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1

Investigation on alternative depressants for iron ore flotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron ore concentration through flotation represents an important application of reagents in mineral processing. Nowadays all Brazilian iron ore concentrators use starch as iron oxides depressant. This study evaluated the application of other depressants, which are commonly used in other flotation systems. Six carboxymethylcelluloses, three lignosulphonates, one guar gum, and four humic acids samples were investigated in the reverse cationic

H. D. G. Turrer; A. E. C. Peres

2010-01-01

2

Effects of High Pressure ORE Grinding on the Efficiency of Flotation Operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article discusses issues related to the impact of the high pressure comminution process on the efficiency of the copper ore flotation operations. HPGR technology improves the efficiency of mineral resource enrichment through a better liberation of useful components from waste rock as well as more efficient comminution of the material. Research programme included the run of a laboratory flotation process for HPGR crushing products at different levels of operating pressures and moisture content. The test results showed that products of the high-pressure grinding rolls achieved better recoveries in flotation processes and showed a higher grade of useful components in the flotation concentrate, in comparison to the ball mill products. Upgrading curves have also been marked in the following arrangement: the content of useful component in concentrate the floatation recovery. All upgrading curves for HPGR products had a more favourable course in comparison to the curves of conventionally grinded ore. The results also indicate that various values of flotation recoveries have been obtained depending on the machine operating parameters (i.e. the operating pressure), and selected feed properties (moisture).

Saramak, Daniel; Krawczykowska, Aldona; M?ynarczykowska, Anna

2014-10-01

3

Water leaching of titanium from ore flotation residue  

SciTech Connect

Copper ore tailings were tested for the stability of titanium submitted to water leaching in three different reactor systems (agitated vessel, bioreactor and percolated fixed-bed column). For each of these systems, titanium extraction did not exceed 1% of the available metal. Biomass removed from ore residue adsorbed a small part of the titanium with sorption capacities below 20-30 mg g{sup -1}, but most of this biomass was sequestered in the ore residue. Oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations were monitored and changes in concentration correlated with bacteria development at the initial stage of the process and to fungal development in the latter stages.

Jaworska, Malgorzata M.; Guibal, Eric

2003-07-01

4

Optimization of flotation variables for the recovery of hematite particles from BHQ ore  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technology for beneficiation of banded iron ores containing low iron value is a challenging task due to increasing demand of quality iron ore in India. A flotation process has been developed to treat one such ore, namely banded hematite quartzite (BHQ) containing 41.8wt% Fe and 41.5wt% SiO2, by using oleic acid, methyl isobutyl carbinol (MIBC), and sodium silicate as the collector, frother, and dispersant, respectively. The relative effects of these variables have been evaluated in half-normal plots and Pareto charts using central composite rotatable design. A quadratic response model has been developed for both Fe grade and recovery and optimized within the experimental range. The optimum reagent dosages are found to be as follows: collector concentration of 243.58 g/t, dispersant concentration of 195.67 g/t, pH 8.69, and conditioning time of 4.8 min to achieve the maximum Fe grade of 64.25% with 67.33% recovery. The predictions of the model with regard to iron grade and recovery are in good agreement with the experimental results.

Rath, Swagat S.; Sahoo, Hrushikesh; Das, B.

2013-07-01

5

Electrochemical pretreatment of recycled water in flotation of non-sulfide and diamond-containing ores  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents theoretical and practical aspects of directed adjustment of the physicochemical properties (pH,Eh) and ion composition of recycle and mine water by an electrochemical treatment. Treatment is run in diaphragm-type conditioners with production of alkaline catholyte of pH value up to 12 and acidic anolyte of pH up to 2. In the process of water electrolysis the directed motion of Mg{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+} ions is observed from anode volume to cathode one, where they precipitate as hydroxides and carbonates; it leads to a decrease of salt content in anolyte and catholyte. The results of experimental and industrial testing of the electrochemical technique for mine and recycle water in flotation of diamond-containing and sulfide-scheelite, hematite, phosphorite, apatite-nephelite, bauxite ores indicated the increase of recovery up to 2--15% and grade up to 0.5--2%, concurrent with a decrease of reagent consumption from 15 to 50%. Modules of industrial conditioners of different type capacity have been developed.

Chanturiya, V.A.; Trofimova, E.A.; Dvoichenkova, G.P. [Academy of Sciences of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation). Comprehensive Mineral Resources Exploitation Inst.; Zaskevich, M.V. [Almazy Rossii 1 Sakha Co. Ltd., Mirniy (Russian Federation)

1995-12-31

6

Effectiveness of sodium silicate as gangue depressants in iron ore slimes flotation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recovery of iron from the screw classifier overflow slimes by direct flotation was studied. The relative effectiveness of sodium silicates with different silica-to-soda mole ratios as depressants for silica and silicate bearing minerals was investigated. Silica-to-soda mole ratio and silicate dosage were found to have significant effect on the separation efficiency. The results show that an increase of Fe content in the concentrate is observed with concomitant reduction in SiO2 and Al2O3 levels when a particular type of sodium silicate at a proper dosage is used. The concentrate of 58.89wt% Fe, 4.68wt% SiO2, and 5.28wt% Al2O3 with the weight recovery of 38.74% and the metal recovery of 41.13% can be obtained from the iron ore slimes with 54.44wt% Fe, 6.72wt% SiO2, and 6.80wt% Al2O3, when Na2SiO3 with a silica-to-soda mole ratio of 2.19 is used as a depressant at a feed rate of 0.2 kg/t.

Rao, Danda Srinivas; Vijayakumar, Tadiparthi Venkata; Rao, Sripada Subba; Prabhakar, Swarna; Raju, Guntamadugu Bhaskar

2011-10-01

7

Concentration of K-feldspar from a pegmatitic feldspar ore by flotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abundant reserves of Na-feldspar (albite) and K-feldspar (orthoclase or microcline) are found in granites, syenite, tracite and pegmatites. As both feldspar minerals have similar chemical structure and physicochemical properties, their separation is challenging. Flotation is known to be the only technique to enable their separation. The fundamentals on the separation of these minerals were well documented in our earlier studies.

C. Karaguzel; I. Gulgonul; C. Demir; M. Cinar; M. S. Celik

2006-01-01

8

Magmatic ore deposits in layered intrusions - Descriptive model for reef-type PGE and contact-type Cu-Ni-PGE deposits  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Layered, ultramafic to mafic intrusions are uncommon in the geologic record, but host magmatic ore deposits containing most of the world's economic concentrations of platinum-group elements (PGE) (figs. 1 and 2). These deposits are mined primarily for their platinum, palladium, and rhodium contents (table 1). Magmatic ore deposits are derived from accumulations of crystals of metallic oxides, or immiscible sulfide, or oxide liquids that formed during the cooling and crystallization of magma, typically with mafic to ultramafic compositions. "PGE reefs" are stratabound PGE-enriched lode mineralization in mafic to ultramafic layered intrusions. The term "reef" is derived from Australian and South African literature for this style of mineralization and used to refer to (1) the rock layer that is mineralized and has distinctive texture or mineralogy (Naldrett, 2004), or (2) the PGE-enriched sulfide mineralization that occurs within the rock layer. For example, Viljoen (1999) broadly defined the Merensky Reef as "a mineralized zone within or closely associated with an unconformity surface in the ultramafic cumulate at the base of the Merensky Cyclic Unit." In this report, we will use the term PGE reef to refer to the PGE-enriched mineralization, not the host rock layer. Within a layered igneous intrusion, reef-type mineralization is laterally persistent along strike, extending for the length of the intrusion, typically tens to hundreds of kilometers. However, the mineralized interval is thin, generally centimeters to meters thick, relative to the stratigraphic thickness of layers in an intrusion that vary from hundreds to thousands of meters. PGE-enriched sulfide mineralization is also found near the contacts or margins of layered mafic to ultramafic intrusions (Iljina and Lee, 2005). This contact-type mineralization consists of disseminated to massive concentrations of iron-copper-nickel-PGE-enriched sulfide mineral concentrations in zones that can be tens to hundreds of meters thick. The modes and textures of the igneous rocks hosting the mineralization vary irregularly on the scale of centimeters to meters; autoliths and xenoliths are common. Mineralization occurs in the igneous intrusion and in the surrounding country rocks. Mineralization can be preferentially localized along contact with country rocks that are enriched in sulfur-, iron-, or CO2-bearing lithologies. Reef-type and contact-type deposits, in particular those in the Bushveld Complex, South Africa, are the world's primary source of platinum and rhodium (tables 2 and 3; fig. 2). Reef-type PGE deposits are mined only in the Bushveld Complex (Merensky Reef and UG2), the Stillwater Complex (J-M Reef), and the Great Dyke (Main Sulphide Layer). PGE-enriched contact-type deposits are only mined in the Bushveld Complex. The other deposits in tables 2 and 3 are undeveloped; some are still under exploration.

Zientek, Michael L.

2012-01-01

9

Coral Reefs Coral Reefs  

E-print Network

1 Coral Reefs Coral Reefs Coral Reef Formation Scleractinian Coral Polyps · Scleractinia = stony Growth Reef Building Corals · Reef building corals are colonial ­ create large 'coral heads' that may productivity. ­ So no phytoplankton ­ So no zooplankton ­ So no food for corals Reef Building Corals

Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane

10

A review of zinc oxide mineral beneficiation using flotation method.  

PubMed

In recent years, extraction of zinc from low-grade mining tailings of oxidized zinc has been a matter of discussion. This is a material which can be processed by flotation and acid-leaching methods. Owing to the similarities in the physicochemical and surface chemistry of the constituent minerals, separation of zinc oxide minerals from their gangues by flotation is an extremely complex process. It appears that selective leaching is a promising method for the beneficiation of this type of ore. However, with the high consumption of leaching acid, the treatment of low-grade oxidized zinc ores by hydrometallurgical methods is expensive and complex. Hence, it is best to pre-concentrate low-grade oxidized zinc by flotation and then to employ hydrometallurgical methods. This paper presents a critical review on the zinc oxide mineral flotation technique. In this paper, the various flotation methods of zinc oxide minerals which have been proposed in the literature have been detailed with the aim of identifying the important factors involved in the flotation process. The various aspects of recovery of zinc from these minerals are also dealt with here. The literature indicates that the collector type, sulfidizing agent, pH regulator, depressants and dispersants types, temperature, solid pulp concentration, and desliming are important parameters in the process. The range and optimum values of these parameters, as also the adsorption mechanism, together with the resultant flotation of the zinc oxide minerals reported in the literature are summarized and highlighted in the paper. This review presents a comprehensive scientific guide to the effectiveness of flotation strategy. PMID:23571227

Ejtemaei, Majid; Gharabaghi, Mahdi; Irannajad, Mehdi

2014-04-01

11

Ore Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This three part lab introduces sulfides and other ore minerals. Part one - Ore Minerals: Students fill in a table giving the metal, formula, and mineral group of several ore minerals. Part two - Box of Rocks: Students examine trays of ore minerals and record their physical properties, composition, habit, occurence, economic value, and use and answer questions about color, luster, density, transparency, and availability. Part three - Famous Digs: Students answer a series of questions related to famous ore deposits.

Dexter Perkins

12

Host-rock controlled epigenetic, hydrothermal metasomatic origin of the Bayan Obo REEFe-Nb ore deposit, Inner Mongolia, P.R.C.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bayan Obo, a complex rare earth element (REE)FeNb ore deposit, located in Inner Mongolia, P.R.C. is the world's largest known REE deposit. The deposit is chiefly in a marble unit (H8), but extends into an overlying unit of black shale, slate and schist unit (H9), both of which are in the upper part of the Middle Proterozoic Bayan Obo Group. Based on sedimentary structures, the presence of detrital quartz and algal fossil remains, and the 16-km long geographic extent, the H8 marble is a sedimentary deposit, and not a carbonatite of magmatic origin, as proposed by some previous investigators. The unit was weakly regionally metamorphosed (most probably the lower part of the green schist facies) into marble and quartzite prior to mineralization. Tectonically, the deposit is located on the northern flank of the Sino-Korean craton. Many hypotheses have been proposed for the origin of the Bayan Obo deposit; the studies reported here support an epigenetic, hydrothermal, metasomatic origin. Such an origin is supported by field and laboratory textural evidence; 232Th/208Pb internal isochron mineral ages of selected monazite and bastnaesite samples; 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating minimum mineral ages of selected alkali amphiboles; chemical compositions of different generations of both REE ore minerals and alkali amphiboles; and evidence of host-rock influence on the various types of Bayan Obo ores. The internal isochron ages of the REE minerals indicate Caledonian ages for various episodes of REE and Fe mineralization. No evidence was found to indicate a genetic relation between the extensive biotite granitic rocks of Hercynian age in the mine region and the Bayan Obo are deposit, as suggested by previous workers. ?? 1992.

Chao, E.C.T.; Back, J.M.; Minkin, J.A.; Yinchen, R.

1992-01-01

13

76 FR 56294 - Inflatable Personal Flotation Devices  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...RIN 1625-AB60 Inflatable Personal Flotation Devices AGENCY...for inflatable recreational personal flotation devices (PFDs...rule entitled ``Inflatable Personal Flotation Devices'' in the...was revised to return this value to 10%. Another...

2011-09-13

14

A study of the interfacial chemistry of pyrite and coal in fine coal cleaning using flotation  

SciTech Connect

Surface oxidation, surface charge, and flotation properties have been systematically studied for coal, coal-pyrite and ore-pyrite. Electrochemical studies show that coal-pyrite exhibits much higher and more complex surface oxidation than ore-pyrite and its oxidation rate depends strongly on the carbon/coal content. Flotation studies indicate that pyrites have no self-induced floatability. Fuel oil significantly improves the floatability of coal and induces considerable flotation for coal-pyrite due to the hydrophobic interaction of fuel oil with the carbon/coal inclusions on the pyrite surface. Xanthate is a good collector for ore-pyrite but a poor collector for coal and coal-pyrite. The results from thermodynamic calculations, flotation and zeta potential measurements show that iron ions greatly affect the flotation of pyrite with xanthate and fuel oil. Various organic and inorganic chemicals have been examined for depressing coal-pyrite. It was found, for the first time, that sodium pyrophosphate is an effective depressant for coal-pyrite. Solution chemistry shows that pyrophosphate reacts with iron ions to form stable iron pyrophosphate complexes. Using pyrophosphate, the complete separation of pyrite from coal can be realized over a wide pH range at relatively low dosage.

Jiang, C.

1993-12-31

15

21 CFR 890.3175 - Flotation cushion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices 890.3175 Flotation cushion. (a) Identification. A flotation...

2014-04-01

16

21 CFR 890.3175 - Flotation cushion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices 890.3175 Flotation cushion. (a) Identification. A flotation...

2010-04-01

17

21 CFR 890.3175 - Flotation cushion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices 890.3175 Flotation cushion. (a) Identification. A flotation...

2013-04-01

18

21 CFR 890.3175 - Flotation cushion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices 890.3175 Flotation cushion. (a) Identification. A flotation...

2011-04-01

19

Preparation of 8 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia by an oil flotation-assisted chemical coprecipitation route  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil flotation is a separation process that has widely been utilized in the separation and purification of minerals from raw ores. In the current study, this process was combined with coprecipitation process to prepare nanosized 8 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) powder. One of the most attractive characteristics of the oil flotation-assisted process is that highly hydrophilic hydroxide precipitate can be

Weihua Yao; Zilong Tang; Zhongtai Zhang; Shaohua Luo

2002-01-01

20

Coral Reefs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page offers information on coral reefs. Coral reefs are often refered to as the rainforest of the oceans. This exploration will help you to see why that is. Follow these links to learn about coral reefs. This link will take you to Florida where a girl will take guide you over a coral reef. Coral Kid This site ...

dramsden

2009-11-19

21

Reef ED  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority's resource and activity center for teachers and students. Find teaching units for K-12 on: coral reef habitats and marine life; human dependence and impacts on the reef; biodiversity and threatened species; coastal zone and reef management. Lesson plans offer objectives, inquiry learning focus activities, resources, class or field activities. Student pages contain: marine life profiles; reef conservation projects; role playing activities; web investigations. Excellent image library (stills and video).

22

Vertical Distribution and Speciation of Trace Metals in Weathering Flotation Residues of a Zinc\\/Lead Sulfide Mine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfide-bearing mine tailings are a serious environmental problem around the world. In this study, the vertical distribution and speciation of Zn and Pb in the fine-grained flotation residues of a former sulfide ore mine in Germany were investigated to assess the inorganic weath- ering processes that effect the environmental risk arising from this site. Total metal contents were determined by

Nele Schuwirth; Andreas Voegelin; Ruben Kretzschmar; Thilo Hofmann

2007-01-01

23

Reef Check  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Reef Check, headquartered at the Institute of the Environment at the University of California Los Angeles, is a "volunteer, community-based monitoring protocol designed to measure the health of coral reefs on a global scale." With scientific reef surveys conducted in over 60 countries and territories, Reef Check has been able to track global trends in reef health to better inform possible conservation strategies. Visitors to the Reef Check Web site can read result summaries for the 1997-2001 monitoring period, and check out the organization's current and archived newsletters. Other resources include information on survey methods, Reef Check publications, a species identification guide, and other resources geared mainly toward Reef Check volunteers.

24

Selective flotation of inorganic sulfides from coal  

DOEpatents

Pyritic sulfur is removed from coal or other carbonaceous material through the use of humic acid as a coal flotation depressant. Following the removal of coarse pyrite, the carbonaceous material is blended with humic acid, a pyrite flotation collector and a frothing agent within a flotation cell to selectively float pyritic sulfur leaving clean coal as an underflow. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Miller, K.J.; Wen, Wu-Wey

1988-05-31

25

Selective flotation of inorganic sulfides from coal  

DOEpatents

Pyritic sulfur is removed from coal or other carbonaceous material through the use of humic acid as a coal flotation depressant. Following the removal of coarse pyrite, the carbonaceous material is blended with humic acid, a pyrite flotation collector and a frothing agent within a flotation cell to selectively float pyritic sulfur leaving clean coal as an underflow.

Miller, Kenneth J. (Floreffe, PA); Wen, Wu-Wey (Murrysville, PA)

1989-01-01

26

Reef Relief  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A thorough overview of coral reefs around the globe, including the threats facing them, current protection projects, and action you can take to help save reefs. "International Projects" and "The Coral Reef Ecosystem" sections are chock-full of fantastic photographs and information. Education materials may be purchased and include DVDs and teacher's guides. Many volunteer and donation opportunities. Children section includes information-filled printable coloring pages. Several different publications are available at no cost.

27

Coral Reefs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Description of coral reef environment for high school level and higher. Page is chock full of fantastic photographs each featuring a descriptive caption. Topics discussed include ecology, symbiosis, and predator defense. The site features many different species and stages of coral from all over the globe, and also many of the fishes that are associated with coral reefs.

28

Sewage treatment-flotation apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Solids-liquid separation, wherein a solids-liquid mixture containing dissolved oxygen-containing gas is circulated around a circulatory system comprising a downcomer and a riser, part of the mixture in the riser being introduced into a flotation chamber in which the hydrostatic pressure gradually decreases as the mixture flows upwards, with consequent release from solution of gas bubbles which carry solid particles to the top of the mixture.

Hines, D.A.; Jones, R.T.; Roesler, F.C.

1981-03-03

29

Flotation properties of some monocyclic aromatic compounds  

SciTech Connect

The flotation properties of aromatic compounds with polar substitutes in the ring have not been adequately studied. For instance, we were the first to examine bromobenzene, nitrobenzene, N-ethylaniline and anisole as possible flotation reagents. Their flotation properties were determined in a Mekhanobr laboratory flotation machine of chamber capacity 1.5 liters, with an impeller speed of 1800 rpm. The tests were carried out on thickened slurry from radial thickeners. In addition, we have tested aromatic amines (o- and p-nitroanalines, p-anisidine, o- and p-toluidines). They were used for the flotation of raw charge (<0.5 mm size fraction). The raw material was averaged before flotation; the solids content of the pulp was 200 g/liter in both cases. Of the aromatic compounds with polar substituents examined, N-ethyl-aniline possesses the optimum flotation properties. The flotation indices of o-isomers are directly related to their dipole moments. For p-isomers, a direct correlation exists between flotation parameters and basicity.

Shreider, E.M.; Kontorovich, V.E.; Galanov, M.E.; Trachik, T.L.; Lagutina, L.V.

1981-01-01

30

Coral Reefs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This problem-based learning (PBL) module prompts students to address coral reef destruction and think about biodiversity worldwide. Students identify possible sources of coral reef destruction, examine conflicting evidence, evaluate possible courses of action, and make recommendations. As they do this, students look at man's impact on the global environment. Two versions of the PBL module are provided. The middle school scenario focuses on the question: is the cumulative weight of human activities changing the environment and destroying coral reefsone of Earths last great areas of biodiversity? The high school scenario focuses on the question: what are the pros and cons of artificial reefsare they effective in preserving biodiversity that can be lost when natural coral reefs are destroyed? This module is part of Exploring the Environment.

31

Selective flotation of phosphate minerals with hydroxamate collectors  

DOEpatents

A method is disclosed for separating phosphate minerals from a mineral mixture, particularly from high-dolomite containing phosphate ores. The method involves conditioning the mineral mixture by contacting in an aqueous in environment with a collector in an amount sufficient for promoting flotation of phosphate minerals. The collector is a hydroxamate compound of the formula; ##STR1## wherein R is generally hydrophobic and chosen such that the collector has solubility or dispersion properties it can be distributed in the mineral mixture, typically an alkyl, aryl, or alkylaryl group having 6 to 18 carbon atoms. M is a cation, typically hydrogen, an alkali metal or an alkaline earth metal. Preferably, the collector also comprises an alcohol of the formula, R'--OH wherein R' is generally hydrophobic and chosen such that the collector has solubility or dispersion properties so that it can be distributed in the mineral mixture, typically an alkyl, aryl, or alkylaryl group having 6 to 18 carbon atoms.

Miller, Jan D. (Salt Lake City, UT); Wang, Xuming (Salt Lake City, UT); Li, Minhua (Salt Lake City, UT)

2002-01-01

32

The Geohydrology of MVT-Ore Genesis in the Canning Basin, Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Lennard Shelf, Western Australia, epigenetic MVT-type Pb-Zn mineralization occurs in Middle Devonian evaporitic dolomites which were part of a barrier reef system (Hurley & Lohmann, 1989). Ore mineralization exhibits a strong structural control at the basin scale and normal faults probably controlled pathways for brine and petroleum migration that affected ore deposition (Wallace et al., 1999). For the

G. Garven; M. M. Wallace

2009-01-01

33

Great Barrier Reef  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

article title: Australia's Great Barrier Reef View Larger Image ... not a single reef, but a vast maze of reefs, passages, and coral cays (islands that are part of the reef). This nadir true-color image was ...

2013-04-16

34

Ferric leaching of copper slag flotation tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pyrometallurgical production of copper generates slags, a residue with a significant content of this metal. Copper can be recovered from the slags by froth flotation after cooling, crushing, and grinding. The obtained Cu-concentrate is sent to the pyrometallurgical process. If grinding is not fine enough for efficient flotation, copper is lost in tailings. In this paper, the ferric leaching

F. Carranza; N. Iglesias; A. Mazuelos; R. Romero; O. Forcat

2009-01-01

35

New influence factor inducing difficulty in selective flotation separation of Cu-Zn mixed sulfide minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Selective flotation separation of Cu-Zn mixed sulfides has been proven to be difficult. Thus far, researchers have found no satisfactory way to separate Cu-Zn mixed sulfides by selective flotation, mainly because of the complex surface and interface interaction mechanisms in the flotation solution. Undesired activation occurs between copper ions and the sphalerite surfaces. In addition to recycled water and mineral dissolution, ancient fluids in the minerals are observed to be a new source of metal ions. In this study, significant amounts of ancient fluids were found to exist in Cu-Zn sulfide and gangue minerals, mostly as gas-liquid fluid inclusions. The concentration of copper ions released from the ancient fluids reached 1.02 10-6 mol/L, whereas, in the cases of sphalerite and quartz, this concentration was 0.62 10-6 mol/L and 0.44 10-6 mol/L, respectively. As a result, the ancient fluid is a significant source of copper ions compared to mineral dissolution under the same experimental conditions, which promotes the unwanted activation of sphalerite. Therefore, the ancient fluid is considered to be a new factor that affects the selective flotation separation of Cu-Zn mixed sulfide ores.

Deng, Jiu-shuai; Mao, Ying-bo; Wen, Shu-ming; Liu, Jian; Xian, Yong-jun; Feng, Qi-cheng

2015-02-01

36

Coral Reefs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video, Jonathan examines the biology of coral reefs and their importance to the marine ecosystem. Please see the accompanying lesson plan that discusses pH and ocean acidification for educational objectives, discussion points and classroom activities.

Jonathan Bird Productions

2012-03-01

37

Coral Reefs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientists are studying coral reefs around the world to discover the impact that warmer temperatures and increased carbon dioxide may have on the life cycle of corals. "Changing Planet" is produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation.

NBC Learn

2010-10-07

38

THE FLOTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount of UO recovered from brannerite, pitchblende, ; allanite, uranothorite, uraninite, euxenite, fergusonite, pyrochlore, betafite, ; and thucolite ores as a function of various collecting reagents including oleic ; acid, Acintol C, D, FAl, and FA2, cottonseed oil, Cyanamid 765, R-801, and R-825, ; Emersol 300, Indusoil L-5, linseed oil, Neofat 42-12 and 140, Amac 1120, and ; Duomeen

D. E. Light; G. A. Freitag; G. B. Hudson; E. J. Nurse

1962-01-01

39

REPORT ON WAGON DRILLING FOR URANIUM IN THE SILVER REEF PHARRISBURG) DISTRICT, WASHINGTON COUNTY, UTAH  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exploratory wagon drilling program was conducted on the Silver Crown, ; Big Hill, and Silverman claims of Western Gold and Uranium Mines, Inc., at the ; Silver Reef district near Leeds, Utah. Two economically significant new ore ; bodies were discovered and considerable geological information gained. The ; Silver Reef uranium deposits are located near the faulted north-plunging nose

E. J. Poehlmann; E. N. King

1953-01-01

40

21 CFR 890.3175 - Flotation cushion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...with water, air, gel, mud, or any other substance allowing a flotation media, used on a seat to lessen the likelihood of skin ulcers. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification...

2012-04-01

41

Dissolved air-flotation processes. Technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theories and applications of various dissolved-air-flotation clarifiers (Supracell, Sandfloat, Floatpress, and Sedifloat) are presented. Supracell is a high-rate dissolved-air-flotation clarifier with only 3 to 5 minutes of detention time. Major application of Supracell is industrial-effluent treatment. Sandfloat is a package plant consisting of flocculation, dissolved-air floatation and automatic backwash filtration, and designed for either potable water treatment or tertiary

M. Krofta; L. K. Wang

1986-01-01

42

Reef grief  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the first of the world's ecosystems faces extermination at our hands, coral reef ecologist Peter Sale -- Assistant Director of the Institute of Water, Environment and Health at the United Nations University in Ontario, Canada, and author of Our Dying Planet (published this autumn) -- talks to Nature Climate Change.

2011-10-01

43

Jurassic Reef Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dr. Reinhold Leinfelder of the University of Stuttgart, Germany created this interesting site in English and German, offering a "virtual trip to the reefs of the Jurassic Period." In the Introduction, viewers will find background material and comparisons of modern and ancient reefs. Further information is provided in the sections on reef architecture, reef formation, Jurassic reefs, and reefs and global climate change. Although the English language is slightly quirky, the content and images more than compensate, making this a worthwhile site.

44

Flotation selectivity of novel alkyl dicarboxylate reagents for apatite-calcite separation.  

PubMed

The investigation aims to demonstrate the conceptual thoughts behind developing mineral specific reagents for use in flotation of calcium containing ores. For this purpose, a series of dicarboxylate-based surfactants with varying distance between the carboxylate groups (one, two or three methylene groups) was synthesized. A surfactant with the same alkyl chain length but with only one carboxylate group was also synthesized and evaluated. The adsorption behavior of these new reagents on pure apatite and pure calcite surfaces was studied using Hallimond tube flotation, FTIR and ? potential measurements. The relation between the adsorption behavior of a given surfactant at a specific mineral surface and its molecular structure over a range of concentrations and pH values, as well as the region of maximum recovery, was established. It was found that one of the reagents, with a specific distance between the carboxylate groups, was much more selective for a particular mineral surface than the other homologues. For example, out of the four compounds synthesized, only the one where the carboxylate groups were separated by a single methylene group floated apatite but not calcite, whereas calcite was efficiently floated with the monocarboxylic reagent, but not with the other reagents synthesized. This selective adsorption of a given surfactant to a particular mineral surface relative to other mineral surfaces as evidenced in the flotation studies was substantiated by ? potential and infra-red spectroscopy data. PMID:25596367

Karlkvist, Tommy; Patra, Anuttam; Rao, Kota Hanumantha; Bordes, Romain; Holmberg, Krister

2015-05-01

45

FLOCCULATION-FLOTATION AIDS FOR TREATMENT OF COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOWS  

EPA Science Inventory

The objectives of this study were to investigate the flocculation/flotation characteristics of combined sewer overflow through laboratory and field testing. The concept involves the introduction of chemicals and buoyant flotation aids into the overflow and the subsequent cofloccu...

46

Web Reef Advisory System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Web Reef Advisory System (WRAS) was developed by ReefBase and Reef Check, in collaboration with the Coastal Resources Center at the University of Rhode Island and the Department of Biological Sciences at the University of Southern California, as "an online application to input, view, and analyse Reef Check survey data. It calculates indicators of how good or bad a shape a particular reef is in, and what the underlying causes may be, based on Reef Check surveys." WRAS allows users to view, analyze, and add (registration required) data. Please note that site users must complete a free and brief registration process before they are granted full access to the Reef Check website. Other site offerings include an interactive Reef Check GIS feature (see website for browser requirements), and The Reef Check Barometer of Global Reef Condition which provides assessments of different regions based on Reef Check Indicators.

47

Flotation of cadmium-loaded biomass  

SciTech Connect

Biosorption of heavy metal ions such as Cd[sup 2+] by dead biomass has been recognized as a potential alternative to existing removal technologies applied to wastewater treatment. Two bacterial strains were studied in the laboratory, Streptomyces griseus and S. clavuligerus, an industrial by-product. Both washed and unwashed samples were examined. Foam flotation is proposed in this work as the separation stage following biosorption. Effective biomass separation was conducted in the presence of a frother, ethanol. The pH of the solution was a crucial parameter for flotation and also for metal binding. Other basic parameters of flotation examined were the initial cadmium concentration in the dilute aqueous solution and the quantity of biomass used. A study of [zeta]-potential measurements of the actinomycetes was carried out under the conditions used in the separation; surface tension was also measured. These provided useful information on the process.

Matis, K.A.; Zouboulis, A.I. (Aristotle Univ., Thessaloniki (Greece). Chemical Technology Div.)

1994-07-01

48

Effect of microwave radiation on coal flotation  

SciTech Connect

Most low-rank coals are high in moisture and acid functional groups, therefore showing poor floatability. Drying, which removes the water molecules trapped in the pores and adsorbed at the surface of coal, decreases the hydrophilic character and improves the floatability. Microwave heating, whose simplest application is drying, was applied at 0.9 kW power level for 60 sec exposure time in the experiments to decrease the moisture content of coal in order to enhance the hydrophobicity. The flotation tests of microwave-treated coal by using heptanol and octanol lead to a higher flotation yield and ash removal than original coal.

Ozbayoglu, G.; Depci, T.; Ataman, N. [Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey). Mining Engineering Department

2009-07-01

49

Reef Education Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Queensland's Reef Education Network (REN) is a wonderful introduction to the amazing world of coral reefs. REN has some cool images as well as information about reef research, current problems threatening coral reefs, and the many fascinating organisms that reside within a coral reef. The Life And Times section provides a nice overview of what a reef is, while the Ask A Brain Coral section gives some introduction to biotic and abiotic relationships that occur within reefs. A unique feature is the notebook, where students can record and organize information as they navigate throughout the site.

50

Effect of particle fineness on the finely disseminated iron ore for beneficiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focused on Oolitic hematite ore which consists of extremely unequal disseminated particles that are fine-grained and easy to become muddy, It presents the effect of particle fineness, roasting temperature and roasting time and other variables on the beneficiation of this ore. The effect of particle fineness on the concentrate quality was also studied after magnetic roasting, the so-called process of "magnetic roasting-stage grinding-low intensity magnetic separation-cationic reverse flotation" was adopted to treat the raw ore under various experimental conditions including particle fineness, roasting temperature and roasting time, etc. it is found the concentrate grade of TFe of raw ore can be increased from 48.32%(original) to 61.30% at a recovery rate of 80.73%. Results show that the effect of particle fineness on mineral processing indexes is significant.

Qiu, T. S.; Zhang, W. X.; Fang, X. H.; Gao, G. K.

2013-06-01

51

Innovative processing and hydrometallurgical treatment methods for complex antimony ores and concentrates. Part I  

Microsoft Academic Search

The largest Russian antimony ore deposits are reviewed analytically. The present-day physicochemical methods (nuclear quadrupole\\u000a resonance, X-ray electron spectroscopy, multinuclear (13C, 15N, 31P) NMR) are used to develop innovative technologies. The innovative process for treatment of Au-Sbores of the Sarylakhsky\\u000a and Sentachansky deposits is described. Selective agents for antimonite flotation from complex Au-Sb-ores are considered.\\u000a Sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate performance in antimony

P. M. Solozhenkin; A. N. Alekseev

2010-01-01

52

NOAA's Coral Reef  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Portal to NOAA programs on coral reef research, management, protection. Online booklet describes corals, importance of reefs as habitat, value to humans, natural and human impacts. Site offers outreach and online educational materials, including lesson plans and list of things you can do. Search coral reef data and publications, find funding opportunities, review state of U.S. reefs, local and national action plans. Provides links to related sites, including coral reef photo library, international initiatives.

53

Beneficiation of rare earth minerals from Bokan Mountain - Dotson Ridge ore  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this research work was to study the beneficiation of rare earth ore of the Bokan Mountain - Dotson Ridge deposit, located near Ketchikan, Alaska. Rare earth element (REE) composite ore samples from the Bokan Mountain - Dotson Ridge deposit were tested using gravity concentration, magnetic separation, flotation, and leaching techniques to separate the REE. The composite ore sample was a product of a preliminary x-ray sorting process. Qualitative electron microprobe analysis of the ore showed that most of the REE minerals in the ore were silicate minerals. Since the electron microprobe analysis samples were coated with carbon during sample preparation, the carbon element was inactivated for analysis. Because of this, carbonate compounds of minerals' particles could not be detected. 95% of the REE mineral particles appear to be smaller than about 10 microm in size (about 100 microm2 in area). For the gravity concentration, light rare earth elements (LREE) and heavy rare earth elements' (HREE) individual elemental recovery values were in the ranges of 49.6-52.8% and 46.3-48.8%, respectively, at 25% of mass yield. In order to separate a larger amount of the REE, a wet high intensity magnetic separation (WHIMS) test was carried out on tailings of the gravity concentration tests. The HREE individual elemental recovery values ranged from 56.3-63.1% at 37% mass yield, while LREE individual elemental recovery values were in the 57.9% - 59.1% range. For the combined gravity and magnetic separation processes, the net individual elemental recovery values of the LREE and the HREE were in the range of 79.6-80.5% and 76.5-80.9%, respectively. The combined mass yield of the gravity and magnetic separation processes was 53%. Direct leaching tests conducted on the composite ground ore feed yielded high individual elemental recovery values of 90-92% of the LREE. The HREE individual elemental recovery values ranged from 56.5-87.3%. In the leaching, 20% HCl was used in the 1st and 2nd stages with a duration of 2 hrs in each stage at 90C. The solid percentage of the leach slurry was 20% w/w. The composite ground ore sample was tested in conventional flotation using a 2.0 L capacity Denver cell. In the flotation, 0.05 kg/tonne of Cytec Aero 6493 collector, 0.05 kg/tonne of Cytec Aero Froth 88, and 0.1 kg/tonne of sodium metasilicate as a depressant were used. Pulp pH was set around 9. Results showed individual elemental recovery values in the range of 44.6-50.4% for the LREE. The HREE individual elemental recovery values ranged from 27.9-44.5%. The mass yield of the flotation was 23%. The flotation recoveries reported here are significantly lower than what was achieved previously. For the Leach after flotation process, leaching was conducted on the first concentrate of flotation. Individual elemental recovery values of the LREE and HREE were 94.7-96.5% and 61.1-90.5%, respectively. The concentrate was leached using 20% HCl in both the 1st and 2nd stages, with a duration of 2 hrs in each stage at 90C. Flotation/Leach process net recoveries of LREE by individual elemental values ranged from 42.2-48.5%. HREE net recoveries by individual elemental values ranged from 17.1-41.4%.

Narantsetseg, Purevbaatar

54

Heavy Metals Removal by Biosorption and Flotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of a mixture of heavy (toxic) metal cations (copper, nickeland zinc) from liquid effluents was investigated in this study at pilotscale, using counter-current contact mode. The innovative processinvolved the abstraction of metal ions onto fungal biosorbents, followedby the application of flotation for the subsequent solid\\/liquid separationof biomass particles. The ability of microorganisms to remove metal ionsfrom aqueous solutions

K. A. Matis; A. I. Zouboulis; N. K. Lazaridis

2003-01-01

55

Fluidized-bed combustion of flotation tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

After mechanical water removal, the flotation tailings containing about 30% moisture are stored in silo (1) which is specially designed for this purpose. The lime required for desulphurizing the flue gas is stored in silo (2) Special silo-discharge device and weigh-feeders pass the two materials to the mixing screw in proportional rates in accordance with the sulphur content and guaranteed

Belting

1979-01-01

56

Lead removal with adsorbing colloid flotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process that removes lead from industrial waste by adsorbing colloid foam flotation has been designed and demonstrated. A system of ferric chloride and sodium lauryl sulfate, both relatively inexpensive chemicals, gave good performance with optimum dosages of sodium lauryl sulfate at 40 mg\\/l and trivalent iron at 150 mg\\/l. With optimum chemical and hydraulic conditions, the pilot plant was

E. L. Thackston; D. J. Wilson; J. S. Hanson; D. L. Jr. Miller

1980-01-01

57

Author's personal copy Coral Reefs  

E-print Network

Author's personal copy Coral Reefs D E Burkepile and M E Hay, Georgia Institute of Technology Ecological Interactions on Coral Reefs Replenishment of Coral Reefs: The Role of Reproduction and Recruitment in the Ecology of Reefs Landscape Ecology of Coral Reefs: Connections of Coral Reefs to Mangrove and Seagrass

Burkepile, Deron

58

Shale-oil-recovery systems incorporating ore beneficiation. Final report.  

SciTech Connect

This study analyzed the recovery of oil from oil shale by use of proposed systems which incorporate beneficiation of the shale ore (that is concentration of the kerogen before the oil-recovery step). The objective was to identify systems which could be more attractive than conventional surface retorting of ore. No experimental work was carried out. The systems analyzed consisted of beneficiation methods which could increase kerogen concentrations by at least four-fold. Potentially attractive low-enrichment methods such as density separation were not examined. The technical alternatives considered were bounded by the secondary crusher as input and raw shale oil as output. A sequence of ball milling, froth flotation, and retorting concentrate is not attractive for Western shales compared to conventional ore retorting; transporting the concentrate to another location for retorting reduces air emissions in the ore region but cost reduction is questionable. The high capital and energy cost s results largely from the ball milling step which is very inefficient. Major improvements in comminution seem achievable through research and such improvements, plus confirmation of other assumptions, could make high-enrichment beneficiation competitive with conventional processing. 27 figures, 23 tables.

Weiss, M.A.; Klumpar, I.V.; Peterson, C.R.; Ring, T.A.

1982-10-01

59

Reducibility of laterite ores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reducibility of several types of lateritic nickel bearing ores was investigated. The ores were reduced with hydrogen over a temperature range of 673 to 1273 K and reaction times from 5 to 80 minutes. The fraction of nickel, iron, and cobalt reduced to the metallic state was determined by leaching the reacted samples with a bromine-methanol solution followed by atomic absorption analysis for the individual elements. The reducibility of nickel increased with increasing iron concentration of the ore. Increased reduction temperature greatly raised the amount of nickel reduced for ores with high iron concentrations. The cobalt reducibility decreased with increasing iron concentration of the ore. Changes in reduction temperature affected cobalt reduction less than nickel reduction. The observed changes in reducibility have been attributed to the formation of phases which incorporate nickel and cobalt. The major ore components were plotted on the ternary phase diagram of the SiO2+(Al2O3)-MgO-FeO system. It is shown how this plot can be used to predict the reducibility of different types of lateritic ores.

Kawahara, M.; Toguri, J. M.; Bergman, R. A.

1988-04-01

60

Coral Reef Ecosystems: The Living Reef  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Object is the first of four Science Objects in the Coral Reef Ecosystems SciPack. It explores the unique and diverse ecosystem of the coral reef. Coral reefs are very complex systems that create one of the largest structures on Earth of biological origins. Thousands of coral species exist in oceans worldwide. Reef-building corals remain on the same spot of the sea floor through their entire lives and have developed reproductive, feeding, and social behaviors suited to their situation. As they grow, reefs provide structural habitats for hundreds to thousands of different organisms. Learning Outcomes:? Identify coral polyp structures and describe their functions.? Describe photosynthesis in the coral environment.? Describe the evolution of a typical reef system.? Use the shape of an individual coral to identify its common name, and classify entire coral reef ecosystems based on shape and location. ? Describe the process of coral polyp reproduction and growth.? Identify how the features and/or behavioral strategies of coral reef inhabitants enable them to survive in coral reef environments.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2006-11-01

61

Pyrite Flotation With Xanthate Under Alkaline Conditions --Application to Environmental Desulfurisation  

E-print Network

Pyrite Flotation With Xanthate Under Alkaline Conditions -- Application to Environmental,3 and M Aubertin4 ABSTRACT The extensive literature on sulfide flotation indicates that pyrite poorly floats under alkaline condition. Xanthate concentration has a positive effect on pyrite flotation

Aubertin, Michel

62

33 CFR 149.331 - What are the requirements for hybrid personal flotation devices?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false What are the requirements for hybrid personal flotation devices? 149.331...331 What are the requirements for hybrid personal flotation devices? (a...that the use and stowage of all commercial hybrid personal flotation devices...

2014-07-01

63

33 CFR 149.331 - What are the requirements for hybrid personal flotation devices?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false What are the requirements for hybrid personal flotation devices? 149.331...331 What are the requirements for hybrid personal flotation devices? (a...that the use and stowage of all commercial hybrid personal flotation devices...

2010-07-01

64

33 CFR 149.331 - What are the requirements for hybrid personal flotation devices?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false What are the requirements for hybrid personal flotation devices? 149.331...331 What are the requirements for hybrid personal flotation devices? (a...that the use and stowage of all commercial hybrid personal flotation devices...

2011-07-01

65

33 CFR 149.331 - What are the requirements for hybrid personal flotation devices?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false What are the requirements for hybrid personal flotation devices? 149.331...331 What are the requirements for hybrid personal flotation devices? (a...that the use and stowage of all commercial hybrid personal flotation devices...

2012-07-01

66

33 CFR 149.331 - What are the requirements for hybrid personal flotation devices?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false What are the requirements for hybrid personal flotation devices? 149.331...331 What are the requirements for hybrid personal flotation devices? (a...that the use and stowage of all commercial hybrid personal flotation devices...

2013-07-01

67

NOAA's Coral Reef  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In an effort to centralize information on Coral Reefs, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has launched this site on Coral Reefs. The site serves both as a news resource (see the frequently updated News Releases section) as well as a basic information resource (see Year of the Reef 1997 and Coral Reef Photos) on coral reefs. For information on current research (scientific and citizen), see the Coral Health and Monitoring Program, the Great American Fish Count, or the Coral Reef Initiative sections. Additionally, a dozen Coral Reef Links point users to further resources. For the pure enthusiast or beginning college student, this site serves as a fine entry-way into learning about Coral Reefs.

68

Journey to the Reef  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Despite their experiences with a cartoon sponge, most elementary students know little about the diverse inhabitants of coral reefs. Therefore, with vivid photography and video, diverse coral reef inhabitants were brought to life for the author's fifth-gra

Linda Bryson

2010-01-01

69

Jurassic Reef Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a bilingual, educational website from Munich, Germany. The main feature is a virtual field trip to the reefs of the Jurassic period. Besides a view of the Jurassic reefs, their builders, and their ecological settings, there is also an emphasis on the importance of modern reefs as indicators of the state-of-health of the globe and evidence of how some changes in the composition of reefs may represent the forerunners of catastrophic, regional or global, environmental change.

