These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Froth Flotation of Insoluble Slimes from Sylvinite Ores.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sylvinite ores are treated for removal of insoluble slimes by a froth flotation technique which includes flocculating the slimes with nonionic or polyacrylamide flocculants and thereafter utilizing a nonionic or an anionic flotation collector including a ...

P. Thompson, J. L. Huiatt, D. C. Seidel

1980-01-01

2

Froth Flotation of Insoluble Slimes from Sylvinite Ores.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sylvinite ores are treated for removal of insoluble slimes by a froth flotation technique which includes flocculating the slimes with nonionic or polyacrylamide flocculants and thereafter using a nonionic or an anionic flotation collector including a mixt...

P. Thompson, J. L. Huiatt, D. C. Seidel

1978-01-01

3

Estimated water requirements for the conventional flotation of copper ores  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report provides a perspective on the amount of water used by a conventional copper flotation plant. Water is required for many activities at a mine-mill site, including ore production and beneficiation, dust and fire suppression, drinking and sanitation, and minesite reclamation. The water required to operate a flotation plant may outweigh all of the other uses of water at a mine site, [however,] and the need to maintain a water balance is critical for the plant to operate efficiently. Process water may be irretrievably lost or not immediately available for reuse in the beneficiation plant because it has been used in the production of backfill slurry from tailings to provide underground mine support; because it has been entrapped in the tailings stored in the TSF, evaporated from the TSF, or leaked from pipes and (or) the TSF; and because it has been retained as moisture in the concentrate. Water retained in the interstices of the tailings and the evaporation of water from the surface of the TSF are the two most significant contributors to water loss at a conventional flotation circuit facility.

Bleiwas, Donald I.

2012-01-01

4

The use of electrochemical measurements in the flotation of a platinum group minerals (PGM) bearing ore  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochemical potential is considered an important parameter for controlling the recovery and selectivity of sulphide minerals during flotation. The aim of this work was to use mineral potential measurements to gain an understanding of respective mineral flotation performance in the processing of a platinum group mineral (PGM) bearing ore, whilst manipulating the chemical conditions in the pulp. Sulphide mineral potentials

A. M Buswell; D. J Bradshaw; P. J Harris; Z Ekmekci

2002-01-01

5

Water leaching of titanium from ore flotation residue  

SciTech Connect

Copper ore tailings were tested for the stability of titanium submitted to water leaching in three different reactor systems (agitated vessel, bioreactor and percolated fixed-bed column). For each of these systems, titanium extraction did not exceed 1% of the available metal. Biomass removed from ore residue adsorbed a small part of the titanium with sorption capacities below 20-30 mg g{sup -1}, but most of this biomass was sequestered in the ore residue. Oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations were monitored and changes in concentration correlated with bacteria development at the initial stage of the process and to fungal development in the latter stages.

Jaworska, Malgorzata M.; Guibal, Eric

2003-07-01

6

Optimization of flotation variables for the recovery of hematite particles from BHQ ore  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technology for beneficiation of banded iron ores containing low iron value is a challenging task due to increasing demand of quality iron ore in India. A flotation process has been developed to treat one such ore, namely banded hematite quartzite (BHQ) containing 41.8wt% Fe and 41.5wt% SiO2, by using oleic acid, methyl isobutyl carbinol (MIBC), and sodium silicate as the collector, frother, and dispersant, respectively. The relative effects of these variables have been evaluated in half-normal plots and Pareto charts using central composite rotatable design. A quadratic response model has been developed for both Fe grade and recovery and optimized within the experimental range. The optimum reagent dosages are found to be as follows: collector concentration of 243.58 g/t, dispersant concentration of 195.67 g/t, pH 8.69, and conditioning time of 4.8 min to achieve the maximum Fe grade of 64.25% with 67.33% recovery. The predictions of the model with regard to iron grade and recovery are in good agreement with the experimental results.

Rath, Swagat S.; Sahoo, Hrushikesh; Das, B.

2013-07-01

7

Electrochemical pretreatment of recycled water in flotation of non-sulfide and diamond-containing ores  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents theoretical and practical aspects of directed adjustment of the physicochemical properties (pH,Eh) and ion composition of recycle and mine water by an electrochemical treatment. Treatment is run in diaphragm-type conditioners with production of alkaline catholyte of pH value up to 12 and acidic anolyte of pH up to 2. In the process of water electrolysis the directed motion of Mg{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+} ions is observed from anode volume to cathode one, where they precipitate as hydroxides and carbonates; it leads to a decrease of salt content in anolyte and catholyte. The results of experimental and industrial testing of the electrochemical technique for mine and recycle water in flotation of diamond-containing and sulfide-scheelite, hematite, phosphorite, apatite-nephelite, bauxite ores indicated the increase of recovery up to 2--15% and grade up to 0.5--2%, concurrent with a decrease of reagent consumption from 15 to 50%. Modules of industrial conditioners of different type capacity have been developed.

Chanturiya, V.A.; Trofimova, E.A.; Dvoichenkova, G.P. [Academy of Sciences of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation). Comprehensive Mineral Resources Exploitation Inst.; Zaskevich, M.V. [Almazy Rossii 1 Sakha Co. Ltd., Mirniy (Russian Federation)

1995-12-31

8

The Successful Application of Pneumatic Flotation Technology for the Removal of Silica by Reverse Flotation at the Iron Ore Pellet Plant of Compañía Minera Huasco, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pneumatic flotation, as developed by Dr Rainer Imhof, has been applied in commercial beneficiation operations since 1987. Over 85 flotation cells have been installed in more than 30 operations, successfully beneficiating a wide range of minerals. Pneumatic flotation is however still considered as a non-conventional flotation process. Due to its highly selective nature in operation it has generally found its

R Imhof; M Battersby; F Parra; S Sanchez-Pino

9

Control of the solution interaction of metabisulphite and ethyl xanthate in the flotation of the Hilton ore of Mount Isa Mines Limited, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation of important variables which influence ethyl xanthate decomposition by sodium metabisulphite (MBS) during the laboratory flotation of Hilton ore and in plant pulps of the Hilton Concentrator has been undertaken. The decomposition of ethyl xanthate was monitored by Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopic examination of the pulp liquid phase. Sulphur speciation in plant pulps was monitored by ion chromatographic (IC)

S. R Grano; N. W Johnson; J Ralston

1997-01-01

10

Microwave Pre-Treatment of Ores and its Effect on the Flotation Process Christopher Marion Supervisor: Prof Kristian Waters  

E-print Network

electrical conductor or insulator · Material heats volumetrically mainly by dipole rotation Microwave Heating's Bay Eastern Deeps Massive Ore is a nickel and copper ore made up of chalcopyrite (CuFeS2), pentlandite,000 tonnes of copper at Voisey's Bay1 · Nickel and copper prices are currently around 22,000 and 5,000 USD

Barthelat, Francois

11

Process for increasing the selectivity of mineral flotation  

SciTech Connect

A method for enhancing the selectivity of a collector agent used in froth flotation for attaining mineral separation in a copper sulphidic mineral bearing ore beneficiation process is described comprising, adding a premixed aqueous solution containing a water soluble polyvalent metal sulphate, and an alkali metal silicate and an alkali metal metabisulphite to an aqueous slurry of the copper sulphidic mineral bearing ore in a stage preceding froth flotation, the froth flotation being conducted in the presence of the collector agents, to obtain a separated ore phase enriched in the copper minerals, and a flotation tailing.

Bulatovic, S.

1988-04-05

12

METALLURGICAL PROCESSING OF URANIUM ORES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process for concentrating U values in ores before processing for U ; recovery is offered. Raw ore is crushed in rubber-lined equipment and wetted to ; prevent dust loss. The crushed ore passes then to an attrition mill where it is ; conditioned for the first flotation (coal tar creosote collector-pine derivative ; frothing reagent) to remove carbonaceous material.

Dering

1959-01-01

13

Magmatic ore deposits in layered intrusions - Descriptive model for reef-type PGE and contact-type Cu-Ni-PGE deposits  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Layered, ultramafic to mafic intrusions are uncommon in the geologic record, but host magmatic ore deposits containing most of the world's economic concentrations of platinum-group elements (PGE) (figs. 1 and 2). These deposits are mined primarily for their platinum, palladium, and rhodium contents (table 1). Magmatic ore deposits are derived from accumulations of crystals of metallic oxides, or immiscible sulfide, or oxide liquids that formed during the cooling and crystallization of magma, typically with mafic to ultramafic compositions. "PGE reefs" are stratabound PGE-enriched lode mineralization in mafic to ultramafic layered intrusions. The term "reef" is derived from Australian and South African literature for this style of mineralization and used to refer to (1) the rock layer that is mineralized and has distinctive texture or mineralogy (Naldrett, 2004), or (2) the PGE-enriched sulfide mineralization that occurs within the rock layer. For example, Viljoen (1999) broadly defined the Merensky Reef as "a mineralized zone within or closely associated with an unconformity surface in the ultramafic cumulate at the base of the Merensky Cyclic Unit." In this report, we will use the term PGE reef to refer to the PGE-enriched mineralization, not the host rock layer. Within a layered igneous intrusion, reef-type mineralization is laterally persistent along strike, extending for the length of the intrusion, typically tens to hundreds of kilometers. However, the mineralized interval is thin, generally centimeters to meters thick, relative to the stratigraphic thickness of layers in an intrusion that vary from hundreds to thousands of meters. PGE-enriched sulfide mineralization is also found near the contacts or margins of layered mafic to ultramafic intrusions (Iljina and Lee, 2005). This contact-type mineralization consists of disseminated to massive concentrations of iron-copper-nickel-PGE-enriched sulfide mineral concentrations in zones that can be tens to hundreds of meters thick. The modes and textures of the igneous rocks hosting the mineralization vary irregularly on the scale of centimeters to meters; autoliths and xenoliths are common. Mineralization occurs in the igneous intrusion and in the surrounding country rocks. Mineralization can be preferentially localized along contact with country rocks that are enriched in sulfur-, iron-, or CO2-bearing lithologies. Reef-type and contact-type deposits, in particular those in the Bushveld Complex, South Africa, are the world's primary source of platinum and rhodium (tables 2 and 3; fig. 2). Reef-type PGE deposits are mined only in the Bushveld Complex (Merensky Reef and UG2), the Stillwater Complex (J-M Reef), and the Great Dyke (Main Sulphide Layer). PGE-enriched contact-type deposits are only mined in the Bushveld Complex. The other deposits in tables 2 and 3 are undeveloped; some are still under exploration.

Zientek, Michael L.

