia for the development of renal failure and cardiovascular events, which are controversial. METHODS: We challenged the relationship, if any, of MTHFR 677C>T and MTHFR 1298A>C polymorphisms with renal and heart function. The present article is a reappraisal of these concepts, investigating within a larger population, and including a subgroup of dialysis patients, if the two most common MTHFR polymorphisms, C677T and A1298C, as homozygous, heterozygous or with a compound heterozygous state, show different association with chronic renal failure requiring hemodialysis. MTHFR polymorphism could be a favorable evolutionary factor, i.e., a protective factor for many ominous conditions, like cancer and renal failure. A similar finding was reported in fatty liver disease in which it is suggested that MTHFR polymorphisms could have maintained and maintain their persistence by an heterozygosis advantage mechanism. We studied a total of 630 Italian Caucasian subject aged 54.60 ± 16.35 years, addressing to the increased hazard of hemodialysis, if any, according to the studied MTHFR genetic polymorphisms. RESULTS: A favorable association with normal renal function of MTHFR polymorphisms, and notably of MTHFR C677T is present independently of the negative effects of left ventricular hypertrophy, increased Intra-Renal arterial Resistance and hyperparathyroidism. CONCLUSION: MTHFR gene polymorphisms could have a protective role on renal function as suggested by their lower frequency among our dialysis patients in end-stage renal failure; differently, the association with left ventricular hypertrophy and reduced left ventricular relaxation suggest some type of indirect, or concurrent mechanism. PMID:25664255

  7. Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T and A1298C Polymorphism in Iranian Women With Idiopathic Recurrent Pregnancy Losses

    PubMed Central

    Yousefian, Elham; Kardi, Mohammad Taghi; Allahveisi, Azra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is a serious problem for pregnancy. There is evidence that vascular complications play a principal role in RPL. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme in folate metabolism. Polymorphisms (C677T, A1298C) of MTHFR gene are associated with decreased MTHFR activity. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the association between MTHFR polymorphisms (C677T and A1298C) and recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) in Iranian women. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, blood samples were obtained from patients who had three or more consecutive pregnancy losses before the 22nd week of pregnancy (n = 204). The control group consisted of 116 age-matched women with at least one alive child and without any history of pregnancy loss or other gestational complications (n = 116). Following DNA extraction, samples were tested for MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms using the reverse hybridization method. Results: The prevalence of 677TT mutation was 8.8% (18/204) in the patient group and 8.6% (10/116) in the control group (P = 0.434). The prevalence of 1298CC mutation was 12.3 % (25/204) in the patient group and 8% (9/116) in the control group (P = 0.155). Investigation of the distributions of various genotypes of MTHFR C677T and A1298C did not indicate a significant difference between patients with RPL and healthy control subjects. Conclusions: The results suggest that MTHFR mutations might not be associated with RPL in the examined population. PMID:25237572

  8. Prevalence of thromogenic gene mutations in women with recurrent miscarriage: A retrospective study of 1,507 patients

    PubMed Central

    Hilali, Nese Gul; Camuzcuoglu, Aysun; Camuzcuoglu, Hakan; Akbas, Halit; Kilic, Avni; Vural, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Objective Thromogenic gene mutations has been thought to be associated with recurrent pregnancy loss in women in Turkey. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of thromogenic gene mutations such as factor V Leiden (FVL, G1691T), prothrombin (G20210A), and the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR, C677T) mutation in women with recurrent pregnancy loss. Methods This descriptive study was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Harran University School of Medicine, and included a total of 1,507 women with histories of recurrent pregnancy loss between January 2010 and June 2013. The mutations were assessed by using the polymerase chain reaction. Results The homozygous mutation frequencies of FVL, prothrombin, and MTHFR were found to be 3 (0.20%), 0 and 125 (8.29%), and the heterozygous mutation frequencies were 83 (5.51%), 61 (4.05%), and 612 (40.61%), respectively. Among the 86 FVL mutation patients, 38 also had accompanying prothrombin and MTHFR mutations. Conclusion Since the homozygous forms of the FVL-prothrombin gene mutations have low incidences and MTHFR mutation is similar to a healthy population, preconceptional thromogenic gene mutations screening seems to be controversial. PMID:25469341

  9. Mutation in Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Reductase 1 Gene in Families with Cutis Laxa Type 2

    PubMed Central

    Guernsey, Duane L.; Jiang, Haiyan; Evans, Susan C.; Ferguson, Meghan; Matsuoka, Makoto; Nightingale, Mathew; Rideout, Andrea L.; Provost, Sylvie; Bedard, Karen; Orr, Andrew; Dubé, Marie-Pierre; Ludman, Mark; Samuels, Mark E.

    2009-01-01

    Autosomal-recessive cutis laxa type 2 (ARCL2) is a multisystem disorder characterized by the appearance of premature aging, wrinkled and lax skin, joint laxity, and a general developmental delay. Cutis laxa includes a family of clinically overlapping conditions with confusing nomenclature, generally requiring molecular analyses for definitive diagnosis. Six genes are currently known to mutate to yield one of these related conditions. We ascertained a cohort of typical ARCL2 patients from a subpopulation isolate within eastern Canada. Homozygosity mapping with high-density SNP genotyping excluded all six known genes, and instead identified a single homozygous region near the telomere of chromosome 17, shared identically by state by all genotyped affected individuals from the families. A putative pathogenic variant was identified by direct DNA sequencing of genes within the region. The single nucleotide change leads to a missense mutation adjacent to a splice junction in the gene encoding pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1 (PYCR1). Bioinformatic analysis predicted a pathogenic effect of the variant on splice donor site function. Skipping of the associated exon was confirmed in RNA from blood lymphocytes of affected homozygotes and heterozygous mutation carriers. Exon skipping leads to deletion of the reductase functional domain-coding region and an obligatory downstream frameshift. PYCR1 plays a critical role in proline biosynthesis. Pathogenicity of the genetic variant in PYCR1 is likely, given that a similar clinical phenotype has been documented for mutation carriers of another proline biosynthetic enzyme, pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase. Our results support a significant role for proline in normal development. PMID:19576563

  10. Mutation in pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1 gene in families with cutis laxa type 2.

    PubMed

    Guernsey, Duane L; Jiang, Haiyan; Evans, Susan C; Ferguson, Meghan; Matsuoka, Makoto; Nightingale, Mathew; Rideout, Andrea L; Provost, Sylvie; Bedard, Karen; Orr, Andrew; Dubé, Marie-Pierre; Ludman, Mark; Samuels, Mark E

    2009-07-01

    Autosomal-recessive cutis laxa type 2 (ARCL2) is a multisystem disorder characterized by the appearance of premature aging, wrinkled and lax skin, joint laxity, and a general developmental delay. Cutis laxa includes a family of clinically overlapping conditions with confusing nomenclature, generally requiring molecular analyses for definitive diagnosis. Six genes are currently known to mutate to yield one of these related conditions. We ascertained a cohort of typical ARCL2 patients from a subpopulation isolate within eastern Canada. Homozygosity mapping with high-density SNP genotyping excluded all six known genes, and instead identified a single homozygous region near the telomere of chromosome 17, shared identically by state by all genotyped affected individuals from the families. A putative pathogenic variant was identified by direct DNA sequencing of genes within the region. The single nucleotide change leads to a missense mutation adjacent to a splice junction in the gene encoding pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1 (PYCR1). Bioinformatic analysis predicted a pathogenic effect of the variant on splice donor site function. Skipping of the associated exon was confirmed in RNA from blood lymphocytes of affected homozygotes and heterozygous mutation carriers. Exon skipping leads to deletion of the reductase functional domain-coding region and an obligatory downstream frameshift. PYCR1 plays a critical role in proline biosynthesis. Pathogenicity of the genetic variant in PYCR1 is likely, given that a similar clinical phenotype has been documented for mutation carriers of another proline biosynthetic enzyme, pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase. Our results support a significant role for proline in normal development. PMID:19576563

  11. Methotrexate use, MTHFR polymorphisms and traditional risk factors in predicting cardiovascular events in elderly males with rheumatoid arthritis (RA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa A Davis; Grant W Cannon; Lauren M Pointer; Roger K Wolff; Ted R Mikuls; Leah Haverhals; Andreas M Reimold; Gail S Kerr; J Steuart Richards; Dannette S Johnson; Liron Caplan

    2011-01-01

    ObjectiveThe enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) has been implicated in the metabolism of methotrexate (MTX) – the most common disease modifying antirheumatic drug used to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA). MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms have been associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) events in non-RA populations. We explored the potential associations of MTHFR C677T, A1298C and MTX with decreased time-to-CV event in

  12. A distal mutation perturbs dynamic amino acid networks in dihydrofolate reductase

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Sung-Hun; Duggan, Brendan M.; Benkovic, Stephen J.; Dyson, H. Jane; Wright, Peter E

    2013-01-01

    Correlated networks of amino acids have been proposed to play a fundamental role in allostery and enzyme catalysis. These networks of amino acids can be traced from surface-exposed residues all the way into the active site, and disruption of these networks can decrease enzyme activity. Substitution of the distal Gly121 residue in E.coli dihydrofolate reductase results in up to a 200-fold decrease in the hydride transfer rate despite the fact that the residue is located 15 Å from the active-site center. In the present study, NMR relaxation experiments are used to demonstrate that dynamics on the ps-ns and ?s-ms timescales are changed significantly in the G121V mutant of dihydrofolate reductase. In particular, ps-ns timescale dynamics are decreased in the FG loop (containing the mutated residue 121) and the neighboring active-site loop (the Met20 loop) in the mutant compared to wild-type enzyme, suggesting that these loops are dynamically coupled. Changes in methyl order parameters reveal a pathway by which dynamic perturbations can be propagated more than 25 Å across the protein from the site of mutation. All of the enzyme complexes, including the model Michaelis complex with folate and NADP+ bound, assume an occluded ground state conformation, and we do not observe sampling of a higher energy closed conformation by 15N R2 relaxation dispersion. This is highly significant, since it is only in the closed conformation that the cofactor and substrate reactive centers are positioned for reaction. The mutation also impairs ?s - ms timescale fluctuations that have been implicated in product release from the wild type enzyme. Our results are consistent with an important role for Gly121 in controlling protein dynamics critical for enzyme function and further validate the dynamic energy landscape hypothesis of enzyme catalysis. PMID:23758161

  13. Gender-Specific Effect of Mthfr Genotype and Neonatal Vigabatrin Interaction on Synaptic Proteins in Mouse Cortex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elinor Blumkin; Tamar Levav-Rabkin; Osnat Melamed; Dalia Galron; Hava M Golan

    2011-01-01

    The enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a part of the homocysteine and folate metabolic pathways, affecting the methylations of DNA, RNA, and proteins. Mthfr deficiency was reported as a risk factor for neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. Neonatal disruption of the GABAergic system is also associated with behavioral outcomes. The interaction between the epigenetic influence of

  14. [Resistance to acenocoumarol revealing a missense mutation of the vitamin K epoxyde reductase VKORC1: a case report].

    PubMed

    Mboup, M C; Dia, K; Ba, D M; Fall, P D

    2015-02-01

    A significant proportion of the interindividual variability of the response to vitamin K antagonist (VKA) treatment has been associated with genetic factors. Genetic variations affecting the vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) are associated with hypersensitivity or rarely with resistance to VKA. We report the case of a black women patient who presents a resistance to acenocoumarol. Despite the use of high doses of acenocoumarol (114 mg/week) for the treatment of recurrent pulmonary embolism, the International Normalized Ratio was below the therapeutic target. This resistance to acenocoumarol was confirmed by the identification of a missense mutation Val66Met of the vitamin K epoxide reductase. PMID:24095214

  15. Characterization of Disease-related 5?-Reductase (AKR1D1) Mutations Reveals Their Potential to Cause Bile Acid Deficiency*

    PubMed Central

    Drury, Jason E.; Mindnich, Rebekka; Penning, Trevor M.

    2010-01-01

    Bile acid deficiency is a serious syndrome in newborns that can result in death if untreated. 5?-Reductase deficiency is one form of bile acid deficiency and is characterized by dramatically decreased levels of physiologically active 5?-reduced bile acids. AKR1D1 (aldo-keto reductase 1D1) is the only known human enzyme that stereo-specifically reduces the ?4 double bond in 3-keto steroids and sterols to yield the 5?-hydrogenated product. Analysis of the AKR1D1 gene in five patients with 5?-reductase deficiency revealed five different mutations resulting in an amino acid substitution in the protein. To investigate a causal role for these observed point mutations in AKR1D1 in 5?-reductase deficiency, we characterized their effect on enzymatic properties. Attempts to purify mutant enzymes by overexpression in Escherichia coli only yielded sufficient amounts of the P133R mutant for further characterization. This enzyme displayed a highly reduced Km and Vmax reminiscent of uncompetitive kinetics with 4-cholesten-7?-ol-3-one as substrate. In addition, this mutant displayed no change in cofactor affinity but was more thermolabile in the absence of NADPH as judged by CD spectroscopy. All mutants were compared following expression in HEK 293 cells. Although these enzymes were equally expressed based on mRNA levels, protein expression and functional activity were dramatically reduced. Cycloheximide treatment also revealed that several of the expressed mutants were less stable. Our findings show that the reported mutations in AKR1D1 in patients with 5?-reductase lead to significantly decreased levels of active enzyme and could be causal in the development of bile acid deficiency syndrome. PMID:20522910

  16. Genotype and haplotype distributions of MTHFR 677C>T and 1298A>C single nucleotide polymorphisms: a meta-analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuji Ogino; Robert B. Wilson

    2003-01-01

    .  ?Common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; 677C>T and 1298A>C) in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) decrease the activity of the enzyme, leading to hyperhomocysteinemia, particularly in folate-deficient states. We calculate\\u000a herein the haplotype frequencies of the MTHFR 677 and 1298 polymorphisms in pooled general populations derived from published data. We selected 16 articles that provided\\u000a reliable data on combined MTHFR genotypes

  17. Prevalence of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism in eastern Uttar Pradesh

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Vandana; Yadav, Upendra; Kumar, Pradeep

    2012-01-01

    AIM: This study was aimed to evaluate the 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T mutation in eastern Uttar Pradesh population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers followed by amplicon digestion by Hinf I restriction enzyme was used for MTHFR C677T polymorphism analysis. Total 250 subjects were analyzed. RESULTS: The CC genotype was found in 192 subjects, followed by CT in 56 subjects and TT in 2 subject. Genotype frequencies of CC, CT and TT were 0.768, 0.224 and 0.008, respectively. The frequency of C allele was found to be 0.88 and that of T allele was 0.12. CONCLUSION: It is evident from the results of the present study that the percentage of homozygous genotype (CC) is highest in the target population. PMID:22754220

  18. Increased susceptibility to mild neonatal stress in MTHFR deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Kezurer, N; Galron, D; Golan, H M

    2013-09-15

    Early life stress is shown to have a life-span outcome on human and animal behavior, increasing the risk for psychopathology. The gene methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), which encodes for a key enzyme in one carbon metabolism, shows a high prevalence of polymorphism in patients with developmental disorders. Here we examined the hypothesis that MTHFR deficiency results in an increased susceptibility of the developing brain to mild neonatal stress (NS). Mild NS failed to alter corticosterone levels in young and adult Wt mice. However, an elevated level of corticosterone was found in the MTHFR deficient-NS female, exemplifying enhanced sensitivity to NS. Behavioral phenotyping of Wt and MTHFR deficient mice provides evidence that the effect of mild NS may be amplified by the MTHFR deficient genotype. Distinct behavioral characteristics were altered in male and female mice. In general, three patterns of influence on mice behavior were observed: (1) an additive suppressive effect of NS and MTHFR deficiency on exploration and activity was evident in females; (2) stress related parameters were significantly sensitive to genotype in females, presenting an interaction between genotype and sex; (3) various aspects of behavior in a social setting were modified preferably in males by genotype, NS and the interaction between the two, while females exhibited a smaller effect that was restricted to NS with no genotype effect. Overall, our results support an interaction between mild NS, the MTHFR genotype and sex. We suggest using this animal model to study the molecular mechanism linking these two risk factors and their involvement in neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. PMID:23896051

  19. Altered heme catabolism by heme oxygenase-1 caused by mutations in human NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, Amit V., E-mail: amit@pandeylab.org [Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, Department of Clinical Research, University of Bern, Tiefenaustrasse 120c, CH-3004 Bern (Switzerland); Flueck, Christa E.; Mullis, Primus E. [Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, Department of Clinical Research, University of Bern, Tiefenaustrasse 120c, CH-3004 Bern (Switzerland)] [Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, Department of Clinical Research, University of Bern, Tiefenaustrasse 120c, CH-3004 Bern (Switzerland)

    2010-09-24

    Research highlights: {yields} Mutations in POR identified from patients lead to reduced HO-1 activities. {yields} POR mutation Y181D affecting FMN binding results in total loss of HO-1 activity. {yields} POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F, lost 50-70% activity. {yields} Mutations in FAD binding domain, R457H, Y459H and V492E lost all HO-1 activity. {yields} POR polymorphisms P228L, R316W, G413S, A503V and G504R have normal activity. -- Abstract: Human heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) carries out heme catabolism supported by electrons supplied from the NADPH through NADPH P450 reductase (POR, CPR). Previously we have shown that mutations in human POR cause a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. In this study, we have evaluated the effects of mutations in POR on HO-1 activity. We used purified preparations of wild type and mutant human POR and in vitro reconstitution with purified HO-1 to measure heme degradation in a coupled assay using biliverdin reductase. Here we show that mutations in POR found in patients may reduce HO-1 activity, potentially influencing heme catabolism in individuals carrying mutant POR alleles. POR mutants Y181D, A457H, Y459H, V492E and R616X had total loss of HO-1 activity, while POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F lost 50-70% activity. The POR variants P228L, R316W and G413S, A503V and G504R identified as polymorphs had close to WT activity. Loss of HO-1 activity may result in increased oxidative neurotoxicity, anemia, growth retardation and iron deposition. Further examination of patients affected with POR deficiency will be required to assess the metabolic effects of reduced HO-1 activity in affected individuals.

  20. MTHFR C677T and colorectal cancer risk: A meta-analysis of 25 populations.

    PubMed

    Hubner, Richard A; Houlston, Richard S

    2007-03-01

    The common functional methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism may influence the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but data from published studies with individually low statistical power are conflicting. To clarify the role of MTHFR C677T genotype in CRC, we considered all available studies in a meta-analysis. Studies reporting on MTHFR C677T genotype and CRC were searched in PubMed up to April 2006. The principle prior hypothesis was that homozygosity for MTHFR 677TT would be associated with reduced risk of CRC. Data were available for 29,931 subjects, including 12,243 with CRC, from 25 independent populations. Compared to the homozygous CC genotype, the MTHFR 677TT genotype was associated with a reduced risk of CRC (odds ratio (OR): 0.83; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.75-0.93; p = 0.001). There was some heterogeneity among the results of individual studies, but this was not statistically significant (heterogeneity p = 0.12; I2 = 25.8%). Heterozygosity for MTHFR 677 did not influence CRC risk (OR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.94-1.04). These findings indicate that individuals homozygous for the MTHFR 677TT genotype are at moderately reduced risk of CRC, and support the proposal that common genetic variation in the MTHFR gene contributes to CRC susceptibility, probably accounting for at least 9% of the total incidence. PMID:17131337

  1. Mutational analysis of Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase and dihydropteroate synthase genes in the interior division of Sabah, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine (SDX/PYR) combination had been chosen to treat uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Malaysia for more than 30 years. Non-silent mutations in dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) genes are responsible for the resistance to pyrimethamine and sulphadoxine, respectively. This study reports the mutational analysis of pfdhfr and pfdhps in single Plasmodium falciparum infection isolates from the interior division of Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Methods A total of 22 P. falciparum single infection isolates collected from two districts of the interior division of Sabah from February to November 2010 were recruited for the mutational study of pfdhfr and pfdhps. Both genes were amplified by nested PCR prior to DNA sequencing and mutational analysis. Results A total of three pfdhfr and four pfdhps alleles were identified. The most prevalent pfdhfr allele is ANRNL (86%) involving triple mutation at position 108(S to N), 59(C to R) and 164(I to L). In pfdhps, two novel alleles, SGTGA (73%) and AAKAA (5%) were identified. Alleles involving triple mutation in both pfdhfr (ANRNL) and pfdhps (SGTGA), which were absent in Sabah in a study conducted about 15 years ago, are now prevalent. Conclusions High prevalence of mutations in SDX/PYR associated drug resistance genes are reported in this study. This mutational study of pfdhps and pfdhfr indicating that SDX/PYR should be discontinued in this region. PMID:24321120

  2. Mutation of threonine-241 to proline eliminates autocatalytic modification of human carbonyl reductase.

    PubMed

    Sciotti, M A; Nakajin, S; Wermuth, B; Baker, M E

    2000-08-15

    Carbonyl reductase catalyses the reduction of steroids, prostaglandins and a variety of xenobiotics. An unusual property of human and rat carbonyl reductases is that they undergo modification at lysine-239 by an autocatalytic process involving 2-oxocarboxylic acids, such as pyruvate and 2-oxoglutarate. Comparison of human carbonyl reductase with the pig enzyme, which does not undergo autocatalytic modification, identified three sites, alanine-236, threonine-241 and glutamic acid-246, on human carbonyl reductase that could be important in the reaction of lysine-239 with 2-oxocarboxylic acids. Mutagenesis experiments show that replacement of threonine-241 with proline (T241P) in human carbonyl reductase eliminates the formation of carboxyethyl-lysine-239. In contrast, the T241A mutant has autocatalytic activity similar to wild-type carbonyl reductase. The T241P mutant retains catalytic activity towards menadione, although with one-fifth the catalytic efficiency of wild-type carbonyl reductase. Replacement of threonine-241 with proline is likely to disrupt the local structure near lysine-239. We propose that integrity of this local environment is essential for chemical modification of lysine-239, but not absolutely required for carbonyl reductase activity. PMID:10926830

  3. Mutation of threonine-241 to proline eliminates autocatalytic modification of human carbonyl reductase.

    PubMed Central

    Sciotti, M A; Nakajin, S; Wermuth, B; Baker, M E

    2000-01-01

    Carbonyl reductase catalyses the reduction of steroids, prostaglandins and a variety of xenobiotics. An unusual property of human and rat carbonyl reductases is that they undergo modification at lysine-239 by an autocatalytic process involving 2-oxocarboxylic acids, such as pyruvate and 2-oxoglutarate. Comparison of human carbonyl reductase with the pig enzyme, which does not undergo autocatalytic modification, identified three sites, alanine-236, threonine-241 and glutamic acid-246, on human carbonyl reductase that could be important in the reaction of lysine-239 with 2-oxocarboxylic acids. Mutagenesis experiments show that replacement of threonine-241 with proline (T241P) in human carbonyl reductase eliminates the formation of carboxyethyl-lysine-239. In contrast, the T241A mutant has autocatalytic activity similar to wild-type carbonyl reductase. The T241P mutant retains catalytic activity towards menadione, although with one-fifth the catalytic efficiency of wild-type carbonyl reductase. Replacement of threonine-241 with proline is likely to disrupt the local structure near lysine-239. We propose that integrity of this local environment is essential for chemical modification of lysine-239, but not absolutely required for carbonyl reductase activity. PMID:10926830

  4. Serum folate, total homocysteine levels and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677C>T polymorphism in young healthy female Japanese.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Takashi; Mori, Hideki; Hamada, Atsumi; Yamori, Yukio; Mori, Mari

    2012-01-01

    Environmental and genetic factors influence serum total homocysteine (tHcy), a risk factor for vascular diseases. The gene polymorphism of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is reported to be a genetic factor for influencing tHcy. However, it is not clear whether MTHFR polymorphism influences tHcy in the younger generation. To investigate the influence of MTHFR polymorphism on vascular disease risks in young Japanese females, we determined dietary intakes, serum folate and tHcy, and examined the influence of MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism in healthy junior and high school students (n=192, 12-18y). The relationships between MTHFR polymorphism and folate intake, serum folate or tHcy were investigated by dividing participants into CC, CT and TT types. Among individuals with the TT genotype, folate and tHcy levels were significantly lower (p<0.05) or higher (p<0.0001), respectively, than in those with the other genotypes; although there were no significant differences in the intake of folate among genotypes. In addition, a significant inverse correlation between folate and tHcy (p<0.05) was noted in all genotypes, even in young females, so far not examined in Asian populations. Therefore, MTHFR genotypes were proven to be a significant determinant for folate and tHcy concentrations. However, the association of increased folate intake with lower tHcy concentration, even in cases of the mutation TT type, indicates the importance of folate intake in young Japanese females for early detection of risk, as well as the prevention of vascular diseases. PMID:22507617

  5. Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase gene polymorphism in patients receiving hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Kiseljakovi?, Emina; Resi?, Halima; Kapur, Lejla; Hasi?, Sabaheta; Jadri?, Radivoj

    2010-04-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) is key enzyme in metabolism of homocysteine. Homozygotes for mutation (TT genotype) have hyperhomocysteinemia, risk factor for atherosclerosis development. The aim of the study was to find out distribution of genotype frequencies of C677T MTHFR among patients on maintenance hemodialysis. Possible association of alleles and genotypes of C677T polymorphism of the MTHFR gene with age of onset, duration of dialysis and cause of kidney failure was studied also. Cross-sectional study includes 80 patients from Clinic of Hemodialysis KUCS in Sarajevo. In order to perform genotyping, isolated DNA was analyzed by RFLP-PCR and gel-electrophoresis. From total of 80 patients, 42.5% (n=24) were female, 57.5% (n=46) were male, mean age 54.59+/-1.78 years and duration of dialysis 79.92+/-6.32 months. Genotype distribution was: CC 51.2% (n=41), CT 37.5% (n=30) and TT 11.2% (n=9). Patients with wild-type genotype have longer duration of dialysis in month (87.1 +/- 63.93) comparing to TT genotype patients (67.06 +/- 39.3), with no statistical significance. T allele frequency was significantly higher in group of vascular and congenital cause of kidney failure (Pearson X2 =6.049, P<0.05) comparing to inflammation etiology group. Genotype distribution results are within the results other studies in Europe. Obtained results indicate that C677T polymorphism is not associated with onset, duration and cause of kidney failure in our hemodialysis population. There is an association of T allele of the MTHFR gene and vascular and congenital cause kidney failure. PMID:20433440

  6. Pyrimethamine and Proguanil Resistance-Conferring Key Mutations in Dihydrofolate Reductase Gene of Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AA Eskandarian; H Keshavarz; F Mahboudi

    2003-01-01

    Using mutation specific PCR assay and analysis of position 108 amino acid in dihydrofolate reductase-thymidilate synthase gene in 70 Plasmodium falciparum isolates of malarial patients from southern areas of Iran, showed 4 different situations: i- wild type (108-Ser) ii-mutant type (108-Thr) iii-mutant type (108-Asn) and iv-mixed wild and mutant type (108-Ser+Thr) with frequency of 58(82.8%), 2(2.9%), 8(11.4%) and 2(2.9%) respectively.

  7. [Clinical course of acute coronary syndrome in dependence on containing of homozystein and ?677? methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphism].

    PubMed

    Prystupa, L; Grek, A; Ataman, Y; Orlovskiy, A; Opolonska, N

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays to a numerous factors of IHD development risks hyperhomocysteinemia (HHc), C-reactive protein, fibrogen, as well as genetic disorders are relating. With development of IHD and its complications associated methylentetrahudrofolate reductase gene mutation of ?677? polymorphism. The purpose of the investigation was studying the connection between acute coronary syndrome severity (ACS) in dependence on plasma homocysteine containing and genotype by ?677? polymorphism MTHFR gene. Examined: 161 patients with ACS and 87 almost healthy people. Identification of 4th exon allelic polymorphism MTHFR ?677? gene (rs1801133) was conducted with method of polymerase chain reaction, the investigation of homocysteine containing with immunoenzymated method. The statistic analyze was performed with using of SPSS - 17 programme. According to results of study patients with ACS of homozygote by minor allele T ?677? MTHFR gene polymorphism by main allele C and heterozygote were associated with high homocysteine containing in plasma. While frequencies of T/T genotype was reliably higher in patients with ACS with segment ST elevation and complicated course compare with patients with ACS with segment ST elevation and non-complicated course and ACS without climbs of segment ST. Also, statistically reliable difference in genotypes distribution by C677T MTHFR gene polymorphism in dependence on homocysteine plasma level and clinical course of ACS severity were established. PMID:25693213

  8. Variants in maternal COMT and MTHFR genes and risk of neural tube defects in offspring.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jufen; Zhang, Yali; Jin, Lei; Li, Guoxing; Wang, Linlin; Bao, Yanping; Fu, Yunting; Li, Zhiwen; Zhang, Le; Ye, Rongwei; Ren, Aiguo

    2015-04-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) G158A are associated with a risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) in offspring. This study examined the effect of a MTHFR × COMT interaction on the risk of NTDs in a Chinese population with a high prevalence of NTDs. A total of 576 fetuses or newborns with NTDs and 594 controls were genotyped for MTHFRrs1801133, MTHFRrs1801131, and COMTrs4680 and COMTrs737865. Information on maternal sociodemographic characteristics, reproductive history, and related behavior was collected through face-to-face interviews. Possible interactions between genetic variants of MTHFR and COMT were examined. MTHFR C677T homozygous TT was associated with an elevated risk of total NTDs (odds ratio [OR]?=?1.37, 95 % confidence interval [CI]?=?0.93-2.03) and of anencephaly (OR?=?1.67, 95 % CI?=?0.98-2.84) compared with the CC genotype. There was a COMT rs737865 CC × MTHFR rs1801133 TT interaction for total NTDs (OR?=?3.02, 95 % CI?=?1.00-9.14) and for anencephaly (OR?=?3.39, 95 % CI?=?0.94-12.18). No interaction was found between COMT rs4680 AA/AG and MTHFR CT/TT genotypes for total NTDs or any subtype of NTD. The interaction of COMT rs737865 and MTHFR C677T was associated with an increased risk of NTDs, especially anencephaly, in a Chinese population with a high prevalence of NTDs. PMID:24990354

  9. Thermolabile methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene and the risk of cognitive impairment in those over 85

    PubMed Central

    Gussekloo, J; Heijmans, B; Slagboom, P; Lagaay, A; Knook, D; Westendorp, R

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Previous reports have shown raised plasma concentrations of homocysteine in older persons with cognitive impairment. This may be caused by environmental and genetic factors. The relation between cognitive function and a common ala/val mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene was studied in those over 85. Homozygous carriers of this mutation are characterised by a lifelong exposure to moderately raised plasma concentrations of homocysteine.?METHODS—In the Leiden 85-plus Study, a population based study of persons aged 85 years and over, the score on the mini mental state examination (MMSE) and the presence of dementia dependent on the MTHFR genotypes were compared in 641 participants (456 women, 185 men) at baseline. In addition, the association between the MTHFR genotype and cognitive decline was studied by re-examining cognitive function of 172 participants without dementia at baseline after a median follow up of 4.0years.?RESULTS—At baseline, carriers of the ala/ala genotype had a median MMSE score of 27 points (interquartile range (IQR) 21.5-29), for the ala/val genotype it was 26 points (IQR 20-29), and for the val/val genotype it was 27 points (IQR 20-28.3) (p=0.3). The prevalence of dementia was also not significantly different for the various genotypes (ala/ala 22%, ala/val 28%, val/val 27%; p=0.4). None of the carriers of the val/val genotype without cognitive impairment at baseline developed dementia during the follow up.?CONCLUSIONS—Although previous studies have shown that older persons with cognitive impairment have raised plasma concentrations of homocysteine, homozygosity for the ala to val mutation in the MTHFR gene is not a genetic risk factor for cognitive impairment in persons aged 85 years and over.?? PMID:10486408

  10. Screening for C677T and A1298C MTHFR polymorphisms in patients with epilepsy and risk of hyperhomocysteinemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Caccamo; S. Condello; G. Gorgone; G. Crisafulli; V. Belcastro; S. Gennaro; P. Striano; F. Pisani; R. Ientile

    2004-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia can result from decreased methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) enzyme activity, owing to genetic\\u000a polymorphisms and\\/or inadequate folate intake. This study was aimed at investigating the prevalence of C677T and A1298C MTHFR\\u000a polymorphisms, and their impact on hyperhomocysteinemia in 95 epileptic patients and 98 controls. Double gradient-denaturing\\u000a gradient gel electrophoresis screening revealed that the frequency of T677 polymorphic allele was similar

  11. Evaluation of the MTHFR A1298C variant in leukoaraiosis.

    PubMed

    Szolnoki, Zoltan; Szaniszlo, Istvan; Szekeres, Marta; Hitri, Krisztina; Kondacs, Andras; Mandi, Yvette; Nedo, Erika; Somogyvari, Ferenc

    2012-03-01

    Vascular demyelinization of the white matter of the brain is referred to as leukoaraiosis (LA). This very frequent entity is associated with a cognitive decline, thereby resulting in a deteriorating quality of life. Besides poorly controlled hypertension and aging, its development is reported to be associated with an elevated serum homocysteine level. Although the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T genetic variant is associated with an elevated serum homocysteine level, it has not been proved to be an independent risk factor for LA. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the MTHFR A1298C genetic variant, which is also believed to be unfavorable, is associated with the presence of LA. The clinical and genetic data on 198 LA patients and 235 neuroimaging alteration-free controls were analyzed. The presence of the A1298C or the 1298CC variant was calculated to be a risk factor for LA, as compared with the absence of both of them. The clustering of the heterozygous A1298C and C677T variants was proved to involve the risk of LA. Our results suggest that the MTHFR A1298C variant confers an independent genetic risk of LA, and this pathological role may be amplified by the MTHFR C677T variant. PMID:21845428

  12. Population- and Family-Based Studies Associate the "MTHFR" Gene with Idiopathic Autism in Simplex Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xudong; Solehdin, Fatima; Cohen, Ira L.; Gonzalez, Maripaz G.; Jenkins, Edmund C.; Lewis, M. E. Suzanne; Holden, Jeanette J. A.

    2011-01-01

    Two methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene ("MTHFR") functional polymorphisms were studied in 205 North American simplex (SPX) and 307 multiplex (MPX) families having one or more children with an autism spectrum disorder. Case-control comparisons revealed a significantly higher frequency of the low-activity 677T allele, higher prevalence of the…

  13. MTHFR A1298C polymorphism is associated with cardiovascular risk in end stage renal disease in North Indians.

    PubMed

    Poduri, Aruna; Mukherjee, Debabrata; Sud, Kamal; Kohli, Harbir Singh; Sakhuja, Vinay; Khullar, Madhu

    2008-01-01

    The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T gene polymorphism has been shown to be associated with cardiovascular disease and in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, the relationship between MTHFR polymorphisms and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients on hemodialysis has not been examined. The aim of this study was to assess the association of polymorphisms of MTHFR gene with homocysteine (Hcy) and intimal medial thickness (IMT) in patients on hemodialysis. We performed case-control study involving107 patients with ESRD and 103 healthy controls. Plasma Hcy was measured in all the subjects and these subjects were genotyped for three MTHFR polymorphisms (C677T, A1298C, and G1793A). We observed significantly higher Hcy levels in patients as compared to controls. The frequency of MTHFR 1298CC genotype was significantly higher in ESRD patients than in controls (21.4% vs. 2.9%); the frequency of the MTHFR C677T genotypes did not differ between groups (26.1% vs. 17.4%). Compound heterozygous MTHFR 677CT/1298AC genotypes showed maximum association with the risk of ESRD (OR: 12.8; 5%CI: 1.64-10.01, P < 0.05). Concurrent occurrence of MTHFR 677CC wild genotype with either 1298CC or 1793GA significantly increased the risk of disease (OR: 7.20; 95%CI: 2.06-2.51, P < 0.001 and OR: 7.60; 95%CI: 1.68-34.35; P < 0.05, respectively). MTHFR 1298CC genotype was associated with higher Hcy levels. IMT was also significantly higher in patients with the 1298CC genotype (P < 0.05). Thus, A1298C polymorphism of MTHFR gene appears to be associated with the severity of carotid atherosclerosis and co-occurrence of MTHFR polymorphisms may be a risk factor for CVD in patients on hemodialysis. PMID:17899317

  14. Mutational spectrum in the Delta7-sterol reductase gene and genotype-phenotype correlation in 84 patients with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome.

    PubMed

    Witsch-Baumgartner, M; Fitzky, B U; Ogorelkova, M; Kraft, H G; Moebius, F F; Glossmann, H; Seedorf, U; Gillessen-Kaesbach, G; Hoffmann, G F; Clayton, P; Kelley, R I; Utermann, G

    2000-02-01

    Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS), an autosomal recessive malformation syndrome, ranges in clinical severity from mild dysmorphism and moderate mental retardation to severe congenital malformation and intrauterine lethality. Mutations in the gene for Delta7-sterol reductase (DHCR7), which catalyzes the final step in cholesterol biosynthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), cause SLOS. We have determined, in 84 patients with clinically and biochemically characterized SLOS (detection rate 96%), the mutational spectrum in the DHCR7 gene. Forty different SLOS mutations, some frequent, were identified. On the basis of mutation type and expression studies in the HEK293-derived cell line tsA-201, we grouped mutations into four classes: nonsense and splice-site mutations resulting in putative null alleles, missense mutations in the transmembrane domains (TM), mutations in the 4th cytoplasmic loop (4L), and mutations in the C-terminal ER domain (CT). All but one of the tested missense mutations reduced protein stability. Concentrations of the cholesterol precursor 7-dehydrocholesterol and clinical severity scores correlated with mutation classes. The mildest clinical phenotypes were associated with TM and CT mutations, and the most severe types were associated with 0 and 4L mutations. Most homozygotes for null alleles had severe SLOS; one patient had a moderate phenotype. Homozygosity for 0 mutations in DHCR7 appears compatible with life, suggesting that cholesterol may be synthesized in the absence of this enzyme or that exogenous sources of cholesterol can be used. PMID:10677299

  15. Association of the 677C-->T mutation on the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene in Turkish patients with neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Boduro?lu, K; Alika?ifo?lu, M; Anar, B; Tunçbilek, E

    1999-03-01

    We report the analysis of the 677C-->T mutation on the 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene in Turkish controls and cases of neural tube defects. Mutation analysis of 91 patients with neural tube defects, 72 mothers, 63 fathers, and 93 healthy controls has been made by polymerase chain reaction and allele specific restriction digestion with Hinf I. We did not find a significant difference in the 677C-->T allele and genotype distribution among the patients with neural tube defects, their parents, and the control group. This result suggests that another mutation in the folate-related enzyme genes could be responsible for neural tube defects in Turkey. None of the mothers of patients with neural tube defects was advised to use folic acid as recommended to prevent neural tube defects. An immediate attempt to establish an education program for healthcare providers and women of childbearing age is crucial in Turkey. Furthermore, fortification of foods with folate would be a better approach. PMID:10190266

  16. MTHFR Gene Polymorphism and Age of Onset of Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    El-Hadidy, Mohamed A.; Abdeen, Hanaa M.; Abd El-Aziz, Sherin M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Several studies with contradictory results from different cultures about association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism in schizophrenia and bipolar disorders. Little is known about this association in Arab culture and Egypt. So the present study aimed to assess the association of MTHFR C677T polymorphism in bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia in comparison to control group. The association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and the age at onset in schizophrenia or BD was also studied. Methods. Polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) were used to examine the genotype and allele frequencies of MTHFR C677T polymorphism in 149 healthy subjects and 134 bipolar and 103 schizophrenia patients. Results. In BD and schizophrenia, there was a higher prevalence of MTHFR C677T polymorphism than healthy subjects. Earlier age at onset was found in patients with BD, carrying one copy of the T allele or CT genotypes but not in patients with schizophrenia. Conclusion. The present findings suggest that the MTHFR C677T polymorphisms are likely to be associated with the risk of developing BD and schizophrenia and influence the age at onset of BD but not the age at onset of schizophrenia. PMID:25101272

  17. Association of the MTHFR A1298C Variant with Unexplained Severe Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Eloualid, Abdelmajid; Abidi, Omar; Charif, Majida; El houate, Brahim; Benrahma, Houda; Louanjli, Noureddine; Chadli, Elbakkay; Ajjemami, Maria; Barakat, Abdelhamid; Bashamboo, Anu; McElreavey, Ken; Rhaissi, Houria; Rouba, Hassan

    2012-01-01

    The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene is one of the main regulatory enzymes involved in folate metabolism, DNA synthesis and remethylation reactions. The influence of MTHFR variants on male infertility is not completely understood. The objective of this study was to analyze the distribution of the MTHFR C677T and A1298C variants using PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) in a case group consisting of 344 men with unexplained reduced sperm counts compared to 617 ancestry-matched fertile or normozoospermic controls. The Chi square test was used to analyze the genotype distributions of MTHFR polymorphisms. Our data indicated a lack of association of the C677T variant with infertility. However, the homozygous (C/C) A1298C polymorphism of the MTHFR gene was present at a statistically high significance in severe oligozoospermia group compared with controls (OR?=?3.372, 95% confidence interval CI?=?1.27–8.238; p?=?0.01431). The genotype distribution of the A1298C variants showed significant deviation from the expected Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, suggesting that purifying selection may be acting on the 1298CC genotype. Further studies are necessary to determine the influence of the environment, especially the consumption of diet folate on sperm counts of men with different MTHFR variants. PMID:22457816

  18. Associations of MTHFR C677T and MTRR A66G Gene Polymorphisms with Metabolic Syndrome: A Case-Control Study in Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Boyi; Fan, Shujun; Zhi, Xueyuan; Wang, Da; Li, Yongfang; Wang, Yinuo; Wang, Yanxun; Wei, Jian; Zheng, Quanmei; Sun, Guifan

    2014-01-01

    Prior evidence indicates that homocysteine plays a role in the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G polymorphisms are common genetic determinants of homocysteine levels. To investigate the associations of the MTHFR C677T and MTRR A66G polymorphisms with MetS, 692 Chinese Han subjects with MetS and 878 controls were recruited. The component traits of MetS and the MTHFR C677T and MTRR A66G genotypes were determined. A significant association was observed between the MTHFR 677T allele and increased risk of MetS, high fasting blood glucose, high waist circumference, and increasing number of MetS components. The MTRR A66G polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of MetS when combined with the MTHFR 677TT genotype, although there was no association found between MetS and MTRR A66G alone. Furthermore, the MTRR 66GG genotype was associated with high fasting blood glucose and triglycerides. Our data suggest that the MTHFR 677T allele may contribute to an increased risk of MetS in the northern Chinese Han population. The MTRR A66G polymorphism is not associated with MetS. However, it may exacerbate the effect of the MTHFR C677T variant alone. Further large prospective population-based studies are required to confirm our findings. PMID:25429430

  19. Domain swing upon His to Ala mutation in nitrite reductase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Brown, K; Roig-Zamboni, V; Cutruzzola', F; Arese, M; Sun, W; Brunori, M; Cambillau, C; Tegoni, M

    2001-09-21

    The nitrite reductase (NIR) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (NIR-Pa) is a soluble enzyme catalysing the reduction of nitrite (NO2(-)) to nitric oxide (NO). The enzyme is a 120 kDa homodimer, in which the monomers carry a c-heme domain and a d(1)-heme domain. The structures of the enzyme in both the oxidised and reduced state were solved previously and indicate His327 and His369 as putative catalytic residues. The kinetic characterisation of site-directed mutants has shown that the substitution of either one of these two His with Ala dramatically reduces the physiologically relevant reactivity towards nitrite, leaving the reactivity towards oxygen unaffected. The three-dimensional structures of P. aeruginosa NIR mutant H327A, and H369A in complex with NO have been solved by multiple wavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD), using the iron anomalous signal, and molecular replacement techniques. In both refined crystal structures the c-heme domain, whilst preserving its classical c-type cytochrome fold, has undergone a 60 degrees rigid-body rotation around an axis parallel with the pseudo 8-fold axis of the beta-propeller, and passing through residue Gln115. Even though the distance between the Fe ions of the c and d(1)-heme remains 21 A, the edge-to-edge distance between the two hemes has increased by 5 A. Furthermore the distal side of the d(1)-heme pocket appears to have undergone structural re-arrangement and Tyr10 has moved out of the active site. In the H369A-NO complex, the position and orientation of NO is significantly different from that of the NO bound to the reduced wild-type structure. Our results provide insight into the flexibility of the enzyme and the distinction between nitrite and oxidase reduction mechanisms. Moreover they demonstrate that the two histidine residues play a crucial role in the physiological activity of nitrite reduction, ligand binding and in the structural organisation of nitrite reductase from P. aeruginosa. PMID:11563915

  20. The MET13 Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Gene Is Essential for Infection-Related Morphogenesis in the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong; Wang, Congcong; Li, Ya; Yue, Xiaofeng; Ma, Zhonghua; Talbot, Nicholas J.; Wang, Zhengyi

    2013-01-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductases (MTHFRs) play a key role in the biosynthesis of methionine in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. In this study, we report the identification of a novel T-DNA-tagged mutant WH672 in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, which was defective in vegetative growth, conidiation and pathogenicity. Analysis of the mutation confirmed a single T-DNA insertion upstream of MET13, which encodes a 626-amino-acid protein encoding a MTHFR. Targeted gene deletion of MET13 resulted in mutants that were non-pathogenic and significantly impaired in aerial growth and melanin pigmentation. All phenotypes associated with ?met13 mutants could be overcome by addition of exogenous methionine. The M. oryzae genome contains a second predicted MTHFR-encoding gene, MET12. The deduced amino acid sequences of Met13 and Met12 share 32% identity. Interestingly, ?met12 mutants produced significantly less conidia compared with the isogenic wild-type strain and grew very poorly in the absence of methionine, but were fully pathogenic. Deletion of both genes resulted in ?met13?met12 mutants that showed similar phenotypes to single ?met13 mutants. Taken together, we conclude that the MTHFR gene, MET13, is essential for infection-related morphogenesis by the rice blast fungus M. oryzae. PMID:24116181

  1. Association of Polymorphisms in BDNF, MTHFR, and Genes Involved in the Dopaminergic Pathway with Memory in a Healthy Chinese Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Hu, Chung-Yi; Yeh, Ting-Chi; Lin, Pei-Jung; Wu, Chung-Hsin; Lee, Po-Lei; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2012-01-01

    The contribution of genetic factors to the memory is widely acknowledged. Research suggests that these factors include genes involved in the dopaminergic pathway, as well as the genes for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR). The activity of the products of these genes is affected by single…

  2. Prevalence of MTHFR C677T Polymorphism in North Indian Mothers Having Babies with Trisomy 21 Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohli, Utkarsh; Arora, Sadhna; Kabra, Madhulika; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmy; Gulati, Sheffali; Pandey, Ravindra

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have evaluated possible links between polymorphisms in maternal folate metabolism genes and Down syndrome. Some of these studies show a significantly increased prevalence of the C677T polymorphism of the 5,10-methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (NADPH) gene (MTHFR) among mothers who have had babies with Down syndrome. This study…

  3. Hyperhomocysteinemia, intima-media thickness and C677T MTHFR gene polymorphism: A correlation study in patients with cognitive impairment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gaetano Gorgone; Francesca Ursini; Claudia Altamura; Federica Bressi; Mario Tombini; Giuseppe Curcio; Paola Chiovenda; Rosanna Squitti; Mauro Silvestrini; Riccardo Ientile; Francesco Pisani; Paolo Maria Rossini; Fabrizio Vernieri

    2009-01-01

    ObjectiveIntima-media thickness (IMT) seems associated with risk of Alzheimer disease (AD). Homocysteine (hcy) is a risk factor for vascular diseases and dementia. This study aimed at investigating the possible relationship among IMT, plasma hcy and C677T methylentetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphism in relation to cognitive status.

  4. Resistance to AFN-1252 Arises from Missense Mutations in Staphylococcus aureus Enoyl-acyl Carrier Protein Reductase (FabI)*

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jiangwei; Maxwell, John B.; Rock, Charles O.

    2013-01-01

    AFN-1252 is a potent antibiotic against Staphylococcus aureus that targets the enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (FabI). A thorough screen for AFN-1252-resistant strains was undertaken to identify the spectrum of mechanisms for acquired resistance. A missense mutation in fabI predicted to encode FabI(M99T) was isolated 49 times, and a single isolate was predicted to encode FabI(Y147H). AFN-1252 only bound to the NADPH form of FabI, and the close interactions between the drug and Met-99 and Tyr-147 explained how the mutations would result in resistant enzymes. The clone expressing FabI(Y147H) had a pronounced growth defect that was rescued by exogenous fatty acid supplementation, and the purified protein had less than 5% of the enzymatic activity of FabI. FabI(Y147F) was also catalytically defective but retained its sensitivity to AFN-1252, illustrating the importance of the conserved Tyr-147 hydroxyl group in FabI function. The strains expressing FabI(M99T) exhibited normal growth, and the biochemical properties of the purified protein were indistinguishable from those of FabI. The AFN-1252 Kiapp increased from 4 nm in FabI to 69 nm in FabI(M99T), accounting for the increased resistance of the corresponding mutant strain. The low activity of FabI(Y147H) precluded an accurate Ki measurement. The strain expressing FabI(Y147H) was also resistant to triclosan; however, the strain expressing FabI(M99T) was more susceptible. Strains with higher levels of AFN-1252 resistance were not obtained. The AFN-1252-resistant strains remained sensitive to submicromolar concentrations of AFN-1252, which blocked growth through inhibition of fatty acid biosynthesis at the FabI step. PMID:24189061

  5. Association of molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide with Escherichia coli dimethyl sulfoxide reductase: effect of tungstate and a mob mutation.

    PubMed Central

    Rothery, R A; Grant, J L; Johnson, J L; Rajagopalan, K V; Weiner, J H

    1995-01-01

    We have identified the organic component of the molybdenum cofactor in Escherichia coli dimethyl sulfoxide reductase (DmsABC) to be molybdopterin (MPT) guanine dinucleotide (MGD) and have studied the effects of tungstate and a mob mutation on cofactor (Mo-MGD) insertion. Tungstate severely inhibits anaerobic growth of E. coli on a glycerol-dimethyl sulfoxide minimal medium, and this inhibition is partially overcome by overexpression of DmsABC. Isolation and characterization of an oxidized derivative of MGD (form A) from DmsABC overexpressed in cells grown in the presence of molybdate or tungstate indicate that tungstate inhibits insertion of Mo-MGD. No electron paramagnetic resonance evidence for the assembly of tungsten into DmsABC was found between Eh = -450 mV and Eh = +200 mV. The E. coli mob locus is responsible for the addition of a guanine nucleotide to molybdo-MPT (Mo-MPT) to form Mo-MGD. DmsABC does not bind Mo-MPT or Mo-MGD in a mob mutant, indicating that nucleotide addition must precede cofactor insertion. No electron paramagnetic resonance evidence for the assembly of molybdenum into DmsABC in a mob mutant was found between Eh = -450 mV and Eh = +200 mV. These data support a model for Mo-MGD biosynthesis and assembly into DmsABC in which both metal chelation and nucleotide addition to MPT precede cofactor insertion. PMID:7721698

  6. Mutation of the inducible ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA CYTOCHROME P450 REDUCTASE2 alters lignin composition and improves saccharification.

    PubMed

    Sundin, Lisa; Vanholme, Ruben; Geerinck, Jan; Goeminne, Geert; Höfer, René; Kim, Hoon; Ralph, John; Boerjan, Wout

    2014-12-01

    ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA CYTOCHROME P450 REDUCTASE1 (ATR1) and ATR2 provide electrons from NADPH to a large number of CYTOCHROME P450 (CYP450) enzymes in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Whereas ATR1 is constitutively expressed, the expression of ATR2 appears to be induced during lignin biosynthesis and upon stresses. Therefore, ATR2 was hypothesized to be preferentially involved in providing electrons to the three CYP450s involved in lignin biosynthesis: CINNAMATE 4-HYDROXYLASE (C4H), p-COUMARATE 3-HYDROXYLASE1 (C3H1), and FERULATE 5-HYDROXYLASE1 (F5H1). Here, we show that the atr2 mutation resulted in a 6% reduction in total lignin amount in the main inflorescence stem and a compositional shift of the remaining lignin to a 10-fold higher fraction of p-hydroxyphenyl units at the expense of syringyl units. Phenolic profiling revealed shifts in lignin-related phenolic metabolites, in particular with the substrates of C4H, C3H1 and F5H1 accumulating in atr2 mutants. Glucosinolate and flavonol glycoside biosynthesis, both of which also rely on CYP450 activities, appeared less affected. The cellulose in the atr2 inflorescence stems was more susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis after alkaline pretreatment, making ATR2 a potential target for engineering plant cell walls for biofuel production. PMID:25315601

  7. Association between MTHFR gene polymorphism and NTDs in Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yang; Wang, Fang; Bao, Yihua; Lu, Xiaolin; Quan, Li; Lu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to investigate the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and neural tube defects (NTDs) in Chinese population. Method: A total of 271 NTDs cases and 192 healthy controls were used in this study. Fifty-two selected single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites in the MTHFR gene were analyzed with next-generation sequencing method. A series of statistical methods were carried out to investigate the correlation between the SNPs and the patient susceptibility to NTDs. Results: Statistical analysis showed a significant correlation between the SNP sites rs1801133 in MTHFR gene and NTDs. The GG genotype, G allele of rs1801133 in MTHFR significantly decreased the incidence of NTDs (OR = 0.449, 95% CI: 0.255-0.789 with genotype, and OR = 0.669, 95% CI: 0.508-0.881 with allele). Conclusions: The gene polymorphism loci rs1801133 in MTHFR gene maybe potential risk factors for NTD in Chinese population. PMID:25356156

  8. Frequency of APOE, MTHFR and ACE polymorphisms in the Zambian population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Polymorphisms within the apolipoprotein-E (APOE), Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) genes has been associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disorders, Alzheimer’s disease and other complex diseases in various populations. The aim of the study was to analyze the allelic and genotypic frequencies of APOE, MTHFR C677T and ACE I/D gene polymorphisms in the Zambian population. Results The allele frequencies of APOE polymorphism in the Zambian populations were 13.8%, 59.5% and 26.7% for the ?2, ?3 and ?4 alleles respectively. MTHFR C677T and ACE I/D allele frequencies were 8.6% and 13.8% for the T and D minor alleles respectively. The ?2?2 genotype and TT genotype were absent in the Zambian population. The genetic distances between Zambian and other African and non-African major populations revealed an independent variability of these polymorphisms. Conclusion We found that the APOE ?3 allele and the I allele of the ACE were significantly high in our study population while there were low frequencies observed for the MTHFR 677 T and ACE D alleles. Our analysis of the APOE, MTHFR and ACE polymorphisms may provide valuable insight into the understanding of the disease risk in the Zambian population. PMID:24679048

  9. No association between MTHFR A1298C and MTRR A66G polymorphisms, and MS in an Australian cohort.

    PubMed

    Szvetko, A L; Fowdar, J; Nelson, J; Colson, N; Tajouri, L; Csurhes, P A; Pender, M P; Griffiths, L R

    2007-01-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex neurological disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS) resulting in debilitating neuropathology. Pathogenesis is primarily defined by CNS inflammation and demyelination of nerve axons. Methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) is an enzyme that catalyzes the remethylation of homocysteine (Hcy) to methionine via cobalamin and folate dependant reactions. Cobalamin acts as an intermediate methyl carrier between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and Hcy. MTRR plays a critical role in maintaining cobalamin in an active form and is consequently an important determinant of total plasma Hcy (pHcy) concentrations. Elevated intracellular pHcy levels have been suggested to play a role in CNS dysfunction, neurodegenerative, and cerebrovascular diseases. Our investigation entailed the genotyping of a cohort of 140 cases and matched controls for MTRR and MTHFR, by restriction length polymorphism (RFLP) techniques. Two polymorphisms: MTRR A66G and MTHFR A1298C were investigated in an Australian age and gender matched case-control study. No significant allelic frequency difference was observed between cases and controls at the alpha = 0.05 level (MTRR chi2 = 0.005, P = 0.95, MTHFR chi2 = 1.15, P = 0.28). Our preliminary findings suggest no association between the MTRR A66G and MTHFR A1298C polymorphisms and MS. PMID:17113603

  10. Association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lin Zhang; Rui-Xing Yin; Wan-Ying Liu; Lin Miao; Dong-Feng Wu; Lynn Htet Htet Aung; Xi-Jiang Hu; Xiao-Li Cao; Jin-Zhen Wu; Shang-Ling Pan

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism and serum lipid profiles is still controversial in diverse ethnics. Bai Ku Yao is an isolated subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The aim of the present study was to eveluate the association of MTHFR C677T polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku

  11. Increased fibrosis progression rates in hepatitis C patients carrying the prothrombin G20210A mutation

    PubMed Central

    Maharshak, Nitsan; Halfon, Philippe; Deutsch, Varda; Peretz, Hava; Berliner, Shlomo; Fishman, Sigal; Zelber-Sagi, Shira; Rozovski, Uri; Leshno, Moshe; Oren, Ran

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To examine whether hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients who carry hypercoagulable mutations suffer from increased rates of liver fibrosis. METHODS: We analyzed DNA samples of 168 HCV patients for three common hypercoagulable gene mutations: prothrombin 20210 (PT20210), factor V Leiden (FV Leiden) and methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR). The patients were consecutively recruited as part of the prospective “Fibroscore Study” in France. The effect of the various mutations on the rate of fibrosis was analyzed statistically and was correlated with epidemiological, clinical and biochemical data such as grade and stage of liver biopsies, patients’ risk factors for liver cirrhosis, and timing of infection. RESULTS: Fifty two of the patients were categorized as “fast fibrosers” and 116 as “slow fibrosers”; 13% of the “fast fibrosers” carried the PT20210 mutation as compared with 5.5% of the “slow fibrosers”, with an odds ratio of 4.76 (P = 0.033; 95% CI: 1.13-19.99) for “fast” liver fibrosis. Carriage of MTHFR or FV Leiden mutations was not associated with enhanced liver fibrosis. CONCLUSION: Carriage of the PT20210 mutation is related to an increased rate of liver fibrosis in HCV patients. PMID:22174551

  12. Gender-Specific Effect of Mthfr Genotype and Neonatal Vigabatrin Interaction on Synaptic Proteins in Mouse Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Blumkin, Elinor; Levav-Rabkin, Tamar; Melamed, Osnat; Galron, Dalia; Golan, Hava M

    2011-01-01

    The enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a part of the homocysteine and folate metabolic pathways, affecting the methylations of DNA, RNA, and proteins. Mthfr deficiency was reported as a risk factor for neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. Neonatal disruption of the GABAergic system is also associated with behavioral outcomes. The interaction between the epigenetic influence of Mthfr deficiency and neonatal exposure to the GABA potentiating drug vigabatrin (GVG) in mice has been shown to have gender-dependent effects on mice anxiety and to have memory impairment effects in a gender-independent manner. Here we show that Mthfr deficiency interacts with neonatal GABA potentiation to alter social behavior in female, but not male, mice. This impairment was associated with a gender-dependent enhancement of proteins implicated in excitatory synapse plasticity in the female cortex. Reelin and fragile X mental retardation 1 protein (FMRP) levels and membrane GluR1/GluR2 ratios were elevated in wild-type mice treated neonatally with GVG and in Mthfr+/? mice treated with saline, but not in Mthfr+/? mice treated with GVG, compared with control groups (wild type treated with saline). A minor influence on the levels of these proteins was observed in male mice cortices, possibly due to high basal protein levels. Interaction between gender, genotype, and treatment was also observed in the GABA pathway. In female mice, GABA A?2/gephyrin ratios were suppressed in all test groups; in male mice, a genotype-specific enhancement of GABA A?2/gephyrin was observed. The lack of an effect on either reln or Fmr1 transcription suggests post-transcriptional regulation of these genes. Taken together, these findings suggest that Mthfr deficiency may interact with neonatal GABA potentiation in a gender-dependent manner to interrupt synaptic function. This may illustrate a possible mechanism for the epigenetic involvement of Mthfr deficiency in neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:21490592

  13. Interaction between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and traumatic childhood events predicts depression

    PubMed Central

    Lok, A; Bockting, C L H; Koeter, M W J; Snieder, H; Assies, J; Mocking, R J T; Vinkers, C H; Kahn, R S; Boks, M P; Schene, A H

    2013-01-01

    Childhood trauma is associated with the onset and recurrence of major depressive disorder (MDD). The thermolabile T variant of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism (rs1801133) is associated with a limited (oxidative) stress defense. Therefore, C677T MTHFR could be a potential predictor for depressive symptomatology and MDD recurrence in the context of traumatic stress during early life. We investigated the interaction between the C677T MTHFR variant and exposure to traumatic childhood events (TCEs) on MDD recurrence during a 5.5-year follow-up in a discovery sample of 124 patients with recurrent MDD and, in an independent replication sample, on depressive symptomatology in 665 healthy individuals from the general population. In the discovery sample, Cox regression analysis revealed a significant interaction between MTHFR genotype and TCEs on MDD recurrence (P=0.017). Over the 5.5-year follow-up period, median time to recurrence was 191 days for T-allele carrying patients who experienced TCEs (T+ and TCE+); 461 days for T? and TCE+ patients; 773 days for T+ and TCE? patients and 866 days for T? and TCE? patients. In the replication sample, a significant interaction was present between the MTHFR genotype and TCEs on depressive symptomatology (P=0.002). Our results show that the effects of TCEs on the prospectively assessed recurrence of MDD and self-reported depressive symptoms in the general population depend on the MTHFR genotype. In conclusion, T-allele carriers may be at an increased risk for depressive symptoms or MDD recurrence after exposure to childhood trauma. PMID:23900311

  14. Deep Sequencing Study of the MTHFR Gene to Identify Variants Associated with Myelomeningocele

    PubMed Central

    Aneji, Chiamaka U; Northrup, Hope; Au, Kit Sing

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Neural tube defects (NTDs) are congenital anomalies caused by a combination of genetic and environmental influences. A defect below the head region resulting in protuberance of meninges and nervous tissue is termed myelomeningocele (MM). MM, the most common NTD compatible with survival, occurs in approximately 1 in 1,000 births worldwide. Maternal pre- and periconceptional folate supplementation reduces the risk of NTDs by up to 70%. A key enzyme in folate metabolism is 5, 10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR). OBJECTIVES Sequence the 12 exons of the MTHFR gene among 96 subjects with MM to identify variants potentially contributing to the disease trait. METHODS Exons were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and the products were sequenced by Sanger method to reveal sequence variants compared to MTHFR reference sequences. Association of variants was examined by Fisher’s test. RESULTS A novel variant c.171+3G>T was identified in intron 1 in one affected subject. The variant was not found in the subject’s unaffected mother’s DNA and the unaffected father’s DNA was unavailable. We found significant differences in allele frequencies for seven SNPs in MM subjects compared to ethnically matched reference populations reported in the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) database (dbSNP). CONCLUSION We identified a novel variant c.171+3G>T in the MTHFR gene that potentially affects splicing in an affected subject. Also, we observed five SNPs (rs13306561, rs2274976, rs2066462, rs12121543, and rs1476413) in the MTHFR gene not previously shown to associate with MM. The current study provides additional evidence that multiple variations in the MTHFR gene are associated with MM. PMID:22241680

  15. High folic acid consumption leads to pseudo-MTHFR deficiency, altered lipid metabolism, and liver injury in mice12345

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Karen E; Mikael, Leonie G; Leung, Kit-Yi; Lévesque, Nancy; Deng, Liyuan; Wu, Qing; Malysheva, Olga V; Best, Ana; Caudill, Marie A; Greene, Nicholas DE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Increased consumption of folic acid is prevalent, leading to concerns about negative consequences. The effects of folic acid on the liver, the primary organ for folate metabolism, are largely unknown. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) provides methyl donors for S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) synthesis and methylation reactions. Objective: Our goal was to investigate the impact of high folic acid intake on liver disease and methyl metabolism. Design: Folic acid–supplemented diet (FASD, 10-fold higher than recommended) and control diet were fed to male Mthfr+/+ and Mthfr+/? mice for 6 mo to assess gene-nutrient interactions. Liver pathology, folate and choline metabolites, and gene expression in folate and lipid pathways were examined. Results: Liver and spleen weights were higher and hematologic profiles were altered in FASD-fed mice. Liver histology revealed unusually large, degenerating cells in FASD Mthfr+/? mice, consistent with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. High folic acid inhibited MTHFR activity in vitro, and MTHFR protein was reduced in FASD-fed mice. 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate, SAM, and SAM/S-adenosylhomocysteine ratios were lower in FASD and Mthfr+/? livers. Choline metabolites, including phosphatidylcholine, were reduced due to genotype and/or diet in an attempt to restore methylation capacity through choline/betaine-dependent SAM synthesis. Expression changes in genes of one-carbon and lipid metabolism were particularly significant in FASD Mthfr+/? mice. The latter changes, which included higher nuclear sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1, higher Srepb2 messenger RNA (mRNA), lower farnesoid X receptor (Nr1h4) mRNA, and lower Cyp7a1 mRNA, would lead to greater lipogenesis and reduced cholesterol catabolism into bile. Conclusions: We suggest that high folic acid consumption reduces MTHFR protein and activity levels, creating a pseudo-MTHFR deficiency. This deficiency results in hepatocyte degeneration, suggesting a 2-hit mechanism whereby mutant hepatocytes cannot accommodate the lipid disturbances and altered membrane integrity arising from changes in phospholipid/lipid metabolism. These preliminary findings may have clinical implications for individuals consuming high-dose folic acid supplements, particularly those who are MTHFR deficient. PMID:25733650

  16. The Association of the MTHFR c.1625A>C Genetic Variant with the Risk of Congenital Heart Diseases in the Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuting; Sun, Lei; Du, Weina; Song, Shuang; Wang, Shuo; Jiang, Weiju; Huang, Tianchu

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphisms with the risk of congenital heart diseases (CHD). The genotypes of the MTHFR genetic variant were determined by the polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing methods. Our data suggested that the allelic and genotypic frequencies of CHD patients were significantly different from non-CHD controls. The MTHFR c.1625A>C genetic variant was significantly associated with the increased risk of CHD (CC vs. AA: odds ratio [OR]=2.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15–4.53, p=0.016; C vs. A: OR=1.47, 95% CI 1.11–1.96, p=0.008). Results from this study indicate that the MTHFR c.1625A>C genetic variant influences the risk of CHD in the studied population. PMID:25494855

  17. The association of the MTHFR c.1625A>C genetic variant with the risk of congenital heart diseases in the Chinese.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuting; Sun, Lei; Du, Weina; Song, Shuang; Wang, Shuo; Jiang, Weiju; Huang, Tianchu; Li, Hui

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphisms with the risk of congenital heart diseases (CHD). The genotypes of the MTHFR genetic variant were determined by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing methods. Our data suggested that the allelic and genotypic frequencies of CHD patients were significantly different from non-CHD controls. The MTHFR c.1625A>C genetic variant was significantly associated with the increased risk of CHD (CC vs. AA: odds ratio [OR]=2.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15-4.53, p=0.016; C vs. A: OR=1.47, 95% CI 1.11-1.96, p=0.008). Results from this study indicate that the MTHFR c.1625A>C genetic variant influences the risk of CHD in the studied population. PMID:25494855

  18. Identification and characterization of somatic steroid 5alpha-reductase (SRD5A2) mutations in human prostate cancer tissue.