Reinhold Leinfelder

70

Laboratory study of electro-coagulationflotation for water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electro-coagulationflotation process has been developed for water treatment. This involved an electrolytic reactor with aluminium electrodes and a separation\\/flotation tank. The water to be treated passed through the reactor and was subjected to coagulation\\/flotation, by Al(III) ions dissolved from the electrodes, the resulting flocs floating after being captured by hydrogen gas bubbles generated at cathode surfaces. Apparent current efficiencies

Jia-Qian Jiang; Nigel Graham; Cecile Andr; Geoff H. Kelsall; Nigel Brandon

2002-01-01

71

Journey to the Reef  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite their experiences with a cartoon sponge, most elementary students know little about the diverse inhabitants of coral reefs. Therefore, with vivid photography and video, diverse coral reef inhabitants were brought to life for the author's fifth-grade students. Students shared their knowledge in language arts and even explored coral reefs in

Bryson, Linda

2010-01-01

72

Coral Reefs Under Stress  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Coral reefs are more critical to an ocean??s health than you might think, and the effects of climate change and ocean acidification are effectively damaging and destroying most reefs in the world. Coral reefs provide many important ecosystem services, including: providing food, shelter, and meeting places for thousands of animals; anchoring sand for recreational beaches; and supplying building materials for remote peoples.

Peter Mumby (University of Exeter; )

2009-10-05

73

Planetary Coral Reef Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Planetary Coral Reef Foundation was founded in 1991 to address the growing crisis of destruction of coral reefs. Topics include the PCRF's mission, its research activities at sea and in space, wastewater recycling, conservation tips that can help preserve reefs, and the organization's ship, R.V. Heraclitus.

74

Great Barrier Reef  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Landsat-7 color composite image shows a section of the famous Great Barrier Reef, the world's largest living organism. This view displays the southern end of the reef where it is composed of smaller, individual reef structures as opposed to a continuous bank as in the north.

NASA

75

Metal biosorption - flotation. Application to cadmium removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biosorption, using suspended non-living biomass, and flotation (for consequent solid\\/liquid separation of the metal-loaded biomass) have been studied in the laboratory as a possible combined process, for the removal of toxic metals (i.e. cadmium) from dilute aqueous solutions. The various parameters of the process were investigated in depth, including re-use of biosorbent. A filter aid (contained in the biomass industrial

K. A. Matis; A. I. Zouboulis; A. A. Grigoriadou; N. K. Lazaridis; L. V. Ekateriniadou

1996-01-01

76

Flotation machine and process for removing impurities from coals  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a type of flotation machine that combines three separate operations in a single unit. The flotation machine is a hydraulic separator that is capable of reducing the pyrite and other mineral matter content of a coal. When the hydraulic separator is used with a flotation system, the pyrite and certain other minerals particles that may have been entrained by hydrodynamic forces associated with conventional flotation machines and/or by the attachment forces associated with the formation of microagglomerates are washed and separated from the coal.

Szymocha, Kazimierz (Edmonton, CA); Ignasiak, Boleslaw (Edmonton, CA); Pawlak, Wanda (Edmonton, CA); Kulik, Conrad (Newark, CA); Lebowitz, Howard E. (Mountain View, CA)

1997-01-01

77

Flotation machine and process for removing impurities from coals  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a type of flotation machine that combines three separate operations in a single unit. The flotation machine is a hydraulic separator that is capable of reducing the pyrite and other mineral matter content of a coal. When the hydraulic separator is used with a flotation system, the pyrite and certain other minerals particles that may have been entrained by hydrodynamic forces associated with conventional flotation machines and/or by the attachment forces associated with the formation of microagglomerates are washed and separated from the coal.

Szymocha, Kazimierz (Edmonton, CA); Ignasiak, Boleslaw (Edmonton, CA); Pawlak, Wanda (Edmonton, CA); Kulik, Conrad (Newark, CA); Lebowitz, Howard E. (Mountain View, CA)

1995-01-01

78

21 CFR 890.5170 - Powered flotation therapy bed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices 890.5170 Powered flotation therapy bed. (a) Identification....

2010-04-01

79

21 CFR 890.5170 - Powered flotation therapy bed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices 890.5170 Powered flotation therapy bed. (a) Identification....

2012-04-01

80

21 CFR 890.5170 - Powered flotation therapy bed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices 890.5170 Powered flotation therapy bed. (a) Identification....

2011-04-01

81

21 CFR 890.5170 - Powered flotation therapy bed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices 890.5170 Powered flotation therapy bed. (a) Identification....

2013-04-01

82

Advanced froth flotation techniques for fine coal cleaning  

SciTech Connect

Advanced column flotation cells offer many potential advantages for the treatment of fine coal. The most important of these is the ability to achieve high separation efficiencies using only a single stage of processing. Unfortunately, industrial flotation columns often suffer from poor recovery, low throughput and high maintenance requirements as compared to mechanically-agitated conventional cells. These problems can usually be attributed to poorly-designed air sparging systems. This article examines the problems of air sparging in greater detail and offers useful guidelines for designing bubble generators for industrial flotation columns. The application of these principles in the design of a successful advanced fine coal flotation circuit is also presented.

Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

1994-12-31

83

Flotation machine and process for removing impurities from coals  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a type of flotation machine that combines three separate operations in a single unit. The flotation machine is a hydraulic separator that is capable of reducing the pyrite and other mineral matter content of a coal. When the hydraulic separator is used with a flotation system, the pyrite and certain other minerals particles that may have been entrained by hydrodynamic forces associated with conventional flotation machines and/or by the attachment forces associated with the formation of microagglomerates are washed and separated from the coal. 4 figs.

Szymocha, K.; Ignasiak, B.; Pawlak, W.; Kulik, C.; Lebowitz, H.E.

1997-02-11

84

Flotation machine and process for removing impurities from coals  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a type of flotation machine that combines three separate operations in a single unit. The flotation machine is a hydraulic separator that is capable of reducing the pyrite and other mineral matter content of a coal. When the hydraulic separator is used with a flotation system, the pyrite and certain other mineral particles that may have been entrained by hydrodynamic forces associated with conventional flotation machines and/or by the attachment forces associated with the formation of microagglomerates are washed and separated from the coal. 4 figs.

Szymocha, K.; Ignasiak, B.; Pawlak, W.; Kulik, C.; Lebowitz, H.E.

1995-12-05

85

Coral Reef Adventure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from MacGillivray Freeman Films presents information about the movie "Coral Reef Adventure," as well as an assortment of links about coral reefs. In particular, the section on Learning About Reefs features a virtual dive that highlights marine life at various depths. This section also provides educational resources including a teacher's guide and learning activities. The site also includes links to many organizations that provide support for reversing the current worldwide decline in coral reef ecosystems and to finding new and sustainable solutions for managing the world's coral reefs.

MacGillivray Freeman

86

NOAA Coral Reef Watch Calcification Index of Coral Reef Ecosystems  

E-print Network

in the management, study and assessment of impacts of environmental change on coral reef ecosystems. #12;ValueNOAA Coral Reef Watch Calcification Index of Coral Reef Ecosystems NOAANOAA''ss Coral Reef Watch:Coral) NOAA/NESDIS/STAR/SO and Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) NOAA Coral Matrix Silver Spring

Kuligowski, Bob

87

Dioramas: Andros Coral Reef  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the shallow waters off the coast of Andros Island in the Caribbean, corals of all shapes and sizes form the Andros Reef, one of the largest barrier reefs in the world. Like other coral reefs, Andros was created by massive colonies of coral polyps, which are small, soft-bodied animals. These creatures have hard skeletons that form much of the structure of a coral reef. The once thriving Andros Reef is now threatened. In the past, antler-shaped elkhorn coral dominated the reef, with multiple colonies extending continuously for long stretches. Throughout the Caribbean today, this species exists primarily in isolated colonies and scientists estimate that in certain places, up to 95 percent of elkhorn coral has died. This site describes the formation of the reef along with the present problems.

88

Investigation of organosilicon compounds as reagents during coal flotation  

SciTech Connect

Work at Magnitogorsk Metals has confirmed the superiority of certain silico-organic compounds over conventional acetates and ethers as flotation reagents. At the same time, losses of coal in the discard are decreased, and consumption of reagent is diminished. The properties of silico-organic compounds that contribute to their effectiveness as flotation reagents are discussed.

Petykhov, V.N.

1984-01-01

89

Effect of ionic species on the performance of apatite flotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration of phosphate rock is strongly affected by the presence of ionic species dissolved in flotation pulp due to the interaction of ions with the surface of apatite particle. Process water containing large amounts of calcium, magnesium, fluoride and phosphate (phosphorus) directly influences the performance of apatite flotation (recovery and grade). This study quantified and analyzed the effect of

Mariana A. dos Santos; Ricardo C. Santana; Fabiano Capponi; Carlos H. Atade; Marcos A. S. Barrozo

2010-01-01

90

Coal-flotation chemistry. Final report, 1975-1981  

SciTech Connect

The Coal Preparation Division of DOE has sponsored a research program to study the chemistry of the two stage reverse flotation process in an attempt to understand important variables that determine the extent of pyritic sulfur removal. Briefly, the first step of the two stage process is simply conventional coal flotation, and the second stage, reverse flotation, involves the flotation of pyrite with a sulfhydryl collector from coal particles which are depressed with organic colloid-type depressants. The adsorption reactions involved in the second stage reverse flotation were of primary concern in this program. Research studies include: Adsorption of organic colloid depressants by coal, adsorption of xanthate by pyrite, bench scale flotation of ROM coal, coal flotation selectivity, and depressant desorption, and pyrite characterization. Experiments on the adsorption of organic colloid depressants by coal indicate that the adsorption isotherms for dextrin, amylose and cationic starch follow Langmuir behavior, and the isotherm for Aero 633 follows Freundlich behavior. These four depressants efficiently depress coal particles at rather low surface coverage (less than 10% surface saturation). Furthermore, at these low concentrations, the organic colloid depressants do not significantly influence xanthate flotation of pyrite. Microcalorimetric measurements reveal that the organic colloids are probably physically adsorbed on the coal surface by hydrophobic bonding. The adsorption of xanthate on pyrite was investigated by kinetic and thermochemical measurements. The results indicate that the rate of the adsorption reaction is controlled by an electrochemical reaction at the pyrite surface where xanthate is oxidized to dixanthogen and oxygen is reduced to water.

Miller, J.D.

1982-03-01

91

WILINSKI et al Dissolved Ozone Flotation as a innovative and  

E-print Network

bubbles (as in conventional flotation) and oxidation of soluble organic compounds using strong oxidizing of Environmental Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Nowowiejska 21, 00-653 Warszawa, Poland must be applied. The paper shows possibility of using traditional Dissolved Air Flotation method (DAF

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

92

FOAM FLOTATION TREATMENT OF INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATERS: LABORATORY AND PILOT SCALE  

EPA Science Inventory

A floc foam flotation pilot plant reduced lead and zinc in dilute solution to very low concentrations. The results suggest a number of design improvements. A simple diffusion model does not adequately describe axial dispersion at high column leadings. The floc foam flotation of z...

93

Introduction to ore geology  

SciTech Connect

This textbook on ore geology is for second and third year undergraduates and closely parallels the undergraduate course given in this subject at England's University of Leicester. The volume covers three major areas: (1) principles of ore geology, (2) examples of the most important types of ore deposits, and (3) mineralization in space and time. Many chapters have been thoroughly revised for this edition and a chapter on diamonds has been added. Chapters on greisen and pegmatite have also been added, the former in response to the changing situation in tin mining following the recent tin crisis, and the latter in response to suggestions from geologists in a number of overseas countries. Some chapters have been considerably expanded and new sections added, including disseminated gold deposits and unconformity-associated uranium deposits. The author also expands on the importance of viewing mineral deposits from an economic standpoint.

Evans, A.M.

1987-01-01

94

Coral Reef Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Coral Reef Ecosystems SciPack explores the unique and diverse ecosystem of the coral reef. The focus is on Standards and Benchmarks related to populations and ecosystems using coral reefs and their immediate environment as an example. Because the Standards and Benchmarks present the concepts of populations and ecosystems generically, without reference to a specific ecosystem or the organisms in the system, coral reefs are used to provide the context through which concepts in a marine ecosystem are explored.In addition to comprehensive inquiry-based learning materials tied to Science Education Standards and Benchmarks, the SciPack includes the following additional components:? Pedagogical Implications section addressing common misconceptions, teaching resources and strand maps linking grade band appropriate content to standards. ? Access to one-on-one support via e-mail to content "Wizards".? Final Assessment which can be used to certify mastery of the concepts.Learning Outcomes:Coral Reef Ecosystems: The Living Reef? Identify coral polyp structures and describe their functions.? Describe photosynthesis in the coral environment.? Describe the evolution of a typical reef system.? Use the shape of an individual coral to identify its common name, and classify entire coral reef ecosystems based on shape and location. ? Describe the process of coral polyp reproduction and growth.? Identify how the features and/or behavioral strategies of coral reef inhabitants enable them to survive in coral reef environments.Coral Reef Ecosystems: The Abiotic Setting? Identify the characteristics of an ecosystem, and describe the interdependence between biotic and abiotic features in an ecosystem.? Describe how the following abiotic factors provide coral with the energy needed to survive and grow within their ecosystem: sunlight, water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide.? Describe the optimal environmental conditions for coral reef growth, and explain the process of coral reef development (including the role of available sunlight and calcium).? Explain how the following environmental factors might affect coral ecosystems: increase in dissolved CO2, changes in global temperatures, increase in ocean water turbidity through water pollution.Coral Reef Ecosystems: Interdependence? Identify and label key components of food chains and food webs in a coral reef ecosystem.? Describe key relationships among plants and animals in the coral reef ecosystem: predator and prey relationships, producer and consumer relationships, and symbiotic relationships (mutualism, commensalisms, parasitism).? Recognize the direction that energy travels through food chains and food webs.? Explain that materials (chemical elements) and natural resources are recycled in coral reef ecosystems and reappear in different forms.? Describe the primary ecological succession events within a typical coral reef ecosystem.Coral Reef Ecosystems: Ecosystems in Crisis? Describe ways in which human activities directly impact coral reef ecosystems (resource and recreational uses).? Describe ways in which human activities indirectly impact coral reef ecosystems (by changing the physical conditions, pollution, changes in the water chemistry, etc.).? Explain how human activity may decrease the reefs ability to recover from natural occurrences. ? Explain the effects of increased predation or disease on a reef ecosystem.? Describe the effect of habitat loss on the reef ecosystem.? Describe the effects of weather and climate change on a healthy and weakened reef ecosystem.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2007-03-28

95

Artificial Coral Reefs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Coral reefs are among the most diverse ecosystems on the planet...and the most threatened. Artificial reefs may help stem the loss of these valuable and beautiful habitats, with shipwrecks, old subway cars, and other structures taking the place of living coral or rocky outcrops. The following Web sites introduce artificial reefs, reef ecology, and some ongoing efforts to establish reef communities in the U.S. and beyond. PBS's NATURE offers a fascinating look at the artificial reefs created by the thousands of shipwrecks and downed planes from World War II that riddle the South Pacific (1). This is the companion Web site to the documentary War Wrecks of the Coral Seas, and it includes some great multimedia features. The next site comes from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and contains an excellent photo gallery of coral ecosystems around the world (2). The collection includes six pages of artificial reef photos taken in the Pacific. The following site comes from the online companion to the BBC's acclaimed documentary series The Blue Planet. Based on the episode The Web of Life, this site offers a fun, multimedia challenge for learning about and testing one's knowledge of coral reefs (3). The site includes a section on artificial reefs (click on Take it Further). Next, an August 2001 segment from National Public Radio's All Things Considered explores efforts to create artificial reefs using decommissioned New York City subway cars -- a project of Delaware's Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control in the Division of Fish and Wildlife (4). Likewise, the non-profit group Artificial Reefs of the Keys is working to bring a de-commissioned military ship to the Florida Keys (5). The New Jersey Scuba Diver Web site provides an excellent introduction to artificial reef ecology; focused on reefs in New Jersey, of course. The mini-tutorial comes courtesy of William Figly, Principal Fisheries Biologist for the New Jersey Artificial Reef Program (6). The Fall 2001 issue of California Wild, the magazine of the California Academy of Sciences, addresses the benefits and concerns of off shore oil rigs becoming artificial reefs (7). Finally, visitors will find dozens of news articles and Web links related to artificial reefs in this entry, a page from the New England Artificial Reef Society Web site (8).

Sohmer, Rachel.

96

Gold ores related to shear zones, West Santa Comba-Fervenza Area (Galicia, NW Spain): A mineralogical study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent research has discovered high-grade Au ores in NNE-SSW trending shear zones in metamorphic proterozoic and palaeozoic terranes, some 40 km NW of Santiago de Compostela (NW Spain). The orebodies are bound to late-stage Hercynian structures, mainly due to brittle deformation, which are superimposed on earlier ductile shear zones, cutting through various catazonal lithologies, including ortho- and paragneisses, amphibolites, eclogites, and granites. Ore mineralogy, alteration, and ore textures define a frame whose main features are common to all prospects in the area. Main minerals are arsenopyrite and pyrite accompanied by quartz, adularia, sericite, (tourmaline, chlorite, carbonates, graphite), as main gangue minerals -with subordinate amounts of boulangerite, bismuthinite, kobellite, jamesonite, chalcopyrite, marcasite, galena, sphalerite, rutile, titanite, scheelite, beryl, fluorite, and minor native gold, electrum, native bismuth, fahlore, pyrrhotite, mackinawite, etc., defining a meso-catathermal paragenesis. Detailed microscopic study allows the author to propose a general descriptive scheme of textural classification for this type of ore. Most of the ores fill open spaces or veins, seal cracks or cement breccias; disseminated ores with replacement features related to alteration (mainly silicification, sericitization, and adularization) are also observed. Intensive and repeated cataclasis is a common feature of many ores, suggesting successive events of brittle deformation, hydrothermal flow, and ore precipitation. Gold may be transported and accumulated in any of these events, but tends to be concentrated in later ones. The origin of the gold ores is explained in terms of hydrothermal discharge, associated with mainly brittle deformation and possibly related to granitic magmas, in the global tectonic frame of crustal evolution of West Galicia. The mineralogical and textural study suggests some criteria which will be of practical value for exploration and for ore processing. Ore grades can be improved by flotation of arsenopyrite. Non-conventional methods, such as pressure or bacterial leaching, may subsequently obtain a residue enriched in gold.

Castroviejo, R.

1990-12-01

97

SURFACTANT SPRAY: A NOVEL TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE FLOTATION DEINKING PERFORMANCE  

SciTech Connect

Based on the fundamental understanding of ink removal and fiber loss mechanism in flotation deinking process, we developed this innovative technology using surfactant spray to improve the ink removal efficiency, reduce the water and fiber loss, reduce the chemical consumption and carry over in the flotation deinking. The innovative flotation deinking process uses a spray to deliver the frothing agent during flotation deinking to control several key process variables. The spray can control the foam stability and structure and modify the fluid dynamics to reduce the fibers entrapped in the froth layer. The froth formed at the top part of the flotation column will act as a physical filter to prevent the penetration of frothing agent into the pulp suspension to eliminate fiber contamination and unfavorable deinking surface chemistry modification due to surfactant adsorption on the fiber surface. Because of the filter effect, frothing agents will be better utilized. Under the sponsorships of the US Dept. of Energy (DOE) and the member companies of the Institute of Paper Science and Technology, we studied the chem-mechanical mechanism of surfactant spray for flotation deinking using different furnishes, chemicals, and flotation devices in the past four years. In the final year of the project, we successfully conducted mill trials at Abitibi-Consolidated, Inc., Snowflake paper recycling operation of 100% mixture of ONP/OMG. Results from laboratory, pilot-plant and mill trials indicated that surfactant spray technology can significantly reduce fiber loss in flotation deinking. It can be concluded that paper industry can profit greatly when this technology is commercialized in flotation deinking mills.

Yulin Deng; Junyong Zhu

2004-01-31

98

Reef Education Evaluation: Environmental Knowledge and Reef Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The Reef education evaluation: environmental knowledge and reef experience report concerns PhD research about marine education, and the investigation of learning with high school students and the effect of coral reef monitoring marine experiential education interventions. The effectiveness of classroom learning and reef trips were

Stepath, Carl M.

2005-01-01

99

U.S. Coral Reef Taskforce  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Government task force created in 1998 to research, monitor and conserve coral reefs. Site includes: background on coral reef habitats; reef ecology and environmental requirements; environmental requirements of reefs; reef functions and significance; natural and human threats to reefs. Also covered are: Task Force actions; policies and partnerships; and the National Action Plan for Coral Reef Conservation.

100

Electrical Aspects of Adsorbing Colloid Flotation. XXI. Flotation with Dodecylphosphate\\/n-Hexanol Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorbing colloid flotation of Pb(II), Cd(II), and Cu(II) with ferric hydroxide floc and the mixed surfactant system sodium dodecylphosphate (SDP)\\/n-hexanol was investigated. Good removals of Pb and Cu were obtained; removal of Cd was less satisfactory. The effects of interfering anions (sulfate, oxalate, silicate, phosphate) were studied; higher concentrations of these ions could be tolerated with SDP\\/n-hexanol than with

Keith Gannon; David J. Wilson

1987-01-01

101

Reefs in Crisis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article, from "The Biodiversity Crisis: Losing What Counts", walks students through the risks humans pose to the survival of coral reefs and conservation efforts. It discusses the forces behind damage to the reefs and recent protection efforts, including the creation of sanctuaries, good land management, and public awareness campaigns.

102

The Coral Reef Environmental \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coral reefs have been increasingly reported as ecosystems in severe crisis and decline, with estimates of irreparably damaged reefs to be around 54%, and possible losses of 15-20% more over the next half-century. The urgency to mitigate these declines has increased in recent years as the effects of global climate change have become apparent alongside steadily increasing population pressures in

Brbel G. Bischof

2010-01-01

103

Create a Coral Reef  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this hands-on OLogy activity, kids learn about coral reefs by building a diorama. Students are introduced to coral polyps and reefs and given illustrated, step-by-step directions that show how to construct a diorama containing models of a brain coral, a sea fan, a sponge, and sea anemones.

104

Capitol Reef Cliff  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A sandstone cliff near the entrance of Capitol Reef National Park. Capitol Reef is primarily made up of sandstone formations within the Waterpocket Fold, monocline that extends nearly 100 miles. A monocline is a step-like fold in rock strata that can resemble an enormous wrinkle in the earth. This l...

105

Capitol Reef Sandstone Monolith  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A sandstone monolith within Capitol Reef National Park. Capitol Reef is primarily made up of sandstone formations within the Waterpocket Fold, monocline that extends nearly 100 miles. A monocline is a step-like fold in rock strata that can resemble an enormous wrinkle in the earth....

106

Capitol Reef Sandstone Cliff  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A sandstone cliff within Capitol Reef National Park. Capitol Reef is primarily made up of sandstone formations within the Waterpocket Fold, monocline that extends nearly 100 miles. A monocline is a step-like fold in rock strata that can resemble an enormous wrinkle in the earth....

107

Capitol Reef Cliff  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A sandstone cliff near the entrance of Capitol Reef National Park. Capitol Reef is primarily made up of sandstone formations within the Waterpocket Fold, monocline that extends nearly 100 miles. A monocline is a step-like fold in rock strata thatcan resemble an enormous wrinkle in the earth.&n...

108

Capitol Reef Cliff  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A sandstone cliff near the entrance of Capitol Reef National Park. Capitol Reef is primarily made up of sandstone formations within the Waterpocket Fold, monocline that extends nearly 100 miles. A monocline is a step-like fold in rock strata that can resemble an enormous wrinkle in the earth. The tr...

109

Capitol Reef Panorama  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A panorama of some of the sandstone formations within Capitol Reef National Park. Capitol Reef is primarily made up of sandstone formations within the Waterpocket Fold, monocline that extends nearly 100 miles. A monocline is a step-like fold in rock strata that can resemble an enormous wrinkle in th...

110

Swimming kinematic and flotation analysis of conscious and sedated dogs using 3 canine flotation devices.  

PubMed

Canine flotation devices (CFDs) are very popular; however, their efficacy is still under debate. There is no oversight to standardize device testing, certification, or qualification for use. We set out to assess the biomechanical and behavioral effects of 3 CFDs on swim and flotation characteristics of dogs. High-speed video recordings were used to measure behavior, range of motion (ROM), maximum flexion angle, and cycles of motion per minute while swimming and roll, yaw, and fear or panic scoring while floating. Predictably, swimming with no CFD yielded the largest ROM and flexion angles. CFDINF was associated with the least ROM. During flotation, CFDAB and CFDRW caused significant rolling and fear, whereas CFDINF was the most stable. CFDAB was associated with cranial downpitch in 2 dogs. Interpretation of the kinematics for CFDAB and CFDRW suggests that decreased stability in the water leads to a greater forced ROM when the position of the dog was conducive to swimming. When positioning forced the dog into a downward pitch, ROM was decreased because of the increased effort for the dogs to keep their head above water. CFDINF was most stable overall owing to a decreased swim effort, with most dogs showing the lowest fear scores and absolute relaxation. CFDAB and CFDRW caused the dogs significant rolling, fear, and distress, with obvious fighting of sedation. We hope to disseminate these results to dog owners in the hopes of providing a valid assessment of these devices. PMID:25813850

Corum, China Prentice; Wichtowski, Maja; Hetts, Suzanne; Estep, Dan; Bertone, Joseph J

2014-12-01

111

Life on the Reef  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Expeditions Web site takes an in-depth look at life on one of the world's largest barrier reefs. The site begins with a brief explanation of the expedition and what its participants were looking to find. Dive the Reef is an interactive feature that allows students to learn what separates a lagoon from a reef from a shelf. Meet the Scientists has brief biographies of the 14 team members who participated in the expedition. At the Museum is an article that discusses the selection of the barrier reef system of Andros Island as well as the AMNH's long history of Bahamian research. The Reef from Space explains how NASA's computer-enhanced pictures from space contributed to the expedition's findings. The site also includes 12 dispatches written during the expedition, which can be found in the Today from the Bahamas section.

112

Ecology of mesophotic coral reefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesophotic coral reefs, reefs at depths of 30m to 150m, are receiving renewed interest from coral reef scientists and managers because they are linked physically and biologically to their shallow water counterparts, have the potential to be refugia for shallow coral reef taxa such as coral and sponges, and can be a source of larvae that could contribute to the

Michael P. Lesser; Marc Slattery; James J. Leichter

2009-01-01

113

Assessing the deep reef refugia hypothesis: focus on Caribbean reefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coral reefs in shallow-water environments (<30m) are in decline due to local and global anthropogenic stresses. This has\\u000a led to renewed interest in the deep reef refugia hypothesis (DRRH), which stipulates that deep reef areas (1) are protected\\u000a or dampened from disturbances that affect shallow reef areas and (2) can provide a viable reproductive source for shallow\\u000a reef areas following

P. Bongaerts; T. Ridgway; E. M. Sampayo; O. Hoegh-Guldberg

2010-01-01

114

ReefBase, A Global Information System on Coarl Reefs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

ReefBase is an online information system dedicated to coral reefs. The site aims to facilitate sustainable management of coral reefs and related coastal/marine environments. Included are data and information on the location, status, threats, monitoring, legislation, and management of coral reefs in 131 countries, extensive data on coral bleaching, a state-of-the-art online mapping-system that allows custom-made maps of coral reefs and related datasets, and an extensive bibliography of publications.

ReefBase

115

DISSOLVED AIR FLOTATION TREATMENT OF GULF SHRIMP CANNERY WASTEWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

This study reports on the operation of a plant scale dissolved air flotation system installed to define and evaluate attainable shrimp cannery wastewater treatment levels. The system was operated in all three modes of DAF pressurization. Destabilizing coagulants investigation inc...

116

FLOTATION ROOM, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, WITH LEAD ROUGHER CELLS AT RIGHT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

FLOTATION ROOM, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, WITH LEAD ROUGHER CELLS AT RIGHT AND LEAD CLEANER CELLS AT LEFT. NOTE SUNNYSIDE GOLD CORP. "SG" LOGO ON ROUGHER CELL LAUNDER. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

117

Separation of algal cells from water by column flotation  

SciTech Connect

The dispersed air flotation (DiAF) process was utilized to separate algal cells (Chlorella sp.) from water. Two types of collector, cationic N-cetyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and anionic sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS), were used. It was observed that 20% of cell removal was achieved in the presence of 40 mg/L of SDS, and ca. 86% of the cells were removed at 40 mg/L of CTAB. Upon the addition of 10 mg/L of chitosan, over 90% of the cells were removed when SDS (20 mg/L) was used as the collector. Air flow rate affected cell flotation slightly. Optimum pH values for cell flotation were from 4.0 to 5.0. Flotation efficiency decreased at high ionic strength. The electrostatic interaction between collector and cell surface plays a critical role in the separation processes.

Liu, J.C.; Chen, Y.M.; Ju, Y.H. [National Taiwan Univ. of Science and Technology, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [National Taiwan Univ. of Science and Technology, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1999-08-01

118

Flotation removal of As(V) onto goethite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic oxyanions, considered as priority pollutants, were removed from dilute aqueous solutions by sorption onto synthetic goethite, a typical inorganic adsorbent. Flotation was subsequently applied as an effective solid\\/liquid separation method. The combined process produced a foam concentrate, containing the arsenic-loaded goethite particles. The dispersed-air flotation technique was used for the generation of fine gas bubbles. The main parameters affecting

K. A. Matis; A. I. Zouboulis; F. B. Malamas; M. D. Ramos Afonso; M. J. Hudson

1997-01-01

119

Cross flow cyclonic flotation column for coal and minerals beneficiation  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and process for the separation of coal from pyritic impurities using a modified froth flotation system. The froth flotation column incorporates a helical track about the inner wall of the column in a region intermediate between the top and base of the column. A standard impeller located about the central axis of the column is used to generate a centrifugal force thereby increasing the separation efficiency of coal from the pyritic particles and hydrophillic tailings.

Lai, Ralph W. (Upper St. Clair, PA); Patton, Robert A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

2000-01-01

120

Coal desulfurization by bacterial treatment and column flotation. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A review of the literature showed that bacterial leaching, using the microorganism Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, was a very effective technique for removing pyrite from coal, as it could dissolve even the finest pyrite particles without the need for expensive reagents or extreme processing conditions. Unfortunately, bacterial leaching is also rather slow, and so the initial goal of this research was to decrease the leaching time as much as possible. However, this still left the bacteria needing approximately a week to remove half of the pyritic sulfur, and so a faster technique was sought. Since it had been reported in the literature that T. ferrooxidans could be used to depress the flotation of pyrite during froth flotation of coal, this was investigated further. By studying the recovery mechanisms of coal-pyrite in froth flotation, it was found that pyrite was being recovered by entrainment and by locking to coal particles, not by true flotation of hydrophobic pyrite. Therefore, no pyrite depressant could be of any significant benefit for keeping pyrite out of the coal froth product, and it was much more important to prevent entrainment from occurring. Countercurrent flotation columns were invented to essentially eliminate entrainment effects, by washing the froth and reducing mixing of the froth and tailings products. Existing flotation columns tend to be quite simple, and in order to give reasonable product quality they must be very tall (typically 30--45 feet). As a result, they have difficulty in handling the high froth volumes which occur in coal flotation, and are awkward to install in existing plants. The bulk of this project therefore concentrated on developing an improved coal flotation column, and testing it under actual plant conditions.

Kawatra, S.K. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States)

1994-06-01

121

Cross flow flotation column for coal and minerals beneficiation  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus and process are disclosed for the separation of coal from pyritic impurities using a modified froth flotation system. The froth flotation column incorporates a helical track about the inner wall of the column in a region intermediate between the top and base of the column. A standard impeller located about the central axis of the column is used to generate a centrifugal force thereby increasing the separation efficiency of coal from the pyritic particles and hydrophilic tailings.

Lai, Ralph W.; Patton, Robert A.

1997-12-01

122

Boiling treatment of ABS and PS plastics for flotation separation.  

PubMed

A new physical method, namely boiling treatment, was developed to aid flotation separation of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and polystyrene (PS) plastics. Boiling treatment was shown to be effective in producing a hydrophilic surface on ABS plastic. Fourier Transform Infrared analysis was conducted to investigate the mechanism of boiling treatment of ABS. Surface rearrangement of polymer may be responsible for surface change of boiling treated ABS, and the selective influence of boiling treatment on the floatability of boiling treated plastics may be attributed to the difference in the molecular mobility of polymer chains. The effects of flotation time, frother concentration and particle size on flotation behavior of simple plastic were investigated. Based on flotation behavior of simple plastic, flotation separation of boiling treatment ABS and PS with different particle sizes was achieved efficiently. The purity of ABS and PS was up to 99.78% and 95.80%, respectively; the recovery of ABS and PS was up to 95.81% and 99.82%, respectively. Boiling treatment promotes the industrial application of plastics flotation and facilitates plastic recycling. PMID:24602834

Wang, Chong-qing; Wang, Hui; Wu, Bao-xin; Liu, Qun

2014-07-01

123

Coral Reef Ecosystems: Interdependence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Object is the third of four Science Objects in the Coral Reef Ecosystems SciPack. It explores the interdependent relationships between species in the coral reef ecosystem. All populations in the reef ecosystem are a part of and depend on a global food web (a connected set of food chains) through which energy flows in one direction, from the sun into organism and eventually dissipating into the environment as heat. This food web includes ocean plants, the animals that feed on them, and the animals that feed on those animals. Energy is transferred between organisms and their environment along the way. Energy concentration diminishes at each step. The cycles of life continue indefinitely because organisms decompose after death and return food materials to the environment. Learning Outcomes:? Identify and label key components of food chains and food webs in a coral reef ecosystem.? Describe key relationships among plants and animals in the coral reef ecosystem: predator and prey relationships, producer and consumer relationships, and symbiotic relationships (mutualism, commensalisms, parasitism).? Recognize the direction that energy travels through food chains and food webs.? Explain that materials (chemical elements) and natural resources are recycled in coral reef ecosystems and reappear in different forms.? Describe the primary ecological succession events within a typical coral reef ecosystem.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2006-11-01

124

ReefBase: A Global Information System on Coral Reefs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

ReefBase, a comprehensive Web portal for information on coral reefs, is presented by the World Fish Center based in Malaysia. Intended for use by reef managers, scientists, and the general public, ReefBase aims to "facilitate better understanding of the interdependence between humans and coral reefs, in order to benefit management and conservation efforts of these important resources." ReefBase provides information on coastal and marine resources, coral reef threats, resource management practices, maps and photos, references, and more. Users can quickly search for information organized by country or territory using a convenient dropdown menu. ReefBase is frequently updated; one recent addition is a status report for coral reefs of the southwestern Indian Ocean.

Noordeloos, Machiel E.

125

Linking coral reef health and human welfare  

E-print Network

shifts on coral reefs: scientific issues and managementin Kenyan coral reef lagoons: the role of reef management.management. Major contribution in Responding to global change: a reef managers guide to coral

Walsh, Sheila Marie

2009-01-01

126

Optimization of Cu-Zn Massive Sulphide Flotation by Selective Reagents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Selective floatation of base metal sulphide minerals can be achieved by using selective reagents. Sequential floatation of chalcopyrite-sphalerite from Taknar (Iran) massive sulphide ore with 3.5 % Zn and 1.26 % Cu was studied. D-optimal design of response surface methodology was used. Four mixed collector types (Aer238 + SIPX, Aero3477 + SIPX, TC1000 + SIPX and X231 + SIPX), two depressant systems (CuCN-ZnSO4 and dextrin-ZnSO4), pH and ZnSO4 dosage were considered as operational factors in the first stage of flotation. Different conditions of pH, CuSO4 dosage and SIPX dosage were studied for sphalerite flotation from first stage tailings. Aero238 + SIPX induced better selectivity for chalcopyrite against pyrite and sphalerite. Dextrin-ZnSO4 was as effective as CuCN-ZnSO4 in sphalerite-pyrite depression. Under optimum conditions, Cu recovery, Zn recovery and pyrite content in Cu concentrate were 88.99, 33.49 and 1.34 % by using Aero238 + SIPX as mixed collector, CuCN-ZnSO4 as depressant system, at ZnSO4 dosage of 200 g/t and pH 10.54. When CuCN was used at the first stage, CuSO4 consumption increased and Zn recovery decreased during the second stage. Maximum Zn recovery was 72.19 % by using 343.66 g/t of CuSO4, 22.22 g/t of SIPX and pH 9.99 at the second stage.

Soltani, F.; Koleini, S. M. J.; Abdollahy, M.

2014-10-01

127

Removal of Wax and Stickies from OCC by Flotation  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory research indicates that wax is amenable to removal by froth flotation provided it is free or detached from the fiber. The only effective means, at this time, of maximizing detachment of wax is through the use of low consistency pulping at temperatures above the melting point of wax. Wax removal from WCC through washing, flotation, or a combination of both was approximately 90% in these laboratory studies, indicating that not all of the wax is detached from fibers. These results were summarized in Annual Report 1, December 1, 1997 to November 30, 1998. Pilot trials were conducted in which the authors simulated a conventional OCC repulping process with and without flotation. Additional aggressive washing and water clarification were also examined during the study. The inclusion of flotation in the OCC stock preparation system significantly improved the removal of wax spots and extractable material from the furnish. Based on this study, the authors predict that a compact flotation system with 2 lb surfactant/ton of fiber would improve the OCC pulp quality with regard to wax spots by 60% and would not negatively affect strength properties. Flotation losses would be in the 2-5% range. Two mill trials were conducted during the last quarter of the project. One trial was carried out at Green Bay Packaging, Green Bay, WI, and a second trial was conducted at Menasha Corporation, Otsego, MI. A 250-liter Voith Sulzer Ecocell was used to evaluate the removal of wax and stickies from the OCC processing systems at these two mills. The inclusion of flotation in the OCC stock preparation system significantly improved the removal of wax spots from the furnish. The data indicate that flotation was more effective in removing wax and stickies than reverse cleaners. The mill trials have demonstrated that flotation can be substituted for or replace existing reverse cleaning systems and, in some cases, can replace dispersion systems. In this manner, the use of flotation can provide significant energy savings when compared to reverse cleaning or dispersion.

M. R. Doshi; J. Dyer

2000-01-31

128

Ferride geochemistry of Swedish precambrian iron ores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical analysis for major and trace elements have been performed on 30 Swedish Precambrian iron ores and on some from Iran and Chile. The Swedish ores consist of apatite iron ores, quartz-banded iron ores, skarn and limestone iron ores from the two main ore districts of Sweden, the Bergslagen and the Norrbotten province. Some Swedish titaniferous iron ores were also included in the investigation. The trace element data show that the Swedish ores can be subdivided into two major groups: 1. orthomagmatic and exhalative, 2. sedimentary. Within group 1 the titaniferous iron ores are distinguished by their high Ti-contents. From the ferride contents of the Kiruna apatite iron ores, the ores are considered to be mobilization products of skarn iron ores from the Norbotten province.

Loberg, B. E. H.; Horndahl, A.-K.

1983-10-01

129

Electrical aspects of adsorbing colloid flotation. XXI. Flotation with dodecylphosphate/n-hexanol mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The adsorbing colloid flotation of Pb(II), Cd(II), and Cu(II) with ferric hydroxide floc and the mixed surfactant system sodium dodecylphosphate (SDP)/n-hexanol was investigated. Good removals of Pb and Cu were obtained; removal of Cd was less satisfactory. The effects of interfering anions (sulfate, oxalate, silicate, phosphate) were studied; higher concentrations of these ions could be tolerated with SDP/n-hexanol than with sodium dodecylsulfate. Measurements of the cmc of SDP were made; low solubility prevented determinations in the pH range 4-8.5.

Gannon, K.; Wilson, D.J.

1987-12-01

130

Australia's Great Barrier Reef  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Great Barrier Reef extends for 2,000 kilometers along the northeastern coast of Australia. It is not a single reef, but a vast maze of reefs, passages, and coral cays (islands that are part of the reef). This nadir true-color image was acquired by the MISR instrument on August 26, 2000 (Terra orbit 3679), and shows part of the southern portion of the reef adjacent to the central Queensland coast. The width of the MISR swath is approximately 380 kilometers, with the reef clearly visible up to approximately 200 kilometers from the coast. It may be difficult to see the myriad details in the browse image, but if you retrieve the higher resolution version, a zoomed display reveals the spectacular structure of the many reefs.

The more northerly coastal area in this image shows the vast extent of sugar cane cultivation, this being the largest sugar producing area in Australia, centered on the city of Mackay. Other industries in the area include coal, cattle, dairying, timber, grain, seafood, and fruit. The large island off the most northerly part of the coast visible in this image is Whitsunday Island, with smaller islands and reefs extending southeast, parallel to the coast. These include some of the better known resort islands such as Hayman, Lindeman, Hamilton, and Brampton Islands.

Further south, just inland of the small semicircular bay near the right of the image, is Rockhampton, the largest city along the central Queensland coast, and the regional center for much of central Queensland. Rockhampton is just north of the Tropic of Capricorn. Its hinterland is a rich pastoral, agricultural, and mining region.

MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

2001-01-01

131

Coral Reef Ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coral reefs are geological structures of significant dimensions, constructed over millions of years by calcifying organisms. The present day reef-builders are hard corals belonging to the order Scleractinia, phylum Cnidaria. The greatest concentrations of coral reefs are in the tropics, with highest levels of biodiversity situated in reefs of the Indo-West Pacific region. These ecosystems have provided coastal protection and livelihood to human populations over the millennia. Human activities have caused destruction of these habitats, the intensity of which has increased alarmingly since the latter decades of the twentieth century. The severity of this impact is directly related to exponential growth rates of human populations especially in the coastal areas of the developing world. However, a more recently recognized phenomenon concerns disturbances brought about by the changing climate, manifested mainly as rising sea surface temperatures, and increasing acidification of ocean waters due to greater drawdown of higher concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Management efforts have so far not kept pace with the rates of degradation, so that the spatial extent of damaged reefs and the incidences of localized extinction of reef species are increasing year after year. The major management efforts to date consist of establishing marine protected areas and promoting the active restoration of coral habitats.

Yap, Helen T.

132

46 CFR 117.72 - Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets. 117.72 Section 117.72 Shipping...PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets 117.72 Personal flotation devices...

2010-10-01

133

46 CFR 180.72 - Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets. 180.72 Section 180.72 Shipping...TONS) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets 180.72 Personal flotation devices...

2010-10-01

134

46 CFR 117.72 - Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets. 117.72 Section 117.72 Shipping...PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets 117.72 Personal flotation devices...

2014-10-01

135

46 CFR 117.72 - Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets. 117.72 Section 117.72 Shipping...PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets 117.72 Personal flotation devices...

2013-10-01

136

46 CFR 180.72 - Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets. 180.72 Section 180.72 Shipping...TONS) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets 180.72 Personal flotation devices...

2011-10-01

137

46 CFR 117.72 - Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets. 117.72 Section 117.72 Shipping...PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets 117.72 Personal flotation devices...

2012-10-01

138

46 CFR 117.72 - Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets. 117.72 Section 117.72 Shipping...PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets 117.72 Personal flotation devices...

2011-10-01

139

46 CFR 180.72 - Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets. 180.72 Section 180.72 Shipping...TONS) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets 180.72 Personal flotation devices...

2014-10-01

140

46 CFR 180.72 - Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets. 180.72 Section 180.72 Shipping...TONS) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets 180.72 Personal flotation devices...

2013-10-01

141

46 CFR 180.72 - Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets. 180.72 Section 180.72 Shipping...TONS) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets 180.72 Personal flotation devices...

2012-10-01

142

Role of the collecting agent sorption forms in the elementary act of flotation  

SciTech Connect

A new hypothesis of flotation is substantiated based on the well-known hypotheses, theoretical analysis of the elementary act, and experimental results. The hypothesis presented allows the processes of flotation activation, depression, and intensification to be explained and optimized.

Abramov, A.A. [Moscow State Mining University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2005-02-01

143

An overview of Miocene reefs  

SciTech Connect

Miocene reefs lived approximately within the latitudes of 27{degree}S to 48{degree}N compared with 25{degree}S and 32{degree}N for Holocene reefs. This expansion of reef-growing environments was the result of warm Miocene climates, aided by a eustatic sea level rise and tectonic styles that provided numerous foundations for reef development. The majority of Miocene reefs are found in three main areas: (1) Southeast Asia and the western Pacific, (2) the Mediterranean-Middle East, and (3) Middle America and the Caribbean. These regions, with their distinctive suites of coral and foramineral species, formed three biological provinces; respectively, they are the Indo-Pacific, Tethyan, and Western Atlantic provinces. Miocene reefs in Southeast Asia occur in several foreland basins as patch reef complexes on paleohighs and as barrier reefs in back-arc basins. Those reefs in the Mediterranean occur as fringing reefs, middle-shelf patch reefs, or as barrier reefs on the edges of tectonic blocks associated with Alpine thrust belts. Most reefs in the Caribbean grew on isolated open-ocean highs of volcanic origin. Miocene reefs display a diversity of framework types: (1) coral-encrusting, red algal boundstones with diverse coral faunas, (2) branching coral-encrusting, red algal boundstones with a limited Poritid fauna, (3) encrusting red algal boundstones. Barrier reef systems are especially rich in encrusting red algae and robust corals; grainstones are common as interbedded sediment. Patch reef complexes, however, display muddy carbonate textures, may have less diverse coral faunas, and commonly have larger foraminifera. The global distribution of Miocene reefs is important because (1) it provides insight into a paleoclimatic view of the earth during a major greenhouse stage and (2) Miocene buildups, such as the Arun (EUR of 14 tcf) and Bima fields (EUR of about 100 MMBO), are exploration targets.