2012-01-01

14

Coral Reefs Coral Reefs  

E-print Network

1 Coral Reefs Coral Reefs Coral Reef Formation Scleractinian Coral Polyps · Scleractinia = stony Growth Reef Building Corals · Reef building corals are colonial ­ create large 'coral heads' that may productivity. ­ So no phytoplankton ­ So no zooplankton ­ So no food for corals Reef Building Corals

Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane

15

The effect of lizardite surface characteristics on pyrite flotation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of lizardite surface characteristics on pyrite flotation has been investigated through flotation tests, adsorption tests, zeta potential measurements, FTIR study, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and sedimentation tests. The flotation results show that at pH value 9, where flotation of nickel sulfide ores is routinely performed, two kinds of lizardite samples (native lizardite and leached lizardite) have different effects on the flotation of pyrite. The native lizardite adheres to the surface of pyrite and reduces pyrite flotation recovery while the leached lizardite does not interfere with pyrite flotation. Infrared analyses and XPS tests illustrate that acid leaching changed the surface characteristics of lizardite mineral and the leached lizardite has less magnesium on its surface. It has been determined that the electro-kinetic behavior of lizardite aqueous suspensions is mainly a function of the Mg/Si atomic ratio on lizardite surface. So, the low isoelectric point observed in the leached sample has been linked to values of this ratio lower than that of the native lizardite.

Feng, Bo; Feng, Qiming; Lu, Yiping

2012-10-01

16

Characterization of flotation color by machine vision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flotation is the most common industrial method by which valuable minerals are separated from waste rock after crushing and grinding the ore. For process control, flotation plants and devices are equipped with conventional and specialized sensors. However, certain variables are left to the visual observation of the operator, such as the color of the froth and the size of the bubbles in the froth. The ChaCo-Project (EU-Project 24931) was launched in November 1997. In this project a measuring station was built at the Pyhasalmi flotation plant. The system includes an RGB camera and a spectral color measuring instrument for the color inspection of the flotation. The RGB camera or visible spectral range is also measured to compare the operators' comments on the color of the froth relating to the sphalerite concentration and the process balance. Different dried mineral (sphalerite) ratios were studied with iron pyrite to find out about the minerals' typical spectral features. The correlation between sphalerite spectral reflectance and sphalerite concentration over various wavelengths are used to select the proper camera system with filters or to compare the results with the color information from the RGB camera. Various machine vision candidate techniques are discussed for this application and the preprocessed information of the dried mineral colors is used and adapted to the online measuring station. Moving froth bubbles produce total reflections, disturbing the color information. Polarization filters are used and the results are reported. Also the reflectance outside the visible light is studied and reported.

Siren, Ari

1999-09-01

17

Ore Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This three part lab introduces sulfides and other ore minerals. Part one - Ore Minerals: Students fill in a table giving the metal, formula, and mineral group of several ore minerals. Part two - Box of Rocks: Students examine trays of ore minerals and record their physical properties, composition, habit, occurence, economic value, and use and answer questions about color, luster, density, transparency, and availability. Part three - Famous Digs: Students answer a series of questions related to famous ore deposits.

Perkins, Dexter

18

Coral Reefs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page offers information on coral reefs. Coral reefs are often refered to as the rainforest of the oceans. This exploration will help you to see why that is. Follow these links to learn about coral reefs. This link will take you to Florida where a girl will take guide you over a coral reef. Coral Kid This site ...

Amsden

2009-11-19

19

Cyclic voltammetry and dielectric studies on PbS–potassium ethyl xanthate–dextrine system under flotation and depression conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Froth flotation technique continues to be one of the most important concentration processes to float ores in a selective form specifically for PbS–ZnS, PbS–CuFeS2 and PbS–ZnS, PbS–CuFeS2 ores. There is an interest in doing research on a clean reagent (biodegradable reagent) to depress lead sulfide ore to control this process and have the appropriate knowledge about the interactions that can

A. Huerta-Cerdán; J. M. de la Rosa; C. A. González; J. Genesca

2003-01-01

20

Ore sorter  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to apparatus for and a method of sorting ore having a radioactive component. The method includes the steps of passing a stream of ore particles through a ring detector to detect ore in the stream having a radioactive emission intensity above a predetermined level and then sorting this ore from the remainder of the ore in the stream. Preferably the invention includes the step of determining the mass of each ore particle and correlating the mass and radioactive emission measurements of the particle to determine its grade.

Bohme, R.C.; Kealy, W.A.

1982-11-30

21

Reef ED  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority's resource and activity center for teachers and students. Find teaching units for K-12 on: coral reef habitats and marine life; human dependence and impacts on the reef; biodiversity and threatened species; coastal zone and reef management. Lesson plans offer objectives, inquiry learning focus activities, resources, class or field activities. Student pages contain: marine life profiles; reef conservation projects; role playing activities; web investigations. Excellent image library (stills and video).

22

A study of the interfacial chemistry of pyrite and coal in fine coal cleaning using flotation  

SciTech Connect

Surface oxidation, surface charge, and flotation properties have been systematically studied for coal, coal-pyrite and ore-pyrite. Electrochemical studies show that coal-pyrite exhibits much higher and more complex surface oxidation than ore-pyrite and its oxidation rate depends strongly on the carbon/coal content. Flotation studies indicate that pyrites have no self-induced floatability. Fuel oil significantly improves the floatability of coal and induces considerable flotation for coal-pyrite due to the hydrophobic interaction of fuel oil with the carbon/coal inclusions on the pyrite surface. Xanthate is a good collector for ore-pyrite but a poor collector for coal and coal-pyrite. The results from thermodynamic calculations, flotation and zeta potential measurements show that iron ions greatly affect the flotation of pyrite with xanthate and fuel oil. Various organic and inorganic chemicals have been examined for depressing coal-pyrite. It was found, for the first time, that sodium pyrophosphate is an effective depressant for coal-pyrite. Solution chemistry shows that pyrophosphate reacts with iron ions to form stable iron pyrophosphate complexes. Using pyrophosphate, the complete separation of pyrite from coal can be realized over a wide pH range at relatively low dosage.

Jiang, C.

1993-12-31

23

MINERALOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF COPPER FLOTATION PRODUCTS FROM CAYELI MINE, TURKEY AND THEIR INFLUENCE TO MINERAL PROCESSING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents mineralogical characteristics and peculiarities of mineral distribution in products from Cu cycle of clastic ore mineral processing from Cayeli VHMS Cu-Zn deposit of Upper Cretaceous age located in the Black Sea Pontide belt, Northern Turkey. The study covers 16 samples from Cu flotation feed, Cu rougher concentrate, Cu final concentrate and Cu rougher tail sieved in 4

S. Strashimirov; S. Dobrev; S. Stamenov; S. Gaidardjiev; B. Aksani

24

Marmatite depression in galena flotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory flotation tests were conducted to investigate the role of pH, zinc sulphate and potassium metabisulphite in the flotation of galena and marmatite in the Broken Hill orebody. Marmatite was depressed under alkaline conditions alone, however the addition of the two depressants, either individually or combined, resulted in the greatest selectivity. The use of zinc sulphate under alkaline conditions resulted

Keith Quast; Gavin Hobart

2006-01-01

25

Reef Check  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Reef Check, headquartered at the Institute of the Environment at the University of California Los Angeles, is a "volunteer, community-based monitoring protocol designed to measure the health of coral reefs on a global scale." With scientific reef surveys conducted in over 60 countries and territories, Reef Check has been able to track global trends in reef health to better inform possible conservation strategies. Visitors to the Reef Check Web site can read result summaries for the 1997-2001 monitoring period, and check out the organization's current and archived newsletters. Other resources include information on survey methods, Reef Check publications, a species identification guide, and other resources geared mainly toward Reef Check volunteers.

26

Reef Relief  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website includes a thorough overview of coral reefs around the globe, including the threats facing them, current protection projects, and action you can take to help save reefs. The "International Projects" and "The Coral Reef Ecosystem" sections are full of fantastic photographs and other information. Educational materials may be purchased and include DVDs and teacher's guides. Many volunteer and donation opportunities are available. A children's section includes information-filled printable coloring pages. Several different publications are available at no cost.

2011-10-05

27

Reef Relief  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A thorough overview of coral reefs around the globe, including the threats facing them, current protection projects, and action you can take to help save reefs. "International Projects" and "The Coral Reef Ecosystem" sections are chock-full of fantastic photographs and information. Education materials may be purchased and include DVDs and teacher's guides. Many volunteer and donation opportunities. Children section includes information-filled printable coloring pages. Several different publications are available at no cost.

28

Effect of reverse flotation on magnetic separation concentrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reverse flotation studies on magnetite samples have revealed that the use of starch as a depressant of Fe-oxides has a hydrophilic effect on the surface of Fe-bearing silicates and significantly decreases Fe in the silica-rich stream when used in combination with an amine (Lilaflot D817M). In this study, the effect of reverse flotation on the optimization of products obtained from magnetic separation was investigated. Two different magnetic samples, zones 1 and 2, were milled to <75 ?m and then subjected to low intensity magnetic separation (LIMS). The LIMS test conducted on the <75 ?m shown an upgrade of 46.40wt% Fe, 28.40wt% SiO2 and 2.61wt% MnO for zone 1 and 47.60wt% Fe, 29.17wt% SiO2 and 0.50wt% MnO for zone 2. Further milling of the ore to <25 ?m resulted in a higher magnetic-rich product after magnetic separation. Reverse flotation tests were conducted on the agitated magnetic concentrate feed, and the result shows a significant upgrade of Fe compared to that obtained from the non-agitated feed. Iron concentrations greater than 69%, and SiO2 concentrations less than 2% with overall magnetite recoveries greater than 67% and 71% were obtained for zones 1 and 2, respectively.

Bada, S. O.; Afolabi, A. S.; Makhula, M. J.

2012-08-01

29

Coral Reefs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Description of coral reef environment for high school level and higher. Page is chock full of fantastic photographs each featuring a descriptive caption. Topics discussed include ecology, symbiosis, and predator defense. The site features many different species and stages of coral from all over the globe, and also many of the fishes that are associated with coral reefs.

30

Vertical Distribution and Speciation of Trace Metals in Weathering Flotation Residues of a Zinc\\/Lead Sulfide Mine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfide-bearing mine tailings are a serious environmental problem around the world. In this study, the vertical distribution and speciation of Zn and Pb in the fine-grained flotation residues of a former sulfide ore mine in Germany were investigated to assess the inorganic weath- ering processes that effect the environmental risk arising from this site. Total metal contents were determined by

Nele Schuwirth; Andreas Voegelin; Ruben Kretzschmar; Thilo Hofmann

2007-01-01

31

Selective flotation of inorganic sulfides from coal  

DOEpatents

Pyritic sulfur is removed from coal or other carbonaceous material through the use of humic acid as a coal flotation depressant. Following the removal of coarse pyrite, the carbonaceous material is blended with humic acid, a pyrite flotation collector and a frothing agent within a flotation cell to selectively float pyritic sulfur leaving clean coal as an underflow.