    PubMed

    Makridakis, Nick; Akalu, Abebe; Reichardt, Juergen K V

    2004-09-23

    Prostate cancer is a very common disease in industrialized countries and it is known to be androgen-dependent. The human SRD5A2 gene encodes the prostatic (or type II) steroid 5alpha-reductase, which catalyses the irreversible conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT), the most active androgen in the prostate. We have sequenced the entire protein-coding region of this locus in 30 microdissected prostate adenocarcinomas. We identified a total of 17 de novo amino-acid substitutions in 13 of these tumors. We also identified six additional silent substitutions. In total, 18 out of 30 (60%) of the tumors examined had de novo somatic substitutions in the prostatic steroid 5alpha-reductase-coding region. We also characterized all of the SRD5A2 missense substitutions biochemically and pharmacologically, using three 5alpha-reductase inhibitors, including finasteride. The biochemical parameters of the distinct 5alpha-reductase missense substitutions varied substantially. We note that two out of the three recurrent SRD5A2 missense substitutions increased 5alpha-reductase in vitro activity, while the third one is essentially neutral. These findings are consistent with a role for increased DHT levels in the prostate through increased activity of the SRD5A2 locus in prostate cancer progression, in a subset of patients. Our pharmacologic studies also reveal substantial variability for each 5alpha-reductase inhibitor. These data, therefore, should be taken into account in both prevention as well as therapeutic trials of prostate cancer utilizing 5alpha-reductase inhibitors. PMID:15326487

  19. The Importance of Homozygous Polymorphisms of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Gene in Romanian Patients with Idiopathic Venous Thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Hotoleanu, Cristina; Trifa, Adrian; Popp, Radu; Fodor, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Background: Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms have recently raised the interest as a possible thrombophilic factors. Aims: We aimed to assess the frequency of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in idiopathic venous thromboembolism (VTE) in a Romanian population and the associated risk of VTE. Study Design: We performed a case-control transversal study including 90 patients diagnosed with VTE and 75 sex- and age-matched controls. Methods: MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms were detected using PCR-RFLP method. Results: The homozygous MTHFR 677TT genotype, present in 18.8% of patients with VTE versus 6.6% of controls, was significantly associated with VTE (p= 0.021, OR= 3.26, 95%CI (1.141–9.313)). The heterozygous MTHFR A1298C genotype, presenting the highest prevalence in the VTE group (34.4%) as well as in controls (37.3%), was not associated with VTE (p=0.7). No associations were found for heterozygous MTHFR C677T (with a frequency of 32.2% in VTE and 37.3% in controls, p=0.492), respective homozygous MTHFR A1298C genotype (with a frequency of 1.1% in VTE and 2.6% in controls, p=0.456). Conclusion: Among MTHFR polymorphisms, only homozygosity for MTHFR 677TT may be considered a risk factor for VTE; the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism is not significantly associated with an increased risk of VTE. PMID:25207100

  20. Prevalence of MTHFR C677T and MS A2756G polymorphisms in major depressive disorder, and their impact on response to fluoxetine treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To examine the prevalence of the C677T polymorphism of the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and the A2756G polymorphism of methionine synthase (MS), and their impact on antidepressant response. We screened 224 subjects (52% female, mean age 39 +/- 11 years) with SCID-diagnosed major...

  1. High prevalence of three prothrombotic polymorphisms among Palestinians: factor V G1691A, factor II G20210A and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Ayman S

    2012-10-01

    Factor V leiden G1691A/R506Q (FVL), prothrombin G20210A (FII) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T are related genetic risk factors for venous thromboembolism. Analysis for those mutations is increasingly being performed on patients exhibiting hypercoagulability. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of FVL, FII-G20210A and MTHFR-C677T polymorphisms and their coexistence among apparently healthy Palestinians. After institutional approval, 303 apparently healthy students from An-Najah University representative to North and South regions of West Bank with no previous history of cardiovascular diseases participated in this study. A uniform questionnaire was used to collect relevant information through personal interview with the subjects. The collected information included gender, age, smoking habits, weight and height, diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular and family history of CVD. The frequencies of allelic distribution of the three prothrombotic polymorphisms factor V G1691A/R506Q), prothrombin G2010A, and MTHFR-C677T were 0.114, 0.050 and 0.071, respectively. The prevalence of the three thrombotic polymorphisms (FVL, FII G20210A and MTHFR-C677T) were 20.1, 9.1 and 13.8 %, respectively. Statistical analysis for factor V leiden showed no significant association between place of residence (P value = 0.953) and gender (P value >0.082). The data presented in this study showed the highest prevalence of FVL among healthy Palestinians compared to other populations and this important finding should be followed in terms of clinical significance. PMID:22528331

  2. Enrichment of MTHFR 677?T in a Chinese long-lived cohort and its association with lipid modulation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Variants in the Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene may result in a lowered catalytic activity and associate with subsequent elevated serum homocysteine (Hcy) concentration, abnormal DNA synthesis and methylation, cardiovascular risk, and unhealthy aging. Several investigations on the relationship of MTHFR C677T polymorphism with serum lipid profile and longevity have been conducted in some populations, but the findings remain mixed. Herein, we sought to look at the association between MTHFR C677T and lipid profile in a longevous cohort in Bama, a well-known home of longevity in China. Methods Genotyping of MTHFR C677T was undertaken in 516 long-lived inhabitants (aged 90 and older, long-lived group, LG) and 493 healthy controls (aged 60–75, non-long-lived group, non-LG) recruited from Bama area. Correlation between MTHFR genotypes and lipids was then evaluated. Results T allele and TT genotype were significantly more prevalent in LG (P?=?0.001 and 0.002, respectively), especially in females, than in non-LG. No difference in the tested lipid measures among MTHFR C677T genotypes was observed in LG, non-LG and total population (P?>?0.05 for all). However, female but not male T carriers exhibited higher TC and LDL-C levels than did T noncarriers in the total population and in LG after stratification by sex (P?MTHFR 677?T genotypes and its modest unfavorable impact on lipids in Bama long-lived individuals may imply an existence of other protective genotypes which require further determination. PMID:24968810

  3. Status of vitamin B-12 and B-6 but not of folate, homocysteine and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism are associated with impaired cognition and depression in adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The C677T polymorphism of the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene differs in frequency in different ethnic groups which have differing prevalence of age-related cognitive impairments. We used a battery of neuropsychological tests to examine association of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism w...

  4. A potential interaction between COMT and MTHFR genetic variants in Han Chinese patients with bipolar II disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liang-Jen; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Chen, Shiou-Lan; Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Chen, Po See; Huang, San-Yuan; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Chen, Kao Chin; Lee, I. Hui; Wang, Tzu-Yun; Yang, Yen Kuang; Lu, Ru-Band

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar II disorder (BP-II), characterized by recurrent dysregulation of mood, is a serious and chronic psychiatric illness. However, BP-II is commonly under-recognized, even in psychiatric settings. Because dopaminergic disturbance is thought to be involved in the development of bipolar disorder (BPD), it seems essential to investigate dopamine-related genes like the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene, which are involved in dopamine metabolism, and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, which may affect COMT methylation and COMT function. The current study examined the association and interaction of the COMT Val158Met and MTHFR C677T variants with BP-II. Nine hundred seventy-eight participants were recruited: 531 with BP-II and 447 healthy controls. The genotypes of the COMT and MTHFR polymorphisms were determined using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Logistic regression analysis showed a significant interaction effect of the COMT Val158Met Val/Val genotype and the MTHFR C677T C/T + T/T genotype (P = 0.039) for the protective effect on the odds of developing BP-II. Our findings support preliminary evidence that the COMT and MTHFR genes interact in BP-II, and they imply the connection of both dopaminergic pathways and methylation pathways in the pathogenesis of BP-II. PMID:25744938

  5. A potential interaction between COMT and MTHFR genetic variants in Han Chinese patients with bipolar II disorder.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang-Jen; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Chen, Shiou-Lan; Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Chen, Po See; Huang, San-Yuan; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Chen, Kao Chin; Lee, I Hui; Wang, Tzu-Yun; Yang, Yen Kuang; Lu, Ru-Band

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar II disorder (BP-II), characterized by recurrent dysregulation of mood, is a serious and chronic psychiatric illness. However, BP-II is commonly under-recognized, even in psychiatric settings. Because dopaminergic disturbance is thought to be involved in the development of bipolar disorder (BPD), it seems essential to investigate dopamine-related genes like the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene, which are involved in dopamine metabolism, and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, which may affect COMT methylation and COMT function. The current study examined the association and interaction of the COMT Val158Met and MTHFR C677T variants with BP-II. Nine hundred seventy-eight participants were recruited: 531 with BP-II and 447 healthy controls. The genotypes of the COMT and MTHFR polymorphisms were determined using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Logistic regression analysis showed a significant interaction effect of the COMT Val158Met Val/Val genotype and the MTHFR C677T C/T + T/T genotype (P = 0.039) for the protective effect on the odds of developing BP-II. Our findings support preliminary evidence that the COMT and MTHFR genes interact in BP-II, and they imply the connection of both dopaminergic pathways and methylation pathways in the pathogenesis of BP-II. PMID:25744938

  6. A New Mutation of 5-Alpha-Reductase Type 2 (A62E) in a Large Egyptian Kindred

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mona Hafez; Inas Mazen; Isis Ghali; Charles Sultan; Serge Lumbroso

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To describe the clinical, biological and molecular data in a large Egyptian kindred with 5?-reductase deficiency. Patients and Methods: Three patients with ambiguous genitalia were referred at the ages of 20, 9 and 2 years, respectively. In all cases, parents were first cousins. Basal and post-HCG stimulation plasma levels of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone were determined. Direct sequencing and restriction

  7. A nonsense mutation in S-antigen (p.Glu306*) causes Oguchi disease

    PubMed Central

    Waheed, Nadia K.; Qavi, Ahmed H.; Malik, Sarah N.; Maria, Maleeha; Riaz, Moeen; Cremers, Frans P. M.; Azam, Maleeha

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Genetic studies were performed to identify the causative mutation in a 15-year-old girl diagnosed with congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB) presenting Mizuo-Nakamura phenomenon, a typical Oguchi disease symptom. The patient also had dural sinus thrombosis (DST), thrombocytopenia, and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods Mutation analysis was done by sequencing two candidate genes, S-antigen (SAG; arrestin 1), associated with Oguchi type 1, and rhodopsin kinase (GRK1), associated with Oguchi type 2. In addition, the C677T variation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene was also screened in the family, to determine its probable association with hyperhomocysteinemia in the patient. Results Sequencing of the SAG and GRK1 resulted in identifying a novel homozygous nonsense mutation (c.916G>T; p.Glu306*) in SAG, which in unaffected siblings either was present in a heterozygous state or absent. The C677T heterozygous allele in the MTHFR gene was found to be associated with hyperhomocysteinemia in the patient and other family members. Conclusions This is the first report of Oguchi type 1 in a Pakistani patient due to a nonsense mutation (c.916G>T; p.Glu306*) in SAG. The neurologic and hematological abnormalities likely are not associated with the SAG variant. PMID:22665972

  8. MTHFR 677TT genotype and disease risk: is there a modulating role for B-vitamins?

    PubMed

    Reilly, R; McNulty, H; Pentieva, K; Strain, J J; Ward, M

    2014-02-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a critical folate-metabolising enzyme which requires riboflavin as its co-factor. A common polymorphism (677C?T) in the MTHFR gene results in reduced MTHFR activity in vivo which in turn leads to impaired folate metabolism and elevated homocysteine concentrations. Homozygosity for this polymorphism (TT genotype) is associated with an increased risk of a number of conditions including heart disease and stroke, but there is considerable variability in the extent of excess risk in various reports. The present review will explore the evidence which supports a role for this polymorphism as a risk factor for a number of adverse health outcomes, and the potential modulating roles for B-vitamins in alleviating disease risk. The evidence is convincing in the case which links this polymorphism with hypertension and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, particularly preeclampsia. Furthermore, elevated blood pressure was found to be highly responsive to riboflavin intervention specifically in individuals with the MTHFR 677TT genotype. Future intervention studies targeted at these genetically predisposed individuals are required to further investigate this novel gene-nutrient interaction. This polymorphism has also been associated with an increased risk of neural tube defects (NTD) and other adverse pregnancy outcomes; however, the evidence in this area has been inconsistent. Preliminary evidence has suggested that there may be a much greater need for women with the MTHFR 677TT genotype to adhere to the specific recommendation of commencing folic acid prior to conception for the prevention of NTD, but this requires further investigation. PMID:24131523

  9. Screening of polymorphisms for MTHFR and DHFR genes in spina bifida children and their mothers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husna, M. Z.; Endom, I.; Ibrahim, S.; Selvi, N. Amaramalar; Fakhrurazi, H.; Htwe, R. Ohnmar; Kanehaswari, Y.; Halim, A. R. Abdul; Wong, S. W.; Subashini, K.; Syahira, O. Nur; Aishah, S.

    2013-11-01

    Mechanism underlying the beneficial effect of folic acid supplementation in reducing the risk of neural tube defect is still not well understood. Current evidences show the involvement of folic acid metabolic gene's polymorphism as contributing factors that regulate this pathway. Therefore, the objective of this research was to determine the presence of C677T polymorphism for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR-19 bp deletion) genes between mother-children pairs of case and control. With the approval of UKMMC ethic committee, genomic DNA was extracted from one hundred and forty consented bloods. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), PCR-RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) and sequencing were employed to verify each nucleotide change. Our result shows that mutant MTHFR and DHFR alleles are present in all Malaysian sub-ethnic groups, case and control. Even though mutant MTHFR are found to be slightly higher in the case groups, 75% of the affected child is a non carrier for this allele and 62.5% of the mothers with an affected child are genotypically normal. For DHFR, almost all (87.5-100%) investigated samples are a carrier or having a double DHFR deletion be it a case or control pairs. However, strong maternal inheritance shown by the deleted allele might be due to a cascade effect of lacks of folate consumption or maternal uniparental disomy. In conclusion, the use of MTHFR and DHFR as markers in determining the risk of having spina bifida baby is uninformative and plays a small indirect role as the genetic causes of spina bifida. Therefore, spina bifida remains etiologically unknown polygenic and quantitative developmental trait whereby the searches for positive genetic marker need to be continued.

  10. THERAPEUTIC EFFICACY OF SULFADOXINE-PYRIMETHAMINE AND PREVALENCE OF RESISTANCE MARKERS IN TANZANIA PRIOR TO REVISION OF MALARIA TREATMENT POLICY: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM DIHYDROFOLATE REDUCTASE AND DIHYDROPTEROATE SYNTHASE MUTATIONS IN MONITORING IN VIVO RESISTANCE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KEFAS MUGITTU; MODESTA NDEJEMBI; ALLEN MALISA; MARTHA LEMNGE; ZULFIKAR PREMJI; ALEX MWITA; WATOKY NKYA; JOHANNES KATARAIHYA; SALIM ABDULLA; HANS-PETER BECK; HASSAN MSHINDA

    Prior to the 2001 malarial treatment policy change in Tanzania, we conducted trials to assess the efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and the usefulness of molecular markers in monitoring resistance. A total of 383 uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria patients (between 6 and 59 months old) were treated with SP and their responses were assessed. Mutations in the P. falciparum dihydrofolate reductase

  11. Isolation of mutants of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus deficient in wax ester synthesis and complementation of one mutation with a gene encoding a fatty acyl coenzyme A reductase.

    PubMed Central

    Reiser, S; Somerville, C

    1997-01-01

    Acinetobacter calcoaceticus BD413 accumulates wax esters and triacylglycerol under conditions of mineral nutrient limitation. Nitrosoguanidine-induced mutants of strain BD413 were isolated that failed to accumulate wax esters under nitrogen-limited growth conditions. One of the mutants, Wow15 (without wax), accumulated wax when grown in the presence of cis-11-hexadecenal and hexadecanol but not hexadecane or hexadecanoic acid. This suggested that the mutation may have inactivated a gene encoding either an acyl-acyl carrier protein or acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) reductase. The Wow15 mutant was complemented with a cosmid genomic library prepared from wild-type A. calcoaceticus BD413. The complementary region was localized to a single gene (acr1) encoding a protein of 32,468 Da that is 44% identical over a region of 264 amino acids to a product of unknown function encoded by an open reading frame associated with mycolic acid synthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra. Extracts of Escherichia coli cells expressing the acr1 gene catalyzed the reduction of acyl-CoA to the corresponding fatty aldehyde, indicating that the gene encodes a novel fatty acyl-CoA reductase. PMID:9139916

  12. [The role of homocysteine and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, methionine synthase, methionine synthase reductase polymorphisms in the development of cardiovascular diseases and hypertension].

    PubMed

    Marosi, Krisztina; Agota, Annamária; Végh, Veronika; Joó, József Gábor; Langmár, Zoltán; Kriszbacher, Ildikó; Nagy, Zsolt B

    2012-03-25

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading causes of death in the developed countries. Elevated homocysteine level is as an independent risk factor of CVDs. The C677T and A1298C variants of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) have been shown to influence folate and homocysteine metabolisms. However, the relationship between MTHFR polymorphisms and hyperhomocysteinemia has not been well established yet. The gene variants were also reported to be associated with CVDs. In addition, the C677T polymorphisms may play a role in the development of hypertension. Recent research evidence has suggested that MTHFR variants might be independently linked to CVDs and hypertension, because of the involvement of the MTHFR enzyme product (5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate /5-MTHF) in the regulation of endothelial functions. Further research is required to investigate the association between gene polymorphisms of folate-metabolizing enzymes and CVDs, and to identify the possible role of the relevant gene variants in the molecular pathogenesis of hyperhomocysteinemia. PMID:22411217

  13. High expression in Escherichia coli of the gene coding for dihydrofolate reductase of the extremely halophilic archaebacterium Haloferax volcanii. Reconstitution of the active enzyme and mutation studies.

    PubMed

    Blecher, O; Goldman, S; Mevarech, M

    1993-08-15

    The gene coding for the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase of the extremely halophilic archaebacterium Haloferax volcanii was recombined into the Escherichia coli expression vector pET11d. Following induction, the enzyme was produced in large quantities and accumulated in the cells in an insoluble form. The enzymic activity could be efficiently reconstituted by dissolving the aggregate in 6 M guanidine hydrochloride followed by dilution into salt solutions. Mutants were produced in which Lys30 was converted to Leu (K30L), Lys31 was converted to Ala (K31A) and a double mutant in which both lysines were converted (K30L, K31A). The mutated enzymes were produced in E. coli, activated and purified to homogeneity. The effect of the salt concentration on the steady-state kinetic parameters was determined. It was found that the salt concentration affects the Km but not kcat of the various mutants. PMID:8365406

  14. Plasma homocysteine, methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and factor II G20210A polymorphisms, factor VIII, and VWF in central retinal vein occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, S; Owens, D; Gin, T; Bunce, K; Sherafat, H; Perry, D; Hykin, P

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—To determine whether plasma homocysteine, methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and factor II G20210A polymorphisms, factor VIII, and vWF are risk factors for central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO).?METHOD—Prospective comparison of 63 consecutive patients with central retinal vein occlusion and 63 age matched controls. Plasma homocysteine and vWF were estimated by ELISA, the MTFHR and factor II G20210A polymorphisms determined by polymerase chain reaction with restriction enzyme product digestion and factor VIII by one stage automated clotting assay.?RESULTS—Plasma homocysteine (patients: median 12.4 µmol/l, controls: median 11.6 µmol OR = 1.05, p=0.20), factor VIII (patients: median = 115 U/dl, controls: median = 113 U/dl), and vWF (patients: median = 115 U/dl, controls: median = 108 U/dl) were not statistically higher in patients than in controls. Five CRVO patients and seven controls were homozygous for the MTHFR C677T mutation. One control was heterozygous for the factor II G20210A mutation.?CONCLUSION—This study has not identified new risk factors for CRVO.?? PMID:11673296

  15. MTHFR 677C>T Polymorphism Increases the Male Infertility Risk: A Meta-Analysis Involving 26 Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Mancheng; Dong, Wenjing; He, Tingyu; Shi, Zhirong; Huang, Guiying; Ren, Rui; Huang, Sichong; Qiu, Shaopeng; Yuan, Runqiang

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphism may be a risk factor for male infertility. However, the epidemiologic studies showed inconsistent results regarding MTHFR polymorphism and the risk of male infertility. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis of published case-control studies to re-examine the controversy. Methods Electronic searches of PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were conducted to select eligible literatures for this meta-analysis (updated to June 19, 2014). According to our inclusion criteria and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS), only high quality studies that observed the association between MTHFR polymorphism and male infertility risk were included. Crude odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to assess the strength of association between the MTHFR polymorphism and male infertility risk. Results Twenty-six studies involving 5,575 cases and 5,447 controls were recruited. Overall, MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism showed significant associations with male infertility risk in both fixed effects (CT+TT vs. CC: OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.23–1.46) and random effects models (CT+TT vs. CC: OR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.19–1.62). Further, when stratified by ethnicity, sperm concentration and control sources, the similar results were observed in Asians, Caucasians, Azoo or OAT subgroup and both in population-based and hospital-based controls. Nevertheless, no significant association was only observed in oligo subgroup. Conclusions Our results indicated that the MTHFR polymorphism is associated with an increased risk of male infertility. Further well-designed analytical studies are necessary to confirm our conclusions and evaluate gene-environment interactions with male infertility risk. PMID:25793386

  16. MTHFR C677T Predisposes to POAG but Not to PACG in a North Indian Population: A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shashank; Bhaskar, Pradeep Kumar; Bhardwaj, Ritu; Chandra, Abhishek; Chaudhry, Vidya Nair; Chaudhry, Prashaant; Ali, Akhtar; Mukherjee, Ashim; Mutsuddi, Mousumi

    2014-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia induced by the C677T genetic variant in MTHFR (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase) has been implicated in neuronal cell death of retinal ganglion cells (RGC), which is a characteristic feature of glaucoma. However, association of MTHFR C677T with glaucoma has been controversial because of inconsistent results across association studies. Association between MTHFR C677T and glaucoma has not been reported in Indian population. Therefore, with a focus on neurodegenerative death of RGC in glaucoma, the current study aimed to investigate association of MTHFR C677T with Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG) and Primary Angle Closure Glaucoma (PACG) in a North Indian population. A total of 404 participants (231 patients and 173 controls) were included in this study. Genotyping was performed by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism. A few random samples were also tested by direct sequencing. Genotypic and allelic distributions of the POAG and PACG cohorts were compared to that of controls by chi-square test and odds ratios were reported with 95% confidence intervals. Genotypic and allelic distributions between POAG cases and controls were significantly different (p?=?0.03 and p?=?0.01 respectively). Unlike POAG, we did not find significant difference in the genotypic and allelic distributions of C677T between PACG cases and controls (p>0.05). We also observed a higher proportion of TT associated POAG in females than that in males. However, this is a preliminary indication of gender specific risk of C677T that needs to be replicated in a larger cohort of males and females. The present investigation on MTHFR C677T and glaucoma reveals that the TT genotype and T allele of this polymorphism are significant risk factors for POAG but not for PACG in North Indian population. Ours is the first report demonstrating association of MTHFR C677T with POAG but not PACG in individuals from North India. PMID:25054348

  17. Significance of the use of the ViennaLab “Cardiovascular Disease panel” (CVD) Assay as a reflex test for the “Factor V/II/MTHFR Assay”?

    PubMed Central

    Hoteit, Rouba; Abbas, Fatmeh; Antar, Ahmad; Abdel Khalek, Rabab; Shammaa, Dina; Mahfouz, Rami

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Trends toward identifying risk factors of thrombotic complications had become essential as an attempt to prevent and decrease the incidence of the complications. Thrombosis has been associated with predisposing factors like mutations in FV, PTH, MTHFR and other genes. Aim Evaluate whether the CVD StripAssay has an added value in the screening for more thrombophilia risk factors, which may predispose for the development of cardiovascular diseases and other thrombotic clinical conditions. Methods We compared the results for 94 patients who were previously tested for Factor V, Factor II and MTHFR gene mutations using the ViennaLab FV-PTH-MTHFR StripAssay, and for whom additional testing for the Cardiovascular Disease panel (CVD StripAssay, ViennaLab) was requested. Results Using the CVD StripAssay, 66% of patients who had no mutations when tested using the FV-PTH-MTHFR StripAssay or carried a mutation for MTHFR, were found to have additional genes' SNPs or mutations that are highly associated with a risk of thrombosis as per the available international literature. Conclusion This observation is of extreme importance in clinical practice for the introduction of the extended CVD panel into routine molecular diagnostic test menus and highlights the importance of genetic analysis of the implicated genes in the management of patients with a thrombotic episode presentation. PMID:25606377

  18. Mutations defective in ribonucleotide reductase activity interfere with pollen plastid DNA degradation mediated by DPD1 exonuclease.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lay Yin; Matsushima, Ryo; Sakamoto, Wataru

    2012-05-01

    Organellar DNAs in mitochondria and plastids are present in multiple copies and make up a substantial proportion of total cellular DNA despite their limited genetic capacity. We recently demonstrated that organellar DNA degradation occurs during pollen maturation, mediated by the Mg(2+) -dependent organelle exonuclease DPD1. To further understand organellar DNA degradation, we characterized a distinct mutant (dpd2). In contrast to the dpd1 mutant, which retains both plastid and mitochondrial DNAs, dpd2 showed specific accumulation of plastid DNAs. Multiple abnormalities in vegetative and reproductive tissues of dpd2 were also detected. DPD2 encodes the large subunit of ribonucleotide reductase, an enzyme that functions at the rate-limiting step of de novo nucleotide biosynthesis. We demonstrated that the defects in ribonucleotide reductase indirectly compromise the activity of DPD1 nuclease in plastids, thus supporting a different regulation of organellar DNA degradation in pollen. Several lines of evidence provided here reinforce our previous conclusion that the DPD1 exonuclease plays a central role in organellar DNA degradation, functioning in DNA salvage rather than maternal inheritance during pollen development. PMID:22239102

  19. Meta-analysis of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism and lung cancer risk in Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Yue, Kai; Hao, Liran

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism with lung cancer (LC) susceptibility in Chinese; however, the findings are inconsistent. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis. PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang were searched. Pooled ORs and 95% CIs were used to assess the strength of the associations. Overall, 10 studies with 2487 cases and 3228 controls investigating the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and LC risk were included. We did not find a significant association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and LC risk. However, significantly increased LC risk was found in the population from North China, which was not found in the population from South China. In conclusion, our meta-analysis suggested that MTHFR C677T polymorphism might influence the risk of LC.

  20. Boost in bioethanol production using recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae with mutated strictly NADPH-dependent xylose reductase and NADP(+)-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Khattab, Sadat Mohammad Rezq; Saimura, Masayuki; Kodaki, Tsutomu

    2013-06-10

    The xylose-fermenting recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its improvement have been studied extensively. The redox balance between xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) is thought to be an important factor in effective xylose fermentation. Using protein engineering, we previously successfully reduced xylitol accumulation and improved ethanol production by reversing the dependency of XDH from NAD(+) to NADP(+). We also constructed a set of novel strictly NADPH-dependent XR from Pichia stipitis by site-directed mutagenesis. In the present study, we constructed a set of recombinant S. cerevisiae carrying a novel set of mutated strictly NADPH-dependent XR and NADP(+)-dependent XDH genes with overexpression of endogenous xylulokinase (XK) to study the effects of complete NADPH/NADP(+) recycling on ethanol fermentation and xylitol accumulation. All mutated strains demonstrated reduced xylitol accumulation, ranging 34.4-54.7% compared with the control strain. Moreover, compared with the control strain, the two strains showed 20% and 10% improvement in ethanol production. PMID:23578809

  1. Association between MTHFR Polymorphisms and Acute Myeloid Leukemia Risk: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yan; Lu, Ge-Ning; Wang, Ren-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Previous observational studies investigating the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms and acute myeloid leukemia risk (AML) have yielded inconsistent results. The aim of this study is to derive a more precise estimation of the association between MTHFR (C677T and A1298C) polymorphisms and acute myeloid leukemia risk. PubMed and Embase databases were systematically searched to identify relevant studies from their inception to August 2013. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were the metric of choice. Thirteen studies were selected for C677T polymorphism (1838 cases and 5318 controls) and 9 studies (1335 patients and 4295 controls) for A1298C polymorphism. Overall, pooled results showed that C677T polymorphism was not significant associated with AML risk(OR, 0.98–1.04; 95% CI, 0.86–0.92 to 1.09–1.25). Similar results were observed for the A1298C polymorphism and in subgroup analysis. All comparisons revealed no substantial heterogeneity nor did we detect evidence of publication bias. In summary, this meta-analysis provides evidence that MTHFR polymorphisms were not associated with AML risk. Further investigations are needed to offer better insight into the role of these polymorphisms in AML carcinogenesis. PMID:24586405

  2. Analysis of MTHFR and MTRR Gene Polymorphisms in Iranian Ventricular Septal Defect Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Pishva, Seyyed Reza; Vasudevan, Ramachandran; Etemad, Ali; Heidari, Farzad; Komara, Makanko; Ismail, Patimah; Othman, Fauziah; Karimi, Abdollah; Sabri, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Ventricular septal defect (VSD) is one of the most common types of congenital heart defects (CHD). There are vivid multifactorial causes for VSD in which both genetic and environmental risk factors are consequential in the development of CHD. Methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) are two of the key regulatory enzymes involved in the metabolic pathway of homocysteine. Genes involved in homocysteine/folate metabolism may play an important role in CHDs. In this study; we determined the association of A66G and C524T polymorphisms of the MTRR gene and C677T polymorphism of the MTHFR gene in Iranian VSD subjects. A total of 123 children with VSDs and 125 healthy children were included in this study. Genomic DNA was extracted from the buccal cells of all the subjects. The restriction fragment length polymorphism polymerase chain reaction (PCR-RFLP) method was carried out to amplify the A66G and C524T polymorphism of MTRR and C677T polymorphism of MTHFR genes digested with Hinf1, Xho1 and Nde1 enzymes, respectively. The genotype frequencies of CC, CT and TT of MTRR gene among the studied cases were 43.1%, 40.7% and 16.3%, respectively, compared to 52.8%, 43.2% and 4.0%, respectively among the controls. For the MTRR A66G gene polymorphism, the genotypes frequencies of AA, AG and GG among the cases were 33.3%, 43.9% and 22.8%, respectively, while the frequencies were 49.6%, 42.4% and 8.0%, respectively, among control subjects. The frequencies for CC and CT genotypes of the MTHFR gene were 51.2% and 48.8%, respectively, in VSD patients compared to 56.8% and 43.2% respectively, in control subjects. Apart from MTHFR C677T polymorphism, significant differences were noticed (p < 0.05) in C524T and A66G polymorphisms of the MTRR gene between cases and control subjects. PMID:23358257

  3. Identification of three new mutations in the NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase gene responsible for recessive congenital methemoglobinemia type II

    SciTech Connect

    Mota-Vieira, L.; Kaplan, J.C.; Kahn, A.; Leroux, A. [Universite Rene Descartes-Paris (France)

    1994-09-01

    Recessive congenital methemoglobinemia (RCM; McKusick N{degrees}25800) due to NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase (cytb5r) deficiency leads to two different types of diseases: in type I form, cyanosis is the only symptom and the enzyme is only defective in red blood cells; in type II form, cyanosis is associated with severe mental retardation and neurological impairment and the enzyme defect is systemic. We have identified three new molecular defects in two unrelated patients with type II RCM. A homozygous C{r_arrow}T transition in codon 218 (Arg) was detected in the cDNA of one patient, resulting in a premature stop codon (TGA) in exon 8. Restriction enzyme analysis of genomic DNA confirmed the homozygosity of the propositus and heterozygosity for an identical defect in both parents. The second patient was found to be a compound heterozygote, carrying two different mutant alleles in the cyb5r gene. One allele presented a missense mutation (T{r_arrow}C) with substitution of Cys-203 (TGC) by Arg (CGC) in exon 7. The second allele showed a 3 bp deletion of nucleotides 815-817 of the cDNA. The CTG ATG sequence at position 814-819 in exon 9 coding for Leu-271 and Met-272 was replaced by the CTG triplet, with conservation of the Leu-271 and loss of the Met-272. To our knowledge, these are the first examples of a homozygous nonsense mutation and of a compound heterozygous mutation detected in the cytb5r gene. This finding supports the diversity of genetic defects in the cytb5r gene leading to the severe form of the disease.

  4. Contribution of GSTM1, GSTT1, and MTHFR polymorphisms to end-stage renal disease of unknown etiology in Mexicans

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Amavizca, B. E.; Orozco-Castellanos, R.; Ortíz-Orozco, R.; Padilla-Gutiérrez, J.; Valle, Y.; Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, N.; García-García, G.; Gallegos-Arreola, M.; Figuera, L. E.

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress is increased in chronic kidney disease, owing to an imbalance between the oxidative and antioxidant pathways as well as a state of persistent hyperhomocysteinemia. The enzymes glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) are implicated in the regulation of these pathways. This study investigates the association between polymorphisms in the Glutathione S-transferase Mu 1 (GSTM1), glutathione S-transferase theta 1 (GSTT1), and MTHFR genes and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) of unknown etiology in patients in Mexico. A Case-control study included 110 ESRD patients and 125 healthy individuals. GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes were determined using the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The MTHFR C677T polymorphism was studied using a PCR/restriction fragment length polymorphism method. In ESRD patients, GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotype frequencies were 61% and 7% respectively. GSTM1 genotype frequencies differed significantly between groups, showing that homozygous deletion of the GSTM1 gene was associated with susceptibility to ESRD of unknown etiology (P = 0.007, odds ratios = 2.05, 95% confidence interval 1.21-3.45). The MTHFR C677T polymorphism genotype and allele distributions were similar in both groups (P > 0.05), and the CT genotype was the most common genotype in both groups (45.5% and 46.6%). Our findings suggest that the GSTM1 null polymorphism appears to be associated with the ESRD of unknown etiology in patients in Mexico. PMID:24339523

  5. Sequence variation of the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase gene (677C>T and 1298?A>C) and traditional risk factors in a South Indian population.

    PubMed

    Dayakar, Seetha; Goud, Kalal Iravathy; Reddy, Thavanati Parvathi Kumara; Rao, Seshagiri P; Sesikeran, Shyamala B; Sadhnani, Muralidhar

    2011-11-01

    Methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) plays a significant role in the metabolism of methionine. MTHFR deficiency is an autosomal recessive trait that could be a significant risk factor for a number of defects, for example, vascular events, due to lower dietary folate intake among South Indians. To find the incidence of 677 C>T and 1298?A>C in MTHFR gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among the south Indian population, polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism were employed among 152 patients with myocardial infarction and 167 controls. The MTHFR 677CT genotype was found among 35 (22.4%) cases and 08 (4.8%) controls, the MTHFR 677CC allele was found among 115 (73.7%) cases and 159 (94.6%) controls. Also, the analysis of the MTHFR 1298A>C SNP identified the MTHFR 1298CC genotype among 16 (10.3%) cases and 01 (0.6%) control, the MTHFR 1298AC genotype was found in 56 (35.9%) cases and 27 (16.2%) controls, and the MTHFR 1298AA genotype was observed in 80 (51.3%) cases and 139 (82.6%) controls. The C vs. A allele also showed significantly higher frequency among the patients in comparison with the controls (p<0.0001). The results of this study indicate that the MTHFR A1298C SNP is more prevalent among south Indians compared with the MTHFR C677T SNP, suggesting a possible role of MTHFR A1298C in the pathogenesis of heart diseases. PMID:21749215

  6. The Association between MTHFR Gene Polymorphisms and Hepatocellular Carcinoma Risk: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yan; Huang, Shan; Xu, Juanjuan; Li, Haiwei; Li, Shan; Zhao, Jinmin

    2013-01-01

    Background The association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphisms and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk was inconsistent and underpowered. To clarify the effects of MTHFR gene polymorphisms on the risk of HCC, a meta-analysis of all available studies relating C677T and/or A1298C polymorphisms of MTHFR gene to the risk of HCC was conducted. Methods The authors searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Chinese Biomedical Literature database (CBM) for the period up to July 2012. Data were extracted by two independent authors and pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated. Metaregression and subgroup analyses were performed to identify the source of heterogeneity. Results Finally, 12 studies with 2,351 cases and 4,091 controls were included for C677T polymorphism and 6 studies with 1,333 cases and 1,878 controls were included for A1298C polymorphism. With respect to A1298C polymorphism, significantly decreased HCC risk was found in the overall population (CC vs. AA: OR?=?0.660, 95%CI 0.460–0.946, P?=?0.024; recessive model: OR?=?0.667, 95%CI?=?0.470–0.948, P?=?0.024). In subgroup analyses, significantly decreased HCC risk was found in Asian population (CC vs. AA: OR?=?0.647, 95%CI?=?0.435–0.963; P?=?0.032) and population-based studies (CC vs. AA: OR?=?0.519, 95%CI?=?0.327–0.823; P?=?0.005). With respect to C677T polymorphism, no significant association with HCC risk was demonstrated in overall and stratified analyses. Conclusions We concluded that MTHFR A1298C polymorphism may play a protective role in the carcinogenesis of HCC. Further large and well-designed studies are needed to confirm this association. PMID:23457501

  7. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism and susceptibility to breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian G Campbell; Simon W Baxter; Diana M Eccles; David YH Choong

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence suggests that variations in the levels of folate may contribute to the development of cancer. A functional polymorphic variant (C?T substitution at nucleotide 677) in the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene results in the conversion of an alanine to a valine and may modify the risk of breast and other cancers. METHOD: We have investigated

  8. New insights into the catalytic mechanism of vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKORC1) - The catalytic properties of the major mutations of rVKORC1 explain the biological cost associated to mutations.

    PubMed

    Matagrin, Benjamin; Hodroge, Ahmed; Montagut-Romans, Adrien; Andru, Julie; Fourel, Isabelle; Besse, Stéphane; Benoit, Etienne; Lattard, Virginie

    2013-01-01

    The systematic use of antivitamin K anticoagulants (AVK) as rodenticides caused the selection of rats resistant to AVKs. The resistance is mainly associated to genetic polymorphisms in the Vkorc1 gene encoding the VKORC1 enzyme responsible for the reduction of vitamin K 2,3-epoxide to vitamin K. Five major mutations, which are responsible for AVK resistance, have been described. Possible explanations for the biological cost of these mutations have been suggested. This biological cost might be linked to an increase in the vitamin K requirements. To analyze the possible involvement of VKORC1 in this biological cost, rVKORC1 and its major mutants were expressed in Pichia pastoris as membrane-bound proteins and their catalytic properties were determined for vitamin K and 3-OH-vitamin K production. In this report, we showed that mutations at Leu-120 and Tyr-139 dramatically affect the vitamin K epoxide reductase activity. Moreover, this study allowed the detection of an additional production of 3-hydroxyvitamin K for all the mutants in position 139. This result suggests the involvement of Tyr-139 residue in the second half-step of the catalytic mechanism corresponding to the dehydration of vitamin K epoxide. As a consequence, the biological cost observed in Y139C and Y139S resistant rat strains is at least partially explained by the catalytic properties of the mutated VKORC1 involving a loss of vitamin K from the vitamin K cycle through the formation of 3-hydroxyvitamin K and a very low catalytic efficiency of the VKOR activity. PMID:23772386

  9. Haplotype analysis of the folate-related genes MTHFR, MTRR, and MTR and migraine with aura

    PubMed Central

    Roecklein, Kathryn A.; Scher, Ann I.; Smith, Albert; Harris, Tamara; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Garcia, Melissa; Gudnason, Villi; Launer, Lenore J.

    2014-01-01

    Aims The C677T variant in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR; EC 1.5.1.20) enzyme, a key player in the folate metabolic pathway, has been associated with increased risk of migraine with aura. Other genes encoding molecular components of this pathway include Methionine synthase (MTR; EC 2.1.1.13), and Methionine synthase reductase (MTRR; EC 2.1.1.135) among others. We performed a haplotype analysis of migraine risk and MTHFR, MTR, and MTRR. Methods Study participants are from a random sub-sample participating in the population-based AGES-Reykjavik Study, including subjects with non-migraine headache (n=367), migraine without aura (n=85), migraine with aura (n=167), and no headache (n=1347). Haplotypes spanning each gene were constructed using Haploview. Association testing was performed on single SNPs and haplotypes using logistic regression, controlling for demographic and cardiovascular risk factors and correcting for multiple testing Results Haplotype analysis suggested an association between MTRR haplotypes and reduced risk of migraine with aura. All other associations were not significant after correcting for multiple testing. Conclusions These results suggest that MTRR variants may protect against migraine with aura in an older population. PMID:23430981

  10. Association of the Maternal MTHFR C677T Polymorphism with Susceptibility to Neural Tube Defects in Offsprings: Evidence from 25 Case-Control Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Peng; Ji, Guixiang; Gu, Aihua; Zhao, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Background Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a critical enzyme in folate metabolism and is involved in DNA methylation, DNA synthesis, and DNA repair. In addition, it is a possible risk factor in neural tube defects (NTDs). The association of the C677T polymorphism in the MTHFR gene and NTD susceptibility has been widely demonstrated, but the results remain inconclusive. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis with 2429 cases and 3570 controls to investigate the effect of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism on NTDs. Methods An electronic search of PubMed and Embase database for papers on the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and NTD risk was performed. All data were analysed with STATA (version 11). Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated to assess the association. Sensitivity analysis, test of heterogeneity, cumulative meta-analysis, and assessment of bias were performed in our meta-analysis. Results A significant association between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and NTD susceptibility was revealed in our meta-analysis ( TT versus CC: OR ?=?2.022, 95% CI: 1.508, 2.712; CT+TT versus CC: OR ?=?1.303, 95% CI: 1.089, 1.558; TT versus CC+CT: OR ?=?1.716, 95% CI: 1.448, 2.033; 2TT+CT versus 2CC+CT: OR ?=?1.330, 95% CI: 1.160, 1.525). Moreover, an increased NTD risk was found after stratification of the MTHFR C677T variant data by ethnicity and source of controls. Conclusion The results suggested the maternal MTHFR C677T polymorphism is a genetic risk factor for NTDs. Further functional studies to investigate folate-related gene polymorphisms, periconceptional multivitamin supplements, complex interactions, and the development of NTDs are warranted. PMID:23056169

  11. Association of Tagging SNPs in the MTHFR Gene with Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Serum Homocysteine Levels in a Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Han; Wan, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is a global public health crisis, and the prevalence is increasing rapidly. Folate supplementation is proved to be effective in reducing the risk of diabetes or improving its symptoms. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase is an important enzyme involved in folate metabolism. The aim of this study is to examine whether polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene are associated with risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and fasting total serum homocysteine (tHcy) levels. We genotyped nine tagging SNPs in the MTHFR gene in a case-control study, including 595 T2DM cases and 681 healthy controls in China. We found that C allele of rs9651118 had significant decreased risk of T2DM (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.55–0.87, P = 0.002) compared with T allele. Haplotype analysis also showed that MTHFR CTCCGA haplotype (rs12121543-rs13306553-rs9651118-rs1801133-rs2274976-rs1801131) had significant reduced risk of T2DM (adjusted OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.58–0.87, P = 0.001) compared with CTTTGA haplotype. Besides, the MTHFR rs1801133 was significantly associated with serum levels of tHcy in healthy controls (P = 0.0002). These associations were still significant after Bonferroni corrections (P < 0.0056). These findings suggest that variants in the MTHFR gene may influence the risk of T2DM and tHcy levels. PMID:25165408

  12. Association between MTHFR C677T and A1298C Polymorphisms and NSCL/P Risk in Asians: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Mengmeng; Ren, Yangwu; Shen, Li; Zhang, Yue; Zhou, Baosen

    2014-01-01

    Objective Several studies have reported the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without palate (NSCL/P) in Asian populations. However, findings have been conflicting. In order to investigate the association, a meta-analysis was performed. Methods We searched Pubmed, MedLine and EmBase database to selected eligible studies. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were calculated using fixed effects model or random effects model to assess the association between MTHFR polymorphisms and NSCL/P in both Asian children and mothers. Results Finally, nine case-control studies were included. Overall, the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and NSCL/P showed pooled ORs (95%CI) of 1.41(1.23–1.61) in Asian children, and 1.70(1.19–2.42) in Asian mothers. Subgroup analyses by geographical locations further identified the association in Eastern Asian children, Western/Central Asian children and mothers, but not in Eastern Asian mothers. However, no significant relationship between MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and NSCL/P was found in this meta-analysis. Conclusions The MTHFR 677T allele was associated with an increased risk of NSCL/P in Asian populations. PMID:24658649

  13. Mutations in the gene for human dihydrofolate reductase: an unlikely cause of clinical relapse in pediatric leukemia after therapy with methotrexate.

    PubMed

    Spencer, H T; Sorrentino, B P; Pui, C H; Chunduru, S K; Sleep, S E; Blakley, R L

    1996-03-01

    Resistance to methotrexate (MTX) in some sublines of mammalian cells is reported to be due to one of the following amino acid substitutions in dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) that lower inhibition by MTX: Gly15 to Trp, Leu22 to Arg or Phe or Phe31 to Trp or Ser. We have produced variants of human DHFR (hDHFR) with these substitutions by directed mutagenesis. Recombinant hDHFR variants expressed in Escherichia coli have greatly decreased inhibition by MTX, but decreased catalytic efficiency, and in one case decreased stability. When a retroviral vector encoding wild-type (wt) hDHFR or one of these variants was introduced into murine fibroblasts or bone marrow progenitors, modest protection from MTX was conferred, even by wt. Relapsed pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who have received multiple courses of high-dose MTX seem most likely to develop such MTX resistance. cDNA was reverse transcribed from blast mRNA from 17 of these patients. However, upon amplification and sequencing of DHFR cDNA, no resistance mutation was found. The explanation for this probably lies in the need for considerable gene amplification to offset lowered catalytic efficiency, and the need for two-base changes for most substitutions, both of which are probably infrequent events. PMID:8642859

  14. Mutation of the Light-Induced Yellow Leaf 1 Gene, Which Encodes a Geranylgeranyl Reductase, Affects Chlorophyll Biosynthesis and Light Sensitivity in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yuan; Zhu, Jinyan; Wang, Man; Yuan, Fuhai; Wu, Shujun; Wang, Zhiqin; Yi, Chuandeng; Xu, Tinghua; Ryom, MyongChol; Gu, Minghong; Liang, Guohua

    2013-01-01

    Chlorophylls (Chls) are crucial for capturing light energy for photosynthesis. Although several genes responsible for Chl biosynthesis were characterized in rice (Oryza sativa), the genetic properties of the hydrogenating enzyme involved in the final step of Chl synthesis remain unknown. In this study, we characterized a rice light-induced yellow leaf 1-1 (lyl1-1) mutant that is hypersensitive to high-light and defective in the Chl synthesis. Light-shading experiment suggested that the yellowing of lyl1-1 is light-induced. Map-based cloning of LYL1 revealed that it encodes a geranylgeranyl reductase. The mutation of LYL1 led to the majority of Chl molecules are conjugated with an unsaturated geranylgeraniol side chain. LYL1 is the firstly defined gene involved in the reduction step from Chl-geranylgeranylated (ChlGG) and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) to Chl-phytol (ChlPhy) and phytyl pyrophosphate (PPP) in rice. LYL1 can be induced by light and suppressed by darkness which is consistent with its potential biological functions. Additionally, the lyl1-1 mutant suffered from severe photooxidative damage and displayed a drastic reduction in the levels of ?-tocopherol and photosynthetic proteins. We concluded that LYL1 also plays an important role in response to high-light in rice. PMID:24058671

  15. Mutation of the Inducible ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA CYTOCHROME P450 REDUCTASE2 Alters Lignin Composition and Improves Saccharification1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Sundin, Lisa; Vanholme, Ruben; Geerinck, Jan; Goeminne, Geert; Höfer, René; Kim, Hoon; Ralph, John; Boerjan, Wout

    2014-01-01

    ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA CYTOCHROME P450 REDUCTASE1 (ATR1) and ATR2 provide electrons from NADPH to a large number of CYTOCHROME P450 (CYP450) enzymes in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Whereas ATR1 is constitutively expressed, the expression of ATR2 appears to be induced during lignin biosynthesis and upon stresses. Therefore, ATR2 was hypothesized to be preferentially involved in providing electrons to the three CYP450s involved in lignin biosynthesis: CINNAMATE 4-HYDROXYLASE (C4H), p-COUMARATE 3-HYDROXYLASE1 (C3H1), and FERULATE 5-HYDROXYLASE1 (F5H1). Here, we show that the atr2 mutation resulted in a 6% reduction in total lignin amount in the main inflorescence stem and a compositional shift of the remaining lignin to a 10-fold higher fraction of p-hydroxyphenyl units at the expense of syringyl units. Phenolic profiling revealed shifts in lignin-related phenolic metabolites, in particular with the substrates of C4H, C3H1 and F5H1 accumulating in atr2 mutants. Glucosinolate and flavonol glycoside biosynthesis, both of which also rely on CYP450 activities, appeared less affected. The cellulose in the atr2 inflorescence stems was more susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis after alkaline pretreatment, making ATR2 a potential target for engineering plant cell walls for biofuel production. PMID:25315601

  16. No association of the MTHFR gene A1298C polymorphism with the risk of prostate cancer: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    LI, DAWEI; TIAN, TIAN; GUO, CHUNHUI; REN, JUCHAO; YAN, LEI; LIU, HAINAN; XU, ZHONGHUA

    2012-01-01

    Various studies have demonstrated that the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism contributes to the risk of prostate cancer, while other studies have provided conflicting findings. In the present study, we carried out a comprehensive meta-analysis with the aim of determining whether there is a significant association of the MTHFR gene A1298C polymorphism with the susceptibility of prostate cancer. Studies on the MTHFR gene A1298C polymorphism and prostate cancer were retrieved using the electronic PubMed database without any restriction on language through Aug 21, 2011. Data were abstracted by a standardized protocol. Crude odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to estimate the strength of association. The analyses were conducted with Review Manager software version 4.2. Nine case-control studies were identified, including 2,723 prostate cancer patients and 3,442 controls. Overall, no significant associations were found between the MTHFR gene A1298C polymorphism and prostate cancer (codominant models: CC vs. AA, OR=1.03, 95% CI 0.79–1.34, P=0.84; AC vs. AA, OR=1.04, 95% CI 0.93–1.16, P=0.46; dominant model: AC + CC vs. AA, OR=1.04, 95% CI 0.94–1.15, P=0.48; recessive model: CC vs. AC + AA, OR=1.02, 95% CI 0.76–1.35, P=0.91; allele model: C vs. A, OR=1.04, 95% CI 0.90–1.19, P=0.61). Similarly, in the subgroup analyses by DNA source, ethnicity, control source, pathological stage and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, no significant associations were observed. Our meta-analysis suggests that the MTHFR gene A1298C polymorphism is not associated with the risk of prostate cancer. PMID:22969917

  17. MTHFR-1298 A>C (rs1801131) is a predictor of survival in two cohorts of stage II/III colorectal cancer patients treated with adjuvant fluoropyrimidine chemotherapy with or without oxaliplatin.

    PubMed

    Cecchin, E; Perrone, G; Nobili, S; Polesel, J; De Mattia, E; Zanusso, C; Petreni, P; Lonardi, S; Pella, N; D'Andrea, M; Errante, D; Rizzolio, F; Mazzei, T; Landini, I; Mini, E; Toffoli, G

    2014-10-21

    Adjuvant treatment based on fluoropyrimidines (FL) improves the prognosis of stage II/III colorectal cancer (CRC). Validated predictive/prognostic biomarkers would spare therapy-related morbidity in patients with a good prognosis. We compared the impact of a set of 22 FL-related polymorphisms with the prognosis of two cohorts of CRC patients treated with adjuvant FL with or without OXA, including a total of 262 cases. 5,10-Methylentetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) MTHFR-1298 A>C (rs1801131) polymorphism had a concordant effect: MTHFR-rs1801131-1298CC genotype carriers had a worse disease free survival (DFS) in both the cohorts. In the pooled population MTHFR-rs1801131-1298CC carriers had also a worse overall survival. We computed a clinical score related to DFS including MTHFR-rs1801131, tumor stage, sex and tumor location, where rs1801131 is the most detrimental factor (hazard ratio=5.3, 95% confidence interval=2.2-12.9; P-value=0.0006). MTHFR-rs1801131 is a prognostic factor that could be used as an additional criteria for the choice of the proper adjuvant regimen in stage II/III colorectal cancer patients.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 21 October 2014; doi:10.1038/tpj.2014.64. PMID:25331073

  18. Association between epidermal growth factor receptor mutations and the expression of excision repair cross-complementing protein 1 and ribonucleotide reductase subunit M1 mRNA in patients with non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    XU, CHUN-WEI; WANG, GANG; WANG, WU-LONG; GAO, WEN-BIN; HAN, CHUAN-JUN; GAO, JING-SHAN; LI, YANG; WANG, LIN; ZHANG, LI-YING; ZHANG, YU-PING; TIAN, YU-WANG; FANG, JIN-NV

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the association between epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutations and excision repair cross-complementing protein 1 (ERCC1) and ribonucleotide reductase subunit M1 (RRM1) mRNA expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissue. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to detect EGFR mutations, and ERCC1 and RRM1 mRNA expression in 257 cases of NSCLC. In the NSCLC samples the EGFR mutation rate was 49.03% (126/257). The rate was higher in females and non-smoking patients (P<0.05). High expression of ERCC1 mRNA was observed in 47.47% of the samples (122/257), while a high RRM1 mRNA expression was observed in 61.87% of the samples (159/257). In comparison with patients with NSCLC without EGFR mutations, patients with EGFR mutations had significantly lower levels of ERCC1 mRNA expression (P<0.05); however, EGFR mutations and expression levels of RRM1 mRNA were not correlated in NSCLC tissues (P>0.05). In addition, ERCC1 mRNA expression was not correlated with the expression levels of RRM1 mRNA (P>0.05). In conclusion, patients with NSCLC with EGFR mutations tend to have a low expression of ERCC1 mRNA and may potentially benefit from platinum-based chemotherapy. PMID:25667646

  19. The Association of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Genotypes with the Risk of Childhood Leukemia in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wen-Shin; Ji, Hong-Xue; Hsiao, Chieh-Lun; Miao, Chia-En; Hsu, Yuan-Nian; Bau, Da-Tian

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most prevalent type of pediatric cancer, the causes of which are likely to involve an interaction between genetic and environmental factors. To evaluate the effects of the genotypic polymorphisms in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) on childhood ALL risk in Taiwan, two well-known polymorphic genotypes of MTHFR, C677T (rs1801133) and A1298C (rs1801131), were analyzed to examine the extent of their associations with childhood ALL susceptibility and to discuss the MTHFR genotypic contribution to childhood ALL risk among different populations. Methodology/Principal Findings In total, 266 patients with childhood ALL and an equal number of non-cancer controls recruited were genotyped utilizing PCR-RFLP methodology. The MTHFR C677T genotype, but not the A1298C, was differently distributed between childhood ALL and control groups. The CT and TT of MTHFR C677T genotypes were significantly more frequently found in controls than in childhood ALL patients (odds ratios=0.60 and 0.48, 95% confidence intervals=0.42–0.87 and 0.24–0.97, respectively). As for gender, the boys carrying the MTHFR C677T CT or TT genotype conferred a lower odds ratio of 0.51 (95% confidence interval=0.32–0.81, P=0.0113) for childhood ALL. As for age, those equal to or greater than 3.5 years of age at onset of disease carrying the MTHFR C677T CT or TT genotype were of lower risk (odds ratio= 0.43 and 95% confidence interval=0.26–0.71, P=0.0016). Conclusions Our results indicated that the MTHFR C677T T allele was a protective biomarker for childhood ALL in Taiwan, and the association was more significant in male patients and in patients 3.5 years of age or older at onset of disease. PMID:25793509

  20. Polymorphisms in serine hydroxymethyltransferase 1 and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase interact to increase cardiovascular disease risk in humans.

    PubMed

    Wernimont, Susan M; Raiszadeh, Farbod; Stover, Patrick J; Rimm, Eric B; Hunter, David J; Tang, Wenbo; Cassano, Patricia A

    2011-02-01

    The enzymes serine hydroxymethyltransferase 1 (gene name SHMT1) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (gene name MTHFR) regulate key reactions in folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism. Common genetic variants with the potential to influence disease risk exist in both genes. A prior report from the Normative Aging Study indicated no association of the SHMT1 rs1979277 SNP with cardiovascular disease (CVD), but a strong gene-gene interaction was detected with MTHFR rs1801133. We investigated the effect of the SHMT1 rs1979277 SNP and the SHMT1 rs1979277-MTHFR rs1801133 interaction in 2 epidemiologic cohort studies. In the Nurses' Health Study (NHS), the MTHFR rs1801133 variant genotypes were associated with an increased CVD risk and there was an interaction between SHMT1 and MTHFR such that the association of the MTHFR rs1801133 CT genotype (vs. CC; the TT genotype could not be evaluated) was stronger in the presence of the SHMT1 rs1979277 TT genotype (OR = 4.34, 95% CI = 1.2, 16.2; P = 0.049). In the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, the MTHFR rs1801133 genotype was not associated with CVD risk, nor was there an interaction with SHMT1 rs1979277. The association of genetic variation in the SHMT1 gene, alone and in interaction with MTHFR, in relation to CVD risk is relatively understudied at the population level and results in the NHS confirmed a past report of gene-gene interaction, which is consistent with mechanisms suggested by basic science studies. PMID:21178087

  1. Alteration of the alkaloid profile in genetically modified tobacco reveals a role of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase in nicotine N-demethylation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme of the tetrahydrofolate (THF)-mediated one-carbon (C1) metabolic network. This enzyme catalyzes reduction of 5,10-methylene-THF to 5-methyl-THF. The latter donates its methyl group to homocysteine forming Met, which is then used for the syn...

  2. MTHFR Gene variants C677T, A1298C and association with Down syndrome: A Case-control study from South India

    PubMed Central

    Cyril, Cyrus; Rai, Padmalatha; Chandra, N.; Gopinath, P. M.; Satyamoorthy, K.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms and low folate levels are associated with inhibition of DNA methyltransferase and consequently DNA hypomethylation. The expanding spectrum of common conditions linked with MTHFR polymorphisms includes certain adverse birth outcome, pregnancy complications, cancers, adult cardiovascular diseases and psychiatric disorders, with several of these associations remaining still controversial. Trisomy 21 or Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic cause of mental retardation. It stems predominantly from the failure of chromosome 21 to segregate normally during meiosis. Despite substantial research, the molecular mechanisms underlying non-disjunction leading to trisomy 21 are poorly understood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two common variants C677T and A1298C of the MTHFR gene were screened in 36 parents with DS children and 60 healthy couples from Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. The MTHFR genotypes were studied by RFLP analysis of PCR-amplified products and confirmed by sequencing. RESULTS: The CT genotype was seen in three each (8.3%) of case mothers and fathers. One case father showed TT genotype. All the control individuals exhibited the wild type CC genotype. A similar frequency for the uncommon allele C of the second polymorphism was recorded in case mothers (0.35) and fathers (0.37) in comparison with the control mothers (0.39) and fathers (0.37). CONCLUSION: This first report on MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in trisomy 21 parents from south Indian population revealed that MTHFR 677CT polymorphism was associated with a risk for Down syndrome. PMID:20680153

  3. The Polymorphisms in Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase, Methionine Synthase, Methionine Synthase Reductase, and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Daijun; Mei, Qiang; Luo, Han; Tang, Bo; Yu, Peiwu

    2012-01-01

    Polymorphisms in genes involved in folate metabolism may modulate the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but data from published studies are conflicting. The current meta-analysis was performed to address a more accurate estimation. A total of 41 (17,552 cases and 26,238 controls), 24(8,263 cases and 12,033 controls), 12(3,758 cases and 5,646 controls), and 13 (5,511 cases and 7,265 controls) studies were finally included for the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1289C, methione synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G, methionine synthase (MTR) A2756G polymorphisms and the risk of CRC, respectively. The data showed that the MTHFR 677T allele was significantly associated with reduced risk of CRC (OR = 0.93, 95%CI 0.90-0.96), while the MTRR 66G allele was significantly associated with increased risk of CRC (OR = 1.11, 95%CI 1.01-1.18). Sub-group analysis by ethnicity revealed that MTHFR C677T polymorphism was significantly associated with reduced risk of CRC in Asians (OR = 0.80, 95%CI 0.72-0.89) and Caucasians (OR = 0.84, 95%CI 0.76-0.93) in recessive genetic model, while the MTRR 66GG genotype was found to significantly increase the risk of CRC in Caucasians (GG vs. AA: OR = 1.18, 95%CI 1.03-1.36). No significant association was found between MTHFR A1298C and MTR A2756G polymorphisms and the risk of CRC. Cumulative meta-analysis showed no particular time trend existed in the summary estimate. Probability of publication bias was low across all comparisons illustrated by the funnel plots and Egger's test. Collectively, this meta-analysis suggested that MTHFR 677T allele might provide protection against CRC in worldwide populations, while MTRR 66G allele might increase the risk of CRC in Caucasians. Since potential confounders could not be ruled out completely, further studies were needed to confirm these results. PMID:22719222

  4. A Functional Role for the Conformationally Mobile Phenylalanine 223 in the Reaction of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase from E. coli†

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Moon N.; Takawira, Desire; Nikolova, Andriana P.; Ballou, David P.; Furtado, Vivek C.; Phung, Ngoc L.; Still, Brady R.; Thorstad, Melissa K.; Tanner, John J.; Trimmer, Elizabeth E.