Jordan, C.F. Jr. (Mobil Research and Development Corp., Dallas, TX (USA)); Colgan, M.W. (College of Charleston, SC (USA)); Frost, S.H. (Unocal, Los Angeles, CA (USA)); Glenn, E.C. (Phillips Petroleum, Bartlesville, OK (USA)); Bosence, D. (Royal Holloway and Bedford New College, Egham (England)); Esteban, M. (ERICO Petroleum Information Ltd., London (England))

1990-05-01

144

Immobilization of copper flotation waste using red mud and clinoptilolite.  

PubMed

The flash smelting process has been used in the copper industry for a number of years and has replaced most of the reverberatory applications, known as conventional copper smelting processes. Copper smelters produce large amounts of copper slag or copper flotation waste and the dumping of these quantities of copper slag causes economic, environmental and space problems. The aim of this study was to perform a laboratory investigation to assess the feasibility of immobilizing the heavy metals contained in copper flotation waste. For this purpose, samples of copper flotation waste were immobilized with relatively small proportions of red mud and large proportions of clinoptilolite. The results of laboratory leaching demonstrate that addition of red mud and clinoptilolite to the copper flotation waste drastically reduced the heavy metal content in the effluent and the red mud performed better than clinoptilolite. This study also compared the leaching behaviour of metals in copper flotation waste by short-time extraction tests such as the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), deionized water (DI) and field leach test (FLT). The results of leach tests showed that the results of the FLT and DI methods were close and generally lower than those of the TCLP methods. PMID:18927060

Coruh, Semra

2008-10-01

145

Flotation of sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate salts from their saturated brines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flotation behavior of sodium carbonates and sodium bicarbonate has been studied with dodecyl amine hydrochloride (DAH) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as part of a research program to evaluate the potential of flotation technology for use in the trona industry. Laboratory microflotation experiments generally show that flotation of sodium carbonate salts is possible at least to some extent with

O Ozcan; J. D Miller

2002-01-01

146

The Effect of Copper Bearing Particles Liberation on Copper Recovery from Smelter Slag by Flotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we have presented the results of our study. We have investigated the impact of liberation of copper bearing particles on recovery of copper in the flotation process. Tests have shown that grinding of material highly impacts the recovery rate in the flotation process. Results of flotation of smelter slag samples with different contents of grain size fraction

Zoran M. Stirbanovic; Zoran S. Markovic

2011-01-01

147

Status of Kenyan Coral Reefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of four marine parks and numerous reefs experiencing intense human resource use has provided the opportunity for a number of studies that have helped increase the understanding of human impacts on Kenyan reefs. Studies indicate that the removal of finfish is having the largest impact on unprotected reefs and has a number of secondary and tertiary effects on

T. R. Mcclanahan; D. Obura

1995-01-01

148

Coral reef bleaching: ecological perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coral reef bleaching, the whitening of diverse invertebrate taxa, results from the loss of symbiotic zooxanthellae and\\/or a reduction in photosynthetic pigment concentrations in zooxanthellae residing within the gastrodermal tissues of host animals. Of particular concern are the consequences of bleaching of large numbers of reef-building scleractinian corals and hydrocorals. Published records of coral reef bleaching events from 1870 to

P. W. Glynn

1993-01-01

149

Coral reef hydrogeology  

SciTech Connect

Knowledge of internal flow velocities and pore water residence time is important in understanding pore water geochemistry, nutrient fluxes at the benthic boundary, reef diagenesis, and fresh water resources in reef islands. Hydrogeologic studies of Pacific and Indian Ocean reef and atoll islands indicate a dual aquifer systems; the major Pleistocene aquifer has hydraulic conductivities on the order of 1000 m/d, while the overlying Holocene aquifer of unconsolidated sediments is at least an order of magnitude less permeable. The high permeability in the Pleistocene formation is the result of large voids, both constructional and from subaerial solution during low stands of the sea. Wind, wave and tide induced head differences ranging from a few centimeters to several tens of centimeters provide the driving force for internal flow. Pore water residence times and geochemistry will vary greatly, depending on whether the water is in a major flow channel or in more restricted pores. Studies of both submerged reefs and atoll islands give bulk pore water residence times on the order of months to a few years. Chemical analyses of pore water indicate that both carbonate solution and precipitation are taking place, which will alter porosity and permeability with time. The dual aquifer model also suggests that the Ghyben-Herzberg lens approach to reef island fresh water resources is inaccurate and can lead to a gross overestimation of the potable resource. 18 refs., 5 figs.

Buddemeier, R.W.; Oberdorfer, J.A.

1985-05-21

150

Postglacial Fringing-Reef to Barrier-Reef conversion on Tahiti links Darwin's reef types  

PubMed Central

In 1842 Charles Darwin claimed that vertical growth on a subsiding foundation caused fringing reefs to transform into barrier reefs then atolls. Yet historically no transition between reef types has been discovered and they are widely considered to develop independently from antecedent foundations during glacio-eustatic sea-level rise. Here we reconstruct reef development from cores recovered by IODP Expedition 310 to Tahiti, and show that a fringing reef retreated upslope during postglacial sea-level rise and transformed into a barrier reef when it encountered a Pleistocene reef-flat platform. The reef became stranded on the platform edge, creating a lagoon that isolated it from coastal sediment and facilitated a switch to a faster-growing coral assemblage dominated by acroporids. The switch increased the reef's accretion rate, allowing it to keep pace with rising sea level, and transform into a barrier reef. This retreat mechanism not only links Darwin's reef types, but explains the re-occupation of reefs during Pleistocene glacio-eustacy. PMID:24845540

Blanchon, Paul; Granados-Corea, Marian; Abbey, Elizabeth; Braga, Juan C.; Braithwaite, Colin; Kennedy, David M.; Spencer, Tom; Webster, Jody M.; Woodroffe, Colin D.

2014-01-01

151

Postglacial Fringing-Reef to Barrier-Reef conversion on Tahiti links Darwin's reef types  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1842 Charles Darwin claimed that vertical growth on a subsiding foundation caused fringing reefs to transform into barrier reefs then atolls. Yet historically no transition between reef types has been discovered and they are widely considered to develop independently from antecedent foundations during glacio-eustatic sea-level rise. Here we reconstruct reef development from cores recovered by IODP Expedition 310 to Tahiti, and show that a fringing reef retreated upslope during postglacial sea-level rise and transformed into a barrier reef when it encountered a Pleistocene reef-flat platform. The reef became stranded on the platform edge, creating a lagoon that isolated it from coastal sediment and facilitated a switch to a faster-growing coral assemblage dominated by acroporids. The switch increased the reef's accretion rate, allowing it to keep pace with rising sea level, and transform into a barrier reef. This retreat mechanism not only links Darwin's reef types, but explains the re-occupation of reefs during Pleistocene glacio-eustacy.

Blanchon, Paul; Granados-Corea, Marian; Abbey, Elizabeth; Braga, Juan C.; Braithwaite, Colin; Kennedy, David M.; Spencer, Tom; Webster, Jody M.; Woodroffe, Colin D.

2014-05-01

152

Postglacial fringing-reef to barrier-reef conversion on Tahiti links Darwin's reef types.  

PubMed

In 1842 Charles Darwin claimed that vertical growth on a subsiding foundation caused fringing reefs to transform into barrier reefs then atolls. Yet historically no transition between reef types has been discovered and they are widely considered to develop independently from antecedent foundations during glacio-eustatic sea-level rise. Here we reconstruct reef development from cores recovered by IODP Expedition 310 to Tahiti, and show that a fringing reef retreated upslope during postglacial sea-level rise and transformed into a barrier reef when it encountered a Pleistocene reef-flat platform. The reef became stranded on the platform edge, creating a lagoon that isolated it from coastal sediment and facilitated a switch to a faster-growing coral assemblage dominated by acroporids. The switch increased the reef's accretion rate, allowing it to keep pace with rising sea level, and transform into a barrier reef. This retreat mechanism not only links Darwin's reef types, but explains the re-occupation of reefs during Pleistocene glacio-eustacy. PMID:24845540

Blanchon, Paul; Granados-Corea, Marian; Abbey, Elizabeth; Braga, Juan C; Braithwaite, Colin; Kennedy, David M; Spencer, Tom; Webster, Jody M; Woodroffe, Colin D

2014-01-01

153

Microbial reduction of iron ore  

DOEpatents

A process is provided for reducing iron ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of iron ore, microorganisms operable for reducing the ferric iron of the iron ore to ferrous iron, and a substrate operable as an energy source for the microbial reduction; and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the reduction of the ore. Preferably the microorganism is Pseudomonas sp. 200 and the reduction conducted anaerobically with a domestic wastewater as the substrate. An aqueous solution containing soluble ferrous iron can be separated from the reacted mixture, treated with a base to precipitate ferrous hydroxide which can then be recovered as a concentrated slurry.

Hoffmann, Michael R. (Pasadena, CA); Arnold, Robert G. (Pasadena, CA); Stephanopoulos, Gregory (Pasadena, CA)

1989-01-01

154

Microbial reduction of iron ore  

DOEpatents

A process is provided for reducing iron ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of iron ore, microorganisms operable for reducing the ferric iron of the iron ore to ferrous iron, and a substrate operable as an energy source for the microbial reduction; and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the reduction of the ore. Preferably the microorganism is Pseudomonas sp. 200 and the reduction conducted anaerobically with a domestic wastewater as the substrate. An aqueous solution containing soluble ferrous iron can be separated from the reacted mixture, treated with a base to precipitate ferrous hydroxide which can then be recovered as a concentrated slurry. 11 figs.

Hoffmann, M.R.; Arnold, R.G.; Stephanopoulos, G.

1989-11-14

155

StORe Business Analysis  

E-print Network

The StORe project is multidisciplinary in scope, embracing the seven scientific domains of archaeology, astronomy, biochemistry, biosciences, chemistry, physics and the social sciences (originally described in the project ...

Miller, Ken

2006-12-15

156

A Study of the Optimal Model of the Flotation Kinetics of Copper Slag from Copper Mine BOR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study the effect of mixtures of copper slag and flotation tailings from copper mine Bor, Serbia on the flotation results of copper recovery and flotation kinetics parameters in a batch flotation cell has been investigated. By simultaneous adding old flotation tailings in the ball mill at the rate of 9%, it is possible to increase copper recovery for about 20%. These results are compared with obtained copper recovery of pure copper slag. The results of batch flotation test were fitted by MatLab software for modeling the first-order flotation kinetics in order to determine kinetics parameters and define an optimal model of the flotation kinetics. Six kinetic models are tested on the batch flotation copper recovery against flotation time. All models showed good correlation, however the modified Kelsall model provided the best fit.

Stanojlovi?, Rodoljub D.; Sokolovi?, Jovica M.

2014-10-01

157

Method for enhancing selectivity and recovery in the fractional flotation of particles in a flotation column  

DOEpatents

The method relates to particle separation from a feed stream. The feed stream is injected directly into the froth zone of a vertical flotation column in the presence of a counter-current reflux stream. A froth breaker generates a reflux stream and a concentrate stream, and the reflux stream is injected into the froth zone to mix with the interstitial liquid between bubbles in the froth zone. Counter-current flow between the plurality of bubbles and the interstitial liquid facilitates the attachment of higher hydrophobicity particles to bubble surfaces as lower hydrophobicity particles detach. The height of the feed stream injection and the reflux ratio may be varied in order to optimize the concentrate or tailing stream recoveries desired based on existing operating conditions.

Klunder, Edgar B. (Bethel Park, PA)

2011-08-09

158

Gray's Reef Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provides a sampling of research projects conducted at the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary off Georgia's Sapelo Island. Projects range from geology to trawling impacts on the seafloor, estimating fish populations by video transect, Sanctuary monitoring using data buoys, sidescan sonar and other technologies. Examples of current projects: conducting a study on the movement patterns of fish in the area; efforts to understand the roles of "choices" fishes might make in their behaviors, and its impact on diversity of species found in reef fish communities and a study designed to inventory the invertebrates and fish communities and analyze how those communities are impacted by fishing activities. Appropriate for grades 9 and up.

159

Coral reef resilience through biodiversity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Irrefutable evidence of coral reef degradation worldwide and increasing pressure from rising seawater temperatures and ocean acidification associated with climate change have led to a focus on reef resilience and a call to manage coral reefs for resilience. Ideally, global action to reduce emission of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases will be accompanied by local action. Effective management requires reduction of local stressors, identification of the characteristics of resilient reefs, and design of marine protected area networks that include potentially resilient reefs. Future research is needed on how stressors interact, on how climate change will affect corals, fish, and other reef organisms as well as overall biodiversity, and on basic ecological processes such as connectivity. Not all reef species and reefs will respond similarly to local and global stressors. Because reef-building corals and other organisms have some potential to adapt to environmental changes, coral reefs will likely persist in spite of the unprecedented combination of stressors currently affecting them. The biodiversity of coral reefs is the basis for their remarkable beauty and for the benefits they provide to society. The extraordinary complexity of these ecosystems makes it both more difficult to predict their future and more likely they will have a future.

Rogers, Caroline S.

2013-01-01

160

The evolution of reef communities  

SciTech Connect

This book discusses the composition, structure, occurrence, and changes in reefs during the past 2 billion years. It emphasizes the functional roles of major groups (guilds) of reef-building, reef-destroying, and reed-dwelling organisms in the most complex of all marine communities. A structural model, based on modern reef guilds, is developed. Then the functional roles of each major reef-building higher biologic taxon (algae, sponges, coral, etc.) is determined, and, on this basis, each such taxon is assigned to a reef community guild. Next, the authors traces the geologic history and guild assignment of each major taxon through geologic time. The final chapter establishes a succession of ten major reef community types, and considers their extinction and recovery in the light of modern theories of cosmic and earthly events.

Fagerstrom, J.A.

1987-01-01

161

Reef talus: A popular misconception  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reef fronts have traditionally been regarded as comprising debris derived by contemporaneous erosion of 'the reef'. However, evidence from wave transport indicates that on present-day reefs the bulk of the debris generated in this way accumulates in the back-reef area, with only finer-grained sediment carried off-reef by retreating flows or by overwash. Nevertheless, in contrast to this observation, 'fore-reef' debris slopes are commonly considered "characteristic" of Phanerozoic reefs. This apparent error reflects the conflation of processes defining contemporary growth and accretion of the reef, and the corresponding long-term accretion of the carbonate platform on which it rests. Present-day reefs are commonly (although not exclusively) additions to long-lived carbonate platforms. Growth of the latter is intermittent and has been moderated by changes in sea-level that, for recent reefs, have been on time scales of less than 100 ka. During low sea-level stands, growth ceases or is translated downslope and earlier deposits are subject to lithification and subaerial erosion. Similar changes are applied on a larger scale to the aggrading growth of carbonate platforms, but the bulk accretion of these includes quite different processes and reflects far longer timescales. During low sea-level stands, the margins of platforms commonly become unstable, with instability reflected in slope failure and in the shedding of blocks, ranging from metres to kilometres in diameter, associated with the generation of debris flows and turbidites. It is argued that these are the materials that are commonly described as 'reef talus' in ancient structures, although their formation is largely independent of any contemporary reef growth. Difficulties arise where 'the reef' and 'the platform' are treated as a single functional entity. It is important to recognize the conceptual distinction between them, 'reef talus' is a misleading description of the debris predominantly generated by platform erosion and slope failure.

Braithwaite, Colin J. R.

2014-01-01

162

Surface chemistry control for selective fossil resin flotation  

DOEpatents

A froth flotation method is disclosed for separating fine particles of fossil resin from by use of frothing reagents which include an aliphatic organic compound having a polar group and containing not more than four carbon atoms. Butanol is an effective frothing reagent in this method.

Miller, Jan D. (1886 Atkin Ave., Salt Lake City, UT 84106); Yi, Ye (2875 E. Wander Way, Salt Lake City, UT 84117); Yu, Qiang (224 University Village, Salt Lake City, UT 84108)

1994-01-01

163

Engineering development of advanced froth flotation. Volume 2, Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report is an account of findings related to the Engineering and Development of Advanced Froth Flotation project. The results from benchscale and proof-of-concept (POC) level testing are presented and the important results from this testing are used to refine a conceptual design and cost estimate for a 20 TPH Semi-Works Facility incorporating the final proposed technology.

Ferris, D.D.; Bencho, J.R.; Torak, E.R. [ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1995-03-01

164

14 CFR 121.340 - Emergency flotation means.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01...121.340 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...operation unless it is equipped with life preservers in accordance...airplane over water without the life preservers or flotation...

2010-01-01

165

14 CFR 121.340 - Emergency flotation means.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01...121.340 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...operation unless it is equipped with life preservers in accordance...airplane over water without the life preservers or flotation...

2013-01-01

166

14 CFR 121.340 - Emergency flotation means.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01...121.340 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...operation unless it is equipped with life preservers in accordance...airplane over water without the life preservers or flotation...

2014-01-01

167

14 CFR 121.340 - Emergency flotation means.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01...121.340 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...operation unless it is equipped with life preservers in accordance...airplane over water without the life preservers or flotation...

2011-01-01

168

14 CFR 121.340 - Emergency flotation means.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01...121.340 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...operation unless it is equipped with life preservers in accordance...airplane over water without the life preservers or flotation...

2012-01-01

169

Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this research project is to develop advanced flotation methods for coal cleaning in order to achieve near total pyritic-sulfur removal at 90% Btu recovery, using coal samples procured from six major US coal seams. Concomitantly, the ash content of these coals is to be reduced to 6% or less. Work this quarter concentrated on the following: washability studies, which included particle size distribution of the washability samples, and chemical analysis of washability test samples; characterization studies of induction time measurements, correlation between yield, combustible-material recovery (CMR), and heating-value recovery (HVR), and QA/QC for standard flotation tests and coal analyses; surface modification and control including testing of surface-modifying reagents, restoration of hydrophobicity to lab-oxidized coals, pH effects on coal flotation, and depression of pyritic sulfur in which pyrite depression with calcium cyanide and pyrite depression with xanthated reagents was investigated; flotation optimization and circuitry included staged reagent addition, cleaning and scavenging, and scavenging and middling recycling. Weathering studies are also discussed. 19 figs., 28 tabs.

Fuerstenau, D.W.; Sastry, K.V.S.; Hanson, J.S.; Harris, G.; Sotillo, F.; Diao, J. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA)); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (USA)); Hu, Weibai; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (USA)); Choudhry, V.; Sehgal, R.; Ghosh, A. (Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (USA))

1990-08-15

170

Create a Coral Reef  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Educator Amy O'Donnell from the American Museum of Natural History guides learners to create a diorama of a coral reef. Learners will use craft skills to transform household materials into simulated brain coral, sea fans, sea anemones, and a sponge. This resource contains background information about coral and the use of dioramas in museums. Also includes extension ideas.

2012-06-26

171

Coral Reef Biological Criteria  

EPA Science Inventory

Coral reefs worldwide are experiencing decline from a variety of stressors. Some important stressors are land-based sources of pollution and human activities in the coastal zone. However, few tools are available to offset the impact of these stressors. The Clean Water Act (CWA...

172

CORAL REEF BIOCRITERIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Coral reefs worldwide are experiencing the greatest decline of their known existence and few tools are available to offset the growing impacts of human coastal and watershed activities. Biocriteria are a potentially effective means to evaluate and restore impaired waters, but are...

173

Reefs since Columbus  

Microsoft Academic Search

History shows that Caribbean coastal ecosystems were severely degraded long before ecologists began to study them. Large vertebrates such as the green turtle, hawksbill turtle, manatee and extinct Caribbean monk seal were decimated by about 1800 in the central and northern Caribbean, and by 1990 elsewhere. Subsistence over-fishing subsequently decimated reef fish populations. Local fisheries accounted for a small fraction

J. B. C. Jackson

1997-01-01

174

Capitol Reef Petroglyphs  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

From about 300-1300 CE, ancestors of the Hopi Tribe, Pueblo of Zuni, and Paiute Tribe lived in Capitol Reef. They are known by various names-archeologists call them the Fremont Culture; the Hopi Tribe calls them the Hisatsinom, or the

175

Castle in Capitol Reef  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A view of the Castle, a prominent sandstone formation in Capitol Reef National Park. This area, known as the Fruita, is made up of three primary layers. The bottom sandstone layer is known as the Moenkopi Formation and is about 245 million years old. The middle gray-green layer is known as the Chinl...

176

Capitol Reef's Castle  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A view of the Castle, a prominent sandstone formation in Capitol Reef National Park. This area, known as the Fruita, is made up of three primary layers. The bottom sandstone layer is known as the Moenkopi Formation and is about 245 million years old. The middle gray-green layer is known as the Chinl...

177

Petroglyphs in Captiol Reef  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

From about 300-1300 CE, ancestors of the Hopi Tribe, Pueblo of Zuni, and Paiute Tribe lived in Capitol Reef. They are known by various names-archeologists call them the Fremont Culture; the Hopi Tribe calls them the Hisatsinom, or the

178

Rivers, runoff, and reefs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The role of terrigenous sediment in controlling the occurrence of coral reef ecosystems is qualitatively understood and has been studied at local scales, but has not been systematically evaluated on a global-to-regional scale. Current concerns about degradation of reef environments and alteration of the hydrologic and sediment cycles place the issue at a focal point of multiple environmental concerns. We use a geospatial clustering of a coastal zone database of river and local runoff identified with 0.5?? grid cells to identify areas of high potential runoff effects, and combine this with a database of reported coral reef locations. Coastal cells with high runoff values are much less likely to contain reefs than low runoff cells and GIS buffer analysis demonstrates that this inhibition extends to offshore ocean cells as well. This analysis does not uniquely define the effects of sediment, since salinity, nutrients, and contaminants are potentially confounding variables also associated with runoff. However, sediment effects are likely to be a major factor and a basis is provided for extending the study to higher resolution with more specific variables. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

McLaughlin, C.J.; Smith, C.A.; Buddemeier, R.W.; Bartley, J.D.; Maxwell, B.A.

2003-01-01

179

Miocene reefs in western Mediterranean  

SciTech Connect

Coral reefs were particularly abundant and well developed during the late Tortonian and Messinian in southeastern Spain, the Balearic Islands, Italy, Sicily, Algeria, and Morocco. These reefs occurred just before and during the deposition of the thick Messinian evaporite units in the basinal areas and disappeared completely from Mediteranean during the early Pliocene. Most of the coral reefs are fringing terrigenous coastal fan complexes with very small lagoons and show progradation of less than 2 km. Some of the reefs occur on, or are intercalated with, Neogene volcanics or Messinian evaporites. Barrier-reef complexes are less common, have extensive lagoons behind them, and show complex progradational geometries more than 10 km wide. Excellent outcrops allow detailed reconstruction of paleogeography and sea level changes. Progradation predominated during phases of relative sea level drops and stillsands, while significant retrogradation occurred during sea level rises. The coral reef wall framework is commonly less than 20 m thick and is dominated by Porites and, locally, Tarbellastrae. Older Miocene reefs are less well developed, but show greater diversity of corals and reef organisms. Younger Miocene reef complexes occurring in open ocean settings are formed by only one branching coral genus (Porites or, locally, Tarbellastraea) with branching colonies up to 7 m high. Halimeda sands are particularly abundant in the upper reef slopes with occasional intercalations of red algae pavements that most likely coincide with episodes of terrigenous influx.

Esteban, M.

1988-01-01

180

Ecological intereactions of reef building corals  

EPA Science Inventory

Coral reefs are very important marine ecosystems because they support tremendous biodiversity and reefs are critical economic resources many coastal nations. Tropical reef structures are largely built by stony corals. This presentation provides background on basic coral biology t...

181

Coral Reef Connections-Ecological Relationships Among Reef Creatures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive dive through Australia's Great Barrier Reef, students will discover relationships that have evolved between the resident organisms. Some are predators and prey; others compete for space, food, or mates; and still others are dependent or codependent on each other. Students select one of four reef zones, then click on a type of relationship, predation and parasitism, competition or commensalism and mutualism to learn more about these relationships among reef creatures.

WGBH

2011-10-24

182

Coral Reef Protection: A Watershed Approach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

EPA's home page on coral reef protection activities, including The International Coral Reef Initiative, and The Coral Reef Symposium. A tremendous resource for educators interested in coral reef basics through advanced topics such as coral reef ecology and legislation. Site includes peer-reviewed journal articles, factsheets, maps, and video. The Links section is packed with extensive coral reef information sites covering international and domestic initiatives, research, and even a section for kids and teachers.

183

An observational heat budget analysis of a coral reef, Heron Reef, Great Barrier Reef, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of the surface energy balance, the structure and evolution of the convective atmospheric reef layer (CARL), and local meteorology and hydrodynamics were made during June 2009 and February 2010 at Heron Reef, Australia, to establish the relative partitioning of heating within the water and atmosphere. Horizontal advection was shown to moderate temperature in the CARL and the water, having a cooling influence on the atmosphere, and providing an additional source or sink of energy to the water overlying the reef, depending on tide. The key driver of atmospheric heating was surface sensible heat flux, while heating of the reef water was primarily due to solar radiation, and thermal conduction and convection from the reef substrate. Heating and cooling processes were more defined during winter due to higher sensible and latent heat fluxes and strong diurnal evolution of the CARL. Sudden increases in water temperature were associated with inundation of warmer oceanic water during the flood tide, particularly in winter due to enhanced nocturnal cooling of water overlying the reef. Similarly, cooling of the water over the reef occurred during the ebb tide as heat was transported off the reef to the surrounding ocean. While these results are the first to shed light on the heat budget of a coral reef and overlying CARL, longer-term, systematic measurements of reef thermal budgets are needed under a range of meteorological and hydrodynamic conditions, and across various reef types to elucidate the influence on larger-scale oceanic and atmospheric processes. This is essential for understanding the role of coral reefs in tropical and sub-tropical meteorology; the physical processes that take place during coral bleaching events, and coral and algal community dynamics on coral reefs.

MacKellar, Mellissa C.; McGowan, Hamish A.; Phinn, Stuart R.

2013-03-01

184

Ecotourism: The Great Barrier Reef  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Working with your partner, pretend you are employed with an ecotourism company. Your goal is to convince the Australian government that you would be the most qualified team to give ecotours of the Great Barrier Reef. Create a brochure to demonstrate your knowledge and ability. To get the job as ecotour guides, you will need to know a lot about the reef, and about how to visit it in an environmentally sound way. Start your research by filling out the Research Outline. The following websites will be most useful in finding the needed information: FACT SHEET ON CORAL OF THE GREAT BARRIER REEF Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority National Geographic: Great Barrier Reef Students and Teachers Coastal Watershed Factsheets Coral Reefs and Your Coastal Watershed Once you ...

Mrs. Wheeler

2010-05-18

185

International Society for Reef Studies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located within the Florida Institute of Technology, the International Society for Reef Studies (ISRS) was founded in 1980, and is designed to disseminate its findings on both living and fossil coral reefs to fellow scholars around the globe and the general public. Before delving into the main site, visitors will want to look through the ISRS in-house publication "Reef Encounters" to get a sense of the various projects the organization is currently working on, and of course, to read brief summaries of its research findings. Of course, for those who already are passionate about coral reefs, there is also a link to sign up for the NOAA "Coral List" forum. The resources section of the site is another good place to look for outside Web resources on other coral reef societies, marine laboratories, and government sites that contain materials on coral reefs and marine biology.

186

Oceanic Forcing of Coral Reefs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the oceans play a fundamental role in shaping the distribution and function of coral reefs worldwide, a modern understanding of the complex interactions between ocean and reef processes is still only emerging. These dynamics are especially challenging owing to both the broad range of spatial scales (less than a meter to hundreds of kilometers) and the complex physical and biological feedbacks involved. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of these processes, ranging from the small-scale mechanics of flow around coral communities and their influence on nutrient exchange to larger, reef-scale patterns of wave- and tide-driven circulation and their effects on reef water quality and perceived rates of metabolism. We also examine regional-scale drivers of reefs such as coastal upwelling, internal waves, and extreme disturbances such as cyclones. Our goal is to show how a wide range of ocean-driven processes ultimately shape the growth and metabolism of coral reefs.

Lowe, Ryan J.; Falter, James L.

2015-01-01

187

Oceanic forcing of coral reefs.  

PubMed

Although the oceans play a fundamental role in shaping the distribution and function of coral reefs worldwide, a modern understanding of the complex interactions between ocean and reef processes is still only emerging. These dynamics are especially challenging owing to both the broad range of spatial scales (less than a meter to hundreds of kilometers) and the complex physical and biological feedbacks involved. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of these processes, ranging from the small-scale mechanics of flow around coral communities and their influence on nutrient exchange to larger, reef-scale patterns of wave- and tide-driven circulation and their effects on reef water quality and perceived rates of metabolism. We also examine regional-scale drivers of reefs such as coastal upwelling, internal waves, and extreme disturbances such as cyclones. Our goal is to show how a wide range of ocean-driven processes ultimately shape the growth and metabolism of coral reefs. PMID:25251270

Lowe, Ryan J; Falter, James L

2015-01-01

188

The modes of occurrence of rare-earths ores and the issues on their beneficiation processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rare-earths (RE) ores can largely be divided into the following four types in terms of the modes of occurrence. In each type of RE ores, there are some issues on beneficiation processes, which should be resolved for their successful exploitation. 1. Fine-grained phosphates with iron oxides: This type ores are commonly found from weathered carbonatite and IOCG deposits. The former is Araxa (Brazil), Zandkopsdrift (South Africa), Mt. Weld (Australia) and Yen Phu (Vietnam), and the latter Bayan Obo (China), Vergenoeg (South Africa) and Olympic Dam (Australia). Main RE minerals are monazite, xenotime and florencite contained in the aggregates of iron oxides such as goethite, hematite and magnetite. Fluorite often occurs in the latter type ores. The phosphates and iron oxides occur commonly as very fine grains (< 10 micron meters), and thus they are not readily separated by conventional physical processing. 2. Fluorapatite veins: This type ores are found from the deposits related to alkaline igneous rocks. Nolans Bore (Australia), Palabora (South Africa) and Mushugai Khudag (Mongolia) are the examples. RE is contained mostly in fluorapatite and associated monazite. It is expected that RE can be produced as byproducts of phosphorus fertilizer. However, dissolution of fluorapatite by sulfuric acid causes the coprecipitation of RE with gypsum, which is a refractory material. 3. Silicates and niobium oxides: This type ores are found from hydrothermally altered alkaline plutonic rocks or pegmatitic veins related to alkaline magmatism. Nechalacho and Strange Lake (Canada), Kvanefjeld (Greenland), Bokan Mountain (US), Norra Karr (Sweden) and Dubbo (Australia) are the representative deposits. Main RE minerals are zircon, eudialyte, mosandrite, fergusonite and allanite. They are relatively enriched in heavy RE, and it is expected that part of RE can be produced as byproducts of zirconium. However, their acid dissolution often causes the coprecipitation of RE with silica gel, which is also a refractory material. 4. Medium- to coarse-grained carbonates: This type ores occur in less weathered carbonatite bodies. Mountain Pass (US), Maoniuping (China) and Dong Pao (Vietnam) are the representative deposits. Bastnasite is a main RE mineral. Though, the ores can readily be beneficiated by conventional flotation and dissolved by acid solution, they are always depleted in heavy RE.

Takagi, T.

2012-04-01

189

The Paleoecology of Coral Reefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Reefs are one of the oldest ecosystems in the world, and coral reefs have had a rich and varied history over hundreds of millions\\u000a of years. The long-term history of living reef organisms provides an essential window in which to view a number of fundamental\\u000a evolutionary and ecological processes over extended time frames not available to modern ecology over years

John M. Pandolfi

190

Spatial Resilience of Coral Reefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been several earlier studies that addressed the influence of natural disturbance regimes on coral reefs. Humans\\u000a alter natural disturbance regimes, introduce new stressors, and modify background conditions of reefs. We focus on how coral\\u000a reef ecosystems relate to disturbance in an increasingly human-dominated environment. The concept of ecosystem resiliencethat\\u000a is, the capacity of complex systems with multiple stable

Magnus Nystrm; Carl Folke

2001-01-01

191

Coral Reefs in Hot Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, student teams identify the locations of coral reefs around the world, examine infrared satellite images of the Earth, and research the impacts that are threatening the survival of coral reefs. Each team creates a short oral presentation describing the coral reef they have researched. Students then plot on a composite map the locations where coral bleaching is occurring. Student worksheets, a teacher guide, and assessment rubric are included. This activity is part of Coastal Areas: Coral Reefs in Hot Water, part of the lesson series, The Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change.

2012-08-03

192

Digital Reef Rugosity Estimates Coral Reef Habitat Complexity  

PubMed Central

Ecological habitats with greater structural complexity contain more species due to increased niche diversity. This is especially apparent on coral reefs where individual coral colonies aggregate to give a reef its morphology, species zonation, and three dimensionality. Structural complexity is classically measured with a reef rugosity index, which is the ratio of a straight line transect to the distance a flexible chain of equal length travels when draped over the reef substrate; yet, other techniques from visual categories to remote sensing have been used to characterize structural complexity at scales from microhabitats to reefscapes. Reef-scale methods either lack quantitative precision or are too time consuming to be routinely practical, while remotely sensed indices are mismatched to the finer scale morphology of coral colonies and reef habitats. In this communication a new digital technique, Digital Reef Rugosity (DRR) is described which utilizes a self-contained water level gauge enabling a diver to quickly and accurately characterize rugosity with non-invasive millimeter scale measurements of coral reef surface height at decimeter intervals along meter scale transects. The precise measurements require very little post-processing and are easily imported into a spreadsheet for statistical analyses and modeling. To assess its applicability we investigated the relationship between DRR and fish community structure at four coral reef sites on Menjangan Island off the northwest corner of Bali, Indonesia and one on mainland Bali to the west of Menjangan Island; our findings show a positive relationship between DRR and fish diversity. Since structural complexity drives key ecological processes on coral reefs, we consider that DRR may become a useful quantitative community-level descriptor to characterize reef complexity. PMID:23437380

Dustan, Phillip; Doherty, Orla; Pardede, Shinta

2013-01-01

193

Coral reefs on the edge? Carbon chemistry on inshore reefs of the great barrier reef.  

PubMed

While increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration alters global water chemistry (Ocean Acidification; OA), the degree of changes vary on local and regional spatial scales. Inshore fringing coral reefs of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) are subjected to a variety of local pressures, and some sites may already be marginal habitats for corals. The spatial and temporal variation in directly measured parameters: Total Alkalinity (TA) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentration, and derived parameters: partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2); pH and aragonite saturation state (?ar) were measured at 14 inshore reefs over a two year period in the GBR region. Total Alkalinity varied between 2069 and 2364 mol kg-1 and DIC concentrations ranged from 1846 to 2099 mol kg-1. This resulted in pCO2 concentrations from 340 to 554 atm, with higher values during the wet seasons and pCO2 on inshore reefs distinctly above atmospheric values. However, due to temperature effects, ?ar was not further reduced in the wet season. Aragonite saturation on inshore reefs was consistently lower and pCO2 higher than on GBR reefs further offshore. Thermodynamic effects contribute to this, and anthropogenic runoff may also contribute by altering productivity (P), respiration (R) and P/R ratios. Compared to surveys 18 and 30 years ago, pCO2 on GBR mid- and outer-shelf reefs has risen at the same rate as atmospheric values (?1.7 atm yr-1) over 30 years. By contrast, values on inshore reefs have increased at 2.5 to 3 times higher rates. Thus, pCO2 levels on inshore reefs have disproportionately increased compared to atmospheric levels. Our study suggests that inshore GBR reefs are more vulnerable to OA and have less buffering capacity compared to offshore reefs. This may be caused by anthropogenically induced trophic changes in the water column and benthos of inshore reefs subjected to land runoff. PMID:25295864

Uthicke, Sven; Furnas, Miles; Lnborg, Christian

2014-01-01

194

Coral Reefs on the Edge? Carbon Chemistry on Inshore Reefs of the Great Barrier Reef  

PubMed Central

While increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration alters global water chemistry (Ocean Acidification; OA), the degree of changes vary on local and regional spatial scales. Inshore fringing coral reefs of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) are subjected to a variety of local pressures, and some sites may already be marginal habitats for corals. The spatial and temporal variation in directly measured parameters: Total Alkalinity (TA) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentration, and derived parameters: partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2); pH and aragonite saturation state (?ar) were measured at 14 inshore reefs over a two year period in the GBR region. Total Alkalinity varied between 2069 and 2364 mol kg?1 and DIC concentrations ranged from 1846 to 2099 mol kg?1. This resulted in pCO2 concentrations from 340 to 554 atm, with higher values during the wet seasons and pCO2 on inshore reefs distinctly above atmospheric values. However, due to temperature effects, ?ar was not further reduced in the wet season. Aragonite saturation on inshore reefs was consistently lower and pCO2 higher than on GBR reefs further offshore. Thermodynamic effects contribute to this, and anthropogenic runoff may also contribute by altering productivity (P), respiration (R) and P/R ratios. Compared to surveys 18 and 30 years ago, pCO2 on GBR mid- and outer-shelf reefs has risen at the same rate as atmospheric values (?1.7 atm yr?1) over 30 years. By contrast, values on inshore reefs have increased at 2.5 to 3 times higher rates. Thus, pCO2 levels on inshore reefs have disproportionately increased compared to atmospheric levels. Our study suggests that inshore GBR reefs are more vulnerable to OA and have less buffering capacity compared to offshore reefs. This may be caused by anthropogenically induced trophic changes in the water column and benthos of inshore reefs subjected to land runoff. PMID:25295864

Uthicke, Sven; Furnas, Miles; Lnborg, Christian

2014-01-01

195

Status of coral reef and reef fish resources of Vanuatu  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coral reefs of Vanuatu contribute to rural incomes, nutrition, shoreline protection and, more importantly, self reliance for the people of Vanuatu. The total area of shallow water benthic coral communities is relatively small, approximately 408 square kilometres out of a combined land area of 12, 190 square kilometres. Although there are many reefs of exceptional beauty in good health,

William Naviti; James Aston

196

In-plant testing of microbubble column flotation. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Microbubble column flotation (MCF) was developed at the Virginia Center for Coal and Minerals Processing (VCCMP) for the selective recovery of fine particles. Bench-scale test work conducted at VCCMP, largely under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), showed that the technology worked well for both coal and mineral applications. For the technology to be commercially successful, however, a full-scale demonstration of the MCF technology was deemed necessary. This report summarizes the results of work performed under the DOE project entitled ``In-plant Testing of Microbubble Column Flotation.`` The objectives of this research and development effort were to duplicate the bench-scale performance of the MCF process in a full-scale unit, to verify the scale-up procedure developed in an earlier project, and to demonstrate the applicability of the MCF technology to the coal industry.

Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.; Mankosa, M.J.

1991-07-31

197

In-plant testing of microbubble column flotation  

SciTech Connect

Microbubble column flotation (MCF) was developed at the Virginia Center for Coal and Minerals Processing (VCCMP) for the selective recovery of fine particles. Bench-scale test work conducted at VCCMP, largely under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), showed that the technology worked well for both coal and mineral applications. For the technology to be commercially successful, however, a full-scale demonstration of the MCF technology was deemed necessary. This report summarizes the results of work performed under the DOE project entitled In-plant Testing of Microbubble Column Flotation.'' The objectives of this research and development effort were to duplicate the bench-scale performance of the MCF process in a full-scale unit, to verify the scale-up procedure developed in an earlier project, and to demonstrate the applicability of the MCF technology to the coal industry.

Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.; Mankosa, M.J.

1991-07-31

198

Metal biosorption-flotation. Application to cadmium removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biosorption, using suspended non-living biomass, and flotation (for consequent solid\\/liquid separation of the metal-loaded biomass) have been studied in the laboratory as a possible combined process, for the removal of toxic metals (i.e. cadmium) from dilute aqueous solutions. The various parameters of the process were investigated in depth, including re-use of biosorbent. A filter aid (contained in the biomass industrial

K. A. Matis; A. I. Zouboulis; A. A. Grigoriadou; N. K. Lazaridis; L. V. Ekateriniadou

1996-01-01

199

Adsorbing Flotation of Copper Hydroxo Precipitates by Pyrite Fines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of copper ions from dilute aqueous solutions by the addition of mineral (pyrite) fine particles was undertaken by following an adsorbing (scavenging) flotation mechanism. Pyrite generally constitutes a residual or a solid industrial waste by-product in mixed sulfides processing plants. This paper suggests a further utilization for pyrite. The dissolved-air method was applied for solid\\/liquid separation when the

A. I. Zouboulis; K. A. Kydros; K. A. Matis

1992-01-01

200

Ion flotationits potential for hydrometallurgical operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ion flotation is a separation technology for recovering and removing metal ions from dilute aqueous solutions. In this process, an ionic collector is utilized to transport non-surface active colligend ions of the opposite charge from a bulk solution to the solutionvapor interface. If a sufficiently large solutionvapor interfacial area can be provided by sparging gas through the solution, the colligend

Fiona M. Doyle

2003-01-01

201

Conical O-ring seal  

DOEpatents

A shipping container for radioactive or other hazardous materials which has a conical-shaped closure containing grooves in the conical surface thereof and an O-ring seal incorporated in each of such grooves. The closure and seal provide a much stronger, tighter and compact containment than with a conventional flanged joint.

Chalfant, Jr., Gordon G. (North Augusta, SC)

1984-01-01

202

DETERMINATION OF THORIUM IN ORES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure for the determination of thorium in ores is as follows: The ; sample is decomposed with perchloric and hydrofluoric acids and is dissolved in ; hydrochloric acid. The residue is reserved. Sodium hydroxide precipitation is ; made and the precipitate is dissolved in nitric acid (solution A). The reserved ; residue is then used with sodium peroxide and

S. Sekine; T. Mochizuki

1961-01-01

203

Gaseous reduction of laterite ores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lateritic nickel ores have been reduced under laboratory conditions. The reduction experiments were carried out at temperatures from 500 C to 1100 C in a horizontal tube furnace using various mixtures of H2 and CO2. The hydrogen evolution method was used to measure the degree of metallization of the reduced ore. It was found that the rate of reduction was very low at 500 C but then increased rapidly upon heating the ore to 600 C. The percent metallics increased with increasing H2 to CO2 ratios in the reducing gas. At temperatures between 600 C and 1100 C, a H2 to CO2 ratio of 3 leads to the formation of 5 to 6 pct metallics in the reduced calcine was shown. Heating the ore in air or nitrogen prior to reduction does not affect the degree of metallization. A H2 to CO2 ratio of at least 4 is required to obtain a ferronickel product analyzing 36 pct nickel if no further reduction is carried out during the subsequent smelting operation.

Utigard, T.; Bergman, R. A.

1993-04-01

204

Microcel{trademark} flotation technology in the international marketplace  

SciTech Connect

The Microcel flotation column was developed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy and is based on the concept that the rate of flotation increase with decreasing bubble size. In this technology, small air bubbles are generated by agitating part of the slurry at the bottom of a flotation column by means of in-line mixers and a centrifugal pump. The size of bubbles generated in full-size columns are usually controlled in the range of 0.25 to 1.0 mm depending on the particle size and hydrophobicity of the particles to be floated. As a result of using small air bubbles (which are sometimes referred to as microbubbles), the Microcel columns can recovery very fine coal particles with high recoveries. The fine coal particles collected by the microbubbles are washed in the froth phase using fresh water to obtain high-grade products. Thus, Microcel columns are capable of producing high-grade products with high recoveries. Other advantages of the Microcel columns include throughput, low maintenance requirement, and low energy consumption. Because of these advantages, the Microcel columns have been installed in the US, Australia and China for coal cleaning and in Spain and Chile for processing sulfide minerals. In this presentation, some of the scale-up test work will be presented and the economic benefits of installing Microcels will be discussed.

Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.; Phillips, D.I. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Center for Coal and Mineral Processing

1996-12-31

205

Flotation and flocculation chemistry of coal and oxidized coals  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research project is to understand the fundamentals involved in the flotation and flocculation of coal and oxidized coals and elucidate mechanisms by which surface interactions between coal and various reagents enhance coal beneficiation. An understanding of the nature of the heterogeneity of coal surfaces arising from the intrinsic distribution of chemical moieties is fundamental to the elucidation of mechanism of coal surface modification and its role in interfacial processes such as flotation, flocculation and agglomeration. A new approach for determining the distribution in surface properties of coal particles was developed in this study and various techniques capable of providing such information were identified. Distributions in surface energy, contact angle and wettability were obtained using novel techniques such as centrifugal immersion and film flotation. Changes in these distributions upon oxidation and surface modifications were monitored and discussed. An approach to the modelling of coal surface site distributions based on thermodynamic information obtained from gas adsorption and immersion calorimetry is proposed. Polyacrylamide and dodecane was used to alter the coal surface. Methanol adsorption was also studied. 62 figs.