Miller, Kenneth J. (Floreffe, PA); Wen, Wu-Wey (Murrysville, PA)

1989-01-01

32

Selective flotation of inorganic sulfides from coal  

DOEpatents

Pyritic sulfur is removed from coal or other carbonaceous material through the use of humic acid as a coal flotation depressant. Following the removal of coarse pyrite, the carbonaceous material is blended with humic acid, a pyrite flotation collector and a frothing agent within a flotation cell to selectively float pyritic sulfur leaving clean coal as an underflow. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Miller, K.J.; Wen, Wu-Wey

1988-05-31

33

Coral Reefs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video, Jonathan examines the biology of coral reefs and their importance to the marine ecosystem. Please see the accompanying lesson plan that discusses pH and ocean acidification for educational objectives, discussion points and classroom activities.

Productions, Jonathan B.

2012-03-01

34

Coal flotation optimization using modified flotation parameters and combustible recovery in a Jameson cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study discusses a new coal flotation optimization approach. It is conducted using modified flotation parameters and combustible recovery. The experimental work was evaluated in two stages. In the first stage, recoveries (1, 2, 3, 5 and 8min of flotation times) of Jameson flotation operating parameters were fitted to first-order kinetic model, R=R? [1?exp (?kt)] where R was recovery at

Hüseyin Vapur; Oktay Bayat; Metin Uçurum

2010-01-01

35

46 CFR 179.240 - Foam flotation material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...240 Foam flotation material. (a) Foam may only be installed as flotation material on a vessel when approved...installed as flotation material on a vessel, the owner...175.600). The fire resistance test is not...

2010-10-01

36

Sewage treatment-flotation apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Solids-liquid separation, wherein a solids-liquid mixture containing dissolved oxygen-containing gas is circulated around a circulatory system comprising a downcomer and a riser, part of the mixture in the riser being introduced into a flotation chamber in which the hydrostatic pressure gradually decreases as the mixture flows upwards, with consequent release from solution of gas bubbles which carry solid particles to the top of the mixture.

Hines, D.A.; Jones, R.T.; Roesler, F.C.

1981-03-03

37

Coral Reefs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This problem-based learning (PBL) module prompts students to address coral reef destruction and think about biodiversity worldwide. Students identify possible sources of coral reef destruction, examine conflicting evidence, evaluate possible courses of action, and make recommendations. As they do this, students look at man's impact on the global environment. Two versions of the PBL module are provided. The middle school scenario focuses on the question: is the cumulative weight of human activities changing the environment and destroying coral reefsâone of Earthâs last great areas of biodiversity? The high school scenario focuses on the question: what are the pros and cons of artificial reefsâare they effective in preserving biodiversity that can be lost when natural coral reefs are destroyed? This module is part of Exploring the Environment.

38

Flotation properties of some monocyclic aromatic compounds  

SciTech Connect

The flotation properties of aromatic compounds with polar substitutes in the ring have not been adequately studied. For instance, we were the first to examine bromobenzene, nitrobenzene, N-ethylaniline and anisole as possible flotation reagents. Their flotation properties were determined in a Mekhanobr laboratory flotation machine of chamber capacity 1.5 liters, with an impeller speed of 1800 rpm. The tests were carried out on thickened slurry from radial thickeners. In addition, we have tested aromatic amines (o- and p-nitroanalines, p-anisidine, o- and p-toluidines). They were used for the flotation of raw charge (<0.5 mm size fraction). The raw material was averaged before flotation; the solids content of the pulp was 200 g/liter in both cases. Of the aromatic compounds with polar substituents examined, N-ethyl-aniline possesses the optimum flotation properties. The flotation indices of o-isomers are directly related to their dipole moments. For p-isomers, a direct correlation exists between flotation parameters and basicity.

Shreider, E.M.; Kontorovich, V.E.; Galanov, M.E.; Trachik, T.L.; Lagutina, L.V.

1981-01-01

39

Microbubble flotation of fine coal. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Fine coal flotation has been a longstanding problem in industry. Coal particles below approximately 38 microns in diameter are difficult to float, and the process consumes large amounts of reagents. Hydrodynamic analyses have shown, however, that the use of air bubbles smaller than those that are generated in conventional flotation machines (0.2 to 3 mm diameter) can improve the flotation rate and, hence, the coal recovery. Theoretically, a tenfold reduction in average bubble size should result in a thousandfold increase in the flotation rate constant at a given gas flow rate. Therefore, work has been done to use microbubbles less than 100 microns in diameter for the flotation of fine coal particles. Seven different U.S. coal samples have been tested in the present work. The feed size varies from -100 mesh to -500 mesh. Flotation kinetics tests have been conducted on some of these coal samples as a function of bubble size at a constant gas flow rate. The results show a drastic improvement in flotation rate with the use of microbubbles, which may account for the improved recoveries obtained with the microbubble flotation technique. In addition, test results obtained with ultrafine coal samples (-20 microns) indicate that the microbubble flotation process is more selective than conventional flotation. This improved selectivity has been explained tentatively by the increased bubble loading and the reduced turbulence around the microbubbles. Various techniques have been employed to further enhance the selectivity of the process by minimizing the ash entrapment problem. To better understand the mechanisms of microbubble flotation, basic information regarding surface tension, contact angle, viscosity, streaming currents of microbubbles, electrophoretic mobilities of coal and mineral matter, and stability of microbubble suspensions has been obtained. 50 references, 42 figures, 9 tables.

Yoon, R. H.

1984-03-01

40

Selective flotation of phosphate minerals with hydroxamate collectors  

DOEpatents

A method is disclosed for separating phosphate minerals from a mineral mixture, particularly from high-dolomite containing phosphate ores. The method involves conditioning the mineral mixture by contacting in an aqueous in environment with a collector in an amount sufficient for promoting flotation of phosphate minerals. The collector is a hydroxamate compound of the formula; ##STR1## wherein R is generally hydrophobic and chosen such that the collector has solubility or dispersion properties it can be distributed in the mineral mixture, typically an alkyl, aryl, or alkylaryl group having 6 to 18 carbon atoms. M is a cation, typically hydrogen, an alkali metal or an alkaline earth metal. Preferably, the collector also comprises an alcohol of the formula, R'--OH wherein R' is generally hydrophobic and chosen such that the collector has solubility or dispersion properties so that it can be distributed in the mineral mixture, typically an alkyl, aryl, or alkylaryl group having 6 to 18 carbon atoms.

Miller, Jan D. (Salt Lake City, UT); Wang, Xuming (Salt Lake City, UT); Li, Minhua (Salt Lake City, UT)

2002-01-01

41

Improved Algal Harvesting Using Suspended Air Flotation  

E-print Network

, consisting primarily of Chlorella and Scenedesmus, composed approximately 80% of the solids inventory during. Furthermore, use of SAF to harvest commercially grown Chlorella and Scenedesmus may reduce manufacturing costs). KEYWORDS: Suspended air flotation (SAF), dissolved air flotation (DAF), wastewater, algae, Chlorella

Jacobson, Arne

42

Jurassic Reef Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dr. Reinhold Leinfelder of the University of Stuttgart, Germany created this interesting site in English and German, offering a "virtual trip to the reefs of the Jurassic Period." In the Introduction, viewers will find background material and comparisons of modern and ancient reefs. Further information is provided in the sections on reef architecture, reef formation, Jurassic reefs, and reefs and global climate change. Although the English language is slightly quirky, the content and images more than compensate, making this a worthwhile site.

43

Reef Education Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Queensland's Reef Education Network (REN) is a wonderful introduction to the amazing world of coral reefs. REN has some cool images as well as information about reef research, current problems threatening coral reefs, and the many fascinating organisms that reside within a coral reef. The Life And Times section provides a nice overview of what a reef is, while the Ask A Brain Coral section gives some introduction to biotic and abiotic relationships that occur within reefs. A unique feature is the notebook, where students can record and organize information as they navigate throughout the site.

2001-01-01

44

21 CFR 890.3175 - Flotation cushion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...with water, air, gel, mud, or any other substance allowing a flotation media, used on a seat to lessen the likelihood of skin ulcers. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification...

2011-04-01

45

21 CFR 890.3175 - Flotation cushion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...with water, air, gel, mud, or any other substance allowing a flotation media, used on a seat to lessen the likelihood of skin ulcers. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification...

2013-04-01

46

21 CFR 890.3175 - Flotation cushion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...with water, air, gel, mud, or any other substance allowing a flotation media, used on a seat to lessen the likelihood of skin ulcers. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification...

2010-04-01

47

21 CFR 890.3175 - Flotation cushion.  

...with water, air, gel, mud, or any other substance allowing a flotation media, used on a seat to lessen the likelihood of skin ulcers. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification...

2014-04-01

48

21 CFR 890.3175 - Flotation cushion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...with water, air, gel, mud, or any other substance allowing a flotation media, used on a seat to lessen the likelihood of skin ulcers. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification...

2012-04-01

49

Journal of Australasian Mining History, Vol. 6, September 2008 Abandoned Hopes: Reef Mining on the Albert Goldfield,  

E-print Network

alluvial mining and gold-bearing quartz reefs were soon found in outcrop. Experienced miners noted to raise capital to purchase the required machinery for hard rock mining and gold extraction, but getting of gold from the ore. Capital was wasted by poor management and piecemeal mining of the small reef systems

Canberra, University of

50

FLOCCULATION-FLOTATION AIDS FOR TREATMENT OF COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOWS  

EPA Science Inventory

The objectives of this study were to investigate the flocculation/flotation characteristics of combined sewer overflow through laboratory and field testing. The concept involves the introduction of chemicals and buoyant flotation aids into the overflow and the subsequent cofloccu...