    2009-01-01

    The flavoprotein methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase from Escherichia coli catalyzes the reduction of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate (CH2-H4folate) by NADH via a ping-pong reaction mechanism. Structures of the reduced enzyme in complex with NADH and of the oxidized Glu28Gln enzyme in complex with CH3-H4folate [Pejchal, R., Sargeant, R., and Ludwig, M. L. (2005) Biochemistry 44, 11447-11457] have revealed Phe223 as a conformationally mobile active site residue. In the NADH complex, the NADH adopts an unusual hairpin conformation and is wedged between the isoalloxazine ring of the FAD and the side chain of Phe223. In the folate complex, Phe223 swings out from its position in the NADH complex in order to stack against the p-aminobenzoate ring of the folate. Although Phe223 contacts each substrate in E. coli MTHFR, this residue is not invariant; for example, a leucine occurs at this site in the human enzyme. To examine the role of Phe223 in substrate binding and catalysis, we have constructed mutants Phe223Ala and Phe223Leu. As predicted, our results indicate that Phe223 participates in the binding of both substrates. The Phe223Ala mutation impairs NADH and CH2-H4folate binding each 40-fold, yet slows catalysis of both half-reactions less than 2-fold. Affinity for CH2-H4folate is unaffected by the Phe223Leu mutation, and the variant catalyzes the oxidative half-reaction 3-fold faster than the wild-type enzyme. Structures of ligand-free Phe223Leu and Phe223Leu/Glu28Gln MTHFR in complex with CH3-H4folate have been determined at 1.65 Å and 1.70 Å resolution, respectively. The structures show that the folate is bound in a catalytically competent conformation, and Leu223 undergoes a conformational change similar to that observed for Phe223 in the Glu28Gln-CH3-H4folate structure. Taken together, our results suggest that Leu may be a suitable replacement for Phe223 in the oxidative half-reaction of E. coli MTHFR. PMID:19610625

  5. Association of neural tube defects in children of mothers with MTHFR 677TT genotype and abnormal carbohydrate metabolism risk: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Cadenas-Benitez, N M; Yanes-Sosa, F; Gonzalez-Meneses, A; Cerrillos, L; Acosta, D; Praena-Fernandez, J M; Neth, O; Gomez de Terreros, I; Ybot-González, P

    2014-01-01

    Abnormalities in maternal folate and carbohydrate metabolism have both been shown to induce neural tube defects (NTD) in humans and animal models. However, the relationship between these two factors in the development of NTDs remains unclear. Data from mothers of children with spina bifida seen at the Unidad de Espina Bífida del Hospital Infantil Virgen del Rocío (case group) were compared to mothers of healthy children with no NTD (control group) who were randomly selected from patients seen at the outpatient ward in the same hospital. There were 25 individuals in the case group and 41 in the control group. Analysis of genotypes for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677CT polymorphism in women with or without risk factors for abnormal carbohydrate metabolism revealed that mothers who were homozygous for the MTHFR 677TT polymorphism and at risk of abnormal carbohydrate metabolism were more likely to have offspring with spina bifida and high levels of homocysteine, compared to the control group. The increased incidence of NTDs in mothers homozygous for the MTHFR 677TT polymorphism and at risk of abnormal carbohydrate metabolism stresses the need for careful metabolic screening in pregnant women, and, if necessary, determination of the MTHFR 677CT genotype in those mothers at risk of developing abnormal carbohydrate metabolism. PMID:24737468

  6. Association between MTHFR polymorphisms and congenital heart disease: a meta-analysis based on 9,329 cases and 15,076 controls.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Chao; Li, Hui; Zhao, Jin-Xia; Wang, Hong-Wei; Wang, Yi; Ning, Chun-Ping; Liu, Zhen; Zhang, Bei-Bei; He, Guo-Wei; Lun, Li-Min

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the association between polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and the risk for congenital heart disease (CHD). Electronic literature databases were searched to identify eligible studies published before Jun, 2014. The association was assessed by the odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). The publication bias was explored using Begg's test. Sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the stability of the crude results. A total of 35 studies were included in this meta-analysis. For the MTHFR C677T polymorphism, we detected significant association in all genetic models for Asian children and the maternal population. Significant association was also detected in T vs. C for a Caucasian paediatric population (OR = 1.163, 95% CI: 1.008-1.342) and in both T vs. C (OR = 1.125, 95% CI: 1.043-1.214) and the dominant model (OR = 1.216, 95% CI:b1.096-1.348) for a Caucasian maternal population. For the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism, the association was detected in CC vs. AC for the Caucasian paediatric population (OR = 1.484, 95% CI: 1.035-2.128). Our results support the MTHFR -677T allele as a susceptibility factor for CHD in the Asian maternal population and the -1298 C allele as a risk factor in the Caucasian paediatric population. PMID:25472587

  7. Association between MTHFR C677T Polymorphism and Risk of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Meta-Analysis Based on 51 Case-Control Studies

    PubMed Central

    Li, Su-yi; Ye, Jie-yu; Liang, En-yu; Zhou, Li-xia; Yang, Mo

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies and systematic reviews have reached inconsistent conclusions on the role of 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphism C677T in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) risk. Material/Methods The present meta-analysis comprising of 51 case-control studies, including 7892 cases and 14 280 controls was performed to reevaluate the association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and ALL risk. Results Statistical differences were found in the dominant model (TT+CT vs. CC, odd ratio (OR)=0.89, 95% CI, 0.79–1.00, P=0.04) and the CT vs. CC (OR=0.89, 95% CI, 0.80–1.00, P=0.05), but not in the allele contrast model (T vs. C, OR=0.92, 95% CI, 0.84–1.01, P=0.08), additive model (TT vs. CC, OR=0.87, 95% CI, 0.73–1.05, P=0.15), or recessive model (TT vs. CT+CC, OR=0.94, 95% CI, 0.81–1.10, P=0.44) in overall populations. In the subgroup analyses stratified by age (children and adults) and ethnicity (Asian and Caucasian), no significant associations between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and ALL risk were observed. Conclusions The current study found no sufficient evidence of a protective role of MTHFR C677T polymorphism in ALL susceptibility. PMID:25761797

  8. Association between MTHFR C677T Polymorphism and Risk of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Meta-Analysis Based on 51 Case-Control Studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Su-Yi; Ye, Jie-Yu; Liang, En-Yu; Zhou, Li-Xia; Yang, Mo

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies and systematic reviews have reached inconsistent conclusions on the role of 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphism C677T in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) risk. Material and Methods The present meta-analysis comprising of 51 case-control studies, including 7892 cases and 14 280 controls was performed to reevaluate the association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and ALL risk. Results Statistical differences were found in the dominant model (TT+CT vs. CC, odd ratio (OR)=0.89, 95% CI, 0.79-1.00, P=0.04) and the CT vs. CC (OR=0.89, 95% CI, 0.80-1.00, P=0.05), but not in the allele contrast model (T vs. C, OR=0.92, 95% CI, 0.84-1.01, P=0.08), additive model (TT vs. CC, OR=0.87, 95% CI, 0.73-1.05, P=0.15), or recessive model (TT vs. CT+CC, OR=0.94, 95% CI, 0.81-1.10, P=0.44) in overall populations. In the subgroup analyses stratified by age (children and adults) and ethnicity (Asian and Caucasian), no significant associations between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and ALL risk were observed. Conclusions The current study found no sufficient evidence of a protective role of MTHFR C677T polymorphism in ALL susceptibility. PMID:25761797

  9. Association Between MTHFR Polymorphisms and Congenital Heart Disease: A Meta-analysis based on 9,329 cases and 15,076 controls

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Chao; Li, Hui; Zhao, Jin-Xia; Wang, Hong-Wei; Wang, Yi; Ning, Chun-Ping; Liu, Zhen; Zhang, Bei-Bei; He, Guo-Wei; Lun, Li-Min

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the association between polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and the risk for congenital heart disease (CHD). Electronic literature databases were searched to identify eligible studies published before Jun, 2014. The association was assessed by the odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). The publication bias was explored using Begg's test. Sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the stability of the crude results. A total of 35 studies were included in this meta-analysis. For the MTHFR C677T polymorphism, we detected significant association in all genetic models for Asian children and the maternal population. Significant association was also detected in T vs. C for a Caucasian paediatric population (OR = 1.163, 95% CI: 1.008–1.342) and in both T vs. C (OR = 1.125, 95% CI: 1.043–1.214) and the dominant model (OR = 1.216, 95% CI:b1.096–1.348) for a Caucasian maternal population. For the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism, the association was detected in CC vs. AC for the Caucasian paediatric population (OR = 1.484, 95% CI: 1.035–2.128). Our results support the MTHFR -677T allele as a susceptibility factor for CHD in the Asian maternal population and the -1298C allele as a risk factor in the Caucasian paediatric population. PMID:25472587

  10. Prediction of Methotrexate Clinical Response in Portuguese Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: Implication of MTHFR rs1801133 and ATIC rs4673993 Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Aurea; Monteiro, Joaquim; Bernardes, Miguel; Sousa, Hugo; Azevedo, Rita; Seabra, Vitor; Medeiros, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Methotrexate (MTX), the most used drug in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment, showing variability in clinical response, is often associated with genetic polymorphisms. This study aimed to elucidate the role of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and aminoimidazole carboxamide adenosine ribonucleotide transformylase (ATIC) T675C polymorphisms and clinicopathological variables in clinical response to MTX in Portuguese RA patients. Methods. Study included 233 RA patients treated with MTX for at least six months. MTHFR C677T and ATIC T675C polymorphisms were genotyped and clinicopathological variables were collected. Statistical analyses were performed and binary logistic regression method adjusted to possible confounding variables. Results. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that MTHFR 677TT (OR = 4.63; P = 0.013) and ATIC 675T carriers (OR = 5.16; P = 0.013) were associated with over 4-fold increased risk for nonresponse. For clinicopathological variables, noncurrent smokers (OR = 7.98; P = 0.001), patients positive to anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (OR = 3.53; P = 0.004) and antinuclear antibodies (OR = 2.28; P = 0.045), with higher health assessment questionnaire score (OR = 2.42; P = 0.007), and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug users (OR = 2.77; P = 0.018) were also associated with nonresponse. Contrarily, subcutaneous administration route (OR = 0.11; P < 0.001) was associated with response. Conclusion. Our study suggests that MTHFR C677T and ATIC T675C genotyping combined with clinicopathological data may help to identify patients whom will not benefit from MTX treatment and, therefore, assist clinicians in personalizing RA treatment. PMID:24967362

  11. MTHFR A1298C and C677T gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to chronic myeloid leukemia in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Aly, Rabab M; Taalab, Mona M; Ghazy, Hayam F

    2014-01-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme regulating the intracellular folate metabolism which plays an important role in carcinogenesis through DNA methylation. We aimed to evaluate the association between MTHFR A1298C and C677T polymorphisms and the risks of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Eighty-five patients with CML and a control group containing 100 healthy, age and sex matched individuals were examined for MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length (PCR-RFLP) method. The frequency of 677TT genotype in patients with CML was significantly higher compared to controls (OR = 2.513, 95% CI: 0.722-4.086, P = 0.025). No such association was shown for heterozygous 677CT (OR = 1.010, 95% CI: 0.460-2.218, P = 0.981). Moreover, for A1298C genotype, a statistically significant higher frequency of 1298CC was also detected in CML patients compared to control group (OR = 1.1816, 95% CI: 0.952-3.573, P = 0.036), 0.036). No such statistical significance was demonstrable for heterozygote 1298AC (OR = 1.046, 95% CI: 0.740-1.759, P = 0.092). In addition, patients with joint 677CT/1298AC or 677TT/1298CC genotypes showed an association with increased risk of CML (OR = 1.849, 95% CI: 0.935-2.540, P = 0.024; OR = 1.915, 95% CI: 1.202-3.845, P = 0.020 respectively). .A statistically significant increased risk of resistant to therapy was observed with 677CT and 1298AC genotypes (P = 0.001, P = 0.002 respectively). We conclude that both MTHFR 677TT and 1298CC polymorphisms have been associated with risk of CML and both 677CT and 1298AC genotypes are associated with higher risk of resistant to therapy. PMID:24966971

  12. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and overall survival in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ojha, Rohit P; Gurney, James G

    2014-01-01

    A summary of the evidence pertaining to the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and overall survival in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is not currently available. We thus reviewed the literature on the association between MTFHR C677T and overall survival in pediatric ALL. We searched PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus and ISI Web of Knowledge literature databases without language restrictions to identify observational studies among children diagnosed between ages 0 and 19 years that assessed MTHFR 677 polymorphisms in relation to ALL survival. We identified six studies comprising 909 pediatric patients with ALL. The magnitude of relative risk (RR) for pediatric ALL mortality varied by genotype comparison and study population, ranging from RR = 0.84 (95% confidence limits [CL]: 0.24, 3.0) for a TT vs. CT/CC comparison to RR = 7.0 (95% CL: 0.98, 49) for a TT vs. CC comparison. The current evidence suggests that individuals with MTHFR 677 variants (i.e. at least one T allele) may have a higher relative risk of pediatric ALL mortality, with greater statistical support for MTHFR 677TT. With more detailed supporting evidence, MTHFR 677 genotyping at diagnosis could provide an option for individualizing therapy and further reducing pediatric ALL mortality in certain populations. PMID:23550988

  13. Polymorphisms in Serine Hydroxymethyltransferase 1 and Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Interact to Increase Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Humans123

    PubMed Central

    Wernimont, Susan M.; Raiszadeh, Farbod; Stover, Patrick J.; Rimm, Eric B.; Hunter, David J.; Tang, Wenbo; Cassano, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    The enzymes serine hydroxymethyltransferase 1 (gene name SHMT1) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (gene name MTHFR) regulate key reactions in folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism. Common genetic variants with the potential to influence disease risk exist in both genes. A prior report from the Normative Aging Study indicated no association of the SHMT1 rs1979277 SNP with cardiovascular disease (CVD), but a strong gene-gene interaction was detected with MTHFR rs1801133. We investigated the effect of the SHMT1 rs1979277 SNP and the SHMT1 rs1979277-MTHFR rs1801133 interaction in 2 epidemiologic cohort studies. In the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS), the MTHFR rs1801133 variant genotypes were associated with an increased CVD risk and there was an interaction between SHMT1 and MTHFR such that the association of the MTHFR rs1801133 CT genotype (vs. CC; the TT genotype could not be evaluated) was stronger in the presence of the SHMT1 rs1979277 TT genotype (OR = 4.34, 95% CI = 1.2, 16.2; P = 0.049). In the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, the MTHFR rs1801133 genotype was not associated with CVD risk, nor was there an interaction with SHMT1 rs1979277. The association of genetic variation in the SHMT1 gene, alone and in interaction with MTHFR, in relation to CVD risk is relatively understudied at the population level and results in the NHS confirmed a past report of gene-gene interaction, which is consistent with mechanisms suggested by basic science studies. PMID:21178087

  14. Folate/homocysteine phenotypes and MTHFR 677C>T genotypes are associated with serum levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1

    PubMed Central

    Hammons, Andrea L.; Summers, Carolyn M.; Woodside, Jayne V.; McNulty, Helene; Strain, J.J.; Young, Ian S.; Murray, Liam; Boreham, Colin A.; Scott, John M.; Mitchell, Laura E.; Whitehead, Alexander S.

    2014-01-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a chemokine that recruits monocytes into the subendothelial cell layer in atherosclerotic lesions. Elevated homocysteine (hyper-homocysteinemia), which is usually associated with low-folate status, is a known risk factor for many pathologies with inflammatory etiologies. The present study was undertaken to examine whether there are associations between MCP-1 concentrations and folate/Hcy phenotype or methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T genotype in healthy young adults. In females, MCP-1 concentrations were positively correlated with Hcy and negatively correlated with both serum and red blood cell folate; female smokers and MTHFR 677T carriers had particularly elevated MCP-1 concentrations. Similar relationships were not seen in males. These findings may have implications for understanding the female predominance observed for a range of autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:19625220

  15. Meta-analyses of blood homocysteine levels for gender and genetic association studies of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Akira; Numata, Shusuke; Tajima, Atsushi; Kinoshita, Makoto; Kikuchi, Kumiko; Shimodera, Shinji; Tomotake, Masahito; Ohi, Kazutaka; Hashimoto, Ryota; Imoto, Issei; Takeda, Masatoshi; Ohmori, Tetsuro

    2014-09-01

    Previous studies suggest that elevated blood homocysteine levels and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism are risk factors for schizophrenia. However, the effects of gender and MTHFR C677T genotypes on blood homocysteine levels in schizophrenia have not been consistent. We first investigated whether plasma total homocysteine levels were higher in patients with schizophrenia than in controls with stratification by gender and by the MTHFR C677T genotypes in a large cohort (N = 1379). Second, we conducted a meta-analysis of association studies between blood homocysteine levels and schizophrenia separately by gender (N = 4714). Third, we performed a case-control association study between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and schizophrenia (N = 4998) and conducted a meta-analysis of genetic association studies based on Japanese subjects (N = 10 378). Finally, we assessed the effect of plasma total homocysteine levels on schizophrenia by a mendelian randomization approach. The ANCOVA after adjustment for age demonstrated a significant effect of diagnosis on the plasma total homocysteine levels in all strata, and the subsequent meta-analysis for gender demonstrated elevated blood homocysteine levels in both male and female patients with schizophrenia although antipsychotic medication might influence the outcome. The meta-analysis of the Japanese genetic association studies demonstrated a significant association between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and schizophrenia. The mendelian randomization analysis in the Japanese populations yielded an OR of 1.15 for schizophrenia per 1-SD increase in plasma total homocysteine. Our study suggests that increased plasma total homocysteine levels may be associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia. PMID:24535549

  16. MTHFR C677T polymorphisms are associated with aberrant methylation of the IGF-2 gene in transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Huan; Deng, Zhonglei; Wang, Zengjun; Zhang, Wei; Su, Jiantang

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between methylation status of the insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2) gene and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T gene polymorphisms in bladder transitional cell carcinoma tissues in a Chinese population. The polymorphisms of the folate metabolism enzyme gene MTHFR were studied by restrictive fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). PCR-based methods of DNA methylation analysis were used to detect the CpG island methylation status of the IGF-2 gene. The association between the methylation status of the IGF-2 gene and clinical characteristics, as well as MTHFR C677T polymorphisms, was analyzed. Aberrant hypomethylation of the IGF-2 gene was found in 68.3% bladder cancer tissues and 12.4% normal bladder tissues, respectively, while hypomethylation was not detected in almost all normal bladder tissues. The hypomethylation rate of the IGF-2 gene in cancer tissues was significantly higher in patients with lymph node metastasis than in those without lymph node metastasis (46.3% vs 17.2%, P = 0.018). No association was found between aberrant DNA methylation and selected factors including sex, age, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and green tea consumption. After adjusting for potential confounding variables the variant allele of MTHFR C677T was found to be associated with hypomethylation of the IGF-2 gene. Compared with wildtype CC, the odds ratio was 4.33 (95% CI=1.06-10.59) for CT and 4.95 (95% CI=1.18-12.74) for TT. MTHFR 677 CC and CT genotypes might be one of the reasons that cause abnormal hypomethylation of the IGF-2 gene, and the aberrant CpG island hypomethylation of the IGF-2 gene may contribute to the genesis and progression of bladder transitional cell carcinoma. PMID:23554734

  17. Characterization and site-directed mutation of a novel aldo-keto reductase from Lodderomyces elongisporus NRRL YB-4239 with high production rate of ethyl (R)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiuyan; Ye, Tingting; Ma, Zhuanzhuan; Chen, Rong; Xie, Tian; Yin, Xiaopu

    2014-11-01

    A novel aldo-keto reductase (LEK) from Lodderomyces elongisporus NRRL YB-4239 (ATCC 11503) was discovered by genome database mining for carbonyl reduction. LEK was overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), purified to homogeneity and the catalytic properties were studied. Among the substrates, ethyl 4-chloro-3-oxobutanoate was converted to ethyl (R)-4-chloro-3- hydroxybutanoate ((R)-CHBE), an important pharmaceutical intermediate, with an excellent enantiomeric excess (e.e.) (>99 %). The mutants W28A and S209G obtained by site-directed mutation were identified with much higher molar conversion yields and lower Km values. Further, the constructed coenzyme regeneration system with glucose as co-substrate resulted in a yield of 100 %, an enantioselectivity of >99 %, and the calculated production rate of 56.51 mmol/L/H. These results indicated the potential of LEK for the industrial production of (R)-CHBE and other valuable chiral alcohols. PMID:25189809

  18. Polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase are not a risk factor for Kawasaki disease in the Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Jin Hee; Shim, Kye Shik; Han, Mi Young; Cha, Sung Ho; Kim, Su Kang; Jung, Joo Ho

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Hyperhomocysteinemia is known as a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Preclinical arteriosclerosis is noted and premature atherosclerosis is known to be accelerated in Kawasaki disease (KD) patients. Genetic polymorphisms in the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene result in elevated plasma homocysteine concentrations and are known to be associated with the development of coronary artery disease. Our hypothesis is that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the MTHFR gene are related to the development of KD and coronary artery lesions (CALs). Methods For this study, we selected 3 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs2274976, rs1801131, and rs1801133) of MTHFR. These SNPs are located on chromosome 1p36.3. We included 101 KD patients and 306 healthy adults as controls in this study. CALs were seen in 38 patients. Genotypes of the selected SNPs were determined by direct sequencing and analyzed with SNPAlyze. Results The genetic distribution and allelic frequency of the 3 MTHFR SNPs (rs2274976, rs1801131, and rs1801133) were not significantly different in patients with KD compared to the control group (P=0.71, 0.17, and 0.96, respectively). There was no difference in the genetic distribution of the MTHFR SNPs between the normal control group and the CAL group (P=0.43, 0.39, 0.52 respectively). Conclusion The genetic distribution of the MTHFR SNPs (rs2274976, rs1801131, and rs1801133) was not different in the KD group compared to the control group. In addition, the genetic distribution of these SNPs was not different in the CAL group compared to the control group in the Korean population. PMID:22087200

  19. The frequent 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism is associated with a common haplotype in whites, Japanese, and Africans.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Nurit; Murata, Mitsuru; Ikeda, Yasuo; Opare-Sem, Ohene; Zivelin, Ariella; Geffen, Eli; Seligsohn, Uri

    2002-03-01

    The common 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism causes decreased activity of this enzyme and can be associated with mild-to-moderate hyperhomocysteinemia in homozygotes, particularly when there is folic acid deficiency, as well as with vascular dementia, arterial thrombosis, venous thrombosis, neural-tube defects, and fetal loss. When folic acid intake is sufficient, homozygotes for MTHFR 677T appear to be protected against colon cancer and acute lymphatic leukemia, and fetuses bearing this genotype have an augmented survival. The distribution of MTHFR 677T is worldwide, but its frequency in different populations varies extensively. In the present study, we addressed the question of whether the MTHFR 677T alteration has an ancestral origin or has occurred repeatedly. We analyzed the frequency distribution of the previously described polymorphism A1298C in exon 7 and of three intronic dimorphisms, in white Israelis (Jews and Arabs), Japanese, and Ghanaian Africans. The 677T allele was, remarkably, associated with one haplotype, G-T-A-C, in white and Japanese homozygotes. Among the Africans, analysis of maximum likelihood also disclosed an association with the G-T-A-C haplotype, although none of the 174 subjects examined was homozygous for MTHFR 677T. These results suggest that the MTHFR 677T alteration occurred on a founder haplotype that may have had a selective advantage. PMID:11781870

  20. The maize brown midrib2 (bm2) gene encodes a methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase that contributes to lignin accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ho Man; Liu, Sanzhen; Hill-Skinner, Sarah; Wu, Wei; Reed, Danielle; Yeh, Cheng-Ting; Nettleton, Dan; Schnable, Patrick S

    2014-01-01

    The midribs of maize brown midrib (bm) mutants exhibit a reddish-brown color associated with reductions in lignin concentration and alterations in lignin composition. Here, we report the mapping, cloning, and functional and biochemical analyses of the bm2 gene. The bm2 gene was mapped to a small region of chromosome 1 that contains a putative methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, which is down-regulated in bm2 mutant plants. Analyses of multiple Mu-induced bm2-Mu mutant alleles confirmed that this constitutively expressed gene is bm2. Yeast complementation experiments and a previously published biochemical characterization show that the bm2 gene encodes a functional MTHFR. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses demonstrated that the bm2 mutants accumulate substantially reduced levels of bm2 transcript. Alteration of MTHFR function is expected to influence accumulation of the methyl donor S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM). Because SAM is consumed by two methyltransferases in the lignin pathway (Ye et al., 1994), the finding that bm2 encodes a functional MTHFR is consistent with its lignin phenotype. Consistent with this functional assignment of bm2, the expression patterns of genes in a variety of SAM-dependent or -related pathways, including lignin biosynthesis, are altered in the bm2 mutant. Biochemical assays confirmed that bm2 mutants accumulate reduced levels of lignin with altered composition compared to wild-type. Hence, this study demonstrates a role for MTHFR in lignin biosynthesis. PMID:24286468

  1. The effect of folic acid deficiency and MTHFR C677T polymorphism on chromosome damage in human lymphocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Crott, J W; Mashiyama, S T; Ames, B N; Fenech, M

    2001-10-01

    We performed a comprehensive study on the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of in vitro folic acid deficiency on primary human lymphocytes. Lymphocytes were cultured in medium containing 12-120 nM folic acid for 9 days in a novel cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay system (n = 20). Besides identifying optimal folic acid concentrations for in vitro genomic stability, we tested the hypothesis that lymphocytes from individuals homozygous for the C677T methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphism (TTs, n = 10) are protected against chromosome damage relative to controls (CCs, n = 10) under conditions of folic acid deficiency. This hypothesis is based on the assumption that reduced MTHFR activity in TT lymphocytes causes a diversion of 5,10-methylene tetrahydrofolate toward thymidine synthesis, which minimizes uracil-induced double-stranded DNA breakage. Cells were scored for micronuclei, apoptosis, necrosis, nucleoplasmic bridges, and nuclear budding. The latter two endpoints are indicative of chromosome rearrangements and gene amplification, respectively, and to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of their association with folic acid concentration. Folic acid concentration correlated significantly (P < 0.0001) and negatively (r, -0.63 to -0.74) with all markers of chromosome damage, which were minimized at 60-120 nM folic acid, much greater than concentrations assumed "normal," but not necessarily optimal in plasma. Two-way ANOVA revealed no effect of the MTHFR genotype on any of the endpoints. Results show that the C677T polymorphism does not affect the ability of a cell to resist chromosome damage induced by folic acid deficiency in this in vitro system. PMID:11588136

  2. Genetic variants in metabolizing genes NQO1, NQO2, MTHFR and risk of prostate cancer: a study from North India.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Raju K; Nissar, Kamran; Mittal, Rama D

    2012-12-01

    Quinone oxidoreductases (NAD(P)H): quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and NRH: quinone oxidoreductase 2 (NQO2) are an antioxidant enzyme, important in the detoxification of environmental carcinogens. Methylene-tetra-hydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), plays a role in folate metabolism and may have oncogenic role through disruption of normal DNA methylation pattern, synthesis, and impaired DNA repair. In a case-control study, genotyping was done in 195 PCa and 250 age matched unrelated healthy controls of similar ethnicity to determine variants in NQO1 exon 4 (C > T, rs4986998), exon 6 (C > T, rs1800566), NQO2 -3423 (G > A, rs2070999) and MTHFR exon 4 (C > T, rs1801133) by PCR-RFLP methods. Heterozygous genotype CT and variant allele career genotype (CT + TT) of NQO1 exon 4 showed increased risk of PCa (OR = 2.06, p = 0.033; OR = 2.02, p = 0.027). Variant allele T also revealed increased risk (OR = 1.87, p = 0.029). Similarly variant genotype TT (OR = 2.71, p = 0.009), combined genotype (CT + TT) (OR = 1.59, p = 0.019) and T allele (OR = 1.63, p = 0.002) of NQO1 exon 6 demonstrated significant risk for PCa. Diplotypes of NQO1 (exon 4 and 6), C-T (OR = 1.56, Pc = 0.007) and T-T (OR = 0.011, Pc = 3.86) was associated with an increased risk for PCa. NQO2 and MTHFR did not show any risk with PCa. Our results strongly support that common sequence variants and diplotypes of NQO1 exon 4 and 6 genes may have role in PCa risk in the North Indian population, indicating the importance of genes involved in metabolism with respect to PCa risk. Additional studies on larger populations are needed to clarify the role of variation in these genes in PCa carcinogenesis. PMID:23054000

  3. Sex Differences in Ethanol's Anxiolytic Effect and Chronic Ethanol Withdrawal Severity in Mice with a Null Mutation of the 5?-Reductase Type 1 Gene.

    PubMed

    Tanchuck-Nipper, Michelle A; Ford, Matthew M; Hertzberg, Anna; Beadles-Bohling, Amy; Cozzoli, Debra K; Finn, Deborah A

    2014-10-31

    Manipulation of endogenous levels of the GABAergic neurosteroid allopregnanolone alters sensitivity to some effects of ethanol. Chronic ethanol withdrawal decreases activity and expression of 5?-reductase-1, an important enzyme in allopregnanolone biosynthesis encoded by the 5?-reductase-1 gene (Srd5a1). The present studies examined the impact of Srd5a1 deletion in male and female mice on several acute effects of ethanol and on chronic ethanol withdrawal severity. Genotype and sex did not differentially alter ethanol-induced hypothermia, ataxia, hypnosis, or metabolism, but ethanol withdrawal was significantly lower in female versus male mice. On the elevated plus maze, deletion of the Srd5a1 gene significantly decreased ethanol's effect on total entries versus wildtype (WT) mice and significantly decreased ethanol's anxiolytic effect in female knockout (KO) versus WT mice. The limited sex differences in the ability of Srd5a1 genotype to modulate select ethanol effects may reflect an interaction between developmental compensations to deletion of the Srd5a1 gene with sex hormones and levels of endogenous neurosteroids. PMID:25355320

  4. Genetic interactions between MTHFR (C677T), methionine synthase (A2756G, C2758G) variants with vitamin B12 and folic acid determine susceptibility to premature coronary artery disease in Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Kanth, V. V. Ravi; Golla, Jaya Prakash; Sastry, B. K. S; Naik, Sudhir; Kabra, Nitin; Sujatha, Madireddi

    2011-01-01

    Background: Researchers have determined that Indians face a higher risk of heart disease, despite the fact that nearly half of them are vegetarians and lack many of the other traditional risk factors. In the below-30 age group, coronary artery disease mortality among Indians is three-fold higher than in the whites in United Kingdom and ten-fold higher than the Chinese in Singapore. High levels of homocysteine have been widely linked to the early onset of heart diseases in other populations, although a definite proof among Indians is lacking, which needs to be investigated by way of screening for factors responsible for high homocysteine levels. Objective: To screen for genetic factors responsible for hyperhomocysteinemia and the risk for premature coronary artery disease. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 individuals with proven premature coronary artery disease and 200 age-and-sex matched controls were screened for polymorphisms in Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) (C677T) Methionine synthase (MS) genes (A2756G, C2758G), and the B12 and Folate levels were estimated. Results: Results from the mutational analysis revealed that in the study group, seven individuals had a polymorphism for the C677T allele in the MTHFR gene (one homozygous and six heterozygous) (Fischer's Exact test P > 0.046) (OR: 0.2711 95% CI 0.0774 to 0.9491). Six were heterozygous for the A2756G polymorphism in the MS gene (Fischer's Exact test P > 0.0012). None showed a polymorphism at the C2758G allele in the MS gene. Four controls showed heterozygosity for the C677T polymorphism and none for the MS gene. The B12 and Folate levels were significantly lower in the study group as compared to the controls. Conclusions: It is important to know which factors determine the total homocysteine concentrations. In the general population, the most important modifiable determinants of tHcy are folate intake and coffee consumption. Smoking and alcohol consumption are also associated with the total homocysteine concentrations, but more research is necessary to elucidate whether these relations are not originating from residual confounding due to other lifestyle factors. PMID:22022143

  5. The Genetic Diversity and Structure of Linkage Disequilibrium of the MTHFR Gene in Populations of Northern Eurasia

    PubMed Central

    Trifonova, E.A.; Eremina, E.R.; Urnov, F.D.; Stepanov, V.A.

    2012-01-01

    The structure of the haplotypes and linkage disequilibrium (LD) of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) in 9 population groups from Northern Eurasia and populations of the international HapMap project was investigated in the present study. The data suggest that the architecture of LD in the human genome is largely determined by the evolutionary history of populations; however, the results of phylogenetic and haplotype analyses seems to suggest that in fact there may be a common “old” mechanism for the formation of certain patterns of LD. Variability in the structure of LD and the level of diversity of MTHFRhaplotypes cause a certain set of tagSNPs with an established prognostic significance for each population. In our opinion, the results obtained in the present study are of considerable interest for understanding multiple genetic phenomena: namely, the association of interpopulation differences in the patterns of LD with structures possessing a genetic susceptibility to complex diseases, and the functional significance of the pleiotropicMTHFR gene effect. Summarizing the results of this study, a conclusion can be made that the genetic variability analysis with emphasis on the structure of LD in human populations is a powerful tool that can make a significant contribution to such areas of biomedical science as human evolutionary biology, functional genomics, genetics of complex diseases, and pharmacogenomics. PMID:22708063

  6. Homocysteine and nitrite levels are modulated by MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism in obese women treated with simvastatin.

    PubMed

    Villela, Maria P; Andrade, Vanessa L; Eccard, Bryelle; Jordão, Alceu A; Sertório, Jonas T; Tanus-Santos, Jose E; Silva, Ieda F O; Silveira, Josianne N; Sandrim, Valéria C

    2014-10-01

    Higher homocysteine (Hcy) levels are associated with cardiovascular risk. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of simvastatin treatment on circulating Hcy levels in obese women without hypertension, diabetes or dyslipidaemia; and to determine whether the 677C>T polymorphism located in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (NAD(P)H) (MTHFR) gene modulates the effects of this treatment on Hcy and nitrite (as a biomarker of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability). Twenty-five obese women (body mass index ? 30 kg/m(2) ) who had received 20 mg/day simvastatin for 6 weeks were enrolled in the study. Venous blood samples were collected to measure plasma biomarkers and gene polymorphisms. Simvastatin treatment significantly reduced total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and Hcy, whereas nitrite levels were increased. The reduction in Hcy levels in carriers of the T allele was -20.3% compared with -9.4% in patients with the CC genotype. Importantly, before treatment, nitrite levels were significantly higher in patients with the CC genotype compared with T allele carriers, whereas after treatment these levels were similar between groups. Our findings demonstrate that obese women without comorbidities and carrying the T variant of the 677C>T polymorphism of MTHFR exhibit benefits with simvastatin treatment, mainly in terms of increased NO levels. PMID:25115547

  7. Hyperhomocysteinemia and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism in cerebral veno-sinus thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Bharatkumar, Venkata Pinnelli; Nagaraja, Dindagur; Christopher, Rita

    2014-01-01

    There is limited data on the role of hyperhomocysteinemia as a risk factor for cerebral veno-sinus thrombosis (CVT) in Indians. We examined the association between plasma homocysteine (Hcy), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism, and CVT in 185 patients with aseptic CVT (puerperal 80 and nonpuerperal 105) and 248 healthy controls (puerperal 67 and nonpuerperal 181). Fasting Hcy was higher in patients compared to controls (20.25 ± 5.97 vs 9.81 ± 5.19 ?mol/L, P < .001) and associated with 4.54-fold (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.74-7.53) increase in risk of CVT. Risk was higher in puerperal (odds ratio [OR]: 8.7, 95% CI: 2.73-26.91) compared to nonpuerperal CVT (OR: 3.82, 95% CI: 2.09-6.96). Plasma Hcy was higher in MTHFR 677TT compared to 677CT and 677CC genotypes (34.44 ± 32.8 vs 25.81 ± 33.3 vs 18.50 ± 23.7 ?mol/L, respectively, P < .001), but the risk associated with MTHFR 677TT was insignificant (OR: 1.91, 95% CI: 0.53-7.06). We conclude that hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk marker for Indian patients with aseptic CVT. MTHFR 677TT genotype is not linked with CVT but is a determinant of plasma Hcy. PMID:23172871

  8. Association between Hcy levels and the CBS844ins68 and MTHFR C677T polymorphisms with essential hypertension

    PubMed Central

    CAI, WEIJUAN; YIN, LIANG; YANG, FANG; ZHANG, LEI; CHENG, JIANG

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between the homocysteine (Hcy) levels and polymorphisms of the CBS844ins68 and MTHFR C677T genes in essential hypertension (EH). The effects of the MTHFR C677T and CBS844ins68 haploid genotypes and the combined genotypes on EH and levels of Hcy were further explored. The polymorphisms of CBS844ins68 and MTHFR C677T genes in 200 EH and 200 normal tensive (NT) patients were detected using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and analysis of the distribution of genotypes. An automated biochemical analyzer was used to measure the plasma Hcy levels and the clinical biochemistry data. The plasma Hcy levels in EH were significantly higher than those of the NT group (P<0.05). There were no significant differences (P>0.05) between males and females. Two genotypes, deletion/deletion (DD) and deletion/insertion (DI), of the CBS844ins68 polymorphism were found in two groups with no clear differences in two genotypes and allele frequency distribution (P>0.05). There were significant differences in the three genotype frequencies (?2=6.658, ?2=4.410, P<0.05) for MTHFR C677T locus genotypes CC, CT and TT. The Hcy levels in genotypes DD and DI had no significant differences (P>0.05) and the CT and TT types were significantly higher compared to the CC genotype (P<0.05). The CC/DD combined genotype in the two groups was significantly different (P<0.05), and the odds ratio (OR), 0.569 showed that the CC/DD genotype may be a protective factor of hypertension. In the two groups, the Hcy levels for combined genotypes CC/DD, CT/DD, TT/DD and TT/DI were significantly different (P<0.05). The SHEsis software analysis linkage disequilibrium coefficient=0.216, indicates that there is probably a weak linkage for MTHFR C677T and CBS844ins68. Haplotype analysis suggested that the C-D haplotype was negatively correlated with EH (OR, 0.727) and that there was a positive correlation between T-D haplotype and EH (OR, 1.376). MTHFR C677T and CBS844ins68 polymorphisms were present in the populations studied and the CBS844ins68 homozygous mutation was not present. Therefore, there is a correlation between the polymorphisms of the MTHFR C677T gene and EH, and allele T may be one of the predisposing factors. MTHFR C677T and CBS844ins68 may exist with a certain linkage and the T-D haplotype may be a risk factor for EH. PMID:25279160

  9. Conversion of Human Steroid 5[beta]-Reductase (AKR1D1) into 3[beta]-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase by Single Point Mutation E120H: Example of Perfect Enzyme Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Mo; Drury, Jason E.; Christianson, David W.; Penning, Trevor M. (UPENN)

    2012-10-10

    Human aldo-keto reductase 1D1 (AKR1D1) and AKR1C enzymes are essential for bile acid biosynthesis and steroid hormone metabolism. AKR1D1 catalyzes the 5{beta}-reduction of {Delta}{sup 4}-3-ketosteroids, whereas AKR1C enzymes are hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs). These enzymes share high sequence identity and catalyze 4-pro-(R)-hydride transfer from NADPH to an electrophilic carbon but differ in that one residue in the conserved AKR catalytic tetrad, His120 (AKR1D1 numbering), is substituted by a glutamate in AKR1D1. We find that the AKR1D1 E120H mutant abolishes 5{beta}-reductase activity and introduces HSD activity. However, the E120H mutant unexpectedly favors dihydrosteroids with the 5{alpha}-configuration and, unlike most of the AKR1C enzymes, shows a dominant stereochemical preference to act as a 3{beta}-HSD as opposed to a 3{alpha}-HSD. The catalytic efficiency achieved for 3{beta}-HSD activity is higher than that observed for any AKR to date. High resolution crystal structures of the E120H mutant in complex with epiandrosterone, 5{beta}-dihydrotestosterone, and {Delta}{sup 4}-androstene-3,17-dione elucidated the structural basis for this functional change. The glutamate-histidine substitution prevents a 3-ketosteroid from penetrating the active site so that hydride transfer is directed toward the C3 carbonyl group rather than the {Delta}{sup 4}-double bond and confers 3{beta}-HSD activity on the 5{beta}-reductase. Structures indicate that stereospecificity of HSD activity is achieved because the steroid flips over to present its {alpha}-face to the A-face of NADPH. This is in contrast to the AKR1C enzymes, which can invert stereochemistry when the steroid swings across the binding pocket. These studies show how a single point mutation in AKR1D1 can introduce HSD activity with unexpected configurational and stereochemical preference.

  10. Mutation of the Heme Axial Ligand of Escherichia coli Succinate-Quinone Reductase: Implications for Heme Ligation in Mitochondrial Complex II from Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Maklashina, Elena; Rajagukguk, Sany; McIntire, William S.; Cecchini, Gary

    2010-01-01

    A b-type heme is conserved in membrane-bound complex II enzymes (SQR, succinate-ubiquinone reductase). The axial ligands for the low spin heme b in Escherichia coli complex II are SdhC His84 and SdhD His71. E. coli SdhD His71 is separated by 10 residues from SdhD Asp82 and Tyr83 which are essential for ubiquinone catalysis. The same His-10x-AspTyr motif dominates in homologous SdhD proteins, except for Saccharomyces cerevisiae where a tyrosine is at the axial position (Tyr-Cys-9x-AspTyr). Nevertheless, the yeast enzyme was suggested to contain a stoichiometric amount of heme, however, with the Cys ligand in the aforementioned motif acting as heme ligand. In this report, the role of Cys residues for heme coordination in the complex II family of enzymes is addressed. Cys was substituted to the SdhD-71 position and the yeast Tyr71Cys72 motif also recreated. The Cys71 variant retained heme, although it was high spin, while the Tyr71Cys72 mutant lacked heme. Previously the presence of heme in S. cerevisiae was detected by a spectral peak in fumarate-oxidized, dithionite-reduced mitochondria. Here it is shown that this method must be used with caution. Comparison of bovine and yeast mitochondrial membranes shows that fumarate induced reoxidation of cytochromes in both SQR and the bc1 complex (ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase). Thus, this report raises a concern about the presence of low spin heme b in S. cerevisiae complex II. PMID:20100456

  11. Association of polymorphisms in DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B, MTHFR and MTRR genes with global DNA methylation levels and prognosis of autoimmune thyroid disease

    PubMed Central

    Arakawa, Y; Watanabe, M; Inoue, N; Sarumaru, M; Hidaka, Y; Iwatani, Y

    2012-01-01

    To clarify the association between factors regulating DNA methylation and the prognosis of autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs), we genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes encoding DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), DNMT3A, DNMT3B, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR), which are enzymes essential for DNA methylation. Subjects for this study included 125 patients with Hashimoto's disease (HD), including 48 patients with severe HD and 49 patients with mild HD; 176 patients with Graves’ disease (GD), including 79 patients with intractable GD and 47 patients with GD in remission; and 83 healthy volunteers (control subjects). The DNMT1+32204GG genotype was more frequent in patients with intractable GD than in patients with GD in remission. Genomic DNA showed significantly lower levels of global methylation in individuals with the DNMT1+32204GG genotype than in those with the AA genotype. The MTRR+66AA genotype was observed to be more frequent in patients with severe HD than in those with mild HD. The DNMT1+14395A/G, DNMT3B?579G/T, MTHFR+677C/T and +1298A/C polymorphisms were not correlated with the development or prognosis of AITD. Our study indicates that the DNMT1+32204GG genotype correlates with DNA hypomethylation and with the intractability of GD, and that the MTRR+66AA genotype may correlate with the severity of HD. PMID:23039890

  12. The zebrafish mutation m865 affects formation of dopaminergic neurons and neuronal survival, and maps to a genetic interval containing the sepiapterin reductase locus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne-Kathrin Ettl; Jochen Holzschuh; Wolfgang Driever

    2006-01-01

    The zebrafish mutation m865 was isolated during a large-scale mutagenesis screen aimed at identifying genes involved in the development and maintenance\\u000a of subgroups of neurons in the zebrafish central nervous system. The phenotype of m865 mutant embryos shows defects in the development of dopaminergic neurons in the pretectum and of retinal amacrine cells, as\\u000a well as abnormal caudal dopaminergic cluster

  13. Development of a PCR-based marker utilizing a deletion mutation in the dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) gene responsible for the lack of anthocyanin production in yellow onions (Allium cepa).

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunggil; Yoo, Kil Sun; Pike, Leonard M

    2005-02-01

    Bulb color in onions (Allium cepa) is an important trait, but the mechanism of color inheritance is poorly understood at the molecular level. A previous study showed that inactivation of the dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) gene at the transcriptional level resulted in a lack of anthocyanin production in yellow onions. The objectives of the present study were the identification of the critical mutations in the DFR gene (DFR-A) and the development of a PCR-based marker for allelic selection. We report the isolation of two additional DFR homologs (DFR-B and DFR-C). No unique sequences were identified in either DFR homolog, even in the untranslated region (UTR). Both genes shared more than 95% nucleotide sequence identity with the DFR-A gene. To obtain a unique sequence from each gene, we isolated the promoter regions. Sequences of the DFR-A and DFR-B promoters differed completely from one another, except for an approximately 100-bp sequence adjacent to the 5'UTR. It was possible to specifically amplify only the DFR-A gene using primers designed to anneal to the unique promoter region. The sequences of yellow and red DFR-A alleles were the same except for a single base-pair change in the promoter and an approximately 800-bp deletion within the 3' region of the yellow DFR-A allele. This deletion was used to develop a co-dominant PCR-based marker that segregated perfectly with color phenotypes in the F2 population. These results indicate that a deletion mutation in the yellow DFR-A gene results in the lack of anthocyanin production in yellow onions. PMID:15647922

  14. Association of Blood Lead Levels with Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Polymorphisms among Chinese Pregnant Women in Wuhan City

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Wei; Zhang, Bin; Liu, Shuyun; Wu, Hongling; Gu, Xue; Qin, Lingzhi; Tian, Ping; Zeng, Yun; Ye, Linxiang; Ni, Zemin; Wang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Background Pregnancy is an important stimulus of bone lead release. Elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) may cause adverse pregnancy outcomes for mothers and harmful lead effects on fetuses. However, the reports about maternal BLL changes during pregnancy are conflicting to some extent. This article is to explore the variations in BLLs among pregnant women. The relationships of BLLs with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene C677T, A1298C, and G1793A polymorphisms, which are associated with bone resorption, were also studied. A total of 973 women, including 234, 249, and 248 women in their first, second, and third trimesters, respectively, and 242 non-pregnant women, were recruited at the Wuhan Women and Children Medical Health Center. Methods BLLs were determined using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms of MTHFR were identified with the TaqMan probe method. Results The geometric mean (geometric standard deviation) of BLLs was 16.2 (1.78) ?g/L for all participants. All the studied MTHFR alleles were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Multiple-linear regression analysis revealed the following results. Among the pregnant women, those that carried MTHFR 677CC (i.e. wild-genotype homozygote) and 1298CC (i.e. mutant-genotype homozygote) exhibited higher BLLs than those that carried 677CT/TT (standardized ? = 0.074, P = 0.042) and 1298AC/AA (standardized ? = 0.077, P = 0.035) when other covariates (e.g., age, no. of children, education and income, etc.) were adjusted. The BLLs of pregnant women consistently decreased during the pregnancy and these levels positively correlated with BMI (standard ? = 0.086–0.096, P<0.05). Conclusions The 1298CC mutant-type homozygote in the MTHFR gene is a risk factor for high BLLs among low-level environmental lead-exposed Chinese pregnant women, whose BLLs consistently decreased during gestation. PMID:25723397

  15. Association of MTHFR and PICALM polymorphisms with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Belcavello, Luciano; Camporez, Daniela; Almeida, Leila D; Morelato, Renato L; Batitucci, Maria C P; de Paula, Flavia

    2015-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder and the primary cause of dementia in the elderly and causes a decrease in cognition, functionality, and behaviour. Genetic risk factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of AD. In this case-control study, we aimed to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms in MTHFR (rs1801133), PICALM (3851719), CLU (rs11136000), and CR1 (rs6701713) are associated with AD. Genotype frequencies were evaluated in 82 late-onset AD patients and 161 elderly healthy controls matched by age and gender. We detected a significant association of the MTHFR rs1801133 and PICALM rs3851179 polymorphisms with AD. The results of this study support the hypothesis that several genes are involved in the aetiology of AD. PMID:25359311

  16. Exploring the Effects of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Gene Variants C677T and A1298C on the Risk of Orofacial Clefts in 261 Norwegian Case-Parent Triads

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Astanand Jugessur; Allen J. Wilcox; Rolv T. Lie; Jeffrey C. Murray; Jack A. Taylor

    2003-01-01

    Folic acid and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene have both been implicated in the etiology of orofacial clefts. The authors selected 261 case-parent triads (173 cases with cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL\\/P) and 88 cases with cleft palate only (CPO)) from a Norwegian population-based study of orofacial clefts (May 1996-1998). A case-parent triad design was used to

  17. Meta and pooled analyses of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and gastric cancer risk: A Huge-GSEC review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefania Boccia; Rayjean Hung; Gualtiero Ricciardi; Francesco Gianfagna; Matthias P. A. Ebert; Jing-Yuan Fang; Chang-Ming Gao; T. Götze; Francesco Graziano; M. Lacasaña-Navarro; Dongxin Lin; L. López-Carrillo; You-Lin Qiao; Hongbing Shen; Rachael Stolzenberg-Solomon; Toshiro Takezaki; Yu-Rong Weng; Fang Fang Zhang; P. Tikka-Kleemola; Paolo Boffetta; Emanuela Taioli

    2008-01-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme in the metabolism of folate, whose role in gastric carcinogenesis is controversial. The authors performed a meta-analysis and individual data pooled analysis of case-control studies that examined the association between C677T and A1298C polymorphisms (the former being associated with low folate serum levels) and gastric cancer (meta-analyses: 16 studies, 2,727 cases and 4,640

  18. MTHFR Gene C677T Polymorphism in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Oztop, Didem Behice; Ozkul, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    Aim. Autism is a subgroup of autism spectrum disorders, classified as a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder and symptoms occur in the first three years of life. The etiology of autism is largely unknown, but it has been accepted that genetic and environmental factors may both be responsible for the disease. Recent studies have revealed that the genes involved in the folate/homocysteine pathway may be risk factors for autistic children. In particular, C677T polymorphism in the MTHFR gene as a possible risk factor for autism is still controversial. We aimed to investigate the possible effect of C677T polymorphism in a Turkish cohort. Methods. Autism patients were diagnosed by child psychiatrists according to DSM-IV and DSM-V criteria. A total of 98 children diagnosed as autistic and 70 age and sex-matched children who are nonautistic were tested for C677T polymorphism. This polymorphism was studied by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods. Results. MTHFR 677T-allele frequency was found to be higher in autistic children compared with nonautistic children (29% versus 24%), but it was not found statistically significant. Conclusions. We conclude that other MTHFR polymorphisms such as A1298C or other folate/homocysteine pathway genes may be studied to show their possible role in autism. PMID:25431675

  19. Effects of thioredoxin reductase-1 deletion on embryogenesis and transcriptome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alla A. Bondareva; Mario R. Capecchi; Sonya V. Iverson; Yan Li; Nathan I. Lopez; Olivier Lucas; Gary F. Merrill; Justin R. Prigge; Ashley M. Siders; Maki Wakamiya; Stephanie L. Wallin; Edward E. Schmidt

    2007-01-01

    Thioredoxin reductases (Txnrd) maintain intracellular redox homeostasis in most organisms. Metazoan Txnrds also participate in signal transduction. Mouse embryos homozygous for a targeted null mutation of the txnrd1 gene, encoding the cytosolic thioredoxin reductase, were viable at embryonic day 8.5 (E8.5) but not at E9.5. Histology revealed that txnrd1?\\/? cells were capable of proliferation and differentiation; however, mutant embryos were

  20. No association between MTHFR C677T and serum uric acid levels among Japanese with ABCG2 126QQ and SLC22A12 258WW.

    PubMed

    Hinohara, Yukako; Naito, Mariko; Okada, Rieko; Yin, Guan; Higashibata, Takahiro; Tamura, Takashi; Kawai, Sayo; Morita, Emi; Wakai, Kenji; Matsuo, Hirotaka; Mori, Atsuyoshi; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2013-02-01

    Several genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of ABCG2 and SLC22A12 were strongly associated with serum uric acid (SUA), but those of methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) were not. However, there were several studies indicating the association with MTHFR C677T polymorphism. This study examined the association with the polymorphism, taking into account the genotypes of ABCG2 Q126X and SLC22A12 W258X. Subjects were 5,028 health checkup examinees of Seirei Preventive Health Care Center (3,416 males and 1,612 females) aged 35 to 69 years, who participated in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study (J-MICC Study). Hyperuricemia was defined as SUA equal to 7 mg/dL or over. The genotype frequency was 35.9% for CC, 48.1% for CT, and 16.0% for TT, being in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p=0.90). Among 4,425 participants with ABCG2 126QQ and SLC22A12 258WW who were not under medication for hyperuricemia, the mean SUA was 5.6 mg/dL, 5.6 mg/dL, and 5.7 mg/dL, respectively. When 114 participants with ABCG2 126QQ and SLC22A12 258WW under medication for hyperuricemia were included in hyperuricemia cases, the sex-age adjusted odds ratio (OR) of hyperuricemia was not significant; OR=1.00 (95% confidence interval, 0.89-1.24) for CT genotype and OR=0.98 (0.84-1.32) for TT genotype, relative to CC genotype. The present study indicated no association between SUA and MTHFR C677T genotype, after the influences of ABCG2 Q126X and SLC22A12 W258X were removed. PMID:23544272

  1. Effects of Maternal 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T and A1298C Polymorphisms and Tobacco Smoking on Infant Birth Weight in a Japanese Population

    PubMed Central

    Yila, Thamar Ayo; Sasaki, Seiko; Miyashita, Chihiro; Braimoh, Titilola Serifat; Kashino, Ikuko; Kobayashi, Sumitaka; Okada, Emiko; Baba, Toshiaki; Yoshioka, Eiji; Minakami, Hisanori; Endo, Toshiaki; Sengoku, Kazuo; Kishi, Reiko

    2012-01-01

    Background Intracellular folate hemostasis depends on the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene. Because 5,10-MTHFR 677TT homozygosity and tobacco smoking are associated with low folate status, we tested the hypothesis that smoking in mothers with 5,10-MTHFR C677T or A1298C polymorphisms would be independently associated with lower birth weight among their offspring. Methods We assessed 1784 native Japanese mother-child pairs drawn from the ongoing birth cohort of The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children’s Health. Data (demographic information, hospital birth records, and biological specimens) were extracted from recruitments that took place during the period from February 2003 to March 2006. Maternal serum folate were assayed by chemiluminescent immunoassay, and genotyping of 5,10-MTHFR C677T/A1298C polymorphisms was done using a TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. Results The prevalence of folate deficiency (<6.8 nmol/L) was 0.3%. The 5,10-MTHFR 677CT genotype was independently associated with an increase of 36.40 g (95% CI: 2.60 to 70.30, P = 0.035) in mean infant birth weight and an increase of 90.70 g (95% CI: 6.00 to 175.50, P = 0.036) among male infants of nonsmokers. Female infants of 677TT homozygous passive smokers were 99.00 g (95% CI: ?190.26 to ?7.56, P = 0.034) lighter. The birth weight of the offspring of smokers with 5,10-MTHFR 1298AA homozygosity was lower by 107.00 g (95% CI: ?180.00 to ?33.90, P = 0.004). Conclusions The results suggest that, in this population, maternal 5,10-MTHFR C677T polymorphism, but not the 5,10-MTHFR A1298C variant, is independently associated with improvement in infant birth weight, especially among nonsmokers. However, 5,10-MTHFR 1298AA might be associated with folate impairment and could interact with tobacco smoke to further decrease birth weight. PMID:22277790

  2. Homocysteine, MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism, folic acid and vitamin B 12 in patients with retinal vein occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Ferrazzi, Paola; Di Micco, Pierpaolo; Quaglia, Ilaria; Rossi, Lisa Simona; Bellatorre, Alessandro Giacco; Gaspari, Giorgio; Rota, Lidia Luciana; Lodigiani, Corrado

    2005-01-01

    Background Many available data have suggested that hyperhomocysteinaemia, an established independent risk factor for thrombosis (arterial and venous), may be associated with an increased risk of retinal vein occlusion (RVO). Aim of the study To evaluate homocysteine metabolism in consecutive caucasian patients affected by RVO from Northern Italy. Patients and Methods 69 consecutive patients from Northern Italy (mean age 64.1 ± 14.6 yy) with recent RVO, were tested for plasma levels of homocysteine (tHcy: fasting and after loading with methionine), cyanocobalamine and folic acid levels (CMIA-Abbot) and looking for MTHFR C677T mutation (Light Cycler-Roche) and compared to 50 volunteers, enrolled as a control group. Results Fasting levels of tHcy were significantly higher in patients than in controls: mean value 14.7 ± 7.7 vs 10.2 ± 8 nmol/ml. Post load levels were also significantly higher: mean value 42.7 ± 23.7 vs 30.4 ± 13.3 nmol/ml; Total homocysteine increase was also evaluated (i.e. ?-tHcy) after methionine load and was also significantly higher in patients compared to control subjects: mean ?-tHcy 27.8 ± 21.5 vs 21.0 ± 16 nmol/ml (normal value < 25 nmol/ml). Furthermore, patients affected by RVO show low folic acid and/or vitamin B12 levels, although differences with control group did not reach statistical significance. Heterozygous and homozygous MTHFR mutation were respectively in study group 46% and 29% vs control group 56% and 4%. Conclusion our data confirm that hyperhomocysteinaemia is a risk factor for RVO, and also that TT genotype of MTHFR C677T is more frequently associated with RVO: if the mutation per se is a risk factor for RVO remains an open question to be confirmed because another study from US did not reveal this aspect. Hyperomocysteinemia is modifiable risk factor for thrombotic diseases. Therefore, a screening for tHcy plasma levels in patients with recent retinal vein occlusion could allow to identify patients who might benefit from supplementation with vitamins and normalization of homocysteine levels, in fasting and after methionine load. PMID:16144556

  3. Is there any genetic predisposition of MMP-9 gene C1562T and MTHFR gene C677T polymorphisms with essential hypertension?

    PubMed

    Bayramoglu, Aysegul; Urhan Kucuk, Meral; Guler, Hal?l Ibrahim; Abaci, Okay; Kucukkaya, Yunus; Colak, Ertugrul

    2015-01-01

    The current study was conducted to determine whether there is a relation between hypertension and two different polymorphisms, including C1562T of the Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) gene and C677T of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene. Genomic DNA obtained from 224 persons (125 patients with hypertension and 99 healthy controls) were used in the study. Polymorphisms were determined by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and electrophoresis. The results were statistically analyzed and were found to be statistically significant. The frequencies of the C1562T genotypes were found to be, in controls CC 75.8 % and CT 24.2 % and in patients CC 71.2 %, and CT 28.8 %. The frequencies of C677T genotype were found to be, in controls CC 56.6 %, CT 38.4 and TT 5.1 % in controls and in patients CC 52 %, CT 30.4 % and TT 17.6 %. In conclusion, we may suggest that there is no relation between the essential hypertension and C1562T polymorphism of MMP-9 gene; on the other hand C677T polymorphism (genotype TT) of MTHFR gene can be regarded as a genetic indicator for the development of essential hypertension. PMID:24254300

  4. Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Polymorphisms and Risk of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Evidence from an updated meta-analysis including 35 studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) variants, C677T and A1298C, have been reported to be associated with decreased risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, results derived from individually underpowered studies are conflicting. We carried out an updated meta-analysis on the association between MTHFR polymorphisms and ALL risk. Methods Relevant publications were searched through PUBMED and EMBASE databases. The associations between MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and the risk of ALL were evaluated by odds ratios (ORs). The heterogeneity and publication bias were estimated. Meta-regression analysis was performed to evaluate the potential sources of heterogeneity. Results C677T polymorphism was associated with a reduced risk of ALL (allele contrast: ORRE?=?0.91, 95% CI: 0.83-0.99). Subgroup analysis showed MTHFR C677T variant was associated with decreased susceptibility to ALL in children and Caucasians. Meta-regression showed the logOR for the association between T allele and ALL increased as sex ratio (M/F) in the case group increased (P?=?0.01). Regarding A1298C polymorphism, no significant association was observed (allele contrast: ORRE?=?1.01, 95% CI: 0.91-1.11). There was no publication bias for C677T or A1298C polymorphism. Conclusions The present meta-analysis suggests that the C677T polymorphism, not A1298C, in MTHFR gene is associated with a decreased risk of ALL, particularly among children and Caucasians subjects. Our findings suggest that the influence of the C677T polymorphism on ALL susceptibility is modified by sex ratio in cases (M/F). Since folate intake may be a possible confounding factor, including this factor in future prospective studies is warranted. Further meta-analysis studies should be at least stratified for folate levels and gender to give more powerful and informative results. PMID:22943282

  5. Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase A1298C Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Risk: A Meta-analysis of 33 Studies

    PubMed Central

    Rai, V

    2014-01-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) enzyme is essential for DNA synthesis and DNA methylation, and its gene polymorphisms have been implicated as risk factors for birth defects, neurological disorders, and different types of cancers. Several studies have investigated the association between the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and breast cancer (BC) risk, but the results were inconclusive. To assess the risk associated with MTHFR A1298C polymorphism, a comprehensive meta-analysis was performed. PubMed, Google Scholar, Elsevier and Springer Link databases were searched for case-control studies relating the association between MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and BC risk and estimated summary odds ratios (ORs) with confidence intervals (CIs) for assessment. Up to January 2014, 33 case-control studies involving 15,919 BC patients and 19,700 controls were included in the present meta-analysis. The results showed that the A1298C polymorphism was not associated with BC risk in all the five genetic models (C vs. A allele (allele contrast): OR = 0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93–1.05; AC versus AA (heterozygote/codominant): OR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.89–1.04; CC versus AA (homozygote): OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.91–1.06; CC + AC versus AA (dominant model): OR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.90–1.05; and CC versus AC + AA (recessive model): OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.91–1.07). The present meta-analysis did not support any association between the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and BC risk. PMID:25506474

  6. Polymorphisms in cytoplasmic serine hydroxymethyltransferase and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase affect the risk of cardiovascular disease in men.

    PubMed

    Lim, Unhee; Peng, Kun; Shane, Barry; Stover, Patrick J; Litonjua, Augusto A; Weiss, Scott T; Gaziano, J Michael; Strawderman, Robert L; Raiszadeh, Farbod; Selhub, Jacob; Tucker, Katherine L; Cassano, Patricia A

    2005-08-01

    Genetic variation in folate-regulating enzymes contributes to the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The cytoplasmic serine hydroxymethyltransferase (cSHMT) enzyme is proposed to regulate a key metabolic intersection in folate metabolism. We hypothesized that a variant in cSHMT (cSHMT 1420C-->T) affects CVD risk, and that the effect depends on a linked step in the metabolic pathway catalyzed by methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR). A nested case-control study of incident CVD was conducted within the all-male Normative Aging Study cohort. Of the incident CVD cases, 507 had DNA samples; 2 controls/case were selected by risk set sampling (matched on age and birth year). A significant gene-gene interaction (P-values 0.0013, 0.0064) was found between MTHFR and cSHMT, and there was little or no change in the coefficients in covariate-adjusted models. The effect of MTHFR 677C-->T genotype on CVD risk varied by cSHMT 1420C-->T genotype. Among men with cSHMT 1420C-->T TT genotype, the odds ratios (OR) for CVD risk for MTHFR 677C-->T CT and TT genotypes compared with the MTHFR 677C-->T CC genotype were 3.6 (95% CI, 1.7-7.8) and 10.6 (95% CI, 2.5-46.0), respectively. Among men with the cSHMT 1420C-->T CC/CT genotype, the corresponding ORs were 1.0 (95% CI, 0.8-1.2) and 1.3 (95% CI, 0.9-1.8). Plasma total homocysteine concentrations were highest in the subgroup of men with both polymorphisms, MTHFR 677C-->T TT and cSHMT 1420C-->T TT, consistent with a higher risk of CVD in this subgroup. A more complete understanding of the molecular mechanism awaits identification of the functional effect of the polymorphism. PMID:16046727

  7. Atherosclerosis in male patients with ankylosing spondylitis: the relation with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (C677T) gene polymorphism and plasma homocysteine levels.

    PubMed

    Geçene, Muharrem; Tuncay, Figen; Borman, P?nar; Yücel, Dogan; Senes, Mehmet; Y?lmaz, Behice Kaniye

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the intima-media thickness (IMT) in carotid arteries and to assess the relation of these values with plasma homocysteine (pHcy) levels and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T gene polymorphism in patients with Ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Serum lipids, vitamin B12, folic acid, pHcy and acute phase protein levels were measured in all cases. MTHFR C677T gene polymorphisms were determined, and IMT of main carotid artery were evaluated ultrasonographically in all subjects. Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index, Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity score and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index were used to assess disease activity and spinal mobility. Fifty AS patients (mean age of 36.6 ± 4.79 years) and 50 control subjects (36.34 ± 4.72 years) were included in the study. Plasma homocysteine levels of AS patients and control group were also similar (14.26 ± 9.96 vs. 11.81 ± 5.53 ?mol/L). Hyperhomocysteinemia was present in 11 subjects in patient group (22.0 %), while it was seen in 5 subjects in the control group (10.0 %). The MTHFR C677T genotype distribution was as follows: CC 31 (62 %), CT 14 (28 %), TT 5 (10 %) in AS patients. The mean carotid IMT values were also found to be similar between the groups. The most important factor influencing pHcy level was found as MTHFR 677TT genotype. We indicated no difference of atherosclerosis indices revealed by IMT values and pHcy levels AS patients and control subjects. But an association between MTHFR 677 gene polymorphism and pHcy levels was concluded, which may suggest that MTHFR 677 TT polymorphism may be a potential prognostic factor for cardiovascular disease in patients with AS. PMID:23247802

  8. Association of 677 C>T (rs1801133) and 1298 A>C (rs1801131) Polymorphisms in the MTHFR Gene and Breast Cancer Susceptibility: A Meta-Analysis Based on 57 Individual Studies

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kai; Li, Wusheng; Dong, Xi

    2014-01-01

    Objective The 677 C>T and 1298 A>C polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene have been widely reported and considered to have a significant effect on breast cancer risk, but the results are inconsistent. A meta-analysis based on 57 eligible studies was carried out to clarify the role of MTHFR gene polymorphisms in breast cancer. Methods and Results Eligible articles were identified by searching databases including PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, CNKI and CBM for the period up to August 2012. Finally, a total of 57 studies were included in this meta-analysis. Crude ORs with 95% CIs were used to assess the association between the MTHFR polymorphisms and breast cancer risk. The pooled ORs were performed with additive model, dominant model and recessive model, respectively. Subgroup analysis was also performed by ethnicity. The statistical heterogeneity across studies was examined with ?2-based Q-test. A meta-analysis was performed using the Stata 12.0 software. Overall, the 677 C allele was significantly associated with breast cancer risk (OR?=?0.942, 95%CI?=?0.898 to 0.988) when compared with the 677 T allele in the additive model, and the same results were also revealed under other genetic models. Simultaneously, the 1298 A allele was not associated with the breast cancer susceptibility when compared with the 1298 C allele (OR?=?0.993, 95%CI?=?0.978 to 1.009). Furthermore, analyses under the dominant, recessive and the allele contrast model yielded similar results. Conclusions The results of this meta-analysis suggest that 677 C>T polymorphism in the MTHFR gene may contribute to breast cancer development. However, the 1298 A>C polymorphism is not significantly associated with increased risks of breast cancer. PMID:24945727

  9. Quinone Reductase 2 Is a Catechol Quinone Reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Yue; Buryanovskyy, Leonid; Zhang, Zhongtao (NYMEDCO)

    2008-09-05

    The functions of quinone reductase 2 have eluded researchers for decades even though a genetic polymorphism is associated with various neurological disorders. Employing enzymatic studies using adrenochrome as a substrate, we show that quinone reductase 2 is specific for the reduction of adrenochrome, whereas quinone reductase 1 shows no activity. We also solved the crystal structure of quinone reductase 2 in complexes with dopamine and adrenochrome, two compounds that are structurally related to catecholamine quinones. Detailed structural analyses delineate the mechanism of quinone reductase 2 specificity toward catechol quinones in comparison with quinone reductase 1; a side-chain rotational difference between quinone reductase 1 and quinone reductase 2 of a single residue, phenylalanine 106, determines the specificity of enzymatic activities. These results infer functional differences between two homologous enzymes and indicate that quinone reductase 2 could play important roles in the regulation of catecholamine oxidation processes that may be involved in the etiology of Parkinson disease.