Somasundaran, P.

1990-01-01

206

Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective in the scope of this research project is to develop advanced flotation methods for coal cleaning in order to achieve near total pyritic-sulfur removal at 90% Btu recovery, using coal samples procured from three major US coal seams. Concomitantly, the ash content of these coals is to be reduced to 6% or less. Investigation of mechanisms for the control of coal and pyrite surfaces prior to fine coal flotation is the main aspect of the project objectives. The results of this research are to be made available to ICF Kaiser Engineers who are currently working on the Engineering Development of Advanced Flotation under a separate contract with DOE under the Acid Rain Control Initiative program. A second major objective is to investigate factors involved in the progressive weathering and oxidation of coal that had been exposed to varying degrees of weathering, namely, open to the atmosphere, covered and in an argon-inerted'' atmosphere, over a period of twelve months. After regular intervals of weathering, samples of the three base coals (Illinois No. 6, Pittsburgh No. 8 and Upper Freeport PA) were collected and shipped to both the University of Pittsburgh and the University of California at Berkeley for characterization studies of the weathered material. 29 figs., 29 tabs.

Fuerstenau, D.W.; Sastry, K.V.S.; Hanson, J.S.; Diao, J.; De, A.; Sotillo, F.; Harris, G. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)); Hu, Weibai; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)); Choudhry, V.; Sehgal, R.; Ghosh, A. (Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United

1991-07-30

207

Endogenic Au-Ag polymetallic ore deposits and ore-bearing potentiality of strata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of ore-bearing potentiality of the strata involves metallogenic theory and ore-search orientation. Studies of\\u000a the spatial distribution of endogenic Au-Ag polymetallic ore deposits in North Hebei indicated that the strata in which ore\\u000a deposits occurred range in age from Paleozoic, Proterozoic to Mesozoic. In addition the ore deposits are characterized as\\u000a being strata-bound in nature. The arise and

Baode Wang; Shuyin Niu; Aiqun Sun; Yan Xie; Yi Luo; Hailong Liu; Yanhua Wang

2010-01-01

208

Black reefs: iron-induced phase shifts on coral reefs  

PubMed Central

The Line Islands are calcium carbonate coral reef platforms located in iron-poor regions of the central Pacific. Natural terrestrial run-off of iron is non-existent and aerial deposition is extremely low. However, a number of ship groundings have occurred on these atolls. The reefs surrounding the shipwreck debris are characterized by high benthic cover of turf algae, macroalgae, cyanobacterial mats and corallimorphs, as well as particulate-laden, cloudy water. These sites also have very low coral and crustose coralline algal cover and are call black reefs because of the dark-colored benthic community and reduced clarity of the overlying water column. Here we use a combination of benthic surveys, chemistry, metagenomics and microcosms to investigate if and how shipwrecks initiate and maintain black reefs. Comparative surveys show that the live coral cover was reduced from 40 to 60% to <10% on black reefs on Millennium, Tabuaeran and Kingman. These three sites are relatively large (>0.75?km2). The phase shift occurs rapidly; the Kingman black reef formed within 3 years of the ship grounding. Iron concentrations in algae tissue from the Millennium black reef site were six times higher than in algae collected from reference sites. Metagenomic sequencing of the Millennium Atoll black reef-associated microbial community was enriched in iron-associated virulence genes and known pathogens. Microcosm experiments showed that corals were killed by black reef rubble through microbial activity. Together these results demonstrate that shipwrecks and their associated iron pose significant threats to coral reefs in iron-limited regions. PMID:21881615

Kelly, Linda Wegley; Barott, Katie L; Dinsdale, Elizabeth; Friedlander, Alan M; Nosrat, Bahador; Obura, David; Sala, Enric; Sandin, Stuart A; Smith, Jennifer E; Vermeij, Mark J A; Williams, Gareth J; Willner, Dana; Rohwer, Forest

2012-01-01

209

Black reefs: iron-induced phase shifts on coral reefs.  

PubMed

The Line Islands are calcium carbonate coral reef platforms located in iron-poor regions of the central Pacific. Natural terrestrial run-off of iron is non-existent and aerial deposition is extremely low. However, a number of ship groundings have occurred on these atolls. The reefs surrounding the shipwreck debris are characterized by high benthic cover of turf algae, macroalgae, cyanobacterial mats and corallimorphs, as well as particulate-laden, cloudy water. These sites also have very low coral and crustose coralline algal cover and are call black reefs because of the dark-colored benthic community and reduced clarity of the overlying water column. Here we use a combination of benthic surveys, chemistry, metagenomics and microcosms to investigate if and how shipwrecks initiate and maintain black reefs. Comparative surveys show that the live coral cover was reduced from 40 to 60% to <10% on black reefs on Millennium, Tabuaeran and Kingman. These three sites are relatively large (>0.75 km(2)). The phase shift occurs rapidly; the Kingman black reef formed within 3 years of the ship grounding. Iron concentrations in algae tissue from the Millennium black reef site were six times higher than in algae collected from reference sites. Metagenomic sequencing of the Millennium Atoll black reef-associated microbial community was enriched in iron-associated virulence genes and known pathogens. Microcosm experiments showed that corals were killed by black reef rubble through microbial activity. Together these results demonstrate that shipwrecks and their associated iron pose significant threats to coral reefs in iron-limited regions. PMID:21881615

Kelly, Linda Wegley; Barott, Katie L; Dinsdale, Elizabeth; Friedlander, Alan M; Nosrat, Bahador; Obura, David; Sala, Enric; Sandin, Stuart A; Smith, Jennifer E; Vermeij, Mark J A; Williams, Gareth J; Willner, Dana; Rohwer, Forest

2012-03-01

210

AAAS Feb `04 Frontiers in Coral Reef Research Climate Change and Coral Reefs  

E-print Network

AAAS Feb `04 Frontiers in Coral Reef Research Climate Change and Coral Reefs Joan A. Kleypas University of Kansas Lawrence, KS EARTH SeaWiFS image from: Orbimage #12;AAAS Feb `04 Frontiers in Coral Reef Feb `04 Frontiers in Coral Reef Research Effects of CO2 on Coral Reefs Reduced [CO3 2-] Increased

Kleypas, Joanie

211

Coral reef collapse spells danger for millions Island communities that depend on coral reef  

E-print Network

Coral reef collapse spells danger for millions Island communities that depend on coral reef (Canada), published in Current Biology. The report on island coral reef fisheries reveals that 55pc of coral reef would be needed ­ an area 3.7 times greater than Australia's Great Barrier Reef (pictured

Feigon, Brooke

212

Keeping Watch on Coral Reefs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity identifies and explains the benefits of and threats to coral reef systems. Students read tutorials, describe the role of satellites, analyze oceanographic data and identify actions that can be undertaken to reduce or eliminate threats to coral reefs. As a culminating activity, students prepare a public education program.

NOAA Ocean Service Education

213

Sandstone Cliffs in Capitol Reef  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Sandstone cliffs in Capitol Reef National Park. Capitol Reef is primarily made up of sandstone formations within the Waterpocket Fold, monocline that extends nearly 100 miles. A monocline is a step-like fold in rock strata that can resemble an enormous wrinkle in the earth....

214

Sandstone Cliff in Capitol Reef  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A sandstone cliff in Capitol Reef National Park. Capitol Reef is primarily made up of sandstone formations within the Waterpocket Fold, monocline that extends nearly 100 miles. A monocline is a step-like fold in rock strata that can resemble an enormous wrinkle in the earth....

215

Sandstone Monolith in Capitol Reef  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A sandstone monolith in Capitol Reef National Park. Capitol Reef is primarily made up of sandstone formations within the Waterpocket Fold, monocline that extends nearly 100 miles. A monocline is a step-like fold in rock strata that can resemble an enormous wrinkle in the earth....

216

Confronting the coral reef crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The worldwide decline of coral reefs calls for an urgent reassessment of current management practices. Confronting large-scale crises requires a major scaling-up of management efforts based on an improved understanding of the ecological processes that underlie reef resilience. Managing for improved resilience, incorporating the role of human activity in shaping ecosystems, provides a basis for coping with uncertainty, future changes

T. P. Hughes; C. Folke; M. Nystrm; D. R. Bellwood

2004-01-01

217

PBS Online NewsHour: Coral Reefs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In-depth coverage of the role of coral reefs in environment, medicinal properties, and conservation efforts, together with instructional materials. Includes lesson plan; interactive on coral-reef building blocks; extended interviews; and stories on reef threats, international treaties, Caribbean reefs, mangrove shields, and the Aquarius undersea lab. Main story is provided as text, streaming video, and RealAudio.

218

Spectral discrimination of coral reef bottom types  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degradation of coral reefs is a major environmental problem worldwide. There is a strong management need for cost-effective assessment of environmental health and reef conditions over large regions in remote areas. Remote sensing could be an ideal tool for monitoring coral reefs and related ecosystems in cases where different coral reef substrates are spectrally resolvable. The aim of the present

T. Kutser; W. Skirving; J. Parslow; L. Clementson; T. Done; M. Wakeford; I. Miller

2001-01-01

219

Selective flotation of fossil resin from Western coal. Final report, July 1, 1990--May 25, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The proof-of-concept test program was designed to clarify a number of concerns that have been raised by coal companies who own the valuable resin resource. First, from laboratory bench-scale flotation experiments, a froth product from cleaner flotation containing more than 80% hexane-extractable resin at higher than 80% recovery can be produced. Pilot-plant testing was initiated to demonstrate the selective flotation of fossil resin and to establish a better confidence level in the new technology. Second, pilot-plant testing was designed to evaluate the effect and impact of random variation in slurry solids concentration and feed grade on this new selective fossil resin flotation technology. The flotation performance obtained under these industrial conditions is more realistic for process evaluation. Third, more accurate operating cost data was to be obtained for economic analysis. Fourth, sufficient quantities of the fossil resin concentrate were to be produced from the test program for evaluation by potential industrial users. Fifth, and finally, optimum levels for the operating variables were to be established. Such information was required for eventual scale-up and design of a fossil resin flotation plant. The pilot-plant proof-of-concept testing of selective resinate flotation has demonstrated that: (1) technically, the new flotation technologies discovered at the University of Utah and then improved upon by Advanced Processing Technologies, Inc. provide a highly efficient means to selectively recover fossil resin from coal. The proof-of-concept continuous flotation circuit (about 0.1 tph) resulted in fossil resin recovery with the same separation efficiency as was obtained from laboratory bench-scale testing (more than 80% recovery at about 80% concentrate grade); and (2) economically, the selective flotation process has been shown to be sufficiently profitable to justify the development of a fossil resin industry based on this new flotation process.

Jensen, G.F.; Miller, J.D.

1992-05-25

220

Capitol Reef National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service (NPS) website provides an in-depth look at Capitol Reef National Park in Utah. Specifically, this covers the geology and natural resources of the park. There is a general overview of the geology of this area including the Waterpocket fold, Colorado Plateau, Cathedral Valley and erosion. There is a description of various rock colors and how they form, as well as a detailed stratigraphic column illustrating the names, thicknesses, and ancient environments of rocks and formations that exist in the park. The Natural Resources section discusses some of the history and archeology of the park, as well as birds, mammals, plants, reptiles and environmental problems.

221

The International Coral Reef Information Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This extensive site was originally created to support coral reef conservation by the International Coral Reef Initiative (ICRI). The site serves to provide general coral reef information, tools and resources, and a central coral reef communications and network hub. The site also provides a library which houses descriptions of brochures, books, videos and other items suitable for coral reef awareness and education efforts. Some publications are available for download directly from this site, while others are available for purchase.

International Coral Reef Action Network (ICRAN)

222

Separation of membranes by flotation centrifugation for in vitro synthesis of plant cell wall polysaccharides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Membranes from etiolated maize seedlings were isolated using sucrose gradients for in vitro studies of polysaccharide synthesis. Following downward centrifugation, flotation centrifugation improved the purity of membrane fractions, in particular the Golgi apparatus. Based on naphthylphthalamic acid binding to plasma membrane and inosine-5'-diphosphatase activity in Golgi apparatus, flotation centrifugation removed about 70% of the plasma membrane which cosedimented with

D. M. Gibeaut; N. C. Carpita

1990-01-01

223

IMPROVED FLOTATION TECHNIQUE FOR MICROSCOPY OF 'IN SITU' SOIL AND SEDIMENT MICROORGANISMS  

EPA Science Inventory

An improved flotation method for microscopical examination of in situ soil and sediment microorganisms was developed. Microbial cells were released into gel-like flotation films that were stripped from soil and sediment aggregates as these aggregates were submerged in 0.5% soluti...

224

Miocene reef corals: A review  

SciTech Connect

Tectonic blockage in the Middle East of westward-flowing Tethys surface circulation during the latest Oligocene led to creation in the earliest Miocene of endemic Mediterranean, Western Atlantic-Caribbean, and Indo-Pacific realms. A great reduction in reef coral diversity from 60-80 Oligocene species to 25-35 early Miocene species occurred in the Western Atlantic-Caribbean and Mediterranean areas accompanied by a decrease in reef growth. A slower and less drastic change apparently occurred in the Indo-Pacific area. Early Miocene reef corals of the Western Atlantic-Caribbean comprise a transition between the cosmopolitan Oligocene fauna and its endemic mid-Miocene to modern counterpart. Although early Miocene reefs were dominated by a Porites-Montastrea assemblage, eastward flow of Pacific circulation brought with it ''exotic'' corals such as Coscinaraea and Pseudocolumnastrea. Also, many cosmopolitan genera persisted from the Oligocene. During the middle to late Miocene, most of the species still living on Holocene reefs evolved. As the Mediterranean basin became more restricted, there was a slow decline in reef corals from 20 - 25 species in the Aquitainian to less than five species in the Messinian. Eustatic lowstand led to the extinction of reef-building corals in the late Messinian. In the Indo-Pacific, Neogene evolution of reef corals was conservative. Excluding the Acroporidae and Seriatoporidae, most Holocene framework species had evolved by the middle Miocene. Interplay between regional tectonics and eustatic sea level changes led to extensive development of middle to late Miocene pinnacle reefs over the southwestern Pacific.

Frost, S.H.

1988-01-01

225

Age of tilted reefs, Hawaii.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Submerged carbonate reefs are preserved as a series of submarine terraces between Molokai and Hawaii along a 200-km span of the SE Hawaiian Ridge. Limestones from 2 of the terraces have been dated at 13 and 120 ka. Recognition that the terraces are tilted permits assignment of about a dozen terraces from 150 to 1300 m depth to 8 general reef platforms. These reefs were drowned by the combined effects of island subsidence and sea level rise at the end of successive glacial stages from 13 to 647 ka. The platforms are tilted 5 m/km SE toward the locus of volcanic centered on the island of Hawaii.-from Authors

Moore, J.G.; Campbell, J.F.

1987-01-01

226

Expeditions in Conservation: Mesoamerican Reef  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Wildlife Fund (WWF) recently completed this expedition of the largest coral reef system in the Atlantic Ocean and has provided an opportunity for Web users to share some of what they experienced. Visitors can view spectacular photos and videos to learn about the reef and the creatures that reside there, as well as read the daily reports of the expedition. The site offers much more in terms of learning about coral reefs, the people who study them, and the threats that face these unique ecosystems.

1969-12-31

227

[Ciguatoxin and edible reef fishes].  

PubMed

Referring to the various human and animal clinical response to consumption of reef fish, the authors precise the importance of ingested dose and the role of cumulative effects. They point out the arbitrary character of distinguishing poisonous and edible fish of the same species. At the light of these data they find ciguatoxin in edible fish from known latent ciguateric potential species in atoxic areas. Therefore ciguatoxin does appear as a natural biotoxin permanently produced in most of the polynesian coral reefs ecosystems. The occurence of clinical disorders by men and animals results from a sudden increase of its production following biological transitory modification of some coral reef biota. PMID:1243745

Bagnis, R; Vernoux, J P

1975-01-01

228

Dissolved air flotation of polishing wastewater from semiconductor manufacturer.  

PubMed

The feasibility of the dissolved air flotation (DAF) process in treating chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) wastewater was evaluated in this study. Wastewater from a local semiconductor manufacturer was sampled and characterised. Nano-sized silica (77.6 nm) with turbidity of 130 +/- 3 NTU was found in the slightly alkaline wastewater with traces of other pollutants. Experimental results indicated removal efficiency of particles, measured as suspended particle or turbidity, increased with increasing concentration of cationic collector cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). When CTAB concentration was 30 mg/L, pH of 6.5 +/- 0.1 and recycle ratio of 30%, very effective removal of particles (> 98%) was observed in saturation pressure range of 4 to 6 kg/cm2, and the reaction proceeded faster under higher pressure. Similarly, the reaction was faster under the higher recycle ratio, while final removal efficiency improved slightly as the recycle ratio increased from 20 to 40%. An insignificant effect of pH on treatment efficiency was found as pH varied from 4.5 to 8.5. The presence of activator, Al3+ and Fe3+, enhanced the system performance. It is proposed that CTAB adsorbs on silica particles in polishing wastewater through electrostatic interaction and makes particles more hydrophobic. The increase in hydrophobicity results in more effective bubble-particle collisions. In addition, flocculation of silica particles through bridging effect of collector was found; it is believed that flocculation of particles also contributed to flotation. Better attachment between gas bubble and solid, higher buoyancy and higher air to solid ratio all lead to effective flotation. PMID:16752774

Liu, J C; Lien, C Y

2006-01-01

229

Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation  

SciTech Connect

The initial goal of the research project was to develop methods of coal surface control in advanced froth flotation to achieve 90% pyritic sulfur rejection, while operating at Btu recoveries above 90% based on run-of-mine quality coal. Moreover, the technology is to concomitantly reduce the ash content significantly (to six percent or less) to provide a high-quality fuel to the boiler (ash removal also increases Btu content, which in turn decreases a coal's emission potential in terms of lbs SO{sub 2}/million Btu). (VC)

Fuerstenau, D.W.; Hanson, J.S.; Diao, J.; Harris, G.H.; De, A.; Sotillo, F. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)); Hu, W.; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)); Choudhry, V.; Shea, S.; Ghosh, A.; Sehgal, R. (Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United States))

1992-03-01

230

Improving the performance of conventional and column froth flotation cells  

SciTech Connect

Many existing mining operations hover on the brink of producing competitively priced fuel with marginally acceptable sulfur levels. To remain competitive, these operations need to improve the yield of their coal processing facilities, lower the sulfur content of their clean coal, or lower the ash content of their clean coal. Fine coal cleaning processes offer the best opportunity for coal producers to increase their yield of high quality product. Over 200 coal processing plants in the U.S. already employ some type of conventional or column flotation device to clean fines. an increase in efficiency in these existing circuits could be the margin required to make these coal producers competitive.

Arnold, B.J. [CQ Inc., Homer City, PA (United States)

1995-11-01

231

Home Reef, South Pacific  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the South Pacific, south of Late Island along the Tofua volcanic arc in Tonga, a new volcanic island Home Reef is being re-born. The island is thought to have emerged after a volcanic eruption in mid-August that has also spewed large amounts of floating pumice into Tongan waters and sweeping across to Fiji about 350 km (220 miles) to the west of where the new island has formed. In 2004 a similar eruption created an ephemeral island about 0.5 by 1.5 km (0.3 by 0.9 miles) in size; it was no longer visible in an ASTER image acquired November 2005. This simulated natural color image shows the vegetation-covered stratovolcanic island of Late in the upper right. Home Reef is found in the lower left. The two bluish plumes are hot seawater that is laden with volcanic ash and chemicals; the larger one can be traced for more than 14 km (8.4 miles) to the east. The image was acquired October 10, 2006 and covers an area of 24.3 by 30.2 km. It is located at 18.9 degrees South latitude, 174.7 degrees west longitude.

With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

Size: 24.3 by 30.2 kilometers (15 by 18.6 miles) Location: 18.9 degrees South latitude, 174.7 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 3, 2, and 1 Original Data Resolution: 15 meters (49.2 feet) Dates Acquired: October 4, 2006

2006-01-01

232

Commencement on a Coral Reef  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an environmental program in which sixteen students and three biology teachers from Northfield Mount Hermon School in Massachusetts spent two weeks examining the ecology of a Caribbean reef.. (JR)

Webster, Steven K.

1973-01-01

233

Sandstone Formations in Capitol Reef  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Capitol Reef is primarily made up of sandstone formations within the Waterpocket Fold, monocline that extends nearly 100 miles. A monocline is a step-like fold in rock strata that can resemble an enormous wrinkle in the earth....

234

Artificial Reefs and Ocean Dumping.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Activities and instructional strategies for two multigrade lessons are provided. Activity objectives include describing an artificial reef (such as a sunken ocean liner) as an ecosystem, knowing animal types in the ecosystem, and describing a food web. (JN)

Glueck, Richard D.

1983-01-01

235

Evolution of ore deposits on terrestrial planets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ore deposits on terrestrial planets materialized after core formation, mantle evolution, crustal development, interactions of surface rocks with the hydrosphere and atmosphere, and, where life exists on a planet, the involvement of biological activity. Core formation removed most of the siderophilic and chalcophilic elements, leaving mantles depleted in many of the strategic and noble metals relative to their chondritic abundances. Basaltic magma derived from partial melting of the mantle transported to the surface several metals contained in immiscible silicate and sulfide melts. Magmatic ore deposits were formed during cooling, fractional crystallization and density stratification from the basaltic melts. Such ore deposits found in earth's Archean rocks were probably generated during early histories of all terrestrial planets and may be the only types of igneous ores on Mars. Where plate tectonic activity was prevalent on a terrestrial planet, temporal evolution of ore deposits took place. Repetitive episodes of subduction modified the chemical compositions of the crust and upper mantles, leading to porphyry copper and molybdenum ores in calc-alkaline igneous rocks and granite-hosted tin and tungsten deposits. Such plate tectonic-induced mineralization in relatively young igneous rocks on earth may also have produced hydrothermal ore deposits on Venus in addition to the massive sulfide and cumulate chromite ores associated with Venusian mafic igneous rock. Sedimentary ore deposits resulting from mechanical and chemical weathering in reducing atmospheres in Archean earth included placer deposits (e.g., uraninite, gold, pyrite ores). Chromite, ilmenite, and other dense unreactive minerals could also be present on channel floors and in valley networks on Mars, while banded iron formations might underlie the Martian northern plains regions. As oxygen evolved in earth's atmosphere, so too did oxide ores. By analogy, gossans above sulfide ores probably occur on Mars, but not submarine ferromanganese nodules and crusts which have precipitated in oxygenated seawater on earth.

Burns, R. G.

1991-01-01

236

Evolution of ore deposits on terrestrial planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ore deposits on terrestrial planets materialized after core formation, mantle evolution, crustal development, interactions of surface rocks with the hydrosphere and atmosphere, and, where life exists on a planet, the involvement of biological activity. Core formation removed most of the siderophilic and chalcophilic elements, leaving mantles depleted in many of the strategic and noble metals relative to their chondritic abundances. Basaltic magma derived from partial melting of the mantle transported to the surface several metals contained in immiscible silicate and sulfide melts. Magmatic ore deposits were formed during cooling, fractional crystallization and density stratification from the basaltic melts. Such ore deposits found in earth's Archean rocks were probably generated during early histories of all terrestrial planets and may be the only types of igneous ores on Mars. Where plate tectonic activity was prevalent on a terrestrial planet, temporal evolution of ore deposits took place. Repetitive episodes of subduction modified the chemical compositions of the crust and upper mantles, leading to porphyry copper and molybdenum ores in calc-alkaline igneous rocks and granite-hosted tin and tungsten deposits. Such plate tectonic-induced mineralization in relatively young igneous rocks on earth may also have produced hydrothermal ore deposits on Venus in addition to the massive sulfide and cumulate chromite ores associated with Venusian mafic igneous rock. Sedimentary ore deposits resulting from mechanical and chemical weathering in reducing atmospheres in Archean earth included placer deposits (e.g., uraninite, gold, pyrite ores). Chromite, ilmenite, and other dense unreactive minerals could also be present on channel floors and in valley networks on Mars, while banded iron formations might underlie the Martian northern plains regions. As oxygen evolved in earth's atmosphere, so too did oxide ores. By analogy, gossans above sulfide ores probably occur on Mars, but not submarine ferromanganese nodules and crusts which have precipitated in oxygenated seawater on earth.

Burns, R. G.

237

Fish Assemblages on Estuarine Artificial Reefs: Natural Rocky-Reef Mimics or Discrete Assemblages?  

PubMed Central

If the primary goal of artificial reef construction is the creation of additional reef habitat that is comparable to adjacent natural rocky-reef, then performance should be evaluated using simultaneous comparisons with adjacent natural habitats. Using baited remote underwater video (BRUV) fish assemblages on purpose-built estuarine artificial reefs and adjacent natural rocky-reef and sand-flat were assessed 18 months post-deployment in three south-east Australian estuaries. Fish abundance, species richness and diversity were found to be greater on the artificial reefs than on either naturally occurring reef or sand-flat in all estuaries. Comparisons within each estuary identified significant differences in the species composition between the artificial and natural rocky-reefs. The artificial reef assemblage was dominated by sparid species including Acanthopagrus australis and Rhabdosargus sarba. The preference for a range of habitats by theses sparid species is evident by their detection on sand-flat, natural rocky reef and artificial reef habitats. The fish assemblage identified on the artificial reefs remained distinct from the adjacent rocky-reef, comprising a range of species drawn from naturally occurring rocky-reef and sand-flat. In addition, some mid-water schooling species including Trachurus novaezelandiae and Pseudocaranx georgianus were only identified on the artificial reef community; presumably as result of the reef's isolated location in open-water. We concluded that estuarine artificial reef assemblages are likely to differ significantly from adjacent rocky-reef, potentially as a result of physical factors such as reef isolation, coupled with species specific behavioural traits such as the ability of some species to traverse large sand flats in order to locate reef structure, and feeding preferences. Artificial reefs should not be viewed as direct surrogates for natural reef. The assemblages are likely to remain distinct from naturally occurring habitat comprised of species that reside on a range of adjacent natural habitats. PMID:23755106

Folpp, Heath; Lowry, Michael; Gregson, Marcus; Suthers, Iain M.

2013-01-01

238

Reef Bioerosion: Agents and Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Coral reef maintenance depends on the balance between constructive and destructive forces. Constructive forces are mainly\\u000a calcification and growth of corals and encrusting coralline algae. Destructive forces comprise physical, chemical, and biological\\u000a erosion. Bioerosion is considered as the main force of reef degradation because physical erosion (storms) is temporary and\\u000a localized, and chemical erosion is considered as negligible due to

Aline Tribollet; Stjepko Golubic

239

Private development of artificial reefs  

E-print Network

PRIVATE DEVFLOPMENT OF ARTIFICIAL REEFS A Thesis ARTHUR ALLEN BURNS, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1978 Major Subject...: Management PRIVATE DEVELOPMENT OF ARTIFICIAL REEFS A Thesis by ARTHUR ALLEN BURNS, JR. Approved as to style and content by: irman o t e Committee { ead o the Depa tment ~Member Memb e- December 1978 12409Ei'7 ABSTRACT Private Development...

Burns, Arthur Allen

1978-01-01

240

Florida Keys NMS: Coral Reefs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary's page with information on coral reefs and links to information on research, restoration and monitoring. Wealth of information on the protection of Florida's coral reefs and the Florida Keys as a whole. Includes an in-class activity for grades K-5, as well as information on a Keys field experience and teacher workshops. Information on safe diving and snorkeling. Education materials available for purchase, including the Seagrass Toolbox.

241

Lab 3: Building a Reef  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During this lab, students learn about the life cycle of corals, including how they grow and reproduce. Students consider the chemistry of seawater and the importance of the symbiotic relationship between corals and zooxanthellae in the formation of coral reefs. They blow CO2 through calcium hydroxide (limewater) to model how respiration assists coral in precipitating calcium carbonate. Students also build on the coral polyp models they made in Lab 2 to demonstrate coral growth, reproduction, and reef formation.

242

Ecology of the south Florida coral reefs: a community profile  

SciTech Connect

An overview of coral reef research in southern Florida is provided as a prelude to a genuine description of the coral reef ecosystem in the Florida Keys and surrounding environments. Coral reef community types, reef benthos, plankton and reef fish are given specific treatment. Coral reef ecology and management are described. 27 figs., 31 tabs.

Jaap, W.C.

1984-08-01

243

Sintering Characteristics of Indian Chrome Ore Fines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chrome ore concentrate consists of high-temperature melting oxides such as Cr2O3, MgO, and Al2O3. The presence of these refractory constituents makes the ore a very high melting mineral. Hence, it is difficult to produce sinter from chrome ore by a pyrometallurgical route. Currently, chrome ore is ground to below 75 ?m, pelletized, heat hardened through carbothermic reaction at 1300 C to 1400 C, and then charged into a submerged electric arc furnace (EAF), along with lumpy ore for ferrochrome/charge-chrome production. Electricity is a major cost element in this extraction process. This work explores the sinterability of chrome ore. The objective of this study was to: (1) determine whether chrome ore is sinterable and, if so, (2) ascertain ways of achieving satisfactory properties at a low temperature of sintering. Sintering of the raw material feed could be a way to reduce electricity consumption, because during sintering a partial reduction of minerals is expected along with agglomeration. Studies carried out by the authors show that it is possible to agglomerate chrome ore fines through sintering. The chrome ore sinter thus produced was found to be inferior in strength, comparable to that of an iron ore sinter, but strength requirements may not be the same for both. Because the heat generation during chrome ore sintering is high owing to some exothermic reactions, compared with iron ore, and because chrome ore contains a high amount of fines, shallow-bed-depth sinter cake production was attempted in the laboratory-scale pot-sintering machine. The sintered product was found to be a good conductor of electricity because of the presence of phases such as magnetite and maghemite. This characteristic of the chrome ore sinter will subsequently have a favorable impact in terms of power consumption during the production of ferrochrome in a submerged EAF. The sinter made was melted in the arc furnace and it was found that the specific melting energy is comparable to that of heat-hardened chrome ore pellets but lower than briquettes and lump ore.

Nandy, Bikash; Chaudhury, Manoj Kumar; Paul, Jagannath; Bhattacharjee, D.

2009-10-01

244

Noble metals in rocks and ores of Maysko-Lebed ore field (Mountain Shoriya)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First the authors determined platinum and palladium in the ores and rocks of Maysk-Lebed ore deposit via stripping voltammetry. Based on research data the increased platinoid (platinum group elements) content was identified both in the source host rocks and in metasomatically altered ones in ores.

Pshenichkin, A.; Timkin, T.; Oskina, Yu

2015-02-01

245

Multi-stage air flotation of tar sand wastewater  

SciTech Connect

In 1980, the Department of Energy's Laramie Energy Technology Center conducted a steam-driven tar sand recovery experiment near Vernal, UT which yielded 1,150 barrels of bitumen and 6,250 barrels of process water, which was highly contaminated with emulsified oils and dissolved organics. The process waters were successfully treated by bench-scale, continuous-flow air flotation (AF), but significant amounts of very diluted sludge were generated. The present study investigated the effects of adding a second flotation stage to the AF system to thicken stage I sludge, produce a clean effluent suitable for recycling, and thereby increase the hydraulic efficiency of the system. Key stage II operating variables were polymer dose, air flowrate, and liquid residence time. These were optimized to minimize sludge volume and maximize effluent quality and volume. Total organic carbon and total suspended solids removals in the stage II system were 96 and 99%, respectively. Overall sludge production equalled about 2% of the total influent flow.

Nolan, B.T.; McTernan, W.F.; Asce, A.M.; Laya, C.J.

1986-04-01

246

Enhanced desulfurizing flotation of coal using sonoelectrochemical method.  

PubMed

Enhanced desulfurizing flotation of low sulfur coal was investigated using sonoelectrochemical method. The supporting electrolyte used in this process was sodium chloride and the additive was anhydrous ethanol. The effects of treatment conditions on desulfurization were studied by a single-factor method. The conditions include anhydrous ethanol concentration, sodium chloride concentration, sonoelectrolytic voltage, sonoelectrolytic temperature, sonoelectrolytic time and coal sample granulometry. The optimal experimental conditions achieved for anhydrous ethanol concentration, sodium chloride concentration, sonoelectrolytic voltage, sonoelectrolytic temperature and sonoelectrolytic time are 1.7 mol L(-1), 5.110(-3) mol L(-1), 10 V, 70 C, 50 min achieved for a -0.18 mm coal sample. Optimal conditions cause a sulfur reduction of up to 69.4%. The raw and treated coals were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy and a chemical method. Pyritic sulfur, organic sulfur, ash as well as moisture are partially removed. The combination of high sulfur reduction, high yield, as well as high ash reduction was obtained in the newly developed method of enhanced flotation by sonoelectrochemistry. Ultrasound irradiation promotes electron transfer efficiency and increases clean coal yield. PMID:23558374

Zhang, Hong-Xi; Hou, Xiao-Yang; Xu, Shi-Xun; Li, Zhi-Long; Yu, Hai-Feng; Shen, Xue-Hua

2013-09-01

247

Inclusion flotation-driven channel segregation in solidifying steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Channel segregation, which is featured by the strip-like shape with compositional variation in cast materials due to density contrast-induced flow during solidification, frequently causes the severe destruction of homogeneity and some fatal damage. An investigation of its mechanism sheds light on the understanding and control of the channel segregation formation in solidifying metals, such as steels. Until now, it still remains controversial what composes the density contrasts and, to what extent, how it affects channel segregation. Here we discover a new force of inclusion flotation that drives the occurrence of channel segregation. It originates from oxide-based inclusions (Al2O3/MnS) and their sufficient volume fraction-driven flotation becomes stronger than the traditionally recognized inter-dendritic thermosolutal buoyancy, inducing the destabilization of the mushy zone and dominating the formation of channels. This study uncovers the mystery of oxygen in steels, extends the classical macro-segregation theory and highlights a significant technological breakthrough to control macrosegregation.

Li, Dianzhong; Chen, Xing-Qiu; Fu, Paixian; Ma, Xiaoping; Liu, Hongwei; Chen, Yun; Cao, Yanfei; Luan, Yikun; Li, Yiyi

2014-11-01

248

Inclusion flotation-driven channel segregation in solidifying steels  

PubMed Central

Channel segregation, which is featured by the strip-like shape with compositional variation in cast materials due to density contrast-induced flow during solidification, frequently causes the severe destruction of homogeneity and some fatal damage. An investigation of its mechanism sheds light on the understanding and control of the channel segregation formation in solidifying metals, such as steels. Until now, it still remains controversial what composes the density contrasts and, to what extent, how it affects channel segregation. Here we discover a new force of inclusion flotation that drives the occurrence of channel segregation. It originates from oxide-based inclusions (Al2O3/MnS) and their sufficient volume fraction-driven flotation becomes stronger than the traditionally recognized inter-dendritic thermosolutal buoyancy, inducing the destabilization of the mushy zone and dominating the formation of channels. This study uncovers the mystery of oxygen in steels, extends the classical macro-segregation theory and highlights a significant technological breakthrough to control macrosegregation. PMID:25422943

Li, Dianzhong; Chen, Xing-Qiu; Fu, Paixian; Ma, Xiaoping; Liu, Hongwei; Chen, Yun; Cao, Yanfei; Luan, Yikun; Li, Yiyi

2014-01-01

249

Inclusion flotation-driven channel segregation in solidifying steels.  

PubMed

Channel segregation, which is featured by the strip-like shape with compositional variation in cast materials due to density contrast-induced flow during solidification, frequently causes the severe destruction of homogeneity and some fatal damage. An investigation of its mechanism sheds light on the understanding and control of the channel segregation formation in solidifying metals, such as steels. Until now, it still remains controversial what composes the density contrasts and, to what extent, how it affects channel segregation. Here we discover a new force of inclusion flotation that drives the occurrence of channel segregation. It originates from oxide-based inclusions (Al2O3/MnS) and their sufficient volume fraction-driven flotation becomes stronger than the traditionally recognized inter-dendritic thermosolutal buoyancy, inducing the destabilization of the mushy zone and dominating the formation of channels. This study uncovers the mystery of oxygen in steels, extends the classical macro-segregation theory and highlights a significant technological breakthrough to control macrosegregation. PMID:25422943

Li, Dianzhong; Chen, Xing-Qiu; Fu, Paixian; Ma, Xiaoping; Liu, Hongwei; Chen, Yun; Cao, Yanfei; Luan, Yikun; Li, Yiyi

2014-01-01

250

Application of dissolved air flotation on separation of waste plastics ABS and PS.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to separate waste plastics acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and polystyrene (PS) by dissolved air flotation in a self-designed dissolved air flotation apparatus. The effects of wetting agents, frother, conditioning time and flotation time on flotation behavior of waste plastics ABS (w-ABS) and PS (w-PS) were investigated and the optimized separation conditions were obtained. The results showed that when using 25 mgL(-1) tannic acid, 5 mgL(-1) terpineol, 15 min conditioning time and 15 min flotation time, mixtures of w-ABS and w-PS were separated successfully by dissolved air flotation in two stages, the results revealed that the purity and recovery rate of w-PS in the floated products were 90.12% and 97.45%, respectively, and the purity and recovery rate of w-ABS in the depressed products were 97.24% and 89.38%, respectively. Based on the studies of wetting mechanism of plastic flotation, it is found that the electrostatic force and hydrophobic attraction cannot be the main factor of the interaction between wetting agent molecules and plastic particles, which can be completed through water molecules as a mesophase, and a hydrogen bonding adsorption model with hydration shell as a mesophase was proposed. PMID:22503154

Wang, Hui; Chen, Xiao-Lei; Bai, Yang; Guo, Chao; Zhang, Li

2012-07-01

251

Can artificial reefs mimic natural reef communities? The roles of structural features and age  

Microsoft Academic Search

In light of the deteriorating state of coral reefs worldwide, the need to rehabilitate marine environments has greatly increased. Artificial reefs (ARs) have been suggested as a tool for reef conservation and rehabilitation. Although successions of AR communities have been thoroughly studied, current understanding of the interactions between artificial and natural reefs (NRs) is poor and a fundamental question still

S. Perkol-Finkel; N. Shashar; Y. Benayahu

2006-01-01

252

Distribution, abundance, and substrate preferences of demersal reef zooplankton at Lizard Island Lagoon, Great Barrier Reef  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demersal zooplankton, those plankton which hide within reef sediments during the day but emerge to swim freely over the reef at night, were sampled quantitatively using emergence traps planced over the substrate at Lizard Island Lagoon, Great Barrier Reef. Densities of zooplankton emerging at night from 6 substrate types (fine, medium, and coarse sand, rubble, living coral and reef rock)

A. L. Alldredge; J. M. King

1977-01-01

253

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Black reefs: iron-induced phase shifts on coral reefs  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Black reefs: iron-induced phase shifts on coral reefs This article has been, Australia The Line Islands are calcium carbonate coral reef platforms located in iron-poor regions surveys show that the live coral cover was reduced from 40 to 60% to o10% on black reefs on Millennium

Smith, Jennifer E.

254

112 National Coral Reef Action Strategy CORAL REEF CONSERVATION ACT OF 2000  

E-print Network

management and sustainable use of coral reef ecosystems to benefit local communities and the Nation; (3 Reef Action Strategy APPENDIX A CORAL REEF CONSERVATION ACT OF 2000 [P.L. 106-562; 16 U.S.C. 6401 et seq; December 23, 2000] TITLE II--CORAL REEF CONSERVATION SEC. 201. SHORT TITLE. This title may

255

A Night in the Coral Reef  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Coral reefs are often portrayed as brightly lit, bustling underwater marvels full of colorful creatures. This video segment, adapted from NOVA, paints a different picture as it explores the nocturnal behavior of organisms in the reef.

2007-04-19

256

Ocean acidification worse in coral reefs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rate of ocean acidification in coral reefs outpaces the rise in carbon dioxide (CO2) in Earth's atmosphere, indicating that anthropogenic carbon emissions alone are not to blame for the threat to coral reefs, a new study shows.

Betz, Eric O.

2014-12-01

257

Call to protect all coral reefs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The world's coral reefs are in decline, threatening the food security of millions of people. Adopting an ecosystem-scale approach that protects deep as well as shallow reefs would deliver several social and economic benefits.

Bridge, Tom C. L.; Hughes, Terry P.; Guinotte, John M.; Bongaerts, Pim

2013-06-01

258

Reef Squid at USGS Monitoring Station  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A curious reef squid hovers over a calcification-monitoring station used to measure calcification rates to determine impact of ocean acidification on coral growth at Fowey Rocks Light Reef in Biscayne National Park....

259

Continuous Steelmaking Directly from Ore  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In-line continuous processing of high-grade hematite ore (crushed ore or fines) with a pure hydrogen reductant is assessed. An appraisal is made of the rate controlling mechanisms involved in the reduction of a pure layer of molten wustite being transported by floating on a molten carrier iron carbon-free medium at temperatures just in excess of the iron melting point. Published research clearly indicates that under these conditions the kinetics are principally controlled by molecular gaseous diffusion. Thus, the rate is essentially not influenced by total gas pressure above 1 atmosphere. Accordingly, on safety grounds it is recommended that high pressure should not be used for hydrogen steelmaking in the future, but the operation should be conducted close to atmospheric pressure with low pressure steam encapsulation of the plant items involved. Using hydrogen as the reductant means that sub-surface nucleation of CO bubbles cannot disrupt continuous processing. The operation is then no different to processing a normal liquid phase. The off-gases from the reduction zone of a melt circulation loop are super-clean and only contaminated with iron vapor. Accordingly, the best available technology becomes available for energy conservation without risk of non-fusible solids deposition. The net result is that the energy requirements are expected to be superior to other potential processes.

Warner, Noel A.

2014-12-01

260

Hydrophobic Agglomeration of Mineral Fines in Aqueous Suspensions and its Application in Flotation: a Review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrophobic agglomeration is originated from the hydrophobic attraction between particles, which is essentially different from electrolyte coagulation and polymer flocculation. It is applied to mineral processing in floc-flotation process to improve the recovery of mineral fines. In this paper, the applications of this phenomenon in mineral fines were summarized, including the origin of hydrophobic agglomeration, the main factors affect hydrophobic agglomeration (particle hydrophobicity, shear rate and duration, nonpolar oil and tank geometry), as well as hydrophobic agglomeration based separation processes (carrier flotation and floc-flotation).

Yang, Bingqiao; Song, Shaoxian

2014-05-01

261

Coral Reef Fishes: Opportunities, Challenges and Concerns  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Coral reef fishes represent superb models for test of biological theory in field or laboratory. Nonetheless, our knowledge\\u000a comes from few locations, few biological disciplines, and few of the more than 70 families of fishes occupying coral reefs.\\u000a Most reef fishes exhibit complex life histories involving distinctive pelagic larval stages, ecological and structural changes\\u000a associated with settling on reefs, and

W. Linn Montgomery

262

Ore-blending optimization model for sintering process based on characteristics of iron ores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ore-blending optimization model for the sintering process is an intelligent system that includes iron ore characteristics, expert knowledge and material balance. In the present work, 14 indices are proposed to represent chemical composition, granulating properties and high temperature properties of iron ores. After the relationships between iron ore characteristics and sintering performance are established, the "two-step" method and the simplex method are introduced to build the model by distinguishing the calculation of optimized blending proportion of iron ores from that of other sintering materials in order to improve calculation efficiency. The ore-blending optimization model, programmed by Access and Visual Basic, is applied to practical production in steel mills and the results prove that the present model can take advantage of the available iron ore resource with stable sinter yield and quality performance but at a lower cost.

Wu, Sheng-Li; Oliveira, Dauter; Dai, Yu-Ming; Xu, Jian

2012-03-01

263

Lab 1: Coral Reefs, the Human View  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to coral reef ecosystems and the importance of corals to humans. Students watch the IMAX film Coral Reef Adventure to experience the human view of coral reefs through the eyes of ocean explorers and underwater filmmakers Howard and Michele Hall. The students then use microscopes to examine coral and identify its features.

264

PHOSPHATE METABOLISM OF CORAL REEF FLATS  

E-print Network

PHOSPHATE METABOLISM OF CORAL REEF FLATS A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE GRADUATE DIVISION. Chave Edward A. Laws David M. Karl Robert L. Fox #12;iv ABSTRACT Ihe present dogma on coral reef overlying that community. The reef's nutritional requirements supposedly are met by cycling or retention

Luther, Douglas S.