51

Coral Reef Ecosystems: The Living Reef  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Object is the first of four Science Objects in the Coral Reef Ecosystems SciPack. It explores the unique and diverse ecosystem of the coral reef. Coral reefs are very complex systems that create one of the largest structures on Earth of biological origins. Thousands of coral species exist in oceans worldwide. Reef-building corals remain on the same spot of the sea floor through their entire lives and have developed reproductive, feeding, and social behaviors suited to their situation. As they grow, reefs provide structural habitats for hundreds to thousands of different organisms. Learning Outcomes:� Identify coral polyp structures and describe their functions.� Describe photosynthesis in the coral environment.� Describe the evolution of a typical reef system.� Use the shape of an individual coral to identify its common name, and classify entire coral reef ecosystems based on shape and location. � Describe the process of coral polyp reproduction and growth.� Identify how the features and/or behavioral strategies of coral reef inhabitants enable them to survive in coral reef environments.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2006-11-01

52

Separation of Oil from Wastewater by Air Flotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Air flotation, in all its variations, is an efficient way to extract oil from wastewater. If the wastewater is chemically\\u000a pretreated to break the oil emulsions, air flotation units are capable of removing most of the emulsified oil in addition\\u000a to the free oil. This chapter covers various flotation techniques to achieve oil\\/water separation. Flotation processes include\\u000a electroflotation, dissolved air

Gary F. Bennett; Nazih K. Shammas

53

NOAA's Coral Reef  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In an effort to centralize information on Coral Reefs, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has launched this site on Coral Reefs. The site serves both as a news resource (see the frequently updated News Releases section) as well as a basic information resource (see Year of the Reef 1997 and Coral Reef Photos) on coral reefs. For information on current research (scientific and citizen), see the Coral Health and Monitoring Program, the Great American Fish Count, or the Coral Reef Initiative sections. Additionally, a dozen Coral Reef Links point users to further resources. For the pure enthusiast or beginning college student, this site serves as a fine entry-way into learning about Coral Reefs.

54

Studies on impeller type, impeller speed and air flow rate in an industrial scale flotation cell. Part 5: validation of k-S b relationship and effect of froth depth  

Microsoft Academic Search

A previous investigation carried out by the authors at the Hellyer concentrator, using a 3 m3 cell fitted with four different impellers treating plant zinc cleaner feed ore, suggested a linear correlation between flotation rate constant k and bubble surface area flux Sb. The relationship between k and Sb was found to be independent of impeller type. This paper describes

B. K. Gorain; T. J. Napier-Munn; J.-P. Franzidis; E. V. Manlapig

1998-01-01

55

Coral Reef Connections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Coral Reef Connections explores the different reef zones of the Great Barrier Reef in Australia, the biodiversity that has evolved there, and the interactions between the many species, their environment, and each other. Users can navigate through a virtual "dive" on the reef, select various organisms, and view the types of relationships they have with each other. Links to related topics and web activities are included.

56

Jurassic Reef Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a bilingual, educational website from Munich, Germany. The main feature is a virtual field trip to the reefs of the Jurassic period. Besides a view of the Jurassic reefs, their builders, and their ecological settings, there is also an emphasis on the importance of modern reefs as indicators of the state-of-health of the globe and evidence of how some changes in the composition of reefs may represent the forerunners of catastrophic, regional or global, environmental change.

Leinfelder, Reinhold

57

Great Barrier Reef  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Landsat-7 color composite image shows a section of the famous Great Barrier Reef, the world's largest living organism. This view displays the southern end of the reef where it is composed of smaller, individual reef structures as opposed to a continuous bank as in the north.

Nasa; Day, Earth S.

58

Planetary Coral Reef Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Planetary Coral Reef Foundation was founded in 1991 to address the growing crisis of destruction of coral reefs. Topics include the PCRF's mission, its research activities at sea and in space, wastewater recycling, conservation tips that can help preserve reefs, and the organization's ship, R.V. Heraclitus.

59

Great Barrier Reef  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson addresses the environmental importance of coral reefs and the threats to the conservation of reefs. Through the process of gathering geographic information about a place (in this case, the Great Barrier Reef), students will learn how a geographic focus can sharpen their insights about a conservation issue.

60

Effect of microwave radiation on coal flotation  

SciTech Connect

Most low-rank coals are high in moisture and acid functional groups, therefore showing poor floatability. Drying, which removes the water molecules trapped in the pores and adsorbed at the surface of coal, decreases the hydrophilic character and improves the floatability. Microwave heating, whose simplest application is drying, was applied at 0.9 kW power level for 60 sec exposure time in the experiments to decrease the moisture content of coal in order to enhance the hydrophobicity. The flotation tests of microwave-treated coal by using heptanol and octanol lead to a higher flotation yield and ash removal than original coal.

Ozbayoglu, G.; Depci, T.; Ataman, N. [Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey). Mining Engineering Department

2009-07-01

61

Coral Reef Adventure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from MacGillivray Freeman Films presents information about the movie "Coral Reef Adventure," as well as an assortment of links about coral reefs. In particular, the section on Learning About Reefs features a virtual dive that highlights marine life at various depths. This section also provides educational resources including a teacher's guide and learning activities. The site also includes links to many organizations that provide support for reversing the current worldwide decline in coral reef ecosystems and to finding new and sustainable solutions for managing the world's coral reefs.

Freeman, Macgillivray

62

NOAA Coral Reef Watch Calcification Index of Coral Reef Ecosystems  

E-print Network

NOAA Coral Reef Watch Calcification Index of Coral Reef Ecosystems NOAANOAA''ss Coral Reef Watch:Coral) NOAA/NESDIS/STAR/SO and Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) NOAA Coral Matrix Silver Spring, Maryland #12;Presentation Outline · NOAA Coral Reef Watch ­ Mission and Challenges · Research Impetus

Kuligowski, Bob

63

Dioramas: Andros Coral Reef  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the shallow waters off the coast of Andros Island in the Caribbean, corals of all shapes and sizes form the Andros Reef, one of the largest barrier reefs in the world. Like other coral reefs, Andros was created by massive colonies of coral polyps, which are small, soft-bodied animals. These creatures have hard skeletons that form much of the structure of a coral reef. The once thriving Andros Reef is now threatened. In the past, antler-shaped elkhorn coral dominated the reef, with multiple colonies extending continuously for long stretches. Throughout the Caribbean today, this species exists primarily in isolated colonies and scientists estimate that in certain places, up to 95 percent of elkhorn coral has died. This site describes the formation of the reef along with the present problems.

64

Author's personal copy Coral Reefs  

E-print Network

in the Ecology of Reefs Landscape Ecology of Coral Reefs: Connections of Coral Reefs to Mangrove and Seagrass worldwide (Figure 1). Coral reefs also support human societies by providing critical sources of protein ecosystems such as seagrass beds and mangrove forests. Finally, we review the current dangers to coral reefs

Burkepile, Deron

65

Industrial experience with dissolved-air flotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operating and analytical data relating to the application of dissolved-air flotation to the treatment of industrial wastewaters from various sources are presented including typical values for influent flow rate, rate of recycle, air-solid ratio, and hydraulic loading for the separation process, along with data on suspended solids, BOD, COD, and oil and grease fraction in the raw and treated wastewaters

M. G. Biesinger; I. S. Vining; G. L. Shell

1974-01-01

66

Using biochemically purified water in coal flotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of biochemically purified water in coke production is considered. In coal-slurry flotation, some of the clarified\\u000a water from the slurry tank may be replaced by wastewater from the scrubbers in the coalenrichment shop’s drying department,\\u000a which are supplied with biochemically purified water, and also by filtrate from the vacuum filters.

L. B. Pavlovich; V. P. Dolgopolov; A. V. Kalinina; T. A. Bulis; A. A. Sheffer; M. M. Naimark; M. G. Fon; D. V. Bal’tser

2008-01-01

67

Application of neural networks to predict locked cycle flotation test results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of a continuous flotation circuit is influenced by the flotation variables and the number of stages of a flotation circuit is dependent on flotation conditions, such that the interrelation between the flotation conditions and the number of stages must be carefully determined to obtain acceptable metallurgical performance from the circuit. The locked cycle test is a useful tool

E. C Çilek

2002-01-01

68

Coral Reef Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Coral Reef Ecosystems SciPack explores the unique and diverse ecosystem of the coral reef. The focus is on Standards and Benchmarks related to populations and ecosystems using coral reefs and their immediate environment as an example. Because the Standards and Benchmarks present the concepts of populations and ecosystems generically, without reference to a specific ecosystem or the organisms in the system, coral reefs are used to provide the context through which concepts in a marine ecosystem are explored.In addition to comprehensive inquiry-based learning materials tied to Science Education Standards and Benchmarks, the SciPack includes the following additional components:� Pedagogical Implications section addressing common misconceptions, teaching resources and strand maps linking grade band appropriate content to standards. � Access to one-on-one support via e-mail to content "Wizards".� Final Assessment which can be used to certify mastery of the concepts.Learning Outcomes:Coral Reef Ecosystems: The Living Reef� Identify coral polyp structures and describe their functions.� Describe photosynthesis in the coral environment.� Describe the evolution of a typical reef system.� Use the shape of an individual coral to identify its common name, and classify entire coral reef ecosystems based on shape and location. � Describe the process of coral polyp reproduction and growth.� Identify how the features and/or behavioral strategies of coral reef inhabitants enable them to survive in coral reef environments.Coral Reef Ecosystems: The Abiotic Setting� Identify the characteristics of an ecosystem, and describe the interdependence between biotic and abiotic features in an ecosystem.� Describe how the following abiotic factors provide coral with the energy needed to survive and grow within their ecosystem: sunlight, water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide.� Describe the optimal environmental conditions for coral reef growth, and explain the process of coral reef development (including the role of available sunlight and calcium).� Explain how the following environmental factors might affect coral ecosystems: increase in dissolved CO2, changes in global temperatures, increase in ocean water turbidity through water pollution.Coral Reef Ecosystems: Interdependence� Identify and label key components of food chains and food webs in a coral reef ecosystem.� Describe key relationships among plants and animals in the coral reef ecosystem: predator and prey relationships, producer and consumer relationships, and symbiotic relationships (mutualism, commensalisms, parasitism).� Recognize the direction that energy travels through food chains and food webs.� Explain that materials (chemical elements) and natural resources are recycled in coral reef ecosystems and reappear in different forms.� Describe the primary ecological succession events within a typical coral reef ecosystem.Coral Reef Ecosystems: Ecosystems in Crisis� Describe ways in which human activities directly impact coral reef ecosystems (resource and recreational uses).� Describe ways in which human activities indirectly impact coral reef ecosystems (by changing the physical conditions, pollution, changes in the water chemistry, etc.).� Explain how human activity may decrease the reefs ability to recover from natural occurrences. � Explain the effects of increased predation or disease on a reef ecosystem.� Describe the effect of habitat loss on the reef ecosystem.� Describe the effects of weather and climate change on a healthy and weakened reef ecosystem.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2007-03-28

69

Coral Reefs Under Stress  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Coral reefs are more critical to an oceanâÂÂs health than you might think, and the effects of climate change and ocean acidification are effectively damaging and destroying most reefs in the world. Coral reefs provide many important ecosystem services, including: providing food, shelter, and meeting places for thousands of animals; anchoring sand for recreational beaches; and supplying building materials for remote peoples.