  10. The 677C>T (rs1801133) Polymorphism in the MTHFR Gene Contributes to Colorectal Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis Based on 71 Research Studies

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Zan; Wang, Lei; Cai, Shuang; Yu, Ping; Wang, Jin; Gong, Jing; Liu, Yunpeng

    2013-01-01

    Background The 677C>T polymorphism of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene is considered to have a significant effect on colorectal cancer susceptibility, but the results are inconsistent. In order to investigate the association between the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism and the risk of colorectal cancer, a meta-analysis was held based on 71 published studies. Methods Eligible studies were identified through searching the MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, Chinese Biomedical Literature database (CBM) and CNKI database. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the association. The statistical heterogeneity across studies was examined with x2-based Q-test. Begg's and Egger's test were also carried out to evaluate publication bias. Sensitive and subgroup analysis were also held in this meta-analysis. Results Overall, 71 publications including 31,572 cases and 44,066 controls were identified. The MTHFR 677 C>T variant genotypes are significantly associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer. In the stratified analysis by ethnicity, significantly increased risks were also found among Caucasians for CC vs TT (OR?=?1.076; 95%CI?=? 1.008–1.150; I2?=?52.3%), CT vs TT (OR?=?1.102; 95%CI?=?1.032–1.177; I2?=?51.4%) and dominant model (OR?=?1.086; 95%CI?=?1.021–1.156; I2?=?53.6%). Asians for CC vs TT (OR ?=?1.226; 95%CI ?=?1.116–1.346; I2 ?=?55.3%), CT vs TT (OR ?=?1.180; 95%CI ?=?1.079–1.291; I2 ?=?36.2%), recessive (OR ?=?1.069; 95%CI ?=?1.003-1.140; I2 ?=?30.9%) and dominant model (OR ?=?1.198; 95%CI ?=?1.101-1.303; I2 ?=?52.4%), and Mixed populations for CT vs TT (OR ?=?1.142; 95%CI ?=?1.005-1.296; I2 ?=?0.0%). However, no associations were found in Africans for all genetic models. Conclusion This meta-analysis suggests that the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism increases the risk for developing colorectal cancer, while there is no association among Africans found in subgroup analysis by ethnicity. PMID:23437053

  11. Correlations of MTHFR 677C>T Polymorphism with Cardiovascular Disease in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xian-Hui; Zhang, Guo-Yi; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Hui-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Objective This meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the correlations of a common polymorphism (677C>T) in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Method The following electronic databases were searched without language restrictions: Web of Science (1945?2013), the Cochrane Library Database (Issue 12, 2013), MEDLINE (1966?2013), EMBASE (1980?2013), CINAHL (1982?2013) and the Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM) (1982?2013). Meta-analysis was performed using STATA statistical software. Odds ratios (ORs) with their 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were calculated. Results Eight cohort studies met all inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. A total of 2,292 ESRD patients with CVD were involved in this meta-analysis. Our meta-analysis results revealed that the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism might increase the risk of CVD in ESRD patients (TT vs. CC: OR?=?2.75, 95%CI?=?1.35?5.59, P?=?0.005; CT+TT vs. CC: OR?=?1.39, 95%CI?=?1.09?1.78, P?=?0.008; TT vs. CC+CT: OR?=?2.52, 95%CI?=?1.25?5.09, P?=?0.010; respectively). Further subgroup analysis by ethnicity suggested that the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism was associated with an elevated risk for CVD in ESRD patients among Asians (TT vs. CC: OR?=?3.38, 95%CI?=?1.11?10.28, P?=?0.032; CT+TT vs. CC: OR?=?1.44, 95%CI?=?1.05?1.97, P?=?0.022; TT vs. CC+CT: OR?=?3.15, 95%CI?=?1.02?9.72, P?=?0.046; respectively), but not among Africans or Caucasians (all P>0.05). Conclusion Our findings indicate that the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism may be associated with an elevated risk for CVD in ESRD patients, especially among Asians. PMID:25050994

  12. Association between Maternal MTHFR Polymorphisms and Nonsyndromic Cleft Lip with or without Cleft Palate in Offspring, A Meta-Analysis Based on 15 Case-Control Studies

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xinjuan; Wang, Ping; Yin, Xinjuan; Liu, Xiaozhuan; Li, Di; Li, Xing; Wang, Yongchao; Li, Hongle; Yu, Zengli

    2015-01-01

    Background The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is thought to be involved in the development of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P). However, conflicting results have been obtained when evaluating the association between maternal MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and the risk of NSCL/P. In light of this gap, a meta-analysis of all eligible case-control studies was conducted in the present study. Materials and Methods A total of 15 case-control studies were ultimately identified after a comprehensive literature search and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) examination. Cochrane’s Q test and index of heterogeneity (I2) indicated no obvious heterogeneity among studies. Results Fixed or random-effects models were used to calculate the pooled odds ratios (ORs). The results showed that the TT genotype in mothers increased the likelihood of having NSCL/P offspring 1.25 times (95% CI: 1.047-1.494) more than the CC homozygotes. Meanwhile, maternal TT genotype increased the risk of producing NSCL/P offspring in recessive model (OR=1.325, 95% CI: 1.124-1.562). However, the CT heterozygote and the CT+TT dominant models had no association with NSCL/P offspring compared with the CC wild-type homozygote model. Subgroup analyses based on ethnicity indicated that maternal TT genotype increased the likelihood of having NSCL/P offspring in Whites (OR=1.308, 95% CI: 1.059-1.617) and Asians (OR=1.726, 95% CI: 1.090-2.733) in recessive model. Also, subgroup analyses based on source of control showed that mothers with the 677TT genotype had a significantly increased susceptibility of having NSCL/P children in hospital based population (HB) when compared with CC homozygotes (OR=1.248, 95% CI: 1.024-1.520) and un- der the recessive model (OR=1.324, 95% CI: 1.104-1.588). Furthermore, maternal A1298C polymorphism had no significant association with producing NSCL/P offspring (dominant model OR=0.952, 95% CI: 0.816-1.111, recessive model OR=0.766, 95% CI: 0.567-1.036). Conclusion MTHFR C677T polymorphism is associated with the risk of generating NSCL/P offspring, and being a 677TT homozygote is a risk factor. MTHFR A1298C polymorphism was not associated with generating NSCL/P offspring. However, further work should be performed to confirm these findings. PMID:25780529

  13. Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T Polymorphism and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Chinese Population: A Meta-Analysis of 29 Case-Control Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Bo; Wu, Xiaomei; Zhi, Xueyuan; Liu, Lei; Zheng, Quanmei; Sun, Guifan

    2014-01-01

    Background Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), a key enzyme in folate metabolism, had significant effects on the homocysteine levels. The common functional MTHFR C677T polymorphism had been extensively researched. Several studies had evaluated the relationship between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but the results were still controversial in the Chinese Han population. This meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the relationship between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and T2DM in the Chinese Han population. Methods We searched the relevant studies in multiple electronic databases, which published up to December 2013. We reviewed and extracted data from all the included studies on the relationship between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and T2DM in the Chinese Han population. The odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were used to evaluate the relationship. Fixed-effects and random-effects meta-analysis were used to pool ORs by the heterogeneity. Publication bias and sensitivity analysis were also examined. Results 29 studies were finally included in our meta-analysis, which contained 4656 individuals with T2DM and 2127 healthy controls. There was a significant relationship between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and T2DM under dominant (OR: 1.70, 95% CI: 1.42–2.02), recessive (OR: 1.48, 95% CI: 1.21–1.80), homozygous (OR: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.47–2.42), heterozygous (OR: 1.58, 95% CI: 1.33–1.87), and additive (OR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.28–1.68) genetic model in a random-effects model. Subgroup analysis also reached similar results. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the overall result were dependable. Conclusions There was a significant relationship between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and T2DM in the Chinese Han population. The results of our meta-analysis suggested that MTHFR 677T allele might be a risk genetic factor of T2DM in the Chinese Han population. PMID:25047451

  14. Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase 85T>C Mutation Is Associated With Ocular Toxicity of 5-Fluorouracil: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Baskin, Yasemin; Amirfallah, Arsalan; Unal, Olcun Umit; Calibasi, Gizem; Oztop, Ilhan

    2015-01-01

    5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), the mainstay of solid tumor chemotherapy over the past 40 years, induces grade III-IV toxicities in up to 15% of patients with polymorphisms in the dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD), thymidylate synthase (TYMS), and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genes. These toxicities include mucositis, neutropenia, nausea, diarrhea, myelosuppression, hand-foot syndrome, and rare ocular adverse effects. Here, we present the case of a female patient with rectal cancer who received 5-FU-based chemotherapy and developed grade III hand-foot syndrome and rare acute ocular adverse effects. Genetic analysis revealed that the patient had an 85T>C mutation in the DPYD gene resulting in a DPYD*9A allele. The clinical and molecular observations indicate that DPYD deficiency may be responsible for the severe ocular adverse effects observed in 5-FU-treated patients. Application of personalized therapy based on molecular testing should help clinicians provide the most effective chemotherapy agents and dose modifications for each patient, although further population-based pharmacogenetic trials for the 5-FU metabolism-related genes are necessary to minimize adverse effects and enhance clinical outcomes. PMID:24434920

  15. Association of the APOE, MTHFR and ACE Genes Polymorphisms and Stroke in Zambian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Atadzhanov, Masharip; Mwaba, Mwila H.; Mukomena, Patrice N.; Lakhi, Shabir; Rayaprolu, Sruti; Ross, Owen A.; Meschia, James F.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of APOE, MTHFR and ACE polymorphisms with stroke in the Zambian population. We analyzed 41 stroke patients and 116 control subjects all of Zambian origin for associations between the genotype of the APOE, MTHFR and ACE polymorphisms and stroke. The APOE ?2?4 genotype showed increased risk for hemorrhagic stroke (P<0.05) and also a high risk for ischemic stroke (P=0.05). There was complete absence of the APOE ?2?2 and the MTHFR TT genotypes in the Zambian population. The difference between cases and controls was not significant for the other genetic variants when analyzed for relationship between stroke, stroke subtype and genotype. We show that genetic variation at the APOE locus affects susceptibility to stroke. No detectable association were observed for the MTHFR and ACE genotypes and stroke in the Zambian population. PMID:24416484

  16. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C667T polymorphism is associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Hua, K; Gu, H; Zhang, J; Wang, L

    2014-11-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a complex disease resulting from a combination of environmental and genetic factors. We hypothesized that polymorphisms in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) rs1801133 C/T, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-2, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-?, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) rs755622 G/C and cyclin D1 (CCND1) rs678653 G/C contribute to CAD susceptibility. We examined the association between the five polymorphisms and the risk of CAD in a Chinese population of 435 CAD patients and 480 controls. Genotyping was performed using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI/TOF MS). When the MTHFR rs1801133 CC homozygote genotype was used as the reference group, the TT or CT/TT genotypes were associated with a significantly increased risk for CAD. The CT heterozygote genotype was not associated with the risk for CAD. Logistic regression analyses revealed that MMP-2 rs243865 C/T, TNF-? rs1800629 A/G, MIF rs755622 G/C and CCND1 rs678653 G/C polymorphisms were not associated with the risk of CAD. These findings suggest that the MTHFR rs1801133 C/T polymorphism is associated with CAD development. Future larger studies with other ethnic populations are required to confirm current findings. PMID:25124382

  17. Aldose and aldehyde reductases : structure-function studies on the coenzyme and inhibitor-binding sites.

    SciTech Connect

    El-Kabbani, O.; Old, S. E.; Ginell, S. L.; Carper, D. A.; Biosciences Division; Monash Univ.; NIH

    1999-09-03

    PURPOSE: To identify the structural features responsible for the differences in coenzyme and inhibitor specificities of aldose and aldehyde reductases. METHODS: The crystal structure of porcine aldehyde reductase in complex with NADPH and the aldose reductase inhibitor sorbinil was determined. The contribution of each amino acid lining the coenzyme-binding site to the binding of NADPH was calculated using the Discover package. In human aldose reductase, the role of the non-conserved Pro 216 (Ser in aldehyde reductase) in the binding of coenzyme was examined by site-directed mutagenesis. RESULTS: Sorbinil binds to the active site of aldehyde reductase and is hydrogen-bonded to Trp 22, Tyr 50, His 113, and the non-conserved Arg 312. Unlike tolrestat, the binding of sorbinil does not induce a change in the side chain conformation of Arg 312. Mutation of Pro 216 to Ser in aldose reductase makes the binding of coenzyme more similar to that of aldehyde reductase. CONCLUSIONS: The participation of non-conserved active site residues in the binding of inhibitors and the differences in the structural changes required for the binding to occur are responsible for the differences in the potency of inhibition of aldose and aldehyde reductases. We report that the non-conserved Pro 216 in aldose reductase contributes to the tight binding of NADPH.

  18. Association of Transforming Growth Factor Alpha and Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene variants with nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate in the Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Asavari L.; Dinesh, M. R.; Amarnath, B. C.; Dharma, R. M.; Akshai, K. R.; Prashanth, C. S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim was to evaluate the relationship of the K-primer variant of the transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-?) gene and C677T variant of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene with nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate (CL/P) in the Indian population. Setting and Sample Population: The study group consisted of DNA samples of 25 subjects with nonsyndromic CL with or without cleft palate and 25 unrelated controls, already existing in the Department of Orthodontics, D.A.P.M.R.V. Dental College, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods: The DNA samples were divided into two categories: Group A which included the 25 subjects with nonsyndromic CL/P; and Group B, which consisted of the 25 unrelated controls. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was done for amplification of the region of interest from the DNA samples. Restriction digestion was then performed on the amplified product using the restriction enzyme HinfI, separately for each of the variants. The digested PCR products were separated into channels on a 1.5% agarose gel containing ethidium bromide in an electrophoretic chamber. A U.V. transilluminator was used to see the specific bands of base pairs of the digested PCR products. Results: In Group A, the TGF-? gene variant was present in 16 subjects (P = 0.001) and MTHFR gene variant was present in 8 subjects (P = 0.185). A combination of both gene variants were present in seven subjects, which was an interesting finding. In Group B, four subjects tested positive for the TGF-? and MTHFR gene variants. Conclusions: The TGF-? gene variant and a combination of TGF-? + MTHFR gene variants significantly contribute to the development of nonsyndromic CL/P and can be considered as genetic markers for Indian population. The MTHFR gene variant, though a minor risk factor, cannot be considered as a genetic marker. PMID:25191068

  19. Analysis of genetic polymorphisms of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase in depressed patients in a Slovak (Caucasian) population.

    PubMed

    Evinova, Andrea; Babusikova, Eva; Straka, Stanislav; Ondrejka, Igor; Lehotsky, Jan

    2012-12-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder where both gene-gene and gene-environment interactions play an important role, but the clues are still not fully understood. One carbon metabolism in the CNS plays a critical role in the synthesis and release of neurotransmitters which are relevant to depressive disorder. We studied genetic polymorphisms of the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) in association with major depressive disorder. We genotyped the BDNF G196A, the MTHFR C677T, and A1298C polymorphisms in 134 patients diagnosed with major depression and 143 control subjects in Slovak (Caucasian) cohort of patients and probands. We found no significant association of either the BDNF G196A or MTHFR C677T polymorphisms with major depressive disorder neither in female nor male group of patients. However, the MTHFR A1298C genotype distribution was 36.6% (for AA genotype), 48.5% (AC) and 14.9% (CC) for the depressed patients, and 48.9% (AA), 42.7% (AC) and 8.4% (CC), respectively, for the control subjects. Patients with MDD had a higher prevalence of the CC genotype (OR = 2.38; 95% CI = 1.07-5.32; p = 0.032) and the AC + CC genotype (OR = 1.67; 95% CI = 1.03-2.69; p = 0.037) in comparison with the control subjects. This study shows that CC genotype of the MTHFR A1298C is associated with higher risk of MDD in Slovak population. PMID:23255668

  20. No Association of Functional Polymorphisms in Methlylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase and the Risk and Minor Physical Anomalies of Schizophrenia in Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su-Gyeong; Song, Joo Yun; Joo, Eun-Jeong; Jeong, Seong Hoon; Kim, Se Hyun; Lee, Kyu Young; Lee, Nam Young; Ahn, Yong Min; Kim, Yong Sik

    2011-01-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), a critical enzyme in folate metabolism, plays an important role in DNA methylation. It has been suggested that abnormal DNA methylation contributes to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and congenital anomalies. The previous findings regarding the genetic relationship between MTHFR and schizophrenia are controversial. This study investigated the association of the two functional polymorphisms of MTHFR, C677T and A1298C, with the risk for schizophrenia. Furthermore, we conducted an updated meta-analysis on the two polymorphisms. In addition, we investigated the relationship between the polymorphisms and minor physical anomaly (MPA), which may represent neurodevelopmental aberrations in 201 schizophrenia patients and 350 normal control subjects. There was no significant association between either of the two polymorphisms and the risk of schizophrenia (chi-square = 0.001, df = 1, P = 0.971 for C677T; chi-square = 1.319, df = 1, P = 0.251 for A1298C). However, in meta-analysis, the C677T polymorphism showed a significant association in the combined and Asian populations (OR = 1.13, P = 0.005; OR = 1.21, P = 0.011, respectively) but not in the Korean and Caucasian populations alone. Neither polymorphism was associated with MPAs measured by the Waldrop scale (chi-square = 2.513, df = 2, P = 0.285). In conclusion, the present findings suggest that in the Korean population, the MTHFR polymorphisms are unlikely to be associated with the risk for schizophrenia and neurodevelopmental abnormalities related to schizophrenia. PMID:22022190

  1. Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase 677TT Genotype may be Associated with an Increased Lung Cancer Risk in North China: An Updated Meta

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Nan-Bo; Li, Jun; Qi, Jia-Feng; Zhang, Zhen-Zhong; Wu, Xu; Zhang, Jun-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Background Although many epidemiology studies have investigated the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphisms and their associations with lung cancer (LC), definite conclusions cannot be drawn. To clarify the effects of MTHFR polymorphisms on the risk of LC, we performed a meta-analysis in Chinese populations. Material/Methods Related studies were identified from PubMed, Springer Link, Ovid, Chinese Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Chinese Biology Medicine (CBM) until 16 February 2014. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of the associations. Results A total of 11 studies with 2487 LC cases and 3228 controls were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, no significant association was found between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and LC risk when all studies in Chinese populations were pooled into this meta-analysis. In subgroup analyses stratified by geographical location and source of controls, significantly increased risk was found in North China (T vs. C: OR=1.28, 95% CI: 1.14–1.44; TT vs. CC: OR=1.67, 95% CI: 1.33–2.10; TT + CT vs. CC, OR=1.39, 95% CI=1.15–1.69; TT vs. CC + CT: OR=1.46, 95% CI: 1.03–2.06) and in population-based studies (TT vs. CC: OR=1.37, 95% CI: 1.14–1.65; TT vs. CC + CT: OR=1.25, 95% CI: 1.07–1.45). Conclusions This meta-analysis provides evidence that MTHFR C677T polymorphism may contribute to LC development in North China. Studies with larger sample sizes and wider spectrum of populations are warranted to verify this finding. PMID:25544260

  2. Molecular genetics of steroid 5 alpha-reductase 2 deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Thigpen, A E; Davis, D L; Milatovich, A; Mendonca, B B; Imperato-McGinley, J; Griffin, J E; Francke, U; Wilson, J D; Russell, D W

    1992-01-01

    Two isozymes of steroid 5 alpha-reductase encoded by separate loci catalyze the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. Inherited defects in the type 2 isozyme lead to male pseudohermaphroditism in which affected males have a normal internal urogenital tract but external genitalia resembling those of a female. The 5 alpha-reductase type 2 gene (gene symbol SRD5A2) was cloned and shown to contain five exons and four introns. The gene was localized to chromosome 2 band p23 by somatic cell hybrid mapping and chromosomal in situ hybridization. Molecular analysis of the SRD5A2 gene resulted in the identification of 18 mutations in 11 homozygotes, 6 compound heterozygotes, and 4 inferred compound heterozygotes from 23 families with 5 alpha-reductase deficiency. 6 apparent recurrent mutations were detected in 19 different ethnic backgrounds. In two patients, the catalytic efficiency of the mutant enzymes correlated with the severity of the disease. The high proportion of compound heterozygotes suggests that the carrier frequency of mutations in the 5 alpha-reductase type 2 gene may be higher than previously thought. Images PMID:1522235

  3. MTHFR 677C>T Polymorphism and the Risk of Breast Cancer: Evidence from an Original Study and Pooled Data for 28031 Cases and 31880 Controls

    PubMed Central

    Sekhar, Deepa; Francis, Amirtharaj; Gupta, Nishi; Konwar, Rituraj; Kumar, Sandeep; Kumar, Surender; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Rajender, Singh

    2015-01-01

    Background Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) acts at an important metabolic point in the regulation of cellular methylation reaction. It assists in the conversion of 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate. The latter aids in remethylation of homocysteine to de novo methionine that is required for DNA synthesis. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of MTHFR 677 C>T polymorphism on the risk of breast cancer in the Indian sub-continent. Methods and Results We genotyped 677 C>T locus in 1096 individuals that were classified into cases (N=588) and controls (N=508). Genotype data were analyzed using chi-square test. No significant difference was observed in the distribution of genotypes between cases and controls in north Indian (P = 0.932), south Indian (P = 0.865), and pooled data (P = 0.680). To develop a consensus regarding the impact of 677C>T polymorphism on breast cancer risk, we also conducted a meta-analysis on 28031 cases and 31880 controls that were pooled from sixty one studies. The overall summary estimate upon meta-analysis suggested no significant correlation between the 677C>T substitution and breast cancer in the dominant model (Fixed effect model: OR = 0.97, P=0.072, Random effects model: OR = 0.96, P = 0.084) or the recessive model (Fixed effect model: OR = 1.05, P = 0.089; Random effects model: OR= 1.08, P= 0.067). Conclusion 677 C>T substitution does not affect breast cancer risk in the Indo-European and Dravidian populations of India. Analysis on pooled data further ruled out association between the 677 C>T polymorphism and breast cancer. Therefore, 677 C>T substitution does not appear to influence the risk of breast cancer. PMID:25803740

  4. Genetic Association between Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Gene Polymorphism and Risk of Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Wei; Zhang, Zhendong; Ni, Ming; Geng, Peiliang; Lian, Zijian; Zhang, Guoqiang; Shi, Lewis L.; Chen, Jiying

    2015-01-01

    Background. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) SNP rs1801133 has been frequently investigated in recent years. Relevant candidate gene association studies with this SNP and osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) reported conflicting results. Meta-analysis provides a method to combine these data and to determine the association in a larger sample size. Method. We conducted a systematic search to identify possible studies. Four pooled ORs (odds ratios, T versus C, TT versus CC, TT/CT versus CC, and TT versus CT/CC), along with 95% confidence interval (CI), were calculated to evaluate the association between SNP rs1801133 and ONFH susceptibility. Both fixed effects model and random effects model were used. Findings. We eventually included twelve studies in this analysis, with results showing no overall association between ONFH susceptibility and SNP rs1801133 (T versus C: OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 0.97–1.38; TT versus CC: OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 0.91–1.46; TT/CT versus CC: OR = 1.09, 95% CI = 0.95–1.25; and TT versus CT/CC: OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.93–1.45). When stratified based on ethnicity, the results were still not significant. Conclusion. Our findings are generally supportive of no association between MTHFR SNP rs1801133 and the etiology of ONFH. PMID:25688352

  5. Prevalence of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677 C-T polymorphism among mothers of Down syndrome children

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Anupam; Kaur, Amandeep

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The relationship between chromosomal non-disjunction leading to aneuploidy and folate metabolism has drawn attention in the recent years. In this study, we examined the polymorphism in the gene encoding the folate metabolizing enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), namely, 677 C-T in women having Down syndrome (DS) children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The prevalence of these variant genotypes (MTHFR 677 C-T polymorphism) in women having DS children (case mothers) (n = 110) was compared with controls (n = 111) from Punjab. Genotyping was done using the polymerase chain reaction method followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. RESULTS: In the present study, 1.8% of case mothers had TT genotype while none of the control mothers showed this genotype. T allele frequency among cases was 0.13 and 0.11 in controls. The Chi-square value showed a non-significant difference between cases and controls. CONCLUSION: No association has been observed between 677 C-T polymorphism and risk of non-disjunction in case mothers. Detection of polymorphisms in more genes of folate pathway is required to find out the exact cause of non-disjunction. PMID:24497705

  6. Controversial roles of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms and folate in breast cancer disease.

    PubMed

    Bravatà, Valentina

    2015-02-01

    Abstract Breast cancer (BC) represents a highly heterogeneous tumour at both the clinical and molecular levels. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the folate-metabolising enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase (MTHFR) may modify the association between folate intake and BC and influence plasma folate concentration. The role of folate in BC is equivocal, association studies between the common MTHFR SNPs C677T and A1298C and BC risk are controversial. In this study, I have reviewed observed associations between folate intake, as well as its blood levels, and BC. The purpose of this review is to analyse the role of folate and the two SNPs associated with reduced enzyme activity in BC. I explored the most relevant and updated work that emphasises positive and negative associations among these variables. My findings indicate that no definitive conclusions can be drawn from the studies on this topic. However, this manuscript highlights variables that could be useful to explore in further association analyses. PMID:25318348

  7. Detection of Thrombophilic Mutations Related to Spontaneous Abortions by a Multiplex SNaPshot Method

    PubMed Central

    Madjunkova, Svetlana; Volk, Marija; Peterlin, Borut

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous abortion is a significant clinical problem of different etiologies. Certain thrombophilia gene mutations have been associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion. Also, mutations in folate-related genes can lead to abnormal chromosomal segregation during meiosis which is the most common cause of spontaneous abortion. We have developed a multiplex single-base extension reaction assay that allows simultaneous analysis of 10 different mutations in thrombophilia- and folate-related genes (Factor V Leiden G1691A, Factor V H1299R, Factor II G20210A, Factor XIII V34L, PAI-I -675 4G/5G, FGB -455G/A, MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C, MTR A2756G, and MTRR A66G). Using this method we have studied 232 women who had a spontaneous abortion and 209 of their male partners. Prevalence of Factor II G20210A and Factor V H1299R mutations was significantly higher in the women than in their male partners (2.4% and 0.7%, respectively [p=0.0499] for the Factor II mutation and 9.3% and 5.7%, respectively [p=0.0485] for the Factor V mutation). The prevalence of MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C, MTR A2756G, and MTRR A66G mutations did not differ between the studied groups. In conclusion, we have developed a rapid, simple, reliable, and inexpensive multiplex SNaPshot method for determination of 10 thrombophilic mutations that may result in spontaneous abortions. PMID:22023244

  8. Association between factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T mutations and events of the arterial circulatory system: a meta-analysis of published studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J Kim; Richard C Becker

    2003-01-01

    BackgroundThe association between the inherited gene mutations of factor V, prothrombin, and homocysteine metabolism and venous thromboembolic events is accepted widely; however, their influence on the arterial circulatory system remains controversial.

  9. Methylation pattern of methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase and small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide N promoters in oligoasthenospermia: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Botezatu, Anca; Socolov, Razvan; Socolov, Demetra; Iancu, Iulia Virginia; Anton, Gabriela

    2014-02-01

    Alterations in DNA methylation patterns in several genes may lead to abnormal male sexual development and infertility. This study investigated the promoter methylation status of MTHFR and SNRPN in infertile men from Romania by quantitative methylation-specific PCR in order to investigate possible correlations with sperm abnormalities. The study groups included patients (n=27) with a median age of 31 years (range 26-41 years) as well as controls (n=11) with a median age of 30 years (range 24-37 years) recruited from couples seeking advice for infertility. DNA was isolated from sperm samples and promoter methylation was assessed using direct. Significant trends were detected for both genes that indicate a tendency towards promoter hypermethylation in spermatozoa with low motility (MTHFR P=0.0032, r=0.23; SNRPN P=0.0003, r=0.32) and poor morphology (MTHFR P=0.0012, r=0.27; SNRPN P=0.0003, r=0.33) but no trend was found in cases of low sperm count (MTHFR r=0.007; SNRPN r=0.06). The data indicate that the methylation patterns of the promoters of MTHFR and SNRPN are associated with changes in sperm motility and morphology, which could lead to male infertility. A large number of studies are now focused on the causes of male infertility. Among these are epigenetic modifications, which are important contributors to reproductive pathology in the male by providing dynamic changes of the phenotype according to the environmental and metabolic factors. The most known epigenetic modification is DNA methylation and alterations in this pattern in several genes could induce male infertility. The present study aims to investigate the promoter methylation status of the genes for methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide N (SNRPN) in infertile males from Romania, in order to establish a correlation with sperm parameters. MTHFR is an enzyme involved in the folate pathway and in de novo nucleotide biosynthesis but also a good example for gene-environment interaction in phenotype development. SNRPN is involved in both somatic cell expression and inheritance of the imprint and the methylation pattern of its gene seems to correlate not only with imprinted disorders but also with infertility. Our study includes patients (n=27, median age 31 years, range 26-41 years) recruited from men seeking advice for couple infertility and control group (n=11, median age 30.5 years, range 24-37 years). The data we obtained indicated significant correlations between hypermethylation of the investigated genes and sperm motility and morphology. No significant correlation between DNA methylation and sperm number was found. Our data suggest that methylation pattern of MTHFR and SNRPN is linked with sperm anomalies of motility and morphology and therefore male infertility. PMID:24365028

  10. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase A1298C genotypes are associated with the risks of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and chronic myelogenous leukaemia in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Hur, M; Park, J Y; Cho, H C; Lee, K M; Shin, H Y; Cho, H I

    2006-06-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme involved in folate metabolism, DNA methylation and synthesis. We investigated the association between MTHFR polymorphisms and the risks of acute and chronic leukaemias. MTHFR C677T and A1298C were genotyped in 396 Korean individuals using multiplex polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment-length polymorphism. They were acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL, n = 89), acute myeloid leukaemia (AML, n = 55), biphenotypic acute leukaemia (n = 12), chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML, n = 40), and normal controls (n = 200). C677T genotypes were not associated with the risk of each disease. A1298C variants, however, significantly decreased the risks of ALL and CML compared with 1298AA. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of 1298AC and 1298AC + CC were 0.53 (0.31-0.93) and 0.54 (0.31-0.93) in ALL, and 0.34 (0.14-0.80) and 0.40 (0.18-0.89) in CML, respectively, compared with 1298AA. These findings demonstrate that the development of ALL and CML is more dependent on folate status, and more susceptible to DNA instability than that of AML. In addition, A1298C rather than C677T may be a more important genetic risk modifier in leukaemogenesis at least in the Korean population. PMID:16706930

  11. Homozygosity for the W151X stop mutation in the delta7-sterol reductase gene (DHCR7) causing a lethal form of Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome: retrospective molecular diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Löffler, J; Trojovsky, A; Casati, B; Kroisel, P M; Utermann, G

    2000-11-13

    Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is a multiple congenital anomalies syndrome caused by an abnormality in cholesterol metabolism. The clinical severity may vary from very mild to lethality in utero, making diagnosis difficult at both ends of the spectrum. Patients with severe SLOS might often escape diagnosis because they die before the correct diagnosis is made. We describe an Austrian family whose first child died neonatally with multiple congenital anomalies. The second pregnancy was terminated because the fetus showed similar severe anomalies ultrasonographically. A further pregnancy ended in a spontaneous first trimester abortion. Clinical diagnosis of SLOS was not considered until the autopsy of the fetus of the terminated pregnancy. Because no material for biochemical testing was available we performed mutational analysis of the DHCR7 gene from paraffin-embedded tissue and a Guthrie card focusing on mutations known to cause a severe SLOS phenotype. This demonstrated homozygosity for the mutation W151X, which has been demonstrated to be a functional null mutation. Our data confirm the concept that homozygosity for functional null alleles of the DHCR7 locus results in intrauterine or perinatal lethality. Furthermore, our findings suggest the usefulness of molecular studies of stored material in similarly affected cases where no material for biochemical analysis is available. PMID:11078571

  12. Comparing techniques for the identification of the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism.

    PubMed

    de Alvarenga, Maria Paula Sanches; Pavarino-Bertelli, Erika Cristina; Goloni-Bertollo, Eny Maria

    2008-04-01

    The restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique with the MboII enzyme is used by a number of researchers as a methodology for the identification of the genetic polymorphism MTHFR A1298C. However, the reliability of this enzyme for genotyping this polymorphism has been questioned, since the silent polymorphism T1317C, located close to the polymorphic region A1298C on gene MTHFR, also has a recognition site for MboII. Thus, the fragments formed by the digestion of MboII present similar sizes, making it difficult to differentiate the allele MTHFR 1298A in the presence of the allele MTHFR 1317C. Hence, we investigated the A1298C polymorphism in a Brazilian population of renal transplant patients, using the RFLP technique with digestion by Mbo II and using sequencing, in order to examine the concordance between the two techniques. Our results showed an 8.6% difference in genotyping between RFLP and sequencing, but the statistical concordance test presented a kappa coefficient equal to 0.81 (CI 95% 0.74-88), which indicates a virtually perfect concordance, according to the criterion of Landis and Koch. Therefore, we concluded that the RFLP technique is concordant with automated sequencing in the detection of polymorphism A1298C under our laboratory conditions. PMID:19137091

  13. MTHFR 677C 3 T genotype disrupts prefrontal function in schizophrenia through an interaction

    E-print Network

    Manoach, Dara S.

    function during working memory. Within the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), a region critical associated with abnormal dopamine signaling in the prefrontal cortex, which is likely under complex geneticMTHFR 677C 3 T genotype disrupts prefrontal function in schizophrenia through an interaction

  14. Nitrate and periplasmic nitrate reductases

    PubMed Central

    Sparacino-Watkins, Courtney; Stolz, John F.; Basu, Partha

    2014-01-01

    The nitrate anion is a simple, abundant and relatively stable species, yet plays a significant role in global cycling of nitrogen, global climate change, and human health. Although it has been known for quite some time that nitrate is an important species environmentally, recent studies have identified potential medical applications. In this respect the nitrate anion remains an enigmatic species that promises to offer exciting science in years to come. Many bacteria readily reduce nitrate to nitrite via nitrate reductases. Classified into three distinct types – periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap), respiratory nitrate reductase (Nar) and assimilatory nitrate reductase (Nas), they are defined by their cellular location, operon organization and active site structure. Of these, Nap proteins are the focus of this review. Despite similarities in the catalytic and spectroscopic properties Nap from different Proteobacteria are phylogenetically distinct. This review has two major sections: in the first section, nitrate in the nitrogen cycle and human health, taxonomy of nitrate reductases, assimilatory and dissimilatory nitrate reduction, cellular locations of nitrate reductases, structural and redox chemistry are discussed. The second section focuses on the features of periplasmic nitrate reductase where the catalytic subunit of the Nap and its kinetic properties, auxiliary Nap proteins, operon structure and phylogenetic relationships are discussed. PMID:24141308

  15. Ribonucleotide Reductase Association with Mammalian Liver Mitochondria*

    PubMed Central

    Chimploy, Korakod; Song, Shiwei; Wheeler, Linda J.; Mathews, Christopher K.

    2013-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate pools in mammalian mitochondria are highly asymmetric, and this asymmetry probably contributes to the elevated mutation rate for the mitochondrial genome as compared with the nuclear genome. To understand this asymmetry, we must identify pathways for synthesis and accumulation of dNTPs within mitochondria. We have identified ribonucleotide reductase activity specifically associated with mammalian tissue mitochondria. Examination of immunoprecipitated proteins by mass spectrometry revealed R1, the large ribonucleotide reductase subunit, in purified mitochondria. Significant enzymatic and immunological activity was seen in rat liver mitochondrial nucleoids, isolated as described by Wang and Bogenhagen (Wang, Y., and Bogenhagen, D. F. (2006) J. Biol. Chem. 281, 25791–25802). Moreover, incubation of respiring rat liver mitochondria with [14C]cytidine diphosphate leads to accumulation of radiolabeled deoxycytidine and thymidine nucleotides within the mitochondria. Comparable results were seen with [14C]guanosine diphosphate. Ribonucleotide reduction within the mitochondrion, as well as outside the organelle, needs to be considered as a possibly significant contributor to mitochondrial dNTP pools. PMID:23504325

  16. Mild hyperhomocysteinemia and the common C677T polymorphism of methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase gene are not associated with the metabolic syndrome in Type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Russo, G T; Di Benedetto, A; Alessi, E; Ientile, R; Antico, A; Nicocia, G; La Scala, R; Di Cesare, E; Raimondo, G; Cucinotta, D

    2006-03-01

    A moderate increase of total homocysteine (tHcy) plasma levels seems to increase cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in Type 2 diabetic subjects, but its relationship with diabetes and insulin-resistance is still controversial. We examined whether mild hyperhomocysteinemia and its major genetic determinant would cluster with the metabolic syndrome (MS) in Type 2 diabetes. One hundred Type 2 diabetic subjects with and without MS were enrolled in the study. Fasting tHcy, vitamin B12, and folate plasma levels, insulin-resistance [assessed by homeostasis model assessment, (HOMAIR)] and the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T genotype were assessed in all the participants. Geometric mean tHcy concentration and the prevalence of mild hyperhomocysteinemia, as commonly defined by tHcy >/=15 micromol/l, were comparable in diabetic subjects with and without MS, even after adjustment for age, sex, vitamin B12, folate and creatinine levels. In both groups, the MTHFR C677T genotype distribution was not significantly different from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, with a TT homozygous frequency of 21% in subjects with and 18% in those without the syndrome (p=ns). tHcy plasma levels and the degree of insulin-resistance did not differ across MTHFR genotypes in both groups, even after multivariable adjustment. Overall, tHcy significantly correlated with creatinine (r=0.25; p=0.009) and trygliceride concentrations (r=0.24; p=0.02), but not with HOMAIR. At multivariate analysis, only creatinine was significantly correlated with tHcy levels (beta=0.42; p=0.001). In conclusion, hyperhomocysteinemia and the common C677T variant of MTHFR gene are not associated with MS in Type 2 diabetic subjects. PMID:16682831

  17. The MTHFR C677T Variant is Associated with Responsiveness to Disulfiram Treatment for Cocaine Dependency

    PubMed Central

    Spellicy, Catherine J.; Kosten, Thomas R.; Hamon, Sara C.; Harding, Mark J.; Nielsen, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Disulfiram is a one of the few pharmacotherapies for cocaine addiction that shows promise. Since disulfiram and cocaine both affect levels of global methylation we hypothesized the MTHFR gene, whose product is involved in supplying methyl groups for DNA and protein methylation, may be associated with responsiveness to disulfiram in cocaine-dependent individuals. Methods: Sixty-seven cocaine-dependent patients were stabilized on methadone for 2?weeks and then randomized into disulfiram (250?mg/day, N?=?32) and placebo groups (N?=?35) for 10?weeks. Patients were genotyped for the MTHFR (rs1801133, also known as C677T) polymorphism and the data was evaluated for association with cocaine-free urines in the disulfiram or placebo groups. Data from patients that completed all 10?weeks of the study (N?=?56) were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), corrected for population structure. Results: The CT or TT MTHFR genotype group (N?=?32) dropped from 73 to 52% cocaine-positive urines on disulfiram (p?=?0.0001), while the placebo group showed no treatment effect. The CC MTHFR genotype group (N?=?24) showed a smaller, but still significant, reduction in cocaine-positive urines on disulfiram compared to placebo; 81–69% (p?=?0.007). Conclusion: This study indicates that a patient’s MTHFR genotype may be used to identify individuals who might show improved response to disulfiram treatment for cocaine dependence. Clinical Trial: Pharmacogenetics of Disulfiram for Cocaine, clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00149630, NIDA-18197-2, NCT00149630. PMID:23335901

  18. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T gene polymorphism and essential hypertension: A meta-analysis of 10,415 subjects

    PubMed Central

    YANG, KE-MING; JIA, JIAN; MAO, LI-NA; MEN, CHEN; TANG, KANG-TING; LI, YAN-YAN; DING, HAI-XIA; ZHAN, YI-YANG

    2014-01-01

    The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T gene polymorphism has been suggested to be associated with the risk of essential hypertension (EH), however, results remain inconclusive. To investigate this association, the present meta-analysis of 27 studies including 5,418 cases and 4,997 controls was performed. The pooled odds ratio (OR) and its corresponding 95% confidence interval were calculated using the random-effects model. A significant association between the MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism and EH was found under the allelic (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.20–1.45; P=0.000), dominant (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.25–1.55; P=0.000), recessive (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.18–1.62; P=0.000), homozygote (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.32–1.92; P=0.000), and heterozygote (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.20–1.45; P=0.000) genetic models. A strong association was also revealed in subgroups, including Asian, Caucasian and Chinese. The Japanese subgroup did not show any significant association under all models. Meta-regression analyses suggested that the study design was a potential source of heterogeneity, whereas the subgroup analysis additionally indicated that the population origin may also be an explanation. Another subgroup analysis revealed that hospital-based studies have a stronger association than population-based studies, however, the former suffered a greater heterogeneity. Funnel plot and Egger’s test manifested no evidence of publication bias. In conclusion, the present study supports the evidence for the association between the MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism and EH in the whole population, as well as in subgroups, such as Asian, Caucasian and Chinese. The carriers of the 677T allele are susceptible to EH. PMID:25054014

  19. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene A1298C polymorphism in pediatric stroke--case-control and family-based study.

    PubMed

    Balcerzyk, Anna; Niemiec, Pawe?; Kopyta, Ilona; Emich-Widera, Ewa; Pilarska, Ewa; Pienczk-R?c?awowicz, Karolina; Kaci?ski, Marek; Wendorff, Janusz; ?ak, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    Moderate hyperhomocysteinemia is one of the risk factors of pediatric stroke. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is an important enzyme, which regulates homocysteine metabolism, and some polymorphisms of gene encoding this enzyme are associated with a decreased activity of the enzyme. The aim of the study was to assess an association between the A1298C polymorphism and pediatric stroke. We also evaluated a possible synergistic effect of A1298C and C677T polymorphisms of this gene. The study group consisted of 88 children after ischemic stroke, 142 of their parents and 111 controls. The A1298C polymorphism was genotyped using the restriction fragment length polymorphism method. We used 2 study designs: a case-control model and a family-based association test. The Statistica 7.1 and EpiInfo 6 softwares were used in all analyses. We did not observe any statistically significant differences either in the transmission of the A allele in the family-based test or in the frequency of the A allele in the patients group compared with the controls. We also did not notice any significant additive or synergistic effects between the A1298C and C677T polymorphisms. An analysis of the results obtained in this study and a critical review of previously published studies indicate that the A1298C polymorphism of the MTHFR gene is not related to ischemic stroke in children. PMID:25440348

  20. Polymorphic variants of cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6.4-CYP2B6.9) exhibit altered rates of metabolism for bupropion and efavirenz: a charge-reversal mutation in the K139E variant (CYP2B6.8) impairs formation of a functional cytochrome p450-reductase complex.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haoming; Sridar, Chitra; Kenaan, Cesar; Amunugama, Hemali; Ballou, David P; Hollenberg, Paul F

    2011-09-01

    In this study, metabolism of bupropion, efavirenz, and 7-ethoxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin (7-EFC) by CYP2B6 wild type (CYP2B6.1) and six polymorphic variants (CYP2B6.4 to CYP2B6.9) was investigated in a reconstituted system to gain a better understanding of the effects of the mutations on the catalytic properties of these naturally occurring variants. All six variants were successfully overexpressed in Escherichia coli, including CYP2B6.8 (the K139E variant), which previously could not be overexpressed in mammalian COS-1 cells (J Pharmacol Exp Ther 311:34-43, 2004). The steady-state turnover rates for the hydroxylation of bupropion and efavirenz and the O-deethylation of 7-EFC showed that these mutations significantly alter the catalytic activities of CYP2B6. It was found that CYP2B6.6 exhibits 4- and 27-fold increases in the K(m) values for the hydroxylation of bupropion and efavirenz, respectively, and CYP2B6.8 completely loses its ability to metabolize any of the substrates under normal turnover conditions. However, compared with CYP2B6.1, CYP2B6.8 retains 77% of its 7-EFC O-deethylase activity in the presence of tert-butyl hydroperoxide as an alternative oxidant, indicating that the heme and the active site are catalytically competent. Presteady-state measurements of the rate of electron transfer from NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) to CYP2B6.8 using stopped-flow spectrophotometry revealed that CYP2B6.8 is incapable of accepting electrons from CPR. These observations provide conclusive evidence suggesting that the charge-reversal mutation in the K139E variant prevents CYP2B6.8 from forming a functional complex with CPR. Results from this work provide further insights to better understand the genotype-phenotype correlation regarding CYP2B6 polymorphisms and drug metabolism. PMID:21659470

  1. Engineering towards Nitroreductase Functionality in Ene-Reductase Scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Park, Jonathan T; Gómez Ramos, Lizzette M; Bommarius, Andreas S

    2015-03-23

    Nitroreductases (NRs) and ene-reductases (ERs) both utilize flavin mononucleotide cofactors but catalyze distinct reactions. NRs reduce nitroaromatics, whereas ERs reduce unsaturated C?C double bonds, and these functionalities are known to somewhat overlap. Recent studies on the ER xenobiotic reductase A (XenA) from Pseudomonas putida demonstrated the possibility of increasing NR activity with active site modifications. Structural comparison between NRs and ERs led us to hypothesize that active site cavity size plays an important role in determining enzyme functionality. Residues of ER KYE1 from Kluyveromyces lactis were selected to increase the binding pocket size, compensate for hydrogen bonding pattern changes, and eliminate ER activity. Single variants were screened, and promising mutations were combined. Variant F296A/Y275A showed a 100-fold improvement in NR specific activity over wild-type, and variant H191A/F296A/Y375A exhibited complete conversion to a NR. PMID:25703443

  2. Effect of MTHFR Polymorphisms on Hyperhomocysteinemia in Levodopa-treated Parkinsonian Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Caccamo; G. Gorgone; M. Currò; G. Parisi; W. Di Iorio; C. Menichetti; V. Belcastro; L. Parnetti; A. Rossi; F. Pisani; R. Ientile; P. Calabresi

    2007-01-01

    High plasma homocysteine levels have been observed in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients treated with levodopa. In this study,\\u000a we investigated the effects of C677T and A1298C MTHFR polymorphisms, in association with l-DOPA daily dose and vitamin status, on hyperhomocysteinemia development in PD patients. Plasma homocysteine and folate\\/vitamin\\u000a B12 levels were assayed in 49 l-DOPA-treated PD patients, and compared with those

  3. The aldo-keto reductases (AKRs): Overview.

    PubMed

    Penning, Trevor M

    2014-10-01

    The aldo-keto reductase (AKR) protein superfamily contains >190 members that fall into 16 families and are found in all phyla. These enzymes reduce carbonyl substrates such as: sugar aldehydes; keto-steroids, keto-prostaglandins, retinals, quinones, and lipid peroxidation by-products. Exceptions include the reduction of steroid double bonds catalyzed by AKR1D enzymes (5?-reductases); and the oxidation of proximate carcinogen trans-dihydrodiol polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; while the ?-subunits of potassium gated ion channels (AKR6 family) control Kv channel opening. AKRs are usually 37kDa monomers, have an (?/?)8-barrel motif, display large loops at the back of the barrel which govern substrate specificity, and have a conserved cofactor binding domain. AKRs catalyze an ordered bi bi kinetic mechanism in which NAD(P)H cofactor binds first and leaves last. In enzymes that favor NADPH, the rate of release of NADP(+) is governed by a slow isomerization step which places an upper limit on kcat. AKRs retain a conserved catalytic tetrad consisting of Tyr55, Asp50, Lys84, and His117 (AKR1C9 numbering). There is conservation of the catalytic mechanism with short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs) even though they show different protein folds. There are 15 human AKRs of these AKR1B1, AKR1C1-1C3, AKR1D1, and AKR1B10 have been implicated in diabetic complications, steroid hormone dependent malignancies, bile acid deficiency and defects in retinoic acid signaling, respectively. Inhibitor programs exist world-wide to target each of these enzymes to treat the aforementioned disorders. Inherited mutations in AKR1C and AKR1D1 enzymes are implicated in defects in the development of male genitalia and bile acid deficiency, respectively, and occur in evolutionarily conserved amino acids. The human AKRs have a large number of nsSNPs and splice variants, but in many instances functional genomics is lacking. AKRs and their variants are now poised to be interrogated using modern genomic and informatics approaches to determine their association with human health and disease. PMID:25304492

  4. Association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism and serum lipid profiles is still controversial in diverse ethnics. Bai Ku Yao is an isolated subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The aim of the present study was to eveluate the association of MTHFR C677T polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 780 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 686 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the MTHFR C677T was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) AI and ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.05-0.001). The frequency of C and T alleles was 77.4% and 22.6% in Bai Ku Yao, and 60.9% and 39.1% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The frequency of CC, CT and TT genotypes was 58.7%, 37.3% and 4.0% in Bai Ku Yao, and 32.6%, 56.4% and 11.0% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The levels of TC and LDL-C in both ethnic groups were significant differences among the three genotypes (P < 0.05-0.01). The T allele carriers had higher serum TC and LDL-C levels than the T allele noncarriers. The levels of ApoB in Han were significant differences among the three genotypes (P < 0.05). The T allele carriers had higher serum ApoB levels as compared with the T allele noncarriers. The levels of TC, TG and LDL-C in Bai Ku Yao were correlated with genotypes (P < 0.05-0.001), whereas the levels of LDL-C in Han were associated with genotypes (P < 0.001). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with sex, age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and blood pressure in the both ethnic groups. Conclusions The differences in serum TC, TG, LDL-C and ApoB levels between the two ethnic groups might partly result from different genotypic and allelic frequencies of the MTHFR C677T or different MTHFR gene-enviromental interactions. PMID:20977771

  5. TPMT and MTHFR genotype is not associated with altered risk of thioguanine-related sinusoidal obstruction syndrome in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    PubMed

    Wray, Lisa; Vujkovic, Marijana; McWilliams, Thomas; Cannon, Shannon; Devidas, Meenakshi; Stork, Linda; Aplenc, Richard

    2014-11-01

    Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome is a complication of therapy for pediatric ALL and may be modified by thiopurine methyltransferase activity as well as by MTHFR genotype. We assessed TPMT *3A, *3B, *3C, and MTHFR C677T and A1298C germline genetic polymorphisms among 351 patients enrolled in the thioguanine treatment arm of CCG-1952 clinical trial. TPMT and MTHFR C677T genotypes were not associated with SOS risk. The combination of MTHFR and TPMT variant genotypes was not associated with SOS risk. These suggest that germline genetic variation in TPMT and MTHFR do not significantly alter SOS risk in patients exposed to thioguanine. PMID:24737678

  6. Quantification of key red blood cell folates from subjects with defined MTHFR 677C>T genotypes using stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yuehua; Khartulyari, Stefanie; Morales, Megan E.; Stanislawska-Sachadyn, Anna; Von Feldt, Joan M.; Whitehead, Alexander S.; Blair, Ian A.

    2014-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) folate levels are established at the time of erythropoiesis and therefore provide a surrogate biomarker for the average folate status of an individual over the preceding four months. Folates are present as folylpolyglutamates, highly polar molecules that cannot be secreted from the RBCs, and must be converted into their monoglutamate forms prior to analysis. This was accomplished using an individual’s plasma pteroylpolyglutamate hydrolase by lysing the RBCs in whole blood at pH 5 in the presence of ascorbic acid. Quantitative conversion of formylated tetrahydrofolate derivatives into the stable 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate (5,10-MTHF) form was conducted at pH 1.5 in the presence of [13C5]-5-formyltetrahydrofolate. The resulting [13C5]-5,10-MTHF was then used as an internal standard for the formylated forms of tetrahydrofolate that had been converted into 5,10-MTHF as well any 5,10-MTHF that had been present in the original sample. A stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring/mass spectrometry method was validated and then used for the accurate and precise quantification of RBC folic acid, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF), tetrahydrofolate (THF), and 5,10-MTHF. The method was sensitive and robust and was used to assess the relationship between different methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T genotypes and RBC folate phenotypes. Four distinct RBC folate phenotypes could be identified. These were classified according to the relative amounts of individual RBC folates as type I (5-MTHF >95%; THF <5%; 5,10-MTHF <5%), type II (5-MTHF <95%; THF 5% to 20%; 5,10-MTHF <5%), type III (5-MTHF >55%; THF >20%; 5,10-MTHF >5%), and type IV (5-MTHF <55%; THF >20%; 5,10-MTHF >5%). PMID:18634122

  7. MTHFR polymorphisms C677T and A1298C and associations with IVF outcomes in Brazilian women.

    PubMed

    D'Elia, Priscila Queiroz; dos Santos, Aline Amaro; Bianco, Bianca; Barbosa, Caio Parente; Christofolini, Denise Maria; Aoki, Tsutomu

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MTHFR gene polymorphisms and IVF outcomes in Brazilian women undergoing assisted reproduction treatment. A prospective study was conducted in the Human Reproduction Department at the ABC University School of Medicine and the Ideia Fertility Institute between December 2010 and April 2012. The patient population was 82 women undergoing assisted reproduction cycles. The MTHFR polymorphisms C677T and A1298C were evaluated and compared with laboratory results and pregnancy rates. The C677T variant was associated with proportions of mature (P=0.006) and immature (P=0.003) oocytes whereas the A1298C variant was associated with number of oocytes retrieved (P=0.044). The polymorphisms, whether alone or in combination, were not associated with normal fertilization, good-quality embryo or clinical pregnancy rates. This study suggests that the number and maturity of oocytes retrieved may be related to the MTHFR polymorphisms C677T and A1298C. It is believed that folate has a crucial function in human reproduction and that folate deficiency can compromise the function of the metabolic pathways it is involved in, leading to an accumulation of homocysteine. The gene MTHFR encodes the 5-MTHFR enzyme, which is involved in folate metabolism, and C677T/A1298C polymorphisms of this gene are related to decreased enzyme activity and consequent changes in homocysteine concentration. Folate deficiency and hyperhomocysteinaemia can also compromise fertility and lead to pregnancy complications by affecting the development of oocytes, preparation of endometrial receptivity, implantation of the embryo and pregnancy. In folliculogenesis, hyperhomocysteinaemia can activate apoptosis, leading to follicular atresia and affecting the maturity of oocytes and the quality of embryos cultured in vitro. This study was performed to investigate the association between MTHFR polymorphisms and IVF outcomes in women undergoing assisted reproduction treatment. PMID:24746944

  8. MTHFR C677T Gene Polymorphism and Head and Neck Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis Based on 23 Publications

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Yu-Ming; Deng, Mo-Hong; Chen, Wen; Zeng, Xian-Tao; Luo, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Conflicting results on the association between MTHFR polymorphism and head and neck cancer (HNC) risk were reported. We therefore performed a meta-analysis to derive a more precise relationship between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and HNC risk. Methods. Three online databases of PubMed, Embase, and CNKI were researched on the associations between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and HNC risk. Twenty-three published case-control studies involving 4,955 cases and 8,805 controls were collected. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to evaluate the relationship between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and HNC risk. Sensitivity analysis, cumulative analyses, and publication bias were conducted to validate the strength of the results. Results. Overall, no significant association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and HNC risk was found in this meta-analysis (T versus C: OR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.92–1.18; TT versus CC: OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 0.90–1.46; CT versus CC: OR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.85–1.17; CT + TT versus CC: OR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.87–1.18; TT versus CC + CT: OR = 1.11, 95% CI = 0.98–1.26). In the subgroup analysis by HWE, ethnicity, study design, cancer location, and negative significant associations were detected in almost all genetic models, except for few significant risks that were found in thyroid cancer. Conclusion. This meta-analysis demonstrates that MTHFR C677T polymorphism may not be a risk factor for the developing of HNC.

  9. Genetic Variability in the MTHFR gene and colorectal cancer risk using the Colorectal Cancer Family Registry

    PubMed Central

    Levine, A. Joan; Figueiredo, Jane C.; Lee, Won; Poynter, Jenny N.; Conti, David; Duggan, David J; Campbell, Peter T.; Newcomb, Polly; Martinez, Maria Elena; Hopper, John L.; Le Marchand, Loic; Baron, John A.; Limburg, Paul J.; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Haile, Robert W

    2009-01-01

    Background The MTHFR C677T TT genotype is associated with a 15%–18% reduction in colorectal cancer (CRC) risk but it is not clear if other variants of the gene are associated with CRC risk. Methods We used a tagSNP approach to comprehensively evaluate associations between variation in the MTHFR gene and CRC risk using a large family-based case control study of 1,750 population-based and 245 clinic-based families from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR).We assessed 22 TagSNPs, selected based on pairwise r2>95%, using Haploview Tagger and genotyped on the Illumina GoldenGate or Sequenom platforms. The association between SNPs and colorectal cancer was assessed using log additive, co-dominant, and recessive models. Results From studying the population-based families, the C677T (rs1801133) and A1298C (rs1801131) polymorphisms were associated with a decreased CRC risk overall (OR=0.81, 95% CI=0.63–1.04 and OR=0.82, 95% CI=0.64–1.07, respectively). The 677 TT genotype was associated with a decreased risk of microsatellite stable/microsatellite low tumors (OR=0.69, 95% CI=0.49–0.97) and an increased risk of microsatellite high tumors (OR= 2.22, 95% CI=0.91–5.43) (interaction p-value = 0.01), as well as an increased risk of proximal cancers and a decreased risk of distal and rectal cancers (interaction p-value = 0.02). No other SNP was associated with risk overall or within subgroups. Conclusion The 677 TT and 1298 CC genotypes may each be associated with a decrease in CRC risk. We observed little evidence of additional genetic variability in the MTHFR gene relevant to CRC risk. PMID:20056627

  10. The prenyltransferase UBIAD1 is the target of geranylgeraniol in degradation of HMG CoA reductase

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Marc M; Elsabrouty, Rania; Seemann, Joachim; Jo, Youngah; DeBose-Boyd, Russell A

    2015-01-01

    Schnyder corneal dystrophy (SCD) is an autosomal dominant disorder in humans characterized by abnormal accumulation of cholesterol in the cornea. SCD-associated mutations have been identified in the gene encoding UBIAD1, a prenyltransferase that synthesizes vitamin K2. Here, we show that sterols stimulate binding of UBIAD1 to the cholesterol biosynthetic enzyme HMG CoA reductase, which is subject to sterol-accelerated, endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation augmented by the nonsterol isoprenoid geranylgeraniol through an unknown mechanism. Geranylgeraniol inhibits binding of UBIAD1 to reductase, allowing its degradation and promoting transport of UBIAD1 from the ER to the Golgi. CRISPR-CAS9-mediated knockout of UBIAD1 relieves the geranylgeraniol requirement for reductase degradation. SCD-associated mutations in UBIAD1 block its displacement from reductase in the presence of geranylgeraniol, thereby preventing degradation of reductase. The current results identify UBIAD1 as the elusive target of geranylgeraniol in reductase degradation, the inhibition of which may contribute to accumulation of cholesterol in SCD. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05560.001 PMID:25742604

  11. Fatty acyl-CoA reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Reiser, Steven E.; Somerville, Chris R.

    1998-12-01

    The present invention relates to bacterial enzymes, in particular to an acyl-CoA reductase and a gene encoding an acyl-CoA reductase, the amino acid and nucleic acid sequences corresponding to the reductase polypeptide and gene, respectively, and to methods of obtaining such enzymes, amino acid sequences and nucleic acid sequences. The invention also relates to the use of such sequences to provide transgenic host cells capable of producing fatty alcohols and fatty aldehydes.

  12. Methylation loss at H19 imprinted gene correlates withmethylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene promoter hypermethylation in semen samples from infertile males

    PubMed Central

    Rotondo, John C; Selvatici, Rita; Di Domenico, Maura; Marci, Roberto; Vesce, Fortunato; Tognon, Mauro; Martini, Fernanda

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant methylation at the H19 paternal imprinted gene has been identified in different cohorts of infertile males. The causes of H19 methylation errors are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the methylation status of the H19 gene in semen DNA samples from infertile males affected by MTHFR gene promoter hypermethylation. DNA from normal and abnormal semen samples harbouring MTHFR gene promoter hypermethylated, hmMTHFR-nor and hmMTHFR-abn, and without MTHFR methylation, MTHFR-nor and MTHFR-abn, were investigated for methylation status in the H19 locus using bisulfite-treated DNA PCR, followed by cloning and sequencing. The prevalence of H19 hypomethylated clones was 20% in hmMTHFR-nor and 0% in MTHFR-nor semen samples (p < 0.05), and 28% in hmMTHFR-abn compared with 16% in MTHFR-abn semen samples (p > 0.05). These results underscore the association between H19 methylation defects and hypermethylation of the MTHFR gene promoter in normal semen samples and suggest that aberrant methylation at H19 may occur in the normal sperm of infertile males affected by MTHFR gene dysfunction. These findings provide new insights into the mechanisms causing abnormal methylation in imprinted genes and, in turn, male infertility. PMID:23975186

  13. 21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...reductase assay. (a) Identification. A glutathione reductase assay is a device used to determine the activity of the enzyme glutathione reductase in serum, plasma, or erythrocytes by such techniques as fluorescence and photometry. The...

  14. 21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...reductase assay. (a) Identification. A glutathione reductase assay is a device used to determine the activity of the enzyme glutathione reductase in serum, plasma, or erythrocytes by such techniques as fluorescence and photometry. The...

  15. The Effect of MTHFR Ala222Val Polymorphism on Open-angle Glaucoma: A Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Rong; Yin, Dongchen; Wang, Enpu; Si, Bingxin

    2015-03-01

    Abstract Glaucoma is the second leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide, among which primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common form of glaucoma in some populations. To date, published data on the association between MTHFR (Ala222Val) polymorphism and POAG risk are still inconclusive. In this work, we performed a meta-analysis of available case-control study in order to assess the association between MTHFR (Ala222Val) polymorphism and POAG susceptibility. In total we compiled 13 studies (1970 POAG patients and 1712 control subjects) into the meta-analysis. Overall, no obvious associations between MTHFR (Ala222Val) polymorphism and POAG susceptibility was found under all four genetic models (Val/Val versus Ala/Ala: OR?=?1.05, 95% CI?=?0.77-1.43; Ala/Val versus Ala/Ala: OR?=?1.05, 95% CI?=?0.86-1.26; Ala/Val + Val/Val versus Ala/Ala: OR?=?1.08, 95% CI?=?0.87-1.34; Val/Val versus Ala/Val + Ala/Ala: OR?=?1.14, 95% CI?=?0.67-1.92). In the stratified analysis by ethnicity, significant associations were still not observed in all genetic models. In conclusion, based on 13 eligible studies, the result provided strong evidences that MTHFR Ala222Val polymorphism is not associated with POAG. PMID:25317717

  16. A Hypomethylating Variant of MTHFR, 677C.T, Blunts the Neural Response to Errors in Patients with

    E-print Network

    Manoach, Dara S.

    A Hypomethylating Variant of MTHFR, 677C.T, Blunts the Neural Response to Errors in Patients Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts, United States of America Abstract Background: Responding to errors is a critical first step

  17. Association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and congenital heart disease : A family-based meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Jun, Y; Zhong-Bao, R; Jie, L; Jian-Ming, L

    2014-09-27

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common type of birth defect. It is suspected that polymorphisms in folate metabolism are associated with an increased risk of CHD, but the conclusion remains unclear. Studies have reported that the MTHFR C677T polymorphism was associated with the development of structural congenital heart malformations. The objective of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis of available studies to identify common polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene in children with CHD and their mothers and to test for an association between genotype and disease. In all, 19 eligible studies comprising 4,219 cases and 20,123 controls were included in this meta-analysis. A significant association was found between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and CHD risk (OR: 1.26; 95?% CI =?1.06-1.51; p?=?0.009) with no strong evidence of heterogeneity (I(2)?=?39?%) in the fetal analysis. In the maternal analysis, the MTHFR C677T polymorphism was significantly associated with CHD risk (OR =?1.52; 95?% CI =? 1.09-2.11; p?=?0.01) with significant heterogeneity (I(2)?=?63?%). PMID:25256053

  18. Role of aldo-keto reductase family 1 (AKR1) enzymes in human steroid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Rižner, Tea Lanišnik; Penning, Trevor M

    2014-01-01

    Human aldo-keto reductases AKR1C1-AKR1C4 and AKR1D1 play essential roles in the metabolism of all steroid hormones, the biosynthesis of neurosteroids and bile acids, the metabolism of conjugated steroids, and synthetic therapeutic steroids. These enzymes catalyze NADPH dependent reductions at the C3, C5, C17 and C20 positions on the steroid nucleus and side-chain. AKR1C1-AKR1C4 act as 3-keto, 17-keto and 20-ketosteroid reductases to varying extents, while AKR1D1 acts as the sole ?(4)-3-ketosteroid-5?-reductase (steroid 5?-reductase) in humans. AKR1 enzymes control the concentrations of active ligands for nuclear receptors and control their ligand occupancy and trans-activation, they also regulate the amount of neurosteroids that can modulate the activity of GABAA and NMDA receptors. As such they are involved in the pre-receptor regulation of nuclear and membrane bound receptors. Altered expression of individual AKR1C genes is related to development of prostate, breast, and endometrial cancer. Mutations in AKR1C1 and AKR1C4 are responsible for sexual development dysgenesis and mutations in AKR1D1 are causative in bile-acid deficiency. PMID:24189185

  19. Role of Aldo-Keto Reductase Family 1 (AKR1) Enzymes in Human Steroid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Rižner, Tea Lanišnik; Penning, Trevor M.

    2013-01-01

    Human aldo-keto reductases AKR1C1-AKR1C4 and AKR1D1 play essential roles in the metabolism of all steroid hormones, the biosynthesis of neurosteroids and bile acids, the metabolism of conjugated steroids, and synthetic therapeutic steroids. These enzymes catalyze NADPH dependent reductions at the C3, C5, C17 and C20 positions on the steroid nucleus and side-chain. AKR1C1-AKR1C4 act as 3-keto, 17-keto and 20-ketosteroid reductases to varying extents, while AKR1D1 acts as the sole ?4-3-ketosteroid-5?-reductase (steroid 5?-reductase) in humans. AKR1 enzymes control the concentrations of active ligands for nuclear receptors and control their ligand occupancy and trans-activation, they also regulate the amount of neurosteroids that can modulate the activity of GABAA and NMDA receptors. As such they are involved in the pre-receptor regulation of nuclear and membrane bound receptors. Altered expression of individual AKR1C genes is related to development of prostate, breast, and endometrial cancer. Mutations in AKR1C1 and AKR1C4 are responsible for sexual development dysgenesis and mutations in AKR1D1 are causative in bile-acid deficiency. PMID:24189185

  20. Effect of Mutation on Enzyme Motion in Dihydrofolate James B. Watney, Pratul K. Agarwal, and Sharon Hammes-Schiffer*

    E-print Network

    Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    Effect of Mutation on Enzyme Motion in Dihydrofolate Reductase James B. Watney, Pratul K. Agarwal- folate reductase enzyme are presented. Although residue 121 is on the exterior of the enzyme for the mutant than for the wild-type enzyme by an amount that is consistent with the experimentally observed

  1. Phenotypic classification of male pseudohermaphroditism due to steroid 5{alpha}-reductase 2 deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Sinnecker, G.H.G; Hiort, O.; Kruse, K.; Dibbelt, L. [Medical Univ. of Luebeck (Germany)] [and others] [Medical Univ. of Luebeck (Germany); and others

    1996-05-03

    Conversion of testosterone (T) to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in genital tissue is catalysed by the enzyme 5{alpha}-reductase 2, which is encoded by the SRD5A2 gene. The potent androgen DHT is required for full masculinization of the external genitalia. Mutations of the SRD5A2 gene inhibit enzyme activity, diminish DHT formation, and hence cause masculinization defects of varying degree. The classical syndrome, formerly described as pseudovaginal perineoscrotal hypospadias, is characterized by a predominantly female phenotype at birth and significant virilization without gynecomastia at puberty. We investigated nine patients with steroid 5{alpha}-reductase 2 deficiency (SRD). T/DHT-ratios were highly increased in the classical syndrome, but variable in the less severe affected patients. Mutations in the SRD5A2 gene had been characterized using PCR-SSCP analysis and direct DNA sequencing. A small deletion was encountered in two patients, while all other patients had single base mutations which result in amino acid substitutions. We conclude that phenotypes may vary widely in patients with SRD5A2 gene mutations spanning the whole range from completely female to normal male without distinctive clinical signs of the disease. Hence, steroid 5{alpha}-reductase deficiency should be considered not only in sex reversed patients with female or ambiguous phenotypes, but also in those with mild symptoms of undermasculinization as encountered in patients with hypospadias and/or micropenis. A classification based on the severity of the masculinization defect may be used for correlation of phenotypes with enzyme activities and genotypes, and for comparisons of phenotypes between different patients as the basis for clinical decisions to be made in patients with pseudohermaphroditism due to steroid 5{alpha}-reductase 2 deficiency. 22 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Common folate gene variant, MTHFR C677T, is associated with brain structure in two independent cohorts of people with mild cognitive impairment?

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopalan, Priya; Jahanshad, Neda; Stein, Jason L.; Hua, Xue; Madsen, Sarah K.; Kohannim, Omid; Hibar, Derrek P.; Toga, Arthur W.; Jack, Clifford R.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Green, Robert C.; Weiner, Michael W.; Bis, Joshua C.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Riverol, Mario; Becker, James T.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    A commonly carried C677T polymorphism in a folate-related gene, MTHFR, is associated with higher plasma homocysteine, a well-known mediator of neuronal damage and brain atrophy. As homocysteine promotes brain atrophy, we set out to discover whether people carrying the C677T MTHFR polymorphism which increases homocysteine, might also show systematic differences in brain structure. Using tensor-based morphometry, we tested this association in 359 elderly Caucasian subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (mean age: 75 ± 7.1 years) scanned with brain MRI and genotyped as part of Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. We carried out a replication study in an independent, non-overlapping sample of 51 elderly Caucasian subjects with MCI (mean age: 76 ± 5.5 years), scanned with brain MRI and genotyped for MTHFR, as part of the Cardiovascular Health Study. At each voxel in the brain, we tested to see where regional volume differences were associated with carrying one or more MTHFR ‘T’ alleles. In ADNI subjects, carriers of the MTHFR risk allele had detectable brain volume deficits, in the white matter, of up to 2–8% per risk T allele locally at baseline and showed accelerated brain atrophy of 0.5–1.5% per T allele at 1 year follow-up, after adjusting for age and sex. We replicated these brain volume deficits of up to 5–12% per MTHFR T allele in the independent cohort of CHS subjects. As expected, the associations weakened after controlling for homocysteine levels, which the risk gene affects. The MTHFR risk variant may thus promote brain atrophy by elevating homocysteine levels. This study aims to investigate the spatially detailed effects of this MTHFR polymorphism on brain structure in 3D, pointing to a causal pathway that may promote homocysteine-mediated brain atrophy in elderly people with MCI. PMID:24179750

  3. The KC Channel in the cbb3-Type Respiratory Oxygen Reductase from Rhodobacter capsulatus Is Required for Both Chemical and Pumped Protons

    PubMed Central

    Y?ld?z, Gülgez Gökçe; Gennis, Robert B.; Daldal, Fevzi

    2014-01-01

    The heme-copper superfamily of proton-pumping respiratory oxygen reductases are classified into three families (A, B, and C families) based on structural and phylogenetic analyses. Most studies have focused on the A family, which includes the eukaryotic mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase as well as many bacterial homologues. Members of the C family, also called the cbb3-type oxygen reductases, are found only in prokaryotes and are of particular interest because of their presence in a number of human pathogens. All of the heme-copper oxygen reductases require proton-conducting channels to convey chemical protons to the active site for water formation and to convey pumped protons across the membrane. Previous work indicated that there is only one proton-conducting input channel (the KC channel) present in the cbb3-type oxygen reductases, which, if correct, must be utilized by both chemical protons and pumped protons. In this work, the effects of mutations in the KC channel of the cbb3-type oxygen reductase from Rhodobacter capsulatus were investigated by expressing the mutants in a strain lacking other respiratory oxygen reductases. Proton pumping was evaluated by using intact cells, and catalytic oxygen reductase activity was measured in isolated membranes. Two mutations, N346M and Y374F, severely reduced catalytic activity, presumably by blocking the chemical protons required at the active site. One mutation, T272A, resulted in a substantially lower proton-pumping stoichiometry but did not inhibit oxygen reductase activity. These are the first experimental data in support of the postulate that pumped protons are taken up from the bacterial cytoplasm through the KC channel. PMID:24563037

  4. Inefficient Translation Renders the Enterococcus faecalis fabK Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase Phenotypically Cryptic

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Hongkai; Zhu, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Enoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase catalyzes the last step of the bacterial fatty acid elongation cycle. Enterococcus faecalis is unusual in that it encodes two unrelated enoyl-ACP reductases, FabI and FabK. We recently reported that deletion of the gene encoding FabI results in an unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) auxotroph despite the presence of fabK, a gene encoding a second fully functional enoyl-ACP reductase. By process of elimination, our prior report argued that poor expression was the reason that fabK failed to functionally replace FabI. We now report that FabK is indeed poorly expressed and that the expression defect is at the level of translation rather than transcription. We isolated four spontaneous mutants that allowed growth of the E. faecalis ?fabI strain on fatty acid-free medium. Each mutational lesion (single base substitution or deletion) extended the fabK ribosome binding site. Inactivation of fabK blocked growth, indicating that the mutations acted only on fabK rather than a downstream gene. The mutations activated fabK translation to levels that supported fatty acid synthesis and hence cell growth. Furthermore, site-directed and random mutagenesis experiments showed that point mutations that resulted in increased complementarity to the 3? end of the 16S rRNA increased FabK translation to levels sufficient to support growth, whereas mutations that decreased complementarity blocked fabK translation. PMID:24163335

  5. Structure of a bacterial homolog of vitamin K epoxide reductase

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weikai; Schulman, Sol; Dutton, Rachel J.; Boyd, Dana; Beckwith, Jon; Rapoport, Tom A.