265

The future of coral reefs Nancy Knowlton*  

E-print Network

Colloquium The future of coral reefs Nancy Knowlton* Marine Biology Research Division 0202, Scripps Tropical Research Institute, Apartado 2072, Balboa, Republic of Panama Coral reefs, with their millions communities, and coral death. (iv) The activities of people near reefs increase both fishing pressure

Bermingham, Eldredge

266

40 CFR 230.44 - Coral reefs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coral reefs. 230.44 Section 230.44 Protection of...Impacts on Special Aquatic Sites 230.44 Coral reefs. (a) Coral reefs consist of the skeletal deposit, usually...

2011-07-01

267

MFR PAPER 1183 Helen Reef's large tridacnid  

E-print Network

MFR PAPER 1183 Helen Reef's large tridacnid clams have declined sharply in recent years. Status of Giant Clam Stocks (Tridacnidae) on Helen Reef, Palau, Western Caroline Islands, April 1975 Philippines,800 m2 were covered in transects made on Helen Reef to assess population levels of Tridacnidae

268

Coral Reefs and Their Management in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coral reefs are very important in Tanzania, both ecologically and socio-economically, as major fishing grounds and tourist attractions. Numerous fringing and patch reefs are located along about two-thirds of Tanzania's coastline. These reefs have been partially to severely degraded by human (primarily destructive fishing practices) and natural (particularly coral bleaching) causes. These immediate human causes have been brought about by

Greg M. Wagner

269

The Pros and Cons of Artificial Reefs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan asks students to consider whether artificial reefs (human-made objects in the ocean or sea) are good for marine ecosystems. Students will look at pictures of artificial reefs and read articles describing the pros and cons of these structures. They will conclude by writing paragraphs explaining whether they think a new artificial reef should be created in Florida waters.

270

Early survivorship of juvenile coral reef fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on early survivorship of newly settled reef fish were collected by monitoring individuals which recruited to 30 small lagoonal patch reefs over three summers. Preliminary survivorship curves spanning the first 45 days after settlement were derived for 17 species. Most species showed greatest rates of mortality in the first 12 weeks in the reef environment however there were substantial

Peter F. Sale; Douglas J. Ferrell

1988-01-01

271

Assessing Coral Reef Condition: Eliciting Community Meanings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photographs depicting a gradient of coral reef condition associated with anchor damage were assessed and described by 76 research participants. The participants were divided into two groups: those with and those without occupational experience of coral reefs. Three important meanings ascribed to coral reefs were elicited. The most important meaning was evaluation, whether the scenes were perceived positively or negatively.

Elizabeth A. Dinsdale; D. Mark Fenton

2006-01-01

272

Coral Reef Conservation: A Reef of Your Own  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web-based lesson focuses on the physiological, ecological, and behavioral strategies that contribute to the success of reef-building corals. Students will learn to describe and explain the importance of asexual and sexual reproductive strategies to reef-building corals, why it is important that the corals have a nutritional strategy that includes both photosynthesis and carnivory, two behaviors that they use to compete for living space with other species, and how coral reefs can produce high levels of biological material when the waters surround­ing them contain relatively small amounts of the nutri­ents normally needed to support biological production. Links to the required online resources are provided.

2011-08-23

273

Miocene reefs of Dominican Republic  

SciTech Connect

The reefs are overlain by conglomeratic strata. The stratigraphic setting of these reefs suggests that they have developed along the stalled portions of rapidly prograding fan deltas. Thickets and layers of coral debris are found seaward and stratigraphically above the well-developed reef. The matrix sediments are exclusively fine-grained sand to mud, and the fauna are suggestive of more open shelf conditions. In thickets, branched (porites spp., Pocillopora spp.), small massive (Montastrea spp., Siderastrea spp.), and foliose or plate like (Agaricia spp.) corals are found upright in the muddy sediment. Similarities in coral species and areal proximity suggest that thickets are the source of most layers of coralline debris. The association of coral debris with graded bedding and cross-bedding suggests that coral debris has been reworked by storms. The growth of corals and development of coral reefs in the Miocene-Pliocene Yaque Group is limited only by opportunities created by the slowing of siliciclastic sedimentation. Soft, muddy, terrigenous substrates and a continuing supply of terrigenous mud exert only a limited, indirect effect on reef growth.

Evans, C.C.

1988-01-01

274

The Geohydrology of MVT-Ore Genesis in the Canning Basin, Western Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Lennard Shelf, Western Australia, epigenetic MVT-type Pb-Zn mineralization occurs in Middle Devonian evaporitic dolomites which were part of a barrier reef system (Hurley & Lohmann, 1989). Ore mineralization exhibits a strong structural control at the basin scale and normal faults probably controlled pathways for brine and petroleum migration that affected ore deposition (Wallace et al., 1999). For the Canning basin, finite element simulations show that compaction was the most important process for creating overpressures and driving basinal fluids in this thick extensional basin. Basinal fluids are shown to have been driven across the Fitzroy Trough through permeable and deeply buried Silurian-Ordovician aquifer units. The fluids then migrated upwards at rates of m/yr up during periods of episodic extension (Braun, 1992) where fluid flow was channeled by major normal fault zones like the Cadjebut and Pinnacles Faults. Reactive flow simulations test a petroleum-reservoir model for mineralization whereby metal-bearing brines mix with accumulated hydrocarbons (Anderson & Garven, 1987). The results show that compaction-driven flow, as proposed by Beales & Jackson (1966) and Jackson & Beales (1967), works rather well in this ore district--other mechanisms such as sealevel tidal pumping (Cathles, 1988) or topographic drive (Solomon & Groves, 1994) are more tenuous and really unnecessary from a mass transport or geohydrologic basis.

Garven, G.; Wallace, M. M.

2009-05-01

275

A geologic study of the Ropes reef reservoir, Hockley County, Texas  

E-print Network

discussion Ordovician Rocks The Ordovician rocks are represented by about $00 feet of coarsely crystalline Ellenburger dolomite 1n the Ropes area. The Ordovician dolomites rest unconformably on pre-Cambrian granite. Silurian Rocks Silurl. an beds ore... zone is present near the middle of the dtrawn section. The Canyon group is also represented by a reef- type limestone in the Ropes . rca. This limestone has less az eel extent th n the '-trawn limestone. It is present' 1n tests ir the periphery...

Carter, Thomas Ray

1956-01-01

276

Coral reef crisis in deep and shallow reefs: 30 years of constancy and change in reefs of Curacao and Bonaire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coral reefs are thought to be in worldwide decline but available data are practically limited to reefs shallower than 25 m. Zooxanthellate coral communities in deep reefs (30-40 m) are relatively unstudied. Our question is: what is happening in deep reefs in terms of coral cover and coral mortality? We compare changes in species composition, coral mortality, and coral cover at Caribbean (Curacao and Bonaire) deep (30-40 m) and shallow reefs (10-20 m) using long-term (1973-2002) data from permanent photo quadrats. About 20 zooxanthellate coral species are common in the deep-reef communities, dominated by Agaricia sp., with coral cover up to 60%. In contrast with shallow reefs, there is no decrease in coral cover or number of coral colonies in deep reefs over the last 30 years. In deep reefs, non-agaricid species are decreasing but agaricid domination will be interrupted by natural catastrophic mortality such as deep coral bleaching and storms. Temperature is a vastly fluctuating variable in the deep-reef environment with extremely low temperatures possibly related to deep-reef bleaching.

Bak, Rolf P. M.; Nieuwland, Gerard; Meesters, Erik H.

2005-11-01

277

FOAM FLOTATION TREATMENT OF HEAVY METALS AND FLUORIDE-BEARING INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Laboratory studies demonstrated that the floc foam flotation techniques are effective in removing lead, cadmium, mercury, copper, zinc, arsenic, and fluoride from dilute wastewaters to very low levels. Simulated as well as real industrial wastewaters were studied. Industrial wast...

278

Statistical Evaluation and Optimization of Factors Affecting the Leaching Performance of Copper Flotation Waste  

PubMed Central

Copper flotation waste is an industrial by-product material produced from the process of manufacturing copper. The main concern with respect to landfilling of copper flotation waste is the release of elements (e.g., salts and heavy metals) when in contact with water, that is, leaching. Copper flotation waste generally contains a significant amount of Cu together with trace elements of other toxic metals, such as Zn, Co, and Pb. The release of heavy metals into the environment has resulted in a number of environmental problems. The aim of this study is to investigate the leaching characteristics of copper flotation waste by use of the Box-Behnken experimental design approach. In order to obtain the optimized condition of leachability, a second-order model was examined. The best leaching conditions achieved were as follows: pH = 9, stirring time = 5?min, and temperature = 41.5C. PMID:22629194

oruh, Semra; Elevli, Sermin; Geyiki, Feza

2012-01-01

279

18 CFR 1304.400 - Flotation devices and material, all floating structures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL OF CONSTRUCTION IN THE TENNESSEE RIVER SYSTEM AND REGULATION OF STRUCTURES...Every flotation device employed in the Tennessee River system must be firmly and...

2013-04-01

280

18 CFR 1304.400 - Flotation devices and material, all floating structures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL OF CONSTRUCTION IN THE TENNESSEE RIVER SYSTEM AND REGULATION OF STRUCTURES...Every flotation device employed in the Tennessee River system must be firmly and...

2011-04-01

281

Adsorbing colloid flotation separation and polarographic determination of Mo(VI) in water.  

PubMed

A method is described for the flotation and determination of Mo(VI) in water at ng/ml levels. Mo(VI) is preconcentrated and separated by adsorbing colloid flotation employing aluminium(III) hydroxide as collector and sodium lauryl sulphate as surfactant at pH 5.3 +/- 0.1. The molybdenum content in the froth is estimated by using the catalytic wave of Mo(VI) in the presence of nitrate by charging current compensated d.c. polarography (CCCDCP) or differential pulse polarography (DPP). The effect of variables such as pH, ionic strength, concentration of collector and surfactant, time of stirring and gas flow-rate on the recovery of Mo by flotation is reported. The effects of various cations and anions on the flotation and determination of Mo are studied. This method is employed for the determination of molybdenum in natural fresh water samples. PMID:18965320

Basu, B J; Padma, D K; Rajagopalan, S R

1991-12-01

282

18 CFR 1304.400 - Flotation devices and material, all floating structures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...flotation device or material specifically designed for marine applications (for example, pontoons, boat hulls, or other buoyancy devices made of steel, aluminum, fiberglass, or plastic foam, as provided for in paragraph (a) of this section)....

2012-04-01

283

18 CFR 1304.400 - Flotation devices and material, all floating structures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...flotation device or material specifically designed for marine applications (for example, pontoons, boat hulls, or other buoyancy devices made of steel, aluminum, fiberglass, or plastic foam, as provided for in paragraph (a) of this section)....

2014-04-01

284

Effects of particle size and chain length on flotation of quaternary ammonium salts onto kaolinite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effects of particle size and chain length on flotation of quaternary ammonium salts (QAS) onto kaolinite have been investigated by flotation tests. Dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride (DTAC) and cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) were used as collectors for kaolinite in different particle size fractions (0.075 ~ 0.01 mm, 0.045 ~ 0.075 mm, 0 ~ 0.045 mm). The anomalous flotation behavior of kaolinite have been further explained based on crystal structure considerations by adsorption tests and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The results show that the flotation recovery of kaolinite in all different particle size fractions decreases with an increase in pH. As the concentration of collectors increases, the flotation recovery increases. The longer the carbon chain of QAS is, the higher the recoveries of coarse kaolinite (0.075 ~ 0.01 mm and 0.045 ~ 0.075 mm) are. But the flotation recovery of the finest kaolinite (0 ~ 0.045 mm) decreases with chain lengths of QAS collectors increasing, which is consistent with the flotation results of unscreened kaolinite (0 ~ 0.075 mm). It is explained by the froth stability related to the residual concentration of QAS collector in mineral pulp. In lower residual concentration, the froth stability becomes worse. Within the range of flotation collector concentration, it's easy of CTAC to be completely adsorbed by kaolinite in the particle size fraction (0-0.045 mm), which led to lower flotation recovery. Moreover, it is interesting that the coarser particle size of kaolinite is, the higher flotation recovery is. The anomalous flotation behavior of kaolinite is rationalized based on crystal structure considerations. The results of MD simulations show that the (001) kaolinite surface has the strongest interaction with DTAC, compared with the (001) face, (010) and (110) edges. On the other hand, when particle size of kaolinite is altered, the number of basal planes and edge planes is changed. It is observed that the finer kaolinite particles size become, the greater relative surface area of edges and the more the number of edges are. It means that fine kaolinite particles have more edges to adsorb fewer cationic colletors than that of coarse kaolinite particles, which is responsible for the poorer floatability of fine kaolinite.

Longhua, Xu; Yuehua, Hu; Faqin, Dong; Hao, Jiang; Houqin, Wu; Zhen, Wang; Ruohua, Liu

2014-05-01

285

Mineral and Elemental Composition Features of "Loose" Oolitic Ores in Bakchar Iron Ore Cluster (Tomsk Oblast)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geo-technological investigation considerations of iron ore deposits within the Bakchar ore cluster are being carried out. The mineral and elemental composition of "loose" ores have been studied, embracing such important aspects as the distribution pattern of valuable and harmful impurities, the determination of element concentrators (such as vanadium, phosphate and sulphur) in basic minerals and the analysis of ore composition varaiation in volume ore cluster. Based on investigation results the mineral and elemental composition characteristic features of "loose" ores were defined. Although hydrogoethite was the basic identified ore mineral, such minerals as goethite, lepidocrocite, leptochlorite, siderite and hisingerite were also found. The deportment of calcium phosphate (anapaite) and phosphates of rare-earth elements (monazite, killarite), which are associated with the harmful impurity- phosphorous, are described. It has been defined that the ore constituent composition contains such persistent impurities as vanadium and manganese, the content of which is 0.35% and 0.03%, respectively. The "loose" ores are continuous in mineral composition, both in area and cross-section throughout the Bakchar ore cluster. Based on the sample element composition analysis the most perspective areas for further mineral processing could be: western with the fraction of 1....0.2mm. and eastern- fraction of 1...0.1mm.

Rudmin, M.; Mazurov, A.; Bolsunovskaya, L.

2014-08-01

286

The effects of surfactant concentration on grease removal by air flotation in municipal sewage treatment  

E-print Network

resistant to removal by air flotation. Various concentrations of grease and surfactants in water were subjected to dissolved air flotation for grease removal. The research was conducted with a synthetic wastewater, using coconut oil as a substitute... agents (detergents) may be biologically degraded as they pass through the plant, releasing the grease molecules which would then be free to coalesce and float to the surface in the quiescent water of the final clarifier. The relative insolubility...

Perry, Larry Eugene

1978-01-01

287

A deep reef in deep trouble  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The well-documented degradation of shallower reefs which are often closer to land and more vulnerable to pollution, sewage and other human-related stressors has led to the suggestion that deeper, more remote offshore reefs could possibly serve as sources of coral and fish larvae to replenish the shallower reefs. Yet, the distribution, status, and ecological roles of deep (>30 m) Caribbean reefs are not well known. In this report, an observation of a deep reef which has undergone a recent extensive loss of coral cover is presented. In stark contrast to the typical pattern of coral loss in shallow reefs, the deeper corals were most affected. This report is the first description of such a pattern of coral loss on a deep reef.

Menza, C.; Kendall, M.; Rogers, C.; Miller, J.

2007-01-01

288

NOAA Coral Reef Watch: Remote Sensing and Coral Reefs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by a fifth grade teacher, the Remote Sensing and Coral Reefs curriculum includes lesson plans, which feature links to additional information, and PowerPoint presentations. Topics discussed include altimetry, phytoplankton and ocean color, symbiosis and coral anatomy, sea surface temperature and coral bleaching, and conservation. The lesson plans can be used in sequence or by themselves.

289

Accretion history of mid-Holocene coral reefs from the southeast Florida continental reef tract, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sixteen new coral reef cores were collected to better understand the accretion history and composition of submerged relict reefs offshore of continental southeast (SE) Florida. Coral radiometric ages from three sites on the shallow inner reef indicate accretion initiated by 8,050 Cal BP and terminated by 5,640 Cal BP. The reef accreted up to 3.75 m of vertical framework with accretion rates that averaged 2.53 m kyr-1. The reef was composed of a nearly even mixture of Acropora palmata and massive corals. In many cases, cores show an upward transition from massives to A. palmata and may indicate local dominance by this species prior to reef demise. Quantitative macroscopic analyses of reef clasts for various taphonomic and diagenetic features did not correlate well with depth/environmental-related trends established in other studies. The mixed coral framestone reef lacks a classical Caribbean reef zonation and is best described as an immature reef and/or a series of fused patch reefs; a pattern that is evident in both cores and reef morphology. This is in stark contrast to the older and deeper outer reef of the SE Florida continental reef tract. Accretion of the outer reef lasted from 10,695-8,000 Cal BP and resulted in a larger and better developed structure that achieved a distinct reef zonation. The discrepancies in overall reef morphology and size as well as the causes of reef terminations remain elusive without further study, yet they likely point to different climatic/environmental conditions during their respective accretion histories.

Stathakopoulos, A.; Riegl, B. M.

2015-03-01

290

Catchment to Reef: Water Quality Issues in the  

E-print Network

Centre is a knowledge-based partnership of coral reef managers, researchers and industry. Partner research solutions to protect, conserve and restore the world's coral reef ecosystems. CRC Reef ResearchCatchment to Reef: Water Quality Issues in the Great Barrier Reef Region. 9-11 March 2004

Marsh, Helene

291

11-15 giugno 2012 Aula I ore 20  

E-print Network

CARMELO BENE. IN - CONTRO CINEMA TEATRO acuradi Antonella Ottaie Fabrizio Deriu Lunedì 11 giugno ore 20 Deriu ore 20,15 Un Amleto di meno (1973) ore 21,30 Carmelo Bene. Le tecniche dell'assenza (1984) Giovedì Ferruccio Marotti Venerdì 15 giugno ore 20,00 Antonella Ottai e Fabrizio Deriu intervistano Alessandro

Roma "La Sapienza", Università di

292

Characterisation and Processing of Some Iron Ores of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lack of process characterization data of the ores based on the granulometry, texture, mineralogy, physical, chemical, properties, merits and limitations of process, market and local conditions may mislead the mineral processing entrepreneur. The proper implementation of process characterization and geotechnical map data will result in optimized sustainable utilization of resource by processing. A few case studies of process characterization of some Indian iron ores are dealt with. The tentative ascending order of process refractoriness of iron ores is massive hematite/magnetite < marine black iron oxide sands < laminated soft friable siliceous ore fines < massive banded magnetite quartzite < laminated soft friable clayey aluminous ore fines < massive banded hematite quartzite/jasper < massive clayey hydrated iron oxide ore < manganese bearing iron ores massive < Ti-V bearing magnetite magmatic ore < ferruginous cherty quartzite. Based on diagnostic process characterization, the ores have been classified and generic process have been adopted for some Indian iron ores.

Krishna, S. J. G.; Patil, M. R.; Rudrappa, C.; Kumar, S. P.; Ravi, B. P.

2013-10-01

293

Conservation, precaution, and Caribbean reefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some authors argue that overfishing is an important reason that reef corals have declined in recent decades. Their reasoning is that overfishing removes herbivores, releasing macroalgae to overgrow and kill the corals. The evidence suggests, however, that global climate change and emergent marine diseases make a far greater contribution to coral mortality, and that macroalgae generally grow on the exposed

Richard B. Aronson; William F. Precht

2006-01-01

294

Reef tanks, public aquariums and  

E-print Network

of sponges, soft corals, coral rock and other algae, these green algae cover hard substrates and corals, such as the glass-anemone (Aiptasia pallida), the fireworm (Hermodice carunculata) and the bubble algae (Valonia spp (Decapoda: Brachyura: Majidae) are utilized in reef aquaria to control nuisance algae, particularly bubble

Watson, Andrew

295

Quantifying Coral Reef Ecosystem Services  

EPA Science Inventory

Coral reefs have been declining during the last four decades as a result of both local and global anthropogenic stresses. Numerous research efforts to elucidate the nature, causes, magnitude, and potential remedies for the decline have led to the widely held belief that the recov...

296

Sublittoral Reef Phenomena of Aldabra  

Microsoft Academic Search

DURING phase 6 of the Royal Society expedition to Aldabra the sublittoral structure of the reef front was studied by means of one detailed reference transect (marked 1 in Fig. 1) and thirteen survey transects. All were levelled by SCUBA divers in the following way. Two divers holding the ends of a 10 m tape ``leapfrogged'' over each other in

J. Barnes; D. J. Bellamy; D. J. Jones; B. A. Whitton

1970-01-01

297

Sandstone Spire in Capitol Reef  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A view of a sandstone spire in Capitol Reef National Park. This area, known as the Fruita, is made up of three primary layers. The bottom sandstone layer is known as the Moenkopi Formation and is about 245 million years old. The middle gray-green layer is known as the Chinle Formation and was laid d...

298

The future of coral reefs  

PubMed Central

Coral reefs, with their millions of species, have changed profoundly because of the effects of people, and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future. Reefs are subject to many of the same processes that affect other human-dominated ecosystems, but some special features merit emphasis: (i) Many dominant reef builders spawn eggs and sperm into the water column, where fertilization occurs. They are thus particularly vulnerable to Allee effects, including potential extinction associated with chronic reproductive failure. (ii) The corals likely to be most resistant to the effects of habitat degradation are small, short-lived weedy corals that have limited dispersal capabilities at the larval stage. Habitat degradation, together with habitat fragmentation, will therefore lead to the establishment of genetically isolated clusters of inbreeding corals. (iii) Increases in average sea temperatures by as little as 1C, a likely result of global climate change, can cause coral bleaching (the breakdown of coralalgal symbiosis), changes in symbiont communities, and coral death. (iv) The activities of people near reefs increase both fishing pressure and nutrient inputs. In general, these processes favor more rapidly growing competitors, often fleshy seaweeds, and may also result in explosions of predator populations. (v) Combinations of stress appear to be associated with threshold responses and ecological surprises, including devastating pathogen outbreaks. (vi) The fossil record suggests that corals as a group are more likely to suffer extinctions than some of the groups that associate with them, whose habitat requirements may be less stringent. PMID:11344288

Knowlton, Nancy

2001-01-01

299

Distribution of ore deposits and spectrographic analyses of some rocks and ores on the Colorado Plateau  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The geographic pattern of known igneous rocks and ore deposits on the Colorado Plateau suggests a zonal arrangement of several types of ore deposits around centers of igneous activity. Spectrographic analyses of rocks and ores on the Plateau have been obtained in an effort to determine the distribution of elements and to examine the relationships between types of ore deposits and between the ore deposits and igneous rocks. Over 170 analyses of rocks and ores are given in this report. A preliminary study of these analyses suggests that the proportion of uranium, vanadium, copper, and silver in the uranium ores varies geographically, and that the pattern of variation may be in part concentric about some of the major laccolithic intrusions. It is also suggested that the following ratios of metals contained in the uranium ores are possible guides to larger-than-average ore deposits: (1) lead/uranium greater than 1, (2) lead/zinc greater than 10, and (3) zinc/geometric mean of cobalt and nickel less than 10.

Riley, Leonard Benjamin; Shoemaker, Eugene Merle

1952-01-01

300

Project StORe: Chemistry Report  

E-print Network

The StORe project (http://jiscstore.jot.com/WikiHome) is a collaboration of seven universities across the UK and the Johns Hopkins University in the USA and under funding from the Joint Information Systems Committee ...

Polydoratou, Panayiota

301

Project StORe: Biochemistry report  

E-print Network

Biochemistry departments at UK universities were invited to take part in the Project StORe questionnaire. Potential sites were identified by using the list of departments submitting to the 1996 Research Assessment Exercise ...

Tonkin, Suzanne

2006-01-01

302

Project StORe: Biosciences report  

E-print Network

This report was written as part of the first phase of the national higher education research project StORe (Source-to-Output Repositories). The project included a large scale analysis of repository user behaviour, with ...

Biegon, Dagmar

2006-09-15

303

Project StORe: Physics Report  

E-print Network

Results are presented on the Physics Survey of Researcher Use of Repositories which constitutes the culmination of Work Package 2 (in Physics) of Project StORe (Source to Output Repositories). The data were obtained by ...

Bull, Stephen

304

Project StORe: Archaeology report  

E-print Network

The StORe project commenced in September 2005, with the aim of developing ways of enabling repositories of published reports and papers to interact directly with repositories of source data from which thay are derived. This report constitutes...

Hull, Daniel

2006-07-10

305

The sources of our iron ores. II  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In this instalment** the iron ore deposits of the Lake Superior States, which normally furnish about 80 per cent, of the annual output of the United States, are described together with historical notes on discovery and transportation of ore. Deposits in the Mississippi Valley and Western States are likewise outlined and the sources of imported ore are given. Reviewing the whole field, it is indicated that the great producing deposits of the Lake Superior and southern Appalachian regions are of hematite in basin areas of sedimentary rocks, that hydrated iron oxides and iron carbonates are generally found in undisturbed comparatively recent sediments, and that magnetite occurs in metamorphic and igneous rocks; also that numerical abundance of deposits is not a criterion as to their real importance as a source of supply. Statistics of production of iron ore and estimates of reserves of present grade conclude the paper.

Burchard, E.F.

1933-01-01

306

Open Scholarship 2006 StORe poster  

E-print Network

StORe is a project within the JISC digital repositories programme. It has a declared mission to enhance the value of academic research output by enabling direct interaction between source and output repositories

Pryor, Graham

2006-01-01

307

Project StORe: Social Science report  

E-print Network

There was widespread support across the social science research community regarding the aims of the StORe Project Nearly half of social science respondents claimed that both source-to-output and out-put-to source repositories ...

Burton, Guy

308

Coral Reefs (2005) 24: 593 DOI 10.1007/s00338-005-0043-zReef sites  

E-print Network

Coral Reefs (2005) 24: 593 DOI 10.1007/s00338-005-0043-zReef sites Fig. 2 Fossil coral reef in southern Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia. The fossil coral reef is exposed at Point Maxwell et al. (1998) and White et al. (1998). U-series dates obtained from reef corals preserved

Greenstein, Benjamin J.

309

Coral Reef Ecosystems: Ecosystems in Crisis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Object is the fourth of four Science Objects in the Coral Reef Ecosystems SciPack. It explores the natural and human causes of ecosystem stress. Human beings live near coral ecosystems and use them in a variety of ways. Increasing amounts of stress is brought on these ecosystems as humans continue to modify the surrounding environment as a result of population growth, technology, and consumption. Human destruction of habitats through direct harvesting, pollution, atmospheric changes, and other factors is threatening the stability and overall health of many coral reefs. Human activities may also exacerbate the impact of natural disturbances on coral reefs or compromise the ability of the reef to recover from events such as hurricanes, tsunamis, or disease. Learning Outcomes:? Describe ways in which human activities directly impact coral reef ecosystems (resource and recreational uses).? Describe ways in which human activities indirectly impact coral reef ecosystems (by changing the physical conditions, pollution, changes in the water chemistry, etc.).? Explain how human activity may decrease the reefs ability to recover from natural occurrences. ? Explain the effects of increased predation or disease on a reef ecosystem.? Describe the effect of habitat loss on the reef ecosystem.? Describe the effects of weather and climate change on a healthy and weakened reef ecosystem.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2007-03-28

310

Battelle developing reefs to ease habitat losses  

SciTech Connect

Artificial reefs may be the answer to solving a worldwide problem of declining fish habitats, or they may only be good for creating fishing spots. Researchers at Battelle's Ocean Sciences Laboratory in Duxbury, Massachusetts, are studying artificial reefs in the Delaware River to determine if they are a solution to habitat losses in estuaries and coastal regions. [open quotes]Right now, we don't know if the fish are using the reefs simply as a grazing land, and then moving on, or if they're using the areas to colonize,[close quotes] said researcher Karen Foster. [open quotes]Ultimately, we hope to find they are colonizing.[close quotes] In 1989, Battelle researchers placed 16 prefabricated concrete reefs 45 feet deep in Delaware Bay. The reefs were placed in clusters of four, and monitoring began the following year. The federal government ordered the reefs placed in the bay as a mitigation technique for fish habitat that was lost when the river was dredged for navigational purposes. Researchers examined the reefs twice last summer. It will take five years, Foster said, before researchers can determine if the reefs are increasing the fish population. Early tests show, however, the populations of mussels, sponges, corals, and anemones increased by up to 150 percent over an area of bay bottom where the reefs were placed. Divers take crustacean samples from the reefs, and fish are caught near the reefs for examination. Researchers dissect the fish stomachs and analyze the contents to determine if they have been feeding at the reefs. [open quotes]If we find blue mussels in the stomach of the fish, that's great because we know that blue mussels are growing on the reef,[close quotes] Foster said.

Not Available

1993-04-01

311

Biomining: metal recovery from ores with microorganisms.  

PubMed

Biomining is an increasingly applied biotechnological procedure for processing of ores in the mining industry (biohydrometallurgy). Nowadays the production of copper from low-grade ores is the most important industrial application and a significant part of world copper production already originates from heap or dump/stockpile bioleaching. Conceptual differences exist between the industrial processes of bioleaching and biooxidation. Bioleaching is a conversion of an insoluble valuable metal into a soluble form by means of microorganisms. In biooxidation, on the other hand, gold is predominantly unlocked from refractory ores in large-scale stirred-tank biooxidation arrangements for further processing steps. In addition to copper and gold production, biomining is also used to produce cobalt, nickel, zinc, and uranium. Up to now, biomining has merely been used as a procedure in the processing of sulfide ores and uranium ore, but laboratory and pilot procedures already exist for the processing of silicate and oxide ores (e.g., laterites), for leaching of processing residues or mine waste dumps (mine tailings), as well as for the extraction of metals from industrial residues and waste (recycling). This chapter estimates the world production of copper, gold, and other metals by means of biomining and chemical leaching (bio-/hydrometallurgy) compared with metal production by pyrometallurgical procedures, and describes new developments in biomining. In addition, an overview is given about metal sulfide oxidizing microorganisms, fundamentals of biomining including bioleaching mechanisms and interface processes, as well as anaerobic bioleaching and bioleaching with heterotrophic microorganisms. PMID:23793914

Schippers, Axel; Hedrich, Sabrina; Vasters, Jrgen; Drobe, Malte; Sand, Wolfgang; Willscher, Sabine

2014-01-01

312

78 FR 67128 - Coral Reef Conservation Program; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Coral Reef Conservation Program; Meeting AGENCY: Coral Reef Conservation Program, Office of Ocean...hereby given of a public meeting of the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force (USCRTF). The meeting...

2013-11-08

313

Reef-Building Corals of Vietnam as a Part of the Indo-Pacific Reef Ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper analyzes both published and unpublished results of the investigations of Vietnamese reef-building corals and reefs\\u000a performed in the last decades of the twentieth century. The state of the art in the study of reef-building scleractinian corals\\u000a and reefs is presented. The scleractinian fauna of Vietnam is shown to match in species diversity (366 species of 70 genera)\\u000a the

Yu. Ya. Latypov

2005-01-01

314

Trade off analysis for participatory coral reef management: lessons learned from Buccoo Reef Marine Park, Tobago  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coral reefs provide a range of important functions and services, yet often conflicts exist over coral reef use among multiple users. This paper outlines the trade-off analysis approach to coral reef management where multiple and conflicting objectives for coral reef resources can be identified, assessed and reconciled within a decision-support framework. The paper applies trade-off analysis to the case of

E. Tompkins; K. Brown; W. N. Adger; P. Bacon; K. Young; D. Shim

315

Delineating optimal settlement areas of juvenile reef fish in Ngederrak Reef, Koror state, Republic of Palau.  

PubMed

Establishing the effectiveness of habitat features to act as surrogate measures of diversity and abundance of juvenile reef fish provides information that is critical to coral reef management. When accurately set on a broader spatial context, microhabitat information becomes more meaningful and its management application becomes more explicit. The goal of the study is to identify coral reef areas potentially important to juvenile fishes in Ngederrak Reef, Republic of Palau, across different spatial scales. To achieve this, the study requires the accomplishment of the following tasks: (1) structurally differentiate the general microhabitat types using acoustics; (2) quantify microhabitat association with juvenile reef fish community structure; and (3) conduct spatial analysis of the reef-wide data and locate areas optimal for juvenile reef fish settlement. The results strongly suggest the importance of branching structures in determining species count and abundance of juvenile reef fish at the outer reef slope of Ngederrak Reef. In the acoustic map, the accurate delineation of these features allowed us to identify reef areas with the highest potential to harbor a rich aggregation of juvenile reef fish. Using a developed spatial analysis tool that ranks pixel groups based on user-defined parameters, the reef area near the Western channel of Ngederrak is predicted to have the most robust aggregation of juvenile reef fish. The results have important implications not only in management, but also in modeling the impacts of habitat loss on reef fish community. At least for Ngederrak Reef, the results advanced the utility of acoustic systems in predicting spatial distribution of juvenile fish. PMID:25394769

Ticzon, Victor S; Foster, Greg; David, Laura T; Mumby, Peter J; Samaniego, Badi R; Madrid, Val Randolf

2015-01-01

316

Diving down the reefs? Intensive diving tourism threatens the reefs of the northern Red Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intensive recreational SCUBA diving threatens coral reef ecosystems. The reefs at Dahab, South Sinai, Egypt, are among the worlds most dived (>30,000divesy?1). We compared frequently dived sites to sites with no or little diving. Benthic communities and condition of corals were examined by the point intercept sampling method in the reef crest zone (3m) and reef slope zone (12m). Additionally,

Harald Hasler; Jrg A. Ott

2008-01-01

317

Sedimentation on three caribbean atolls: Glovers reef, lighthouse reef and turneffe Islands, belize  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryThe chief mode of carbonate sedimentation on the Belizean atolls Glovers Reef, Lighthouse Reef and Turneffe Islands is the\\u000a accumulation of organically-derived particles. Variations in the distribution of the composition and grain-sizes of surface\\u000a sediments, collected along transects across the atolls, are environmentally controlled. Two major sediment types may be distinguished.\\u000a (1) Reef and fore reef sediments are dominated by

Eberhard Gischler

1994-01-01

318

Oil shales, evaporites and ore deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationships between oil shales, evaporites and sedimentary ore deposits can be classified in terms of stratigraphic and geochemical coherence. Oil shale and black shale deposition commonly follows continental red beds and is in turn followed by evaporite deposition. This transgressive-regressive sequence represents an orderly succession of depositional environments in space and time and results in stratigraphic coherence. The amount of organic carbon of a sediment depends on productivity and preservation, both of which are enhanced by saline environments. Work on Great Salt Lake. Utah, allows us to estimate that only 5% of TOC originally deposited is preserved. Inorganic carbonate production is similar to TOC production, but preservation is much higher. Oil shales and black shales commonly are enriched in heavy metals through scavenging by biogenic particles and complexation by organic matter. Ore deposits are formed from such rocks through secondary enrichment processes, establishing a geochemical coherence between oil shales and ore deposits. The Permian Kupferschiefer of N. Europe is used as an example to define a Kupferschiefer type (KST) deposit. Here oxygenated brines in contact with red beds become acidified through mineral precipitation and acquire metals by dissolving oxide coatings. Oxidation of the black shale leads to further acid production and metal acquisition and eventually to sulfide deposition along a reducing front. In order to form ore bodies, the stratigraphic coherence of the red bed-black shale-evaporite succession must be joined by the geochemical coherence of the ore body-evaporite-black shale association. The Cretaceous Cu-Zn deposits of Angola, the Zambian Copperbelt as well as the Creta, Oklahoma, deposits are other KST examples. In the Zambian Copperbelt, evaporites are indicated by the carbonate lenticles thought to be pseudomorphs after gypsum-anhydrite nodules. MVT deposits are also deposited by acid brines, but at more elevated temperatures and with carbonates as principal host rocks. The Pine Point deposits are cited for their close association with evaporites. Alkaline, metal-rich brines are postulated for the HYC deposit of McArthur River, Australia. Such brines are known from the Green River Formation and deposits formed from such brines constitute the GRT class. They can be recognized by the presence of Magadi-type cherts and zeolite-analcime-K-spar tuffs. The Cu-Co ore bodies of Outokumpu, Finland, might also belong to this type. A new classification of sedimentary ore deposits is proposed, based on their geochemical environment. KST and MVT are formed from acid ore fluids, while GRT and CT (Creede type) are derived from basic ore fluids. pH of the fluids is best evaluated not from the ores themselves, but from their effect on the host-rocks.

Eugster, Hans P.

1985-03-01

319

Mineral chemical study of U-bearing minerals from the Dominion Reefs, South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Neo-Archean Dominion Reefs (~3.06 Ga) are thin meta-conglomerate layers with concentrations of U- and Th-bearing heavy minerals higher than in the overlying Witwatersrand Reefs. Ore samples from Uranium One Africa's Rietkuil and Dominion exploration areas near Klerksdorp, South Africa, were investigated for their mineral paragenesis, texture and mineral chemical composition. The ore and heavy mineral assemblages consist of uraninite, other uraniferous minerals, Fe sulphides, Ni-Co sulfarsenides, garnet, pyrite, pyrrhotite, monazite, zircon, chromite, magnetite and minor gold. Sub-rounded uraninite grains occur associated with the primary detrital heavy mineral paragenesis. U-Ti, U-Th minerals, pitchblende (colloform uraninite) and coffinite are of secondary, re-mobilised origin as evidenced by crystal shape and texture. Most of the uranium mineralisation is represented by detrital uraninite with up to 70.2 wt.% UO2 and up to 9.3 wt.% ThO2. Re-crystallised phases such as secondary pitchblende (without Th), coffinite, U-Ti and U-Th phases are related to hydrothermal overprint during low-grade metamorphism and are of minor abundance.

Rantzsch, Ulrike; Gauert, Christoph D. K.; van der Westhuizen, Willem A.; Duhamel, Isabelle; Cuney, Michel; Beukes, Gerhard J.

2011-02-01

320

ReefLink Database: A decision support tool for Linking Coral Reefs and Society Through Systems Thinking  

EPA Science Inventory

Coral reefs provide the ecological foundation for productive and diverse fish and invertebrate communities that support multibillion dollar reef fishing and tourism industries. Yet reefs are threatened by growing coastal development, climate change, and over-exploitation. A key i...

321

Astronaut Photography of Coral Reefs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut photographs of tropical coastal areas may contain information on submerged features, including coral reefs, up to depths of about 15 m in clear waters. Previous research efforts have shown that astronaut photographs can aid in estimating coral reef locations and extent on national, regional and global scales, and allow characterization of major geomorphological rim and lagoon features (Andrefouet et al. 2000, in preparation). They can be combined with traditional satellite data to help distinguish between clouds and lagoon features such as pinnacles (Andrefouet and Robinson, in review). Furthermore, astronaut photographs may provide reef scientists and managers with information on the location and extent of river plumes and sediment run off, or facilitate identification of land cover types, including mangroves (Webb et al., in press). Photographs included in the section were selected based on several criteria. The primary consideration of the editors was that the photographs represent a worldwide distribution of coral reefs, have extremely low visual interference by cloud cover, and display a spatial scale reasonable for examining reef-related features. Once photographs were selected, they were digitized from 2nd generation copies. The color and contrast were hand corrected to an approximation of natural color (required to account for spectral differences between photographs due to the color sensitivities of films used, and differences in sun angle and exposure of the photographs). None of the photographs shown here have been georeferenced to correct them to a map projection and scale. Any distortions in features due to slightly oblique look angles when the photographs were taken through spacecraft windows remain. When feasible, near vertical photographs have been rotated so that north is toward the top. An approximate scale bar and north arrow have added using distinctive features on each photograph with reference to a 1:1,000,000 scale navigation chart. Astronaut photographs provide a unique source of moderate resolution reef remote sensing data because of their global coverage and (immediate) availability in the public domain. The database of photographs can be searched an browsed online and high-resolution digital copies of photographs in this atlas can be accessed via the Website of Earth Science and Image Analysis at NASA's Johnson Space Center:

Robinson, Julie A.; Noordeloos, Marco

2001-01-01

322

Antimony ore in the Fairbanks district, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Antimony-bearing ores in the Fairbanks district, Alaska, are found principally in two areas, the extremities of which are at points 10 miles west and 23 miles northeast of Fairbanks; and one of two minor areas lies along this same trend 30 miles farther to the northeast. These areas are probably only local manifestations of mineralization that affected a much broader area and formed antimony-bearing deposits in neighboring districts, the closest of which is 50 miles away. The ores were exposed largely as a result of lode gold mining, but at two periods in the past, high prices for antimony ore warranted an independent production and about 2500 tons of stibnite ore was shipped. The sulfide deposits occupy the same fractures along which a gold-quartz mineralization of greater economic importance occurred; and both are probably genetically related to igneous rocks which intrude the schistose country rock. The sulfide is in part contemporaneous with some late-stage quartz in which it occurs as disseminated crystals; and in part the latest filling in the mineralized zones where it forms kidney-shaped masses of essentially solid sulfide. One extremely long mass must have contained nearly 100 tons of ore, but the average of the larger kidneys is closer to several tons. Much of the ore is stibnite, with quartz as a minor impurity, and assays show the tenor to vary from 40 to 65 percent antimony. Sulphantimonites are less abundant but likewise occur as disseminated crystals and as kidney-shaped bodies. Antimony oxides appear on the weathered surface and along fractures within the sulfide ore. Deposits containing either stibnite or sulphantimonite are known at more than 50 localities, but only eighteen have produced ore and the bulk of this came from the mines. The geology of the deposit, and the nature, extent, and period of the workings are covered in the detailed descriptions of individual occurrences. Several geologic and economic factors, which greatly affect prospecting and mining for stibnite ore in the area, are outlined. The principal available ore and reserves are considered to be ores earlier mined but never shipped, ore minable from near-surface deposits, and ores recoverable as a by-product of future gold mining. The outlook for stibnite production in the district is very uncertain. Apparently the greater portion of stibnite ore has already been recovered and present operations will strip the two principal areas of the district. This conclusion is based on the scanty discoveries since the last war and the fact that the areas are so pock-marked with prospects that there is little likelihood that any other large near-surface bodies remain to be discovered. Future prospecting would essentially be limited to attempts to seek the continuation of lodes previously having high yields of stibnite.

Killeen, Pemberton Lewis; Mertie, John B., Jr.

1951-01-01

323

Using Reef Check For Long-term Coral Reef Monitoring in Hawaii  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major goal of a government coral reef monitoring program is to provide the data required for management. But management programs will fail without community support. Involving the community in monitoring builds public support for management initiatives. The Reef Check coral reef survey program is carried out by volunteers from the community, particularly recreational divers. It was initially designed as

Gregor Hodgson; Carl M. Stepath

324

Rigs to reefs: a petroleum industry perspective  

E-print Network

of converting obsolete, nonproductive offshore oil and gas structures (primarily production platforms, but also drilling rigs) into artificial reefs. To date, five reefs have been constructed in this manner. In 1980, Exxon Company, U. S. A. donated a 2, 200... to reefs concept financially attractive and to resolve all lingering liability concerns, a viable program will not occur. It is important, then, to explore various alternatives to overcome these constraints. Specific 30 recommendations will be made...

Dubose, William Perry

1988-01-01

325

Pearl and Hermes Reef, Hawaiian Island Chain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pearl and Hermes Reef (28.0N, 176.0W) in the Hawaiian Island Chain, are seen with several small sandy islands, forming an atoll that caps a seamount on the long chain that extends some 1,500 miles northwestward from the more familiar Hawaiian Islands proper. Pearl and Hermes Reef lies about 100 miles southeast of Midway island. A reticulate network of coral patch reefs separates the lagoon into more or less isolated pools.

1992-01-01

326

United States Coral Reef Task Force  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The U.S. Coral Reef Task Force was established to lead the U.S. response to the growing global environmental crisis facing our coral reefs. This site contains information on what coral reefs are, where they can be found, how to protect them, and what the threats are. Reports on Task Force accomplishments and documents about national action plans and other information on the Task Force and their meetings is also included.

327

Community ecology of mesophotic coral reef ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the global degradation of shallow-water coral reef ecosystems resulting from anthropogenic activities, mesophotic coral\\u000a reef ecosystems (MCEs) are gaining attention because they are generally considered a de facto refuge for shallow-water species.\\u000a Despite their inferred importance, MCEs remain one of the most understudied reef habitats, and basic information on the taxonomic\\u000a composition, depth range, habitat preferences, and abundance and

S. E. Kahng; J. R. Garcia-Sais; H. L. Spalding; E. Brokovich; D. Wagner; E. Weil; L. Hinderstein; R. J. Toonen

2010-01-01

328

Competition Among Sessile Organisms on Coral Reefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Competition among sessile organisms is a major process on coral reefs, and is becoming more important as anthropogenic disturbances\\u000a cause shifts in dominance to non-reef builders such as macroalgae, soft corals, ascidians, and corallimorpharians. Long-term\\u000a monitoring and field experiments have demonstrated that competition for limited space can exert major impacts on reef biodiversity\\u000a and community composition across habitats and regions.