Peter Mumby (University of Exeter;)

2009-10-05

70

33 CFR 149.331 - What are the requirements for hybrid personal flotation devices?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false What are the requirements for hybrid personal flotation devices? 149.331...331 What are the requirements for hybrid personal flotation devices? (a...that the use and stowage of all commercial hybrid personal flotation devices...

2011-07-01

71

18 CFR 1304.400 - Flotation devices and material, all floating structures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Flotation devices and material, all floating structures. 1304.400 Section 1304.400...TENNESSEE RIVER SYSTEM AND REGULATION OF STRUCTURES AND OTHER ALTERATIONS Miscellaneous...Flotation devices and material, all floating structures. (a) All flotation for...

2011-04-01

72

18 CFR 1304.400 - Flotation devices and material, all floating structures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Flotation devices and material, all floating structures. 1304.400 Section 1304.400...TENNESSEE RIVER SYSTEM AND REGULATION OF STRUCTURES AND OTHER ALTERATIONS Miscellaneous...Flotation devices and material, all floating structures. (a) All flotation for...

2013-04-01

73

Shale-oil-recovery systems incorporating ore beneficiation. Final report.  

SciTech Connect

This study analyzed the recovery of oil from oil shale by use of proposed systems which incorporate beneficiation of the shale ore (that is concentration of the kerogen before the oil-recovery step). The objective was to identify systems which could be more attractive than conventional surface retorting of ore. No experimental work was carried out. The systems analyzed consisted of beneficiation methods which could increase kerogen concentrations by at least four-fold. Potentially attractive low-enrichment methods such as density separation were not examined. The technical alternatives considered were bounded by the secondary crusher as input and raw shale oil as output. A sequence of ball milling, froth flotation, and retorting concentrate is not attractive for Western shales compared to conventional ore retorting; transporting the concentrate to another location for retorting reduces air emissions in the ore region but cost reduction is questionable. The high capital and energy cost s results largely from the ball milling step which is very inefficient. Major improvements in comminution seem achievable through research and such improvements, plus confirmation of other assumptions, could make high-enrichment beneficiation competitive with conventional processing. 27 figures, 23 tables.

Weiss, M.A.; Klumpar, I.V.; Peterson, C.R.; Ring, T.A.

1982-10-01

74

The use of dissolved air flotation in municipal wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

Flotation can be used in municipal wastewater treatment plants in different ways. Since the pollutants in wastewater to such a large extent are associated with particles, a very substantial treatment efficiency can be reached at a very small space, by using flotation in a chemical (or enhanced primary) treatment scheme. This is demonstrated in this paper with reference to results from small, prefabricated chemical plants based on flotation, which are frequently used in Norway. If used in connection with biological plants (for instance for nitrogen removal), the combination of biofilm reactors and flotation is especially advantageous because coagulation/flocculation/flotation can be placed directly after the bioreactor. Results from two such plants in Norway are presented. Recommendations with respect to design and operation of flotation plants in wastewater treatment are given. PMID:11394282

Ødegaard, H

2001-01-01

75

[Bacterial destruction of synthetic organic flotation agents].  

PubMed

Microorganisms that use the flotation agent T-66 as the sole source of carbon have been isolated from soil enriched with this agent. A mixture of bacterial cultures belonging to the genus Pseudomonas (Ps. fluorescens, Ps. desmolyticum, Ps. rathonis, Ps. cyanoides viscosa, and Ps. aeruginosa) oxidized, after adaptation, at a high rate, components of the flotation agent T-66. Aeration of the medium accelerated the destruction. About 90% of the foltation agent components were oxidized within four months. The highest activity was observed during the first two months. The bacteria also decomposed, actively, oxidized kerosene and oxidized recycle stock added as the sole source of carbon to a mineral medium. Introduction of glucose to the medium accelerated destruction of oxidized recycle stock by the microorganisms, but inhibited destruction of oxidized kerosene. PMID:470638

Ilialetdinov, A N; Mendeshev, A

1979-01-01

76

Reef Education Evaluation: Environmental Knowledge and Reef Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The Reef education evaluation: environmental knowledge and reef experience report concerns PhD research about marine education, and the investigation of learning with high school students and the effect of coral reef monitoring marine experiential education interventions. The effectiveness of classroom learning and reef trips were…

Stepath, Carl M.

2005-01-01

77

Flotation machine and process for removing impurities from coals  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a type of flotation machine that combines three separate operations in a single unit. The flotation machine is a hydraulic separator that is capable of reducing the pyrite and other mineral matter content of a coal. When the hydraulic separator is used with a flotation system, the pyrite and certain other minerals particles that may have been entrained by hydrodynamic forces associated with conventional flotation machines and/or by the attachment forces associated with the formation of microagglomerates are washed and separated from the coal.

Szymocha, Kazimierz (Edmonton, CA); Ignasiak, Boleslaw (Edmonton, CA); Pawlak, Wanda (Edmonton, CA); Kulik, Conrad (Newark, CA); Lebowitz, Howard E. (Mountain View, CA)

1995-01-01

78

Flotation machine and process for removing impurities from coals  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a type of flotation machine that combines three separate operations in a single unit. The flotation machine is a hydraulic separator that is capable of reducing the pyrite and other mineral matter content of a coal. When the hydraulic separator is used with a flotation system, the pyrite and certain other minerals particles that may have been entrained by hydrodynamic forces associated with conventional flotation machines and/or by the attachment forces associated with the formation of microagglomerates are washed and separated from the coal. 4 figs.

Szymocha, K.; Ignasiak, B.; Pawlak, W.; Kulik, C.; Lebowitz, H.E.

1997-02-11

79

Flotation machine and process for removing impurities from coals  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a type of flotation machine that combines three separate operations in a single unit. The flotation machine is a hydraulic separator that is capable of reducing the pyrite and other mineral matter content of a coal. When the hydraulic separator is used with a flotation system, the pyrite and certain other mineral particles that may have been entrained by hydrodynamic forces associated with conventional flotation machines and/or by the attachment forces associated with the formation of microagglomerates are washed and separated from the coal. 4 figs.

Szymocha, K.; Ignasiak, B.; Pawlak, W.; Kulik, C.; Lebowitz, H.E.

1995-12-05

80

Flotation machine and process for removing impurities from coals  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a type of flotation machine that combines three separate operations in a single unit. The flotation machine is a hydraulic separator that is capable of reducing the pyrite and other mineral matter content of a coal. When the hydraulic separator is used with a flotation system, the pyrite and certain other minerals particles that may have been entrained by hydrodynamic forces associated with conventional flotation machines and/or by the attachment forces associated with the formation of microagglomerates are washed and separated from the coal.

Szymocha, Kazimierz (Edmonton, CA); Ignasiak, Boleslaw (Edmonton, CA); Pawlak, Wanda (Edmonton, CA); Kulik, Conrad (Newark, CA); Lebowitz, Howard E. (Mountain View, CA)

1997-01-01

81

Modernized system for the automatic regulation of the flotation process  

SciTech Connect

An improved system for automation of the flotation section of the Zaporozhye Coking Plant including control of the density and average particle size in the feedstock and regulation of addition of reagents in the overall flow is described. A block diagram of the system is included. The use of this automated system along with application of corrections to the reagent system at the flotation section improved the process and made it more economical. The ash content of the flotation wastes increased by 5-8%, the flotation-concentrate output increased by 0.5%, and its ash content was lowered by 0.2-0.4% using the automated system.

Rozenman, E.S.; Bugaisen, I.M.; Deberdeev, I.Kh.; Livshits, A.B.; Nikitina, V.S.; Voitenko, B.I.; Bezlyudnyi, I.F.

1984-01-01

82

U.S. Coral Reef Taskforce  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Government task force created in 1998 to research, monitor and conserve coral reefs. Site includes: background on coral reef habitats; reef ecology and environmental requirements; environmental requirements of reefs; reef functions and significance; natural and human threats to reefs. Also covered are: Task Force actions; policies and partnerships; and the National Action Plan for Coral Reef Conservation.

83

Create a Coral Reef  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this hands-on OLogy activity, kids learn about coral reefs by building a diorama. Students are introduced to coral polyps and reefs and given illustrated, step-by-step directions that show how to construct a diorama containing models of a brain coral, a sea fan, a sponge, and sea anemones.

84

Great Barrier Reef  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A better than average view of the Great Barrier Reef was captured by SeaWiFS on a recent overpass. There is sunglint northeast of the reef and there appears to be some sort of filamentous bloom in the Capricorn Channel.

2002-01-01

85

Exploring the reefs Introduction  

E-print Network

chain. Many people depend on the reefs for food and economy (fish, shellfish, etc.). Coral reefs thrive in clear, unpolluted water; however, they currently face a number of threats from pollution, sedimentation in the atmosphere, as well as pollution and waves in the water can affect the depth of detection by the satellite

Wright, Dawn Jeannine

86

Reefs in Crisis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article, from "The Biodiversity Crisis: Losing What Counts", walks students through the risks humans pose to the survival of coral reefs and conservation efforts. It discusses the forces behind damage to the reefs and recent protection efforts, including the creation of sanctuaries, good land management, and public awareness campaigns.

87

Assessing the ‘deep reef refugia’ hypothesis: focus on Caribbean reefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coral reefs in shallow-water environments (<30 m) are in decline due to local and global anthropogenic stresses. This has\\u000a led to renewed interest in the ‘deep reef refugia’ hypothesis (DRRH), which stipulates that deep reef areas (1) are protected\\u000a or dampened from disturbances that affect shallow reef areas and (2) can provide a viable reproductive source for shallow\\u000a reef areas following

P. Bongaerts; T. Ridgway; E. M. Sampayo; O. Hoegh-Guldberg

2010-01-01

88

Human impacts on Caribbean coral reef ecosystems  

E-print Network

2006) Conservation, precaution, and Caribbean reefs. Coral2006) Conservation, precaution, and Caribbean reefs. CoralConservation. Hardt, MJ, Contextualizing the historical collapse of Jamaican coral reefs.

Hardt, Marah Justine

2007-01-01

89

Separation via flotation, spectrophotometric speciation, and determination of vanadium(IV) in wastes of power stations.  