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) generates vitamin K hydroquinone to sustain ?-carboxylation of many blood coagulation factors. Here, we report the 3.6Å crystal structure of a bacterial homolog of VKOR from Synechococcus sp. The structure shows VKOR in complex with its naturally fused redox partner, a thioredoxin-like domain, and corresponds to an arrested state of electron transfer. The catalytic core of VKOR is a four transmembrane helix bundle that surrounds a quinone, connected through an additional transmembrane segment with the periplasmic thioredoxin-like domain. We propose a pathway for how VKOR uses electrons from newly synthesized proteins to reduce a quinone, a mechanism confirmed by in vitro reconstitution of vitamin K-dependent disulfide bridge formation. Our results have implications for the mechanism of the mammalian VKOR and explain how mutations can cause resistance to the VKOR inhibitor warfarin, the most commonly used oral anticoagulant. PMID:20110994

  6. Current Biology, Vol. 15, 19611967, November 8, 2005, 2005 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved. DOI 10.1016/j.cub.2005.09.043 The HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitor Lovastatin

    E-print Network

    Silva, Alcino

    and Discussion The key pathophysiologic mechanism underlying NF1 mutations in both mice [4, 11­13] and humans [14 10.1016/j.cub.2005.09.043 The HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitor Lovastatin Reverses the Learning caused by mutations in the gene en- coding Neurofibromin, a p21Ras GTPase Activating Protein (GAP) [1

  7. Tissue distribution and ontogeny of steroid 5 alpha-reductase isozyme expression.

    PubMed Central

    Thigpen, A E; Silver, R I; Guileyardo, J M; Casey, M L; McConnell, J D; Russell, D W

    1993-01-01

    The synthesis of dihydrotestosterone is catalyzed by steroid 5 alpha-reductase isozymes, designated types 1 and 2. Mutation of type 2 results in male pseudohermaphroditism, in which the external genitalia are phenotypically female at birth. Two striking and unexplained features of this disorder are that external genitalia of affected males undergo virilization during puberty and that these individuals have less temporal hair regression. The tissue-specific and developmental expression patterns of the 5 alpha-reductase isozymes were investigated by immunoblotting. The type 1 isozyme is not detectable in the fetus, is transiently expressed in newborn skin and scalp, and permanently expressed in skin from the time of puberty. There was no qualitative difference in 5 alpha-reductase type 1 expression between adult balding vs. nonbalding scalp. The type 2 isozyme is transiently expressed in skin and scalp of newborns. Type 2 is the predominant isozyme detectable in fetal genital skin, male accessory sex glands, and in the prostate, including benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate adenocarcinoma tissues. Both isozymes are expressed in the liver, but only after birth. These results are consistent with 5 alpha-reductase type 1 being responsible for virilization in type 2-deficient subjects during puberty, and suggest that the type 2 isozyme may be an initiating factor in development of male pattern baldness. Images PMID:7688765

  8. The NosX and NirX Proteins of Paracoccus denitrificans Are Functional Homologues: Their Role in Maturation of Nitrous Oxide Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Neil F. W.; Hornberg, Jorrit J.; Reijnders, Willem N. M.; Westerhoff, Hans V.; de Vries, Simon; van Spanning, Rob J. M.

    2000-01-01

    The nos (nitrous oxide reductase) operon of Paracoccus denitrificans contains a nosX gene homologous to those found in the nos operons of other denitrifiers. NosX is also homologous to NirX, which is so far unique to P. denitrificans. Single mutations of these genes did not result in any apparent phenotype, but a double nosX nirX mutant was unable to reduce nitrous oxide. Promoter-lacZ assays and immunoblotting against nitrous oxide reductase showed that the defect was not due to failure of expression of nosZ, the structural gene for nitrous oxide reductase. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that nitrous oxide reductase in cells of the double mutant lacked the CuA center. A twin-arginine motif in both NosX and NirX suggests that the NosX proteins are exported to the periplasm via the TAT translocon. PMID:10960107

  9. Atomic Structure of Salutaridine Reductase from the Opium Poppy (Papaver somniferum)

    SciTech Connect

    Higashi, Yasuhiro; Kutchan, Toni M.; Smith, Thomas J. (Danforth)

    2011-11-18

    The opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) is one of the oldest known medicinal plants. In the biosynthetic pathway for morphine and codeine, salutaridine is reduced to salutaridinol by salutaridine reductase (SalR; EC 1.1.1.248) using NADPH as coenzyme. Here, we report the atomic structure of SalR to a resolution of {approx}1.9 {angstrom} in the presence of NADPH. The core structure is highly homologous to other members of the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase family. The major difference is that the nicotinamide moiety and the substrate-binding pocket are covered by a loop (residues 265-279), on top of which lies a large 'flap'-like domain (residues 105-140). This configuration appears to be a combination of the two common structural themes found in other members of the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase family. Previous modeling studies suggested that substrate inhibition is due to mutually exclusive productive and nonproductive modes of substrate binding in the active site. This model was tested via site-directed mutagenesis, and a number of these mutations abrogated substrate inhibition. However, the atomic structure of SalR shows that these mutated residues are instead distributed over a wide area of the enzyme, and many are not in the active site. To explain how residues distal to the active site might affect catalysis, a model is presented whereby SalR may undergo significant conformational changes during catalytic turnover.

  10. Atomic structure of salutaridine reductase from the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum).

    PubMed

    Higashi, Yasuhiro; Kutchan, Toni M; Smith, Thomas J

    2011-02-25

    The opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) is one of the oldest known medicinal plants. In the biosynthetic pathway for morphine and codeine, salutaridine is reduced to salutaridinol by salutaridine reductase (SalR; EC 1.1.1.248) using NADPH as coenzyme. Here, we report the atomic structure of SalR to a resolution of ?1.9 ? in the presence of NADPH. The core structure is highly homologous to other members of the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase family. The major difference is that the nicotinamide moiety and the substrate-binding pocket are covered by a loop (residues 265-279), on top of which lies a large "flap"-like domain (residues 105-140). This configuration appears to be a combination of the two common structural themes found in other members of the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase family. Previous modeling studies suggested that substrate inhibition is due to mutually exclusive productive and nonproductive modes of substrate binding in the active site. This model was tested via site-directed mutagenesis, and a number of these mutations abrogated substrate inhibition. However, the atomic structure of SalR shows that these mutated residues are instead distributed over a wide area of the enzyme, and many are not in the active site. To explain how residues distal to the active site might affect catalysis, a model is presented whereby SalR may undergo significant conformational changes during catalytic turnover. PMID:21169353

  11. Thioredoxin Reductase and its Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Saccoccia, Fulvio; Angelucci, Francesco; Boumis, Giovanna; Carotti, Daniela; Desiato, Gianni; Miele, Adriana E; Bellelli, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Thioredoxin plays a crucial role in a wide number of physiological processes, which span from reduction of nucleotides to deoxyriboucleotides to the detoxification from xenobiotics, oxidants and radicals. The redox function of Thioredoxin is critically dependent on the enzyme Thioredoxin NADPH Reductase (TrxR). In view of its indirect involvement in the above mentioned physio/pathological processes, inhibition of TrxR is an important clinical goal. As a general rule, the affinities and mechanisms of binding of TrxR inhibitors to the target enzyme are known with scarce precision and conflicting results abound in the literature. A relevant analysis of published results as well as the experimental procedures is therefore needed, also in view of the critical interest of TrxR inhibitors. We review the inhibitors of TrxR and related flavoreductases and the classical treatment of reversible, competitive, non competitive and uncompetitive inhibition with respect to TrxR, and in some cases we are able to reconcile contradictory results generated by oversimplified data analysis. PMID:24875642

  12. Anti-folate drug resistance in Africa: meta-analysis of reported dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) mutant genotype frequencies in African Plasmodium falciparum parasite populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sankar Sridaran; Shannon K McClintock; Luke M Syphard; Karen M Herman; John W Barnwell; Venkatachalam Udhayakumar

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mutations in the dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) genes of Plasmodium falciparum are associated with resistance to anti-folate drugs, most notably sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP). Molecular studies document the prevalence of these mutations in parasite populations across the African continent. However, there is no systematic review examining the collective epidemiological significance of these studies. This meta-analysis attempts to: 1)

  13. 21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...determine the activity of the enzyme glutathione reductase in serum, plasma, or erythrocytes by such techniques as fluorescence and photometry. The results of this assay are used in the diagnosis of liver disease, glutathione reductase deficiency, or...

  14. 21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY...glutathione reductase assay is a device used to determine the activity of the enzyme glutathione reductase in serum, plasma, or...

  15. Polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene are associated with susceptibility

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    , Leeds, LS2 9JT, United Kingdom Edited by Philip W. Majerus, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, and approved August 10, 1999 (received for review June 11, 1999) Reduction of 5 located at nucleotide 677 of the MTHFR gene results in an alanine-to-valine substitution. Up to 15

  16. Loss of the Thioredoxin Reductase Trr1 Suppresses the Genomic Instability of Peroxiredoxin tsa1 Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Ragu, Sandrine; Dardalhon, Michèle; Sharma, Sushma; Iraqui, Ismail; Buhagiar-Labarchède, Géraldine; Grondin, Virginie; Kienda, Guy; Vernis, Laurence; Chanet, Roland; Kolodner, Richard D.; Huang, Meng-Er; Faye, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    The absence of Tsa1, a key peroxiredoxin that scavenges H2O2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, causes the accumulation of a broad spectrum of mutations. Deletion of TSA1 also causes synthetic lethality in combination with mutations in RAD51 or several key genes involved in DNA double-strand break repair. In the present study, we propose that the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the primary cause of genome instability of tsa1? cells. In searching for spontaneous suppressors of synthetic lethality of tsa1? rad51? double mutants, we identified that the loss of thioredoxin reductase Trr1 rescues their viability. The trr1? mutant displayed a CanR mutation rate 5-fold lower than wild-type cells. Additional deletion of TRR1 in tsa1? mutant reduced substantially the CanR mutation rate of tsa1? strain (33-fold), and to a lesser extent, of rad51? strain (4-fold). Loss of Trr1 induced Yap1 nuclear accumulation and over-expression of a set of Yap1-regulated oxido-reductases with antioxidant properties that ultimately re-equilibrate intracellular redox environment, reducing substantially ROS-associated DNA damages. This trr1? -induced effect was largely thioredoxin-dependent, probably mediated by oxidized forms of thioredoxins, the primary substrates of Trr1. Thioredoxin Trx1 and Trx2 were constitutively and strongly oxidized in the absence of Trr1. In trx1? trx2? cells, Yap1 was only moderately activated; consistently, the trx1? trx2? double deletion failed to efficiently rescue the viability of tsa1? rad51?. Finally, we showed that modulation of the dNTP pool size also influences the formation of spontaneous mutation in trr1? and trx1? trx2? strains. We present a tentative model that helps to estimate the respective impact of ROS level and dNTP concentration in the generation of spontaneous mutations. PMID:25247923

  17. Evaluation of nitrate reductase activity in Rhizobium japonicum

    SciTech Connect

    Streeter, J.G.; DeVine, P.J.

    1983-08-01

    Nitrate reductase activity was evaluated by four approaches, using four strains of Rhizobium japonicum and 11 chlorate-resistant mutants of the four strains. It was concluded that in vitro assays with bacteria or bacteroids provide the most simple and reliable assessment of the presence or absence of nitrate reductase. Nitrite reductase activity with methyl viologen and dithionite was found, but the enzyme activity does not confound the assay of nitrate reductase. 18 references

  18. Respiratory arsenate reductase as a bidirectional enzyme

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richey, C.; Chovanec, P.; Hoeft, S.E.; Oremland, R.S.; Basu, P.; Stolz, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    The haloalkaliphilic bacterium Alkalilimnicola ehrlichii is capable of anaerobic chemolithoautotrophic growth by coupling the oxidation of arsenite (As(III)) to the reduction of nitrate and carbon dioxide. Analysis of its complete genome indicates that it lacks a conventional arsenite oxidase (Aox), but instead possesses two operons that each encode a putative respiratory arsenate reductase (Arr). Here we show that one homolog is expressed under chemolithoautotrophic conditions and exhibits both arsenite oxidase and arsenate reductase activity. We also demonstrate that Arr from two arsenate respiring bacteria, Alkaliphilus oremlandii and Shewanella sp. strain ANA-3, is also biochemically reversible. Thus Arr can function as a reductase or oxidase. Its physiological role in a specific organism, however, may depend on the electron potentials of the molybdenum center and [Fe–S] clusters, additional subunits, or constitution of the electron transfer chain. This versatility further underscores the ubiquity and antiquity of microbial arsenic metabolism.

  19. Risk of venous thromboembolism associated with single and combined effects of Factor V Leiden, Prothrombin 20210A and Methylenetethraydrofolate reductase C677T: a meta-analysis involving over 11,000 cases and 21,000 controls

    PubMed Central

    Simone, B; De Stefano, V; Leoncini, E; Zacho, J; Martinelli, I; Emmerich, J; Rossi, E; Folsom, AR; Almawi, WY; Scarabin, PY; den Heijer, M; Cushman, M; Penco, S; Vaya, A; Angchaisuksiri, P; Okumus, G; Gemmati, D; Cima, S; Akar, N; Oguzulgen, KI; Ducros, V; Lichy, C; Fernandez-Miranda, C; Szczeklik, A; Nieto, JA; Torres, JD; Le Cam-Duchez, V; Ivanov, P; Cantu, C; Shmeleva, VM; Stegnar, M; Ogunyemi, D; Eid, SS; Nicolotti, N; De Feo, E; Ricciardi, W; Boccia, S

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Genetic and environmental factors interact in determining the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The risk associated with the polymorphic variants G1691A of factor V (Factor V Leiden,FVL), G20210A of prothrombin (PT20210A) and C677T of methylentetrahydrofolate reductase (C677T MTHFR) genes has been investigated in many studies. METHODS We performed a pooled analysis of case-control and cohort studies investigating in adults the association between each variant and VTE, published on Pubmed, Embase or Google through January 2010. Authors of eligible papers, were invited to provide all available individual data for the pooling. The Odds Ratio (OR) for first VTE associated with each variant, individually and combined with the others, were calculated with a random effect model, in heterozygotes and homozygotes (dominant model for FVL and PT20210A; recessive for C677T MTHFR). RESULTS We analysed 31 databases, including 11,239 cases and 21,521 controls. No significant association with VTE was found for homozygous C677T MTHFR (OR: 1.38; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.98–1.93), whereas the risk was increased in carriers of either heterozygous FVL or PT20210 (OR=4.22; 95% CI: 3.35–5.32; and OR=2.79;95% CI: 2.25–3.46, respectively), in double hterozygotes (OR=3.42; 95%CI 1.64-7.13), and in homozygous FVL or PT20210A (OR=11.45; 95%CI: 6.79-19.29; and OR: 2.79; 95%CI: 2.25 – 3.46, respectively). The stratified analyses showed a stronger effect of FVL on individuals ?45 years (p-value for interaction = 0.036) and of PT20210A in women using oral contraceptives (p-value for interaction = 0.045). CONCLUSIONS In this large pooled analysis, inclusive of large studies like MEGA, no effect was found for C677T MTHFR on VTE; FVL and PT20210A were confirmed to be moderate risk factors. Notably, double carriers of the two genetic variants produced an impact on VTE risk significantly increased but weaker than previously thought. PMID:23900608

  20. Meta-analysis supports association of a functional SNP (rs1801133) in the MTHFR gene with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhi-Gang; Ai, Qing-Long; Wang, Wen-Min; Xiao, Zhi-Cheng

    2013-11-15

    The MTHFR is a candidate risk gene for Parkinson's disease (PD), and a functional SNP (rs1801133) in the coding region of this gene has been investigated for the associations with the illness extensively among worldwide populations, but overall the results were inconsistent. Here, to assess the relationship between rs1801133 and risk of PD in general populations, we conducted a systematic meta-analysis by combining all available case-control samples in European and Asian populations, with a total of 1820 PD cases and 7530 healthy controls, and the pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for rs1801133 and PD were calculated using the Mantel-Haenszel method with a fixed-effect model. Overall, rs1801133 was significantly associated with the risk of PD (allelic model, pooled OR=1.212 for T allele, 95% CI=1.097-1.340, p-value=0.0002). When stratifying for ethnicity, significant association was also observed in European (allelic model, pooled OR=1.187 for T allele, 95% CI=1.058-1.332, p-value=0.004) and Asian samples (allelic model, pooled OR=1.293 for T allele, 95% CI=1.058-1.580, p-value=0.012) respectively. In addition, rs1801133 was also significantly associated with MTHFR mRNA expression in both CEU (European, p-value=0.0149) and CHB (Chinese, p-value=0.0178) HapMap populations. Collectively, our meta-analysis suggests that rs1801133 is significantly associated with susceptibility to PD in European and Asian populations, and MTHFR is likely an authentic risk gene for PD. PMID:23916622

  1. Structural prototypes for an extended family of flavoprotein reductases: comparison of phthalate dioxygenase reductase with ferredoxin reductase and ferredoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Correll, C. C.; Ludwig, M. L.; Bruns, C. M.; Karplus, P. A.

    1993-01-01

    The structure of phthalate dioxygenase reductase (PDR), a monomeric iron-sulfur flavoprotein that delivers electrons from NADH to phthalate dioxygenase, is compared to ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase (FNR) and ferredoxin, the proteins that reduce NADP+ in the final reaction of photosystem I. The folding patterns of the domains that bind flavin, NAD(P), and [2Fe-2S] are very similar in the two systems. Alignment of the X-ray structures of PDR and FNR substantiates the assignment of features that characterize a family of flavoprotein reductases whose members include cytochrome P-450 reductase, sulfite and nitrate reductases, and nitric oxide synthase. Hallmarks of this subfamily of flavoproteins, here termed the FNR family, are an antiparallel beta-barrel that binds the flavin prosthetic group, and a characteristic variant of the classic pyridine nucleotide-binding fold. Despite the similarities between FNR and PDR, attempts to model the structure of a dissociable FNR:ferredoxin complex by analogy with PDR reveal features that are at odds with chemical crosslinking studies (Zanetti, G., Morelli, D., Ronchi, S., Negri, A., Aliverti, A., & Curti, B., 1988, Biochemistry 27, 3753-3759). Differences in the binding sites for flavin and pyridine nucleotides determine the nucleotide specificities of FNR and PDR. The specificity of FNR for NADP+ arises primarily from substitutions in FNR that favor interactions with the 2' phosphate of NADP+. Variations in the conformation and sequences of the loop adjoining the flavin phosphate affect the selectivity for FAD versus FMN. The midpoint potentials for reduction of the flavin and [2Fe-2S] groups in PDR are higher than their counterparts in FNR and spinach ferredoxin, by about 120 mV and 260 mV, respectively. Comparisons of the structure of PDR with spinach FNR and with ferredoxin from Anabaena 7120, along with calculations of electrostatic potentials, suggest that local interactions, including hydrogen bonds, are the dominant contributors to these differences in potential. PMID:8298460

  2. Different functions between human monomeric carbonyl reductase 3 and carbonyl reductase 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takeshi Miura; Toru Nishinaka; Tomoyuki Terada

    2008-01-01

    Monomeric carbonyl reductases (CBRs) are enzymes that catalyze the reduction of many endogenous and xenobiotic carbonyl compounds,\\u000a including steroids and prostaglandins. There are two monomeric CBR genes in the human genome, cbr1 and cbr3, which exhibit high homology in their amino acid sequences. Human CBR1 (hCBR1) is known as prostaglandin 9-keto reductase\\u000a and 15-hydroxy dehydrogenase, and regulates the metastasis of

  3. Predicting Resistance Mutations Using Protein Design Algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, K.; Georgiev, I; Donald, B; Anderson, A

    2010-01-01

    Drug resistance resulting from mutations to the target is an unfortunate common phenomenon that limits the lifetime of many of the most successful drugs. In contrast to the investigation of mutations after clinical exposure, it would be powerful to be able to incorporate strategies early in the development process to predict and overcome the effects of possible resistance mutations. Here we present a unique prospective application of an ensemble-based protein design algorithm, K*, to predict potential resistance mutations in dihydrofolate reductase from Staphylococcus aureus using positive design to maintain catalytic function and negative design to interfere with binding of a lead inhibitor. Enzyme inhibition assays show that three of the four highly-ranked predicted mutants are active yet display lower affinity (18-, 9-, and 13-fold) for the inhibitor. A crystal structure of the top-ranked mutant enzyme validates the predicted conformations of the mutated residues and the structural basis of the loss of potency. The use of protein design algorithms to predict resistance mutations could be incorporated in a lead design strategy against any target that is susceptible to mutational resistance.

  4. Resveratrol, a remarkable inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Fontecave; Michel Lepoivre; Eric Elleingand; Catherine Gerez; Olivier Guittet

    1998-01-01

    Resveratrol, a natural phytoalexin found in grapes, is well known for its presumed role in the prevention of heart disease, associated with red wine consumption. We show here that it is a remarkable inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase and DNA synthesis in mammalian cells, which might have further applications as an antiproliferative or a cancer chemopreventive agent in humans.

  5. Methemoglobin reductase in three species of Bovidae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald D. Fulton; J. Caldwell; D. F. Weseli

    1978-01-01

    Isoelectric focusing of red cell hemolysates revealed several isozymes that stain for NADH-methemoglobin reductase. Evidence for two different genetic loci controlling the banding patterns was obtained. One locus controlled a single band present in all animals tested. The second locus controlled ten different banding patterns that could be accounted for by four codominant alleles. Band B occurred in Bison bison.

  6. Three nitrate reductase activities in Alcaligenes eutrophus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ute Warnecke-Eberz; Bärbel Friedrich

    1993-01-01

    Three nitrate reductase activities were detected in Alcaligenes eutrophus strain H16 by physiological and mutant analysis. The first (NAS) was subject to repression by ammonia and not affected by oxygen indicating a nitrate assimilatory function. The second (NAR) membrane-bound activity was only formed in the absence of oxygen and was insensitive to ammonia repression indicating a nitrate respiratory function. The

  7. Polymorphism in methylentetra-hydrofolate reductase gene: important role in diseases.

    PubMed

    Kiseljakovi?, Emina; Jadri?, Radivoj; Hasi?, Sabaheta; Skenderi, Faruk; Resi?, Halima; Winterhalter-Jadri?, Mira

    2008-05-01

    It has been recognized that some people have a genetic variant which leads to elevated levels of homocysteine and impairs ability to process folate. This condition was recognized as independent risk factor of coronary heart disease. Recently, connection between this termolabile mutation of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and numerous conditions and diseases has been established. Aim of this review is to draw attention to this interesting area in medicine. Additionally, well defined study about presence and frequency of gene polymorphism in our region will provide proper diagnosis and achieve possible delay of development of diseases with vitamin supplementation. PMID:18498269

  8. 5?-Reduced steroids and human ?(4)-3-ketosteroid 5?-reductase (AKR1D1).

    PubMed

    Chen, Mo; Penning, Trevor M

    2014-05-01

    5?-Reduced steroids are non-planar steroids that have a 90° bend in their structure to create an A/B cis-ring junction. This novel property is required for bile-acids to act as emulsifiers, but in addition 5?-reduced steroids have remarkable physiology and may act as potent tocolytic agents, endogenous cardiac glycosides, neurosteroids, and can act as ligands for orphan and membrane bound receptors. In humans there is only a single 5?-reductase gene AKR1D1, which encodes ?(4)-3-ketosteroid-5?-reductase (AKR1D1). This enzyme is a member of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily, but possesses an altered catalytic tetrad, in which Glu120 replaces the conserved His residue. This predominant liver enzyme generates all 5?-dihydrosteroids in the C19-C27 steroid series. Mutations exist in the AKR1D1 gene, which result in loss of protein stability and are causative in bile-acid deficiency. PMID:24513054

  9. Functional significance of evolving protein sequence in dihydrofolate reductase from bacteria to humans

    PubMed Central

    Liu, C. Tony; Hanoian, Philip; French, Jarrod B.; Pringle, Thomas H.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon; Benkovic, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    With the rapidly growing wealth of genomic data, experimental inquiries on the functional significance of important divergence sites in protein evolution are becoming more accessible. Here we trace the evolution of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and identify multiple key divergence sites among 233 species between humans and bacteria. We connect these sites, experimentally and computationally, to changes in the enzyme’s binding properties and catalytic efficiency. One of the identified evolutionarily important sites is the N23PP modification (?mid-Devonian, 415–385 Mya), which alters the conformational states of the active site loop in Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase and negatively impacts catalysis. This enzyme activity was restored with the inclusion of an evolutionarily significant lid domain (G51PEKN in E. coli enzyme; ?2.4 Gya). Guided by this evolutionary genomic analysis, we generated a human-like E. coli dihydrofolate reductase variant through three simple mutations despite only 26% sequence identity between native human and E. coli DHFRs. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the overall conformational motions of the protein within a common scaffold are retained throughout evolution, although subtle changes to the equilibrium conformational sampling altered the free energy barrier of the enzymatic reaction in some cases. The data presented here provide a glimpse into the evolutionary trajectory of functional DHFR through its protein sequence space that lead to the diverged binding and catalytic properties of the E. coli and human enzymes. PMID:23733948

  10. Crystal structure determination and mutagenesis analysis of the ene reductase NCR.

    PubMed

    Reich, Sabrina; Hoeffken, Hans Wolfgang; Rosche, Bettina; Nestl, Bettina M; Hauer, Bernhard

    2012-11-01

    The crystal structure of the "ene" nicotinamide-dependent cyclohexenone reductase (NCR) from Zymomonas mobilis (PDB ID: 4A3U) has been determined in complex with acetate ion, FMN, and nicotinamide, to a resolution of 1.95 Å. To study the activity and enantioselectivity of this enzyme in the bioreduction of activated ?,?-unsaturated alkenes, the rational design methods site- and loop-directed mutagenesis were applied. Based on a multiple sequence alignment of various members of the Old Yellow Enzyme family, eight single-residue variants were generated and investigated in asymmetric bioreduction. Furthermore, a structural alignment of various ene reductases predicted four surface loop regions that are located near the entrance of the active site. Four NCR loop variants, derived from loop-swapping experiments with OYE1 from Saccharomyces pastorianus, were analysed for bioreduction. The three enzyme variants, P245Q, D337Y and F314Y, displayed increased activity compared to wild-type NCR towards the set of substrates tested. The active-site mutation Y177A demonstrated a clear influence on the enantioselectivity. The loop-swapping variants retained reduction efficiency, but demonstrated decreased enzyme activity compared with the wild-type NCR ene reductase enzyme. PMID:23033175

  11. MTHFR 677C>T effects on anterior cingulate structure and function during response monitoring in schizophrenia: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Brohawn, David G.; Friedman, Jesse S.; Dyckman, Kara A.; Thakkar, Katharine N.; Agam, Yigal; Vangel, Mark G.; Goff, Donald C.; Manoach, Dara S.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia exhibit deficient response monitoring as indexed by blunted activation of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and functionally related regions during error commission. This pattern may reflect heritable alterations of dACC function. We examined whether the hypofunctional 677C>T variant in MTHFR, a candidate schizophrenia risk gene, contributed to our previous findings of blunted error-related dACC activation and reduced microstructural integrity of dACC white matter. Eighteen medicated outpatients with schizophrenia underwent diffusion tensor imaging and performed an antisaccade paradigm during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). T allele carriers exhibited significantly less error-related activation than C/C patients in bilateral dACC and substantia nigra, regions that are thought to mediate dopamine-dependent error-based reinforcement learning. T carrier patients also showed significantly lower fractional anisotropy in bilateral dACC. These findings suggest that the MTHFR 677T allele blunts response monitoring in schizophrenia, presumably via effects on dopamine signaling and dACC white matter microstructural integrity. PMID:21190096

  12. Genotypes of the C677T and A1298C polymorphisms of the MTHFR gene as a cause of human spontaneous embryo loss

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Callejon; A. Mayor-Olea; A. J. Jimenez; M. J. Gaitan; A. R. Palomares; F. Martinez; M. Ruiz; Armando Reyes-Engel

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Polymorphisms C677T and A1298C of the MTHFR gene have been implicated in fetal viability. In this study, we determined the allele and genotype frequencies of these polymorphisms in different populations, includ- ing spontaneous abortion (SA) fetal tissues, with the objective of evaluating their impact on fetal viability. METHODS: 342 samples of fetal tissues, selected from SA occurring during the

  13. MTHFR, MTR, and MTHFD1 gene polymorphisms compared to homocysteine and asymmetric dimethylarginine concentrations and their metabolites in epileptic patients treated with antiepileptic drugs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aleksandra Sniezawska; Jolanta Dorszewska; Agata Rozycka; Elzbieta Przedpelska-Ober; Margarita Lianeri; Pawel P. Jagodzinski; Wojciech Kozubski

    2011-01-01

    PurposeThe purpose of the study was to determine the frequency of occurrence of polymorphisms of genes MTHFR (C677T), MTR (A2756G), and MTHFD1 (G1958A), as well as to analyze the concentration of homocysteine (Hcy), methionine (Met), asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and arginine (Arg) in epileptics treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), and controls.

  14. Engineering of Phenylacetaldehyde Reductase for Efficient Substrate Conversion in Concentrated 2-Propanol

    PubMed Central

    Makino, Yoshihide; Inoue, Kousuke; Dairi, Tohru; Itoh, Nobuya

    2005-01-01

    Phenylacetaldehyde reductase (PAR) is suitable for the conversion of various aryl ketones and 2-alkanones to corresponding chiral alcohols. 2-Propanol acts as a substrate solvent and hydrogen donor of coupled cofactor regeneration during the conversion of substrates catalyzed by PAR. To improve the conversion efficiency in high concentrations of substrate and 2-propanol, selection of a PAR mutant library and the subsequent rearrangement of mutations were attempted. With only a single selection round and following the manual combination of advantageous mutations, PAR was successfully adapted for the conversion of high concentrations of substrate with concentrated 2-propanol. This method will be widely applicable for the engineering of enzymes potentially valuable for industry. PMID:16085867

  15. The nitrite reductase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Essential role of two active-site histidines in the catalytic and structural properties

    PubMed Central

    Cutruzzolà, Francesca; Brown, Kieron; Wilson, Emma K.; Bellelli, Andrea; Arese, Marzia; Tegoni, Mariella; Cambillau, Christian; Brunori, Maurizio

    2001-01-01

    Cd1 nitrite reductase catalyzes the conversion of nitrite to NO in denitrifying bacteria. Reduction of the substrate occurs at the d1-heme site, which faces on the distal side some residues thought to be essential for substrate binding and catalysis. We report the results obtained by mutating to Ala the two invariant active site histidines, His-327 and His-369, of the enzyme from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Both mutants have lost nitrite reductase activity but maintain the ability to reduce O2 to water. Nitrite reductase activity is impaired because of the accumulation of a catalytically inactive form, possibly because the productive displacement of NO from the ferric d1-heme iron is impaired. Moreover, the two distal His play different roles in catalysis; His-369 is absolutely essential for the stability of the Michaelis complex. The structures of both mutants show (i) the new side chain in the active site, (ii) a loss of density of Tyr-10, which slipped away with the N-terminal arm, and (iii) a large topological change in the whole c-heme domain, which is displaced 20 ? from the position occupied in the wild-type enzyme. We conclude that the two invariant His play a crucial role in the activity and the structural organization of cd1 nitrite reductase from P. aeruginosa. PMID:11226222

  16. Role of the Dinitrogenase Reductase Arginine 101 Residue in Dinitrogenase Reductase ADP-Ribosyltransferase Binding, NAD Binding, and Cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yan; Ludden, Paul W.

    2001-01-01

    Dinitrogenase reductase is posttranslationally regulated by dinitrogenase reductase ADP-ribosyltransferase (DRAT) via ADP-ribosylation of the arginine 101 residue in some bacteria. Rhodospirillum rubrum strains in which the arginine 101 of dinitrogenase reductase was replaced by tyrosine, phenylalanine, or leucine were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis of the nifH gene. The strain containing the R101F form of dinitrogenase reductase retains 91%, the strain containing the R101Y form retains 72%, and the strain containing the R101L form retains only 28% of in vivo nitrogenase activity of the strain containing the dinitrogenase reductase with arginine at position 101. In vivo acetylene reduction assays, immunoblotting with anti-dinitrogenase reductase antibody, and [adenylate-32P]NAD labeling experiments showed that no switch-off of nitrogenase activity occurred in any of the three mutants and no ADP-ribosylation of altered dinitrogenase reductases occurred either in vivo or in vitro. Altered dinitrogenase reductases from strains UR629 (R101Y) and UR630 (R101F) were purified to homogeneity. The R101F and R101Y forms of dinitrogenase reductase were able to form a complex with DRAT that could be chemically cross-linked by 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide. The R101F form of dinitrogenase reductase and DRAT together were not able to cleave NAD. This suggests that arginine 101 is not critical for the binding of DRAT to dinitrogenase reductase but that the availability of arginine 101 is important for NAD cleavage. Both DRAT and dinitrogenase reductase can be labeled by [carbonyl-14C]NAD individually upon UV irradiation, but most 14C label is incorporated into DRAT when both proteins are present. The ability of R101F dinitrogenase reductase to be labeled by [carbonyl-14C]NAD suggested that Arg 101 is not absolutely required for NAD binding. PMID:11114923

  17. Giant yeast cells with nonrecyclable ribonucleotide reductase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emilie Ma; Arach Goldar; Jean-Marc Verbavatz; Marie-Claude Marsolier-Kergoat

    2011-01-01

    Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) catalyzes the reduction of ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides and thereby provides the\\u000a precursors required for DNA synthesis and repair. In an attempt to test cell resistance to a permanent replicational stress,\\u000a we constructed a mutant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain containing exclusively nonrecyclable catalytic subunits of RNR that become inactivated following the reduction of\\u000a one ribonucleoside diphosphate. In this rnr1C883A

  18. Methemoglobin reductase in three species of bovidae

    E-print Network

    Fulton, Ronald Dale

    1976-01-01

    in activity between banding patterns within a breed, the Brahman cross- bred animals were selected because they contained four different banding patterns with severl animals in each group. The specific activity of the banding patterns used is shown in Table... and Brahman crossbred cattle were selected based upon number of samples available. The specific activity of methemoglobin reductase from the Hereford samples was 2. 29 + 0. 82 units compared to 1. 57 + 0. 78 for the Brahman crossbred cattle. When...

  19. The co-chaperone and reductase ERdj5 facilitates rod opsin biogenesis and quality control

    PubMed Central

    Athanasiou, Dimitra; Bevilacqua, Dalila; Aguila, Monica; McCulley, Caroline; Kanuga, Naheed; Iwawaki, Takao; Paul Chapple, J.; Cheetham, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in rhodopsin, the light-sensitive protein of rod cells, are the most common cause of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP). Many rod opsin mutations, such as P23H, lead to misfolding of rod opsin with detrimental effects on photoreceptor function and viability. Misfolded P23H rod opsin and other mutations in the intradiscal domain are characterized by the formation of an incorrect disulphide bond between C185 and C187, as opposed to the correct and highly conserved C110–C187 disulphide bond. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that incorrect disulphide bond formation might be a factor that affects the biogenesis of rod opsin by studying wild-type (WT) or P23H rod opsin in combination with amino acid substitutions that prevent the formation of incorrect disulphide bonds involving C185. These mutants had altered traffic dynamics, suggesting a requirement for regulation of disulphide bond formation/reduction during rod opsin biogenesis. Here, we show that the BiP co-chaperone and reductase protein ERdj5 (DNAJC10) regulates this process. ERdj5 overexpression promoted the degradation, improved the endoplasmic reticulum mobility and prevented the aggregation of P23H rod opsin. ERdj5 reduction by shRNA delayed rod opsin degradation and promoted aggregation. The reductase and co-chaperone activity of ERdj5 were both required for these effects on P23H rod opsin. Furthermore, mutations in these functional domains acted as dominant negatives that affected WT rod opsin biogenesis. Collectively, these data identify ERdj5 as a member of the proteostasis network that regulates rod opsin biogenesis and supports a role for disulphide bond formation/reduction in rod opsin biogenesis and disease. PMID:25055872

  20. Dihydroxyacetone Phosphate Reductase in Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Gee, Robert W.; Byerrum, Richard U.; Gerber, Dennis W.; Tolbert, N. E.

    1988-01-01

    Two forms of dihydroxyacetone phosphate reductase are present in spinach, soybean, pea, and mesophyll cells of corn leaves. An improved homogenizing medium was developed to measure this activity. The enzyme was detectable only after dialysis of the 35 to 70% saturated (NH4)2SO4 fraction and the two forms were separated by chromatography on either DEAE cellulose or Sephacryl S-200. About 80% of the reductase was one form in the chloroplast and the rest was a second form in the cytosol as determined by chromatography and by fractionation of subcellular organelles. The amount of activity detectable in the chloroplast fraction was 10.7 micromoles of dihydroxyacetone phosphate reductase per hour per milligram chlorophyll from spinach leaves and 4.9 from pea leaves. The chloroplast form eluted first from DEAE cellulose and, being smaller, it eluted second from Sephacryl S-200. Activity of the chloroplast form was stimulated 3- to 5-fold by the addition of 1 millimolar dithiothreitol or 50 microgram reduced Escherichia coli thioredoxin or 4 micrograms spinach thioredoxin to the assay mixture. This stimulation was not observed with monothiols. Activity of the cytosolic form was not affected by either reduced thioredoxin or dithiothreitol. PMID:16665901

  1. Distribution and immunological characterization of microbial aldehyde reductases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michihiko Kataoka; Sakayu Shimizu; Hideaki Yamada

    1992-01-01

    The distribution of microbial aldo-keto reductases was examined and their immunochemical characterization was performed. p-Nitrobenzaldehyde, pyridine-3-aldehyde and ethyl 4-chloro-3-oxobutanoate reductase activities were found to be widely distributed in a variety of microorganisms. In immunodiffusion studies, most yeasts belonging to the genera Sporobolomyces, Sporidiobolus and Rhodotorula formed precipitin bands with anti-Sporobolomyces salmonicolor aldehyde reductase serum. Furthermore, the results of immunotitration experiments

  2. NADH-Ferricyanide Reductase of Leaf Plasma Membranes : Partial Purification and Immunological Relation to Potato Tuber Microsomal NADH-Ferricyanide Reductase and Spinach Leaf NADH-Nitrate Reductase.

    PubMed

    Askerlund, P; Laurent, P; Nakagawa, H; Kader, J C

    1991-01-01

    Plasma membranes obtained by two-phase partitioning of microsomal fractions from spinach (Spinacea oleracea L. cv Medania) and sugar beet leaves (Beta vulgaris L.) contained relatively high NADH-ferricyanide reductase and NADH-nitrate reductase (NR; EC 1.6.6.1) activities. Both of these activities were latent. To investigate whether these activities were due to the same enzyme, plasma membrane polypeptides were separated with SDS-PAGE and analyzed with immunoblotting methods. Antibodies raised against microsomal NADH-ferricyanide reductase (tentatively identified as NADH-cytochrome b(5) reductase, EC 1.6.2.2), purified from potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv Bintje) tuber microsomes, displayed one single band at 43 kilodaltons when reacted with spinach plasma membranes, whereas lgG produced against NR from spinach leaves gave a major band at 110 kilodaltons together with a few fainter bands of lower molecular mass. Immunoblotting analysis using inside-out and right-side-out plasma membrane vesicles strongly indicated that NR was not an integral protein but probably trapped inside the plasma membrane vesicles during homogenization. Proteins from spinach plasma membranes were solubilized with the zwitterionic detergent 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl) dimethylammonio] 1-propane-sulfonate and separated on a Mono Q anion exchange column at pH 5.6 with fast protein liquid chromatography. One major peak of NADH-ferricyanide reductase activity was found after separation. The peak fraction was enriched about 70-fold in this activity compared to the plasma membrane. When the peak fractions were analyzed with SDS-PAGE the NADH-ferricyanide reductase activity strongly correlated with a 43 kilodalton polypeptide which reacted with the antibodies against potato microsomal NADH-ferricyanide reductase. Thus, our data indicate that most, if not all, of the truly membrane-bound NADH-ferricyanide reductase activity of leaf plasma membranes is due to an enzyme very similar to potato tuber microsomal NADH-ferricyanide reductase (NADH-cytochrome b(5) reductase). PMID:16667982

  3. Ketopantoyl-lactone reductase from Candida parapsilosis: purification and characterization as a conjugated polyketone reductase.

    PubMed

    Hata, H; Shimizu, S; Hattori, S; Yamada, H

    1989-02-24

    Ketopantoyl-lactone reductase (2-dehydropantoyl-lactone reductase, EC 1.1.1.168) was purified and crystallized from cells of Candida parapsilosis IFO 0708. The enzyme was found to be homogeneous on ultracentrifugation, high-performance gel-permeation liquid chromatography and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The relative molecular mass of the native and SDS-treated enzyme is approximately 40,000. The isoelectric point of the enzyme is 6.3. The enzyme was found to catalyze specifically the reduction of a variety of natural and unnatural polyketones and quinones other than ketopantoyl lactone in the presence of NADPH. Isatin and 5-methylisatin are rapidly reduced by the enzyme, the Km and Vmax values for isatin being 14 microM and 306 mumol/min per mg protein, respectively. Ketopantoyl lactone is also a good substrate (Km = 333 microM and Vmax = 481 mumol/min per mg protein). Reverse reaction was not detected with pantoyl lactone and NADP+. The enzyme is inhibited by quercetin, several polyketones and SH-reagents. 3,4-Dihydroxy-3-cyclobutene-1,2-dione, cyclohexenediol-1,2,3,4-tetraone and parabanic acid are uncompetitive inhibitors for the enzyme, the Ki values being 1.4, 0.2 and 3140 microM, respectively, with isatin as substrate. Comparison of the enzyme with the conjugated polyketone reductase of Mucor ambiguus (S. Shimizu, H. Hattori, H. Hata and H. Yamada (1988) Eur. J. Biochem. 174, 37-44) and ketopantoyl-lactone reductase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae suggested that ketopantoyl-lactone reductase is a kind of conjugated polyketone reductase. PMID:2644973

  4. Role of light in the synthesis of nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase in rice seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Sawhney, S. K.; Naik, M. S.

    1972-01-01

    1. In rice seedlings synthesis of methyl viologen–nitrite reductase was stimulated by light, as was that of NADH–nitrate oxidoreductase (EC 1.6.6.1). A small residual effect of light on the synthesis of the enzymes persisted in the dark for a short time. 2. In etiolated seedlings exposed to light and nitrate, a lag period of 3h was necessary before enzyme synthesis commenced, whereas in green seedlings kept in the dark for 36h, synthesis of both the enzymes started as soon as light and nitrate were provided. 3. Experiments with cycloheximide suggested that fresh protein synthesis in light was necessary for formation of active enzymes. Mere activation by light of inactive enzymes or their precursors, was not involved. 4. In green seedlings synthesis of nitrite reductase was more sensitive to chloramphenicol than that of nitrate reductase. In chloramphenicol-treated etiolated seedlings, however, synthesis of both the enzymes was inhibited to the same extent on subsequent light-treatment. 5. A close correlation was observed between inhibition of the Hill reaction by 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea and simazin [2-chloro-4,6-bis(ethylamino)-s-triazine] (at high concentration) and the inhibition of enzyme synthesis. At lower concentrations, however, simazin stimulated nitrate reductase. 6. In a single leaf synthesis of enzymes was observed only in portions exposed to light, whereas little activity was present in the dark covered part. 7. CO2 deprivation severely inhibited the synthesis of enzymes in the light. Sucrose could not reverse this effect. 8. In excised embryos cultured in synthetic media containing sucrose, light was also essential for enzyme formation. 9. It is suggested that redox changes taking place in the green tissues as a result of the Hill reaction create conditions favourable for the induced synthesis of nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase. PMID:4664575

  5. Studies on the regulation of assimilatory nitrate reductase in Ankistrodesmus braunii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Diez; A. Chaparro; J. M. Vega; A. Relimpio

    1977-01-01

    In the green alga Ankistrodesmus braunii, all the activities associated with the nitrate reductase complex (i.e., NAD(P)H-nitrate reductase, NAD(P)H-cytochrome c reductase and FMNH2-or MVH-nitrate reductase) are nutritionally repressed by ammonia or methylamine. Besides, ammonia or methylamine promote in vivo the reversible inactivation of nitrate reductase, but not of NAD(P)H-cytochrome c reductase. Subsequent removal of the inactivating agent from the medium

  6. Pharmacogenetic variants in the DPYD, TYMS, CDA and MTHFR genes are clinically significant predictors of fluoropyrimidine toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Loganayagam, A; Arenas Hernandez, M; Corrigan, A; Fairbanks, L; Lewis, C M; Harper, P; Maisey, N; Ross, P; Sanderson, J D; Marinaki, A M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Fluoropyrimidine drugs are extensively used for the treatment of solid cancers. However, adverse drug reactions are a major clinical problem, often necessitating treatment discontinuation. The aim of this study was to identify pharmacogenetic markers predicting fluoropyrimidine toxicity. Methods: Toxicity in the first four cycles of 5-fluorouracil or capecitabine-based chemotherapy were recorded for a series of 430 patients. The association between demographic variables, DPYD, DPYS, TYMS, MTHFR, CDA genotypes, and toxicity were analysed using logistic regression models. Results: Four DPYD sequence variants (c.1905+1G>A, c.2846A>T, c.1601G>A and c.1679T>G) were found in 6% of the cohort and were significantly associated with grade 3–4 toxicity (P<0.0001). The TYMS 3?-untranslated region del/del genotype substantially increased the risk of severe toxicity (P=0.0123, odds ratio (OR)=3.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.38–6.87). For patients treated with capecitabine, a MTHFR c.1298CC homozygous variant genotype predicted hand–foot syndrome (P=4.1 × 10?6, OR=9.99, 95% CI: 3.84–27.8). The linked CDA c.?92A>G and CDA c.?451C>T variants predicted grade 2–4 diarrhoea (P=0.0055, OR=2.3, 95% CI: 1.3–4.2 and P=0.0082, OR=2.3, 95% CI: 1.3–4.2, respectively). Conclusion: We have identified a panel of clinically useful pharmacogenetic markers predicting toxicity to fluoropyrimidine therapy. Dose reduction should be considered in patients carrying these sequence variants. PMID:23736036

  7. Molecular study of the 5 {alpha}-reductase type 2 gene in three European families with 5 {alpha}-reductase deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Boudon, C.; Lumbroso, S.; Lobaccaro, J.M. [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Montpellier (France)] [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Montpellier (France); [Child Health Center, Warsaw (Poland); [Hopital A. de Villeneuve, Montpellier (France)] [and others

    1995-07-01

    The molecular basis of 5{alpha}-reductase (5{alpha}R) deficiency was investigated in four patients from three European families. In the French family, the first patient was raised as a female, and gonadectomy was performed before puberty. The second sibling, also raised as female, differed in that gonadal removal was performed after the onset of pubertal masculinization. The other two patients, both from Polish families, developed masculinization of external genitalia during puberty. All patients developed a female sexual identity. In all cases, no known consanguinity or family history of 5{alpha}R deficiency was reported. The genomic DNAs of the patients were sequenced after polymerase chain reaction amplification of the five exons of the 5{alpha}R type 2 gene. We found two homozygous mutations responsible for gutamine to arginine and histidine to arginine substitution in families 1 and 3, respectively. In family 2, we found a heterozygous mutation responsible for an asparagine to serine substitution at position 193. The glutamine/arginine 126 mutation in the French family was previously reported in a Creole ethnic group, and the Polish histidine/arginine 231 mutation was previously reported in a patient from Chicago, Moreover, all of the mutations created new restriction sites, which were used to determine the kindred carrier status in the three families. Because 5{alpha}R deficiency is known to be heterogenous disease in terms of clinical and biochemical expression, our data suggest that molecular biology analysis of the type 2 gene could be an essential step in diagnosing 5{alpha}R deficiency. 22 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. The orphan protein bis-?-glutamylcystine reductase joins the pyridine nucleotide-disulfide reductase family

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Juhan; Copley, Shelley D.

    2014-01-01

    Facile DNA sequencing became possible decades after many enzymes had been purified and characterized. Consequently, there are still “orphan” enyzmes whose activity is known but the genes that encode them have not been identified. Identification of the genes encoding orphan enzymes is important because it allows correct annotation of genes of unknown function or with mis-assigned function. Bis-?-glutamylcystine reductase (GCR) is an orphan protein that was purified in 1988. This enzyme catalyzes the reduction of bis-?-glutamylcystine. ?-Glutamylcysteine (?-Glu-Cys) is the major low molecular weight thiol in halobacteria. We purified GCR from Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 and identified the sequence of 23 tryptic peptides by NanoLC electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. These peptides cover 62% of the protein predicted to be encoded by a gene in Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 that is annotated as mercuric reductase. GCR and mercuric reductase activities were assayed using enzyme that was expressed in E. coli and re-folded from inclusion bodies. The enzyme had robust GCR activity, but no mercuric reductase activity. The genomes of most, but not all, halobacteria for which whole genome sequences are available have close homologs of GCR, suggesting that there is more to be learned about the low molecular weight thiols used in halobacteria. PMID:23560638

  9. Mutational spectrum of Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome.

    PubMed

    Waterham, Hans R; Hennekam, Raoul C M

    2012-11-15

    Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS; OMIM #270400) is an autosomal recessive malformation syndrome characterized by a large spectrum of morphogenic and congenital anomalies. SLOS is caused by mutations in the DHCR7 gene, which encodes 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase, the enzyme that catalyzes the final step in cholesterol biosynthesis. We report on 154 currently known mutations in DHCR7 identified in patients affected with SLOS and discuss their coding consequences. These 154 mutations include 130 missense, 8 nonsense, 8 deletions, 2 insertions, 1 indel, and 5 splice site mutations. Using information available from published case reports and from patients identified in our clinical diagnostic laboratory, we analyzed correlations between genotype, clinical presentation and 7-dehydrocholesterol level. PMID:23042628

  10. A functional nitric oxide reductase model

    PubMed Central

    Collman, James P.; Yang, Ying; Dey, Abhishek; Decréau, Richard A.; Ghosh, Somdatta; Ohta, Takehiro; Solomon, Edward I.

    2008-01-01

    A functional heme/nonheme nitric oxide reductase (NOR) model is presented. The fully reduced diiron compound reacts with two equivalents of NO leading to the formation of one equivalent of N2O and the bis-ferric product. NO binds to both heme Fe and nonheme Fe complexes forming individual ferrous nitrosyl species. The mixed-valence species with an oxidized heme and a reduced nonheme FeB does not show NO reduction activity. These results are consistent with a so-called “trans” mechanism for the reduction of NO by bacterial NOR. PMID:18838684

  11. Heme Inhibition of Ferrisiderophore Reductase in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Lodge, J. S.; Gaines, C. G.; Arceneaux, J. E. L.; Byers, B. R.

    1982-01-01

    Heme was a noncompetitive inhibitor (apparent Ki and K?i = 0.043 mM) of a ferrisiderophore reductase purified from Bacillus subtilis; protoporphyrin IX had no effect. The cellular level of heme may partly regulate the function of this reductase to yield a controlled flow of iron into metabolism. PMID:6813318

  12. Ammonium inactivation of nitrate reductase in Lemna minor L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. O. Orebamjo; G. R. Stewart

    1975-01-01

    The addition of ammonium to nitrate induced plants of Lemna minor L. brings about a rapid loss in extractable nitrate reductase activity. This inactivation is reversible both in vivo and in vitro. Inhibitors of RNA and protein synthesis do not protect nitrate reductase against ammonium inactivation. It is suggested that factors, in addition to ammonium ions, are components of the

  13. Nitrate reductase activity and protein concentration of two populas clones.

    PubMed

    Dykstra, G F

    1974-04-01

    Nitrate reductase activity and protein percentage of various tree parts of two Populus clones were determined in relation to nitrate ion activity. Nitrogen was supplied as NH(4)NO(3) in a nutriculture system. Wisconsin-5 had significantly greater nitrate reductase activity than Tristis No. 1. Protein percentages of leaf plastochron index 10 leaves (tenth leaf below first leaf lamina exceeding 20 mm in length), bottom leaves, and roots in relation to nitrate ion activity were not appreciably different between clones. The nitrate reductase activity and protein percentage of Tristis No. 1 apex started to level off at the same nitrate ion activity, about 0.09 mm. In Wisconsin-5 apex protein percentage continued to increase at nitrate ion activities where nitrate reductase activity decreases sharply, suggesting that protein nitrogen was being supplied by ammonium ion. The difference in nitrate reductase activity between clones was probably due to genetically determined ability to synthesize nitrate reductase in response to nitrate ion. The expression of nitrate reductase activity was not an index of nitrogen assimilation ability but may be a useful index of growth potential when nitrate ion does not limit nitrate reductase synthesis. PMID:16658755

  14. Prostate Cancer Prevention with 5 Alpha-Reductase Inhibitors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dipen J. Parekh

    \\u000a Testosterone gets converted into the more potent 5-[alpha]-dihydrotestosterone by 5-[alpha]- reductase. dihydrotestosterone\\u000a (DHT) controls prostate mitotic activity and potentially prostate carcinogenesis. Interventions that inhibit 5-[alpha]-reductase\\u000a have potential as preventive agents for prostate cancer.

  15. Parasite-specific trypanothione reductase as a drug target molecule

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Luise Krauth-Siegel; Oliver Inhoff

    2003-01-01

    Trypanosomatids are the causative agents of African sleeping sickness, Chagas' disease, and the different manifestations of leishmaniasis. New drugs against these parasitic protozoa are urgently needed since the current drugs are unsatisfactory, in particular due to serious adverse side effects. In trypanosomes and leishmanias, the nearly ubiquitous glutathione\\/glutathione reductase system is replaced by trypanothione and trypanothione reductase. The essential role

  16. Functional and Phylogenetic Divergence of Fungal Adenylate-Forming Reductases

    PubMed Central

    Kalb, Daniel; Lackner, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    A key step in fungal l-lysine biosynthesis is catalyzed by adenylate-forming l-?-aminoadipic acid reductases, organized in domains for adenylation, thiolation, and the reduction step. However, the genomes of numerous ascomycetes and basidiomycetes contain an unexpectedly large number of additional genes encoding similar but functionally distinct enzymes. Here, we describe the functional in vitro characterization of four reductases which were heterologously produced in Escherichia coli. The Ceriporiopsis subvermispora serine reductase Nps1 features a terminal ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase (FNR) domain and thus belongs to a hitherto undescribed class of fungal multidomain enzymes. The second major class is characterized by the canonical terminal short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase domain and represented by Ceriporiopsis subvermispora Nps3 as the first biochemically characterized l-?-aminoadipic acid reductase of basidiomycete origin. Aspergillus flavus l-tyrosine reductases LnaA and LnbA are members of a distinct phylogenetic clade. Phylogenetic analysis supports the view that fungal adenylate-forming reductases are more diverse than previously recognized and belong to four distinct classes. PMID:25085485

  17. Pharmacogenetic evaluation of ABCB1, Cyp2C9, Cyp2C19 and methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms in teratogenicity of anti-epileptic drugs in women with epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Jose, Manna; Banerjee, Moinak; Mathew, Anila; Bharadwaj, Tashi; Vijayan, Neetha; Thomas, Sanjeev V.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Pregnancy in women with epilepsy (WWE) who are on anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) has two- to three-fold increased risk of fetal malformations. AEDs are mostly metabolized by Cyp2C9, Cyp2C19 and Cyp3A4 and transported by ABCB1. Patients on AED therapy can have folate deficiency. We hypothesize that the polymorphisms in ABCB1, Cyp2C9, Cyp2C19 and methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) might result in differential expression resulting in differential drug transport, drug metabolism and folate metabolism, which in turn may contribute to the teratogenic impact of AEDs. Materials and Methods: The ABCB1, Cyp2C9, Cyp2C19 and MTHFR polymorphisms were genotyped for their role in teratogenic potential and the nature of teratogenecity in response to AED treatment in WWE. The allelic, genotypic associations were tested in 266 WWE comprising of 143 WWE who had given birth to babies with WWE-malformation (WWE-M) and 123 WWE who had normal offsprings (WWE-N). Results: In WWE-M, CC genotype of Ex07 + 139C/T was overrepresented (P = 0.0032) whereas the poor metabolizer allele *2 and *2 *2 genotype of CYP2C219 was significantly higher in comparison to WWE-N group (P = 0.007 and P = 0.005, respectively). All these observations were independent of the nature of malformation (cardiac vs. non cardiac malformations). Conclusion: Our study indicates the possibility that ABCB1 and Cyp2C19 may play a pivotal role in the AED induced teratogenesis, which is independent of nature of malformation. This is one of the first reports indicating the pharmacogenetic role of Cyp2C19 and ABCB1 in teratogenesis of AED in pregnant WWE. PMID:25221392

  18. The Activity of the Arabidopsis Bifunctional Lysine-ketoglutarate Reductase\\/Saccharopine Dehydrogenase Enzyme of Lysine Catabolism Is Regulated by Functional Interaction between Its Two Enzyme Domains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaohong Zhu; Guiliang Tang; Gad Galili

    2002-01-01

    Lysine-ketoglutarate reductase\\/saccharopine dehy- drogenase (LKR\\/SDH) is a bifunctional enzyme cata- lyzing the first two steps of lysine catabolism in animals and plants. To elucidate the biochemical signification of the linkage between the two enzymes of LKR\\/SDH, namely lysine ketoglutarate and saccharopine dehydro- genase, we employed various truncated and mutated Arabidopsis LKR\\/SDH polypeptides expressed in yeast. Activity analyses of the different

  19. Disruption of the nuclear gene encoding the 20.8-kDa subunit of NADH:ubiquinone reductase of Neurospora mitochondria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. V. Silva; P. C. Alves; M. Duarte; N. Mota; A. Lobo-da-Cunha; A. Videira; T. A. A. Harkness; F. E. Nargang

    1996-01-01

    The nuclear gene coding for the 20.8-kDa subunit of the membrane arm of respiratory chain NADH:ubiquinone reductase (Complex I) fromNeurospora crassa, nuo-20.8, was localized on linkage group I of the fungal genome. A genomic DNA fragment containing this gene was cloned and a duplication was created in a strain ofN. crassa by transformation. To generate RIP (repeat-induced point) mutations in

  20. MTHFR 677T Is a Strong Determinant of the Degree of Hearing Loss Among Polish Males with Postlingual Sensorineural Hearing Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Pollak, Agnieszka; Mueller-Malesinska, Malgorzata; Lechowicz, Urszula; Skorka, Agata; Korniszewski, Lech; Sobczyk-Kopciol, Agnieszka; Waskiewicz, Anna; Broda, Grazyna; Iwanicka-Pronicka, Katarzyna; Oldak, Monika; Skarzynski, Henryk

    2012-01-01

    Hearing impairment (HI) is the most common sensory handicap. Congenital HI often has a genetic basis, whereas the etiology of nonsyndromic postlingual HI (npHI) usually remains unidentified. Our purpose was to test whether the MTHFR C677T (rs1801133) polymorphism affecting folate metabolism is associated with the occurrence or severity of npHI. We studied rs1801133 genotypes in 647 npHI patients (age <40, sudden sensorineural loss excluded, HI characterized as mean of better ear hearing thresholds for 0.5–8 kHz) and 3273 adult controls from the background population. Genotype distribution among patients and controls was similar, but among male cases (n=302) we found a dose-dependent correlation of MTHFR 677T with the degree of HI (mean thresholds in dB: 38.8, 44.9, and 53.3, for CC, CT, and TT genotypes, respectively; p=0.0013, pcor.=0.017). Among male patients rs1801133 TT significantly increased the risk of severe/profound HI (odds ratio=4.88, p=0.001). Among controls the known effect of MTHFR 677T on plasma total homocysteine was more pronounced in men than in women (p<0.00004 for genotype-sex interaction) suggesting that in Poland folate deficiency is more prevalent in males. In conclusion, we report a novel strong effect of MTHFR 677T among males with npHI. The functional significance of rs1801133 suggests that these patients may benefit from folate supplementation—an intervention which is simple, cheap, and devoid of side effects. PMID:22424391

  1. Effects of deoxyadenosine on ribonucleotide reductase in adenosine deaminase-deficient lymphocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Takeda; Y. Kuroda; E. Naito; I. Yokota; T. Saijo; M. Hirose; M. Miyao

    1991-01-01

    Summary To explore the relationship between ribonucleotide reductase and immunodysfunction in adenosine deaminase deficiency, the effects of deoxyadenosine on ribonucleotide reductase in ADA-deficient lymphocytes was investigated. An assay system for ribonucleotide reductase in intact permeabilized lymphocytes was developed to approximate physiological conditions. The activity of cytidine diphosphate (CDP) reductase in resting but not in proliferating lymphocytes in culture was inhibited

  2. Transcripts of Anthocyanidin Reductase and Leucoanthocyanidin Reductase and Measurement of Catechin and Epicatechin in Tartary Buckwheat

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeon Bok; Thwe, Aye Aye; Kim, YeJi; Li, Xiaohua; Cho, Jin Woong; Park, Phun Bum; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Naif; Kim, Sun-Ju; Suzuki, Tastsuro; Hyun Jho, Kwang; Park, Sang Un

    2014-01-01

    Anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR) play an important role in the monomeric units biosynthesis of proanthocyanidins (PAs) such as catechin and epicatechin in several plants. The aim of this study was to clone ANR and LAR genes involved in PAs biosynthesis and examine the expression of these two genes in different organs under different growth conditions in two tartary buckwheat cultivars, Hokkai T8 and T10. Gene expression was carried out by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, and catechin and epicatechin content was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. The expression pattern of ANR and LAR did not match the accumulation pattern of PAs in different organs of two cultivars. Epicatechin content was the highest in the flowers of both cultivars and it was affected by light in only Hokkai T8 sprouts. ANR and LAR levels in tartary buckwheat might be regulated by different mechanisms for catechin and epicatechin biosynthesis under light and dark conditions. PMID:24605062

  3. Structural and Functional Insights into Saccharomyces cerevisiae Riboflavin Biosynthesis Reductase RIB7

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yingfang

    2013-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae RIB7 (ScRIB7) is a potent target for anti-fungal agents because of its involvement in the riboflavin biosynthesis pathway as a NADPH-dependent reductase. However, the catalytic mechanism of riboflavin biosynthesis reductase (RBSRs) is controversial, and enzyme structure information is still lacking in eukaryotes. Here we report the crystal structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RIB7 at 2.10 Å resolution and its complex with NADPH at 2.35 Å resolution. ScRIB7 exists as a stable homodimer, and each subunit consists of nine central ?-sheets flanked by five helices, resembling the structure of RIB7 homologues. A conserved G76-X-G78-Xn-G181-G182 motif is present at the NADPH pyrophosphate group binding site. Activity assays confirmed the necessity of Thr79, Asp83, Glu180 and Gly182 for the activity of ScRIB7. Substrate preference of ScRIB7 was altered by mutating one residue (Thr35) to a Lysine, implying that ScRIB7 Thr35 and its corresponding residue, a lysine in bacteria, are important in substrate-specific recognition. PMID:23620735

  4. Expression of nitrous oxide reductase in Paracoccus denitrificans is regulated by oxygen and nitric oxide through FnrP and NNR

    PubMed Central

    Bergaust, Linda; van Spanning, Rob J. M.; Frostegård, Åsa

    2012-01-01

    The reductases performing the four steps of denitrification are controlled by a network of transcriptional regulators and ancillary factors responding to intra- and extracellular signals, amongst which are oxygen and N oxides (NO and NO2–). Although many components of the regulatory network have been identified, there are gaps in our understanding of their role(s) in controlling the expression of the various reductases, in particular the environmentally important N2O reductase (N2OR). We investigated denitrification phenotypes of Paracoccus denitrificans mutants deficient in: (i) regulatory proteins (three FNR-type transcriptional regulators, NarR, NNR and FnrP, and NirI, which is involved in transcription activation of the structural nir cluster); (ii) functional enzymes (NO reductase and N2OR); or (iii) ancillary factors involved in N2O reduction (NirX and NosX). A robotized incubation system allowed us to closely monitor changes in concentrations of oxygen and all gaseous products during the transition from oxic to anoxic respiration. Strains deficient in NO reductase were able to grow during denitrification, despite reaching micromolar concentrations of NO, but were unable to return to oxic respiration. The FnrP mutant showed linear anoxic growth in a medium with nitrate as the sole NOx, but exponential growth was restored by replacing nitrate with nitrite. We interpret this as nitrite limitation, suggesting dual transcriptional control of respiratory nitrate reductase (NAR) by FnrP and NarR. Mutations in either NirX or NosX did not affect the phenotype, but the double mutant lacked the potential to reduce N2O. Finally, we found that FnrP and NNR are alternative and equally effective inducers of N2OR. PMID:22174385

  5. Expression of nitrous oxide reductase in Paracoccus denitrificans is regulated by oxygen and nitric oxide through FnrP and NNR.