Nanette E. Chadwick; Kathleen M. Morrow

329

Coral reef ecosystems and anthropogenic climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coral reef ecosystems are among the most biologically diverse ecosystems on the planet. In addition to their value in terms\\u000a of biodiversity, coral reefs provide food and resources for over 500million people. Despite their importance, coral reefs\\u000a are declining at a rapid rate (12% per year) as a result of a range of local (e.g., overexploitation of fisheries, declining\\u000a water

Ove Hoegh-Guldberg

2011-01-01

330

Climate change and coral reef connectivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review assesses and predicts the impacts that rapid climate change will have on population connectivity in coral reef\\u000a ecosystems, using fishes as a model group. Increased ocean temperatures are expected to accelerate larval development, potentially\\u000a leading to reduced pelagic durations and earlier reef-seeking behaviour. Depending on the spatial arrangement of reefs, the\\u000a expectation would be a reduction in dispersal

P. L. Munday; J. M. Leis; J. M. Lough; C. B. Paris; M. J. Kingsford; M. L. Berumen; J. Lambrechts

2009-01-01

331

Anglesite and silver recovery from jarosite residues through roasting and sulfidization-flotation in zinc hydrometallurgy.  

PubMed

Hazardous jarosite residues contain abundant valuable minerals that are difficult to be recovered by traditional flotation process. This study presents a new route, roasting combined with sulfidization-flotation, for the recovery of anglesite and silver from jarosite residues of zinc hydrometallurgy. Surface appearance and elemental distribution of jarosite residues was examined by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry analysis, respectively. Decomposition and transformation mechanisms of jarosite residues were illustrated by differential thermal analysis. Results showed that after roasting combined with flotation, the grade and recovery of lead were 43.89% and 66.86%, respectively, and those of silver were 1.3 kg/t and 81.60%, respectively. At 600-700 C, jarosite was decomposed to release encapsulated valuable minerals such as anglesite (PbSO4) and silver mineral; silver jarosite decomposed into silver sulfate (Ag2SO4); and zinc ferrite (ZnO Fe2O3) decomposed into zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) and hematite (Fe2O3). Bared anglesite and silver minerals were modified by sodium sulfide and easily collected by flotation collectors. This study demonstrates that the combination of roasting and sulfidization-flotation provides a promising process for the recovery of zinc, lead, and silver from jarosite residues of zinc hydrometallurgy. PMID:24953935

Han, Haisheng; Sun, Wei; Hu, Yuehua; Jia, Baoliang; Tang, Honghu

2014-08-15

332

Evaluation of flotation for purification of pyrite for use in thermal batteries  

SciTech Connect

The purification of pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) used in Li-alloy/FeS{sub 2} thermal batteries by the physical process of flotation was evaluated for reduction of the quartz impurity. The process was compared to the standard process of leaching with concentrated hydrofluoric acid. Flotation was an attractive alternative because it avoided many of the safety and environmental concerns posed by the use of concentrated HF. The effects of particle size and initial purity of the pyrite feed material upon the final purity and yield of the product concentrate were examined for batch sizes from 3.5 kg to 921 kg. Feed materials as coarse as 8 mm and as fine as -325 mesh were treated; the coarse pyrite was ground wet in a rod mill or dry in a vibratory mill to -230 mesh prior to flotation. Both the HF-leached and the flotation-treated pyrite were leached with HCI (1:1 v/v) to remove acid-soluble impurities. The flotation-purified pyrite concentrates were formulated into catholytes; their electrochemical performance was evaluated in both single cells and 5-cell batteries for comparison to data generated under the same discharge conditions for catholytes formulated with HF/HCI-purified pyrite.

Guidotti, R.A.; Reinhardt, F.W.

1992-07-01

333

Coral Reef Protection: A Watershed Approach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This colorful, straightforward site from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s Oceans and Coastal Protection division (described in the November 25, 1998 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) outlines coral reef basic ecology and protection. About Coral Reefs provides background ecological information on coral reefs; Initiatives and Activities highlights EPA's activities but includes other US initiatives and links to symposia preceedings, factsheets, and other resources; and Related Links provides additional information on coral reef protection from the international, non-governmental (as well as federal), and educational sectors. A selection of recent news items (on the front page) rounds out the site.

United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Water.

1998-01-01

334

Onondage pinnacle reefs in New York State  

SciTech Connect

Onondaga pinnacle reefs, part of the Onondaga Formation, developed in an epeiric setting of the lowermost Middle Devonian (Eifelian). The reefs were initiated as coral-crinoidal mounds in the Edgecliff Member of the formation. Whereas most Devonian reefs are composed of rugose corals. Coral is the predominant kind of fossil, followed by crinoids, brachiopods, mollusks, undifferentiated skeletal debris, and possible sponges. The initial mineralogy of the corals is inferred to have been calcite. The porosity of these reefs is almost unique among reef reservoirs. most reefs produce from secondary or diagenetic porosity; by contrast Onondaga reefs display primary intracoralline or framework porosity. Between framework builders and/or skeletal particles cryptocrystalline/microcrystalline cement fills pores. As observed in modern reefs this kind of cement resembles micrite, but probable formed as high-magnesian calcite in a high-energy setting. Syntaxial or rim cement common lines crinoid particles. Some of these pinnacle reefs, formerly gas producers, are presently under development as gas-storage reservoirs.

Friedman, G.M. [Brooklyn College and Graduate School of CUNY, Brooklyn, NY (United States)

1995-09-01

335

Satellite Remote Sensing of Coral Reefs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Coral reefs are one of the most endangered ecosystems as coral reef coverage has declined dramatically in the past three decades. In recent years, satellite remote sensing has become a popular and effective mapping tool for ecological studies, especially in marine science. This lesson plan designed for high school science students demonstrates how marine scientists use satellite remote sensing to gather detailed information about coral reefs worldwide. An in-depth review of both remote sensing and coral reefs is also included in this article.

David Palandro

2005-09-01

336

Studies on the Great Barrier Reef  

SciTech Connect

Proposals to drill for oil on Australia's Great Barrier Reef have led to the appointment of a royal commission to study the environmental impact of such activities. The Australian Institute of Marine Science has developed a 5-part research plant which covers the Australian mangrove environment; nearshore habitat; processes and interactions, energy flows, resource cycling and their consequences within the reef ecosystems; patterns, abundances and relationships within the reef; and the continental shelf of the Great Barrier Reef region. Research in each of these areas is described.

Walton, S.

1985-01-01

337

Impacts of Artificial Reefs on Surrounding Ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Artificial reefs are becoming a popular biological and management component in shallow water environments characterized by soft seabed, representing both important marine habitats and tools to manage coastal fisheries and resources. An artificial reef in the marine environment acts as an open system with exchange of material and energy, altering the physical and biological characteristics of the surrounding area. Reef stability will depend on the balance of scour, settlement, and burial resulting from ocean conditions over time. Because of the unstable nature of sediments, they require a detailed and systematic investigation. Acoustic systems like high-frequency multibeam sonar are efficient tools in monitoring the environmental evolution around artificial reefs, whereas water turbidity can limit visual dive and ROV inspections. A high-frequency multibeam echo sounder offers the potential of detecting fine-scale distribution of reef units, providing an unprecedented level of resolution, coverage, and spatial definition. How do artificial reefs change over time in relation to the coastal processes? How accurately does multibeam technology map different typologies of artificial modules of known size and shape? How do artificial reefs affect fish school behavior? What are the limitations of multibeam technology for investigating fish school distribution as well as spatial and temporal changes? This study addresses the above questions and presents results of a new approach for artificial reef seafloor mapping over time, based upon an integrated analysis of multibeam swath bathymetry data and geoscientific information (backscatter data analysis, SCUBA observations, physical oceanographic data, and previous findings on the geology and sedimentation processes, integrated with unpublished data) from Senigallia artificial reef, northwestern Adriatic Sea (Italy) and St. Petersburg Beach Reef, west-central Florida continental shelf. A new approach for observation of fish aggregations associated with Senigallia reef based on the analysis of multibeam backscatter data in the water column is also explored. The settlement of the reefs and any terrain change are investigated over time providing a useful description of the local hydrodynamics and geological processes. All the artificial structures (made up by water-based concrete for Senigallia reef and mainly steel for St. Petersburg Beach reef) are identified and those showing substantial horizontal and/or vertical movements are analyzed in detail. Most artificial modules of Senigallia reef are not intact and scour signatures are well depicted around them, indicating reversals of the local current. This is due to both the wind pattern and to the quite close arrangement of the reef units that tend to deflect the bottom flow. As regards to the St. Petersburg Beach reef, all the man-made steel units are still in their upright position. Only a large barge shows a gradual collapse of its south side, and presents well-developed scouring at its east-northeast side, indicating dominant bottom flow from west-southwest to east-northeast. While an overall seafloor depth shallowing of about 0.30 m from down-current deposits was observed for Senigallia reef, an overall deepening of about 0.08 m due to scour was observed at the St. Petersburg Beach reef. Based on the backscatter data interpretation, surficial sediments are coarser in the vicinities of both artificial reefs than corresponding surrounding sediments. Scouring reveals this coarser layer underneath the prevalent mud sediment at Senigallia reef, and the predominant silt sediment at St. Petersburg Beach reef. In the ten years of Senigalia reef study, large-scale variations between clay and silt appear to be directly linked to large flood events that have occurred just prior to the change. As regards the water column investigation, acoustic backscatter from fish aggregations gives detailed information on their morphology and spatial distribution. In addition, relative fish biomass estimates can be extrapolated. Results suggest that most of

Manoukian, Sarine

338

Conservation, precaution, and Caribbean reefs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some authors argue that overfishing is an important reason that reef corals have declined in recent decades. Their reasoning is that overfishing removes herbivores, releasing macroalgae to overgrow and kill the corals. The evidence suggests, however, that global climate change and emergent marine diseases make a far greater contribution to coral mortality, and that macroalgae generally grow on the exposed skeletal surfaces of corals that are already dead. Macroalgal dominance, therefore, is an effect rather than a cause of coral mortality. Marine protected areas (MPAs), which are usually established to protect stocks of reef fish, foster populations of herbivorous fish under at least some circumstances. Increased herbivory can reduce algal cover, potentially accelerating the recovery of coral populations inside MPAs; however, establishing MPAs will have only a limited impact on coral recovery unless policymakers confront the accelerating negative effects of the global-scale sources of coral mortality.

Aronson, Richard B.; Precht, William F.

2006-08-01

339

Nocturnal relocation of adult and juvenile coral reef fishes in response to reef noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Juvenile and adult reef fishes often undergo migration, ontogenic habitat shifts, and nocturnal foraging movements. The orientation cues used for these behaviours are largely unknown. In this study, the use of sound as an orientation cue guiding the nocturnal movements of adult and juvenile reef fishes at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef was examined. The first experiment compared the movements of fishes to small patch reefs where reef noise was broadcast, with those to silent reefs. No significant responses were found in the 79 adults that were collected, but the 166 juveniles collected showed an increased diversity each morning on the reefs with broadcast noise, and significantly greater numbers of juveniles from three taxa (Apogonidae, Gobiidae and Pinguipedidae) were collected from reefs with broadcast noise. The second experiment compared the movement of adult and juvenile fishes to reefs broadcasting high (>570 Hz), or low (<570 Hz) frequency reef noise, or to silent reefs. Of the 122 adults collected, the highest diversity was seen at the low frequency reefs; and adults from two families (Gobiidae and Blenniidae) preferred these reefs. A similar trend was observed in the 372 juveniles collected, with higher diversity at the reefs with low frequency noises. This preference was seen in the juvenile apogonids; however, juvenile gobiids were attracted to both high and low sound treatments equally, and juvenile stage Acanthuridae preferred the high frequency noises. This evidence that juvenile and adult reef fishes orientate with respect to the soundscape raises important issues for management, conservation and the protection of sound cues used in natural behaviour.

Simpson, S. D.; Jeffs, A.; Montgomery, J. C.; McCauley, R. D.; Meekan, M. G.

2008-03-01

340

How many ore-bearing asteroids?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple formalism is presented to assess how many asteroids contain ore, i.e., commercially profitable material, and not merely a high concentration of a resource. I apply this formalism to two resource cases: platinum group metals (PGMs) and water. Assuming for now that only Ni-Fe asteroids are of interest for PGMs, then 1% of NEOs are rich in PGMs. The dearth of ultra-low delta-v (<4.5 km s-1) NEOs larger than 100 m diameter reduces the ore-bearing fraction to only 1 in 2000 NEOs. As 100 m diameter NEOs are needed to have a value ?US$1B and the population of near-Earth objects (NEOs) larger than 100 m diameter is 20,000 (Mainzer et al., 2011) the total population of PGM ore-bearing NEOs is roughly 10. I stress that this is a conservative and highly uncertain value. For example, an order of magnitude increase in PGM ore-bearing NEOs occurs if delta-v can be as large as 5.7 km s-1. Water ore for utilization in space is likely to be found in 1/1100 NEOs. NEOs as small as 18 m diameter can be water-ore-bodies because of the high richness of water ( 20%) expected in 25% of carbonaceous asteroids, bringing the number of water-ore-bearing NEOs to 9000 out of the 10 million NEOs of this size. These small NEOs are, however, hard to find with present surveys. There will be 18 water-ore-bearing NEOs >100 m diameter. These estimates are at present highly imprecise and sensitive to small changes, especially in the maximum delta-v allowed. Nonetheless the low values found here mean that much improved determinations of each of the terms of the formalism are urgently needed. If better estimates still find small numbers of ore-bearing NEOs then thorough surveys for NEA discovery and, especially, characterization are needed. Strategies for the two classes are likely to be different.

Elvis, Martin

2014-02-01

341

A novel reef coral symbiosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reef building corals form close associations with unicellular microalgae, fungi, bacteria and archaea, some of which are symbiotic\\u000a and which together form the coral holobiont. Associations with multicellular eukaryotes such as polychaete worms, bivalves\\u000a and sponges are not generally considered to be symbiotic as the host responds to their presence by forming physical barriers\\u000a with an active growth edge in

O. Pantos; J. C. Bythell

2010-01-01

342

The impact of differing cell and algogenic organic matter (AOM) characteristics on the coagulation and flotation of algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to compare the coagulation and flotation of different algae species with varying morphology and algogenic organic matter (AOM) composition in order to link physical and chemical algae characteristics to treatment. Microcystis aeruginosa (cyanobacteria), Chlorella vulgaris (green algae), Asterionella formosa and Melosira sp. (diatoms) were treated by coagulation with aluminium sulphate and flotation. The AOM

Rita K. Henderson; Simon A. Parsons; Bruce Jefferson

2010-01-01

343

Mineralogy and formation conditions of ores in the Bereznyakovskoe ore field, the Southern Urals, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bereznyakovskoe ore field is situated in the Birgilda-Tomino ore district of the East Ural volcanic zone. The ore field comprises several centers of hydrothermal mineralization, including the Central Bereznyakovskoe and Southeastern Bereznyakovskoe deposits, which are characterized in this paper. The disseminated and stringer-disseminated orebodies at these deposits are hosted in Upper Devonian-Lower Carboniferous dacitic-andesitic tuff and are accompanied by quartz-sericite hydrothermal alteration. Three ore stages are recognized: early ore (pyrite); main ore (telluride-base-metal, with enargite, fahlore-telluride, and gold telluride substages); and late ore (galena-sphalerite). The early and the main ore stages covered temperature intervals of 320-380 to 180C and 280-300 to 170C, respectively; the ore precipitated from fluids with a predominance of NaCl. The mineral zoning of the ore field is expressed in the following change of prevalent mineral assemblages from the Central Bereznyakovskoe deposit toward the Southeastern Bereznyakovskoe deposit: enargite, tennantite, native tellurium, tellurides, and selenides ? tennantite-tetrahedrite, tellurides, and sulfoselenides (galenoclausthalite) ? tetrahedrite, tellurides, native gold, galena, and sphalerite. The established trend of mineral assemblages was controlled by a decrease in f_{S_2 } , f_{Te_2 } and f_{O_2 } and an increase in pH of mineral-forming fluids from early to late assemblages and from the Central Bereznyakovskoe deposit toward the Southeastern Bereznyakovskoe deposit. Thus, the Central Bereznyakovskoe deposit was located in the center of an epithermal high-sulfidation ore-forming system. As follows from widespread enargite and digenite, a high Au/Ag ratio, and Au-Cu specialization of this deposit, it is rather deeply eroded. The ore mineralization at the Southeastern Bereznyakovskoe deposit fits the intermediate- or low-sulfidation type and is distinguished by development of tennantite, a low Au/Ag ratio, and enrichment in base metals against a lowered copper content. In general, the Bereznyakovskoe ore field is a hydrothermal system with a wide spectrum of epithermal mineralization styles.

Plotinskaya, O. Yu.; Groznova, E. O.; Kovalenker, V. A.; Novoselov, K. A.; Seltmann, R.

2009-10-01

344

Mortality among sulfide ore miners  

SciTech Connect

Lung cancer mortality was studied during 1965-1985 in Outokumpu township in North Karelia, where an old copper mine was located. Age-specific lung cancer death rates (1968-1985) were higher among the male population of Outokumpu than among the North Karelian male population of the same age excluding the Outokumpu district (p less than .01). Of all 106 persons who died from lung cancer during 1965-1985 in Outokumpu township, 47 were miners of the old mine, 39 of whom had worked there for at least three years and been heavily exposed to radon daughters and silica dust. The study cohort consisted of 597 miners first employed between 1954 and 1973 by a new copper mine and a zinc mine, and employed there for at least 3 years. The period of follow-up was 1954-1986. The number of person-years was 14,782. The total number of deaths was 102; the expected number was 72.8 based on the general male population and 97.8 based on the mortality of the male population of North Karelia. The excess mortality among miners was due mainly to ischemic heart disease (IHD); 44 were observed, the expected number was 22.1, based on the general male population, and the North Karelian expected number was 31.2 (p less than .05). Of the 44 miners who died from IHD, 20 were drillers or chargers exposed to nitroglycerin in dynamite charges, but also to several simultaneous stress factors including PAHs, noise, vibration, heavy work, accident risk, and working alone. Altogether 16 tumors were observed in the cohort. Ten of these were lung cancers, the expected number being 4.3. Miners who had died from lung cancer were 35-64 years old, and had entered mining work between 1954 and 1960. Five of the ten lung cancer cases came from the zinc mine (1.7 expected). Three of them were conductors of diesel-powered ore trains.

Ahlman, K.; Koskela, R.S.; Kuikka, P.; Koponen, M.; Annanmaeki, M. (Department of Epidemiology and Biometry, Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki (Finland))

1991-01-01

345

Separation of packaging plastics by froth flotation in a continuous pilot plant  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the research was to apply froth flotation to separate post-consumer PET (Polyethylene Terephthalate) from other packaging plastics with similar density, in a continuously operated pilot plant. A representative sample composed of 85% PET, 2.5% PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride) and 11.9% PS (Polystyrene) was subjected to a combination of alkaline treatment and surfactant adsorption followed by froth flotation. A mineral processing pilot plant, owned by a Portuguese mining company, was adapted for this purpose. The experimentation showed that it is possible to produce an almost pure concentrate of PET, containing 83% of the PET in feed, in a single bank of mechanical flotation cells. The concentrate grade attained was 97.2% PET, 1.1% PVC and 1.1% PS. By simulation it was shown that the Portuguese recycling industry specifications can be attained if one cleaning and one scavenger stages are added to the circuit.

Carvalho, Teresa, E-mail: teresa.carvalho@ist.utl.p [CERENA, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Durao, Fernando; Ferreira, Celia [CERENA, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)

2010-11-15

346

Coral reef evolution on rapidly subsiding margins  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A series of well-developed submerged coral reefs are preserved in the Huon Gulf (Papua New Guinea) and around Hawaii. Despite different tectonics settings, both regions have experienced rapid subsidence (2-6??m/ka) over the last 500??ka. Rapid subsidence, combined with eustatic sea-level changes, is responsible for repeated drowning and backstepping of coral reefs over this period. Because we can place quantitative constraints on these systems (i.e., reef drowning age, eustatic sea-level changes, subsidence rates, accretion rates, basement substrates, and paleobathymetry), these areas represent unique natural laboratories for exploring the roles of tectonics, reef accretion, and eustatic sea-level changes in controlling the evolution of individual reefs, as well as backstepping of the entire system. A review of new and existing bathymetric, radiometric, sedimentary facies and numerical modeling data indicate that these reefs have had long, complex growth histories and that they are highly sensitive, recording drowning not only during major deglaciations, but also during high-frequency, small-amplitude interstadial and deglacial meltwater pulse events. Analysis of five generalized sedimentary facies shows that reef drowning is characterized by a distinct biological and sedimentary sequence. Observational and numerical modeling data indicate that on precessional (20??ka) and sub-orbital timescales, the rate and amplitude of eustatic sea-level changes are critical in controlling initiation, growth, drowning or sub-aerial exposure, subsequent re-initiation, and final drowning. However, over longer timescales (> 100-500??ka) continued tectonic subsidence and basement substrate morphology influence broad scale reef morphology and backstepping geometries. Drilling of these reefs will yield greatly expanded stratigraphic sections compared with similar reefs on slowly subsiding, stable and uplifting margins, and thus they represent a unique archive of sea-level and climate changes, as well as a record of the response of coral reefs to these changes over the last six glacial cycles. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Webster, J.M.; Braga, J.C.; Clague, D.A.; Gallup, C.; Hein, J.R.; Potts, D.C.; Renema, W.; Riding, R.; Riker-Coleman, K.; Silver, E.; Wallace, L.M.

2009-01-01

347

Mapping Oyster Reef Habitats in Mobile Bay  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oyster reefs around the world are declining rapidly, and although they haven t received as much attention as coral reefs, they are just as important to their local ecosystems and economies. Oyster reefs provide habitats for many species of fish, invertebrates, and crustaceans, as well as the next generations of oysters. Oysters are also harvested from many of these reefs and are an important segment of many local economies, including that of Mobile Bay, where oysters rank in the top five commercial marine species both by landed weight and by dollar value. Although the remaining Mobile Bay oyster reefs are some of the least degraded in the world, projected climate change could have dramatic effects on the health of these important ecosystems. The viability of oyster reefs depends on water depth and temperature, appropriate pH and salinity levels, and the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water. Projected increases in sea level, changes in precipitation and runoff patterns, and changes in pH resulting from increases in the amount of carbon dioxide dissolved in the oceans could all affect the viability of oyster reefs in the future. Human activities such as dredging and unsustainable harvesting practices are also adversely impacting the oyster reefs. Fortunately, several projects are already under way to help rebuild or support existing or previously existing oyster reefs. The success of these projects will depend on the local effects of climate change on the current and potential habitats and man s ability to recognize and halt unsustainable harvesting practices. As the extent and health of the reefs changes, it will have impacts on the Mobile Bay ecosystem and economy, changing the resources available to the people who live there and to the rest of the country, since Mobile Bay is an important national source of seafood. This project identified potential climate change impacts on the oyster reefs of Mobile Bay, including the possible addition of newly viable habitats in the southeastern regions of the Bay.

Bolte, Danielle

2011-01-01

348

Coral reef evolution on rapidly subsiding margins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of well-developed submerged coral reefs are preserved in the Huon Gulf (Papua New Guinea) and around Hawaii. Despite different tectonics settings, both regions have experienced rapid subsidence (2-6 m/ka) over the last 500 ka. Rapid subsidence, combined with eustatic sea-level changes, is responsible for repeated drowning and backstepping of coral reefs over this period. Because we can place quantitative constraints on these systems (i.e., reef drowning age, eustatic sea-level changes, subsidence rates, accretion rates, basement substrates, and paleobathymetry), these areas represent unique natural laboratories for exploring the roles of tectonics, reef accretion, and eustatic sea-level changes in controlling the evolution of individual reefs, as well as backstepping of the entire system. A review of new and existing bathymetric, radiometric, sedimentary facies and numerical modeling data indicate that these reefs have had long, complex growth histories and that they are highly sensitive, recording drowning not only during major deglaciations, but also during high-frequency, small-amplitude interstadial and deglacial meltwater pulse events. Analysis of five generalized sedimentary facies shows that reef drowning is characterized by a distinct biological and sedimentary sequence. Observational and numerical modeling data indicate that on precessional (20 ka) and sub-orbital timescales, the rate and amplitude of eustatic sea-level changes are critical in controlling initiation, growth, drowning or sub-aerial exposure, subsequent re-initiation, and final drowning. However, over longer timescales (> 100-500 ka) continued tectonic subsidence and basement substrate morphology influence broad scale reef morphology and backstepping geometries. Drilling of these reefs will yield greatly expanded stratigraphic sections compared with similar reefs on slowly subsiding, stable and uplifting margins, and thus they represent a unique archive of sea-level and climate changes, as well as a record of the response of coral reefs to these changes over the last six glacial cycles.

Webster, Jody M.; Braga, Juan Carlos; Clague, David A.; Gallup, Christina; Hein, James R.; Potts, Donald C.; Renema, Willem; Riding, Robert; Riker-Coleman, Kristin; Silver, Eli; Wallace, Laura M.

2009-03-01

349

Coal froth flotation: effects of reagent adsorption on the froth structure  

SciTech Connect

The amount and quality of concentrate obtained from froth flotation of a coal are very important to determine the efficiency of the separation process. The shape and size of the bubbles in the froth directly affect the amount and purity of the concentrate overflowed during the froth flotation of the coal. The froth structure is significantly dependent on parameters such as the size of the solid particles, the surface properties of the particles, the chemical structure of surface active agents, the reagents adsorbed onto solid particles, and the reagents remaining in water. This work was performed to determine the relationship between the reagents adsorbed on the solid particles, froth structure, and froth flotation performance. The -53 {mu}m size fraction of a bituminous coal was used to perform froth flotation experiments. The froth flotation of the coal used was performed in the presence of two nonionic surfactants, Triton x-100 (poly(ethylene glycol) tert-octylphenyl ether) and MIBC (methyl isobutyl carbinol), and an anionic surfactant, SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate). The results showed that the adsorption of a high amount of reagent on the particles decreased the ability of separation, thus a substantial amount of mineral particles overflowed along with the hydrophobic coal particles. The use of MIBC with Triton x-100 or SDS as mixture increased solid recovery, and it was concluded that MIBC selectively adsorbed on solids acting as collector as well as a frother. Reagent adsorption has a crucial effect on the froth structure, which is strongly related to flotation performance. 33 refs., 18 figs.

Meryem Ozmak; Zeki Aktas [Ankara University, Ankara (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering

2006-05-15

350

Sewage sludge and fly ash mixture as an alternative for decontaminating lead and zinc ore regions.  

PubMed

Many years of heavy industrial processes in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region in Poland (ore flotation, metal smelting and battery scrap processing) have resulted in lead, zinc and cadmium pollution of the air and soil. The most significant issues stem not only from elevated levels of these metals in environmental compartments, but also from the uneven pattern of their distribution. Point sources of local metal concentration are to be found dispersed over areas of contaminated soil. Such distribution is a challenge for remediation technology, as it precludes the introduction of standard procedures. Metals present in the soil pose a constant risk for living organisms. One of the most effective ways of limiting their ecological impact is by decreasing their mobility. In this study, the effect of introducing sewage sludge and fly ash mixtures (sluash material) into contaminated soil was evaluated. We tested the mixture in terms of the probability of its ecotoxicological impact on plant growth and development. The data obtained have shown that even low doses (3%) of sluash are effective in reducing the bioavailability of lead, cadmium and zinc, resulting in a decrease of their concentration in plants. The application of sluash also led to stabilize soil pH. It also had a positive impact on the total number of soil bacteria and soil fungi. PMID:25381583

Pogrzeba, M; Galimska-Stypa, R; Krzy?ak, J; Sas-Nowosielska, A

2015-01-01

351

Coral reef community composition in the context of disturbance history on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia.  

PubMed

Much research on coral reefs has documented differential declines in coral and associated organisms. In order to contextualise this general degradation, research on community composition is necessary in the context of varied disturbance histories and the biological processes and physical features thought to retard or promote recovery. We conducted a spatial assessment of coral reef communities across five reefs of the central Great Barrier Reef, Australia, with known disturbance histories, and assessed patterns of coral cover and community composition related to a range of other variables thought to be important for reef dynamics. Two of the reefs had not been extensively disturbed for at least 15 years prior to the surveys. Three of the reefs had been severely impacted by crown-of-thorns starfish outbreaks and coral bleaching approximately a decade before the surveys, from which only one of them was showing signs of recovery based on independent surveys. We incorporated wave exposure (sheltered and exposed) and reef zone (slope, crest and flat) into our design, providing a comprehensive assessment of the spatial patterns in community composition on these reefs. Categorising corals into life history groupings, we document major coral community differences in the unrecovered reefs, compared to the composition and covers found on the undisturbed reefs. The recovered reef, despite having similar coral cover, had a different community composition from the undisturbed reefs, which may indicate slow successional processes, or a different natural community dominance pattern due to hydrology and other oceanographic factors. The variables that best correlated with patterns in the coral community among sites included the density of juvenile corals, herbivore fish biomass, fish species richness and the cover of macroalgae. Given increasing impacts to the Great Barrier Reef, efforts to mitigate local stressors will be imperative to encouraging coral communities to persist into the future. PMID:24983747

Graham, Nicholas A J; Chong-Seng, Karen M; Huchery, Cindy; Januchowski-Hartley, Fraser A; Nash, Kirsty L

2014-01-01

352

Project O.R.B (Operation Reef Ball): Creating Artificial Reefs, Educating the Community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Project O.R.B. (Operation Reef Ball) team at South Plantation High School's Everglades Restoration & Environmental Science Magnet Program is trying to help our ailing south Florida coral reefs by constructing, deploying, and monitoring designed artificial reefs. Students partnered with the Reef Ball Foundation, local concrete companies, state parks, Girl Scouts, Sea Scouts, local universities and environmental agencies to construct concrete reef balls, each weighing approximately 500 lbs (227 kg). Students then deployed two artificial reefs consisting of over 30 concrete reef balls in two sites previously permitted for artificial reef deployment. One artificial reef was placed approximately 1.5 miles (2.4 km) offshore of Golden Beach in Miami-Dade County with the assistance of Florida Atlantic University and their research vessel. A twin reef was deployed at the mouth of the river in Oleta River State Park in Miami. Monitoring and maintenance of the sites is ongoing with semi-annual reports due to the Reef Ball Foundation and DERM (Department of Environmental Resource Management) of Miami-Dade County. A second goal of Project O.R.B. is aligned with the Florida Local Action Strategy, the Southeast Florida Coral Reef Initiative, and the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force, all of which point out the importance of awareness and education as key components to the health of our coral reefs. Project O.R.B. team members developed and published an activity book targeting elementary school students. Outreach events incorporate cascade learning where high school students teach elementary and middle school students about various aspects of coral reefs through interactive "edu-tainment" modules. Attendees learn about water sampling, salinity, beach erosion, surface runoff, water cycle, ocean zones, anatomy of coral, human impact on corals, and characteristics of a well-designed artificial reef. Middle school students snorkel on the artificial reef to witness first-hand the success of this artificial reef. Over 3,000 students have been reached through the educational outreach endeavors of Project O.R.B. This successful STEM project models the benefits of partnerships with universities, local K-12 public schools and community conservation organizations and provides students with authentic learning experiences. Students are able to have a positive impact on their local coral reef environment, their peers and their community through this comprehensive service-learning project.

Phipps, A.

2012-04-01

353

A saltwater flotation technique to identify unincubated eggs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Field studies on nesting birds sometimes involve questions related to nest initiation dates, length of the incubation period, or changes in parental incubation behavior during various stages of incubation. Some of this information can be best assessed when a nest is discovered before the eggs have undergone any incubation, and this has traditionally been assessed by floating eggs in freshwater. However, because the freshwater method is not particularly accurate in identifying unincubated eggs, we developed a more reliable saltwater flotation method. The saltwater method involves diluting a saturated saltwater solution with freshwater until a salt concentration is reached where unincubated eggs sink to the bottom and incubated eggs float to the surface. For Laughing Gulls (Leucophaeus atricilla), floating eggs in freshwater failed to identify 39.0% (N = 251) of eggs that were subsequently found by candling to have undergone incubation prior to collection. By contrast, in a separate collection of gull eggs, no eggs that passed the saltwater test (N = 225) were found by a later candling to have been incubated prior to collection. For Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus), floating eggs in freshwater failed to identify 15.6% (N = 250) of eggs that had undergone incubation prior to collection, whereas in a separate collection, none of the eggs that passed the saltwater test (N = 85) were found by a later candling to have been incubated prior to collection. Immersion of eggs in saltwater did not affect embryo survival. Although use of the saltwater method is likely limited to colonial species and requires calibrating a saltwater solution, it is a faster and more accurate method of identifying unincubated eggs than the traditional method of floating eggs in freshwater.

Devney, C.A.; Kondrad, S.L.; Stebbins, K.R.; Brittingham, K.D.; Hoffman, D.J.; Heinz, G.H.

2009-01-01

354

Wonders of the Living Reef The Invertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The living reef is a realm of wonders. With a first look at a living reef, one is overwhelmed with the diversity in color and shape of the corals and fishes. But beneath this surface is an even more wondrous world, one of bizarre, alien creatures, some of which hardly resemble living animals. These \\

Scott Johnson

355

Reefs and Learning: Education Evaluation Techniques  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Marine education research designs are discussed, and student learning outcomes while monitoring a coral reef is evaluated. Changes in environmental knowledge and attitudes, ecological intention to act, and direct reef experience were investigated. Differences between student pre-test and the post-test responses were observed, and analysis is

Stepath, Carl M.

2006-01-01

356

Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Describes the unique Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Ecosystem Reserve. Provides resources focused on NWHI coral reef ecosystems, and introductions to reef research, management and protection activities. Educational outreach includes: teacher workshops; student activities, and a Discovery Center in Hilo, Hawaii that features exhibits and activities for schools and the public.

357

Silurian pinnacle reefs of the Canadian Arctic  

SciTech Connect

Pinnacle reefs are commonly an attractive target for oil exploration because they are usually porous carbonate bodies entombed in impervious, deep-water shales that provide both the source and the seal for hydrocarbons. Silurian pinnacle reefs, the first described in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, are exposed on Ellesmere and Devon Islands. Two main reef trends occur, one of early middle Llandovery to middle Ludlow age and a second of middle Ludlow to Late Silurian or Early Devonian age. Reefs of both phases contain lime mudstone cores: some are stromatactoid-rich and others consist predominantly of microbialite-rich lime mudstone or microbial boundstone. Facies sequences of both reef phases show evidence of upward-shallowing overall, but, in the older reefs, isochronous capping facies are dominated either by coral-mirian or by stromatoporoid boundstone and floatstone. This difference perhaps reflects variation in wave stress and apparent ability of a few corals,thickly encrusted by or associated with microbial boundstone and skeletal algae, to withstand greater wave energy than a stromatoporoid-coral-rich reef community. These reefs constitute one of the bright prospects of hydrocarbon exploration in rocks of the Franklinian succession. 43 refs., 9 figs.

De Freitas, T.A.; Dixon, O.A. (Univ. of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)); Mayr, U. (Institute of Sedimentary and Petroleum Geology, Alberta (Canada))

1993-04-01

358

Preliminary observations on coral reef plankton  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTBRCT Plankton collections near coral reefs were made by hand-towing nets while swimming and by using a suction device for sampling caves. Plankton in sheltered areas was con- sidcrably different from that in nonsheltered areas; some plankton forms maintained position near coral reefs, indicating that the terms planktonic and epibenthic may represent extremes of a behavior continuum. Copepods were observed

ALAN R. EMERY

1968-01-01

359

Disease of coral and coral reef fishes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Department of the Interior protects sensitive habitats amounting to about 3,600,000 acres of coral reefs and other submerged lands. These reefs are important ecosystems in 13 National Wildlife Refuges, 10 National Parks and in certain territorial waters such as the Wake Atoll.

Panek, Frank

2008-01-01

360

Reproductive ecology of Caribbean reef corals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last decade has seen a resurgence of interest in the processes of sexual reproduction by scleractinian reef corals. Earlier investigations had focused fortuitously on brooding (planulating) species, which resulted in the general misconception that brooding was the main form of larval development of reef corals. More recent work on Indo-Pacific species has shown broadcast spawning and short annual reproductive

Alina M. Szmant

1986-01-01

361

Sandstone Strata in Capitol Reef National Park  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A detail view of some sandstone strata within Capitol Reef National Park. Capitol Reef is primarily made up of sandstone formations within the Waterpocket Fold, monocline that extends nearly 100 miles. A monocline is a step-like fold in rock strata that can resemble an enormous wrinkle in the earth....

362

Coral Reef Conservation in Marine Protected Areas  

E-print Network

Coral Reef Conservation in Marine Protected Areas A Case Study of Parque Nacional del Este 22203, USA Telephone: (703) 841-4860 Coral Reef Conservation in Marine Protected Areas: A Case Study, Dominican Republic Part 3 of 3 in a Series on Science Tools for Marine Park Management Edited by Mark

Greer, Lisa

363

REEF MANAGER'S GUIDE TO CORAL BLEACHING  

EPA Science Inventory

A Reef Manager's Guide to Coral Bleaching is the result of a collaborative effort by over 50 scientists and managers to: (1) engage in information-sharing in the areas of coral reef science and management for climate change and coral bleaching; and (2) compile a management tool ...

364

Subtropical Biotic Fringing Reefs as Ecological Laboratories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a 16-week course in marine biology involving a class-coordinated investigation of a subtropical biotic fringing reef of Hawaii. Describes in detail the development of preliminary hypotheses regarding general cause-effect relationships on the reef, and the exploration of specific areas, such as chemical or physical factors. (CS)

Hunt, Jeffrey W.

1980-01-01

365

Along-Track Reef Imaging System (ATRIS)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

"Along-Track Reef Imaging System (ATRIS)" describes the U.S. Geological Survey's Along-Track Reef Imaging System, a boat-based sensor package for rapidly mapping shallow water benthic environments. ATRIS acquires high resolution, color digital images that are accurately geo-located in real-time.

Brock, John; Zawada, Dave

2006-01-01

366

Artificial Reefs--A Coastal Classroom Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the construction of artificial reefs for such uses as commercial fishing and recreational boating. Describes a class project in which students construct a small artificial reef and observe the changes over time in terms of temperature, salinity, flora and fauna. (TW)

Dindo, John J.

1986-01-01

367

Status of Pacific Island coral reef fisheries  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is difficult to determine the status of fisheries on Pacific Islands coral reefs. The region is economically undeveloped, sparsely populated and its coral reefs are scattered over a vast area. Resultant constraints on monitoring and investigation mean that quantitative information is rare. The few available quantitative indicators are summarised here alongside opinions based on extensive practical experience. Most anecdotal

Tim Adams; Paul Dalzell; Richard Farman

368

AERIAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING NORTH, WITH FORMER TCIUS STEEL ORE MINE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

AERIAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING NORTH, WITH FORMER TCI-US STEEL ORE MINE HEADQUARTERS (BOTTOM) AND SUPERINTENDENT'S AND FOREMAN HOUSING ALONG MINNESOTA AVENUE AT CREST OF RED MOUNTAIN (TOP LEFT). - Muscoda Red Ore Mining Community, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

369

4. DETAIL OF ORE RECEIVING PLATFORM AND GRIZZLY, VIEW TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. DETAIL OF ORE RECEIVING PLATFORM AND GRIZZLY, VIEW TO EAST. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Sampling Building & Ore Receiving Platform, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

370

3. DETAIL OF ORE RECEIVING PLATFORM AND GRIZZLY, VIEW TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. DETAIL OF ORE RECEIVING PLATFORM AND GRIZZLY, VIEW TO WEST. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Sampling Building & Ore Receiving Platform, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

371

2. VIEW TO NORTHEAST (ORE RECEIVING PLATFORM OUT OF VIEW ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW TO NORTHEAST (ORE RECEIVING PLATFORM OUT OF VIEW TO RIGHT). - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Sampling Building & Ore Receiving Platform, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

372

1. VIEW TO SOUTH (RETAINING WALL OF ORE RECEIVING PLATFORM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW TO SOUTH (RETAINING WALL OF ORE RECEIVING PLATFORM TO LEFT). - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Sampling Building & Ore Receiving Platform, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

373

Bathymetric distribution of foraminifera in Jamaican reef environments  

SciTech Connect

Recent foraminifera inhabiting Jamaican north-coast fringing reefs display variations in distributional patterns that are related to bathymetry and reef morphology. Sediment samples containing foraminifera were collected along a profile that traversed the back reef (depth 1-2 m), fore-reef terrace (3-15 m), fore-reef escarpment (15-27 m), fore-reef slope (30-55 m), and upper deep fore reef (70 m). Approximately 150 species distributed among 80 genera were identified from the samples. Preliminary analyses indicate that diversity values (S, H') are lowest on the fore-reef terrace (79, 3.0, respectively), increase similarly in back-reef and fore-reef escarpment and slope settings (93, 3.4), and are highest on the deep fore reef (109, 3.7). Larger groupings (suborders) exhibit distinct bathymetric trends with miliolids occurring more commonly in back-reef (comprising 51% of the fauna) than in fore-reef (28%) zones, whereas agglutinated and planktonic species occur more commonly in deeper reef (> 15 m, 9% and 4%, respectively) than in shallower reef zones (< 15 m, 3%, and 0.5%, respectively). Among the more common species Amphistegina gibbosa (Rotolina) is much more abundant in fore-reef (3%) environments, and Sorites marginalis (Miliolina) occurs almost exclusively in the back reef, where it comprises 5.5% of the fauna. Q-mode cluster analysis, involving all species collected, enabled the delineation of back-reef, shallow fore-reef, and deeper fore-reef biofacies, also indicating the potential utility of foraminiferal distributions in detailed paleoenvironment interpretations of ancient reef settings.

Martin, R.E.; Liddell, W.D.

1985-02-01

374

National Center for Caribbean Coral Reef Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A number of research centers are concerned with the state of the world's coral reefs, and the National Center for Caribbean Coral Reef Research (NCORE) is one such center of scholarly excellence. Located at the University of Miami, NCORE is primarily concerned with "the analysis and predication of coral reef resilience". On their site, visitors can learn about some of their primary research initiatives, such as their work on the Florida reef tract and on tracking the effects of climate change on the reef communities. The general public will also find their digital map series quite useful as well. In this section, users can examine a number of complex digital maps and images that provide information about the state of coral cover around Puerto Rico, South Florida, and the Bahamas.

375

Coral Reef Information System: Discover NOAA's Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Coral Reef Information System (CoRIS), this Web site is "designed to be a single point of access to NOAA coral reef information and data products, especially those derived from NOAA's Coral Reef Initiative Program." With Discover NOAA's Data, users can access information by a text search of metadata records, or by a spatial search using an Arc IMS application. The two approaches share many of the same data sets. With the text search, users may search NOAA coral reef information by title, author, keyword, etc. The map program includes "over 19,000 aerial photos, 400 preview navigational charts, tide stations, paleoclimatological studies, photo mosaics, coral reef monitoring, bleaching reports, and more." The site provides numerous help features for both search methods.

376

32. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH ON THE ORE BREAKER LEVEL. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

32. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH ON THE ORE BREAKER LEVEL. THE ORE BREAKER, A BLAKE JAW CRUSHER, IS IN THE BOX IN THE LEFT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH, THE ORE TO BE BROKEN IS FED INTO THE OPENING ON THE FLOOR AND NEXT TO ORE BREAKER BOX. THE GRIZZLY BARS ARE ON THE RIGHT AND THE PULLEYS FROM THE POWER SYSTEM ARE OVERHEAD. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

377

Cognome e nome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ALGA 14 novembre 2011 Compitino (2 ore)  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ALGA 14 novembre 2011­ Compitino (2 ore) Giustificare ogni affermazione Salvare il file CoCoA come

Robbiano, Lorenzo

378

Cognome e nome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ALGA 2 febbraio 2012 Compitino (2 ore)  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ALGA 2 febbraio 2012­ Compitino (2 ore) Giustificare ogni affermazione Salvare il file CoCoA come

Robbiano, Lorenzo

379

Placement Of O-Rings In Solid Rocket Booster  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brief report proposes to modify placement of O-ring seals in joints of Solid Rocket Booster of Space Shuttle. Modified joint and seal essentially "inside-out" version of old joint and seal. O-rings placed between outer side of tang and clevis. Joint rotation pushes tang harder against O-rings, thereby making even tighter seal. Proposal derived from analysis of Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, attributed to failure of these O-ring seals.