PubMed

1-(2-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone)-4-phenylthiosemicarbazone (HMBPT) was investigated as a new reagent for the flotation of vanadium(IV). At pH approximately 1.5, vanadium(IV) forms a 1:1 pale-violet complex with HMBPT in aqueous solution. An intense clear violet layer was formed after flotation, by adding an oleic acid (HOL) surfactant. The composition of the float was 1:1 [V(IV)]:[HMBPT]. A highly selective and sensitive spectrophotometric procedure was proposed for the determination of microamounts of V(IV) as its floated complex. The molar absorptivities of the V(IV)-HMBPT and V(IV)-HMBPT-HOL systems were 0.4 x 10(4) and 0.12 x 10(5) L mol(-1) cm(-1) at 560 nm, respectively. The formation constants of the species formed in the presence and absence of HOL were 4.6 x 10(7) and 8.7 x 10(5) L mol(-1), respectively. Beer's law was obeyed up to 1 x 10(-4) mol L(-1) in the aqueous layer as well as in the oleic acid layer. The HMBPT-V(IV) complexes formed in the aqueous solution and scum layer were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared and UV spectrophotometric studies. The mode of chelation between V(IV) and HMBPT is proposed to be due to a reaction between the protonated bidentate HMBPT ligand and V(IV) through the S=C and N=C groups. Interferences from various foreign ions were avoided by adding excess HMBPT and/or Na2S2O3 as a masking agent. The proposed flotation method was successfully applied to the analysis of V(IV) in synthetic mixtures, wastes of power stations, simulated samples and in real ores. The separation mechanism is discussed. PMID:16317901

Akl, Magda Ali; El-Asmy, Ahmed A; Yossef, Wafaa M

2005-11-01

90

QSAR modeling of flotation collectors using principal components extracted from topological indices.  

PubMed

Several topological indices were calculated for substituted-cupferrons that were tested as collectors for the froth flotation of uranium. The principal component analysis (PCA) was used for data reduction. Seven principal components (PC) were found to account for 98.6% of the variance among the computed indices. The principal components thus extracted were used in stepwise regression analyses to construct regression models for the prediction of separation efficiencies (Es) of the collectors. A two-parameter model with a correlation coefficient of 0.889 and a three-parameter model with a correlation coefficient of 0.913 were formed. PCs were found to be better than partition coefficient to form regression equations, and inclusion of an electronic parameter such as Hammett sigma or quantum mechanically derived electronic charges on the chelating atoms did not improve the correlation coefficient significantly. The method was extended to model the separation efficiencies of mercaptobenzothiazoles (MBT) and aminothiophenols (ATP) used in the flotation of lead and zinc ores, respectively. Five principal components were found to explain 99% of the data variability in each series. A three-parameter equation with correlation coefficient of 0.985 and a two-parameter equation with correlation coefficient of 0.926 were obtained for MBT and ATP, respectively. The amenability of separation efficiencies of chelating collectors to QSAR modeling using PCs based on topological indices might lead to the selection of collectors for synthesis and testing from a virtual database. PMID:12444740

Natarajan, R; Nirdosh, Inderjit; Basak, Subhash C; Mills, Denise R

2002-01-01

91

Composition of the near-reef zooplankton at Heron Reef, Great Barrier Reef  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a light trap, zooplankton was sampled at three stations at Heron Reef, Great Barrier Reef: (a) a typical patch reef in the Heron lagoon, (b) a site in 8 m water on the southern slope of Heron reef, and (c) a station approximately 300 m south of (b), in the open water of the channel between Heron and Wistari

P. F. Sale; P. S. McWilliam; D. T. Anderson

1976-01-01

92

Coral Reef Ecosystems: Interdependence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Object is the third of four Science Objects in the Coral Reef Ecosystems SciPack. It explores the interdependent relationships between species in the coral reef ecosystem. All populations in the reef ecosystem are a part of and depend on a global food web (a connected set of food chains) through which energy flows in one direction, from the sun into organism and eventually dissipating into the environment as heat. This food web includes ocean plants, the animals that feed on them, and the animals that feed on those animals. Energy is transferred between organisms and their environment along the way. Energy concentration diminishes at each step. The cycles of life continue indefinitely because organisms decompose after death and return food materials to the environment. Learning Outcomes:� Identify and label key components of food chains and food webs in a coral reef ecosystem.� Describe key relationships among plants and animals in the coral reef ecosystem: predator and prey relationships, producer and consumer relationships, and symbiotic relationships (mutualism, commensalisms, parasitism).� Recognize the direction that energy travels through food chains and food webs.� Explain that materials (chemical elements) and natural resources are recycled in coral reef ecosystems and reappear in different forms.� Describe the primary ecological succession events within a typical coral reef ecosystem.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2006-11-01

93

FOAM FLOTATION TREATMENT OF INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATERS: LABORATORY AND PILOT SCALE  

EPA Science Inventory

A floc foam flotation pilot plant reduced lead and zinc in dilute solution to very low concentrations. The results suggest a number of design improvements. A simple diffusion model does not adequately describe axial dispersion at high column leadings. The floc foam flotation of z...

94

A real time visual sensor for supervision of flotation cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an expert system for the supervision of flotation plants based on ACEFLOT, a real time analyzer of the characteristics of the froth that is formed on the surface of flotation cells. The ACEFLOT analyzer is based on image processing and measures several physical variables of the froth, including colorimetric, geometric and dynamic information. On the other hand,

A. CIPRIANO; M. GUARINI; R. VIDAL; A. SOTO; C Sepúlveda; D. MERY; H. BRISElqO

1998-01-01

95

The use of dissolved air flotation in municipal wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flotation can be used in municipal wastewater treatment plants in different ways. Since the pollutants in wastewater to such a large extent are associated with particles, a very substantial treatment efficiency can be reached at a very small space, by using flotation in a chemical (or enhanced primary) treatment scheme. This is demonstrated in this paper with reference to results

H. Ødegaard

2001-01-01

96

A simple model for industrial coal flotation operation  

SciTech Connect

A simple modeling methodology has been proposed to predict the performance of industrial coal flotation circuit based on the observations made on the actual performance. The solid content in the tailings of the coal flotation circuit has been identified as a lode-star to predict the performance in terms of yield and ash content of the concentrate. The modeling parameters are directly measurable.

Rao, T.C.; Govindarajan, B.; Barnwal, J.P. [Regional Research Lab., Bhopal (India)

1995-10-01

97

Selective flotation of fossil resin from western coal  

SciTech Connect

Flotation of coal continued. Technical activities for the third quarter involved efforts by both the University of Utah and Advanced Processing Technologies, Inc. Laboratory research at the University of Utah was concerned with surface chemistry/resin characterization and the development of analytical techniques. APT's activities included proof-of-concept plant testing of the fossil resin flotation circuit. 4 figs.

Jensen, G.F.; Miller, J.D.

1991-06-04

98

Selective flotation of fossil resin from western coal  

SciTech Connect

Research continued flotation of resin from coal. This quarter laboratory research at the University of Utah was concerned with surface chemistry/resin characterization and the development of analytical techniques. APT's activities included plant construction, shake-down testing and flotation testing. Data from {sup 13}C NMR analysis is presented. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Not Available

1991-03-15

99

ReefBase: A Global Information System on Coral Reefs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

ReefBase, a comprehensive Web portal for information on coral reefs, is presented by the World Fish Center based in Malaysia. Intended for use by reef managers, scientists, and the general public, ReefBase aims to "facilitate better understanding of the interdependence between humans and coral reefs, in order to benefit management and conservation efforts of these important resources." ReefBase provides information on coastal and marine resources, coral reef threats, resource management practices, maps and photos, references, and more. Users can quickly search for information organized by country or territory using a convenient dropdown menu. ReefBase is frequently updated; one recent addition is a status report for coral reefs of the southwestern Indian Ocean.

Noordeloos, Machiel E.; Oliver, J.

100

Degradation and recovery of Caribbean coral reefs  

E-print Network

reefs Coral reefs are facing global warming in addition toglobal warming, fishing appears to predate all other disturbances to coral reefs (Coral reefs have been increasingly degraded worldwide by overfishing, disease, pollution, and global warming (

Paredes, Gustavo Adolfo

2009-01-01

101

The Role of High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Oxide in Reducing Quartz Gangue Entrainment in Chalcopyrite Flotation by Xanthate Collectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fine particles pose two challenging problems to all mineral processors around the world today. The problems are the inefficient collection of hydrophobic particles (low recovery), and mechanical/hydraulic entrainment of hydrophilic gangue particles (low concentrate grade). Extensive research has been conducted to improve the flotation recovery of fine hydrophobic particles. However, much less effort was made to lower the mechanical/hydraulic entrainment of fine gangue mineral particles. In this study, polyethylene oxide (PEO) was used to flocculate and depress fine quartz particles. Batch flotation results indicated that the addition of low dosages of PEO improved value mineral recovery and concentrate grade in the flotation of artificial mixtures of chalcopyrite/quartz and a commercial Au-Cu sulfide ore sample. It was found that PEO adsorbed on both minerals mainly through hydrogen bonding and caused non-selective flocculation of quartz and chalcopyrite, forming large hetero-aggregates. However, the addition of potassium amyl xanthate (KAX), a specific sulfide mineral collector, adsorbed on chalcopyrite through chemical interaction, replaced PEO and caused the chalcopyrite particles to break away from the hetero-aggregates, forming separate homo-aggregates of quartz and chalcopyrite. The flotation of the chalcopyrite and the depression of the quartz were thus both improved due to the larger sizes of the homo-aggregates compared to the discrete particles. It was also observed that a completely solubilized PEO solution could not flocculate quartz, while a partially solubilized PEO solution was most effective. This was attributed to the better “bridging” functions of the undissolved PEO aggregates when it was partially solubilized. When the PEO was fully solubilized, the individual PEO molecules were probably too flexible and tended to flatten on the adsorbed solid surface and thus could not function as an effective bridging flocculant. Furthermore, it was found that PEO could function as a “collector” for quartz due to its affinity to air-water interface and quartz, and it could increase quartz entrainment when used at high dosages. Selective flocculation and depression of the quartz gangue during chalcopyrite flotation could only be achieved at low PEO dosages. The implication of these observations on how to utilize the polyethylene oxide in industrial flotation was discussed.

Gong, Jihua

102

Effects of operating variables on modified flotation parameters in the mineral separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attempt has been made in this paper to investigate effect of collector type, particle size distribution, collector dosage, air flow rate, pulp density and wash water rate parameters on modified flotation parameters on sphalerite flotation in a flotation column. In the experimental studies, the fractional recoveries after 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5, 10 and 20min of flotation time were

M. Uçurum; O. Bayat

2007-01-01

103

26. NORTHERN VIEW OF ORE YARD WITH ORE BRIDGES IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. NORTHERN VIEW OF ORE YARD WITH ORE BRIDGES IN THE BACKGROUND. BLAST FURNACES ALONG THE RIGHT SIDE. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

104

Amazing Reef: Moviemaker  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this movie-making interactive, learners can make an animated film about life on a coral reef. Learners choose an exciting story, cast colorful characters, and animate the movie themselves. They then add music and titles to complete the movie. Learners can even keep the movie by downloading it to their own computer. Learners can make up to four movies relating to survival, symbiosis, habitat, and predator/prey relationships in the Philippines Tropical Coral Reef.