    PubMed

    Bergaust, Linda; van Spanning, Rob J M; Frostegård, Asa; Bakken, Lars R

    2012-03-01

    The reductases performing the four steps of denitrification are controlled by a network of transcriptional regulators and ancillary factors responding to intra- and extracellular signals, amongst which are oxygen and N oxides (NO and NO2(-)). Although many components of the regulatory network have been identified, there are gaps in our understanding of their role(s) in controlling the expression of the various reductases, in particular the environmentally important N(2)O reductase (N(2)OR). We investigated denitrification phenotypes of Paracoccus denitrificans mutants deficient in: (i) regulatory proteins (three FNR-type transcriptional regulators, NarR, NNR and FnrP, and NirI, which is involved in transcription activation of the structural nir cluster); (ii) functional enzymes (NO reductase and N(2)OR); or (iii) ancillary factors involved in N(2)O reduction (NirX and NosX). A robotized incubation system allowed us to closely monitor changes in concentrations of oxygen and all gaseous products during the transition from oxic to anoxic respiration. Strains deficient in NO reductase were able to grow during denitrification, despite reaching micromolar concentrations of NO, but were unable to return to oxic respiration. The FnrP mutant showed linear anoxic growth in a medium with nitrate as the sole NO(x), but exponential growth was restored by replacing nitrate with nitrite. We interpret this as nitrite limitation, suggesting dual transcriptional control of respiratory nitrate reductase (NAR) by FnrP and NarR. Mutations in either NirX or NosX did not affect the phenotype, but the double mutant lacked the potential to reduce N(2)O. Finally, we found that FnrP and NNR are alternative and equally effective inducers of N(2)OR. PMID:22174385

  6. Impact of residues remote from the catalytic centre on enzyme catalysis of copper nitrite reductase.

    PubMed

    Leferink, Nicole G H; Antonyuk, Svetlana V; Houwman, Joseline A; Scrutton, Nigel S; Eady, Robert R; Hasnain, S Samar

    2014-01-01

    Enzyme mechanisms are often probed by structure-informed point mutations and measurement of their effects on enzymatic properties to test mechanistic hypotheses. In many cases, the challenge is to report on complex, often inter-linked elements of catalysis. Evidence for long-range effects on enzyme mechanism resulting from mutations remains sparse, limiting the design/redesign of synthetic catalysts in a predictable way. Here we show that improving the accessibility of the active site pocket of copper nitrite reductase by mutation of a surface-exposed phenylalanine residue (Phe306), located 12?Å away from the catalytic site type-2 Cu (T2Cu), profoundly affects intra-molecular electron transfer, substrate-binding and catalytic activity. Structures and kinetic studies provide an explanation for the lower affinity for the substrate and the alteration of the rate-limiting step in the reaction. Our results demonstrate that distant residues remote from the active site can have marked effects on enzyme catalysis, by driving mechanistic change through relatively minor structural perturbations. PMID:25022223

  7. Lymphocyte development requires S-nitrosoglutathione reductase.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhiyong; Wang, Zhi-En; Doulias, Paschalis-Thomas; Wei, Wei; Ischiropoulos, Harry; Locksley, Richard M; Liu, Limin

    2010-12-01

    NO is critical to immunity, but its role in the development of the immune system is unknown. In this study, we show that S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR), a protein key to the control of protein S-nitrosylation, is important for the development of lymphocytes. Genetic deletion of GSNOR in mice results in significant decrease in both T and B lymphocytes in the periphery. In thymus, GSNOR deficiency causes excessive protein S-nitrosylation, increases apoptosis, and reduces the number of CD4 single-positive thymocytes. Lymphopenia and increase in S-nitrosylation and apoptosis in GSNOR-deficient mice are largely abolished by genetic deletion of inducible NO synthase. Furthermore, the protection of lymphocyte development by GSNOR is apparently intrinsic to hematopoietic cells. Thus, GSNOR, likely through regulation of S-nitrosylation and apoptosis, physiologically plays a protective role in the development of the immune system. PMID:20980633

  8. Kinetic mechanism of pulmonary carbonyl reductase.

    PubMed Central

    Matsuura, K; Nakayama, T; Nakagawa, M; Hara, A; Sawada, H

    1988-01-01

    The kinetic mechanism of guinea-pig lung carbonyl reductase was studied at pH 7 in the forward reaction with five carbonyl substrates and NAD(P)H and in the reverse reaction with propan-2-ol and NAD(P)+. In each case the enzyme mechanism was sequential, and product-inhibition studies were consistent with a di-iso ordered bi bi mechanism, in which NAD(P)H binds to the enzyme first and NAD(P)+ leaves last and the binding of cofactor induces isomerization. The kinetic and binding studies of the cofactors and several inhibitors such as pyrazole, benzoic acid, Cibacron Blue and benzamide indicate that the cofactor and Cibacron Blue bind to the free enzyme whereas the other inhibitors bind to the binary and/or ternary complexes. PMID:3048244

  9. Hyperprolactinemia and 5-alpha-reductase activity.

    PubMed

    Noci, I; Tantini, C; Nardi, E; Saltarelli, O; Chelo, E; Scarselli, G; Bigazzi, M; Messori, A

    1986-01-01

    A number of experimental data indicate that hyperprolactinemia inhibits the activity of 5-alpha-reductase; however, no information is available about the time required for this enzyme to re-activate after prolactinemia has returned to normal values. In the present study, five normal caucasian men, whose fertility had previously been proven, were given HCG (5000 IU/day by intramuscular route for three days) both in basal conditions and after sulpiride-induced hyperprolactinemia (dosage = 200 mg/day for ten days). In both conditions, the plasma levels of prolactin (PRL), testosterone (T), dihydro-testosterone (DHT), 17-beta-estradiol (E2), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHAS) were monitored during the treatment with HCG and for an additional 24 hrs after HCG discontinuation. All hormones were assayed by RIA. Our results demonstrate that hyperprolactinemia causes a marked decrease (58%) of DHT, a less marked decrease (39%) of T, an increase (43%) of DHAS whereas only a small increase (2%) of E2 was observed. Steroids were shown to behave differently after the HCG tests performed in the two experimental conditions. In particular, the levels of DHT had a much more pronounced increased after HCG in the second test than in the first; in contrast, both DHAS and E2 had a less marked response after the second test. Our data, on the one hand, confirm that 5-alpha-reductase is inhibited by hyperprolactinemia; on the other hand, the hyperprolactinemia-induced block of this enzyme appears to be rapidly reversible because the enzyme is reactivated within 48-72 hrs after normalization of prolactin levels. (Normal values of prolactin were on the average achieved on the 4th day after sulpiride discontinuation).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2943108

  10. Hexaheme nitrite reductase from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, C.; Moura, J.J.G.; Moura, I. (Centro de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, Oeiras (Portugal) Univ. Nova de Lisboa, Oeiras (Portugal)); Liu, M.Y.; Peck, H.D. Jr.; LeGall, J. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens (United States)); Wang, Yaning; Huynh, B.H. (Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States))

    1990-08-25

    Moessbauer and EPR spectroscopy were used to characterize the heme prosthetic groups of the nitrite reductase isolated from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (ATCC 27774), which is a membrane-bound multiheme cytochrome capable of catalyzing the 6-electron reduction of nitrite to ammonia. At pH 7.6, the as-isolated enzyme exhibited a complex EPR spectrum consisting of a low-spin ferric heme signal at g = 2.96, 2.28, and 1.50 plus several broad resonances indicative of spin-spin interactions among the heme groups. EPR redox titration studies revealed yet another low-spin ferric heme signal at g = 3.2 and 2.14 (the third g value was undetected) and the presence of a high-spin ferric heme. Moessbauer measurements demonstrated further that this enzyme contained six distinct heme groups: one high-spin (S = 5/2) and five low-spin (S = 1/2) ferric hemes. Characteristic hyperfine parameters for all six hemes were obtained through a detailed analysis of the Moessbauer spectra. D. desulfuricans nitrite reductase can be reduced by chemical reductants, such as dithionite or reduced methyl viologen, or by hydrogenase under hydrogen atmosphere. Addition of nitrite to the fully reduced enzyme reoxidized all five low-spin hemes to their ferric states. The high-spin heme, however, was found to complex NO, suggesting that the high-spin heme could be the substrate binding site and that NO could be an intermediate present in an enzyme-bound form.

  11. The cytochrome bd respiratory oxygen reductases

    PubMed Central

    Borisov, Vitaliy B.; Gennis, Robert B.; Hemp, James; Verkhovsky, Michael I.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Cytochrome bd is a respiratory quinol:O2 oxidoreductase found in many prokaryotes, including a number of pathogens. The main bioenergetic function of the enzyme is the production of a proton motive force by the vectorial charge transfer of protons. The sequences of cytochromes bd are not homologous to those of the other respiratory oxygen reductases, i.e., the heme-copper oxygen reductases or alternative oxidases (AOX). Generally, cytochromes bd are noteworthy for their high affinity for O2 and resistance to inhibition by cyanide. In E. coli, for example, cytochrome bd (specifically, cytochrome bd-I) is expressed under O2-limited conditions. Among the members of the bd-family are the so-called cyanide-insensitive quinol oxidases (CIO) which often have a low content of the eponymous heme d but, instead, have heme b in place of heme d in at least a majority of the enzyme population. However, at this point, no sequence motif has been identified to distinguish cytochrome bd (with a stoichiometric complement of heme d) from an enzyme designated as CIO. Members of the bd-family can be subdivided into those which contain either a long or a short hydrophilic connection between transmembrane helices 6 and 7 in subunit I, designated as the Q-loop. However, it is not clear whether there is a functional consequence of this difference. This review summarizes current knowledge on the physiological functions, genetics, structural and catalytic properties of cytochromes bd. Included in this review are descriptions of the intermediates of the catalytic cycle, the proposed site for the reduction of O2, evidence for a proton channel connecting this active site to the bacterial cytoplasm, and the molecular mechanism by which a membrane potential is generated. PMID:21756872

  12. Structures of an intramembrane vitamin K epoxide reductase homolog reveal control mechanisms for electron transfer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shixuan; Cheng, Wei; Grider, Ronald Fowle; Shen, Guomin; Li, Weikai

    2014-01-01

    The intramembrane vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) supports blood coagulation in humans and is the target of the anticoagulant warfarin. VKOR and its homologs generate disulfide bonds in organisms ranging from bacteria to humans. Here, to better understand the mechanism of VKOR catalysis, we report two crystal structures of a bacterial VKOR captured in different reaction states. These structures reveal a short helix at the hydrophobic active site of VKOR that alters between wound and unwound conformations. Motions of this “horizontal helix” promote electron transfer by regulating the positions of two cysteines in an adjacent loop. Winding of the helix separates these “loop cysteines” to prevent backward electron flow. Despite these motions, hydrophobicity at the active site is maintained to facilitate VKOR catalysis. Biochemical experiments suggest that several warfarin-resistant mutations act by changing the conformation of the horizontal helix. Taken together, these studies provide a comprehensive understanding of VKOR function. PMID:24477003

  13. Solubilization and Resolution of the Membrane-Bound Nitrite Reductase from Paracoccus Halodenitrificans into Nitrite and Nitric Oxide Reductases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, Michael A.; Cronin, Sonja E.; Hochstein, Lawrence I.

    1984-01-01

    Membranes prepared from Paracoccus halodenitrificans reduced nitrite or nitric oxide to nitrous oxide. Extraction of these membranes with the detergent CHAPSO [3-(3-Chlolamidoporopyldimethylammonio)-1-(2- hydroxy-1-propanesulfonate)], followed by ammonium sulfate fractionation of the solubilized proteins, resulted in the separation of nitrite and nitric oxide reductase activities. The fraction containing nitrite reductase activity spectrally resembled a cd-type cytochrome. Several cytochromes were detected in the nitric oxide reductase fraction. Which, if any, of these cytochromes is associated with the reduction of nitric oxide is not clear at this time.

  14. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy in a patient with Crohn's disease and aberrant MTHFR and GPIIIa gene variants.

    PubMed

    Felekis, T; Katsanos, K H; Zois, C D; Vartholomatos, G; Kolaitis, N; Asproudis, I; Tsianos, E V

    2010-10-01

    Large spectrums of ophthalmic manifestations from the anterior to the posterior segment have been so far reported in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy is caused by acute ischemic infarction of the optic nerve head and is distinguished in two different types, non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuroparhy (NAION) which is the most frequent type and arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuroparhy may result in severe visual field loss. We present the case of a 69 year-old man with known history of Crohn's disease that was referred to the Department of Ophthalmology after noticing sudden blurred vision of his left eye. Ophthalmologic examination revealed a corrected visual acuity of 8/10 OS and 10/10 OD. Pupil examination showed a relative afferent pupillary defect of the left pupil and fluoroangiography revealed hyperfluorescence of the left optic disc, indicating edema and NAION attack on his left eye. Genetic analysis showed that the patient was homozygous for MTHFR C677T genetic polymorphism and A1/A2 heterozygous for GPIIIa polymorphism. PMID:21122545

  15. 21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7375 Glutathione reductase assay. (a) Identification....

  16. Redox-Linked Structural Changes in Ribonucleotide Reductase

    E-print Network

    Offenbacher, A. R.

    Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) catalyzes the reduction of ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides. Class I RNRs are composed of two homodimeric proteins, ?2 and ?2. The class Ia E. coli ?2 contains dinuclear, antiferromagnetically ...

  17. COMPARISON OF THE METHYL REDUCTASE GENES AND GENE PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The DNA sequences encoding component C of methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcr genes) in Methanothermus fervidus, Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum, Methanococcus vannielii, and Methanosarcina barkeri have been published. omparisons of transcription initiation and termination site...

  18. Some characteristics of nitrate reductase induction in Lemna minor L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. O. Orebamjo; G. R. Stewart

    1974-01-01

    Low levels of nitrate reductase can be detected in plants of Lemna minor grown on some organic nitrogen sources. Nitrogen-starvation does not lead to a derepression of nitrate reductase activity. Nitrate ions are necessary for the development of maximum enzyme activity and the maintenance of high enzyme levels. Nitrogen-starvation of ammonia-grown plants increases the subsequent rate of nitrate-mediated induction. It

  19. Characterization of sepiapterin reductase activity from Drosophila melanogaster

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pilar Ruiz-Vázquez; Francisco J. Silva; Juan Ferré

    1996-01-01

    A kinetic study of Drosophila melanogaster sepiapterin reductase has been done. The apparent Km for sepiapterin has been estimated as 153 ?M. N-acetyldopamine, N-acetylserotonin, and N-methoxyacetyl-serotonin have shown to be noncompetitive inhibitors for the Drosophila sepiapterin reductase. The K1 obtained were 40 ?M, 127 ?M and 87 ?M, respectively. Chromatofocusing of Drosophila crude extracts has shown only one peak with

  20. SORGOdb: Superoxide Reductase Gene Ontology curated DataBase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Céline Lucchetti-Miganeh; David Goudenège; David Thybert; Gilles Salbert; Frédérique Barloy-Hubler

    2011-01-01

    Background  Superoxide reductases (SOR) catalyse the reduction of superoxide anions to hydrogen peroxide and are involved in the oxidative\\u000a stress defences of anaerobic and facultative anaerobic organisms. Genes encoding SOR were discovered recently and suffer from\\u000a annotation problems. These genes, named sor, are short and the transfer of annotations from previously characterized neelaredoxin, desulfoferrodoxin, superoxide reductase\\u000a and rubredoxin oxidase has been

  1. Towards the Understanding of Resistance Mechanisms in Clinically Isolated Trimethoprim-resistant, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Dihydrofolate Reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, K.; Lombardo, M; Wright, D; Anderson, A

    2010-01-01

    Resistance to therapeutics such as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole has become an increasing problem in strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Clinically isolated trimethoprim-resistant strains reveal a double mutation, H30N/F98Y, in dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). In order to develop novel and effective therapeutics against these resistant strains, we evaluated a series of propargyl-linked antifolate lead compounds for inhibition of the mutant enzyme. For the propargyl-linked antifolates, the F98Y mutation generates minimal (between 1.2- and 6-fold) losses of affinity and the H30N mutation generates greater losses (between 2.4- and 48-fold). Conversely, trimethoprim affinity is largely diminished by the F98Y mutation (36-fold) and is not affected by the H30N mutation. In order to elucidate a mechanism of resistance, we determined a crystal structure of a complex of this double mutant with a lead propargyl-linked antifolate. This structure suggests a resistance mechanism consistent both for the propargyl-linked class of antifolates and for trimethoprim that is based on the loss of a conserved water-mediated hydrogen bond.

  2. Soluble oligomerization provides a beneficial fitness effect on destabilizing mutations

    E-print Network

    Bershtein, Shimon; Shakhnovich, Eugene I

    2012-01-01

    Mutations create the genetic diversity on which selective pressures can act, yet also create structural instability in proteins. How, then, is it possible for organisms to ameliorate mutation-induced perturbations of protein stability while maintaining biological fitness and gaining a selective advantage? Here we used a new technique of site-specific chromosomal mutagenesis to introduce a selected set of mostly destabilizing mutations into folA - an essential chromosomal gene of E. coli encoding dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) - to determine how changes in protein stability, activity and abundance affect fitness. In total, 27 E.coli strains carrying mutant DHFR were created. We found no significant correlation between protein stability and its catalytic activity nor between catalytic activity and fitness in a limited range of variation of catalytic activity observed in mutants. The stability of these mutants is strongly correlated with their intracellular abundance; suggesting that protein homeostatic machiner...

  3. Dihydropteridine Reductase: Implication on the Regulation of Catecholamine Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Musacchio, José M.; D'Angelo, Gale L.; McQueen, Charlene A.

    1971-01-01

    The low tissue concentrations of tetrahydrobiopterin, as well as the antagonism between the catecholamine feedback inhibition of tyrosine hydroxylase and the reduced cofactor concentrations, suggest that dihydropteridine reductase may play an important role in the regulation of catecholamine biosynthesis. The interaction of the different components involved in the hydroxylation of tyrosine was studied in vitro in a complex system composed of tyrosine hydroxylase, dihydropteridine reductase, and the different cofactors. This system has several important characteristics: (a) the rate of dihydroxyphenylalanine formation can be controlled by the concentration of dihydropteridine reductase; (b) low concentrations of catecholamines (2 × 10-5 M) can produce a marked inhibition of tyrosine hydroxylase activity; and (c) the catecholamine feedback-inhibition of tyrosine hydroxylase can be antagonized by increasing concentrations of dihydropteridine reductase. The properties of the in vitro tyrosine hydroxylase-dihydropteridine reductase system suggest that dihydropteridine reductase may have an important role in vivo in the determination of the rates of dihydroxyphenylalanine formation and on the effectiveness of the catecholamine feedback-inhibition of tyrosine hydroxylase activity. PMID:5289368

  4. Relative adrenal insufficiency in mice deficient in 5?-reductase 1

    PubMed Central

    Livingstone, Dawn E W; Di Rollo, Emma M; Yang, Chenjing; Codrington, Lucy E; Mathews, John A; Kara, Madina; Hughes, Katherine A; Kenyon, Christopher J; Walker, Brian R; Andrew, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Patients with critical illness or hepatic failure exhibit impaired cortisol responses to ACTH, a phenomenon known as ‘relative adrenal insufficiency’. A putative mechanism is that elevated bile acids inhibit inactivation of cortisol in liver by 5?-reductases type 1 and type 2 and 5?-reductase, resulting in compensatory downregulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and adrenocortical atrophy. To test the hypothesis that impaired glucocorticoid clearance can cause relative adrenal insufficiency, we investigated the consequences of 5?-reductase type 1 deficiency in mice. In adrenalectomised male mice with targeted disruption of 5?-reductase type 1, clearance of corticosterone was lower after acute or chronic (eightfold, P<0.05) administration, compared with WT control mice. In intact 5?-reductase-deficient male mice, although resting plasma corticosterone levels were maintained, corticosterone responses were impaired after ACTH administration (26% lower, P<0.05), handling stress (2.5-fold lower, P<0.05) and restraint stress (43% lower, P<0.05) compared with WT mice. mRNA levels of Nr3c1 (glucocorticoid receptor), Crh and Avp in pituitary or hypothalamus were altered, consistent with enhanced negative feedback. These findings confirm that impaired peripheral clearance of glucocorticoids can cause ‘relative adrenal insufficiency’ in mice, an observation with important implications for patients with critical illness or hepatic failure, and for patients receiving 5?-reductase inhibitors for prostatic disease. PMID:24872577

  5. Relative adrenal insufficiency in mice deficient in 5?-reductase 1.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, Dawn E W; Di Rollo, Emma M; Yang, Chenjing; Codrington, Lucy E; Mathews, John A; Kara, Madina; Hughes, Katherine A; Kenyon, Christopher J; Walker, Brian R; Andrew, Ruth

    2014-08-01

    Patients with critical illness or hepatic failure exhibit impaired cortisol responses to ACTH, a phenomenon known as 'relative adrenal insufficiency'. A putative mechanism is that elevated bile acids inhibit inactivation of cortisol in liver by 5?-reductases type 1 and type 2 and 5?-reductase, resulting in compensatory downregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and adrenocortical atrophy. To test the hypothesis that impaired glucocorticoid clearance can cause relative adrenal insufficiency, we investigated the consequences of 5?-reductase type 1 deficiency in mice. In adrenalectomised male mice with targeted disruption of 5?-reductase type 1, clearance of corticosterone was lower after acute or chronic (eightfold, P<0.05) administration, compared with WT control mice. In intact 5?-reductase-deficient male mice, although resting plasma corticosterone levels were maintained, corticosterone responses were impaired after ACTH administration (26% lower, P<0.05), handling stress (2.5-fold lower, P<0.05) and restraint stress (43% lower, P<0.05) compared with WT mice. mRNA levels of Nr3c1 (glucocorticoid receptor), Crh and Avp in pituitary or hypothalamus were altered, consistent with enhanced negative feedback. These findings confirm that impaired peripheral clearance of glucocorticoids can cause 'relative adrenal insufficiency' in mice, an observation with important implications for patients with critical illness or hepatic failure, and for patients receiving 5?-reductase inhibitors for prostatic disease. PMID:24872577

  6. Identification and characterization of the Staphylococcus carnosus nitrate reductase operon.

    PubMed

    Pantel, I; Lindgren, P E; Neubauer, H; Götz, F

    1998-07-01

    Physiological and genetic characterization of Staphylococcus carnosus nitrate reductase-negative mutants led to the identification of the nitrate reductase operon, narGHJI. Transcription from the nar promoter was stimulated by anaerobiosis, nitrate, and nitrite. This is in accordance with the nitrate reductase activities determined with benzyl viologen as electron donor. However, in the presence of oxygen and nitrate, high transcriptional initiation but low nitrate reductase activity was observed. Since the alphabeta complex of the nitrate reductase formed during anaerobic growth was insensitive to oxygen, other oxygen-sensitive steps (e.g., post-transcriptional mechanisms, molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis) must be involved. The nitrate-reducing system in S. carnosus displays similarities to the dissimilatory nitrate reductases of Escherichia coli. However, in the S. carnosus nar promoter, no obvious Fnr and integration host factor recognition sites are present; only one site that is related to the E. coli NarL consensus sequence was found. Studies to determine whether the E. coli proteins NarL and Fnr are functional at the S. carnosus narGHJI promoter indicated that the promoter is not functional in E. coli. PMID:9738886

  7. The Effect of Exogenous IAA and Kinetin on Nitrate Reductase, Nitrite Reductase and Glutamate Dehydrogenase Activities in Excised Pea Roots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Sahulka

    1972-01-01

    Nitrate reductase (NO3R) activity, nitrite reductase (NO2R) activity and NADH2 dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity were followed in extracts from excised pea roots incubated under aseptic\\u000a conditions for 9 and 24 h in nitrate containing nutrient medium to which IAA was added in concentrations promoting lateral\\u000a root formation (1 × 10?5; 3 × 10?5; 5 × 10?5 M) and kinetin

  8. Streptococcus sanguinis Class Ib Ribonucleotide Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Makhlynets, Olga; Boal, Amie K.; Rhodes, DeLacy V.; Kitten, Todd; Rosenzweig, Amy C.; Stubbe, JoAnne

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus sanguinis is a causative agent of infective endocarditis. Deletion of SsaB, a manganese transporter, drastically reduces S. sanguinis virulence. Many pathogenic organisms require class Ib ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) to catalyze the conversion of nucleotides to deoxynucleotides under aerobic conditions, and recent studies demonstrate that this enzyme uses a dimanganese-tyrosyl radical (MnIII2-Y•) cofactor in vivo. The proteins required for S. sanguinis ribonucleotide reduction (NrdE and NrdF, ? and ? subunits of RNR; NrdH and TrxR, a glutaredoxin-like thioredoxin and a thioredoxin reductase; and NrdI, a flavodoxin essential for assembly of the RNR metallo-cofactor) have been identified and characterized. Apo-NrdF with FeII and O2 can self-assemble a diferric-tyrosyl radical (FeIII2-Y•) cofactor (1.2 Y•/?2) and with the help of NrdI can assemble a MnIII2-Y• cofactor (0.9 Y•/?2). The activity of RNR with its endogenous reductants, NrdH and TrxR, is 5,000 and 1,500 units/mg for the Mn- and Fe-NrdFs (Fe-loaded NrdF), respectively. X-ray structures of S. sanguinis NrdIox and MnII2-NrdF are reported and provide a possible rationale for the weak affinity (2.9 ?m) between them. These streptococcal proteins form a structurally distinct subclass relative to other Ib proteins with unique features likely important in cluster assembly, including a long and negatively charged loop near the NrdI flavin and a bulky residue (Thr) at a constriction in the oxidant channel to the NrdI interface. These studies set the stage for identifying the active form of S. sanguinis class Ib RNR in an animal model for infective endocarditis and establishing whether the manganese requirement for pathogenesis is associated with RNR. PMID:24381172

  9. Protein motions during catalysis by dihydrofolate reductases

    PubMed Central

    Allemann, Rudolf K; Evans, Rhiannon M; Tey, Lai-hock; Maglia, Giovanni; Pang, Jiayun; Rodriguez, Robert; Shrimpton, Paul J; Swanwick, Richard S

    2006-01-01

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) maintains the intracellular pool of tetrahydrofolate through catalysis of hydrogen transfer from reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide to 7,8-dihydrofolate. We report results for pre-steady-state kinetic studies of the temperature dependence of the rates and the hydrogen/deuterium-kinetic isotope effects for the reactions catalysed by the enzymes from the mesophilic Escherichia coli and the hyperthermophilic Thermatoga maritima. We propose an evolutionary pattern in which catalysis progressed from a relatively rigid active site structure in the ancient thermophilic DHFR to a more flexible and kinetically more efficient structure in E. coli that actively promotes hydrogen transfer at physiological pH by modulating the tunnelling distance. The E. coli enzyme appeared relatively robust, in that kinetically severely compromised mutants still actively propagated the reaction. The reduced hydrogen transfer rates of the extensively studied Gly121Val mutant of DHFR from E. coli were most likely due to sterically unfavourable long-range effects from the introduction of the bulky isopropyl group. PMID:16873119

  10. Protein motions during catalysis by dihydrofolate reductases.

    PubMed

    Allemann, Rudolf K; Evans, Rhiannon M; Tey, Lai-hock; Maglia, Giovanni; Pang, Jiayun; Rodriguez, Robert; Shrimpton, Paul J; Swanwick, Richard S

    2006-08-29

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) maintains the intracellular pool of tetrahydrofolate through catalysis of hydrogen transfer from reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide to 7,8-dihydrofolate. We report results for pre-steady-state kinetic studies of the temperature dependence of the rates and the hydrogen/deuterium-kinetic isotope effects for the reactions catalysed by the enzymes from the mesophilic Escherichia coli and the hyperthermophilic Thermatoga maritima. We propose an evolutionary pattern in which catalysis progressed from a relatively rigid active site structure in the ancient thermophilic DHFR to a more flexible and kinetically more efficient structure in E. coli that actively promotes hydrogen transfer at physiological pH by modulating the tunnelling distance. The E. coli enzyme appeared relatively robust, in that kinetically severely compromised mutants still actively propagated the reaction. The reduced hydrogen transfer rates of the extensively studied Gly121Val mutant of DHFR from E. coli were most likely due to sterically unfavourable long-range effects from the introduction of the bulky isopropyl group. PMID:16873119

  11. Consequences of erythrocytic glutathione reductase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Frischer, H; Ahmad, T

    1987-05-01

    We have used 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) as a selective and irreversible inhibitor of oxidized glutathione reductase (GSSG-R) to determine how human erythrocytes with various degrees of GSSG-R deficiency recover their reduced glutathione (GSH) after exposure to acetylphenylhydrazine or diamide. Pentose phosphate dehydrogenases and glutathione synthesis were not inhibited, de novo glutathione synthesis was negligible within the experimental time frame, and the reappearance of GSH was strictly under the control of GSSG-R. Results obtained with acetylphenylhydrazine or diamide were concordant. In red cells stressed by these reagents, GSSG-R deficiency began to impair the regeneration of GSH only after greater than 80% of the normal enzyme activity had been abolished. Thereafter GSH recovery deteriorated as drug-induced GSSG-R depression increased. Only erythrocytes that had been rendered almost totally GSSG-R deficient, that is, had lost greater than 90% of baseline activity, became functionally equivalent to GdA- glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient cells. The reserve capacity of GSSG-R in human erythrocytes is extremely large. Of all types of isolated GSSG-R "deficiencies" reported so far, only two can be considered pathogenically significant: the homozygous genetic defect found in a single family, and much more commonly, the acute pharmacologic phenocopy induced by BCNU. PMID:3572207

  12. Periplasmic methacrylate reductase activity in Wolinella succinogenes.

    PubMed

    Gross, R; Simon, J; Kröger, A

    2001-10-01

    The cell homogenate and the soluble cell fraction of Wolinella succinogenes grown with formate and fumarate catalyzed the oxidation of benzyl viologen radical by methacrylate [apparent Km=0.23 mM, Vmax=1.0 U (mg cell protein) -1] or acrylate [apparent Km=0.50 mM, Vmax=0.77 U (mg cell protein) -1]. Crotonate did not serve as an oxidant. A mutant of W. succinogenes lacking the fccABC operon was unable to catalyze methacrylate or acrylate reduction. In contrast, the inactivation of fccC alone had no effect on these activities. Methacrylate reduction by benzyl viologen radical was not catalyzed by fumarate reductase isolated from the membrane of W. succinogenes. Cells grown with formate and fumarate did not catalyze methacrylate reduction by formate, and W. succinogenes did not grow with formate and methacrylate as catabolic substrates. The results suggest that the reduction of methacrylate or acrylate by benzyl viologen radical is most likely catalyzed either by the periplasmic flavoprotein FccA or by a complex consisting of FccA and the predicted c-type cytochrome FccB. The metabolic function of the fccABC operon remains unknown. PMID:11685377

  13. Aldose reductase inhibitory compounds from Xanthium strumarium.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ha Na; Lee, Min Young; Kim, Jin-Kyu; Suh, Hong-Won; Lim, Soon Sung

    2013-09-01

    As part of our ongoing search for natural sources of therapeutic and preventive agents for diabetic complications, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of components of the fruit of Xanthium strumarium (X. strumarium) on aldose reductase (AR) and galactitol formation in rat lenses with high levels of glucose. To identify the bioactive components of X. strumarium, 7 caffeoylquinic acids and 3 phenolic compounds were isolated and their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence and comparison with published data. The abilities of 10 X. strumarium-derived components to counteract diabetic complications were investigated by means of inhibitory assays with rat lens AR (rAR) and recombinant human AR (rhAR). From the 10 isolated compounds, methyl-3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinate showed the most potent inhibition, with IC?? values of 0.30 and 0.67 ?M for rAR and rhAR, respectively. In the kinetic analyses using Lineweaver-Burk plots of 1/velocity and 1/substrate, methyl-3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinate showed competitive inhibition of rhAR. Furthermore, methyl-3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinate inhibited galactitol formation in the rat lens and in erythrocytes incubated with a high concentration of glucose, indicating that this compound may be effective in preventing diabetic complications. PMID:23604720

  14. 5?-Reductase: History and Clinical Importance

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Leonard S

    2004-01-01

    The treatment of men with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has shifted dramatically from surgery to drug therapy over the past decade. The revolution in BPH treatment began with the discovery of congenital 5?-reductase (5AR) deficiency, leading to the appreciation of 2 different androgenic hormones: testosterone, which mediates overt masculinization in the adult male, and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which mediates prostatic growth, acne, facial beard, and male pattern baldness. Inhibition of DHT in adults results in prostatic shrinkage and symptomatic relief in many men, without the side effects seen with conventional androgen-deprivation therapy. The 5AR inhibitor drugs (finasteride and the dual inhibitor, dutasteride) are able to ablate the accumulation of intraprostatic DHT, the mechanism most responsible for prostate growth and maintenance. Not only may these drugs relieve symptoms, but they may also alter the natural history of the BPH process. Future indications for the 5ARI drugs could include chemoprevention of prostate cancer, prophylaxis of BPH-related complications, and treatment of BPH-associated hematuria. PMID:16985920

  15. Significance of Four Methionine Sulfoxide Reductases in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vineet K.; Vaish, Manisha; Johansson, Trintje R.; Baum, Kyle R.; Ring, Robert P.; Singh, Saumya; Shukla, Sanjay K.; Moskovitz, Jackob

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen and emergence of antibiotic resistance in clinical staphylococcal isolates raises concerns about our ability to control these infections. Cell wall-active antibiotics cause elevated synthesis of methionine sulfoxide reductases (Msrs: MsrA1 and MsrB) in S. aureus. MsrA and MsrB enzymes reduce S-epimers and R-epimers of methionine sulfoxide, respectively, that are generated under oxidative stress. In the S. aureus chromosome, there are three msrA genes (msrA1, msrA2 and msrA3) and one msrB gene. To understand the precise physiological roles of Msr proteins in S. aureus, mutations in msrA1, msrA2 and msrA3 and msrB genes were created by site-directed mutagenesis. These mutants were combined to create a triple msrA (msrA1, msrA2 and msrA3) and a quadruple msrAB (msrA1, msrA2, msrA3, msrB) mutant. These mutants were used to determine the roles of Msr proteins in staphylococcal growth, antibiotic resistance, adherence to human lung epithelial cells, pigment production, and survival in mice relative to the wild-type strains. MsrA1-deficient strains were sensitive to oxidative stress conditions, less pigmented and less adherent to human lung epithelial cells, and showed reduced survival in mouse tissues. In contrast, MsrB-deficient strains were resistant to oxidants and were highly pigmented. Lack of MsrA2 and MsrA3 caused no apparent growth defect in S. aureus. In complementation experiments with the triple and quadruple mutants, it was MsrA1 and not MsrB that was determined to be critical for adherence and phagocytic resistance of S. aureus. Overall, the data suggests that MsrA1 may be an important virulence factor and MsrB probably plays a balancing act to counter the effect of MsrA1 in S. aureus. PMID:25680075

  16. Isolation and characterization of cDNAs encoding leucoanthocyanidin reductase and anthocyanidin reductase from Populus trichocarpa.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lijun; Jiang, Yuanzhong; Yuan, Li; Lu, Wanxiang; Yang, Li; Karim, Abdul; Luo, Keming

    2013-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) contribute to poplar defense mechanisms against biotic and abiotic stresses. Transcripts of PA biosynthetic genes accumulated rapidly in response to infection by the fungus Marssonina brunnea f.sp. multigermtubi, treatments of salicylic acid (SA) and wounding, resulting in PA accumulation in poplar leaves. Anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR) are two key enzymes of the PA biosynthesis that produce the main subunits: (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin required for formation of PA polymers. In Populus, ANR and LAR are encoded by at least two and three highly related genes, respectively. In this study, we isolated and functionally characterized genes PtrANR1 and PtrLAR1 from P. trichocarpa. Phylogenetic analysis shows that Populus ANR1 and LAR1 occurr in two distinct phylogenetic lineages, but both genes have little difference in their tissue distribution, preferentially expressed in roots. Overexpression of PtrANR1 in poplar resulted in a significant increase in PA levels but no impact on catechin levels. Antisense down-regulation of PtrANR1 showed reduced PA accumulation in transgenic lines, but increased levels of anthocyanin content. Ectopic expression of PtrLAR1 in poplar positively regulated the biosynthesis of PAs, whereas the accumulation of anthocyanin and flavonol was significantly reduced (P<0.05) in all transgenic plants compared to the control plants. These results suggest that both PtrANR1 and PtrLAR1 contribute to PA biosynthesis in Populus. PMID:23741362

  17. Repair of single-point mutations by polypurine reverse Hoogsteen hairpins.

    PubMed

    Solé, Anna; Villalobos, Xenia; Ciudad, Carlos J; Noé, Véronique

    2014-10-01

    Polypurine reverse Hoogsteen hairpins (PPRHs) are formed by two intramolecularly bound antiparallel homopurine domains linked by a five-thymidine loop. One of the homopurine strands binds with antiparallel orientation by Watson-Crick bonds to the polypyrimidine target sequence, forming a triplex. We had previously reported the ability of PPRHs to effectively bind dsDNA displacing the fourth strand away from the newly formed triplex. The main goal of this work was to explore the possibility of repairing a point mutation in mammalian cells using PPRHs as tools. These repair-PPRHs contain different combinations of extended sequences of DNA with the corrected nucleotide to repair the point mutation. As a model we used the dihydrofolate reductase gene. On the one hand, we demonstrate in vitro that PPRHs bind specifically to their polypyrimidine target sequence, opening the two strands of the dsDNA, and allowing the binding of a given repair oligonucleotide to the displaced strand of the DNA. Subsequently, we show at a cellular level (Chinese ovary hamster cells) that repair-PPRHs are able to correct a single-point mutation in a dihydrofolate reductase minigene bearing a nonsense mutation, both in an extrachromosomal location and when the mutated plasmid was stably transfected into the cells. Finally, this methodology was successfully applied to repair a single-point mutation at the endogenous locus, using the DA5 cell line with a deleted nucleotide in exon six of the dhfr gene. PMID:25222154

  18. Spectrum of DHCR7 mutations in Slovak patients with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome and detection of common mutations by PCR-based assays.

    PubMed

    Kolejáková, Katarína; Petrovic, Robert; Futas, Ján; Turcáni, Peter; Durovcíková, Darina; Chandoga, Ján

    2009-03-01

    The Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS), an autosomal recessive disorder associated with multiple developmental malformations, is caused by a large spectrum of mutations in the DHCR7 gene. Mutations in the DHCR7 gene lead to a 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase deficiency, which is the final enzyme in the pathway of the cholesterol biosynthesis. Reduced cholesterol levels and elevated concentrations of its precursor 7-dehydrocholesterol in plasma and tissues are the major biochemical hallmarks of this disorder. In all patients a biochemical analysis of blood sterols using the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was performed to confirm the clinical diagnosis of SLOS. We have also determined the mutational spectrum of DHCR7 gene in 17 Slovak patients. We identified six different mutations: nonsense mutation W151X and missense mutations V326L, L109P, G410S, R352Q, Y432C. Mutations W151X and V326L accounted for 76% of the SLOS alleles in Slovak population. The Slovak mutational spectrum is similar to that observed in other Central European countries. We also report simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays that allow efficient and rapid mutation analysis. PMID:19390132

  19. Actions of 5alpha-reductase inhibitors on the epididymis.

    PubMed

    Robaire, Bernard; Henderson, Natali A

    2006-05-16

    Testosterone is converted to the more biologically active androgen, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), by steroid 5alpha-reductase. Two isozymes of 5alpha-reductase, types 1 and 2, are abundantly expressed in the epididymis. DHT is the androgen found in the nuclei of epididymal cells and is essential for the maturation of spermatozoa. Thus, one approach to block androgen action in the epididymis is to inhibit DHT formation. Several compounds have been reported to inhibit either one or both forms of 5alpha-reductase in many tissues. The first commercially available inhibitor of 5alpha-reductase, finasteride, has a predominant effect on the type 2 isozyme, while more recently developed agents, such as dutasteride, PNU157706 and FK143, act as dual inhibitors. We found that the treatment of adult rats with such agents results in pronounced effects on the expression of genes essential to the formation of the optimal luminal microenvironment that is required for proper sperm maturation. Furthermore, drug treatment caused a significant decrease in the percentage of progressively motile and morphologically normal spermatozoa in the cauda epididymides. Mating females to treated males resulted in fewer successful pregnancies and a higher rate of pre-implantation loss. Thus, there may be a role for dual 5alpha-reductase inhibitors as potential components of a male contraceptive. PMID:16476520

  20. Inhibitory effects of isoflavonoids on rat prostate testosterone 5?-reductase.

    PubMed

    Bae, Mijeong; Woo, Mijin; Kusuma, Irawan Wijaya; Arung, Enos Tangke; Yang, Chae Ha; Kim, Yong-ung

    2012-12-01

    Testosterone 5?-reductase inhibitors represent important therapeutic drugs for use against androgen-dependent diseases such as benign prostatic hyperplasia, male pattern baldness, and acne. We have searched for inhibitors of rat prostate testosterone 5?-reductase in the cultured broths of many kinds of soil bacteria, and have found that cultured soybean-casein digest broths of certain bacterial strains have a potent inhibitory effect on the enzyme. We tested 10 selected isoflavonoids, including isoflavones and O-methylated isoflavones, for inhibitory effects on rat prostate testosterone 5?-reductase to determine the important structural elements for inhibition of the enzyme. Genistein, biochanin A, equol, and 3',4',7-trihydroxyisoflavone showed considerably higher inhibitory effects whereas daidzein, formononetin, glycitein, prunetin, ipriflavone, and 4',7-dimethoxyisoflavone showed lower inhibitory effects. The IC(50) values of genistein, biochanin A, equol, 3',4',7-trihydroxyisoflavone, and riboflavin, a positive control, for rat prostate testosterone 5?-reductase were 710 ?m, 140 ?m, 370 ?m, 690 ?m, and 17 ?m, respectively. Daidzein, genistein, biochanin A, formononetin, and equol are already known to be testosterone 5?-reductase inhibitors, but this is the first characterization of 3',4',7-trihydroxyisoflavone as an inhibitor of the enzyme. PMID:23265084

  1. Human cytochrome b5 reductase: structure, function, and potential applications.

    PubMed

    Elahian, Fatemeh; Sepehrizadeh, Zargham; Moghimi, Bahareh; Mirzaei, Seyed Abbas

    2014-06-01

    Cytochrome b5 reductase is a flavoprotein that is produced as two different isoforms that have different localizations. The amphipathic microsomal isoform, found in all cell types with the exception of erythrocytes, consists of one hydrophobic membrane-anchoring domain and a larger hydrophilic flavin catalytic domain. The soluble cytochrome b5 reductase isoform, found in human erythrocytes, is a truncated protein that is encoded by an alternative transcript and consists of the larger domain only. Cytochrome b5 reductase is involved in the transfer of reducing equivalents from the physiological electron donor, NADH, via an FAD domain to the small molecules of cytochrome b5. This protein has received much attention from researchers due to its involvement in many oxidation and reduction reactions, such as the reduction of methemoglobin to hemoglobin. Autosomal cytochrome b5 reductase gene deficiency manifests with the accumulation of oxidized Fe+3 and recessive congenital methemoglobinemia in humans. In this article, we provide a comprehensive overview of the structure and function of cytochrome b5 reductase from different eukaryotic sources and its potential use in the food industry, biosensor, and diagnostic areas. PMID:23113554

  2. Free energy simulations of active-site mutants of dihydrofolate reductase.

    PubMed

    Doron, Dvir; Stojkovi?, Vanja; Gakhar, Lokesh; Vardi-Kilshtain, Alexandra; Kohen, Amnon; Major, Dan Thomas

    2015-01-22

    This study employs hybrid quantum mechanics-molecular mechanics (QM/MM) simulations to investigate the effect of mutations of the active-site residue I14 of E. coli dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) on the hydride transfer. Recent kinetic measurements of the I14X mutants (X = V, A, and G) indicated slower hydride transfer rates and increasingly temperature-dependent kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) with systematic reduction of the I14 side chain. The QM/MM simulations show that when the original isoleucine residue is substituted in silico by valine, alanine, or glycine (I14V, I14A, and I14G DHFR, respectively), the free energy barrier height of the hydride transfer reaction increases relative to the wild-type enzyme. These trends are in line with the single-turnover rate measurements reported for these systems. In addition, extended dynamics simulations of the reactive Michaelis complex reveal enhanced flexibility in the mutants, and in particular for the I14G mutant, including considerable fluctuations of the donor-acceptor distance (DAD) and the active-site hydrogen bonding network compared with those detected in the native enzyme. These observations suggest that the perturbations induced by the mutations partly impair the active-site environment in the reactant state. On the other hand, the average DADs at the transition state of all DHFR variants are similar. Crystal structures of I14 mutants (V, A, and G) confirmed the trend of increased flexibility of the M20 and other loops. PMID:25382260

  3. Compound heterozygosity for the C677T and A1298C mutations of the MTHFR gene in a case of hyperhomocysteinemia with recurrent deep thrombosis at young age.

    PubMed

    Jurcu?, Ruxandra; Pop, Ioana; Coriu, D; Grasu, M; Zili?teanu, Diana; Giu?c?, S; Ginghin?, Carmen

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of a young woman with an extensive, recurrent deep vein thrombosis (DVT) diagnosed by CT scan and duplex ultrasound examination. All blood investigations for etiology of recurrent DVT were normal except for serum homocysteine level, which was mildly increased. No other thrombophilic factors could be found. The three main causes of hyperhomocysteinemia are genetic defects, nutritional deficiencies and insufficient elimination. In our case a genetic defect for one of the key enzymes of homocysteine metabolism was found to be the underlying cause. Oral anticoagulation and supplementation with pyridoxine, cyanocobalamine and folate was recommended. Whether therapy with B vitamins and folate can substantially reduce the recurrence of venous thromboembolic disease remains to be established. PMID:19366086

  4. Studies on the regulation of assimilatory nitrate reductase in Ankistrodesmus braunii.

    PubMed

    Diez, J; Chaparro, A; Vega, J M; Relimpio, A

    1977-01-01

    In the green alga Ankistrodesmus braunii, all the activities associated with the nitrate reductase complex (i.e., NAD(P)H-nitrate reductase, NAD(P)H-cytochrome c reductase and FMNH2-or MVH-nitrate reductase) are nutritionally repressed by ammonia or methylamine. Besides, ammonia or methylamine promote in vivo the reversible inactivation of nitrate reductase, but not of NAD(P)H-cytochrome c reductase. Subsequent removal of the inactivating agent from the medium causes reactivation of the inactive enzyme. Menadione has a striking stimulation on the in vivo reactivation of the inactive enzyme. The nitrate reductase activities, but not the diaphorase activity, can be inactivated in vitro by preincubating a partially purified enzyme preparation with NADH or NADPH. ADP, in the presence of Mg(2+), presents a cooperative effect with NADH in the in vitro inactivation of nitrate reductase. This effect appears to be maximum at a concentration of ADP equimolecular with that of NADH. PMID:24420658

  5. Aldose reductase inhibition suppresses airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Umesh C S; Ramana, Kota V; Srivastava, Satish K

    2011-05-30

    Airway inflammation induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated activation of redox-sensitive transcription factors is the hallmark of asthma, a prevalent chronic respiratory disease. In various cellular and animal models, we have recently demonstrated that, in response to multiple stimuli, aldose reductase (AKR1B1) regulates the inflammatory signals via NF-kappa B activation. Since NF-?B activation is implicated in asthma pathogenesis, we investigated whether AKR1B1 inhibition could prevent ovalbumin (Ova)- and ragweed pollen extract (RWE)-induced airway inflammation and hyper-responsiveness in mice models and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?)-, lipopolysachharide (LPS)- and RWE-induced cytotoxic and inflammatory signals in primary human small airway epithelial cells (SAEC). Sensitization and challenge with Ova or RWE caused airway inflammation and production of inflammatory cytokines, accumulation of eosinophils in airways and sub-epithelial regions, mucin production in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, airway hyperresponsiveness, elevated IgE levels and release of Th2 cytokines in the airway and treatment with AKR1B1 inhibitors markedly reduced these pathological changes in mice. In SAEC, treatment with TNF-?, LPS or RWE induced apoptosis, reactive oxygen species generation, synthesis of inflammatory markers IL-6, IL-8, and PGE2 and activation of NF-?B and AP-1. Pharmacological inhibition prevented these changes suggesting that AKR1B1 mediates ROS induced inflammation in small airway epithelial cells. Our results indicate that AKR1B1 inhibitors may offer a novel therapeutic approach to treat inflammatory airway diseases such as asthma. PMID:21334316

  6. Hyperhomocysteinemia and MTHFR Polymorphisms as Antenatal Risk Factors of White Matter Abnormalities in Two Cohorts of Late Preterm and Full Term Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Marseglia, Lucia M.; Nicotera, Antonio; Salpietro, Vincenzo; Giaimo, Elisa; Cardile, Giovanna; Bonsignore, Maria; Alibrandi, Angela; Caccamo, Daniela; Manti, Sara; D'Angelo, Gabriella; Mamì, Carmelo; Di Rosa, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Higher total homocysteine (tHcy) levels, and C677T and A1298C methylenetetrahydrofolate (MTHFR) polymorphisms, have been reported in preterm or full term newborns with neonatal encephalopathy following perinatal hypoxic-ischemic insult. This study investigated the causal role of tHcy and MTHFR polymorphisms together with other acquired risk factors on the occurrence of brain white matter abnormalities (WMA) detected by cranial ultrasound scans (cUS) in a population of late preterm and full term infants. A total of 171 newborns (81?M, 47.4%), 45 (26.3%) born <37?wks, and 126 (73.7%) born ?37?wks were recruited in the study. cUS detected predominant WMA pattern in 36/171 newborns (21.1%) mainly characterized by abnormal periventricular white matter signal and mild-to-moderate periventricular white matter volume loss with ventricular dilatation (6/36, 16.6%). WMA resulted in being depending on tHcy levels (P < 0.014), lower GA (P < 0.000), lower Apgar score at 1 minutes (P < 0.000) and 5 minutes (P < 0.000), and 1298AC and 677CT/1298AC genotypes (P < 0.000 and P < 0.000). In conclusion, both acquired and genetic predisposing antenatal factors were significantly associated with adverse neonatal outcome and WMA. The role of A1298C polymorphism may be taken into account for prenatal assessment and treatment counseling.

  7. The inhibitory activity of aldose reductase in vitro by constituents of Garcinia mangostana Linn.

    PubMed

    Fatmawati, Sri; Ersam, Taslim; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2015-01-15

    We investigated aldose reductase inhibition of Garcinia mangostana Linn. from Indonesia. Dichloromethane extract of the root bark of this tree was found to demonstrate an IC50 value of 11.98 µg/ml for human aldose reductase in vitro. From the dichloromethane fraction, prenylated xanthones were isolated as potent human aldose reductase inhibitors. We discovered 3-isomangostin to be most potent against aldose reductase, with an IC50 of 3.48 µM. PMID:25636870

  8. Evidence for mutation showers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jicheng; Gonzalez, Kelly D; Scaringe, William A; Tsai, Kimberly; Liu, Ning; Gu, Dongqing; Li, Wenyan; Hill, Kathleen A; Sommer, Steve S

    2007-05-15

    Mutants in the Big Blue transgenic mouse system show spontaneous clustered multiple mutations with unexpectedly high frequency, consistent with chronocoordinate events. We tested the prediction that the multiple mutations seen within the lacI mutation target sometimes occur in the context of chronocoordinate multiple mutations spanning multiple kilobases (mutation showers). Additional sequencing of mutants was performed in regions immediately flanking the lacI region (total of 10.7 kb). Nineteen additional mutations were found outside the lacI region ("ectomutations") from 10 mutants containing two or more lacI mutations, whereas only one ectomutation was found in 130 mutants with a single mutation (P < 0.0001). The mutation showers had an average of approximately one mutation per 3 kb. Four mutants showed closely spaced double mutations in the new sequence, and analysis of the spacing between these mutations revealed significant clustering (P = 0.0098). To determine the extent of the mutation showers, regions (8.5 kb total) remote from the lacI region (approximately 16-17 kb away) were sequenced. Only two additional ectomutations were found in these remote regions, consistent with mutation showers that generally do not extend more than approximately 30 kb. We conclude that mutation showers exist and that they constitute at least 0.2% and possibly 1% or more of mutational events observed in this system. The existence of mutation showers has implications for oncogenesis and evolution, raising the possibilities of "cancer in an instant" and "introns as sponges to reduce the deleterious impact of mutation showers." PMID:17485671

  9. Are effects of MTHFR (C677T) genotype on BMD confined to women with low folate and riboflavin intake? Analysis of food records from the Danish osteoporosis prevention study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bo Abrahamsen; Jonna Skov Madsen; Charlotte Landbo Tofteng; Lis Stilgren; Else Marie Bladbjerg; Søren Risom Kristensen; Kim Brixen; Leif Mosekilde

    2005-01-01

    We have previously found BMD and fracture risk to be significantly associated with the MTHFR (C677T) polymorphism in healthy postmenopausal women in the first years after menopause. Since then, other cohort studies have suggested that sufficient intake of riboflavin and\\/or folate may have the potential to prevent development of low BMD in women with the TT genotype. This could to

  10. Rapid Communication Are effects of MTHFR (C677T) genotype on BMD confined to women with low folate and riboflavin intake? Analysis of food records from the Danish osteoporosis prevention study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bo Abrahamsen; Jonna Skov Madsen; Charlotte Landbo Tofteng; Lis Stilgren

    We have previously found BMD and fracture risk to be significantly associated with the MTHFR (C677T) polymorphism in healthy postmenopausal women in the first years after menopause. Since then, other cohort studies have suggested that sufficient intake of riboflavin and\\/or folate may have the potential to prevent development of low BMD in women with the TT genotype. This could to

  11. Effect of nitrate and incubation conditions on the production of catalase and nitrate reductase by staphylococci

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Talon; D Walter; S Chartier; C Barrière; M. C Montel

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the production of catalase and nitrate reductase by staphylococci in order to understand their role in lipid oxidation during sausage manufacturing. Catalase and nitrate reductase were measured in resting cells and supernatants of staphylococci grown in different conditions. All staphylococci (except S. warneri) synthetized nitrate reductase. In static condition, the synthesis was

  12. The development of nitrate reductase in Chlorella and its repression by ammonium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Morris; P. J. Syrett

    1963-01-01

    Chlorella vulgaris, grown with ammonium sulphate as nitrogen source, contains very little nitrate reductase activity in contrast to cells grown with potassium nitrate. When ammonium-grown cells are transferred to a nitrate medium, nitrate reductase activity increases rapidly and the increase is partially prevented by chloramphenicol and by p-fluorophenylalanine, suggesting that protein synthesis is involved. The increase in nitrate reductase activity

  13. Identification and selective inhibition of an isozyme of steroid 5 alpha-reductase in human scalp.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, G; Azzolina, B; Baginsky, W; Cimis, G; Rasmusson, G H; Tolman, R L; Raetz, C R; Ellsworth, K

    1992-01-01

    Steroid 5 alpha-reductase (EC 1.3.1.22) catalyzes the reduction of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. The 5 alpha-reductase found in human scalp has been compared with the enzyme found in prostate. The scalp reductase has a broad pH optimum centered at pH 7.0. This is distinctly different from the pH optimum of 5.5 observed with the prostatic form of the enzyme. These enzymes also differ in the Km for testosterone, which is 25-fold higher for the scalp reductase. The most significant difference between the two enzymes is their affinity for inhibitors. Two 4-azasteroids and a 3-carboxyandrostadiene are potent inhibitors of the prostatic reductase but are weak inhibitors of the scalp reductase. In contrast, several N-4-methylazasteroids are good inhibitors of the scalp reductase. These findings support a proposal that different isozymes of 5 alpha-reductase may exist in scalp and prostate. The scalp reductase was also compared to 5 alpha-reductase 1, one of the two enzymes recently cloned from human prostate [Andersson, S. & Russell, D. W. (1990) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87, 3640-3644; and Andersson, S., Berman, D. M., Jenkins, E. P. & Russell, D. W. (1991) Nature (London) 354, 159-161]. The characteristics of the cloned reductase 1 are comparable to those of the scalp reductase. PMID:1438277

  14. Identification and selective inhibition of an isozyme of steroid 5 alpha-reductase in human scalp.

    PubMed

    Harris, G; Azzolina, B; Baginsky, W; Cimis, G; Rasmusson, G H; Tolman, R L; Raetz, C R; Ellsworth, K

    1992-11-15

    Steroid 5 alpha-reductase (EC 1.3.1.22) catalyzes the reduction of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. The 5 alpha-reductase found in human scalp has been compared with the enzyme found in prostate. The scalp reductase has a broad pH optimum centered at pH 7.0. This is distinctly different from the pH optimum of 5.5 observed with the prostatic form of the enzyme. These enzymes also differ in the Km for testosterone, which is 25-fold higher for the scalp reductase. The most significant difference between the two enzymes is their affinity for inhibitors. Two 4-azasteroids and a 3-carboxyandrostadiene are potent inhibitors of the prostatic reductase but are weak inhibitors of the scalp reductase. In contrast, several N-4-methylazasteroids are good inhibitors of the scalp reductase. These findings support a proposal that different isozymes of 5 alpha-reductase may exist in scalp and prostate. The scalp reductase was also compared to 5 alpha-reductase 1, one of the two enzymes recently cloned from human prostate [Andersson, S. & Russell, D. W. (1990) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87, 3640-3644; and Andersson, S., Berman, D. M., Jenkins, E. P. & Russell, D. W. (1991) Nature (London) 354, 159-161]. The characteristics of the cloned reductase 1 are comparable to those of the scalp reductase. PMID:1438277

  15. Immunolocalisation of two tropinone reductases in potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) root, stolon, and tuber sprouts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heike Kaiser; Ute Richter; Ronald Keiner; Anja Brabant; Bettina Hause; Birgit Dräger

    2006-01-01

    Tropinone reductases (TRs) are essential enzymes in the tropane alkaloid biosynthesis, providing either tropine for hyoscyamine and scopolamine formation or providing pseudotropine for calystegines. Two cDNAs coding for TRs were isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber sprouts and expressed in E. coli. One reductase formed pseudotropine, the other formed tropine and showed kinetic properties typical for tropine-forming tropinone reductases

  16. Immunogold localization of nitrate reductase in maize leaves.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, K C; Campbell, W H

    1988-12-01

    Mature maize leaf tissue (Zea mays L.) was immunolabeled using a pre-embedding protocol with specific antibodies for nitrate reductase and protein A-colloidal gold. Immunogold label was found exclusively in the cytoplasm of mesophyll cells; no reaction was detected in bundle sheath cells. Chloroplasts, which were sliced open during cryosectioning, had no labeling. Thus, it appears nitrate reductase is localized exclusively in the cytoplasm of maize leaf mesophyll cells. No gold labeling was found on tissue sections embedded in L. R. White's or Lowicryl resin, indicating that previous chloroplast localization utilizing these protocols may be artifactual, resulting from shared epitopes or nonspecific antibody binding. PMID:16666466

  17. Purification to Homogeneity of Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Reductase of Barley

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, Rolf; Jäger, Hans-Jürgen; Hintz, Martin; Pahlich, Edwin

    1986-01-01

    An enzyme has been purified to homogeneity from barley seedlings which has `proline dehydrogenase' and the pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid reductase activities. The purification achieved is 39,000-fold as calculated from the proline dehydrogenase activity. The subunit molecular weight of the protein is 30 kilodaltons. The native enzyme has molecular weights up to 480 kilodaltons, depending on the buffer environment. From the pH profiles, the specific activities and thermodynamic considerations, it is concluded that the plant proline dehydrogenase functions in vivo as a pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase. Images Fig. 2 PMID:16664571

  18. Cytidine 5'-diphosphate reductase activity in phytohemagglutinin stimulated human lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Tyrsted, G; Gamulin, V

    1979-01-01

    The optimal conditions and the effect of deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates were determined for CDP reductase activity in PHA-stimulated lymphocytes. The enzymatic reaction showed an absolute requirement for ATP. In the absence of ATP, only dATP showed a minor stimulation of the reduction of CDP to dCDP. During transformation the CDP reductase activity reached a maximum at the same time as the four deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate pools, corresponding to mid S-phase at about 50 h after PHA addition. The DNA polymerase activity reached a maximum at 57 h. PMID:424294

  19. Proanthocyanidin synthesis in Theobroma cacao: genes encoding anthocyanidin synthase, anthocyanidin reductase, and leucoanthocyanidin reductase

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The proanthocyanidins (PAs), a subgroup of flavonoids, accumulate to levels of approximately 10% total dry weight of cacao seeds. PAs have been associated with human health benefits and also play important roles in pest and disease defense throughout the plant. Results To dissect the genetic basis of PA biosynthetic pathway in cacao (Theobroma cacao), we have isolated three genes encoding key PA synthesis enzymes, anthocyanidin synthase (ANS), anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR). We measured the expression levels of TcANR, TcANS and TcLAR and PA content in cacao leaves, flowers, pod exocarp and seeds. In all tissues examined, all three genes were abundantly expressed and well correlated with PA accumulation levels, suggesting their active roles in PA synthesis. Overexpression of TcANR in an Arabidopsis ban mutant complemented the PA deficient phenotype in seeds and resulted in reduced anthocyanidin levels in hypocotyls. Overexpression of TcANS in tobacco resulted in increased content of both anthocyanidins and PAs in flower petals. Overexpression of TcANS in an Arabidopsis ldox mutant complemented its PA deficient phenotype in seeds. Recombinant TcLAR protein converted leucoanthocyanidin to catechin in vitro. Transgenic tobacco overexpressing TcLAR had decreased amounts of anthocyanidins and increased PAs. Overexpressing TcLAR in Arabidopsis ldox mutant also resulted in elevated synthesis of not only catechin but also epicatechin. Conclusion Our results confirm the in vivo function of cacao ANS and ANR predicted based on sequence homology to previously characterized enzymes from other species. In addition, our results provide a clear functional analysis of a LAR gene in vivo. PMID:24308601

  20. The Nitric-oxide Reductase from Paracoccus denitrificans Uses a Single Specific Proton Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    ter Beek, Josy; Krause, Nils; Reimann, Joachim; Lachmann, Peter; Ädelroth, Pia

    2013-01-01

    The NO reductase from Paracoccus denitrificans reduces NO to N2O (2NO + 2H+ + 2e? ? N2O + H2O) with electrons donated by periplasmic cytochrome c (cytochrome c-dependent NO reductase; cNOR). cNORs are members of the heme-copper oxidase superfamily of integral membrane proteins, comprising the O2-reducing, proton-pumping respiratory enzymes. In contrast, although NO reduction is as exergonic as O2 reduction, there are no protons pumped in cNOR, and in addition, protons needed for NO reduction are derived from the periplasmic solution (no contribution to the electrochemical gradient is made). cNOR thus only needs to transport protons from the periplasm into the active site without the requirement to control the timing of opening and closing (gating) of proton pathways as is needed in a proton pump. Based on the crystal structure of a closely related cNOR and molecular dynamics simulations, several proton transfer pathways were suggested, and in principle, these could all be functional. In this work, we show that residues in one of the suggested pathways (denoted pathway 1) are sensitive to site-directed mutation, whereas residues in the other proposed pathways (pathways 2 and 3) could be exchanged without severe effects on turnover activity with either NO or O2. We further show that electron transfer during single-turnover reduction of O2 is limited by proton transfer and can thus be used to study alterations in proton transfer rates. The exchange of residues along pathway 1 showed specific slowing of this proton-coupled electron transfer as well as changes in its pH dependence. Our results indicate that only pathway 1 is used to transfer protons in cNOR. PMID:24014024

  1. Altering kinetic mechanism and enzyme stability by mutagenesis of the dimer interface of glutathione reductase.

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, A; Perham, R N; Scrutton, N S; Berry, A

    1995-01-01

    In wild-type glutathione reductase from Escherichia coli residues Val421 and Ala422 are located in an alpha-helix in a densely packed and hydrophobic region of the dimer interface, with their side chains packed against those of residues Ala422' and Val421' in the second subunit. A series of mutant glutathione reductases was constructed in which the identities of the residues at positions 421 and 422 were changed. Mutations were designed so as to present like charges (mutants Val421-->Glu:Ala422-->Glu and Val421-->Lys:Ala422-->Lys) or opposite charges (mutant Val421-->Lys:Ala422-->Glu) across the dimer interface to assess the role of electrostatic interactions in dimer stability. A fourth mutant (Val421-->His:Ala422-->His) was also constructed to investigate the effects of introducing a potentially protonatable bulky side chain into a crowded region of the dimer interface. In all cases, an active dimeric enzyme was found to be assembled but each mutant protein was thermally destabilized. A detailed steady-state kinetic analysis indicated that each mutant enzyme no longer displayed the Ping Pong kinetic behaviour associated with the wild-type enzyme but exhibited what was best described as a random bireactant ternary complex mechanism. This leads, depending on the chosen substrate concentration, to apparent sigmoidal, hyperbolic or complex kinetic behaviour. These experiments, together with others reported previously, indicate that simple mutagenic changes in regions distant from the active site can lead to dramatic switches in steady-state kinetic mechanism. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8526866

  2. Site-Specific Mutagenesis Demonstrates That the Structural Requirements for Efficient Electron Transfer in Anabaena Ferredoxin and Flavodoxin Are Highly Dependent on the Reaction Partner: Kinetic Studies with Photosystem I, Ferredoxin:NADP + Reductase, and Cytochrome c

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Navarro; M. Hervas; C. G. Genzor; G. Cheddar; M. F. Fillat; M. A. Delarosa; C. Gomezmoreno; H. Cheng; B. Xia; Y. K. Chae; H. Yan; B. Wong; N. A. Straus; J. L. Markley; J. K. Hurley; G. Tollin

    1995-01-01

    Electron transfer reactions involving site-specific mutants of Anabaena ferredoxin (Fd) and flavodoxin (Fld) modified at surface residues close to the prosthetic groups, with photoexcited P700 in spinach photosystem I (PSI) particles, ferredoxin:NADP+ reductase (FNR), and horse cytochrome c (cytc), have been investigated by laser flash photolysis and stopped-how spectrophotometry. Nonconservative mutations in Fd at F65 and E94, which have been

  3. 4-Hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate Aldolase Inactivity in Primary Hyperoxaluria Type 3 and Glyoxylate Reductase Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Riedel, Travis J.; Knight, John; Murray, Michael S.; Milliner, Dawn S.; Holmes, Ross P.; Lowther, W. Todd

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding for 4-hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate aldolase (HOGA) are associated with an excessive production of oxalate in Primary Hyperoxaluria type 3 (PH3). This enzyme is the final step of the hydroxyproline degradation pathway within the mitochondria and catalyzes the cleavage of 4-hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate (HOG) to pyruvate and glyoxylate. No analyses have been performed to assess the consequences of the mutations identified, particularly for those variants that produce either full-length or nearly full-length proteins. In this study, the expression, stability, and activity of nine PH3 human HOGA variants were examined. Using recombinant protein produced in Escherichia coli as well as transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, it was found that all nine PH3 variants are quite unstable, have a tendency to aggregate, and retain no measurable activity. A buildup of HOG was confirmed in the urine, sera and liver samples from PH3 patients. To determine how HOG is cleaved in the absence of HOGA activity, the ability of N-acetylneuraminate aldolase (NAL) to cleave HOG was evaluated. NAL showed minimal activity towards HOG. Whether the expected buildup of HOG in mitochondria could inhibit glyoxylate reductase (GR), the enzyme mutated in PH2, was also evaluated. GR was inhibited by HOG but not by 2-hydroxyglutarate or 2-oxoglutarate. Thus, one hypothetical component of the molecular basis for the excessive oxalate production in PH3 appears to be the inhibition of GR by HOG, resulting in a phenotype similar to PH2. PMID:22771891

  4. Malarial dihydrofolate reductase as a paradigm for drug development against a resistance-compromised target

    PubMed Central

    Yuthavong, Yongyuth; Tarnchompoo, Bongkoch; Vilaivan, Tirayut; Chitnumsub, Penchit; Kamchonwongpaisan, Sumalee; Charman, Susan A.; McLennan, Danielle N.; White, Karen L.; Vivas, Livia; Bongard, Emily; Thongphanchang, Chawanee; Taweechai, Supannee; Vanichtanankul, Jarunee; Rattanajak, Roonglawan; Arwon, Uthai; Fantauzzi, Pascal; Yuvaniyama, Jirundon; Charman, William N.; Matthews, David

    2012-01-01

    Malarial dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is the target of antifolate antimalarial drugs such as pyrimethamine and cycloguanil, the clinical efficacy of which have been compromised by resistance arising through mutations at various sites on the enzyme. Here, we describe the use of cocrystal structures with inhibitors and substrates, along with efficacy and pharmacokinetic profiling for the design, characterization, and preclinical development of a selective, highly efficacious, and orally available antimalarial drug candidate that potently inhibits both wild-type and clinically relevant mutated forms of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) DHFR. Important structural characteristics of P218 include pyrimidine side-chain flexibility and a carboxylate group that makes charge-mediated hydrogen bonds with conserved Arg122 (PfDHFR-TS amino acid numbering). An analogous interaction of P218 with human DHFR is disfavored because of three species-dependent amino acid substitutions in the vicinity of the conserved Arg. Thus, P218 binds to the active site of PfDHFR in a substantially different fashion from the human enzyme, which is the basis for its high selectivity. Unlike pyrimethamine, P218 binds both wild-type and mutant PfDHFR in a slow-on/slow-off tight-binding mode, which prolongs the target residence time. P218, when bound to PfDHFR-TS, resides almost entirely within the envelope mapped out by the dihydrofolate substrate, which may make it less susceptible to resistance mutations. The high in vivo efficacy in a SCID mouse model of P. falciparum malaria, good oral bioavailability, favorable enzyme selectivity, and good safety characteristics of P218 make it a potential candidate for further development. PMID:23035243

  5. Acetaminophen reactive intermediates target hepatic thioredoxin reductase.

    PubMed

    Jan, Yi-Hua; Heck, Diane E; Dragomir, Ana-Cristina; Gardner, Carol R; Laskin, Debra L; Laskin, Jeffrey D

    2014-05-19

    Acetaminophen (APAP) is metabolized in the liver to N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI), an electrophilic metabolite known to bind liver proteins resulting in hepatotoxicity. Mammalian thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) is a cellular antioxidant containing selenocysteine (Sec) in its C-terminal redox center, a highly accessible target for electrophilic modification. In the present study, we determined if NAPQI targets TrxR. Hepatotoxicity induced by APAP treatment of mice (300 mg/kg, i.p.) was associated with a marked inhibition of both cytosolic TrxR1 and mitochondrial TrxR2 activity. Maximal inhibition was detected at 1 and 6 h post-APAP for TrxR1 and TrxR2, respectively. In purified rat liver TrxR1, enzyme inactivation was correlated with the metabolic activation of APAP by cytochrome P450, indicating that enzyme inhibition was due to APAP-reactive metabolites. NAPQI was also found to inhibit TrxR1. NADPH-reduced TrxR1 was significantly more sensitive to NAPQI (IC50 = 0.023 ?M) than the oxidized enzyme (IC50 = 1.0 ?M) or a human TrxR1 Sec498Cys mutant enzyme (IC50 = 17 ?M), indicating that cysteine and selenocysteine residues in the redox motifs of TrxR are critical for enzyme inactivation. This is supported by our findings that alkylation of reduced TrxR with biotin-conjugated iodoacetamide, which selectively reacts with selenol or thiol groups on proteins, was inhibited by NAPQI. LC-MS/MS analysis confirmed that NAPQI modified cysteine 59, cysteine 497, and selenocysteine 498 residues in the redox centers of TrxR, resulting in enzyme inhibition. In addition to disulfide reduction, TrxR is also known to mediate chemical redox cycling. We found that menadione redox cycling by TrxR was markedly less sensitive to NAPQI than disulfide reduction, suggesting that TrxR mediates these reactions via distinct mechanisms. These data demonstrate that APAP-reactive metabolites target TrxR, suggesting an additional mechanism by which APAP induces oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity. PMID:24661219

  6. Acetaminophen Reactive Intermediates Target Hepatic Thioredoxin Reductase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) is metabolized in the liver to N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI), an electrophilic metabolite known to bind liver proteins resulting in hepatotoxicity. Mammalian thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) is a cellular antioxidant containing selenocysteine (Sec) in its C-terminal redox center, a highly accessible target for electrophilic modification. In the present study, we determined if NAPQI targets TrxR. Hepatotoxicity induced by APAP treatment of mice (300 mg/kg, i.p.) was associated with a marked inhibition of both cytosolic TrxR1 and mitochondrial TrxR2 activity. Maximal inhibition was detected at 1 and 6 h post-APAP for TrxR1 and TrxR2, respectively. In purified rat liver TrxR1, enzyme inactivation was correlated with the metabolic activation of APAP by cytochrome P450, indicating that enzyme inhibition was due to APAP-reactive metabolites. NAPQI was also found to inhibit TrxR1. NADPH-reduced TrxR1 was significantly more sensitive to NAPQI (IC50 = 0.023 ?M) than the oxidized enzyme (IC50 = 1.0 ?M) or a human TrxR1 Sec498Cys mutant enzyme (IC50 = 17 ?M), indicating that cysteine and selenocysteine residues in the redox motifs of TrxR are critical for enzyme inactivation. This is supported by our findings that alkylation of reduced TrxR with biotin-conjugated iodoacetamide, which selectively reacts with selenol or thiol groups on proteins, was inhibited by NAPQI. LC-MS/MS analysis confirmed that NAPQI modified cysteine 59, cysteine 497, and selenocysteine 498 residues in the redox centers of TrxR, resulting in enzyme inhibition. In addition to disulfide reduction, TrxR is also known to mediate chemical redox cycling. We found that menadione redox cycling by TrxR was markedly less sensitive to NAPQI than disulfide reduction, suggesting that TrxR mediates these reactions via distinct mechanisms. These data demonstrate that APAP-reactive metabolites target TrxR, suggesting an additional mechanism by which APAP induces oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity. PMID:24661219

  7. Congenital Thrombotic Risk Factors in ?-Thalassemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tansu Sipahi; Asl?han Kara; Ayca Kuybulu; Yonca Egin; Nejat Akar

    2009-01-01

    Thalassemia major patients have increased risk for thromboembolic complications because of the chronic hypercoagulable state. The question arising from this is whether thromboembolic complications are the result of genetic polymorphisms of prothrombotic factors. Here, we studied factor V 1691 G-A (FVL), factor II polymorphism (G20210A), methyltetrahydrofolate reductase mutation (MTHFR, C677T), and endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR) deletion polymorphism and

  8. Thrombophilic risk factors among 16 Lebanese patients with cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zaher K. Otrock; Ali T. Taher; Wael A. Shamseddeen; Rami A. Mahfouz

    2008-01-01

    Cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a multifaceted disorder. The frequency of inherited and acquired thrombophilia\\u000a among 16 CVST patients was evaluated. The mean age of the patients was 22.9 years. Five out of the 16 CVST patients (31.2%)\\u000a showed the G1691A mutation of factor V. The frequency of the C677T methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genotype was\\u000a 50% (8\\/16) in patients

  9. Mutation Clustering Shamaila Hussain

    E-print Network

    Singer, Jeremy

    Mutation Clustering Shamaila Hussain shamaila.2.hussain@kcl.ac.uk Student Number: 0425528/2008 Department of Computer Science September 5, 2008 #12;Abstract Mutation testing, a type of white box testing quality. This form of testing deals with mutating parts of the program intentionally and then detecting

  10. Mutation accumulation in Tetrahymena

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrícia H Brito; Elsa Guilherme; Helena Soares; Isabel Gordo

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The rate and fitness effects of mutations are key in understanding the evolution of every species. Traditionally, these parameters are estimated in mutation accumulation experiments where replicate lines are propagated in conditions that allow mutations to randomly accumulate without the purging effect of natural selection. These experiments have been performed with many model organisms but we still lack empirical

  11. A Role for a Menthone Reductase in Resistance against Microbial Pathogens in Plants1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyong Woo; Lee, Byung Gil; Kim, Nak Hyun; Park, Yong; Lim, Chae Woo; Song, Hyun Kyu; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2008-01-01

    Plants elaborate a vast array of enzymes that synthesize defensive secondary metabolites in response to pathogen attack. Here, we isolated the pathogen-responsive CaMNR1 [menthone: (+)-(3S)-neomenthol reductase] gene, a member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily, from pepper (Capsicum annuum) plants. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed that purified CaMNR1 and its ortholog AtSDR1 from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) catalyze a menthone reduction with reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate as a cofactor to produce neomenthol with antimicrobial activity. CaMNR1 and AtSDR1 also possess a significant catalytic activity for neomenthol oxidation. We examined the cellular function of the CaMNR1 gene by virus-induced gene silencing and ectopic overexpression in pepper and Arabidopsis plants, respectively. CaMNR1-silenced pepper plants were significantly more susceptible to Xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria and Colletotrichum coccodes infection and expressed lower levels of salicylic acid-responsive CaBPR1 and CaPR10 and jasmonic acid-responsive CaDEF1. CaMNR1-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants exhibited enhanced resistance to the hemibiotrophic pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 and the biotrophic pathogen Hyaloperonospora parasitica isolate Noco2, accompanied by the induction of AtPR1 and AtPDF1.2. In contrast, mutation in the CaMNR1 ortholog AtSDR1 significantly enhanced susceptibility to both pathogens. Together, these results indicate that the novel menthone reductase gene CaMNR1 and its ortholog AtSDR1 positively regulate plant defenses against a broad spectrum of pathogens. PMID:18599651

  12. Synthesis and properties of glutathione reductase in stressed peas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Anne Edwards; Corine Enard; Gary P. Creissen; Philip M. Mullineaux

    1993-01-01

    We have subjected peas (Pisum sativum L.) to four different oxidative stresses: cold conditions (4 °C) in conjunction with light, treatment with paraquat, fumigation with ozone, and illumination of etiolated seedlings (greening). In crude extracts of leaves from stressed plants, an increase (up to twofold) in activity of glutathione reductase (GR) was observed which was consistent with previous reports from

  13. Thioredoxin and NADP-thioredoxin reductase from cultured carrot cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, T. C.; Cao, R. Q.; Kung, J. E.; Buchanan, B. B.