Wood, Charles

1991-01-01

380

Parrotfish abundance and selective corallivory on a Belizean coral reef  

E-print Network

Parrotfish abundance and selective corallivory on a Belizean coral reef Randi D. Rotjan *, Sara M of coral reef communities because they consume macroalgae that would otherwise outcompete reef grazing by parrotfish on particular coral species, differences in grazing incidence among reef habitats

Lewis, Sara

381

Science and management of coral reefs: problems and prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

It should be recognised that many principles of reef management do not need further research, as they involve changing human behaviour and activities in order to remove or reduce impacts on reefs. Much of the time of a reef manager is taken up with social, economic and political issues: the integration of reef management into broad coastal zone management objectives;

S. M. Wells

1995-01-01

382

Pressures and effects on the Great Barrier Reef lagoon  

E-print Network

not presented) Impacts on and responses of seagrasses in the Great Barrier Reef - issues for management W Lee) ecosystem relevant to management are reviewed. Reefs per se only make up a small fraction ( sea, bounded by and encompassing to varymg degrees a porous matrix of coral reefs. Reef area

Marsh, Helene

383

-Congressional Policy Brief -United States Coral Reef Task Force  

E-print Network

and jurisdictions in coral reef regions, and helped its members launch new actions to protect and manage reef- Congressional Policy Brief - United States Coral Reef Task Force "NOAA, on behalf of the Department of Commerce, is honored to serve as Co-Chair of the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force, along

384

A Global Estimate of the Number of Coral Reef Fishers.  

PubMed

Overfishing threatens coral reefs worldwide, yet there is no reliable estimate on the number of reef fishers globally. We address this data gap by quantifying the number of reef fishers on a global scale, using two approaches - the first estimates reef fishers as a proportion of the total number of marine fishers in a country, based on the ratio of reef-related to total marine fish landed values. The second estimates reef fishers as a function of coral reef area, rural coastal population, and fishing pressure. In total, we find that there are 6 million reef fishers in 99 reef countries and territories worldwide, of which at least 25% are reef gleaners. Our estimates are an improvement over most existing fisher population statistics, which tend to omit accounting for gleaners and reef fishers. Our results suggest that slightly over a quarter of the world's small-scale fishers fish on coral reefs, and half of all coral reef fishers are in Southeast Asia. Coral reefs evidently support the socio-economic well-being of numerous coastal communities. By quantifying the number of people who are employed as reef fishers, we provide decision-makers with an important input into planning for sustainable coral reef fisheries at the appropriate scale. PMID:23840327

Teh, Louise S L; Teh, Lydia C L; Sumaila, U Rashid

2013-01-01

385

Climate Change, Human Impacts, and the Resilience of Coral Reefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diversity, frequency, and scale of human impacts on coral reefs are increasing to the extent that reefs are threatened globally. Projected increases in carbon dioxide and temperature over the next 50 years exceed the conditions under which coral reefs have flourished over the past half-million years. However, reefs will change rather than disappear entirely, with some species already showing

T. P. Hughes; A. H. Baird; D. R. Bellwood; M. Card; S. R. Connolly; C. Folke; R. Grosberg; O. Hoegh-Guldberg; J. B. C. Jackson; J. Kleypas; J. M. Lough; P. Marshall; M. Nystrm; S. R. Palumbi; J. M. Pandolfi; B. Rosen; J. Roughgarden

2003-01-01

386

Shifting the paradigm of coral-reef health assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coral reefs are in crisis. Globally, our reefs are degrading at an accelerating rate and present methodologies for coral-reef health assessment, although providing important information in describing these global declines, have been unable to halt these declines. These assessments are usually employed with no clear purpose and using uncorrelated methods resulting in a failure to prevent or mitigate coral reef

Craig A. Downs; Cheryl M. Woodley; Robert H. Richmond; Lynda L. Lanning; Richard Owen

2005-01-01

387

A Global Estimate of the Number of Coral Reef Fishers  

PubMed Central

Overfishing threatens coral reefs worldwide, yet there is no reliable estimate on the number of reef fishers globally. We address this data gap by quantifying the number of reef fishers on a global scale, using two approaches - the first estimates reef fishers as a proportion of the total number of marine fishers in a country, based on the ratio of reef-related to total marine fish landed values. The second estimates reef fishers as a function of coral reef area, rural coastal population, and fishing pressure. In total, we find that there are 6 million reef fishers in 99 reef countries and territories worldwide, of which at least 25% are reef gleaners. Our estimates are an improvement over most existing fisher population statistics, which tend to omit accounting for gleaners and reef fishers. Our results suggest that slightly over a quarter of the worlds small-scale fishers fish on coral reefs, and half of all coral reef fishers are in Southeast Asia. Coral reefs evidently support the socio-economic well-being of numerous coastal communities. By quantifying the number of people who are employed as reef fishers, we provide decision-makers with an important input into planning for sustainable coral reef fisheries at the appropriate scale. PMID:23840327

Teh, Louise S. L.; Teh, Lydia C. L.; Sumaila, U. Rashid

2013-01-01

388

Edgecliff reefs - Devonian temperate water carbonate deposition  

SciTech Connect

The Middle Devonian Edgecliff Member of the Onondaga Formation in New York and Ontario, Canada, is a coral-rich, reefy,' crinoidal grainstone/packstone. The reefs contain only rare stromatoporoids and are devoid of algae, having been constructed by a fauna of mound and thicket-forming branching colonial rugosans, and large sheet favositids that populated grainstone/packstone flank beds and banks. Despite the restricted fauna, the reefs display a variety of growth patterns. Rugosan mounds range in size from 2-3 m diameter by 1 m thick, up to 230 m diameter by 15 m thick. Composite structures consist of interbedded rugosan buildups and packstone/grainstone flanks, ranging from shield-shaped reefs (240 m diameter by 6 m thick) in which the rugosans occur only as thickets, to pinnacle reefs (up to 3 km diameter by 60 m thick) in which rugosan mounds are interbedded with crinoidal flanks. Geographic distribution of these reef types and analysis of surrounding facies suggests that reef growth pattern was controlled by water depth and local rate of subsidence. Despite superfacial resemblance to modern deep water ahermatypic coral mounds and thickets, abundant coral breakage and overturning, and erosion of at least one reef core during an intermediate stage of reef growth supports a shallow water origin of these reefs. It is suggested that the Edgecliff and its reefs represent an example of Devonian cool water carbonate deposition, a hypothesis supported by a trend of increasing stromatoporoid abundance westwards across New York (in the direction of the paleo-equator).

Wolosz, T.H. (State Univ. of New York, Plattsburgh (United States))

1991-03-01

389

17. ORE DOCK, LOOKING EAST FROM HULETT NO. 1. WHEN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. ORE DOCK, LOOKING EAST FROM HULETT NO. 1. WHEN BUILT IN 1911-1912, THIS WAS THE LARGEST ORE-UNLOADING DOCK ON THE GREAT LAKES. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

390

Improvement on inverse distance weighted interpolation for ore reserve estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve accuracy of estimation for ore reserves and average grade, it is important to select suitable interpolation method. Firstly, traditional inverse distance weighted method is analyzed and grade estimation model is improved. Specifically, irregular ellipsoid interpolation model is put forward, which is suitable for vein thin ore body or layer-like ore body, etc. The new model, based

Zhongxue Li; Xin Li; Cuiping Li; Zhiguo Cao

2010-01-01

391

6. Looking west showing top of dock: steaming frozen ore ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Looking west showing top of dock: steaming frozen ore which had been put in pockets in December 1959, May 6, 1990. Photographer: unknown - Marquette Ore Dock No. 6, Ore Dock, On pilings in Marquette City Lower Harbor, Marquette, Marquette County, MI

392

Project StORe: Biosciences interviews  

E-print Network

This report was written as part of the first phase of the national higher education research project StORe (Source-to-Output Repositories). Data was acquired through a series of individual interviews which are presented here in full. The anonymous...

Biegon, Dagmar

2006-11-08

393

In brief: Project StORe  

E-print Network

Project StORe is one of twenty-five projects supported in the UK by the JISC (http://www.jisc.ac.uk) Digital Repositories Programme, which aims to bring together people and practices from across the domains of research, learning, information...

Pryor, Graham

394

Production of uranium ore in capitalist countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uranium deposits of the USA are concentrated in the sedimentary rocks of the Colorado plateau [2, 12]. The ore bodies are adapted to arkosic sandstones, conglomerates, limestones, and argillites. The reserves are distributed into a rather small number of large deposits and a large number of small deposits. Large deposits, each with reserves of from 50 to 100 thousand

N. I. Chesnokov; V. G. Ivanov

1973-01-01

395

Sources of ores of the ferroalloy metals  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Since all steel is made with the addition of alloying elements, the record of the metallic raw materials contributory to the steel industry would be far from complete without reference to the ferroalloy metals. This paper, therefore, supplements two preceding arvicles on the sources of our iron ores. The photographs, with the exception of those relating to molybdenum and vanadium, are by the author.

Burchard, E.F.

1933-01-01

396

Ore Melting and Reduction in Silicomanganese Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The charge for silicomangansese production consists of manganese ore (often mixed with ferromanganese slag) dolomite or calcite, quartz, and in some cases, other additions. These materials have different melting properties, which have a strong effect on reduction and smelting reactions in the production of a silicomanganese alloy. This article discusses properties of Assman, Gabonese, and Companhia Vale do Rio Doce (CVRD) ores, CVRD sinter and high-carbon ferromanganese (HC FeMn) slag, and their change during silicomanganese production. The melting and reduction temperatures of these manganese sources were measured in a carbon monoxide atmosphere, using the sessile drop method and a differential thermal analysis/thermogravimetric analysis. Equilibrium phases were analyzed using FACTSage (CRCT, Montreal, Canada and GTT, Aachen, Germany) software. Experimental investigations and an analysis of equilibrium phases revealed significant differences in the melting behavior and reduction of different manganese sources. The difference in smelting of CVRD ore and CVRD sinter was attributed to a faster reduction of sinter by the graphite substrate and carbon monoxide. The calculation of equilibrium phases in the reduction process of manganese ores using FACTSage correctly reflects the trends in the production of manganese alloys. The temperature at which the manganese oxide concentration in the slag was reduced below 10 wt pct can be assigned to the top of the coke bed in the silicomanganese furnace. This temperature was in the range 1823 K to 1883 K (1550 C to 1610 C).

Ringdalen, Eli; Gaal, Sean; Tangstad, Merete; Ostrovski, Oleg

2010-12-01

397

A novel reef coral symbiosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reef building corals form close associations with unicellular microalgae, fungi, bacteria and archaea, some of which are symbiotic and which together form the coral holobiont. Associations with multicellular eukaryotes such as polychaete worms, bivalves and sponges are not generally considered to be symbiotic as the host responds to their presence by forming physical barriers with an active growth edge in the exoskeleton isolating the invader and, at a subcellular level, activating innate immune responses such as melanin deposition. This study describes a novel symbiosis between a newly described hydrozoan ( Zanclea margaritae sp. nov.) and the reef building coral Acropora muricata (= A. formosa), with the hydrozoan hydrorhiza ramifying throughout the coral tissues with no evidence of isolation or activation of the immune systems of the host. The hydrorhiza lacks a perisarc, which is typical of symbiotic species of this and related genera, including species that associate with other cnidarians such as octocorals. The symbiosis was observed at all sites investigated from two distant locations on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, and appears to be host species specific, being found only in A. muricata and in none of 30 other species investigated at these sites. Not all colonies of A. muricata host the hydrozoans and both the prevalence within the coral population (mean = 66%) and density of emergent hydrozoan hydranths on the surface of the coral (mean = 4.3 cm-2, but up to 52 cm-2) vary between sites. The form of the symbiosis in terms of the mutualism-parasitism continuum is not known, although the hydrozoan possesses large stenotele nematocysts, which may be important for defence from predators and protozoan pathogens. This finding expands the known A. muricata holobiont and the association must be taken into account in future when determining the corals abilities to defend against predators and withstand stress.

Pantos, O.; Bythell, J. C.

2010-09-01

398

Ecology of a Caribbean coral reef. The Porites reef-flat biotope: Part II. Plankton community with evidence for depletion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantitative assessment of drifting net plankton crossing a reef-flat biotope was obtained on a Caribbean coral reef. The spatial distribution and abundance of plankton were sampled to provide estimates of the removal of this potential food resource by suspension-feeding populations. Sampling was largely confined to the reef flat and adjacent waters of Laurel Cay, a flourishing coral reef present

P. W. Glynn

1973-01-01

399

76 FR 82413 - Amendments to the Reef Fish, Spiny Lobster, Queen Conch and Coral and Reef Associated Plants and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...fishery is managed under the Reef Fish FMP, spiny lobster is managed...fisheries are managed under the Reef Fish FMP and the Coral and Reef Associated...application of AMs in response to harvesting activities on a single island...units or complexes in the Reef Fish, Spiny Lobster, and...

2011-12-30

400

Geomorphology and sediment transport on a submerged back-reef sand apron: One Tree Reef, Great Barrier Reef  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Back-reef sand aprons are conspicuous and dynamic sedimentary features in coral reef systems. The development of these features influences the evolution and defines the maturity of coral reefs. However, the hydrodynamic processes that drive changes on sand aprons are poorly understood with only a few studies directly assessing sediment entrainment and transport. Current and wave conditions on a back-reef sand apron were measured during this study and a digital elevation model was developed through topographic and bathymetric surveying of the sand apron, reef flats and lagoon. The current and wave processes that may entrain and transport sediment were assessed using second order small amplitude (Stokes) wave theory and Shields equations. The morphodynamic interactions between current flow and geomorphology were also examined. The results showed that sediment transport occurs under modal hydrodynamic conditions with waves the main force entraining sediment rather than average currents. A morphodynamic relationship between current flow and geomorphology was also observed with current flow primarily towards the lagoon in shallow areas of the sand apron and deeper channel-like areas directing current off the sand apron towards the lagoon or the reef crest. These results show that the short-term mutual interaction of hydrodynamics and geomorphology in coral reefs can result in morphodynamic equilibrium.

Harris, Daniel L.; Vila-Concejo, Ana; Webster, Jody M.

2014-10-01

401

Mechanism of Reduction in an Oxygen Reactor for OreCoal Pellets Prepared with Low-Grade Manganese Ore  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on a study of the physicochemical laws that govern the reduction of manganese from oxidized and carbonate ores in the Polynochnoye deposit. The optimum regime for processing these ores was also determined. (The reserves of these ores total 0.5 million tons [2]). We conducted chemical, laser mass-spectrometric, and x-ray diffraction analyses of manganese ores of the given

V. A. Peretyagin; A. V. Pavlov

2003-01-01

402

Islands, Reefs, and a Hotspot  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students investigate the formation of the Hawaiian archipelago to see what geological processes produced the different physical forms seen among the Hawaiian Islands. Students will be able to describe eight stages in the formation of islands in the Hawaiian archipelago and will describe the movement of tectonic plates in the region including submarine volcanic eruptions, caldera formation, erosion, coral reef building, and atoll stages. They will also learn how a combination of hotspot activity and tectonic plate movement could produce the arrangement of seamounts observed in the Hawaiian archipelago.

Mel Goodwin

403

Seed flotation and germination of salt marsh plants: The effects of stratification, salinity, and/or inundation regime  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined the effects of cold stratification and salinity on seed flotation of eight salt marsh species. Four of the eight species were tested for germination success under different stratification, salinity, and flooding conditions. Species were separated into two groups, four species received wet stratification and four dry stratification and fresh seeds of all species were tested for flotation and germination. Fresh seeds of seven out of eight species had flotation times independent of salinity, six of which had average flotation times of at least 50 d. Seeds of Spartina alterniflora and Spartina patens had the shortest flotation times, averaging 24 and 26 d, respectively. Following wet stratification, the flotation time of S. alterniflora seeds in higher salinity water (15 and 36 ppt) was reduced by over 75% and germination declined by more than 90%. Wet stratification reduced the flotation time of Distichlis spicata seeds in fresh water but increased seed germination from 2 to 16% in a fluctuating inundation regime. Fresh seeds of Iva frutescens and S. alternflora were capable of germination and therefore are non-dormant during dispersal. Fresh seeds of I. frutescens had similar germination to dry stratified seeds ranging 25-30%. Salinity reduced seed germination for all species except for S. alterniflora. A fluctuating inundation regime was important for seed germination of the low marsh species and for germination following cold stratification. The conditions that resulted in seeds sinking faster were similar to the conditions that resulted in higher germination for two of four species. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

Elsey-Quirk, T.; Middleton, B.A.; Proffitt, C.E.

2009-01-01

404

On dioxin formation in iron ore sintering.  

PubMed

Iron ore sintering is an important source of "dioxins", polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). This paper reports on attempts to identify materials, conditions, and mechanisms responsible for PCDD/F formation (i) by investigating salient properties of ores (viz., with respect to oxidation, condensation, and chlorination of model organics) and (ii) by mimicking the industrial process on a microscale with real-life materials. Principles of Design of Experiments (DOE) are employed. The reactivities of iron ores differ greatly. Limonite/goethite "soft" ore is a very active oxidation catalyst (e.g., for benzene and phenol), a property that may be useful in cleaning up crude sintering process offgases, whereas hematite/magnetite "hard" ore is not. The latter, however strongly promotes condensation of phenol to dibenzofuran. A newly built lab-microscale sintering facility could satisfactorily imitate the large-scale process, in part or as a whole. Results obtained with realistic feed mixtures point at dioxin formation in the sinter bed at levels significant enough to explain a major part of the outputs observed in the real-life process. With approximately 8 ppm (wt) of chloride added as NaCl, the PCDD/F output doubled, but with the same proportion of chlorine administered as C2Cl4, the dioxin output was over 2 orders of magnitude larger. The use of process reverts, etc. containing chlorinated organics should therefore be avoided. PCDD/F congener patterns are also reported and compared with those observed in practice. PMID:12966977

Cieplik, Mariusz K; Carbonell, Jose Pastor; Muoz, Christina; Baker, Sarah; Krger, Sophie; Liljelind, Per; Marklund, Stellan; Louw, Robert

2003-08-01

405

Use of alkyl sulfates in the dewaterng of a coal flotation concentrate  

SciTech Connect

The possibility has been shown of using anionic SAAs in the dewatering of a coal flotation concentrate. It has been established that the adsorption of alkyl sulfates (ASs) obeys the general laws of the adsorption of organic substances from solutions on coals. The addition of electrolytes intensifies the adsorption of ASs, leading to the hydrophobization of the coal particles. 10 refs.

Zubkova, Yu.N.; Basenkova, V.L.; Kucher, R.V.

1981-01-01

406

Inclusion Removal by Bubble Flotation in Continuous Casting Mold Lifeng Zhang, Jun Aoki, Brian G. Thomas  

E-print Network

the continuous casting of steel. First, the attachment probability of inclusions on a bubble surface or rejected castings. Many methods have been developed to remove inclusions from molten steel. Gas injectionInclusion Removal by Bubble Flotation in Continuous Casting Mold Lifeng Zhang, Jun Aoki, Brian G

Thomas, Brian G.

407

Psychotherapeutic Treatment in Combination with Relaxation in a Flotation Tank: Effects on "Burn-Out Syndrome"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of this study was to investigate experiences gained from treatment combining relaxation in flotation tank with psychotherapy for sufferers from "burn-out syndrome". Six people participated in a ten week program. They were all interviewed; the data were analyzed using the Empirical Phenomenological Psychological method. Five themes

Kjellgren, Anette; Buhrkall, Hanne; Norlander, Torsten

2010-01-01

408

Separation of polyethylene terephthalate from municipal waste plastics by froth flotation for recycling industry.  

PubMed

Recycling is an effective way to manage plastic wastes and receives considerable attention. Since plastic mixtures are difficult to recycle because of their intrinsic characteristics, separation of mixed plastics is the key problem for recycling. Separation of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) from municipal waste plastics (MWP) by froth flotation combined with alkaline pretreatment was investigated for recycling industry. The effect of process variables was estimated by L9 (3(4)) orthogonal array of experiments and single factor experiments. The optimum conditions of alkaline pretreatment are 10 wt% sodium hydroxide, 20 min and 70C. After alkaline pretreatment under optimum conditions, flotation separation PET from acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, polystyrene, polycarbonate or polyvinyl chloride was achieved with high purity and efficiency. The purity of PET is up to 98.46% and the recovery is above 92.47%. A flow sheet of separation PET from MWP by a combination of froth flotation and sink float separation was designed. This study facilitates industrial application of plastics flotation and provides technical insights into recycling of waste plastics. PMID:25449606

Wang, Chong-Qing; Wang, Hui; Liu, You-Nian

2015-01-01

409

State of the art in the conceptual design of flotation circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study summarizes reports on optimal flotation circuits design over the period from 1989 to present. A review is made on the resolution characteristics of each study, leading to a classification of the approaches into four different groups, in which conclusions are based on either (A) mathematical solutions without binary variable, (B) mathematical solutions with binary variable, (C) heuristic

David A. Mendez; Edelmira D. Glvez; Luis A. Cisternas

2009-01-01

410

Interfacial studies on dissolved gas flotation of oil droplets for water purification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of emulsified residual oil from water is an important issue due to the increasing concern with the environment. In the present paper various surface chemistry aspects of dissolved gas flotation were studied aiming at a better understanding of the mechanisms of the process. These studies included surface and interfacial tension measurements of a model system composed of n-dodecane

R. C. G Oliveira; G Gonzalez; J. F Oliveira

1999-01-01

411

Separation of Polyvinyl Chloride from Plastic Mixture by Froth Flotation after Surface Modification with Ozone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective modification by ozonation for the surface of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) was evaluated to separate PVC from the other plastics, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polycarbonate (PC) and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), with almost the same density as PVC by the froth flotation process. Ozonation could selectively decrease the contact angles of flexible PVC from 87.5 degrees to 68.4 degrees and rigid PVC

Tetsuji Okuda; Keisuke Kurose; Wataru Nishijima; Mitsumasa Okada

2007-01-01

412

13. ORE DOCK, LOOKING EAST FROM HULETT NO. 1. WHEN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. ORE DOCK, LOOKING EAST FROM HULETT NO. 1. WHEN BUILT IN 1911-1912, THIS WAS THE LARGEST ORE-UNLOADING DOCK ON THE GREAT LAKES. THE DOCK FEATURED FOUR HULETT UNLOADERS, EACH WITH A BUCKET CAPACITY OF 17 TONS; A 15-TON CAPACITY ORE STOCKING AND REHANDLING BRIDGE; AND A ONE-MILLION-TON CAPACITY ORE STORAGE YARD. THE WILLIAM-SEAVER-MORGAN COMPANY OF CLEVELAND BUILT THE DOCK EQUIPMENT. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

413

Miocene reef carbonates of Mariana Islands  

SciTech Connect

Miocene carbonates in the southern Mariana Islands are impressive for their lithologic diversity, thicknesses (over 250 m), and geographic extent (> 20% combined outcrop coverage over four major high islands: Guam, Rota, Tinian and Saipan). Sections are dominated either by lagoonal algal-foraminiferal wackestones and mudstones with locally abundant high-energy shelly-skeletal facies, or by rubbly to muddy, fore-reef-to-bank deposits of packstones and grainstones with highly diverse and variable biogenic clasts. Fresh to deeply weathered volcaniclastic material may comprise at least 80% of some high-energy fore-reef facies, whereas lagoonal and bank deposits usually contain less than 0.5% terrigenous material. Surprisingly, the Miocene in the Marianas lacks almost completely any reef-core facies. Several poorly developed coral-rich mounds on Saipan and localized laminated red algal buildups on Guam appear to constitute the extant reef-wall facies in the Miocene. The lack of buildups may be a matter of differential survival; it may result from headland erosion and benching associated with emergence of narrow reef tracts as has been postulated by others for south Guam. Alternatively, the authors are proposing that Miocene bathymetry and the volume of terrigenous influx militated against significant reef core formation. Radiometric age dating of these reef carbonates has proven unsuccessful because pervasive diagenesis has transformed the entire Miocene section into low-magnesium calcite with minor and occasional dolomite. Freshwater phreatic diagenesis accounts for the principal porosity variation and trace element distribution.

Siegrist, H.G. Jr.

1988-02-01

414

Community structure and coral status across reef fishing intensity gradients in Palk Bay reef, southeast coast of India.  

PubMed

Coral reef fishes are exploited without the knowledge of their sustainability and their possible effect in altering the community structure of a coral reef ecosystem. Alteration of the community structure could cause a decline in the health of coral reefs and its services. We documented the coral community structure, status of live corals and reef fish assemblages in Palk Bay at the reef fishing hotspots and its nearby reef area with minimum fishing pressure and compared it with a control reef area where reef fishing was banned for more than two decades. The comparison was based on the percent cover of different forms of live corals, their diversity and the density and diversity of reef fishes. The reef fish stock in the reef fishing hotspots and its neighbouring reef was lower by 61 and 38%, respectively compared to the control reef. The herbivore fish Scarus ghobban and Siganus javus were exploited at a rate of 250 and 105 kg month(-1) fishermen(-1), respectively, relatively high comparing the small reef area. Live and dead corals colonized by turf algae were predominant in both the reef fishing hotspots and its nearby coral ecosystems. The percent cover of healthy live corals and live corals colonized by turf algae was <10 and >80%, respectively, in the intensively fished coral ecosystems. The corals were less diverse and the massive Porites and Favia colonies were abundant in the intensive reef fishing sites. Results of this study suggest that the impact of reef fish exploitation was not solely restricted to the intensively fished reefs, but also to the nearby reefs which play a critical role in the resilience of degraded reef ecosystems. PMID:24859909

Manikandan, B; Ravindran, J; Shrinivaasu, S; Marimuthu, N; Paramasivam, K

2014-10-01

415

Process and apparatus for separating fine particles by microbubble flotation together with a process and apparatus for generation of microbubbles  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus are disclosed for the microbubble flotation separation of very fine particles, especially coal, so as to produce a high purity and large recovery efficiently. This is accomplished through the use of a high aspect ratio flotation column, microbubbles, and a countercurrent use of wash water to gently wash the froth. Also, disclosed are unique processes and apparatus for generating microbubbles for flotation in a high efficient and inexpensive manner using either a porous tube or an in-line static generator. 23 figures.

Yoon, R.H.; Adel, G.T.; Luttrell, G.H.

1991-01-01

416

Process and apparatus for separating fine particles by microbubble flotation together with a process and apparatus for generation of microbubbles  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus are disclosed for the microbubble flotation separation of very fine particles, especially coal, so as to produce a high purity and large recovery efficiently. This is accomplished through the use of a high aspect ratio flotation column, microbubbles, and a countercurrent use of wash water to gently wash the froth. Also, disclosed are unique processes and apparatus for generating microbubbles for flotation in a high efficient and inexpensive manner using either a porous tube or an in-line static generator.

Yoon, Roe-Hoan (Blacksburg, VA); Adel, Gregory T. (Blacksburg, VA); Luttrell, Gerald H. (Blacksburg, VA)

1991-01-01

417

Coral Reef Adventure Fun Zone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Memory Game beginner is the best game for students of all ages to play unless there is a student who knows an unusual amount of information about coral reefs. In this case, that student can play the expert level where he/she will match the name or phrase with a picture.To begin, students should click on the GO! icon on the Memory Game and then again on the GO! icon on the pop-up screen. The beginner version requires students to match alike pictures. Students should click on the images to find the matching pairs. As they click on an image and then click on another, the previous image goes away if it's not a match.so students need to remember where they clicked on each image.Once students find a matching pair, they need to click on one image and then click on its matching image to keep the matching pair on the screen. Students should continue this process until all the images are found. On the bottom left of this screen there is a Move counter that keeps track of how many times students click on an image. If students want to try again to achieve a better score, then they can start the game over on a new screen. As noted below, there are other games that would be suitable for playing after students learn more about coral reefs.

Science NetLinks (AAAS; )

2007-04-29

418

Nocturnal relocation of adult and juvenile coral reef fishes in response to reef noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Juvenile and adult reef fishes often undergo migration, ontogenic habitat shifts, and nocturnal foraging movements. The orientation\\u000a cues used for these behaviours are largely unknown. In this study, the use of sound as an orientation cue guiding the nocturnal\\u000a movements of adult and juvenile reef fishes at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef was examined. The first experiment compared\\u000a the movements

S. D. Simpson; A. Jeffs; J. C. Montgomery; R. D. McCauley; M. G. Meekan

2008-01-01

419

Coral Reef Remote Sensing Database and Monitoring of Coral Reefs by ASTER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coral reefs in the world are under the crisis of degradation both by increasing human activities in coastal zone and by the global changes. All the factors of the global change scenario would bring serious impact on coral reefs. Increase in CO2 suppress calcification in coral reefs. The world-wide bleaching event in 1997-1998 was supposed to be at least partly

H. Kayanne; T. Matsunaga; H. Kanbara; M. Kato

2001-01-01

420

NOAA Coral Reef Watch: Decision Support Tools for Coral Reef Managers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multitude of natural and anthropogenic stressors exert substantial influence on coral reef ecosystems and contribute to bleaching events, slower coral growth, infectious disease outbreaks, and mortality. Satellite-based observations can monitor, at a global scale, environmental conditions that influence both short-term and long-term coral reef ecosystem health. From research to operations, NOAA Coral Reef Watch (CRW) incorporates paleoclimatic, in situ,

J. Rauenzahn; C. Eakin; W. J. Skirving; T. Burgess; T. Christensen; S. F. Heron; J. Li; G. Liu; J. Morgan; C. Nim; B. A. Parker; A. E. Strong

2010-01-01

421

Separation of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) from automobile shredder residue (ASR) by froth flotation with ozonation.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to develop froth flotation to separate polyvinyl chloride (PVC) from automobile shredder residue (ASR) plastic mixtures of variable composition. Some polymers in ASR polymer mixtures have similar density and hydrophobicity with PVC and thus selective flotation of PVC from ASR polymer mixtures cannot be achieved. The present study focused on the surface modification of PVC with ozonation, and then the modified PVC can be separated from other polymers by the following froth flotation. The results of this study indicate that the selective recovery of PVC from real ASR polyethylene tetra pethelate (PET), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), polybutyl methacralate (PBMA), ethyl acrylate (EA), polycarbonate (PC) and rubber mixtures can be accomplished in a three-step process involving a gravity separation, ozonation and froth flotation. The rubber was removed from other heavy ASR (PVC, PET, PMMA, PBMA, EA and PC) polymers by froth flotation without mixing. It was found that ozonation process produced the desired difference in contact angle required (from 89.5 to 73.0 degrees ) for separation of PVC from other heavy ASR polymers, whereas the contact angles of other polymers was slightly decreased. The most of the load ASR, i.e. about 72.4% is floated away and 27.6% was settled down. The highest component 96.7% of PVC was recovered in the settled fraction. As a result of this research effort, the surface modification of PVC with ozonation can be efficiently useful to separate the PVC from other similar density ASR mixed polymers. PMID:17360113

Reddy, Mallampati Srinivasa; Kurose, Keisuke; Okuda, Tetsuji; Nishijima, Wataru; Okada, Mitsumasa

2007-08-25

422

DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER TRAM TERMINAL, SECONDARY ORE BIN, CRUSHER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER TRAM TERMINAL, SECONDARY ORE BIN, CRUSHER FOUNDATION, AND BALL MILL FOUNDATIONS, LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST. ORE FROM THE MINES WAS DUMPED FROM THE TRAM BUCKETS INTO THE PRIMARY ORE BIN UNDER THE TRAM TERMINAL. A SLIDING CONTROL DOOR INTRODUCED THE INTO THE JAW CRUSHER (FOUNDATIONS,CENTER). THE CRUSHED ORE WAS THEN CONVEYED INTO THE SECONDARY ORE BIN AT CENTER LEFT. A HOLE IN THE FLOOR OF THE ORE BIN PASSED ORE ONTO ANOTHER CONVEYOR THAT BROUGHT IT OUT TO THE BALL MILL(FOUNDATIONS,CENTER BOTTOM). THIS SYSTEM IS MOST LIKELY NOT THE ORIGINAL SET UP, PROBABLY INSTALLED IN THE MINE'S LAST OCCUPATION IN THE EARLY 1940s. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

423

Seascape metrics of shelf-margin reefs and reef sand aprons of Holocene carbonate platforms  

E-print Network

scale, there is no correlation (R2 5 0.01) between width of a reef and the width of the flanking reef sand apron. Similarly, as reef aprons fill lagoons (e.g., Purdy and Gischler 2005), it might be expected that shallower lagoons would fill more rapidly... of reefs and maximum depth of platform. Depth data in Parts C and D are from Purdy and Winterer (2001). 64 E.C. RANKEY AND J.R. GARZA-PEREZ J S R tence of marked variability in the widths of facies, even as parameterized information on processes...

Rankey, Gene C.; Garza-Perez, J.R.

2012-01-01

424

76 FR 63904 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Coral Reef Conservation Program Administration  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Information Collection; Comment Request; Coral Reef Conservation Program Administration...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract The Coral Reef Conservation Act of 2000 (Act) was...enacted to provide a framework for conserving coral reefs. The Coral Reef Conservation...

2011-10-14

425

Florida's Fragile Reefs: What's Happening to this Underwater World?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This BioBulletin Web site takes an in-depth look at coral reefs and how they are affected by human activities: everything from agricultural pollution and ship grounding to snorkeling and overfishing. With Florida's fragile reefs as the backdrop, the site includes text, videos and photographs. The Introduction explains the fragility of these the massive underwater structures. What Are Reefs? discusses how these "rain forests of the sea" support an even more astonishing variety of life. Reefs in Hot Water presents the factors behind why reefs around the world are declining at an unprecedented rate. Monitoring a Reef at Risk covers the Florida Keys Coral Reef Monitoring Project, funded by the Environmental Protection Agency. Treating Reefs Right lists ways in which boaters, fishermen, swimmers, and divers can do their part to protect coral reefs.

426

Preliminary reduction of oxidized nickel ores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The laws of gas reduction of oxidized nickel ores (ONOs) are studied. The theoretical prerequisites of the selective reduction of ONO nickel, which are based on the difference between the oxygen partial pressures over the NiO-Ni and FeO-Fe systems, are discussed. The effect of the oxygen partial pressure during reducing roasting of ONOs of ferruginous and magnesia types on the reduction parameters and the quality of the ferronickel formed upon subsequent melting of cinders is experimentally investigated. The optimum conditions of preliminary gas reduction of ONOs are determined. Melting of the cinder of reducing roasting leads to the formation of nickel-rich ferronickel (20-50 wt % Ni for various types of ores) upon the extraction of nickel into ferronickel of >95%, which substantially exceeds the parameters of the existing commercial processes.

Pakhomov, R. A.; Starykh, R. V.

2014-11-01

427

Ocean acidification impairs vermetid reef recruitment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vermetids form reefs in sub-tropical and warm-temperate waters that protect coasts from erosion, regulate sediment transport and accumulation, serve as carbon sinks and provide habitat for other species. The gastropods that form these reefs brood encapsulated larvae; they are threatened by rapid environmental changes since their ability to disperse is very limited. We used transplant experiments along a natural CO2 gradient to assess ocean acidification effects on the reef-building gastropod Dendropoma petraeum. We found that although D. petraeum were able to reproduce and brood at elevated levels of CO2, recruitment success was adversely affected. Long-term exposure to acidified conditions predicted for the year 2100 and beyond caused shell dissolution and a significant increase in shell Mg content. Unless CO2 emissions are reduced and conservation measures taken, our results suggest these reefs are in danger of extinction within this century, with significant ecological and socioeconomic ramifications for coastal systems.

Milazzo, Marco; Rodolfo-Metalpa, Riccardo; Chan, Vera Bin San; Fine, Maoz; Alessi, Cinzia; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen; Hall-Spencer, Jason M.; Chemello, Renato

2014-02-01

428

Extinction vulnerability of coral reef fishes.  

PubMed

With rapidly increasing rates of contemporary extinction, predicting extinction vulnerability and identifying how multiple stressors drive non-random species loss have become key challenges in ecology. These assessments are crucial for avoiding the loss of key functional groups that sustain ecosystem processes and services. We developed a novel predictive framework of species extinction vulnerability and applied it to coral reef fishes. Although relatively few coral reef fishes are at risk of global extinction from climate disturbances, a negative convex relationship between fish species locally vulnerable to climate change vs. fisheries exploitation indicates that the entire community is vulnerable on the many reefs where both stressors co-occur. Fishes involved in maintaining key ecosystem functions are more at risk from fishing than climate disturbances. This finding is encouraging as local and regional commitment to fisheries management action can maintain reef ecosystem functions pending progress towards the more complex global problem of stabilizing the climate. PMID:21320260

Graham, Nicholas A J; Chabanet, Pascale; Evans, Richard D; Jennings, Simon; Letourneur, Yves; Aaron Macneil, M; McClanahan, Tim R; Ohman, Marcus C; Polunin, Nicholas V C; Wilson, Shaun K

2011-04-01

429

Quaternary coral reef refugia preserved fish diversity.  

PubMed

The most prominent pattern in global marine biogeography is the biodiversity peak in the Indo-Australian Archipelago. Yet the processes that underpin this pattern are still actively debated. By reconstructing global marine paleoenvironments over the past 3 million years on the basis of sediment cores, we assessed the extent to which Quaternary climate fluctuations can explain global variation in current reef fish richness. Comparing global historical coral reef habitat availability with the present-day distribution of 6316 reef fish species, we find that distance from stable coral reef habitats during historical periods of habitat loss explains 62% of the variation in fish richness, outweighing present-day environmental factors. Our results highlight the importance of habitat persistence during periods of climate change for preserving marine biodiversity. PMID:24876495

Pellissier, Loc; Leprieur, Fabien; Parravicini, Valeriano; Cowman, Peter F; Kulbicki, Michel; Litsios, Glenn; Olsen, Steffen M; Wisz, Mary S; Bellwood, David R; Mouillot, David

2014-05-30

430

EPA Field Manual for Coral Reef Assessments  

EPA Science Inventory

The Water Quality Research Program (WQRP) supports development of coral reef biological criteria. Research is focused on developing methods and tools to support implementation of legally defensible biological standards for maintaining biological integrity, which is protected by ...

431

Ocean acidification impairs vermetid reef recruitment.  

PubMed

Vermetids form reefs in sub-tropical and warm-temperate waters that protect coasts from erosion, regulate sediment transport and accumulation, serve as carbon sinks and provide habitat for other species. The gastropods that form these reefs brood encapsulated larvae; they are threatened by rapid environmental changes since their ability to disperse is very limited. We used transplant experiments along a natural CO2 gradient to assess ocean acidification effects on the reef-building gastropod Dendropoma petraeum. We found that although D. petraeum were able to reproduce and brood at elevated levels of CO2, recruitment success was adversely affected. Long-term exposure to acidified conditions predicted for the year 2100 and beyond caused shell dissolution and a significant increase in shell Mg content. Unless CO2 emissions are reduced and conservation measures taken, our results suggest these reefs are in danger of extinction within this century, with significant ecological and socioeconomic ramifications for coastal systems. PMID:24577050

Milazzo, Marco; Rodolfo-Metalpa, Riccardo; Chan, Vera Bin San; Fine, Maoz; Alessi, Cinzia; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Chemello, Renato

2014-01-01

432

MANGROVE-DERIVED NUTRIENTS AND CORAL REEFS  

EPA Science Inventory

Understanding the consequences of the declining global cover of mangroves due to anthropogenic disturbance necessitates consideration of how mangrove-derived nutrients contribute to threatened coral reef systems. We sampled potential sources of organic matter and a suite of sessi...

433

Extinction vulnerability of coral reef fishes  

PubMed Central

With rapidly increasing rates of contemporary extinction, predicting extinction vulnerability and identifying how multiple stressors drive non-random species loss have become key challenges in ecology. These assessments are crucial for avoiding the loss of key functional groups that sustain ecosystem processes and services. We developed a novel predictive framework of species extinction vulnerability and applied it to coral reef fishes. Although relatively few coral reef fishes are at risk of global extinction from climate disturbances, a negative convex relationship between fish species locally vulnerable to climate change vs. fisheries exploitation indicates that the entire community is vulnerable on the many reefs where both stressors co-occur. Fishes involved in maintaining key ecosystem functions are more at risk from fishing than climate disturbances. This finding is encouraging as local and regional commitment to fisheries management action can maintain reef ecosystem functions pending progress towards the more complex global problem of stabilizing the climate. PMID:21320260

Graham, Nicholas A J; Chabanet, Pascale; Evans, Richard D; Jennings, Simon; Letourneur, Yves; Aaron MacNeil, M; McClanahan, Tim R; hman, Marcus C; Polunin, Nicholas V C; Wilson, Shaun K

2011-01-01

434

Explore coral reefs around the world  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive map shows examples of coral reef locations in the Pacific, Caribbean, and Indian oceans. By clicking on a location, you can see the environmental conditions necessary for growth in terms of both ocean depth and sea surface tempature.

TERC

435

40 CFR 230.44 - Coral reefs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...skeletal deposit, usually of calcareous or silicaceous materials, produced by the vital activities of anthozoan polyps or other invertebrate organisms present in growing portions of the reef. (b) Possible loss of values: The discharge of dredged or fill...

2012-07-01

436

40 CFR 230.44 - Coral reefs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...skeletal deposit, usually of calcareous or silicaceous materials, produced by the vital activities of anthozoan polyps or other invertebrate organisms present in growing portions of the reef. (b) Possible loss of values: The discharge of dredged or fill...

2014-07-01

437

40 CFR 230.44 - Coral reefs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...skeletal deposit, usually of calcareous or silicaceous materials, produced by the vital activities of anthozoan polyps or other invertebrate organisms present in growing portions of the reef. (b) Possible loss of values: The discharge of dredged or fill...

2013-07-01

438

40 CFR 230.44 - Coral reefs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...skeletal deposit, usually of calcareous or silicaceous materials, produced by the vital activities of anthozoan polyps or other invertebrate organisms present in growing portions of the reef. (b) Possible loss of values: The discharge of dredged or fill...

2010-07-01

439

Tourmaline in the central Swedish ore district  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than 40 recently discovered tourmaline occurrences have been investigated in the Mid-Proterozoic Bergslagen ore district of central Sweden. Some are spatially associated with ores, others with zones of leaching, remobilization and migmatization. Among the tourmaline-bearing ore deposits are the Dammberg ZnPb-Fe sulphide deposit, the Sala Pb-Zn-Ag deposit, the Dalkarlsberg, Pershyttan and Hksberg Fe oxide deposits, the Leja Cu deposit, and the Zinkgruvan Zn-Pb-Ag deposit. Tourmaline has been recorded a) as tourmalinites and tourmaline-bearing chemical sediments; b) in tourmaline-bearing skarns; c) in tourmaline-quartz veins; d) as disseminations along the foliation in schists; e) in tourmaline pegmatites; f) in tourmalinized haloes in metavolcanites along tourmaline pegmatites; and g) in late joints. Tourmalinites, tourmaline-bearing chemical sediments and tourmaline-bearing skarns are spatially associated with sulphide and oxide mineralizations. The dravite components in these tourmalines are proportional to the size of Zn-Pb sulphide mineralizations. Tourmalines from quartz veins close to and within ore deposits contain high Zr and Cr contents. With increasing distance away from these deposits, the Zr and Cr contents fall significantly. Tourmalines from pegmatites have inherited a number of trace element enrichments through partial melting and assimilation of volcaniclastic sediments into granitic melts. Despite magmatic homogenization, Zn contents in these tourmalines reflect the proximity of Zn-Pb-sulphide deposits, decreasing away from them. Tourmalines from late joints with Zn contents above the 100 ppm level are also indicative for the proximity of Zn-Pb sulphide mineralizations. Thus, some trace elements in these tourmalines may represent suitable exploration tools.

Hellingwerf, R. H.; Gatedal, K.; Gallagher, V.; Baker, J. H.

1994-06-01

440

Comparing the invasibility of experimental "reefs" with field observations of natural reefs and artificial structures.  

PubMed

Natural systems are increasingly being modified by the addition of artificial habitats which may facilitate invasion. Where invaders are able to disperse from artificial habitats, their impact may spread to surrounding natural communities and therefore it is important to investigate potential factors that reduce or enhance invasibility. We surveyed the distribution of non-indigenous and native invertebrates and algae between artificial habitats and natural reefs in a marine subtidal system. We also deployed sandstone plates as experimental 'reefs' and manipulated the orientation, starting assemblage and degree of shading. Invertebrates (non-indigenous and native) appeared to be responding to similar environmental factors (e.g. orientation) and occupied most space on artificial structures and to a lesser extent reef walls. Non-indigenous invertebrates are less successful than native invertebrates on horizontal reefs despite functional similarities. Manipulative experiments revealed that even when non-indigenous invertebrates invade vertical "reefs", they are unlikely to gain a foothold and never exceed covers of native invertebrates (regardless of space availability). Community ecology suggests that invertebrates will dominate reef walls and algae horizontal reefs due to functional differences, however our surveys revealed that native algae dominate both vertical and horizontal reefs in shallow estuarine systems. Few non-indigenous algae were sampled in the study, however where invasive algal species are present in a system, they may present a threat to reef communities. Our findings suggest that non-indigenous species are less successful at occupying space on reef compared to artificial structures, and manipulations of biotic and abiotic conditions (primarily orientation and to a lesser extent biotic resistance) on experimental "reefs" explained a large portion of this variation, however they could not fully explain the magnitude of differences. PMID:22666459

Dafforn, Katherine A; Glasby, Tim M; Johnston, Emma L

2012-01-01

441

Relationships between coral reef substrata and fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

.?The objective of this work is to identify which substrata characteristics (such as coral morphology, coral diversity, coral\\u000a species richness, percentage coverage by live coral or by algae) influence the structure and abundance of fish communities.\\u000a The study was carried out at Reunion Island, Indian Ocean, where six sites were sampled in two zones (reef flat and outer\\u000a reef slope).