Aquarium, Shedd; Educational Web Adventures (Eduweb)

2006-01-01

105

Coral Reef Ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coral reefs are geological structures of significant dimensions, constructed over millions of years by calcifying organisms. The present day reef-builders are hard corals belonging to the order Scleractinia, phylum Cnidaria. The greatest concentrations of coral reefs are in the tropics, with highest levels of biodiversity situated in reefs of the Indo-West Pacific region. These ecosystems have provided coastal protection and livelihood to human populations over the millennia. Human activities have caused destruction of these habitats, the intensity of which has increased alarmingly since the latter decades of the twentieth century. The severity of this impact is directly related to exponential growth rates of human populations especially in the coastal areas of the developing world. However, a more recently recognized phenomenon concerns disturbances brought about by the changing climate, manifested mainly as rising sea surface temperatures, and increasing acidification of ocean waters due to greater drawdown of higher concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Management efforts have so far not kept pace with the rates of degradation, so that the spatial extent of damaged reefs and the incidences of localized extinction of reef species are increasing year after year. The major management efforts to date consist of establishing marine protected areas and promoting the active restoration of coral habitats.

Yap, Helen T.

106

Emulsified coal oils as flotation reagents  

SciTech Connect

Investigations were conducted with the goal of preparing coal oils for use in coal flotation by preliminary emulsification. When added to the slurry, this oil is rapidly and uniformly distributed over the surface of the coal particles. The emulsification was conducted by mechanical dispersion in a laboratory agitator. (Under industrial conditions this process may be conducted in a centrifugal pump). A neutralized solution of acid tar (a waste from the sulfuric acid purification of crude benzol) was used as the emulsifier and emulsion stabilizer. The concentration of sulfonic acids was about 48%. Stable homogeneous emulsions were obtained at a concentration of oil up to 20% and neutralized tar of 0.2%. The size of the oil droplets in the emulsions was 2-10 microns. Experimental testing was conducted on a Mekhanobr laboratory flotation machine with a chamber 1 litter in volume. Unemulsified and emulsified coal oils from the tar refining division of the Makeevka Coke Works were investigated; screenings from the charge of the Yasinovka Coke Works (the below-0.5-mm size class) were floated. As a comparison experiments with the traditional kerosene reagent were conducted. In the experiments with anthracene oil, pitch distillates and kerosene, T-66 frothing agent was added at 140 g/ton of sludge; during the work with wash oil and naphthalene exudates T-66 was not added, assuming that the water-soluble phenols and bases contained in these oils have adequate frothing capacity. 5 references, 2 figures.

Selyanko, I.T.; Belov, K.A.; Karnozhitskii, P.V.; Ivashchenko, V.A.

1983-01-01

107

Enhanced gravity separation: An alternative to flotation  

SciTech Connect

Recent research has shown that froth flotation is not effective at treating fine coals ({minus}28 mesh) containing a large portion of middling particles. Due to their relatively large density differences, middling particles can be separated more efficiently using gravity-based processes. The ability of gravity separators to treat fine particles has been limited by the lack of particle inertia relative to the surface drag forces. However, particle inertia can be enhanced by the application of a centrifugal field. A commercial-scale centrifugal Falcon concentrator capable of treating a mass flow rate of greater than 1 tph continuously has been used to evaluate its feasibility for treating fine coal was an alternative to froth flotation. Tests conducted on a {minus}28 mesh fine coal circuit feed have found the Falcon concentrator to be very effective at cleaning the 28 x 325 mesh size fraction. For an Illinois No. 5 coal sample, the ash content was reduced in the 100 x 325 mesh size fraction from about 18% to 8% while achieving a high combustible recovery value of nearly 97%. In addition, the total sulfur content was substantially decreased from 2.6% to 1.7%. The effects of the critical operating parameters on separation performance have been studied and their values optimized.

Honaker, R.Q.; Paul, B.C.; Wang, D. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering; Ho, K. [Illinois Clean Coal Institute, Carterville, IL (United States)

1995-10-01

108

An overview of Miocene reefs  

SciTech Connect

Miocene reefs lived approximately within the latitudes of 27{degree}S to 48{degree}N compared with 25{degree}S and 32{degree}N for Holocene reefs. This expansion of reef-growing environments was the result of warm Miocene climates, aided by a eustatic sea level rise and tectonic styles that provided numerous foundations for reef development. The majority of Miocene reefs are found in three main areas: (1) Southeast Asia and the western Pacific, (2) the Mediterranean-Middle East, and (3) Middle America and the Caribbean. These regions, with their distinctive suites of coral and foramineral species, formed three biological provinces; respectively, they are the Indo-Pacific, Tethyan, and Western Atlantic provinces. Miocene reefs in Southeast Asia occur in several foreland basins as patch reef complexes on paleohighs and as barrier reefs in back-arc basins. Those reefs in the Mediterranean occur as fringing reefs, middle-shelf patch reefs, or as barrier reefs on the edges of tectonic blocks associated with Alpine thrust belts. Most reefs in the Caribbean grew on isolated open-ocean highs of volcanic origin. Miocene reefs display a diversity of framework types: (1) coral-encrusting, red algal boundstones with diverse coral faunas, (2) branching coral-encrusting, red algal boundstones with a limited Poritid fauna, (3) encrusting red algal boundstones. Barrier reef systems are especially rich in encrusting red algae and robust corals; grainstones are common as interbedded sediment. Patch reef complexes, however, display muddy carbonate textures, may have less diverse coral faunas, and commonly have larger foraminifera. The global distribution of Miocene reefs is important because (1) it provides insight into a paleoclimatic view of the earth during a major greenhouse stage and (2) Miocene buildups, such as the Arun (EUR of 14 tcf) and Bima fields (EUR of about 100 MMBO), are exploration targets.

Jordan, C.F. Jr. (Mobil Research and Development Corp., Dallas, TX (USA)); Colgan, M.W. (College of Charleston, SC (USA)); Frost, S.H. (Unocal, Los Angeles, CA (USA)); Glenn, E.C. (Phillips Petroleum, Bartlesville, OK (USA)); Bosence, D. (Royal Holloway and Bedford New College, Egham (England)); Esteban, M. (ERICO Petroleum Information Ltd., London (England))

1990-05-01

109

Reef classification by coral morphology predicts coral reef conservation value  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coral reefs can be classified using triangular diagrams based on coral morphology; these taxonomy-independent classes predict several aspects of conservation value for coral reefs. Conservation classes (CC's) of 1, 2, 3 or 4 were assigned to reef sites dominated by massive and submassive corals (CC 1), foliose or branching non-Acropora corals (CC 2), Acropora corals (CC 3), or approximately equal

Evan N Edinger; Michael J Risk

2000-01-01

110

Coral reef bleaching: ecological perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coral reef bleaching, the whitening of diverse invertebrate taxa, results from the loss of symbiotic zooxanthellae and\\/or a reduction in photosynthetic pigment concentrations in zooxanthellae residing within the gastrodermal tissues of host animals. Of particular concern are the consequences of bleaching of large numbers of reef-building scleractinian corals and hydrocorals. Published records of coral reef bleaching events from 1870 to

P. W. Glynn

1993-01-01

111

Foam flotation of zeolites: Application for zinc ion removal  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the solid/liquid separation of a NaY zeolite, a known cation exchanger, was investigated in the laboratory by foam flotation from aqueous suspensions. The main parameters affecting the process in batch experiments, such as the pH of the suspension, the type of collector, the cationic collector concentration, the zeolite concentration, and the ionic strength were examined. The optimum conditions for removal (flotation) of more than 95% of the zeolite were determined. Following flotation of the zeolite in the Na form, zinc ions were chosen to serve as an application for ion exchange by the zeolite (for metal recovery), followed by foam flotation of the exchanged form of the zeolite from solution.

Zouboulis, A.I.; Zamboulis, D.; Matis, K.A. (Aristotle Univ., Thessaloniki (Greece))

1991-01-01

112

FLOTATION ROOM, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, WITH LEAD ROUGHER CELLS AT RIGHT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

FLOTATION ROOM, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, WITH LEAD ROUGHER CELLS AT RIGHT AND LEAD CLEANER CELLS AT LEFT. NOTE SUNNYSIDE GOLD CORP. "SG" LOGO ON ROUGHER CELL LAUNDER. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

113

Separation of algal cells from water by column flotation  

SciTech Connect

The dispersed air flotation (DiAF) process was utilized to separate algal cells (Chlorella sp.) from water. Two types of collector, cationic N-cetyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and anionic sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS), were used. It was observed that 20% of cell removal was achieved in the presence of 40 mg/L of SDS, and ca. 86% of the cells were removed at 40 mg/L of CTAB. Upon the addition of 10 mg/L of chitosan, over 90% of the cells were removed when SDS (20 mg/L) was used as the collector. Air flow rate affected cell flotation slightly. Optimum pH values for cell flotation were from 4.0 to 5.0. Flotation efficiency decreased at high ionic strength. The electrostatic interaction between collector and cell surface plays a critical role in the separation processes.

Liu, J.C.; Chen, Y.M.; Ju, Y.H. [National Taiwan Univ. of Science and Technology, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [National Taiwan Univ. of Science and Technology, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1999-08-01

114

ReefBase: A Global Information System On Coral Reefs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

ReefBase provides access to data and information on coral reefs and associated shallow tropical habitats. The site consists of three main sections: Reef Status, a Database, and the Users Area. Reef Status presents a compilation of summary reports pertaining to and indexed by global, regional, and national scales. Common topics in the reports include: reef benthos, reef fish, natural and anthropogenic threats, climate change impacts, marine protected areas, monitoring and management capacity, government policy, laws, and regulations, and author conclusions and recommendations for reef conservation. The Database provides for two sequential levels of searching: after a country or region is chosen, an overview provides general reef related information on that locale. The user can then further his/her search using one of three additional menus: Coral Reef, Protected Area, and Image/Map. The Coral Reef option currently returns basic information on nearly 10,000 reefs; in the future, additional information will address ecology, stresses, exploitation and management. The Protected Area option returns protections information largely compiled by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. The third search option, Image/Map, returns visuals according to four criteria: Type (e.g., aerial, maps, underwater); Author; Stress (e.g., coastal development, oil pollution, siltation); or Lifeform (e.g., coralline algae, sea urchin, submassive). In addition, GIS data will soon be made available under this option. The final section on the site, the Users Area, provides both contact information and means of contributing to the site's contents.