    1987-01-01

    Dark-grown carrot (Daucus carota L.) tissue cultures were found to contain both protein components of the NADP/thioredoxin system--NADP-thioredoxin reductase and the thioredoxin characteristic of heterotrophic systems, thioredoxin h. Thioredoxin h was purified to apparent homogeneity and, like typical bacterial counterparts, was a 12-kdalton (kDa) acidic protein capable of activating chloroplast NADP-malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.82) more effectively than fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (EC 3.1.3.11). NADP-thioredoxin reductase (EC 1.6.4.5) was partially purified and found to be an arsenite-sensitive enzyme composed of two 34-kDa subunits. Carrot NADP-thioredoxin reductase resembled more closely its counterpart from bacteria rather than animal cells in acceptor (thioredoxin) specificity. Upon greening of the cells, the content of NADP-thioredoxin-reductase activity, and, to a lesser extent, thioredoxin h decreased. The results confirm the presence of a heterotrophic-type thioredoxin system in plant cells and raise the question of its physiological function.

  14. Ammonium repression of nitrate reductase formation in Lemna minor L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. O. Orebamjo; G. R. Stewart

    1975-01-01

    The presence of ammonium is shown to inhibit the nitrate-promoted formation of nitrate reductase in Lemna minor L. The ammonium inhibition does not result from an inhibition of nitrate accumulation. The kinetics of the ammonium inhibition suggest it is not a direct effect of ammonium. The inhibition could result from the build up of a product of ammonium assimilation or

  15. Studies on Marek's Disease Virus Encoded Ribonucleotide Reductase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ribonucleotide reductase (RR) is an essential enzyme for the conversion of ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The enzyme consists of two subunits namely RR1 and RR2, both of which associate to form an active holoenzyme. Herpesviruses express a functional R...

  16. Identification of the gene for vitamin K epoxide reductase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tao Li; Chun-Yun Chang; Da-Yun Jin; Pen-Jen Lin; Anastasia Khvorova; Darrel W. Stafford

    2004-01-01

    Vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) is the target of warfarin, the most widely prescribed anticoagulant for thromboembolic disorders. Although estimated to prevent twenty strokes per induced bleeding episode, warfarin is under-used because of the difficulty of controlling dosage and the fear of inducing bleeding. Although identified in 1974 (ref. 2), the enzyme has yet to be purified or its gene

  17. A new nomenclature for the aldo-keto reductase superfamily

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph M Jez; T. Geoffrey Flynn; Trevor M Penning

    1997-01-01

    The aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) represent a growing oxidoreductase superfamily. Forty proteins have been identified and characterized as AKRs, and an additional fourteen genes may encode proteins related to the superfamily. Found in eukaryotes and prokaryotes, the AKRs metabolize a wide range of substrates, including aliphatic aldehydes, monosaccharides, steroids, prostaglandins, and xenobiotics. This broad substrate specificity has caused problems in naming

  18. Molybdenum and Iron Requirements for Nitrate Reductase in Photobacterium sepia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. D. Nicholas; W. J. Redmond; M. A. Wright

    1963-01-01

    Sadana and McElroy1 showed that nitrate reductase from, the halophytic bacterium, Achromobacter fischeri, required iron for its activity, but a deficiency of other micronutrients including molybdenum did not appear to affeot the enzyme. In addition, they found that the bacterium would not grow with nitrate as the sole nitrogen source. We now report that this bacterium (kindly supplied by Dr.

  19. ORIGINAL PAPER Nitrate reductase activity and nitrogen compounds in xylem

    E-print Network

    ORIGINAL PAPER Nitrate reductase activity and nitrogen compounds in xylem exudate of Juglans nigra, and xylem exudate N compo- sition were assessed. Specific leaf NRA was higher in NO3 - -fed and NH4NO3-fed increased the proportion of amino acids (AA) in xylem exudate, inferring greater NRA in roots, which

  20. ARSENICALS INHIBIT THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE ACTIVITY IN CULTURED RAT HEPATOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    ARSENICALS INHIBIT THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE ACTIVITY IN CULTURED RAT HEPATOCYTES. S. Lin1, L. M. Del Razo1, M. Styblo1, C. Wang2, W. R. Cullen2, and D.J. Thomas3. 1Univ. North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC; 2Univ. British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 3National Health and En...

  1. Ribonucleotide reductase and thymidine phosphorylation: two potential targets of azodicarbonamide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Fagny; Michel Vandevelde; Michal Svoboda; Patrick Robberecht

    2002-01-01

    Azodicarbonamide tested as an anti-HIV agent was reported to expulse zinc from viral zinc-cysteine factors and to inhibit calcium mobilization machinery. It has structural analogy with hydroxyurea that inhibits ribonucleotide reductase and could also act on this target. Azodicarbonamide was therefore tested for its capacity to modulate deoxyribonucleotides triphosphate pools alone or in combination with other agents in the lymphoblastic

  2. IDENTIFICATION OF DISULPHIDE REDUCTASES IN CAMPYLOBACTERALES: A BIOINFORMATICS INVESTIGATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disulphide reductases of host-colonising bacteria are involved in the expression of virulence factors, resistance to drugs, and elimination of compounds toxic to the microorganisms. The four species Campylobacter jejuni, Helicobacter pylori, Wolinella succinogenes and Arcobacter butzleri of the orde...

  3. Optimising inhibitors of trypanothione reductase using solid-phase chemistry.

    PubMed

    Chitkul, B; Bradley, M

    2000-10-16

    A series of inhibitors of the enzyme trypanothione reductase has been identified using directed solid-phase chemistry. The compounds were based on a series of polyamine scaffolds and used the natural product kukoamine A as the lead structure. A compound with a Ki of 76 nM was identified, although somewhat surprisingly the compound appeared to be noncompetitive in nature. PMID:11055357

  4. Inhibitory effect of some methanol plant extracts on dihydrofolate reductase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmad Gholamhoseinian; Abbas Mohammadi; Sam Noroozi; Fariba Sharifi-far

    2011-01-01

    Cancer claims the lives of more than 6 million people each year globally. Current treatment approaches have yielded significant progress in the fight against cancer, but the incidence of certain types of cancer continues to rise. Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is a key target for cancer chemotherapeutic agents. In this study, some plant extracts were evaluated for their inhibitory activity against

  5. Molecular basis of glutathione reductase deficiency in human blood cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nanne M. Kamerbeek; Rob van Zwieten; Martin de Boer; Gert Morren; Herma Vuil; Natalja Bannink; Carsten Lincke; Koert M. Dolman; Katja Becker; R. Heiner Schirmer; Stephan Gromer; Dirk Roos

    Hereditary glutathione reductase (GR) de- ficiency was found in only 2 cases when testing more than 15 000 blood samples. We have investigated the blood cells of 2 patients (1a and 1b) in a previously described family suffering from favism and cataract and of a novel patient (2) presenting with severe neonatal jaun- dice. Red blood cells and leukocytes of

  6. Recombinant pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase, recombinant dirigent protein, and methods of use

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Norman G. (Pullman, WA); Davin, Laurence B. (Pullman, WA); Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T. (Baltimore, MD); Fujita, Masayuki (Kagawa, JP); Gang, David R. (Ann Arbor, MI); Sarkanen, Simo (S. Minneapolis, MN); Ford, Joshua D. (Pullman, WA)

    2001-04-03

    Dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases have been isolated, together with cDNAs encoding dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences are provided which code for the expression of dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases. In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for dirigent proteins or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of dirigent protein or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding dirigent protein or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of dirigent proteins and/or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases.

  7. Recominant Pinoresino-Lariciresinol Reductase, Recombinant Dirigent Protein And Methods Of Use

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Norman G. (Pullman, WA); Davin, Laurence B. (Pullman, WA); Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T. (Baltimore, MD); Fujita, Masayuki (Kita-gun, JP), Gang; David R. (Ann Arbor, MI), Sarkanen; Simo (Minneapolis, MN), Ford; Joshua D. (Pullman, WA)

    2003-10-21

    Dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases have been isolated, together with cDNAs encoding dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences are provided from source species Forsythia intermedia, Thuja plicata, Tsuga heterophylla, Eucommia ulmoides, Linum usitatissimum, and Schisandra chinensis, which code for the expression of dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases. In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for dirigent proteins or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of dirigent protein or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding dirigent protein or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of dirigent proteins and/or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases.

  8. Assimilatory nitrate reductase from the green alga Ankistrodesmus braunii.

    PubMed

    De la Rosa, M A

    1983-01-01

    Assimilatory nitrate reductase (NAD(P)H-nitrate oxidoreductase, EC 1.6.6.2) from the green alga Ankistrodesmus braunii can be purified to homogeneity by dye-ligand chromatography on blue-Sepharose. The purified enzyme, whose turnover number is 623 s-1, presents an optimum pH of 7.5 and Km values of 13 microM, 23 microM and 0.15 mM for NADH, NADPH and nitrate, respectively. The NADH-nitrate reductase activity exhibits an iso ping pong bi bi kinetic mechanism. The molecular weight of the native nitrate reductase is 467 400, while that of its subunits is 58 750. These values suggest an octameric structure for the enzyme, which has been confirmed by electron microscopy. As deduced from spectrophotometric and fluorimetric studies, the enzyme contains FAD and cytochrome b-557 as prosthetic groups. FAD is not covalently bound to the protein and is easily dissociated in diluted solutions from the enzyme. Its apparent Km value is 4 nM, indicative of a high affinity of the enzyme for FAD. The results of the quantitative analyses of prosthetic groups indicate that nitrate reductase contains four molecules of flavin, four heme irons, and two atoms of molybdenum. The three components act sequentially transferring electrons from reduced pyridine nucleotides to nitrate, thus forming a short electron transport chain along the protein. A mechanism is proposed for the redox interconversion of the nitrate reductase activity. Inactivation seems to occur by formation of a stable complex of reduced enzyme with cyanide or superoxide, while reactivation is a consequence of reoxidation of the inactive enzyme. Both reactions imply the transfer of only one electron. PMID:6682479

  9. Crystal structures of pinoresinol-lariciresinol and phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductases and their relationship to isoflavone reductases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Min, Tongpil; Kasahara, Hiroyuki; Bedgar, Diana L.; Youn, Buhyun; Lawrence, Paulraj K.; Gang, David R.; Halls, Steven C.; Park, HaJeung; Hilsenbeck, Jacqueline L.; Davin, Laurence B.; Lewis, Norman G.; Kang, ChulHee

    2003-01-01

    Despite the importance of plant lignans and isoflavonoids in human health protection (e.g. for both treatment and prevention of onset of various cancers) as well as in plant biology (e.g. in defense functions and in heartwood development), systematic studies on the enzymes involved in their biosynthesis have only recently begun. In this investigation, three NADPH-dependent aromatic alcohol reductases were comprehensively studied, namely pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase (PLR), phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase (PCBER), and isoflavone reductase (IFR), which are involved in central steps to the various important bioactive lignans and isoflavonoids. Of particular interest was in determining how differing regio- and enantiospecificities are achieved with the different enzymes, despite each apparently going through similar enone intermediates. Initially, the three-dimensional x-ray crystal structures of both PLR_Tp1 and PCBER_Pt1 were solved and refined to 2.5 and 2.2 A resolutions, respectively. Not only do they share high gene sequence similarity, but their structures are similar, having a continuous alpha/beta NADPH-binding domain and a smaller substrate-binding domain. IFR (whose crystal structure is not yet obtained) was also compared (modeled) with PLR and PCBER and was deduced to have the same overall basic structure. The basis for the distinct enantio-specific and regio-specific reactions of PCBER, PLR, and IFR, as well as the reaction mechanism and participating residues involved (as identified by site-directed mutagenesis), are discussed.

  10. Identification and characterization of 2-naphthoyl-coenzyme A reductase, the prototype of a novel class of dearomatizing reductases.

    PubMed

    Eberlein, Christian; Estelmann, Sebastian; Seifert, Jana; von Bergen, Martin; Müller, Michael; Meckenstock, Rainer U; Boll, Matthias

    2013-06-01

    The enzymatic dearomatization of aromatic ring systems by reduction represents a highly challenging redox reaction in biology and plays a key role in the degradation of aromatic compounds under anoxic conditions. In anaerobic bacteria, most monocyclic aromatic growth substrates are converted to benzoyl-coenzyme A (CoA), which is then dearomatized to a conjugated dienoyl-CoA by ATP-dependent or -independent benzoyl-CoA reductases. It was unresolved whether or not related enzymes are involved in the anaerobic degradation of environmentally relevant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this work, a previously unknown dearomatizing 2-naphthoyl-CoA reductase was purified from extracts of the naphthalene-degrading, sulphidogenic enrichment culture N47. The oxygen-tolerant enzyme dearomatized the non-activated ring of 2-naphthoyl-CoA by a four-electron reduction to 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthoyl-CoA. The dimeric 150 kDa enzyme complex was composed of a 72 kDa subunit showing sequence similarity to members of the flavin-containing 'old yellow enzyme' family. NCR contained FAD, FMN, and an iron-sulphur cluster as cofactors. Extracts of Escherichia coli expressing the encoding gene catalysed 2-naphthoyl-CoA reduction. The identified NCR is a prototypical enzyme of a previously unknown class of dearomatizing arylcarboxyl-CoA reductases that are involved in anaerobic PAH degradation; it fundamentally differs from known benzoyl-CoA reductases. PMID:23646996

  11. Engineering efficient xylose metabolism into an acetic acid-tolerant Zymomonas mobilis strain by introducing adaptation-induced mutations.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Manoj; Wang, Yun; Chen, Rachel Ruizhen

    2012-10-01

    The impact of the two adaptation-induced mutations in an improved xylose-fermenting Zymomonas mobilis strain was investigated. The chromosomal mutation at the xylose reductase gene was critical to xylose metabolism by reducing xylitol formation. Together with the plasmid-borne mutation impacting xylose isomerase activity, these two mutations accounted for 80 % of the improvement achieved by adaptation. To generate a strain fermenting xylose in the presence of high acetic acid concentrations, we transferred the two mutations to an acetic acid-tolerant strain. The resulting strain fermented glucose + xylose (each at 5 % w/v) with 1 % (w/v) acetic acid at pH 5.8 to completion with an ethanol yield of 93.4 %, outperforming other reported strains. This work demonstrated the power of applying molecular understanding in strain improvement. PMID:22669340

  12. Identification of iron(III) peroxo species in the active site of the superoxide reductase SOR from Desulfoarculus baarsii

    E-print Network

    Mathé, Christelle; Horner, Olivier; Lombard, Murielle; Latour, Jean-Marc; Fontecave, Marc; Nivière, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    The active site of superoxide reductase SOR consists of an Fe2+ center in an unusual [His4 Cys1] square-pyramidal geometry. It specifically reduces superoxide to produce H2O2. Here, we have reacted the SOR from Desulfoarculus baarsii directly with H2O2. We have found that its active site can transiently stabilize an Fe3+-peroxo species that we have spectroscopically characterized by resonance Raman. The mutation of the strictly conserved Glu47 into alanine results in a stabilization of this Fe3+-peroxo species, when compared to the wild-type form. These data support the hypothesis that the reaction of SOR proceeds through such a Fe3+-peroxo intermediate. This also suggests that Glu47 might serve to help H2O2 release during the reaction with superoxide.

  13. 5,6-Dihydro-5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine potentiates the anti-HIV-1 activity of ribonucleotide reductase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Rawson, Jonathan M.; Heineman, Richard H.; Beach, Lauren B.; Martin, Jessica L.; Schnettler, Erica K.; Dapp, Michael J.; Patterson, Steven E.; Mansky, Louis M.

    2014-01-01

    The nucleoside analog 5,6-dihydro-5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine (KP-1212) has been investigated as a first-in-class lethal mutagen of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). Since a prodrug monotherapy did not reduce viral loads in Phase II clinical trials, we tested if ribonucleotide reductase inhibitors (RNRIs) combined with KP-1212 would improve antiviral activity. KP-1212 potentiated the activity of gemcitabine and resveratrol and simultaneously increased the viral mutant frequency. G-to-C mutations predominated with the KP-1212-resveratrol combination. These observations represent the first demonstration of a mild anti-HIV-1 mutagen potentiating the antiretroviral activity of RNRIs and encourage the clinical translation of enhanced viral mutagenesis in treating HIV-1 infection. PMID:24120088

  14. A Lower Degree of PBMC L1 Methylation in Women with Lower Folate Status May Explain the MTHFR C677T Polymorphism Associated Higher Risk of CIN in the US Post Folic Acid Fortification Era

    PubMed Central

    Badiga, Suguna; Johanning, Gary L.; Macaluso, Maurizio; Azuero, Andres; Chambers, Michelle M.; Siddiqui, Nuzhat R.; Piyathilake, Chandrika J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies in populations unexposed to folic acid (FA) fortification have demonstrated that MTHFR C677T polymorphism is associated with increased risk of higher grades of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 2+). However, it is unknown whether exposure to higher folate as a result of the FA fortification program has altered the association between MTHFR C677T and risk of CIN, or the mechanisms involved with such alterations. The current study investigated the following in a FA fortified population: 1) The association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and risk of CIN 2+; 2) The modifying effects of plasma folate concentrations on this association; and 3) The modifying effects of plasma folate on the association between the polymorphism and degree of methylation of long interspersed nucleotide elements (L1s), in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) DNA, a documented biomarker of CIN risk. Methods The study included 457 US women diagnosed with either CIN 2+ (cases) or ? CIN 1 (non-cases). Unconditional logistic regression models were used to test the associations after adjusting for relevant risk factors for CIN. Results The 677CT/TT MTHFR genotypes were not associated with the risk of CIN 2+. Women with CT/TT genotype with lower folate, however, were more likely to be diagnosed with CIN 2+ compared to women with CT/TT genotype with higher folate (OR?=?2.41, P?=?0.030). Women with CT/TT genotype with lower folate were less likely to have a higher degree of PBMC L1 methylation compared to women with CT/TT genotype with higher folate (OR?=?0.28, P?=?0.017). Conclusions This study provides the first evidence that the MTHFR 677CT/TT genotype-associated lower degree of PBMC L1 methylation increases the risk of CIN 2+ in women in the US post-FA fortification era. Thus, even in the post-FA fortification era, not all women have adequate folate status to overcome MTHFR 677CT/TT genotype-associated lower degree of L1 methylation. PMID:25302494

  15. Partial Purification and Characterization of Lysine-Ketoglutarate Reductase in Normal and Opaque-2 Maize Endosperms 1

    PubMed Central

    Brochetto-Braga, Marcia R.; Leite, Adilson; Arruda, Paulo

    1992-01-01

    Lysine-ketoglutarate reductase catalyzes the first step of lysine catabolism in maize (Zea mays L.) endosperm. The enzyme condenses l-lysine and ?-ketoglutarate into saccharopine using NADPH as cofactor. It is endosperm-specific and has a temporal pattern of activity, increasing with the onset of kernel development, reaching a peak 20 to 25 days after pollination, and there-after decreasing as the kernel approaches maturity. The enzyme was extracted from the developing maize endosperm and partially purified by ammonium-sulfate precipitation, anion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, and affinity chromatography on Blue-Sepharose CL-6B. The preparation obtained from affinity chromatography was enriched 275-fold and had a specific activity of 411 nanomoles per minute per milligram protein. The native and denaturated enzyme is a 140 kilodalton protein as determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The enzyme showed specificity for its substrates and was not inhibited by either aminoethyl-cysteine or glutamate. Steady-state product-inhibition studies revealed that saccharopine was a noncompetitive inhibitor with respect to ?-ketoglutarate and a competitive inhibitor with respect to lysine. This is suggestive of a rapid equilibrium-ordered binding mechanism with a binding order of lysine, ?-ketoglutarate, NADPH. The enzyme activity was investigated in two maize inbred lines with homozygous normal and opaque-2 endosperms. The pattern of lysine-ketoglutarate reductase activity is coordinated with the rate of zein accumulation during endosperm development. A coordinated regulation of enzyme activity and zein accumulation was observed in the opaque-2 endosperm as the activity and zein levels were two to three times lower than in the normal endosperm. Enzyme extracted from L1038 normal and opaque-2 20 days after pollination was partially purified by DEAE-cellulose chromatography. Both genotypes showed a similar elution pattern with a single activity peak eluted at approximately 0.2 molar KCL. The molecular weight and physical properties of the normal and opaque-2 enzymes were essentially the same. We suggest that the Opaque-2 gene, which is a transactivator of the 22 kilodalton zein genes, may be involved in the regulation of the lysine-ketoglutarate reductase gene in maize endosperm. In addition, the decreased reductase activity caused by the opaque-2 mutation may explain, at least in part, the elevated concentration of lysine found in the opaque-2 endosperm. ImagesFigure 3Figure 4 PMID:16668738

  16. Candidate pathway polymorphisms in one-carbon metabolism and risk of rectal tumor mutations

    PubMed Central

    Curtin, Karen; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Samowitz, Wade S; Wolff, Roger K; Duggan, David J; Makar, Karen W; Caan, Bette J; Slattery, Martha L

    2011-01-01

    We examined candidate polymorphisms in genes involved in the folate-mediated, one-carbon metabolism pathway, DNMT1 1311V, MTHFD1 R134K and R653Q, MTHFR R594Q, MTR D919G, MTRR H595Y and I22M, SHMT1 L474F, SLC19A1 H27R, and TDG G199S, and associations with rectal tumor characteristics. We hypothesized that these candidate genes would influence CpG Island Methylator Phenotype and potentially KRAS2 or TP53 tumors. Data from a population-based study of 747 rectal cases (593 with tumor markers) and 956 controls were evaluated using generalized estimating equations. We observed an increased risk of TP53 tumor mutations in homozygous carriers of the MTHFD1 134K allele (0R=2.0, 95%CI 1.2-3.1, P- trend=0.02). In the presence of low folate intake, the R134K variant was associated with increased risk of CIMP+ tumors (OR=2.8, 95%CI 1.04-7.7). The MTRR I22M variant genotype was associated with a modest increased risk of TP53 mutations (OR=1.7, 95%CI 1.2-2.5, P-trend=0.001). Our findings offer limited support that polymorphisms in one-carbon metabolism genes influence rectal tumor phenotype, and that folate may interact with MTHFD1 to alter CIMP+ risk. PMID:21537397

  17. Crystal Structure of Human Liver delta {4}-3-Ketosteroid 5 beta-Reductase (AKR1D1) and Implications for Substrate Binding and Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Di Costanzo,L.; Drury, J.; Penning, T.; Christianson, D.

    2008-01-01

    AKR1D1 (steroid 5{beta}-reductase) reduces all 4-3-ketosteroids to form 5{beta}-dihydrosteroids, a first step in the clearance of steroid hormones and an essential step in the synthesis of all bile acids. The reduction of the carbon-carbon double bond in an a,{beta}-unsaturated ketone by 5{beta}-reductase is a unique reaction in steroid enzymology because hydride transfer from NADPH to the {beta}-face of a 4-3-ketosteroid yields a cis-A/B-ring configuration with an {approx}90 bend in steroid structure. Here, we report the first x-ray crystal structure of a mammalian steroid hormone carbon-carbon double bond reductase, human 4-3-ketosteroid 5{beta}-reductase (AKR1D1), and its complexes with intact substrates. We have determined the structures of AKR1D1 complexes with NADP+ at 1.79- and 1.35- Angstroms resolution (HEPES bound in the active site), NADP+ and cortisone at 1.90- Angstroms resolution, NADP+ and progesterone at 2.03- Angstroms resolution, and NADP+ and testosterone at 1.62- Angstroms resolution. Complexes with cortisone and progesterone reveal productive substrate binding orientations based on the proximity of each steroid carbon-carbon double bond to the re-face of the nicotinamide ring of NADP+. This orientation would permit 4-pro-(R)-hydride transfer from NADPH. Each steroid carbonyl accepts hydrogen bonds from catalytic residues Tyr58 and Glu120. The Y58F and E120A mutants are devoid of activity, supporting a role for this dyad in the catalytic mechanism. Intriguingly, testosterone binds nonproductively, thereby rationalizing the substrate inhibition observed with this particular steroid. The locations of disease-linked mutations thought to be responsible for bile acid deficiency are also revealed.

  18. Divinyl Chlorophyll(ide) a Can Be Converted to Monovinyl Chlorophyll(ide) a by a Divinyl Reductase in Rice1[W

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pingrong; Gao, Jiaxu; Wan, Chunmei; Zhang, Fantao; Xu, Zhengjun; Huang, Xiaoqun; Sun, Xiaoqiu; Deng, Xiaojian

    2010-01-01

    3,8-Divinyl (proto)chlorophyll(ide) a 8-vinyl reductase (DVR) catalyzes the reduction of 8-vinyl group on the tetrapyrrole to an ethyl group, which is indispensable for monovinyl chlorophyll (Chl) synthesis. So far, three 8-vinyl reductase genes (DVR, bciA, and slr1923) have been characterized from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), Chlorobium tepidum, and Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. However, no 8-vinyl reductase gene has yet been identified in monocotyledonous plants. In this study, we isolated a spontaneous mutant, 824ys, in rice (Oryza sativa). The mutant exhibited a yellow-green leaf phenotype, reduced Chl level, arrested chloroplast development, and retarded growth rate. The phenotype of the 824ys mutant was caused by a recessive mutation in a nuclear gene on the short arm of rice chromosome 3. Map-based cloning of this mutant resulted in the identification of a gene (Os03g22780) showing sequence similarity with the Arabidopsis DVR gene (AT5G18660). In the 824ys mutant, nine nucleotides were deleted at residues 952 to 960 in the open reading frame, resulting in a deletion of three amino acid residues in the encoded product. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of Chls indicated the mutant accumulates only divinyl Chl a and b. A recombinant protein encoded by Os03g22780 was expressed in Escherichia coli and found to catalyze the conversion of divinyl chlorophyll(ide) a to monovinyl chlorophyll(ide) a. Therefore, it has been confirmed that Os03g22780, renamed as OsDVR, encodes a functional DVR in rice. Based upon these results, we succeeded to identify an 8-vinyl reductase gene in monocotyledonous plants and, more importantly, confirmed the DVR activity to convert divinyl Chl a to monovinyl Chl a. PMID:20484022

  19. Ribonucleotide reductase is not limiting for mitochondrial DNA copy number in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ylikallio, Emil; Page, Jennifer L.; Xu, Xia; Lampinen, Milla; Bepler, Gerold; Ide, Tomomi; Tyynismaa, Henna; Weiss, Robert S.; Suomalainen, Anu

    2010-01-01

    Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) is the rate-limiting enzyme in deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) biosynthesis, with important roles in nuclear genome maintenance. RNR is also essential for maintenance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in mammals. The mechanisms regulating mtDNA copy number in mammals are only being discovered. In budding yeast, RNR overexpression resulted in increased mtDNA levels, and rescued the disease phenotypes caused by a mutant mtDNA polymerase. This raised the question of whether mtDNA copy number increase by RNR induction could be a strategy for treating diseases with mtDNA mutations. We show here that high-level overexpression of RNR subunits (Rrm1, Rrm2 and p53R2; separately or in different combinations) in mice does not result in mtDNA copy number elevation. Instead, simultaneous expression of two RNR subunits leads to imbalanced dNTP pools and progressive mtDNA depletion in the skeletal muscle, without mtDNA mutagenesis. We also show that endogenous RNR transcripts are downregulated in response to large increases of mtDNA in mice, which is indicative of nuclear-mitochondrial crosstalk with regard to mtDNA copy number. Our results establish that RNR is not limiting for mtDNA copy number in mice, and provide new evidence for the importance of balanced dNTP pools in mtDNA maintenance in postmitotic tissues. PMID:20724444

  20. Ribonucleotide reductase is not limiting for mitochondrial DNA copy number in mice.

    PubMed

    Ylikallio, Emil; Page, Jennifer L; Xu, Xia; Lampinen, Milla; Bepler, Gerold; Ide, Tomomi; Tyynismaa, Henna; Weiss, Robert S; Suomalainen, Anu

    2010-12-01

    Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) is the rate-limiting enzyme in deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) biosynthesis, with important roles in nuclear genome maintenance. RNR is also essential for maintenance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in mammals. The mechanisms regulating mtDNA copy number in mammals are only being discovered. In budding yeast, RNR overexpression resulted in increased mtDNA levels, and rescued the disease phenotypes caused by a mutant mtDNA polymerase. This raised the question of whether mtDNA copy number increase by RNR induction could be a strategy for treating diseases with mtDNA mutations. We show here that high-level overexpression of RNR subunits (Rrm1, Rrm2 and p53R2; separately or in different combinations) in mice does not result in mtDNA copy number elevation. Instead, simultaneous expression of two RNR subunits leads to imbalanced dNTP pools and progressive mtDNA depletion in the skeletal muscle, without mtDNA mutagenesis. We also show that endogenous RNR transcripts are downregulated in response to large increases of mtDNA in mice, which is indicative of nuclear-mitochondrial crosstalk with regard to mtDNA copy number. Our results establish that RNR is not limiting for mtDNA copy number in mice, and provide new evidence for the importance of balanced dNTP pools in mtDNA maintenance in postmitotic tissues. PMID:20724444

  1. Analysis of methionine synthase reductase polymorphism (A66G) in Indian Muslim population

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Vandana; Yadav, Upendra; Kumar, Pradeep; Yadav, Sushil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) is a vital enzyme of homocysteine/methionine metabolic pathway and is required for the conversion of inactive form of methionine synthase (MTR) to its active form. A clinically important allelic variant of MTRR A66G, with less enzymatic activity is reported with worldwide prevalence rate of ~ 30%. The present study was designed to determine the frequency of MTRR A66G polymorphism in rural Sunni Muslim population of Eastern Uttar Pradesh. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Total 56 subjects were analyzed for MTRR A66G polymorphism. A66G mutation analysis was carried out according to the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method of Wilson et al. [1] amplification with MTRR specific primers followed by amplicon digestion with NdeI enzyme was used for the identification of different MTRR genotypes in subjects. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The AA genotype was found in 5 subjects, AG in 23 subjects, and GG genotype in 28 subjects. Genotype frequencies of AA, AG, and GG were 0.089, 0.41, and 0.5 respectively. The allele frequency of A allele was found to be 0.298 and G allele was 0.705. CONCLUSION: It is evident from the present study that the percentage of homozygous genotype GG and frequency of G allele is high in the target Muslim population. PMID:24019620

  2. Controlling the formation of a monolayer of cytochrome P450 reductase onto Au surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Convery, J. H.; Smith, C. I.; Khara, B.; Scrutton, N. S.; Harrison, P.; Farrell, T.; Martin, D. S.; Weightman, P.

    2012-07-01

    The conditions necessary for the formation of a monolayer and a bilayer of a mutated form (P499C) of human cytochrome P450 reductase on a Au(110)/electrolyte interface have been determined using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation, atomic force microscopy, and reflection anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS). The molecules adsorb through a Au-S linkage and, for the monolayer, adopt an ordered structure on the Au(110) substrate in which the optical axes of the dipoles contributing to the RAS signal are aligned roughly along the optical axes of the Au(110) substrate. Differences between the absorption spectrum of the molecules in a solution and the RAS profile of the adsorbed monolayer are attributed to surface order in the orientation of dipoles that contribute in the low energy region of the spectrum, a roughly vertical orientation on the surface of the long axes of the isoalloxazine rings and the lack of any preferred orientation in the molecular structure of the dipoles in the aromatic amino acids. Our studies establish an important proof of principle for immobilizing large biological macromolecules to gold surfaces. This opens up detailed studies of the dynamics of biological macromolecules by RAS, which have general applications in studies of biological redox chemistry that are coupled to protein dynamics.

  3. Role of alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (AhpC) in the biofilm formation of Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Oh, Euna; Jeon, Byeonghwa

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm formation of Campylobacter jejuni, a major cause of human gastroenteritis, contributes to the survival of this pathogenic bacterium in different environmental niches; however, molecular mechanisms for its biofilm formation have not been fully understood yet. In this study, the role of oxidative stress resistance in biofilm formation was investigated using mutants defective in catalase (KatA), superoxide dismutase (SodB), and alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (AhpC). Biofilm formation was substantially increased in an ahpC mutant compared to the wild type, and katA and sodB mutants. In contrast to the augmented biofilm formation of the ahpC mutant, a strain overexpressing ahpC exhibited reduced biofilm formation. A perR mutant and a CosR-overexpression strain, both of which upregulate ahpC, also displayed decreased biofilms. However, the introduction of the ahpC mutation to the perR mutant and the CosR-overexpression strain substantially enhanced biofilm formation. The ahpC mutant accumulated more total reactive oxygen species and lipid hydroperoxides than the wild type, and the treatment of the ahpC mutant with antioxidants reduced biofilm formation to the wild-type level. Confocal microscopy analysis showed more microcolonies were developed in the ahpC mutant than the wild type. These results successfully demonstrate that AhpC plays an important role in the biofilm formation of C. jejuni. PMID:24498070

  4. Role of Alkyl Hydroperoxide Reductase (AhpC) in the Biofilm Formation of Campylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Euna; Jeon, Byeonghwa

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm formation of Campylobacter jejuni, a major cause of human gastroenteritis, contributes to the survival of this pathogenic bacterium in different environmental niches; however, molecular mechanisms for its biofilm formation have not been fully understood yet. In this study, the role of oxidative stress resistance in biofilm formation was investigated using mutants defective in catalase (KatA), superoxide dismutase (SodB), and alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (AhpC). Biofilm formation was substantially increased in an ahpC mutant compared to the wild type, and katA and sodB mutants. In contrast to the augmented biofilm formation of the ahpC mutant, a strain overexpressing ahpC exhibited reduced biofilm formation. A perR mutant and a CosR-overexpression strain, both of which upregulate ahpC, also displayed decreased biofilms. However, the introduction of the ahpC mutation to the perR mutant and the CosR-overexpression strain substantially enhanced biofilm formation. The ahpC mutant accumulated more total reactive oxygen species and lipid hydroperoxides than the wild type, and the treatment of the ahpC mutant with antioxidants reduced biofilm formation to the wild-type level. Confocal microscopy analysis showed more microcolonies were developed in the ahpC mutant than the wild type. These results successfully demonstrate that AhpC plays an important role in the biofilm formation of C. jejuni. PMID:24498070

  5. Effective Temperature of Mutations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derényi, Imre; Szöll?si, Gergely J.

    2015-02-01

    Biological macromolecules experience two seemingly very different types of noise acting on different time scales: (i) point mutations corresponding to changes in molecular sequence and (ii) thermal fluctuations. Examining the secondary structures of a large number of microRNA precursor sequences and model lattice proteins, we show that the effects of single point mutations are statistically indistinguishable from those of an increase in temperature by a few tens of kelvins. The existence of such an effective mutational temperature establishes a quantitative connection between robustness to genetic (mutational) and environmental (thermal) perturbations.

  6. The respiratory arsenate reductase from Bacillus selenitireducens strain MLS10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Afkar, E.; Lisak, J.; Saltikov, C.; Basu, P.; Oremland, R.S.; Stolz, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    The respiratory arsenate reductase from the Gram-positive, haloalkaliphile, Bacillus selenitireducens strain MLS10 was purified and characterized. It is a membrane bound heterodimer (150 kDa) composed of two subunits ArrA (110 kDa) and ArrB (34 kDa), with an apparent Km for arsenate of 34 ??M and Vmax of 2.5 ??mol min-1 mg-1. Optimal activity occurred at pH 9.5 and 150 g l-1 of NaCl. Metal analysis (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) of the holoenzyme and sequence analysis of the catalytic subunit (ArrA; the gene for which was cloned and sequenced) indicate it is a member of the DMSO reductase family of molybdoproteins. ?? 2003 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Branch retinal artery occlusion associated with compound heterozygous genotype for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Heur; Gregory S. Kosmorsky; Neal S. Peachey; Elisa Bala

    2007-01-01

    We present a case in which mfERG and OCT helped to make a diagnosis of an old BRAO in the setting of compound heterozygous\\u000a MTHFR genotype. A 44-year-old woman presented for evaluation of a 10 month history of persistently cloudy vision OS. She had\\u000a been worked up previously for MS versus BRAO, and she was on coumadin, folate, and multivitamin at

  8. Spontaneous Mutation Accumulation Studies in

    E-print Network

    Keightley, Peter

    Spontaneous Mutation Accumulation Studies in Evolutionary Genetics Daniel L. Halligan and Peter D of mutation effects, dominance, epistasis, genotype-environment interaction, mutation rate Abstract Mutation accumulation (MA) experiments, in which mutations are allowed to drift to fixation in inbred lines, have been

  9. The occurrence of nitrate reductase in leaves of prunus species.

    PubMed

    Leece, D R; Dilley, D R; Kenworthy, A L

    1972-05-01

    Nitrate reductase was found in leaves of apricot Prunus armeniaca, sour cherry P. cerasus, sweet cherry P. avium, and plum P. domestica, but not in peach P. persica, from trees grown in sand culture receiving a nitrate containing nutrient solution. Nitrate was found in the leaves of all species. Nitrate and nitrate reductase were found in leaves of field-grown apricot, sour cherry, and plum trees. The enzyme-extracting medium contained insoluble polyvinylpyrrolidone, and including dithiothreitol or mercaptobenzothiazole did not improve enzyme recovery. Inclusion of cherry leaf extract diminished, and peach leaf extract abolished, recovery of nitrate reductase from oat tissue. Low molecular weight phenols liberated during extraction were probably responsible for inactivation of the enzyme. The enzyme from apricot was two to three times as active as from the other species. Both nicotine adenine diphosphopyridine nucleotide and flavin mononucleotide were effective electron donors. The enzyme was readily induced in apricot leaves by 10 mm nitrate supplied through the leaf petiole. PMID:16658037

  10. Acquisition of iron by Legionella pneumophila: role of iron reductase.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, W; Varner, L; Poch, M

    1991-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila has been shown to survive and multiply in a variety of intracellular environments, including protozoa and human mononuclear phagocytes. However, the mechanism by which this organism acquires iron in the intracellular environment has not been studied. Since L. pneumophila does not produce siderophores, alternative methods of iron acquisition were investigated. Virulent strains of L. pneumophila were able to grow in media containing as little as 3 microM iron, whereas avirulent cells required a minimum of 13 microM iron for growth. Neither virulent nor avirulent cells were able to utilize 55Fe bound to transferrin. When incubated in the presence of 55Fe in the form of ferric chloride, both virulent and avirulent cells accumulated equal amounts of iron. The uptake of iron was energy dependent as indicated by inhibition of 55Fe uptake at 4 degrees C and preincubation of the cells with KCN. Treatment of virulent cells with pronase or trypsin had no effect on iron uptake. In contrast, pronase or trypsin treatment of avirulent cells resulted in increased uptake of iron. Iron reductase activity in both virulent and avirulent cells was demonstrated, with the highest specific activity associated with the periplasmic fraction. Maximum reductase activity of virulent cells occurred with NADH as the reductant. In contrast, avirulent cells showed a twofold increase in enzyme activity when NADPH was used as the reductant. These results suggest that an iron reductase is important in iron acquisition by L. pneumophila. PMID:1904841

  11. Substrate specificity of mouse aldo–keto reductase AKR7A5

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alison Hinshelwood; Gail McGarvie; Elizabeth M Ellis

    2003-01-01

    We have determined the substrate specificity of a mouse aldo–keto reductase (AKR) AKR7A5, an enzyme that is similar to rat aflatoxin aldehyde reductase (AKR7A1) and to human brain succinic semialdehyde reductase (AKR7A2). Previously, we have shown that the mouse enzyme is present in a range of tissues including liver, kidney, testis and brain, and is able to reduce several carbonyl

  12. Cloning and expression of the cDNA encoding rabbit liver carbonyl reductase.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, B; Sapra, A; Rivera, H; Kaplan, W D; Yam, B; Forrest, G L

    1995-03-10

    Two cDNA sequences encoding rabbit carbonyl reductase (CBR) were cloned from a lambda gt10 rabbit liver cDNA library. The rabbit cDNAs coded for a protein with 84% identity to human CBR. Transient expression of the two rabbit cDNA sequences in COS7 cells increased both quinone reductase and aldo-keto reductase activities. These data demonstrate that CBR cDNAs from rabbit and human tissues code for similar proteins. PMID:7890182

  13. Development and validation of a cytochrome c-coupled assay for pteridine reductase 1 and dihydrofolate reductase.

    PubMed

    Shanks, Emma J; Ong, Han B; Robinson, David A; Thompson, Stephen; Sienkiewicz, Natasha; Fairlamb, Alan H; Frearson, Julie A

    2010-01-15

    Activity of the pterin- and folate-salvaging enzymes pteridine reductase 1 (PTR1) and dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthetase (DHFR-TS) is commonly measured as a decrease in absorbance at 340 nm, corresponding to oxidation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH). Although this assay has been adequate to study the biology of these enzymes, it is not amenable to support any degree of routine inhibitor assessment because its restricted linearity is incompatible with enhanced throughput microtiter plate screening. In this article, we report the development and validation of a nonenzymatically coupled screening assay in which the product of the enzymatic reaction reduces cytochrome c, causing an increase in absorbance at 550 nm. We demonstrate this assay to be robust and accurate, and we describe its utility in supporting a structure-based design, small-molecule inhibitor campaign against Trypanosoma brucei PTR1 and DHFR-TS. PMID:19748480

  14. Development and validation of a cytochrome c-coupled assay for pteridine reductase 1 and dihydrofolate reductase

    PubMed Central

    Shanks, Emma J.; Ong, Han B.; Robinson, David A.; Thompson, Stephen; Sienkiewicz, Natasha; Fairlamb, Alan H.; Frearson, Julie A.

    2010-01-01

    Activity of the pterin- and folate-salvaging enzymes pteridine reductase 1 (PTR1) and dihydrofolate reductase–thymidylate synthetase (DHFR-TS) is commonly measured as a decrease in absorbance at 340 nm, corresponding to oxidation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH). Although this assay has been adequate to study the biology of these enzymes, it is not amenable to support any degree of routine inhibitor assessment because its restricted linearity is incompatible with enhanced throughput microtiter plate screening. In this article, we report the development and validation of a nonenzymatically coupled screening assay in which the product of the enzymatic reaction reduces cytochrome c, causing an increase in absorbance at 550 nm. We demonstrate this assay to be robust and accurate, and we describe its utility in supporting a structure-based design, small-molecule inhibitor campaign against Trypanosoma brucei PTR1 and DHFR-TS. PMID:19748480

  15. Nitrate Effects on Nitrate Reductase Activity and Nitrite Reductase mRNA Levels in Maize Suspension Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Privalle, Laura S.; Lahners, Kristi N.; Mullins, Martha A.; Rothstein, Steven

    1989-01-01

    Nitrate reductase (NR) activity and nitrite reductase (NiR) mRNA levels were monitored in Black Mexican Sweet maize (Zea mays L.) suspension cultures after the addition of nitrate. Maximal induction occurred with 20 millimolar nitrate and within 2 hours. Both NR and NiR mRNA were transiently induced with levels decreasing after the 2 hours despite the continued presence of nitrate in the medium. Neither ammonia nor chlorate prevented the induction of NR. Furthermore, removal of nitrate, followed by its readdition 22 to 48 hours later, did not result in reinduction of activity or message. NR was synthesized de novo, since cycloheximide completely blocked its induction. Cycloheximide had no effect on the induction of NiR mRNA or on the transient nature of its induction. These results are similar to those reported previously for maize seedlings. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 6 PMID:16666905

  16. Recombinant bovine dihydrofolate reductase produced by mutagenesis and nested PCR of murine dihydrofolate reductase cDNA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vivian Cody; Qilong Mao; Sherry F. Queener

    2008-01-01

    Recent reports of the slow-tight binding inhibition of bovine liver dihydrofolate reductase (bDHFR) in the presence of polyphenols isolated from green tea leaves has spurred renewed interest in the biochemical properties of bDHFR. Earlier studies were done with native bDHFR but in order to validate models of polyphenol binding to bDHFR, larger quantities of bDHFR are necessary to support structural

  17. Mutations in Lettuce Improvement.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mutations can make profound impact on the evolution and improvement of a self-pollinated crop such as lettuce. Since it is nontransgenic, mutation breeding is more acceptable to consumers. Combined with genomic advances in new technologies like TILLING, mutagenesis is becoming an even more powerfu...

  18. Mutation of Chromosomes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Access Excellence N:Excellence; Access REV:2005-03-12 END:VCARD

    2005-03-12

    Illustration of the mutation of chromosomes. A permanent structural alteration in DNA. In most cases, such DNA changes either have no effect or cause harm, but occasionally a mutation can improve an organism's chance of surviving and passing the beneficial change on to its descendants.

  19. Structure of the Molybdenum Site of EEcherichia Coli Trimethylamine N-Oxide Reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, L.; Nelson, K.Johnson; Rajagopalan, K.V.; George, G.N.

    2009-05-28

    We report a structural characterization of the molybdenum site of recombinant Escherichia coli trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) reductase using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The enzyme active site shows considerable similarity to that of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) reductase, in that, like DMSO reductase, the TMAO reductase active site can exist in multiple forms. Examination of the published crystal structure of TMAO oxidase from Shewanella massilia indicates that the postulated Mo coordination structure is chemically impossible. The presence of multiple active site structures provides a potential explanation for the anomalous features reported from the crystal structure.

  20. A flavone from Manilkara indica as a specific inhibitor against aldose reductase in vitro.

    PubMed

    Haraguchi, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Ryosuke; Ishizu, Takashi; Yagi, Akira

    2003-09-01

    Isoaffinetin (5,7,3',4',5'-pentahydroxyflavone-6-C-glucoside) was isolated from Manilkara indica as a potent inhibitor of lens aldose reductase by bioassay-directed fractionation. This C-glucosyl flavone showed specific inhibition against aldose reductases (rat lens, porcine lens and recombinant human) with no inhibition against aldehyde reductase and NADH oxidase. Kinetic analysis showed that isoaffinetin exhibited uncompetitive inhibition against both dl-glyceraldehyde and NADPH. A structure-activity relationship study revealed that the increasing number of hydroxy groups in the B-ring contributes to the increase in aldose reductase inhibition by C-glucosyl flavones. PMID:14598214

  1. Photo-ribonucleotide reductase ?2 by selective cysteine labeling with a radical phototrigger

    E-print Network

    Holder, Patrick

    Photochemical radical initiation is a powerful tool for studying radical initiation and transport in biology. Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs), which catalyze the conversion of nucleotides to deoxynucleotides in all ...

  2. The prototypic class Ia ribonucleotide reductase from Escherichia coli: still surprising after all these years

    E-print Network

    Brignole, Edward J.

    RNRs (ribonucleotide reductases) are key players in nucleic acid metabolism, converting ribonucleotides into deoxyribonucleotides. As such, they maintain the intracellular balance of deoxyribonucleotides to ensure the ...

  3. Photoinitiated proton-coupled electron transfer and radical transport kinetics in class la ribonucleotide reductase

    E-print Network

    Pizano, Arturo A. (Arturo Alejandro)

    2013-01-01

    Proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) is a critical mechanism in biology, underpinning key processes such as radical transport, energy transduction, and enzymatic substrate activation. Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) ...

  4. Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase in Neurodegenerative Disease and Locomotor-Associated Dopamine Signaling

    E-print Network

    Oien, Derek Brandon

    2010-04-28

    Reactive oxygen species can cause posttranslational modifications to amino acids, including sulfur-containing methionine. Methionine sulfoxide modifications are reduced by methionine sulfoxide reductase enzymes. The redox ...

  5. Partial Purification and Characterization of Red Chlorophyll Catabolite Reductase, a Stroma Protein Involved in Chlorophyll Breakdown.

    PubMed Central

    Rodoni, S.; Vicentini, F.; Schellenberg, M.; Matile, P.; Hortensteiner, S.

    1997-01-01

    Red chlorophyll (Chl) catabolite (RCC) reductase, which catalyzes the reaction of an intermediary Chl catabolite (RCC) in the two-step cleavage reaction of pheophorbide (Pheide) a into primary fluorescent catabolites (pFCCs) during Chl breakdown, was characterized and partially purified. RCC reductase activity was present at all stages of barley leaf development and even in roots. The highest specific activity was found in senescent leaves, which were used to purify RCC reductase 1000-fold. Among the remaining three proteins, RCC reductase activity was most likely associated with a 55-kD protein. RCC reductase exhibited saturation kinetics for RCC, with an apparent Michaelis constant of 0.6 mM. The reaction depended on reduced ferredoxin and was sensitive to oxygen. Assays of purified RCC reductase with chemically synthesized RCC as a substrate yielded three different FCCs, two of which could be identified as the stereoisomeric pFCCs from canola (Brassica napus) (pFCC-1) and sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) (pFCC-2), respectively. In the coupled reaction with Pheide a oxidase and RCC reductase, either pFCC-1 or pFCC-2 was produced, depending on the plant species employed as a source of RCC reductase. Data from 18 species suggest that the stereospecific action of RCC reductase is uniform within a plant family. PMID:12223836

  6. Pyrroloquinoline quinone modulates the kinetic parameters of the mammalian selenoprotein thioredoxin reductase 1 and is an inhibitor of glutathione reductase.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianqiang; Arnér, Elias S J

    2012-03-15

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a redox active cofactor for bacterial quinoproteins. Dietary PQQ also has prominent physiological effects in mammals although no mammalian quinoprotein has yet been conclusively identified. Here we found that PQQ has substantial effects on the redox active mammalian selenoprotein thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1). PQQ efficiently inhibited the activity of TrxR1 with its main native substrate thioredoxin and acted as a low efficiency substrate in a Sec-dependent TrxR1-catalyzed reduction. Interestingly, PQQ also stimulated redox cycling of TrxR1 with another quinone substrate, juglone, as much as 13-fold (k(cat)/K(m) increased from 105 min(-1) ?M(-1) to 1331 min(-1) ?M(-1) for juglone in the presence of 50 ?M PQQ, mainly through a lowered apparent K(m) for juglone). Glutathione reductase was also inhibited by PQQ but in contrast to the effects of PQQ on TrxR1, its quinone reduction was not further stimulated. These results reveal that glutathione reductase and the mammalian selenoprotein TrxR1 are direct PQQ protein targets, although not being genuine quinoproteins. These findings may help explain several of the effects of PQQ seen in mammals. PMID:22226931

  7. Mutation and premating isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodruff, R. C.; Thompson, J. N. Jr

    2002-01-01

    While premating isolation might be traceable to different genetic mechanisms in different species, evidence supports the idea that as few as one or two genes may often be sufficient to initiate isolation. Thus, new mutation can theoretically play a key role in the process. But it has long been thought that a new isolation mutation would fail, because there would be no other individuals for the isolation-mutation-carrier to mate with. We now realize that premeiotic mutations are very common and will yield a cluster of progeny carrying the same new mutant allele. In this paper, we discuss the evidence for genetically simple premating isolation barriers and the role that clusters of an isolation mutation may play in initiating allopatric, and even sympatric, species divisions.

  8. Mutational Spectrum of Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome Patients in Hungary

    PubMed Central

    Balogh, I.; Koczok, K.; Szabó, G.P.; Török, O.; Hadzsiev, K.; Csábi, G.; Balogh, L.; Dzsudzsák, E.; Ajzner, É.; Szabó, L.; Csákváry, V.; Oláh, A.V.

    2012-01-01

    Smith-Lemli-Opitz (SLO) syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by multiple congenital abnormalities and mental retardation. The condition is caused by the deficiency of 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR7) which catalyzes the final step in cholesterol biosynthesis. Biochemical diagnosis is based on increased concentration of 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) in the patient serum. Both life expectancy and quality of life are severely affected by the disease. The estimated prevalence of SLO syndrome ranges between 1:20,000 and 1:40,000 among Caucasians. Although the mutational spectrum of the disease is wide, approximately 10 mutations are responsible for more than 80% of the cases. These mutations show a large interethnic variability. There are no mutation distribution data from Hungary to date. Thirteen patients were diagnosed with SLO syndrome in our laboratory. As first-line tests, serum 7-DHC and total cholesterol were measured and, in positive cases, molecular genetic analysis of the DHCR7 gene was performed. Complete genetic background of the disease could be identified in 12 cases. In 1 case only 1 mutation was detected in a heterozygote form. One patient was homozygous for the common splice site mutation c.964–1G>C, while all other patients were compound heterozygotes. One novel missense mutation, c.374A>G (p.Tyr125Cys) was identified. PMID:23293579

  9. Deep vein thrombosis after bunionectomy: a case report of two genetic mutations.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Kyle S; Mendicino, Robert W; Catanzariti, Alan R; Saltrick, Karl R

    2011-01-01

    Deep venous thrombosis after foot and ankle surgery is a serious complication that can have potentially life-threatening complications, such as pulmonary embolus. Genetic mutations have been reported in the published data to cause an increased risk of developing deep vein thrombosis. Two such genetic mutations are the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene variant C677T and the 4G/5G polymorphism of the plasminogen activator inhibitor gene. This case report presents a female patient who developed a postoperative deep vein thrombosis after hallux valgus reconstruction. A hypercoagulable panel revealed the 2 mentioned genetic mutations. We hope this case study will highlight the importance of ascertaining all patient risk factors and the relation to perioperative deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis. PMID:21741861

  10. Genetic characterization and role in virulence of the ribonucleotide reductases of Streptococcus sanguinis.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, DeLacy V; Crump, Katie E; Makhlynets, Olga; Snyder, Melanie; Ge, Xiuchun; Xu, Ping; Stubbe, JoAnne; Kitten, Todd

    2014-02-28

    Streptococcus sanguinis is a cause of infective endocarditis and has been shown to require a manganese transporter called SsaB for virulence and O2 tolerance. Like certain other pathogens, S. sanguinis possesses aerobic class Ib (NrdEF) and anaerobic class III (NrdDG) ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) that perform the essential function of reducing ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides. The accompanying paper (Makhlynets, O., Boal, A. K., Rhodes, D. V., Kitten, T., Rosenzweig, A. C., and Stubbe, J. (2014) J. Biol. Chem. 289, 6259-6272) indicates that in the presence of O2, the S. sanguinis class Ib RNR self-assembles an essential diferric-tyrosyl radical (Fe(III)2-Y(•)) in vitro, whereas assembly of a dimanganese-tyrosyl radical (Mn(III)2-Y(•)) cofactor requires NrdI, and Mn(III)2-Y(•) is more active than Fe(III)2-Y(•) with the endogenous reducing system of NrdH and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR1). In this study, we have shown that deletion of either nrdHEKF or nrdI completely abolishes virulence in an animal model of endocarditis, whereas nrdD mutation has no effect. The nrdHEKF, nrdI, and trxR1 mutants fail to grow aerobically, whereas anaerobic growth requires nrdD. The nrdJ gene encoding an O2-independent adenosylcobalamin-cofactored RNR was introduced into the nrdHEKF, nrdI, and trxR1 mutants. Growth of the nrdHEKF and nrdI mutants in the presence of O2 was partially restored. The combined results suggest that Mn(III)2-Y(•)-cofactored NrdF is required for growth under aerobic conditions and in animals. This could explain in part why manganese is necessary for virulence and O2 tolerance in many bacterial pathogens possessing a class Ib RNR and suggests NrdF and NrdI may serve as promising new antimicrobial targets. PMID:24381171

  11. Mechanism and Inhibition of saFabI, the Enoyl Reductase from Staphylococcus aureus†

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hua; Sullivan, Todd; Sekiguchi, Jun-ichiro; Kirikae, Teruo; Ojima, Iwao; Mao, Weimin; Rock, Fernando L; Alley, M. R. K.; Johnson, Francis; Walker, Stephen G.; Tonge, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    About one third of the world’s population carries Staphylococcus aureus. The recent emergence of extreme drug resistant strains that are resistant to the “antibiotic of last resort”, vancomycin, has caused a further increase in the pressing need to discover new drugs against this organism. The S. aureus enoyl reductase, saFabI, is a validated target for drug discovery. In order to drive the development of potent and selective saFabI inhibitors, we have studied the mechanism of the enzyme and analyzed the interaction of saFabI with triclosan and two related diphenyl ether inhibitors. Results from kinetic assays reveal that saFabI is NADPH-dependent, and prefers acyl carrier protein substrates carrying fatty acids with a long acyl chains. Based on product inhibition studies, we propose that the reaction proceeds via an ordered sequential ternary complex, with the ACP substrate binding first, followed by NADPH. The interaction of NADPH with the enzyme has been further explored by site-directed mutagenesis, and residues R40 and K41 have been shown to be involved in determining the specificity of enzyme for NADPH compared to NADH. Finally, in preliminary inhibition studies, we have shown that triclosan, 5-ethyl-2-phenoxyphenol (EPP) and 5-chloro-2-phenoxyphenol (CPP) are all nanomolar slow-onset inhibitors of saFabI. These compounds inhibit the growth of S. aureus with MIC values of 0.03-0.06 µg/mL. Upon selection for resistance, three novel safabI mutations, A95V, I193S and F204S, were identified. Strains containing these mutations had MIC values ~100 fold larger than the wild-type strain whereas the purified mutant enzymes had Ki values 5 to 3000 fold larger than the wild-type saFabI. The increase in both MIC and Ki values caused by the mutations supports the proposal that saFabI is the intracellular target for the diphenyl ether-based inhibitors. PMID:18335995

  12. Comparative Study on Sequence-Structure-Function Relationship of the Human Short-chain Dehydrogenases/Reductases Protein Family.

    PubMed

    Tang, Nu Thi Ngoc; Le, Ly

    2014-01-01

    Human short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs) protein family has been the subject of recent studies for its critical role in human metabolism. Studies also found that single nucleotide polymorphisms of the SDR protein family were responsible for a variety of genetic diseases, including type II diabetes. This study reports the effect of sequence variation on the structural and functional integrities of human SDR protein family using phylogenetics and correlated mutation analysis tools. Our results indicated that (i) tyrosine, serine, and lysine are signature protein residues that have direct contribution to the structural and functional stabilities of the SDR protein family, (ii) subgroups of SDR protein family have their own signature protein combination that represent their unique functionality, and (iii) mutations of the human SDR protein family showed high correlation in terms of evolutionary history. In combination, the results inferred that over evolutionary history, the SDR protein family was able to diverge itself in order to adapt with the changes in human nutritional demands. Our study reveals understanding of structural and functional scaffolds of specific SDR subgroups that may facilitate the design of specific inhibitor. PMID:25374450

  13. Positional cloning in Cryptococcus neoformans and its application for identification and cloning of the gene encoding methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase.