P. Chabanet; H. Ralambondrainy; M. Amanieu; G. Faure; R. Galzin

1997-01-01

442

Remote Sensing of Coral Reef Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Digital remote sensing of coral reefs dates to the first Landsat mission of the mid-1970s. Early studies utilized moderate-spatial-resolution\\u000a satellite broadband multispectral image data and focused on reef geomorphology. Technological advances have since led to development\\u000a of airborne narrow-band hyperspectral sensors, airborne hydrographic lidar systems, and commercial high-spatial-resolution\\u000a satellite broadband multispectral imagers. High quality remote sensing data have become widely

Eric J. Hochberg

443

The Sula Reef Complex, Norwegian shelf  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryCool-water carbonates in the aphotic zone of deep shelf and continental margin settings in the Northeast Atlantic are produced\\u000a by the deep-water coral reefs withLophelia pertusa as the major framework builder. Through a compilation of side scan sonar, airgun and manned submersible surveys from several\\u000a cruises to the mid-Norwegian Sula Reef Complex (SRC), the facies pattern and zonation of one

Andr Freiwald; Veit Hhnerbach; Bjrn Lindberg; John Brodie Wilson; John Campbell

2002-01-01

444

Mass Spawning in Tropical Reef Corals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synchronous multispecific spawning by a total of 32 coral species occurred a few nights after late spring full moons in 1981 and 1982 at three locations on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. The data invalidate the generalization that most corals have internally fertilized, brooded planula larvae. In every species observed, gametes were released; external fertilization and development then followed. The developmental rates of externally fertilized eggs and longevities of planulae indicate that planulae may be dispersed between reefs.

Harrison, Peter L.; Babcock, Russell C.; Bull, Gordon D.; Oliver, James K.; Wallace, Carden C.; Willis, Bette L.

1984-03-01

445

Comparison of the egg flotation and egg candling techniques for estimating incubation day of Canada Goose nests  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Both egg flotation and egg candling have been used to estimate incubation day (often termed nest age) in nesting birds, but little is known about the relative accuracy of these two techniques. We used both egg flotation and egg candling to estimate incubation day for Canada Geese (Branta canadensis interior) nesting near Cape Churchill, Manitoba, from 2000 to 2007. We modeled variation in the difference between estimates of incubation day using each technique as a function of true incubation day, as well as, variation in error rates with each technique as a function of the true incubation day. We also evaluated the effect of error in the estimated incubation day on estimates of daily survival rate (DSR) and nest success using simulations. The mean difference between concurrent estimates of incubation day based on egg flotation minus egg candling at the same nest was 0.85 ?? 0.06 (SE) days. The positive difference in favor of egg flotation and the magnitude of the difference in estimates of incubation day did not vary as a function of true incubation day. Overall, both egg flotation and egg candling overestimated incubation day early in incubation and underestimated incubation day later in incubation. The average difference between true hatch date and estimated hatch date did not differ from zero (days) for egg flotation, but egg candling overestimated true hatch date by about 1 d (true - estimated; days). Our simulations suggested that error associated with estimating the incubation day of nests and subsequently exposure days using either egg candling or egg flotation would have minimal effects on estimates of DSR and nest success. Although egg flotation was slightly less biased, both methods provided comparable and accurate estimates of incubation day and subsequent estimates of hatch date and nest success throughout the entire incubation period. ?? 2008 Association of Field Ornithologists.

Reiter, M.E.; Andersen, D.E.

2008-01-01

446

Dynamic modeling and control analysis of froth flotation and clean-coal filtration as applied to coal beneficiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic models were developed for coal beneficiation plant froth flotation and vacuum disk filtration processes to perform comparative analyses of manual and automatic control techniques and to determine if implementation of automatic control would be cost effective. The froth cell simulator was based on a tank-in-series model utilizing first-order flotation kinetics. The vacuum disk filter model was based on classical

G. S. Canright; C. H. Jr. Brown; G. O. Allgood; W. R. Hamel

1981-01-01

447

Coral Reef Ecosystems: The Abiotic Setting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Object is the second of four Science Objects in the Coral Reef Ecosystems SciPack. It investigates the abiotic characteristics that affect the coral reef ecosystem. The number and kinds of organisms found along each reef depend on the physical conditions of the environment and resources available, including food, light, water quality, temperature, and other organisms living in the reef. If conditions change significantly due to changes in climate, loss of food sources, excessive predation, or loss of habitat, the health and stability of the ecosystem will be affected. Like many complex systems, coral ecosystems tend to have cyclic fluctuations around a state of rough equilibrium. In the long run, if conditions remain reasonably constant a coral ecosystem can be stable for hundreds of years. Learning Outcomes:? Identify the characteristics of an ecosystem, and describe the interdependence between biotic and abiotic features in an ecosystem.? Describe how the following abiotic factors provide coral with the energy needed to survive and grow within their ecosystem: sunlight, water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide.? Describe the optimal environmental conditions for coral reef growth, and explain the process of coral reef development (including the role of available sunlight and calcium).? Explain how the following environmental factors might affect coral ecosystems: increase in dissolved CO2, changes in global temperatures, increase in ocean water turbidity through water pollution.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2006-11-01

448

Miocene reef carbonates of Mariana Islands  

SciTech Connect

Miocene carbonates in the southern Mariana Islands are impressive for their lithologic diversity, thicknesses (over 250 m), and geographic extend (>20% combined outcrop coverage over four major high islands: Guam, Rota, Tinian and Saipan). Sections are dominated either by lagoonal algal-foraminiferal wackestones and mudstones with locally abundant high-energy shelly-skeletal facies, or by rubbly to muddy, fore-reef-to-bank deposits of packstones and grainstones with highly diverse and variable biogenic clasts. Fresh to deeply weathered volcaniclastic material may comprise at least 80% of some high-energy fore-reef facies, whereas lagoonal and bank deposits usually contain less than 0.5% terrigenous material. Surprisingly, the Miocene in the Marianas lacks almost completely any reef-core facies. Several poorly developed coral-rich mounds on Saipan and localized laminated red algal buildups on Guam appear to constitute the extant reef-wall facies in the Miocene. The lack of buildups may be a matter of differential survival; it may result from headland erosion and benching associated with emergency of narrow reef tracts as has been postulated by others for south Guam. Radiometric age dating of these reef carbonates has proven unsuccessful because pervasive diagenesis has transformed the entire Miocene section into low-magnesium calcite with minor and occasional dolomite. Freshwater phreatic diagenesis accounts for the principal porosity variation and trace element distribution.

Siegrist, H.G. Jr.

1988-01-01

449

ReefSAM - Reef Sedimentary Accretion Model: A new 3D coral reef evolution model/simulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coral reefs show characteristic morphological patterns (e.g. coral dominated margins with detrital carbonate dominated lagoons/back-reef) and temporal development (e.g. Hopley et al. 2007). While the processes which lead to predictable patterns on a range of scales have been discussed qualitatively, a full quantitative understanding of the range of processes and parameters involved requires modelling. Previous attempts to model complex Holocene reef systems (i.e. One Tree Reef, GBR - Barrett and Webster 2012) using a carbonate stratigraphic forward model (Carbonate3D - Warrlich et al. 2002) identified a number of important but unsimulated processes and potential model improvements. ReefSAM has been written from scratch in Matlab using these findings and experiences from using Carbonate3D. It simulates coralgal accretion and carbonate sand production and transport. Specific improvements include: 1. a more complex hydrodynamic model based on wave refraction and incorporating vertical (depth) and lateral (substrate dependent) variations in transport energy and erosion. 2. a complex reef growth model incorporating depth, wave energy/turbidity and substrate composition. 3. Paleo-water depth, paleo-wave energy and bio-zone (combination of paleo-water depth and wave energy) model outputs allowing coralgal habitat changes through time and space to be simulated and compared to observational data. The model is compared to the well studied One Tree Reef - tests similar to those undertaken in Barrett and Webster 2012 with Carbonate3D are presented. Model development coincides with plans for further intensive drilling at One Tree Reef (mid 2013) providing an opportunity to test the model predictively. The model is still in active development. References: Barrett, S.J., Webster, J.M.,2012. Holocene evolution of the Great Barrier Reef: Insights from 3D numerical modelling. Sedimentary Geology 265-266, 56-71. Warrlich, G.M.D., Waltham, D.A., Bosence D.W.J., 2002. Quantifying the sequence stratigraphy and drowning mechanisms of atolls using a new 3-D forward modelling program (CARBONATE 3D). Basin Research 14, 379-400. Hopley, D., Smithers, S.G., Parnell, K.E., 2007. The geomorphology of the Great Barrier Reef. Cambridge.

Barrett, Samuel; Webster, Jody

2013-04-01

450

Physical-chemical conditions of ore deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ore deposits form under a wide range of physical and chemical conditions, but those precipitating from hot, aqueous fluids-i.e. the hydrothermal deposits-form generally below 700C and at pressures of only 1 or 2 kbar or less. Natural aqueous fluids in rocks may extract metal and sulfur from a variety of rock types or may acquire them as a residual heritage from a crystallizing silicate magma. Ore-forming hydrothermal fluids never appear as hot springs (except in deep, submarine situations) because they boil, mix with surface waters, and cool, thereby losing their ore-bearing ability before reaching the surface. Mineral systems function as chemical buffers and indicators just as buffers and indicators function in a chemical laboratory. By reading the record written in the buffer/indicator assemblages of minerals one can reconstruct many aspects of the former chemical environment. By studying the record of changing conditions one may deduce information regarding the processes functioning to create the succession of chemical environments and the ore deposits they represent. The example of the OH vein at Creede, Colorado, shows a pH buffered by the K-feldspar + muscovite + quartz assemblage and the covariation of S 2 and O 2 buffered by the assemblage chlorite + pyrite + quartz. Boiling of the ore fluid led to its oxidation to hematite-bearing assemblages and simultaneously produced an intensely altered, sericitic capping over the vein in response to the condensation of vapors bearing acidic components. The solubility of metals as calculated from experimental and theoretical studies of mineral solubility appears too low by at least one or two powers of ten to explain the mineralization at Creede. In contrast to Creede where the mineral stabilities all point to a relatively consistent chemistry, the Mississippi Valley type deposits present a puzzle of conflicting chemical clues that are impossible to reconcile with any single equilibrium situation. Thus we must seriously consider metastable equilibria; those most likely involve redox disequilibrium among the sulfur species in solution and perhaps also involve organic compounds.

Barton, Paul B.

451

Headgroup interactions and ion flotation efficiency in mixtures of a chelating surfactant, different foaming agents, and divalent metal ions.  

PubMed

The correlation between interaction parameters and ion flotation efficiency in mixtures of chelating surfactant metal complexes and different foaming agents was investigated. We have recently shown that chelating surfactant 2-dodecyldiethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (4-C12-DTPA) forms strong coordination complexes with divalent metal ions, and this can be utilized in ion flotation. Interaction parameters for mixed micelles and mixed monolayer formation for Mg(2+) and Ni(2+) complexes with the chelating surfactant 4-C12-DTPA and different foaming agents were calculated by Rubingh's regular solution theory. Parameters for the calculations were extracted from surface tension measurements and NMR diffusometry. The effects of metal ion coordination on the interactions between 4-C12-DTPA and the foaming agents could be linked to a previously established difference in coordination chemistry between the examined metal ions. As can be expected from mixtures of amphoteric surfactants, the interactions were strongly pH-dependent. Strong correlation was found between interaction parameter ?(?) for mixed monolayer formation and the phase-transfer efficiency of Ni(2+) complexes with 4-C12-DTPA during flotation in a customized flotation cell. In a mixture of Cu(2+) and Zn(2+), the significant difference in conditional stability constants (log K) between the metal complexes was utilized to selectively recover the metal complex with the highest log K (Cu(2+)) by ion flotation. Flotation experiments in an excess concentration of metal ions confirmed the coordination of more than one metal ion to the headgroup of 4-C12-DTPA. PMID:24824327

Svanedal, Ida; Boija, Susanne; Norgren, Magnus; Edlund, Hkan

2014-06-10

452

Philippine Coral Reefs Under Threat: The Economic Losses Caused by Reef Destruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Philippines, coral reef fisheries provide livelihood for more than a million small-scale fishers who contribute almost US$ 1 billion annually to the countrys economy. The rapidly growing population needs increasing amounts of fish and other marine organisms. However, overfishing, destructive fishing methods and sedimentation have damaged or destroyed many reef areas. Fish catches have fallen well below the

Alan T White; Helge P Vogt; Tijen Arin

2000-01-01

453

Reef Odor: A Wake Up Call for Navigation in Reef Fish Larvae  

PubMed Central

The behavior of reef fish larvae, equipped with a complex toolbox of sensory apparatus, has become a central issue in understanding their transport in the ocean. In this study pelagic reef fish larvae were monitored using an unmanned open-ocean tracking device, the drifting in-situ chamber (DISC), deployed sequentially in oceanic waters and in reef-born odor plumes propagating offshore with the ebb flow. A total of 83 larvae of two taxonomic groups of the families Pomacentridae and Apogonidae were observed in the two water masses around One Tree Island, southern Great Barrier Reef. The study provides the first in-situ evidence that pelagic reef fish larvae discriminate reef odor and respond by changing their swimming speed and direction. It concludes that reef fish larvae smell the presence of coral reefs from several kilometers offshore and this odor is a primary component of their navigational system and activates other directional sensory cues. The two families expressed differences in their response that could be adapted to maintain a position close to the reef. In particular, damselfish larvae embedded in the odor plume detected the location of the reef crest and swam westward and parallel to shore on both sides of the island. This study underlines the critical importance of in situ Lagrangian observations to provide unique information on larval fish behavioral decisions. From an ecological perspective the central role of olfactory signals in marine population connectivity raises concerns about the effects of pollution and acidification of oceans, which can alter chemical cues and olfactory responses. PMID:24015278

Paris, Claire B.; Kingsford, Michael; Gerlach, Gabriele; Guigand, Cedric M.

2013-01-01

454

Sun Compass Orientation Helps Coral Reef Fish Larvae Return to Their Natal Reef  

PubMed Central

Reef fish sustain populations on isolated reefs and show genetic diversity between nearby reefs even though larvae of many species are swept away from the natal site during pelagic dispersal. Retention or recruitment to natal reefs requires orientation capabilities that enable larvae to find their way. Although olfactory and acoustically based orientation has been implicated in homing when larvae are in the reefs vicinity, it is still unclear how they cope with greater distances. Here we show evidence for a sun compass mechanism that can bring the larvae to the vicinity of their natal reef. In a circular arena, pre-settlement larvae and early settlers (<24 hours) of the cardinal fish, Ostorhinchus doederleini, showed a strong SSE directional swimming response, which most likely has evolved to compensate for the locally prevailing large scale NNW current drift. When fish were clock-shifted 6 hours, they changed their orientation by ca. 180 as predicted by the tropical sun curve at One Tree Island, i.e. they used a time-compensated sun compass. Furthermore, the fish oriented most consistently at times of the day when the sun azimuth is easy to determine. Microsatellite markers showed that the larvae that had just arrived at One Tree Island genetically belonged to either the local reef population or to Fitzroy Reef located 12 kilometers to the SSE. The use of a sun compass adds a missing long-distance link to the hierarchy of other sensory abilities that can direct larvae to the region of origin, including their natal reef. Predominant local recruitment, in turn, can contribute to genetic isolation and potential speciation. PMID:23840396

Mouritsen, Henrik; Atema, Jelle; Kingsford, Michael J.; Gerlach, Gabriele

2013-01-01

455

Device For Testing Compatibility Of An O-Ring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fixture designed for use in exposing compressed elastomeric O-ring or other ring seal to test fluid. Made of metal or plastic, with threaded recess into which O-ring placed. Opposite threaded end is opening through which test fluid introduced and placed in contact with O-ring. After exposure, compression set and swell or shrinkage of ring measured. Fixture set to compress ring by selected amount, providing for reproducible compression.

Davis, Dennis D.

1995-01-01

456

Calculation of O-ring failure due to material aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applications where O-rings are used to isolate atmospheric environments within a structure are critical to weapon reliability. Failure occurs when gases are able to travel from one side of the O-ring to the other. The anticipated cause of failure is the relaxation of the rubber over decades, the reduction in closure force, and the O-ring`s consequent inability to offer a

D. Segalman; L. Weingarten; R. Chambers

1997-01-01

457

Method for simultaneous use of a single additive for coal flotation, dewatering and reconstitution  

SciTech Connect

A single dose of additive contributes to three consecutive fine coal unit operations, i.e., flotation, dewatering and reconstitution, whereby the fine coal is first combined with water in a predetermined proportion so as to formulate a slurry. The slurry is then mixed with a heavy hydrocarbon-based emulsion in a second predetermined proportion and at a first predetermined mixing speed and for a predetermined period of time. The conditioned slurry is then cleaned by a froth flotation method to form a clean coal froth and then the froth is dewatered by vacuum filtration or a centrifugation process to form reconstituted products that are dried to dust-less clumps prior to combustion.

Wen, Wu-Wey; Gray, M.L.; Champagne, K.J.

1993-11-09

458

Method for simultaneous use of a single additive for coal flotation, dewatering, and reconstitution  

DOEpatents

A single dose of additive contributes to three consecutive fine coal unit operations, i.e., flotation, dewatering and reconstitution, whereby the fine coal is first combined with water in a predetermined proportion so as to formulate a slurry. The slurry is then mixed with a heavy hydrocarbon-based emulsion in a second predetermined proportion and at a first predetermined mixing speed and for a predetermined period of time. The conditioned slurry is then cleaned by a froth flotation method to form a clean coal froth and then the froth is dewatered by vacuum filtration or a centrifugation process to form reconstituted products that are dried to dust-less clumps prior to combustion.

Wen, Wu-Wey (Murrysville, PA); Gray, McMahan L. (Pittsburgh, PA); Champagne, Kenneth J. (Finleyville, PA)

1995-01-01

459

Treating chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) wastewater by electro-coagulation-flotation process with surfactant.  

PubMed

The effect of surfactants on the treatment of chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) wastewater by electro-coagulation-flotation (ECF) process was studied. Two surfactants, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) were employed in this study to compare the effect of cationic (CTAB) and anodic (SDS) surfactants on ECF. The cationic surfactant can enhance the removal of the turbidity, but anodic surfactant cannot. It can be explained by the hetero-coagulation theory. Moreover, the addition of CTAB in CMP wastewater can reduce the sludge volume and the flotation/sedimentation time in ECF process. The residual turbidity and dissolved silicon dropped with the increase of charge loading. No CTAB pollution problem exists after the ECF process. PMID:15811659

Hu, C Y; Lo, S L; Li, C M; Kuan, W H

2005-04-11

460

Biologic response to environmental stress in tropical reefs: Lessons from modern Polynesian coralgal atolls and Middle Permian sponge and Shamovella microbe reefs (Capitan Limestone USA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite prejudices that comparisons of paleoecological patterns in modern and fossil reef communities are of doubtful validity, we compare the biologic response of living coralgal reefs in French Polynesia to environmental stress with an exceptionally well exposed Middle Permian sponge reef and Shamovella-microbial reef of the Capitan Limestone in New Mexico. In the western Tuamotu Archipelago, reef margins are characterized

J. A. Fagerstrom; O. Weidlich

2005-01-01

461

http://coris.noaa.gov NOAA'S CORAL REEF INFORMATION SYSTEM (CoRIS) IS A SINGLE POINT OF ACCESS TO NOAA'S CORAL REEF  

E-print Network

http://coris.noaa.gov NOAA'S CORAL REEF INFORMATION SYSTEM (CoRIS) IS A SINGLE POINT OF ACCESS TO NOAA'S CORAL REEF INFORMATION AND DATA, PARTICULARLY THOSE DERIVED FROM NOAA'S CORAL REEF CONSERVATION PROGRAM. NOAA'S CORAL REEF INFORMATION SYSTEM CoRIS provides access to the wealth of coral reef data

462

Checklist of Fishes from Madagascar Reef, Campeche Bank, Mxico  

PubMed Central

Abstract This study presents the first list of fish species from Madagascar Reef, Campeche Bank, Gulf of Mxico. Field surveys and literature review identified 54 species belonging to 8 orders, 30 families and 43 genera, comprising both conspicuous and cryptic fishes. Species richness was lower at this reef site compared to reefs in the Mexican Caribbean, Veracruz or Tuxpan, but was similar to other reefs in the same region. Species composition was a mixture of species present in all the reef systems of the Mexican Atlantic. Hypoplectrus ecosur was recorded here for the first time in the Gulf of Mexico, Mycteroperca microlepis, Equetus lanceolatus and Chaetodipterus faber were new records for the reefs of the Campeche Bank, Elacatinus xanthiprora was recorded for the second time in Mexico and expanded its known distribution westwards from Alacranes Reef and Sanopus reticulatus, endemic of the Yucatan state, was recorded here for the first time on a reef. PMID:24891834

2014-01-01

463

Zonation of uplifted pleistocene coral reefs on barbados, west indies.  

PubMed

The coral species composition of uplifted Pleistocene reefs on Barbados is very similar to Recent West Indian reefs. Acropora palmata, Acropora cervicornis, and Montastrea annularis are qtuantitatively the most important of the coral species. PMID:17837159

Mesolella, K J

1967-05-01

464

Coral reef formation theory may apply to oil, gas exploration  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports a coral reef formation theory that has implications for hydrocarbon exploration. The theory states that many coral reefs and carbonate buildups from at and are dependent upon nutrient rich fluids seeping through the seabed.

Not Available

1990-12-10

465

12. Photo copy of drawing, May 5, 1930. PENFIELD REEF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Photo copy of drawing, May 5, 1930. PENFIELD REEF L/S MODERNIZATION. Drawing no. NY-1393, U.S. Coast GUard Civil Engineering Unit, Warwick, Rhode Island. - Penfield Reef Lighthouse, Long Island Sound, Bridgeport, Fairfield County, CT

466

Recent and relict topography of Boo Bee patch reef, Belize  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Five core borings were taken on and around Boo Bee Patch Reef to better understand the origin of such shelf lagoon reefs. The cores reveal 4 stages of development: (1) subaerial exposure of a Pleistocene "high" having about 8 meters of relief, possibly a Pleistocene patch reef; (2) deposition of peat and impermeable terrigenous clay 3 meters thick around the high; (3) initiation of carbonate sediment production by corals and algae on the remaining 5 meters of hard Pleistocene topography and carbonate mud on the surrounding terrigenous clay; and (4) accelerated organic accumulation on the patch reef. Estimates of patch reef sedimentation rates (1.6 m/1000 years) are 3 to 4 times greater than off-reef sedimentation rates (0.4-0.5 m/1000 years). During periods of Pleistocene sedimentation on the Belize shelf, lagoon patch reefs may have grown above one another, stacking up to form reef accumulation of considerable thickness.

Halley, R.B.; Shinn, E.A.; Hudson, J.H.; Lidz, B.

1977-01-01

467

34. VIEW OF VIVIANNA WORKS ORE SORTING AND CRUSHING PLATFORM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

34. VIEW OF VIVIANNA WORKS ORE SORTING AND CRUSHING PLATFORM LOOKING EAST, NORTHEAST. NOTICE RAIL TIES EMBEDDED IN CONCRETE. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

468

Experimenting With Ore: Creating the Taconite Process; flow chart of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Experimenting With Ore: Creating the Taconite Process; flow chart of process - Mines Experiment Station, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities Campus, 56 East River Road, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

469

Recovery of Cu and Zn from Complex Sulphide Ore  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complex Sulphide Ores are often found to be a close mutual association with each other and with the nonmetallic gangue. The beneficiation experiments showed that it would be very difficult to recover Cu and Zn from the lean complex Sulphide ores using traditional ore beneficiation methods. In the present work, leaching of complex sulfide ores in sulfuric acid was investigated by the Electro hydrometallurgy process. The lab-scale experiments were conducted to investigate the influences of pulp-density, electrolyte concentration, particle size, current density and time on recovery of Cu and Zn. The leach liquor obtained after electrolysis was subjected to Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy analysis for the recovery of minerals.

Talapaneni, Trinath; Sarkar, S.; Yedla, N.; Reddy, P. L. N., Dr

2015-02-01

470

Robustness of target strength of an immersed, hollow ceramic flotation sphere of constant shell thickness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep-sea flotation spheres consisting of an air-filled ceramic shell are made to a very high tolerance, suggesting their application as sonar targets, possibly for calibration use. A previous study documented preliminary measurements made on hollow alumina spheres of nominal diameter 91.44 mm and shell thickness 1.3 mm over the total frequency band 5-150 kHz. Here, the sensitivity of target strength

D. T. I. Francis; K. G. Foote; P. R. Atkins

2007-01-01

471

Roles of adhered Paenibacillus polymyxa in the dissolution and flotation of bauxite: a dialytic investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bio-related techniques have been proved to be efficient and specific in eliminating impure minerals such as goethite, hematite\\u000a and kaolinite from aluminum hydroxides in bauxite processing. In this study, the bacterium Paenibacillus polymyxa (P. polymyxa) mediated dissolution and flotation of bauxite were experimentally investigated. To disclose the contribution of adhered\\u000a bacteria to these two processes, comparative experiments were designed, with

Yuefei Zhou; Rucheng Wang; Xiancai Lu; Tianhu Chen

2010-01-01

472

Alumina ceramic 10 in flotation spheres for deep submergence ROV\\/AUV systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A casting process for ceramic spherical flotation units with nominal 10 in OD has been developed by Custom Ceramic Technology utilizing 99.9 percent Al2O3 for operation on an ROV\\/AUV in all ocean depths. With their 0.42 weight to displacement ratio, they provide more lift per pound of their dead weight in air than syntactic foams for 36,000 ft (11,000 m)

J. D. Stachiw; D. Peters

2005-01-01

473

Alumina ceramic 3.6 in flotation spheres for 11 km ROV\\/AUV systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spherical flotation units of 99.9% Al2O3 ceramic have been successfully produced by Deepsea Power & Light for application to 11 km ROV\\/AUV systems. The 3.6-inch (91.45 mm) OD seamless hollow spheres with 034 weight\\/displacement ratio have routinely withstood proof testing to 30,000 psi (207 MPa), 1000 hour sustained pressurization to 25,000 psi, and 10,000 pressure cycles to 20,000 psi (138

S. Weston; J. Stachiw; R. Merewether; M. Olsson; G. Jemmott

2005-01-01

474

Zeta Potential Measurements on Three Clays from Turkey and Effects of Clays on Coal Flotation  

PubMed

There is a growing trend of characterizing coal and coal wastes in order to study the effect of clays present in them during coal washing. Coarse wastes from the Zonguldak Coal Washery, Turkey, were characterized and found to contain kaolinite, illite, and chlorite. These three clays, obtained in almost pure form from various locations in Turkey, have been subjected to X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis to assess their purity and zeta potential measurements in order to evaluate their properties in terms of their surface charge and point of zero charge (pzc) values. It was found from XRD data that these clays were almost pure and their electrokinetic potential should therefore be representative of their colloidal behavior. All three clay minerals were negatively charged over the range from pH 2.5 to 11. Chlorite and illite have pzc at pH 3 and pH 2.5, respectively, whereas kaolinite has no pzc. The effect of these clays in Zonguldak coal, wastes, and black waters on coal flotation was studied by floating artificial mixtures of Zonguldak clean coal (4.5% ash) and individual clay. The flotation tests on coal/individual clay revealed that each clay influences coal flotation differently according to its type and amount. Illite had the worst effect on coal floated, followed by chlorite and kaolinite. The loss of yield in coal was found to be 18% for kaolinite, 20% for chlorite, and 28% for illite, indicating the worst effect of illite and least for kaolinite during coal flotation. PMID:8978557

Hussain; Dem&idot;rc&idot;; zbayoğlu

1996-12-25

475

The first case of Demodex gatoi in Austria, detected with fecal flotation.  

PubMed

Feline demodicosis is a rare parasitic condition caused by three different species of mites (Demodex cati, Demodex gatoi, and an unnamed species). D. gatoi inhabits the superficial skin layer (stratum corneum) and is easily transmitted between individual cats. A 2-year-old female spayed Cornish Rex was presented with alopecia and pruritus. The dermatological examination revealed bilateral alopecia and excoriations on trunk, limbs, and belly. The second cat in the household, a 3-year-old female spayed Thai, showed no clinical signs. Superficial and deep skin scrapings were performed and cellophane tapes applied, and living D. gatoi mites could be detected in both cats. Oral ivermectin (0.25 mg/kg every other day) was subscribed. Feces were collected from both cats and fecal flotation with sugar and zinc solutions performed. When compared to skin scrapings and cellophane tapes, D. gatoi was detected more frequently and in higher numbers in fecal samples. Our findings suggest that D. gatoi can be efficiently diagnosed with coproscopy, particularly in asymptomatic carrier animals. DNA was extracted from the flotation liquid, and a PCR protocol for the species verification was designed. A fragment targeting a 325-bp DNA fragment of the D. gatoi mitochondrial 16S rDNA gene was amplified with a 100% similarity to the D. gatoi entry in GenBank (GI 421920216). We report the first finding of D. gatoi in Austria and propose fecal flotation as a valuable tool for mite detection. Fecal flotation liquid is suitable for DNA extraction and PCR-based species verification of D. gatoi. PMID:23681192

Silbermayr, Katja; Joachim, Anja; Litschauer, Barbara; Panakova, Lucia; Sastre, Natalia; Ferrer, Lluis; Horvath-Ungerboeck, Christa

2013-08-01

476

Optimizing the air flotation water treatment process. Final report, May 1997  

SciTech Connect

The injection water for the Nelson Project is a combination of produced and make-up water, typical of many Eastern Kansas operations. The make-up water is a low-salinity salt water from the Arbuckle Formation and contains dissolved minerals and sulfides. The produced water contains suspended oil, suspended clay and silt particles, along with a combination of other dissolved minerals. The combination of the two waters causes several undesirable reactions. The suspended solids load contained in the combined waters would plug a 75-micron plant bag filter within one day. Wellhead filters of 75-micron size were also being used on the injection wells. The poor water quality resulted in severe loss of injectivity and frequent wellbore cleaning of the injection wells. Various mechanical and graded-bed filtration methods were considered for cleaning the water. These methods were rejected due to the lack of field equipment and service availability. A number of vendors did not even respond to the author`s request. The air flotation process was selected as offering the best hope for a long-term solution. The objective of this work is to: increase the cost effectiveness of the process through optimizing process design factors and operational parameters. A vastly modified air flotation system is the principal tool for accomplishing the project objective. The air flotation unit, as received from manufacturer Separation Specialist, was primarily designed to remove oil from produced water. The additional requirement for solids removal necessitated major physical changes in the unit. Problems encountered with the air flotation unit and specific modifications are detailed in the body of the report.

Barnett, B.

1998-09-01

477

Reef-sourced slope deposits, Holocene, Bahamas  

SciTech Connect

Observations and sampling to 350 m from a two-person submersible off Chub Cay, Berry Island, Bahamas, support the idea that the Holocene deep reef is a principal source of talus, now cemented, that foots the windward margins of Great Bahama Bank. At the Chub Cay dive site, a wall extends from 30 to 170 m subsea; below is a low-relief fore reef slope, ca. 50/sup 0/, of limestone veneered with sediment. The upper wall from 30 to 80 m, the deep reef, has a luxuriant growth of corals and a profusion of the calcareous alga halimeda spp. Below 50 m, living coral decreases, and from 80 to 170 m the wall is highly irregular with discontinuous ledges and blind-end caves. At depths from 150 to 170 m, the wall gives way to the fore reef slope whose relative smooth surface dips at 50/sup 0/ to 60/sup 0/ and extends to 350 m. The fore reef is limestone, but its topography resembles that of alluvial fans; rounded ridges rise a few meters above the intervening valleys that are tens of meters wide. The limestone surface has a discontinuous veneer of fine sediment and algal plates, and locally loose cobble and boulder-sized blocks of limestone. A sample of the limestone slope is of well-cemented coral clasts and skeletal sediment. They infer that the deep reef grows outward so rapidly that it caves periodically. The resulting debris bypasses the wall, but some is perched on the steep fore reef slope below where it is soon incorporated into the slope by submarine cementation.

Ginsburg, R.N.; Eberli, G.P.; Harris, P.M.; Slater, R.; Swart, P.K.

1987-05-01

478

Upper Carboniferous reef mounds and climate change  

SciTech Connect

Tetractinomorph demosponges (chaetetids) are a minor component of extant tropical reefs, but they were the major framebuilder of reef mounds during the Westphalian (Carboniferous). These chaetetids were confined to tropical latitudes during the Carboniferous, reached an abundance peak in the Westphalian, and then declined suddenly until the Upper Triassic. After their decline, red and green algae became the dominant reef builders of the Stephanian. The marked decline of chaetetids corresponds with the disappearance, and/or decline of other marine benthic invertebrates, as well as some terrestrial plants and is the basis for the biostratigraphic boundary between the Westphalian and Stephanian (Desmoinesian and Missourian). This biostratigraphic boundary coincides with a minor extinction event and a major'' climatic change. The Westphalian climate was wetter than that of the Stephanian, and in the midcontinent this change is recorded by a gradual decline in coals and siliciclastic lithologies and a corresponding increase in carbonate lithologies. A rise in water temperature might be expected in a drier tropical climate, and if extant chaetetids are any clue, elevated water temperature may have been detrimental. Extant chaetetids are associated with tropical coral reefs that are confined to a narrow temperature range. It is not unreasonable to suggest that elevated seawater temperatures were responsible, in part, for the disappearance of chaetetid reef mounds. Red and green algae, presumably more tolerate of higher water temperatures, became the major framebuilders of reef mounds in the Stephanian. Thus, the demise of chaetetid reef mounds, and other organisms at the end of the Westphalian, may be the result of global warming.

West, R.R.; Archer, A.W. (Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States))

1992-01-01

479

Apparatus and process for the separation of hydrophobic and hydrophilic particles using microbubble column flotation together with a process and apparatus for generation of microbubbles  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus are disclosed for the microbubble flotation separation of very fine and coarse particles, especially coal and minerals, so as to produce high purity and high recovery efficiency. This is accomplished through the use of a flotation column, microbubbles, recycling of the flotation pulp, and countercurrent wash water to gently wash the froth. Also disclosed are unique processes and apparatus for generating microbubbles for flotation in a highly efficient and inexpensive manner using either a porous tube or in-line static generators. 14 figs.

Yoon, R.H.; Adel, G.T.; Luttrell, G.H.

1992-12-01

480

Apparatus and process for the separation of hydrophobic and hydrophilic particles using microbubble column flotation together with a process and apparatus for generation of microbubbles  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus are disclosed for the microbubble flotation separation of very fine and coarse particles, especially coal and minerals, so as to produce high purity and high recovery efficiency. This is accomplished through the use of a flotation column, microbubbles, recycling of the flotation pulp, and countercurrent wash water to gently wash the froth. Also disclosed are unique processes and apparatus for generating microbubbles for flotation in a highly efficient and inexpensive manner using either a porous tube or in-line static generators.

Yoon, Roe-Hoan (Blacksburg, VA); Adel, Gregory T. (Blacksburg, VA); Luttrell, Gerald H. (Blacksburg, VA)

1992-01-01

481

Apparatus and process for the separation of hydrophobic and hydrophilic particles using microbubble column flotation together with a process and apparatus for generation of microbubbles  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus are disclosed for the microbubble flotation separation of very fine and coarse particles, especially coal and minerals, so as to produce high purity and high recovery efficiency. This is accomplished through the use of a flotation column, microbubbles, recycling of the flotation pulp, and countercurrent wash water to gently wash the froth. Also disclosed are unique processes and apparatus for generating microbubbles for flotation in a highly efficient and inexpensive manner using either a porous tube or in-line static generators.

Yoon, Roe-Hoan (Blacksburg, VA); Adel, Gregory T. (Blacksburg, VA); Luttrell, Gerald H. (Blacksburg, VA)

1998-01-01

482

Apparatus and process for the separation of hydrophobic and hydrophilic particles using microbubble column flotation together with a process and apparatus for generation of microbubbles  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus are disclosed for the microbubble flotation separation of very fine and coarse particles, especially coal and minerals, so as to produce high purity and high recovery efficiency. This is accomplished through the use of a flotation column, microbubbles, recycling of the flotation pulp, and countercurrent wash water to gently wash the froth. Also disclosed are unique processes and apparatus for generating microbubbles for flotation in a highly efficient and inexpensive manner using either a porous tube or in-line static generators. 14 figs.

Yoon, R.H.; Adel, G.T.; Luttrell, G.H.

1998-09-29

483

Apparatus for the separation of hydrophobic and hydrophilic particles using microbubble column flotation together with a process and apparatus for generation of microbubbles  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is disclosed for the microbubble flotation separation of very fine and coarse particles, especially coal, and minerals so as to produce high purity and high recovery efficiency. This is accomplished through the use of a flotation column, microbubbles, recycling of the flotation pulp, and countercurrent wash water to gently wash the froth. Also disclosed are unique processes and apparatus for generating microbubbles for flotation in a highly efficient and inexpensive manner using either a porous tube or in-line static generators.

Yoon, Roe-Hoan (Blacksburg, VA); Adel, Gregory T. (Blacksburg, VA); Luttrell, Gerald H. (Blacksburg, VA)

1995-01-01

484

Apparatus for the separation of hydrophobic and hydrophilic particles using microbubble column flotation together with a process and apparatus for generation of microbubbles  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is disclosed for the microbubble flotation separation of very fine and coarse particles, especially coal, and minerals so as to produce high purity and high recovery efficiency. This is accomplished through the use of a flotation column, microbubbles, recycling of the flotation pulp, and countercurrent wash water to gently wash the froth. Also disclosed are unique processes and apparatus for generating microbubbles for flotation in a highly efficient and inexpensive manner using either a porous tube or in-line static generators. 14 figs.

Yoon, R.H.; Adel, G.T.; Luttrell, G.H.

1995-03-14

485

Flotability and flotation separation of polymer materials modulated by wetting agents.  

PubMed

The surface free energy, surface tension and contact angles were performed to investigate the properties of wetting agents. Adsorption of wetting agents changes wetting behavior of polymer resins. Flotability of polymer materials modulated by wetting agents was studied, and wetting agents change significantly flotability of polymer materials. The flotability decreases with increasing the concentration of wetting agents, and the wetting ability is lignin sulfonate (LS)>tannic acid (TA)>methylcellulose (MC)>triton X-100 (TX-100) (from strong to weak). There is significant difference in the flotability between polymer resins and plastics due to the presence of additives in the plastics. Flotation separation of two-component and multicomponent plastics was conducted based on the flotability modulated by wetting agents. The two-component mixtures can be efficiently separated using proper wetting agent through simple flotation flowsheet. The multicomponent plastic mixtures can be separated efficiently through multi-stage flotation using TA and LS as wetting agents, and the purity of separated component was above 94%, and the recovery was more than 93%. PMID:24355830

Wang, Hui; Wang, Chong-qing; Fu, Jian-gang; Gu, Guo-hua

2014-02-01

486

Removal of carbon constituents from hospital solid waste incinerator fly ash by column flotation.  

PubMed

Hospital solid waste incinerator (HSWI) fly ash contains a large number of carbon constituents including powder activated carbon and unburned carbon, which are the major source of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in fly ash. Therefore, the removal of carbon constituents could reduce PCDD/Fs in fly ash greatly. In this study, the effects of the main flotation parameters on the removal of carbon constituents were investigated, and the characteristics of the final product were evaluated. The results showed that loss on ignition (LOI) of fly ash increased from 11.1% to 31.6% during conditioning process. By optimizing the flotation parameters at slurry concentration 0.05 kg/l, kerosene dosage 12 kg/t, frother dosage 3 kg/t and air flow rate 0.06 m(3)/h, 92.7% of the carbon constituents were removed from the raw fly ash. Under these conditions, the froth product has LOI of 56.35% and calorific values of 12.5 MJ/kg, LOI in the tailings was below 5%, and the total toxic equivalent (TEQ) of PCDD/Fs decreased from 5.61 ng-TEQ/g in the raw fly ash to 1.47 ng-TEQ/g in the tailings. The results show that column flotation is a potential technology for simultaneous separation of carbon constituents and PCDD/Fs from HSWI fly ash. PMID:23046874

Liu, Hanqiao; Wei, Guoxia; Zhang, Rui

2013-01-01

487

Integration of dissolved gas flotation and nanofiltration for M. aeruginosa and associated microcystins removal.  

PubMed

The removal of Microcystis aeruginosa and associated microcystins was investigated by a dissolved gas flotation (preceded by coagulation/flocculation)-nanofiltration (NF) sequence. The experiments were conducted with a freshwater spiked with M. aeruginosa cell aggregates to simulate a naturally occurring bloom. Two types of gases were used in the flotation pre-treatment, air (DAF) and a mixture of CO(2)/air. Very good results in terms of NF fluxes, overall removal efficiencies and final water quality were achieved with both sequences. However, the CO(2)/air mixture presented no benefit to the overall sequence, both in terms of toxin release to water during flotation and lower natural organic matter removal by NF, which was due to an overall negative effect of the acid pH. NF was able to completely remove cyanobacteria (100% removal efficiency of chlorophyll a) and microcystins (always under the quantification limit), regardless of the pre-treatment used and the water recovery rate (up to 84%). Therefore, DAF-NF sequence is a safe barrier against M. aeruginosa and microcystins in drinking water. In addition, it ensures an excellent control of particles, disinfection by-products formation, and other micropollutants that may be present in raw water. PMID:16860837

Teixeira, Margarida Ribau; Rosa, Maria Joo

2006-11-01

488

The stony corals of Enmedio reef off Veracruz, Mexico  

E-print Network

of Mexico, though it differs compositionally from the reefs on the Csmpeche Shelf in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. Massive coral species which typically exhibit a hemispheroidal growth habit in the protected "blue holes" and in the middle Sore-reef... Alizarin red S stained coral branches. . . 86 I. INTRODUCTION This study investigates Enmedio reef which lies in the southwestern Gulf of Mexico off Veracruz, Mexico. The term "enmedio" is a Spanish word meaning "in the middle. " The reef lies about...

Rannefeld, James Walter

1972-01-01

489

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Coral Reef Conservation Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NOAA program supports effective management and sound science to preserve, sustain and restore valuable coral reef ecosystems. Students can read about the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force, learn more about local and national coral reef action strategies, and find links to more information on coral reefs. The site also offers a search for publications and data and a general search of the site.

490

Oceanography and reefs of recent and Paleozoic tropical epeiric seas  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryThe Java Sea, one of the few modern tropical epeiric seas, is used as an analogue to examine oceanography, stratigraphy, and\\u000a reefs of Devonian strata in the Appalachian and Michigan Basins. Nearshore patch reefs and offshore pinnacle reefs occur\\u000a in both the Java Sea and the Emsian-Eifelian Onondaga Formation in the Appalachian Basin. Nearshore patch reefs also occur\\u000a in the

Evan N. Edinger; St. Paul Copper; Michael J. Risk; Warsito Atmojo

2002-01-01

491

Climate change and coral reefs: Trojan horse or false prophecy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Maynard et al. (Coral Reefs 27:745749, 2008a) claim that much of the concern about the impacts of climate change on coral reefs has been based on essen- tially untested,assumptions,regarding,reefs and,their capacity to cope with future climate change. If correct, this claim has important implications for whether,or not climate change,represents the largest long-term threat to the sustainability of coral reefs,

O. Hoegh-Guldberg

492

Hydrodynamic Regimes Affect Coral Reef Resilience to Ocean Acidification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Caribbean reefs hold tremendous value as sources of food, income, coastal protection, in addition to their cultural significance. Recently, studies showed that Caribbean reef growth has been surpassed in places by excessive rates of erosion due to climate change. The rates of coral reef response to ocean pH changes and warming and the implications for ecosystem resilience remain largely unknown. One way to investigate the potential structural resilience of reefs to climate change is to measure the physical oceanographic conditions in the area. Determining the hydrodynamic regimes and residence time of water in a particular reef environment is crucial to understanding the rates of future warming and acidification a reef site would experience. Our work on Pacific Islands' hydrodynamics - Central Equatorial Pacific, Great Barrier Reef, and Western Pacific -- would be of interest to Caribbean physical oceanographers and coral reef scientists. We use a combination of Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers, Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters, temperature and salinity sensors, and pressure sensors to characterize reef hydrodynamic regimes. Our work indicates that shallower, more protected reef habitats are characterized by longer residence times, their biological signals are strongly tidally modulated, essentially subjecting such habitats to higher rates of warming and acidification in the future. Reef crest environments and fore reef habitats, on the other hand, are well-mixed with open-ocean water. The hydrodynamic regimes there condition such reef sites to more attenuated temperature and pH ranges, con