    PubMed

    Toh-E, Akio; Ohkusu, Misako; Shimizu, Kiminori; Kawamoto, Susumu

    2015-03-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans, a basidiomycetous human pathogenic yeast, has been widely used in research fields in medical mycology as well as basic biology. Gene cloning or identification of the gene responsible for a mutation of interest is a key step for functional analysis of a particular gene. The availability therefore, of the multiple methods for cloning is desirable. In this study, we proposed a method for a mapping-based gene identification/cloning (positional cloning) method in C. neoformans. To this end, we constructed a series of tester strains, one of whose chromosomes was labeled with the URA5 gene. A heterozygous diploid constructed by crossing one of the tester strains to a mutant strain of interest loses a chromosome(s) spontaneously, which is the basis for assigning a recessive mutant gene to a particular chromosome in the mitotic mapping method. Once the gene of interest is mapped to one of the 14 chromosomes, classical genetic crosses can then be performed to determine its more precise location. The positional information thus obtained can then be used to significantly narrow down candidate genes by referring to the Cryptococcus genome database. Each candidate gene is then examined whether it would complement the mutation. We successfully applied this method to identify CNA07390 encoding methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase as the gene responsible for a methionine-requiring mutant in our mutant collection. PMID:25687932

  14. The Bacillus subtilis ydjL (bdhA) gene encodes acetoin reductase/2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Wayne L

    2008-11-01

    Bacillus subtilis is capable of producing 2,3-butanediol from acetoin by fermentation, but to date, the gene encoding the enzyme responsible, acetoin reductase/2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase (AR/BDH), has remained unknown. A search of the B. subtilis genome database with the amino acid sequences of functional AR/BDHs from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Bacillus cereus resulted in the identification of a highly similar protein encoded by the B. subtilis ydjL gene. A knockout strain carrying a ydjL::cat insertion mutation was constructed, which (i) abolished 2,3-butanediol production in early stationary phase, (ii) produced no detectable AR or BDH activity in vitro, and (iii) accumulated the precursor acetoin in early stationary phase. The ydjL::cat mutation also affected the kinetics of lactate but not acetate production during stationary-phase cultivation with glucose under oxygen limitation. A very small amount of 2,3-butanediol was detected in very-late-stationary-phase (96-hour) cultures of the ydjL::cat mutant, suggesting the existence of a second gene encoding a minor AR activity. From the data, it is proposed that the major AR/BDH-encoding gene ydjL be renamed bdhA. PMID:18820069

  15. Mutation and Extinction: The Role of Variable Mutational Effects, Synergistic Epistasis, Beneficial Mutations, and Degree of Outcrossing

    E-print Network

    Lynch, Michael

    Mutation and Extinction: The Role of Variable Mutational Effects, Synergistic Epistasis, Beneficial AND EXTINCTION: THE ROLE OF VARIABLE MUTATIONAL EFFECTS, SYNERGISTIC EPISTASIS, BENEFICIAL MUTATIONS of extinction. These include the presence of synergistic epistasis, which can reduce the rate of mutation

  16. Re(bpy)(CO)[subscript 3]CN as a Probe of Conformational Flexibility in a Photochemical Ribonucleotide Reductase

    E-print Network

    Reece, Steven Y.

    Photochemical ribonucleotide reductases (photoRNRs) have been developed to study the proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) mechanism of radical transport in Escherichia coli class I ribonucleotide reductase (RNR). The ...

  17. CER4 Encodes an Alcohol-Forming Fatty Acyl-Coenzyme A Reductase Involved in Cuticular Wax Production

    E-print Network

    Kunst, Ljerka

    CER4 Encodes an Alcohol-Forming Fatty Acyl-Coenzyme A Reductase Involved in Cuticular Wax-forming fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductase (FAR). We identified eight FAR-like genes in Arabidopsis that are highly

  18. Why Is Mammalian Thioredoxin Reductase 1 So Dependent upon the Use of Selenium?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Cytosolic thioredoxin reductase 1 (TR1) is the best characterized of the class of high-molecular weight (Mr) thioredoxin reductases (TRs). TR1 is highly dependent upon the rare amino acid selenocysteine (Sec) for the reduction of thioredoxin (Trx) and a host of small molecule substrates, as mutation of Sec to cysteine (Cys) results in a large decrease in catalytic activity for all substrate types. Previous work in our lab and others has shown that the mitochondrial TR (TR3) is much less dependent upon the use of Sec for the reduction of small molecules. The Sec-dependent substrate utilization behavior of TR1 may be the exception and not the rule as we show that a variety of high-Mr TRs from other organisms, including Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Plasmodium falciparum, do not require Sec to reduce small molecule substrates, including 5,5?-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid), lipoic acid, selenite, and selenocystine. The data show that high-Mr TRs can be divided into two groups based upon substrate utilization patterns: a TR1 group and a TR3-like group. We have constructed mutants of TR3-like enzymes from mouse, D. melanogaster, C. elegans, and P. falciparum, and the kinetic data from these mutants show that these enzymes are less dependent upon the use of Sec for the reduction of substrates. We posit that the mechanistic differences between TR1 and the TR3-like enzymes in this study are due to the presence of a “guiding bar”, amino acids 407–422, found in TR1, but not TR3-like enzymes. The guiding bar, proposed by Becker and co-workers [Fritz-Wolf, K., Urig, S., and Becker, K. (2007) The structure of human thioredoxin reductase 1 provides insights into C-terminal rearrangements during catalysis. J. Mol. Biol. 370, 116–127], restricts the motion of the C-terminal tail containing the C-terminal Gly-Cys-Sec-Gly, redox active tetrapeptide so that only this C-terminal redox center can be reduced by the N-terminal redox center, with the exclusion of most other substrates. This makes TR1 highly dependent upon the use of Sec because the selenium atom is responsible for both accepting electrons from the N-terminal redox center and donating them to the substrate in this model. Loss of both Se-electrophilicity and Se-nucleophilicity in the Sec ? Cys mutant of TR1 greatly reduces catalytic activity. TR3-like enzymes, in contrast, are less dependent upon the use of Sec because the absence of the guiding bar in these enzymes allows for greater access of the substrate to the N-terminal redox center and because they can make use of alternative mechanistic pathways that are not available to TR1. PMID:24393022

  19. Characterization and Regulation of Sulfur Reductase Activity in Thermotoga neapolitana

    PubMed Central

    Childers, Susan E.; Noll, Kenneth M.

    1994-01-01

    The growth of the hyperthermophilic, anaerobic bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana is stimulated by elemental sulfur by an unknown mechanism. We detected hydrogen-dependent sulfur reductase (sulfhydrogenase) and polysulfide dehydrogenase activities in cell extracts of this organism, demonstrating that it has at least two pathways for sulfidogenesis. Hydrogen-dependent sulfur reductase and hydrogenase activities are catalyzed by the purified hydrogenase of Thermotoga maritima, and this enzyme was called the sulfhydrogenase (K. Ma, R. N. Schicho, R. M. Kelly, and M. W. W. Adams, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90:5341-5344, 1993). Cells grown without elemental sulfur or cystine had 1.3 to 3.3 times higher sulfhydrogenase activities than those grown with either of these sources of sulfane sulfur. Hydrogenase activity was 2 to 5 times higher. Polysulfide dehydrogenase was up to 48-fold more active in cell extracts than the sulfhydrogenase. The activity of polysulfide dehydrogenase was approximately twofold higher when cells were grown in the presence of elemental sulfur. Its activity was oxygen labile in crude extracts, and it appears to be a cytoplasmic enzyme. Polysulfide was preferred over elemental sulfur as an electron acceptor (Km = 0.15 mM) and was more active with NADH (Km = 0.03 mM) than NADPH (Km = 0.41 mM). Growth in the presence of elemental sulfur appeared to slightly increase the activity of polysulfide dehydrogenase and slightly decrease both activities of sulfhydrogenase (hydrogenase and polysulfide reductase), while growth without elemental sulfur had the opposite effects. The greater activity of polysulfide dehydrogenase and its apparent regulation indicate that it is the more physiologically important means of polysulfide reduction. PMID:16349338

  20. Thioredoxin Glutathione Reductase-Dependent Redox Networks in Platyhelminth Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Bonilla, Mariana; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Platyhelminth parasites cause chronic infections that are a major cause of disability, mortality, and economic losses in developing countries. Maintaining redox homeostasis is a major adaptive problem faced by parasites and its disruption can shift the biochemical balance toward the host. Platyhelminth parasites possess a streamlined thiol-based redox system in which a single enzyme, thioredoxin glutathione reductase (TGR), a fusion of a glutaredoxin (Grx) domain to canonical thioredoxin reductase (TR) domains, supplies electrons to oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and thioredoxin (Trx). TGR has been validated as a drug target for schistosomiasis. Recent Advances: In addition to glutathione (GSH) and Trx reduction, TGR supports GSH-independent deglutathionylation conferring an additional advantage to the TGR redox array. Biochemical and structural studies have shown that the TR activity does not require the Grx domain, while the glutathione reductase and deglutathionylase activities depend on the Grx domain, which receives electrons from the TR domains. The search for TGR inhibitors has identified promising drug leads, notably oxadiazole N-oxides. Critical Issues: A conspicuous feature of platyhelminth TGRs is that their Grx-dependent activities are temporarily inhibited at high GSSG concentrations. The mechanism underlying the phenomenon and its biological relevance are not completely understood. Future Directions: The functional diversity of Trxs and Grxs encoded in platyhelminth genomes remains to be further assessed to thoroughly understand the TGR-dependent redox network. Optimization of TGR inhibitors and identification of compounds targeting other parasite redox enzymes are good options to clinically develop relevant drugs for these neglected, but important diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 735–745. PMID:22909029

  1. Nitrate transport is independent of NADH and NAD(P)H nitrate reductases in barley seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, R. L.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1989-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) has NADH-specific and NAD(P)H-bispecific nitrate reductase isozymes. Four isogenic lines with different nitrate reductase isozyme combinations were used to determine the role of NADH and NAD(P)H nitrate reductases on nitrate transport and assimilation in barley seedlings. Both nitrate reductase isozymes were induced by nitrate and were required for maximum nitrate assimilation in barley seedlings. Genotypes lacking the NADH isozyme (Az12) or the NAD(P)H isozyme (Az70) assimilated 65 or 85%, respectively, as much nitrate as the wild type. Nitrate assimilation by genotype (Az12;Az70) which is deficient in both nitrate reductases, was only 13% of the wild type indicating that the NADH and NAD(P)H nitrate reductase isozymes are responsible for most of the nitrate reduction in barley seedlings. For all genotypes, nitrate assimilation rates in the dark were about 55% of the rates in light. Hypotheses that nitrate reductase has direct or indirect roles in nitrate uptake were not supported by this study. Induction of nitrate transporters and the kinetics of net nitrate uptake were the same for all four genotypes indicating that neither nitrate reductase isozyme has a direct role in nitrate uptake in barley seedlings.

  2. Determination of the specific activities of methionine sulfoxide reductase A and B by capillary electrophoresis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A capillary electrophoresis (CE) method for the determination of methionine sulfoxide reductase A and methionine sulfoxide reductase B activities in mouse liver is described. The method is based on detection of the 4-(dimethylamino)azobenzene-4’-sulfonyl derivative of L-methionine (dabsyl Met), the ...

  3. Molecular Control of Nitrate Reductase and Other Enzymes Involved in Nitrate Assimilation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wilbur H. Campbell

    Nitrate acts as both a nutrient and a signal in plants. Nitrate induces gene expression of enzymes for its metabolism into amino acids but also has other effects on plant metabolism and development. Familiar nitrate-induced enzymes are nitrate and nitrite reductases, nitrate transporters, glutamine synthetase, glutamate synthase, ferredoxin and ferredoxin NADP+ reductase. Microarray analysis of nitrate-stimulated gene expression has identified

  4. Nitrate Reductase Activity and Protein Concentration of Two Populas Clones 1

    PubMed Central

    Dykstra, Gary F.

    1974-01-01

    Nitrate reductase activity and protein percentage of various tree parts of two Populus clones were determined in relation to nitrate ion activity. Nitrogen was supplied as NH4NO3 in a nutriculture system. Wisconsin-5 had significantly greater nitrate reductase activity than Tristis No. 1. Protein percentages of leaf plastochron index 10 leaves (tenth leaf below first leaf lamina exceeding 20 mm in length), bottom leaves, and roots in relation to nitrate ion activity were not appreciably different between clones. The nitrate reductase activity and protein percentage of Tristis No. 1 apex started to level off at the same nitrate ion activity, about 0.09 mm. In Wisconsin-5 apex protein percentage continued to increase at nitrate ion activities where nitrate reductase activity decreases sharply, suggesting that protein nitrogen was being supplied by ammonium ion. The difference in nitrate reductase activity between clones was probably due to genetically determined ability to synthesize nitrate reductase in response to nitrate ion. The expression of nitrate reductase activity was not an index of nitrogen assimilation ability but may be a useful index of growth potential when nitrate ion does not limit nitrate reductase synthesis. PMID:16658755

  5. Iron chlorosis and nitrate reductase activity in response to Fe stress and additional nitrate in sorghum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. P. Pandey

    1989-01-01

    Effect of additional nitrate supply on chlorosis development at different levels of Fe stress was examined in iron efficient and inefficient sorghum cultivars. Nitrate reductase, the enzyme primarily responsible for nitrate reduction was estimated in roots and leaves as affected by Fe stress and additional nitrate.Young leaves showed differences in chlorosis progression at Fe stress levels. Nitrate reductase activity was

  6. Crystal Structure of DMSO Reductase: Redox-Linked Changes in Molybdopterin Coordination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hermann Schindelin; Caroline Kisker; James Hilton; K. V. Rajagopalan; Douglas C. Rees

    1996-01-01

    The molybdoenzyme dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) reductase contributes to the release of dimethylsulfide, a compound that has been implicated in cloud nucleation and global climate regulation. The crystal structure of DMSO reductase from Rhodobacter sphaeroides reveals a monooxo molybdenum cofactor containing two molybdopterin guanine dinucleotides that asymmetrically coordinate the molybdenum through their dithiolene groups. One of the pterins exhibits different coordination modes

  7. The purification and properties of nitrite reductase from higher plants, and its dependence on ferredoxin

    PubMed Central

    Joy, K. W.; Hageman, R. H.

    1966-01-01

    1. NADPH-dependent nitrite reductase from the leaves of higher plants was purified at least 70-fold and separated into two enzyme fractions. The first enzyme, a diaphorase with ferredoxin–NADP-reductase activity, is required only to transfer electrons from NADPH to a suitable electron acceptor, which then donates electrons to nitrite reductase proper. 2. Purified nitrite reductase accepted electrons from ferredoxin (the natural donor) or from reduced dyes. Ferredoxin was reduced by illuminated chloroplasts or dithionite, or by NADPH when diaphorase was present. The purified enzyme did not accept electrons directly from NADPH. 3. Ferredoxins purified from maize, spinach or Clostridium were interchangeable in the nitrite-reductase system. 4. Nitrite reductase had Km 0·15mm for nitrite. The pH optimum varied with plant and method of assay. The preparation had low sulphite-reductase activity. Ammonia was the product of nitrite reduction. 5. For some plants, the assay of crude preparations with NADPH was limited by diaphorase and the addition of diaphorase gave a better estimate of nitrite-reductase activity. A simple method of assay is described that uses dithionite with benzyl viologen as electron donor. PMID:4381617

  8. Genetic Analysis of Male Pattern Baldness and the 5?-Reductase Genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justine A. Ellis; Margaret Stebbing; Stephen B. Harrap

    1998-01-01

    Genetic predisposition and androgen dependence are important characteristics of the common patterned loss of scalp hair known as male pattern baldness. The involvement of the 5?-reductase enzyme in male pattern baldness has been postulated due to its role in the metabolism of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. There are two known isozymes of 5?-reductase. Type I has been predominantly localized to the

  9. J. Phycol. 38, 971982 (2002) FIELD ASSAYS FOR MEASURING NITRATE REDUCTASE ACTIVITY IN ENTEROMORPHA SP.

    E-print Network

    Sherman, Tim

    .g. tissue metabolite levels) on nitrate reduction. Key index words: Enteromorpha sp.; estuary; Gelidium sp971 J. Phycol. 38, 971­982 (2002) FIELD ASSAYS FOR MEASURING NITRATE REDUCTASE ACTIVITY nitrate reductase (NR) activity assays designed for use in the field on Enteromorpha sp., Ulva sp

  10. Prostate cancer: alcohol, cancer and 5?-reductase inhibitors-is there a link?

    PubMed

    Gomella, Leonard G

    2014-05-01

    Two major trials have been performed to determine the effect of 5?-reductase inhibitors on subsequent diagnoses of prostate cancer. Both trials showed that high alcohol intake significantly increased prostate cancer risk among men allocated to the treatment arms. The recommendation that patients eliminate alcohol when taking 5?-reductase inhibitors seems appropriate. PMID:24776974

  11. Transcription factors involved in controlling the expression of nitrate reductase genes in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Shuichi

    2014-12-01

    Nitrate reductase is a key enzyme in nitrogen assimilation, and it catalyzes the nitrate-to-nitrite reduction process in plants. A variety of factors, including nitrate, light, metabolites, phytohormones, low temperature, and drought, modulate the expression levels of nitrate reductase genes as well as nitrate reductase activity, which is consistent with its physiological role. Recently, several transcription factors involved in controlling the expression of nitrate reductase genes have been identified in Arabidopsis. NODULE-INCEPTION-like proteins (NLPs) are transcription factors responsible for nitrate-inducible expression of nitrate reductase genes. Since NLPs also control nitrate-inducible expression of genes encoding nitrate transporter, nitrite transporter, and nitrite reductase, the expression levels of nitrate reduction pathway-associated genes are coordinately modulated by NLPs in response to nitrate. LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES DOMAIN (LBD) transcription factors (LBD37-LBD39) are strong candidates for transcription factors mediating negative feedback regulation in response to increases in the contents of nitrogen-containing metabolites, whereas LONG HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5) that promotes photomorphogenesis in light may be a transcription factor involved in light-induced expression of a nitrate reductase gene. Furthermore, unidentified transcription factors likely mediate other signals and regulate the expression of nitrate reductase genes. This review presents a summary of our current knowledge of such transcription factors. PMID:25443843

  12. A Novel Copper A Containing Menaquinol NO Reductase from Bacillus azotoformans

    E-print Network

    Schroeder, Imke

    A Novel Copper A Containing Menaquinol NO Reductase from Bacillus azotoformans Suharti, Marc J. F of one non-heme iron, two copper atoms and of two b-type hemes per enzyme complex. Heme c was absent features of this enzyme that distinguish it from other NO reductases. First, the enzyme contains copper

  13. Exploration of Virtual Candidates for Human HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors Using Pharmacophore Modeling

    E-print Network

    Lee, Keun Woo

    Angeles, California, United States of America Abstract 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase@gnu.ac.kr . These authors contributed equally to this work. Introduction 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase-CoA to coenzyme A and mevalonate which is the precursor of isoprenoids (Figure 1) [2­4]. Two molecules of NADPH

  14. Evaluation of 5?-reductase inhibitory activity of certain herbs useful as antiandrogens.

    PubMed

    Nahata, A; Dixit, V K

    2014-08-01

    This study demonstrates 5?-reductase inhibitory activity of certain herbs useful in the management of androgenic disorders. Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst (GL), Urtica dioica Linn. (UD), Caesalpinia bonducella Fleming. (CB), Tribulus terrestris Linn. (TT), Pedalium murex Linn. (PM), Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (SI), Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. (CR), Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (CC), Benincasa hispida Cogn. (BH), Phyllanthus niruri Linn. (PN) and Echinops echinatus Linn. (EE) were included in the study. Petroleum ether, ethanol and aqueous extracts of these herbs were tested for their 5?-reductase inhibitory activity against the standard 5?-reductase inhibitor, finasteride. A biochemical method to determine the activity of 5?-reductase was used to evaluate the inhibition of different extracts to the enzyme. The optical density (OD) value of each sample was measured continuously with ultraviolet spectrophotometer for the reason that the substrate NADPH has a specific absorbance at 340 nm. As the enzyme 5?-reductase uses NADPH as a substrate, so in the presence of 5?-reductase inhibitor, the NADPH concentration will increase with the function of time. This method thus implicates the activity of 5?-reductase. The method proved to be extremely useful to screen the herbs for their 5?-reductase inhibitory potential. GL, UD, BH, SI and CR came out to be promising candidates for further exploring their antiandrogenic properties. PMID:23710567

  15. Spx mediates oxidative stress regulation of the methionine sulfoxide reductases operon in Bacillus subtilis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CongHui You; Agnieszka Sekowska; Olivera Francetic; Isabelle Martin-Verstraete; YiPing Wang; Antoine Danchin

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: All aerobically grown living cells are exposed to oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS). A major damage by ROS to proteins is caused by covalent modifications of methionine residues giving methionine sulfoxide (Met-SO). Methionine sulfoxide reductases are enzymes able to regenerate methionine and restore protein function after oxidative damage. RESULTS: We characterized the methionine sulfoxide reductase genes msrA

  16. Nitrate reductase activity in corn seedlings as affected by light and nitrate content of nutrient media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. Hageman; D. Flesher

    1960-01-01

    Young corn plants placed in complete darkness for 48 hours lost 90% of their nitrate reductase activity. The activity was quickly restored when the plants were returned to the light. In other experiments, corn plants were grown under artificial shade in the greenhouse. The nitrate reductase activity in these plants decreased roughly in proportion to the amount of shading. It

  17. Ammonification in Bacillus subtilis Utilizing Dissimilatory Nitrite Reductase Is Dependent on resDE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TAMARA HOFFMANN; NICOLE FRANKENBERG; MARCO MARINO; DIETER JAHN

    1998-01-01

    During anaerobic nitrate respiration Bacillus subtilis reduces nitrate via nitrite to ammonia. No denitrifi- cation products were observed. B. subtilis wild-type cells and a nitrate reductase mutant grew anaerobically with nitrite as an electron acceptor. Oxygen-sensitive dissimilatory nitrite reductase activity was demonstrated in cell extracts prepared from both strains with benzyl viologen as an electron donor and nitrite as an

  18. Systematic silencing of a tobacco nitrate reductase transgene in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincent Dubois; Emmanuel Botton; Christian Meyer; Aline Rieu; Magali Bedu; Brigitte Maisonneuve; Marianne Mazier

    2005-01-01

    A population of 50 independent transgenic lettuces transformed with a nitrate reductase coding sequence under the control of the 35S promoter was studied. None of them showed significantly lower nitrate levels when compared with the untransformed plants, despite the presence of nitrate reductase (NR) activity that derives from the transgene in at least four of the transformants. No repercussion on

  19. Investigations of the inhibition mechanisms of human ribonucleotide reductase by gemcitabine-5'-diphosphate and saccharomyces cerevisiae ribonucleotide reductase by Sml1

    E-print Network

    Wang, Jun, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01

    Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) catalyze the conversion of nucleotides to deoxynucleotides supplying the dNTPs required for DNA replication and DNA repair. Class I RNRs require two subunits ([alpha] and [beta]) for activity. ...

  20. Characterization of heterosubunit complexes formed by the R1 and R2 subunits of herpes simplex virus 1 and equine herpes virus 4 ribonucleotide reductase.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y; Conner, J

    2000-04-01

    We report on the separate PCR cloning and subsequent expression and purification of the large (R1) and small (R2) subunits from equine herpes virus type 4 (EHV-4) ribonucleotide reductase. The EHV-4 R1 and R2 subunits reconstituted an active enzyme and their abilities to complement the R1 and R2 subunits from the closely related herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) ribonucleotide reductase, with the use of subunit interaction and enzyme activity assays, were analysed. Both EHV-4 R1/HSV-1 R2 and HSV-1 R1/EHV-4 R2 were able to assemble heterosubunit complexes but, surprisingly, neither of these complexes was fully active in enzyme activity assays; the EHV-4 R1/HSV-1 R2 and HSV-1 R1/EHV-4 R2 enzymes had 50% and 5% of their respective wild-type activities. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to alter two non-conserved residues located within the highly conserved and functionally important C-termini of the EHV-4 and HSV-1 R1 proteins. Mutation of Pro-737 to Lys and Lys-1084 to Pro in EHV-4 and HSV-1 R1 respectively had no effects on subunit assembly. Mutation of Pro-737 to Lys in EHV-4 R1 decreased enzyme activity by 50%; replacement of Lys-1084 by Pro in HSV-1 R1 had no effect on enzyme activity. Both alterations failed to restore full enzyme activities to the heterosubunit enzymes. Therefore probably neither of these amino acids has a direct role in catalysis. However, mutation of the highly conserved Tyr-1111 to Phe in HSV-1 R1 inactivated enzyme activity without affecting subunit interaction. PMID:10727407

  1. Characterization of heterosubunit complexes formed by the R1 and R2 subunits of herpes simplex virus 1 and equine herpes virus 4 ribonucleotide reductase.

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Y; Conner, J

    2000-01-01

    We report on the separate PCR cloning and subsequent expression and purification of the large (R1) and small (R2) subunits from equine herpes virus type 4 (EHV-4) ribonucleotide reductase. The EHV-4 R1 and R2 subunits reconstituted an active enzyme and their abilities to complement the R1 and R2 subunits from the closely related herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) ribonucleotide reductase, with the use of subunit interaction and enzyme activity assays, were analysed. Both EHV-4 R1/HSV-1 R2 and HSV-1 R1/EHV-4 R2 were able to assemble heterosubunit complexes but, surprisingly, neither of these complexes was fully active in enzyme activity assays; the EHV-4 R1/HSV-1 R2 and HSV-1 R1/EHV-4 R2 enzymes had 50% and 5% of their respective wild-type activities. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to alter two non-conserved residues located within the highly conserved and functionally important C-termini of the EHV-4 and HSV-1 R1 proteins. Mutation of Pro-737 to Lys and Lys-1084 to Pro in EHV-4 and HSV-1 R1 respectively had no effects on subunit assembly. Mutation of Pro-737 to Lys in EHV-4 R1 decreased enzyme activity by 50%; replacement of Lys-1084 by Pro in HSV-1 R1 had no effect on enzyme activity. Both alterations failed to restore full enzyme activities to the heterosubunit enzymes. Therefore probably neither of these amino acids has a direct role in catalysis. However, mutation of the highly conserved Tyr-1111 to Phe in HSV-1 R1 inactivated enzyme activity without affecting subunit interaction. PMID:10727407

  2. Genetic and pharmacological evidence for more than one human steroid 5 alpha-reductase.

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, E P; Andersson, S; Imperato-McGinley, J; Wilson, J D; Russell, D W

    1992-01-01

    The enzyme steroid 5 alpha-reductase catalyzes the conversion of testosterone into the more potent androgen, dihydrotestosterone, and impairment of this reaction causes a form of male pseudohermaphroditism in which genetic males differentiate predominantly as phenotypic females. We previously isolated cDNA clones that encode a human steroid 5 alpha-reductase enzyme. Here, we report molecular and genetic studies demonstrating that the gene encoding this cDNA is normal in subjects with the genetic disease steroid 5 alpha-reductase deficiency. We further show that in contrast to the major steroid 5 alpha-reductase in the prostate and cultured skin fibroblasts, the cDNA-encoded enzyme exhibits a neutral to basic pH optima and is much less sensitive to inhibition by the 4-aza steroid, finasteride (MK-906). The results provide genetic, biochemical, and pharmacological support for the existence of at least two steroid 5 alpha-reductase isozymes in man. Images PMID:1345916

  3. Genetic and pharmacological evidence for more than one human steroid 5 alpha-reductase.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, E P; Andersson, S; Imperato-McGinley, J; Wilson, J D; Russell, D W

    1992-01-01

    The enzyme steroid 5 alpha-reductase catalyzes the conversion of testosterone into the more potent androgen, dihydrotestosterone, and impairment of this reaction causes a form of male pseudohermaphroditism in which genetic males differentiate predominantly as phenotypic females. We previously isolated cDNA clones that encode a human steroid 5 alpha-reductase enzyme. Here, we report molecular and genetic studies demonstrating that the gene encoding this cDNA is normal in subjects with the genetic disease steroid 5 alpha-reductase deficiency. We further show that in contrast to the major steroid 5 alpha-reductase in the prostate and cultured skin fibroblasts, the cDNA-encoded enzyme exhibits a neutral to basic pH optima and is much less sensitive to inhibition by the 4-aza steroid, finasteride (MK-906). The results provide genetic, biochemical, and pharmacological support for the existence of at least two steroid 5 alpha-reductase isozymes in man. PMID:1345916

  4. The location of dissimilatory nitrite reductase and the control of dissimilatory nitrate reductase by oxygen in Paracoccus denitrificans.

    PubMed Central

    Alefounder, P R; Ferguson, S J

    1980-01-01

    1. A method is described for preparing spheroplasts from Paracoccus denitrificans that are substantially depleted of dissimilatory nitrate reductase (cytochrome cd) activity. Treatment of cells with lysozyme + EDTA together with a mild osmotic shock, followed by centrifugation, yielded a pellet of spheroplasts and a supernatant that contained d-type cytochrome. The spheroplasts were judged to have retained an intact plasma membrane on the basis that less than 1% of the activity of a cytoplasmic marker protein, malate dehydrogenase, was released from the spheroplasts. In addition to a low activity towards added nitrite, the suspension of spheroplasts accumulated the nitrite that was produced by respiratory chain-linked reduction of nitrate. It is concluded that nitrate reduction occurs at the periplasmic side of the plasma membrane irrespective of whether nitrite is generated by nitrate reduction or is added exogenously. 2. Further evidence for the integrity of the spheroplasts was that nitrate reduction was inhibited by O2, and that chlorate was reduced at a markedly lower rate than nitrate. These data are taken as evidence for an intact plasma membrane because it was shown that cells acquire the capability to reduce nitrate under aerobic conditions after addition of low amounts of Triton X-100 which, with the same titre, also overcame the permeability barrier to chlorate reduction by intact cells. The close relationship between the appearance of chlorate reduction and the loss of the inhibitory effect of O2 on nitrate reduction also suggests that the later feature of nitrate respiration is due to a control on the accessibility of nitrate to its reductase rather than on the flow of electrons to nitrate reductase. PMID:7197918

  5. Homocysteine Level and Mechanisms of Injury in Parkinson's Disease as Related to MTHFR, MTR, and MTHFD1 Genes Polymorphisms and L-Dopa Treatment.

    PubMed

    Rozycka, Agata; Jagodzinski, Pawel P; Kozubski, Wojciech; Lianeri, Margarita; Dorszewska, Jolanta

    2013-12-01

    An elevated concentration of total homocysteine (tHcy) in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid is considered to be a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Homocysteine (Hcy) levels are influenced by folate concentrations and numerous genetic factors through the folate cycle, however, their role in the pathogenesis of PD remains controversial. Hcy exerts a neurotoxic action and may participate in the mechanisms of neurodegeneration, such as excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, calcium accumulation, and apoptosis. Elevated Hcy levels can lead to prooxidative activity, most probably through direct interaction with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and sensitization of dopaminergic neurons to age-related dysfunction and death. Several studies have shown that higher concentration of Hcy in PD is related to long-term administration of levodopa (L-dopa). An elevation of plasma tHcy levels can also reflect deficiencies of cofactors in remethylation of Hcy to methionine (Met) (folates and vitamin B12) and in its transsulfuration to cysteine (Cys) (vitamin B6). It is believed that the increase in the concentration of Hcy in PD can affect genetic polymorphisms of the folate metabolic pathway genes, such as MTHFR (C677T, A1298C and G1793A), MTR (A2756G), and MTHFD1 (G1958A), whose frequencies tend to increase in PD patients, as well as the reduced concentration of B vitamins. In PD, increased levels of Hcy may lead to dementia, depression and progression of the disease. PMID:24532985

  6. 5?-ReductaseType 3 Enzyme in Benign and Malignant Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Titus, Mark A.; Li, Yun; Kozyreva, Olga G.; Maher, Varun; Godoy, Alejandro; Smith, Gary J.; Mohler, James L.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Currently available 5?-reductase inhibitors are not completely effective for treatment of benign prostate enlargement, prevention of prostate cancer (CaP), or treatment of advanced castration-recurrent (CR) CaP. We tested the hypothesis that a novel 5?-reductase, 5?-reductase-3, contributes to residual androgen metabolism, especially in CR-CaP. METHODS A new protein with potential 5?-reducing activity was expressed in CHO-K1 cellsandTOP10 E. coli for characterization. Protein lysates and total mRNA were isolated from preclinical and clinical tissues. Androgen metabolism was assessed using androgen precursors and thin layer chromatography or liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS The relative mRNA expression for the three 5?-reductase enzymes in clinical samples of CR-CaP was 5?-reductase-3 ? 5?-reductase-1 >5?-reductase-2. Recombinant 5?-reductase-3 protein incubations converted testosterone, 4-androstene-3,17-dione (androstenedione) and 4-pregnene-3,20-dione (progesterone) to dihydrotestosterone, 5?-androstan-3,17-dione, and 5?-pregnan-3,20-dione, respectively. 5?-Reduced androgen metabolites were measurable in lysates from androgen-stimulated (AS) CWR22 and CR-CWR22 tumors and clinical specimens of AS-CaP and CR-CaP pre-incubated with dutasteride (a bi-specific inhibitor of 5?-reductase-1 and 2). CONCLUSION Human prostate tissues contain a third 5?-reductase that was inhibited poorly by dutasteride at high androgen substrate concentration in vitro, and it may promote DHT formation in vivo, through alternative androgen metabolism pathways when testosterone levels are low. PMID:24150795

  7. Thioredoxin-thioredoxin reductase system of Streptomyces clavuligerus: sequences, expression, and organization of the genes.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, G; Yanko, M; Mislovati, M; Argaman, A; Schreiber, R; Av-Gay, Y; Aharonowitz, Y

    1993-01-01

    The genes that encode thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase of Streptomyces clavuligerus were cloned, and their DNA sequences were determined. Previously, we showed that S. clavuligerus possesses a disulfide reductase with broad substrate specificity that biochemically resembles the thioredoxin oxidoreductase system and may play a role in the biosynthesis of beta-lactam antibiotics. It consists consists of two components, a 70-kDa NADPH-dependent flavoprotein disulfide reductase with two identical subunits and a 12-kDa heat-stable protein general disulfide reductant. In this study, we found, by comparative analysis of their predicted amino acid sequences, that the 35-kDa protein is in fact thioredoxin reductase; it shares 48.7% amino acid sequence identity with Escherichia coli thioredoxin reductase, the 12-kDa protein is thioredoxin, and it shares 28 to 56% amino acid sequence identity with other thioredoxins. The streptomycete thioredoxin reductase has the identical cysteine redox-active region--Cys-Ala-Thr-Cys--and essentially the same flavin adenine dinucleotide- and NADPH dinucleotide-binding sites as E. coli thioredoxin reductase and is partially able to accept E. coli thioredoxin as a substrate. The streptomycete thioredoxin has the same cysteine redox-active segment--Trp-Cys-Gly-Pro-Cys--that is present in virtually all eucaryotic and procaryotic thioredoxins. However, in vivo it is unable to donate electrons to E. coli methionine sulfoxide reductase and does not serve as a substrate in vitro for E. coli thioredoxin reductase. The S. clavuligerus thioredoxin (trxA) and thioredoxin reductase (trxB) genes are organized in a cluster. They are transcribed in the same direction and separated by 33 nucleotides. In contrast, the trxA and trxB genes of E. coli, the only other organism in which both genes have been characterized, are physically widely separated. Images PMID:8349555

  8. De novo-designed metallopeptides with type 2 copper centers: modulation of reduction potentials and nitrite reductase activities.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fangting; Penner-Hahn, James E; Pecoraro, Vincent L

    2013-12-01

    Enzymatic reactions involving redox processes are highly sensitive to the local electrostatic environment. Despite considerable effort, the complex interactions among different influential factors in native proteins impede progress toward complete understanding of the structure-function relationship. Of particular interest is the type 2 copper center Cu(His)3, which may act as an electron transfer center in peptidylglycine ?-hydroxylating monooxygenase (PHM) or a catalytic center in copper nitrite reductase (CuNiR). A de novo design strategy is used to probe the effect of modifying charged amino acid residues around, but not directly bound to, a Cu(His)3 center embedded in three-stranded coiled coils (TRI-H)3 [TRI-H = Ac-G WKALEEK LKALEEK LKALEEK HKALEEK G-NH2]. Specifically, the peptide TRI-EH (=TRI-HK22E) alters an important lysine to glutamate just above the copper binding center. With a series of TRI-EH peptides mutated below the metal center, we use a variety of spectroscopies (EPR, UV-vis, XAS) to show a direct impact on the protonation equilibria, copper binding affinities, reduction potentials, and nitrite reductase activities of these copper-peptide complexes. The potentials at a specific pH vary by 100 mV, and the nitrite reductase activities range over a factor of 4 in rates. We also observe that the affinities, potentials, and catalytic activities are strongly influenced by the pH conditions (pH 5.8-7.4). In general, Cu(II) affinities for the peptides are diminished at low pH values. The interplay among these factors can lead to a 200 mV shift in reduction potential across these peptides, which is determined by the pH-dependent affinities of copper in both oxidation states. This study illustrates the strength of de novo protein design in elucidating the influence of ionizable residues on a particular redox system, an important step toward understanding the factors that govern the properties of this metalloenzyme with a goal of eventually improving the catalytic activity. PMID:24182361

  9. De novo designed metallopeptides with type 2 copper centers: modulation of reduction potentials and nitrite reductase activities

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Fangting; Penner-Hahn, James E.; Pecoraro, Vincent L.

    2014-01-01

    Enzymatic reactions involving redox processes are highly sensitive to the local electrostatic environment. Despite considerable effort, the complex interactions between different influential factors in native proteins impede progress towards complete understanding of the structure-function relationship. Of particular interest is the type 2 copper center Cu(His)3, which may act as an electron transfer center in peptidylglycine ?-hydroxylating monooxygenase (PHM) or a catalytic center in copper nitrite reductase (CuNiR). A de novo design strategy is used to probe the effect of modifying charged amino acid residues around, but not directly bound to, a Cu(His)3 center embedded in three-stranded coiled coils (TRI-H)3 [TRI-H = Ac-G WKALEEK LKALEEK LKALEEK HKALEEK G-NH2]. Specifically, the peptide TRI-EH [TRI-EH = TRI-HK22E] alters an important lysine to glutamate just above the copper binding center. With a series of TRI-EH peptides mutated below the metal center, we use a variety of spectroscopies (EPR, UV-Vis, XAS) to show a direct impact on the protonation equilibria, copper binding affinities, reduction potentials and nitrite reductase activities of these copper-peptide complexes. The potentials at a specific pH vary by 100 mV and nitrite reductase activity ranges over a factor of four in rates. We also observe that affinities, potentials and catalytic activities are strongly influenced by pH conditions (pH 5.8 ~ 7.4). In general, Cu(II) affinities for the peptides are diminished at low pH values. The interplay between these factors can lead to a 200 mV shift in reduction potentials across these peptides, which is determined by the pH-dependent affinities of copper in both oxidation states. This study illustrates the strength of de novo protein design in elucidating the influence of ionizable residues on a particular redox system, an important step towards understanding the factors that govern the properties of this metalloenzyme with a goal of eventually improving the catalytic activity. PMID:24182361

  10. An Electron-bifurcating Caffeyl-CoA Reductase*

    PubMed Central

    Bertsch, Johannes; Parthasarathy, Anutthaman; Buckel, Wolfgang; Müller, Volker

    2013-01-01

    A low potential electron carrier ferredoxin (E0? ? ?500 mV) is used to fuel the only bioenergetic coupling site, a sodium-motive ferredoxin:NAD+ oxidoreductase (Rnf) in the acetogenic bacterium Acetobacterium woodii. Because ferredoxin reduction with physiological electron donors is highly endergonic, it must be coupled to an exergonic reaction. One candidate is NADH-dependent caffeyl-CoA reduction. We have purified a complex from A. woodii that contains a caffeyl-CoA reductase and an electron transfer flavoprotein. The enzyme contains three subunits encoded by the carCDE genes and is predicted to have, in addition to FAD, two [4Fe-4S] clusters as cofactor, which is consistent with the experimental determination of 4 mol of FAD, 9 mol of iron, and 9 mol of acid-labile sulfur. The enzyme complex catalyzed caffeyl-CoA-dependent oxidation of reduced methyl viologen. With NADH as donor, it catalyzed caffeyl-CoA reduction, but this reaction was highly stimulated by the addition of ferredoxin. Spectroscopic analyses revealed that ferredoxin and caffeyl-CoA were reduced simultaneously, and a stoichiometry of 1.3:1 was determined. Apparently, the caffeyl-CoA reductase-Etf complex of A. woodii uses the novel mechanism of flavin-dependent electron bifurcation to drive the endergonic ferredoxin reduction with NADH as reductant by coupling it to the exergonic NADH-dependent reduction of caffeyl-CoA. PMID:23479729

  11. Targeting Aldose Reductase for the Treatment of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tammali, Ravinder; Srivastava, Satish K; Ramana, Kota V

    2011-01-01

    It is strongly established by numerous studies that oxidative stress-induced inflammation is one of the major causative agents in a variety of cancers. Various factors such as bacterial, viral, parasitic infections, chemical irritants, carcinogens are involved in the initiation of oxidative stress-mediated inflammation. Chronic and persistent inflammation promotes the formation of cancerous tumors. Recent investigations strongly suggest that aldose reductase [AR; AKR1B1], a member of aldo-keto reductase superfamily of proteins, is the mediator of inflammatory signals induced by growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, carcinogens etc. Further, AR reduced product(s) of lipid derived aldehydes and their metabolites such as glutathionyl 1,4-dihydroxynonanol (GS-DHN) have been shown to be involved in the activation of transcription factors such as NF-?B and AP-1 which transcribe the genes of inflammatory cytokines. The increased inflammatory cytokines and growth factors promote cell proliferation, a main feature involved in the tumorigenesis process. Inhibition of AR has been shown to prevent cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo models. In this review, we have described the possible association between AR with oxidative stress- and inflammation- initiated carcinogenesis. A thorough understanding of the role of AR in the inflammation – associated cancers could lead to the use of AR inhibitors as novel chemotherapeutic agents against cancer. PMID:21486217

  12. Properties of seleno-methionine substituted assimilatory nitrate reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Solomonson, L.P.; Barber, M.J. (Univ. of South Florida, Tampa (United States))

    1991-03-11

    Assimilatory NADH:nitrate reductase contains FAD, heme and Mo-pterin arranged in an NADH{yields}FAD{yields}heme{yields}Mo-Pterin{yields}NO{sub 3} electron transfer sequence. A functional Mo-pterin center is essential for all nitrate-reducing activities. To assess the possible functional role of Met, a Se-Met substituted NR was obtained by addition of Se-Met to ammonia-grown Chlorella cells prior to induction of NR activity. Increase in NADH:dehydrogenase partial activities and nitrate reductase protein proceeded normally following induction but little or no nitrate-reducing activity was expressed. This effect was observed with as little as 10{sup {minus}5} Se-Met and was prevented by a 10-fold excess of Met. A less pronounced effect was observed with 10{sup {minus}4}M Se-Cys. The purified Se-Met substituted enzyme exhibited the same apparent physical size, spectral properties and NADH dehydrogenase activities as control NR but was devoid of nitrate-reducing activities. These results suggest that one or more Met residues are essential for the catalytic function of the molybdo-pterin center of assimilatory NR.

  13. Targeting aldose reductase for the treatment of cancer.

    PubMed

    Tammali, Ravinder; Srivastava, Satish K; Ramana, Kota V

    2011-06-01

    It is strongly established by numerous studies that oxidative stress-induced inflammation is one of the major causative agents in a variety of cancers. Various factors such as bacterial, viral, parasitic infections, chemical irritants, carcinogens are involved in the initiation of oxidative stress-mediated inflammation. Chronic and persistent inflammation promotes the formation of cancerous tumors. Recent investigations strongly suggest that aldose reductase [AR; AKR1B1], a member of aldo-keto reductase superfamily of proteins, is the mediator of inflammatory signals induced by growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, carcinogens etc. Further, AR reduced product(s) of lipid derived aldehydes and their metabolites such as glutathionyl 1,4-dihydroxynonanol (GS-DHN) have been shown to be involved in the activation of transcription factors such as NF-?B and AP-1 which transcribe the genes of inflammatory cytokines. The increased inflammatory cytokines and growth factors promote cell proliferation, a main feature involved in the tumorigenesis process. Inhibition of AR has been shown to prevent cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo models. In this review, we have described the possible association between AR with oxidative stress- and inflammation- initiated carcinogenesis. A thorough understanding of the role of AR in the inflammation -associated cancers could lead to the use of AR inhibitors as novel chemotherapeutic agents against cancer. PMID:21486217

  14. Molecular cloning and characterization of Schistosoma japonicum aldose reductase.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Wang, Jipeng; Wang, Shuqi; Xu, Bin; Liu, Xiufeng; Wang, Xiaoning; Hu, Wei

    2013-02-01

    Antioxidant defense is an essential mechanism for schistosomes to cope with damage from host immune-generated reactive oxygen species. The evaluation of the effects of aldose reductase, an important enzyme that may be involved in this system, has long been neglected. In the present study, aldose reductase of Schistosoma japonicum (SjAR) was cloned and characterized. The activity of SjAR was assessed in vitro and was suppressed by the reported inhibitor, epalrestat. RT-PCR analysis revealed that SjAR was expressed at each of the development stages analyzed with increased levels in cercariae. The results also showed that SjAR was expressed at higher levels in adult male worms than in adult female worms. Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blot analysis indicated that the purified recombinant SjAR (rSjAR) protein displayed a significant level of antigenicity. Immunolocalization analysis revealed that SjAR was mainly distributed in the gynecophoral canal of adult male worms. BALB/c mice immunized with rSjAR induced a 32.91 % worm reduction compared to the adjuvant group (P < 0.01). Moreover, a 28.27 % reduction in egg development in the liver (P > 0.05) and a 42.75 % reduction in egg development in the fecal samples (P < 0.05) were also observed. These results suggested that SjAR may be a potential new drug target or vaccine candidate for schistosomes. PMID:23160889

  15. Ribonucleotide reductase and thymidine phosphorylation: two potential targets of azodicarbonamide.

    PubMed

    Fagny, Christine; Vandevelde, Michel; Svoboda, Michal; Robberecht, Patrick

    2002-08-01

    Azodicarbonamide tested as an anti-HIV agent was reported to expulse zinc from viral zinc-cysteine factors and to inhibit calcium mobilization machinery. It has structural analogy with hydroxyurea that inhibits ribonucleotide reductase and could also act on this target. Azodicarbonamide was therefore tested for its capacity to modulate deoxyribonucleotides triphosphate pools alone or in combination with other agents in the lymphoblastic SUP-T1 cell line susceptible to HIV infection. The deoxyribonucleotides triphosphate were evaluated by an enzymatic assay using sequenase. Two hours exposure of SUP-T1 cells to 100 microM azodicarbonamide induced a 50% reduction of each deoxyribonucleotide triphosphate. Among other inhibitors of nucleotide metabolism (hydroxyurea, methotrexate and thymidine), hydroxyurea only reproduces the effect of azodicarbonamide. This suggests, but does not demonstrate directly, that azodicarbonamide inhibits ribonucleotide reductase activity. The combination of azodicarbonamide with each of these inhibitors affected particularly the dCTP pool. During this study it was also suggested that azodicarbonamide could interfere with thymidine phosphorylation. Thymidine phosphorylating activity was measured with 3H-thymidine as substrate. In acellular preparations, azodicarbonamide also non-competitively inhibits thymidine phosphorylating activity. This effect was not reproduced by hydroxyurea. Thus, in vitro azodicarbonamide decreases the intracellular pool of deoxyribonucleotide and thymidine phosphorylation. PMID:12147296

  16. Interspecific variation for thermal dependence of glutathione reductase in sainfoin.

    PubMed

    Kidambi, S P; Mahan, J R; Matches, A G

    1990-05-01

    Understanding the biochemical and physiological consequences of species variation would expedite improvement in agronomically useful genotypes of sainfoin (Onobrychis spp.) Information on variation among sainfoin species is lacking on thermal dependence of glutathione reductase (B.C. 1.6.4.2.), which plays an important role in the protection of plants from both high and low temperature stresses by preventing harmful oxidation of enzymes and membranes. Our objective was to investigate the interspecific variation for thermal dependency of glutathione reductase in sainfoin. Large variation among species was found for: (i) the minimum apparent Km (0.4-2.5 ?M NADPH), (ii) the temperature at which the minimum apparent Km was observed (15°-5°C), and (iii) the thermal kinetic windows (2°-30°C width) over a 15°-45°C temperature gradient. In general, tetraploid species had narrower (?17°C) thermal kinetic windows than did diploid species (?30°C), with one exception among the diploids. Within the tetraploid species, the cultivars of O. viciifolia had a broader thermal kinetic window (?7°C) than the plant introduction (PI 212241, >2 °C) itself. PMID:24226572

  17. 5?-reductase-2 Deficiency’s Effect on Human Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hey-Joo; Imperato-McGinley, Julianne; Zhu, Yuan-Shan; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2014-01-01

    A most interesting and intriguing male disorder of sexual differentiation is due to 5?-reductase-2 isoenzyme deficiency. These males are born with ambiguous external genitalia due to a deficiency in their ability to catalyze the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). DHT is a potent androgen responsible for differentiation of the urogenital sinus and genital tubercle into the external genitalia, urethra and prostate. Affected males are born with a clitoral-like phallus, bifid scrotum, hypospadias, blind shallow vaginal pouch from incomplete closure of the urogenital sinus and a rudimentary prostate. At puberty, the surge in mainly testosterone production prompts virilization, causing most to choose gender reassignment to male. Fertility is a challenge for affected men for several reasons. Uncorrected cryptorchidism is associated with low sperm production, and there is evidence of defective transformation of spermatogonia into spermatocytes. The underdeveloped prostate and consequent low semen volumes affect sperm transport. Additionally, semen may not liquefy due to a lack of prostate-specific antigen. In this review, we discuss the 5?-reductase-2 deficiency syndrome and its impact on human fertility. PMID:24412121

  18. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON O-QUINONES MUTATE p53 IN HUMAN LUNG ADENOCARCINOMA (A549) CELLS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trevor M. Penning; Yu-Min Shen; Rosemarie Mick; Justine Shults; Jeffrey M. Field

    2004-01-01

    Human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells form reactive and redox active PAH-o-quinones via constitutively expressed aldo-keto reductases. To determine whether these metabolites mutate p53, A549 cells were treated with N-methyl-N-nitroso-N-nitroguanidine (MNNG an alkylating mutagen), anti-BPDE (diol-epoxide) and benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dione (o-quinone). p53 cDNA was amplified from the treated cells and cotransfected with a gap-repair plasmid designed to express p53 in yeast. When mutant

  19. Identification of Novel Potential Antibiotics against Staphylococcus Using Structure-Based Drug Screening Targeting Dihydrofolate Reductase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) makes the treatment of infectious diseases in hospitals more difficult and increases the mortality of the patients. In this study, we attempted to identify novel potent antibiotic candidate compounds against S. aureus dihydrofolate reductase (saDHFR). We performed three-step in silico structure-based drug screening (SBDS) based on the crystal structure of saDHFR using a 154,118 chemical compound library. We subsequently evaluated whether candidate chemical compounds exhibited inhibitory effects on the growth of the model bacterium: Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis). The compound KB1 showed a strong inhibitory effect on the growth of S. epidermidis. Moreover, we rescreened chemical structures similar to KB1 from a 461,397 chemical compound library. Three of the four KB1 analogs (KBS1, KBS3, and KBS4) showed inhibitory effects on the growth of S. epidermidis and enzyme inhibitory effects on saDHFR. We performed structure–activity relationship (SAR) analysis of active chemical compounds and observed a correlative relationship among the IC50 values, interaction residues, and structure scaffolds. In addition, the active chemical compounds (KB1, KBS3, and KBS4) had no inhibitory effects on the growth of model enterobacteria (E. coli BL21 and JM109 strains) and no toxic effects on cultured mammalian cells (MDCK cells). Results obtained from Protein Ligand Interaction Fingerprint (PLIF) and Ligand Interaction (LI) analyses suggested that all of the active compounds exhibited potential inhibitory effects on mutated saDHFR of the drug-resistant strains. The structural and experimental information concerning these novel chemical compounds will likely contribute to the development of new antibiotics for both wild-type and drug-resistant S. aureus. PMID:24655350

  20. Substrate Pathways and Mechanisms of Inhibition in the Sulfur Oxygenase Reductase of Acidianus Ambivalens

    PubMed Central

    Veith, Andreas; Urich, Tim; Seyfarth, Kerstin; Protze, Jonas; Frazão, Carlos; Kletzin, Arnulf

    2011-01-01

    Background: The sulfur oxygenase reductase (SOR) is the initial enzyme of the sulfur oxidation pathway in the thermoacidophilic Archaeon Acidianus ambivalens. The SOR catalyzes an oxygen-dependent sulfur disproportionation to H2S, sulfite and thiosulfate. The spherical, hollow, cytoplasmic enzyme is composed of 24 identical subunits with an active site pocket each comprising a mononuclear non-heme iron site and a cysteine persulfide. Substrate access and product exit occur via apolar chimney-like protrusions at the fourfold symmetry axes, via narrow polar pores at the threefold symmetry axes and via narrow apolar pores within in each subunit. In order to investigate the function of the pores we performed site-directed mutagenesis and inhibitor studies. Results: Truncation of the chimney-like protrusions resulted in an up to sevenfold increase in specific enzyme activity compared to the wild type. Replacement of the salt bridge-forming Arg99 residue by Ala at the threefold symmetry axes doubled the activity and introduced a bias toward reduced reaction products. Replacement of Met296 and Met297, which form the active site pore, lowered the specific activities by 25–55% with the exception of an M296V mutant. X-ray crystallography of SOR wild type crystals soaked with inhibitors showed that Hg2+ and iodoacetamide (IAA) bind to cysteines within the active site, whereas Zn2+ binds to a histidine in a side channel of the enzyme. The Zn2+ inhibition was partially alleviated by mutation of the His residue. Conclusions: The expansion of the pores in the outer shell led to an increased enzyme activity while the integrity of the active site pore seems to be important. Hg2+ and IAA block cysteines in the active site pocket, while Zn2+ interferes over a distance, possibly by restriction of protein flexibility or substrate access or product exit. PMID:21747782

  1. Extension and Limits of the Network of Coupled Motions Correlated to Hydride Transfer in Dihydrofolate Reductase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Enzyme catalysis has been studied extensively, but the role of enzyme dynamics in the catalyzed chemical conversion is still an enigma. The enzyme dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is often used as a model system to assess a network of coupled motions across the protein that may affect the catalyzed chemical transformation. Molecular dynamics simulations, quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical studies, and bioinformatics studies have suggested the presence of a “global dynamic network” of residues in DHFR. Earlier studies of two DHFR distal mutants, G121V and M42W, indicated that these residues affect the chemical step synergistically. While this finding was in accordance with the concept of a network of functional motions across the protein, two residues do not constitute a network. To better define the extent and limits of the proposed network, the current work studied two remote residues predicted to be part of the same network: W133 and F125. The effect of mutations in these residues on the nature of the chemical step was examined via measurements of the temperature-dependence of the intrinsic kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) and other kinetic parameters, and double mutants were used to tie the findings to G121 and M42. The findings indicate that residue F125, which was implicated by both calculations and bioinformatic methods, is a part of the same global dynamic network as G121 and M42, while W133, implicated only by bioinformatics, is not. These findings extend our understanding of the proposed network and the relations between functional and genomic couplings. Delineating that network illuminates the need to consider remote residues and protein structural dynamics in the rational design of drugs and of biomimetic catalysts. PMID:24450297

  2. A Conserved Lysine Residue Controls Iron-Sulfur Cluster Redox Chemistry in Escherichia coli Fumarate Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Victor W. T.; Tran, Quang M.; Boroumand, Nasim; Rothery, Richard A.; Maklashina, Elena; Cecchini, Gary; Weiner, Joel H.

    2015-01-01

    The Escherichia coli respiratory complex II paralogs succinate dehydrogenase (SdhCDAB) and fumarate reductase (FrdABCD) catalyze interconversion of succinate and fumarate coupled to quinone reduction or oxidation, respectively. Based on structural comparison of the two enzymes, equivalent residues at the interface between the highly homologous soluble domains and the divergent membrane anchor domains were targeted for study. This included the residue pair SdhB-R205 and FrdB-S203, as well as the conserved SdhB-K230 and FrdB-K228 pair. The close proximity of these residues to the [3Fe-4S] cluster and the quinone binding pocket provided an excellent opportunity to investigate factors controlling the reduction potential of the [3Fe-4S] cluster, the directionality of electron transfer and catalysis, and the architecture and chemistry of the quinone binding sites. Our results indicate that both SdhB-R205 and SdhB-K230 play important roles in fine tuning the reduction potential of both the [3Fe-4S] cluster and the heme. In FrdABCD, mutation of FrdB-S203 did not alter the reduction potential of the [3Fe-4S] cluster, but removal of the basic residue at FrdB-K228 caused a significant downward shift (>100mV) in potential. The latter residue is also indispensable for quinone binding and enzyme activity. The differences observed for the FrdB-K228 and Sdh-K230 variants can be attributed to the different locations of the quinone binding site in the two paralogs. Although this residue is absolutely conserved, they have diverged to achieve different functions in Frd and Sdh. PMID:23711795

  3. Potential Inherited Causes of Recurrent Prosthetic Mitral Valve Thrombosis in a Pregnant Patient Suffering from Recurrent Miscarriage

    PubMed Central

    Gursoy, M. Ozan; Karakoyun, Suleyman; Yesin, Mahmut; Astarcioglu, Mehmet Ali; Ozkan, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    An effective anticoagulation is critical in pregnant patients with prosthetic heart valves. Inherited disorders may interfere with the coagulation cascade and may be associated with obstetrical complications as well as with prosthetic valve-derived complications. The patient in the present case had a history of recurrent prosthetic heart valve thrombosis (PHVT) despite an effective anticoagulation. She underwent a thrombolysis with low-dose prolonged infusion of tissue-type plasminogen activator for the management of her recurrrent prosthetic valve thrombosis. The genetic testing showed homozygous mutations of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) A 1298 C and heterozygous mutations of ?-fibrinogen 455 G-A. Inherited disorders such as MTHFR A 1298 C and fibrinogen 455G/A polymorphisms may be involved in the pathogenesis of recurrent PHVT and/or pregnancy loss. PMID:25089140

  4. Modulation of the ribonucleotide reductase M1-gemcitabine interaction in vivo by N-ethylmaleimide

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Zhengming; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Yingtao [Developmental Therapeutics Program, Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, MI (United States)] [Developmental Therapeutics Program, Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, MI (United States); Bepler, Gerold, E-mail: beplerg@karmanos.org [Developmental Therapeutics Program, Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, MI (United States)] [Developmental Therapeutics Program, Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2011-09-23

    Highlights: {yields} Gemcitabine induces a RRM1 conformational change in tumor cell lines and xenografts. {yields} The 110 kDa RRM1 is unique to gemcitabine interaction among 12 cytotoxic agents. {yields} The 110 kDa RRM1 can be stabilized by the thiol alkylator N-ethylmaleimide. {yields} C218A, C429A, and E431A mutations in RRM1 abolished the conformational change. {yields} The 110 kDa RRM1 may be a specific biomarker of gemcitabine's therapeutic efficacy. -- Abstract: Ribonucleotide reductase M1 (RRM1) is the regulatory subunit of the holoenzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ribonucleotides to 2'-deoxyribonucleotides. Its function is indispensible in cell proliferation and DNA repair. It also serves as a biomarker of therapeutic efficacy of the antimetabolite drug gemcitabine (2',2'-difluoro-2'-deoxycytidine) in various malignancies. However, a mechanistic explanation remains to be determined. This study investigated how the alkylating agent N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) interacts with the inhibitory activity of gemcitabine on its target protein RRM1 in vivo. We found, when cells were treated with gemcitabine in the presence of NEM, a novel 110 kDa band, along with the 90 kDa native RRM1 band, appeared in immunoblots. This 110 kDa band was identified as RRM1 by mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and represented a conformational change resulting from covalent labeling by gemcitabine. It is specific to gemcitabine/NEM, among 11 other chemotherapy drugs tested. It was also detectable in human tumor xenografts in mice treated with gemcitabine. Among mutations of seven residues essential for RRM1 function, C218A, C429A, and E431A abolished the conformational change, while N427A, C787A, and C790A diminished it. C444A was unique since it was able to alter the conformation even in absence of gemcitabine treatment. We conclude that the thiol alkylator NEM can stabilize the gemcitabine-induced conformational change of RRM1, and this stabilized RRM1 conformation has the potential to serve as a specific biomarker of gemcitabine's therapeutic efficacy.

  5. An increase in the expression of ribonucleotide reductase large subunit 1 is associated with gemcitabine resistance in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Jennifer D; Ma, Liandong; Flagella, Michael; Geeganage, Sandaruwan; Gelbert, Lawrence M; Slapak, Christopher A

    2004-06-01

    The mechanisms of resistance to the antimetabolite gemcitabine in non-small cell lung cancer have not been extensively evaluated. In this study, we report the generation of two gemcitabine-selected non-small cell lung cancer cell lines, H358-G200 and H460-G400. Expression profiling results indicated that there was evidence for changes in the expression of 134 genes in H358-G200 cells compared with its parental line, whereas H460-G400 cells exhibited 233 genes that appeared to be under- or overexpressed compared with H460 cells. However, only the increased expression of ribonucleotide reductase subunit 1 (RRM1), which appeared in both resistant cell lines, met predefined analysis criteria for genes to investigate further. Quantitative PCR analysis demonstrated H358-G200 cells had a greater than 125-fold increase in RRM1 RNA expression. Western blot analysis confirmed high levels of RRM1 protein in this line compared with the gemcitabine-sensitive parent. No significant change in the expression of RRM2 was observed in either cell line, although both gemcitabine-resistant cell lines had an approximate 3-fold increase in p53R2 protein. A partial revertant of H358-G200 cells had reduced levels of RRM1 protein (compared with G200 cells), without observed changes in RRM2 or p53R2. In vitro analyses of ribonucleotide reductase activity demonstrated that despite high levels of RRM1 protein, ribonucleotide reductase activity was not increased in H358-G200 cells when compared with parental cells. The cDNA encoding RRM1 from H358-G200 cells was cloned and sequenced but did not reveal the presence of any mutations. The results from this study indicate that the level of RRM1 may affect gemcitabine response. Furthermore, RRM1 may serve as a biomarker for gemcitabine response. PMID:15172981

  6. Characterization of the Reversible Inactivation of Ankistrodesmus braunii Nitrate Reductase by Hydroxylamine.

    PubMed

    Balandin, T; Fernández, V M; Aparicio, P J

    1986-09-01

    The photoreversible nature of the regulation of nitrate reductase is one of the most interesting features of this enzyme. As well as other chemicals, NH(2)OH reversibly inactivates the reduced form of nitrate reductase from Ankistrodesmus braunii. From the partial activities of the enzyme, only terminal nitrate reductase is affected by NH(2)OH. To demonstrate that the terminal activity was readily inactivted by NH(2)OH, the necessary reductants of the terminal part of the enzyme had to be cleared of dithionite since this compound reacts chemically with NH(2)OH. Photoreduced flavins and electrochemically reduced methyl viologen sustain very effective inactivation of terminal nitrate reductase activity, even if the enzyme was previously deprived of its NADH-dehydrogenase activity. The early inhibition of nitrate reductase by NH(2)OH appears to be competitive versus NO(3) (-). Since NO(3) (-), as well as cyanate, carbamyl phosphate and azide (competitive inhibitors of nitrate reductase versus NO(3) (-)), protect the enzyme from NH(2)OH inactivation, it is suggested that NH(2)OH binds to the nitrate active site. The NH(2)OH-inactivated enzyme was photoreactivated in the presence of flavins, although slower than when the enzyme was previously inactivated with CN(-). NH(2)OH and NADH concentrations required for full inactivation of nitrate reductase appear to be low enough to potentially consider this inactivation process of physiological significance. PMID:16665024

  7. MK386: a potent, selective inhibitor of the human type 1 5alpha-reductase.

    PubMed

    Ellsworth, K; Azzolina, B; Baginsky, W; Bull, H; Chang, B; Cimis, G; Mitra, S; Toney, J; Bakshi, R K; Rasmusson, G R; Tolman, R L; Harris, G S

    1996-07-01

    Steroid 5alpha-reductase is required for the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. Localization of type 1 5alpha-reductase in the sebaceous gland of skin offers the possibility for selective inhibition of this isozyme as a treatment for acne. The goals of these studies are to demonstrate the mechanism of inhibition of MK386 and its selectivity for type 1 5alpha-reductase. The apparent potency of MK386 differed depending on the source of the enzyme (i.e. recombinant vs. native), yet selectivity for type 1 5alpha-reductase was unchanged. Our results indicate that the apparent potency of MK386 is modulated by the membrane concentration of the assay. These results suggest that MK386 has a high affinity for the lipid-rich membrane environment of 5alpha-reductase. MK386 was also found to be a slow binding inhibitor of type 1 5alpha-reductase. However, the cause of this time-dependent inhibition is unrelated to partitioning of the inhibitor into the membrane because similar studies with type 2 5alpha-reductase indicate that MK386 is a reversible, competitive inhibitor. A number of counterscreens were developed to demonstrate that MK386 is a poor inhibitor of other steroid metabolizing enzymes. PMID:8903421

  8. Purification, properties, and sequence of glycerol trinitrate reductase from Agrobacterium radiobacter.

    PubMed Central

    Snape, J R; Walkley, N A; Morby, A P; Nicklin, S; White, G F

    1997-01-01

    Glycerol trinitrate (GTN) reductase, which enables Agrobacterium radiobacter to utilize GTN and related explosives as sources of nitrogen for growth, was purified and characterized, and its gene was cloned and sequenced. The enzyme was a 39-kDa monomeric protein which catalyzed the NADH-dependent reductive scission of GTN (Km = 23 microM) to glycerol dinitrates (mainly the 1,3-isomer) with a pH optimum of 6.5, a temperature optimum of 35 degrees C, and no dependence on metal ions for activity. It was also active on pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), on isosorbide dinitrate, and, very weakly, on ethyleneglycol dinitrate, but it was inactive on isopropyl nitrate, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, ammonium ions, nitrate, or nitrite. The amino acid sequence deduced from the DNA sequence was homologous (42 to 51% identity and 61 to 69% similarity) to those of PETN reductase from Enterobacter cloacae, N-ethylmaleimide reductase from Escherichia coli, morphinone reductase from Pseudomonas putida, and old yellow enzyme from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, placing the GTN reductase in the alpha/beta barrel flavoprotein group of proteins. GTN reductase and PETN reductase were very similar in many respects except in their distinct preferences for NADH and NADPH cofactors, respectively. PMID:9401040

  9. Glyphosate inhibition of ferric reductase activity in iron deficient sunflower roots.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Levent; Yazici, Atilla; Eker, Selim; Gokmen, Ozgur; Römheld, Volker; Cakmak, Ismail

    2008-01-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is increasingly being observed in cropping systems with frequent glyphosate applications. A likely reason for this is that glyphosate interferes with root uptake of Fe by inhibiting ferric reductase in roots required for Fe acquisition by dicot and nongrass species. This study investigated the role of drift rates of glyphosate (0.32, 0.95 or 1.89 mm glyphosate corresponding to 1, 3 and 6% of the recommended herbicidal dose, respectively) on ferric reductase activity of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) roots grown under Fe deficiency conditions. Application of 1.89 mm glyphosate resulted in almost 50% inhibition of ferric reductase within 6 h and complete inhibition 24 h after the treatment. Even at lower rates of glyphosate (e.g. 0.32 mm and 0.95 mm), ferric reductase was inhibited. Soluble sugar concentration and the NAD(P)H oxidizing capacity of apical roots were not decreased by the glyphosate applications. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the effects of glyphosate on ferric reductase activity. The nature of the inhibitory effect of glyphosate on ferric reductase could not be identified. Impaired ferric reductase could be a major reason for the increasingly observed Fe deficiency in cropping systems associated with widespread glyphosate usage. PMID:18179601

  10. Frequency gradients of DHCR7 mutations in patients with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome in Europe: evidence for different origins of common mutations.

    PubMed

    Witsch-Baumgartner, M; Ciara, E; Löffler, J; Menzel, H J; Seedorf, U; Burn, J; Gillessen-Kaesbach, G; Hoffmann, G F; Fitzky, B U; Mundy, H; Clayton, P; Kelley, R I; Krajewska-Walasek, M; Utermann, G

    2001-01-01

    Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome/RSH (SLOS) is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome caused by mutations in the gene for Delta7-sterol reductase (DHC