115

Cross flow cyclonic flotation column for coal and minerals beneficiation  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and process for the separation of coal from pyritic impurities using a modified froth flotation system. The froth flotation column incorporates a helical track about the inner wall of the column in a region intermediate between the top and base of the column. A standard impeller located about the central axis of the column is used to generate a centrifugal force thereby increasing the separation efficiency of coal from the pyritic particles and hydrophillic tailings.

Lai, Ralph W. (Upper St. Clair, PA); Patton, Robert A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

2000-01-01

116

Flocculation and Air Requirements for Dissolved Air Flotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bench-scale and pilot-plant studies were used to investigate the effects of flocculation time and floe size on the performance of dissolved air flotation and to determine air requirements for three different types of water supplies. The results show that long flocculation periods are not needed and suggest that floc particles of 10-30 ?m should be prepared for flotation. Two measures

James K. Edzwald; John P. Walsh; Gary S. Kaminski; Howard J. Dunn

1992-01-01

117

Cross flow flotation column for coal and minerals beneficiation  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus and process are disclosed for the separation of coal from pyritic impurities using a modified froth flotation system. The froth flotation column incorporates a helical track about the inner wall of the column in a region intermediate between the top and base of the column. A standard impeller located about the central axis of the column is used to generate a centrifugal force thereby increasing the separation efficiency of coal from the pyritic particles and hydrophilic tailings.

Lai, Ralph W.; Patton, Robert A.

1997-12-01

118

Cross flow cyclonic flotation column for coal and minerals beneficiation  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus and process are disclosed for the separation of coal from pyritic impurities using a modified froth flotation system. The froth flotation column incorporates a helical track about the inner wall of the column in a region intermediate between the top and base of the column. A standard impeller located about the central axis of the column is used to generate a centrifugal force thereby increasing the separation efficiency of coal from the pyritic particles and hydrophilic tailings.

Lai, R.W.; Patton, R.A.

2000-05-02

119

Postglacial Fringing-Reef to Barrier-Reef conversion on Tahiti links Darwin's reef types  

PubMed Central

In 1842 Charles Darwin claimed that vertical growth on a subsiding foundation caused fringing reefs to transform into barrier reefs then atolls. Yet historically no transition between reef types has been discovered and they are widely considered to develop independently from antecedent foundations during glacio-eustatic sea-level rise. Here we reconstruct reef development from cores recovered by IODP Expedition 310 to Tahiti, and show that a fringing reef retreated upslope during postglacial sea-level rise and transformed into a barrier reef when it encountered a Pleistocene reef-flat platform. The reef became stranded on the platform edge, creating a lagoon that isolated it from coastal sediment and facilitated a switch to a faster-growing coral assemblage dominated by acroporids. The switch increased the reef's accretion rate, allowing it to keep pace with rising sea level, and transform into a barrier reef. This retreat mechanism not only links Darwin's reef types, but explains the re-occupation of reefs during Pleistocene glacio-eustacy. PMID:24845540

Blanchon, Paul; Granados-Corea, Marian; Abbey, Elizabeth; Braga, Juan C.; Braithwaite, Colin; Kennedy, David M.; Spencer, Tom; Webster, Jody M.; Woodroffe, Colin D.

2014-01-01

120

Gray's Reef Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provides a sampling of research projects conducted at the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary off Georgia's Sapelo Island. Projects range from geology to trawling impacts on the seafloor, estimating fish populations by video transect, Sanctuary monitoring using data buoys, sidescan sonar and other technologies. Examples of current projects: conducting a study on the movement patterns of fish in the area; efforts to understand the roles of "choices" fishes might make in their behaviors, and its impact on diversity of species found in reef fish communities and a study designed to inventory the invertebrates and fish communities and analyze how those communities are impacted by fishing activities. Appropriate for grades 9 and up.

121

Coral reef resilience through biodiversity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Irrefutable evidence of coral reef degradation worldwide and increasing pressure from rising seawater temperatures and ocean acidification associated with climate change have led to a focus on reef resilience and a call to “manage” coral reefs for resilience. Ideally, global action to reduce emission of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases will be accompanied by local action. Effective management requires reduction of local stressors, identification of the characteristics of resilient reefs, and design of marine protected area networks that include potentially resilient reefs. Future research is needed on how stressors interact, on how climate change will affect corals, fish, and other reef organisms as well as overall biodiversity, and on basic ecological processes such as connectivity. Not all reef species and reefs will respond similarly to local and global stressors. Because reef-building corals and other organisms have some potential to adapt to environmental changes, coral reefs will likely persist in spite of the unprecedented combination of stressors currently affecting them. The biodiversity of coral reefs is the basis for their remarkable beauty and for the benefits they provide to society. The extraordinary complexity of these ecosystems makes it both more difficult to predict their future and more likely they will have a future.

Rogers, Caroline S.

2013-01-01

122

The evolution of reef communities  

SciTech Connect

This book discusses the composition, structure, occurrence, and changes in reefs during the past 2 billion years. It emphasizes the functional roles of major groups (guilds) of reef-building, reef-destroying, and reed-dwelling organisms in the most complex of all marine communities. A structural model, based on modern reef guilds, is developed. Then the functional roles of each major reef-building higher biologic taxon (algae, sponges, coral, etc.) is determined, and, on this basis, each such taxon is assigned to a reef community guild. Next, the authors traces the geologic history and guild assignment of each major taxon through geologic time. The final chapter establishes a succession of ten major reef community types, and considers their extinction and recovery in the light of modern theories of cosmic and earthly events.

Fagerstrom, J.A.

1987-01-01

123

ORE CONVEYANCE SYSTEM AND ADIT. LOOKING WEST. ORE FROM THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ORE CONVEYANCE SYSTEM AND ADIT. LOOKING WEST. ORE FROM THE MINES ABOVE AT THE RIDGELINE AND TO THE RIGHT WAS CONVEYED TO THIS AREA AND DUMPED INTO THE SHAFT AT CENTER. THIS SHAFT OPENS INTO THE ADIT AT BOTTOM CENTER. THERE IS ANOTHER SHAFT OPENING INTO THE ADIT JUST ABOVE THE ADIT BEHIND THE STONE WALL. THE ORE WAS LOADED INTO TRAM CARS INSIDE THE ADIT AND CONVEYED ON TRACKS TO THE TRESTLE LEADING TO THE PRIMARY ORE BIN AT THE TRAM TERMINAL. TRACKS CAN BE SEEN LEADING FROM THE ADIT AND TO THE LEFT. THE ORE WAS THEN DUMPED INTO A CHUTE AT THE END OF THE TRESTLE CARRYING IT INTO THE ORE BIN AT THE TRAM TERMINAL(SEE CHUTE ON CA-291-30). - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

124

Sponge distribution across Davies Reef, Great Barrier Reef, relative to location, depth, and water movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sponge populations were surveyed at different depths in three zones of Davies Reef, a large platform reef of the central Great Barrier Reef. Depth is the major discriminatory factor as few sponges are found within the first 10 m depth and maximal populations occur between 15 m and 30 m on fore-reef, lagoon and back-reef slopes. Reef location is another

Clive R. Wilkinson; Elizabeth Evans

1989-01-01

125

Optimization of Cu-Zn Massive Sulphide Flotation by Selective Reagents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Selective floatation of base metal sulphide minerals can be achieved by using selective reagents. Sequential floatation of chalcopyrite-sphalerite from Taknar (Iran) massive sulphide ore with 3.5 % Zn and 1.26 % Cu was studied. D-optimal design of response surface methodology was used. Four mixed collector types (Aer238 + SIPX, Aero3477 + SIPX, TC1000 + SIPX and X231 + SIPX), two depressant systems (CuCN-ZnSO4 and dextrin-ZnSO4), pH and ZnSO4 dosage were considered as operational factors in the first stage of flotation. Different conditions of pH, CuSO4 dosage and SIPX dosage were studied for sphalerite flotation from first stage tailings. Aero238 + SIPX induced better selectivity for chalcopyrite against pyrite and sphalerite. Dextrin-ZnSO4 was as effective as CuCN-ZnSO4 in sphalerite-pyrite depression. Under optimum conditions, Cu recovery, Zn recovery and pyrite content in Cu concentrate were 88.99, 33.49 and 1.34 % by using Aero238 + SIPX as mixed collector, CuCN-ZnSO4 as depressant system, at ZnSO4 dosage of 200 g/t and pH 10.54. When CuCN was used at the first stage, CuSO4 consumption increased and Zn recovery decreased during the second stage. Maximum Zn recovery was 72.19 % by using 343.66 g/t of CuSO4, 22.22 g/t of SIPX and pH 9.99 at the second stage.

Soltani, F.; Koleini, S. M. J.; Abdollahy, M.

2014-10-01

126

Rivers, runoff, and reefs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The role of terrigenous sediment in controlling the occurrence of coral reef ecosystems is qualitatively understood and has been studied at local scales, but has not been systematically evaluated on a global-to-regional scale. Current concerns about degradation of reef environments and alteration of the hydrologic and sediment cycles place the issue at a focal point of multiple environmental concerns. We use a geospatial clustering of a coastal zone database of river and local runoff identified with 0.5?? grid cells to identify areas of high potential runoff effects, and combine this with a database of reported coral reef locations. Coastal cells with high runoff values are much less likely to contain reefs than low runoff cells and GIS buffer analysis demonstrates that this inhibition extends to offshore ocean cells as well. This analysis does not uniquely define the effects of sediment, since salinity, nutrients, and contaminants are potentially confounding variables also associated with runoff. However, sediment effects are likely to be a major factor and a basis is provided for extending the study to higher resolution with more specific variables. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

McLaughlin, C. J.; Smith, C. A.; Buddemeier, R. W.; Bartley, J. D.; Maxwell, B. A.

2003-01-01

127

CORAL REEF BIOCRITERIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Coral reefs worldwide are experiencing the greatest decline of their known existence and few tools are available to offset the growing impacts of human coastal and watershed activities. Biocriteria are a potentially effective means to evaluate and restore impaired waters, but are...

128

Reefs since Columbus  

Microsoft Academic Search

History shows that Caribbean coastal ecosystems were severely degraded long before ecologists began to study them. Large vertebrates such as the green turtle, hawksbill turtle, manatee and extinct Caribbean monk seal were decimated by about 1800 in the central and northern Caribbean, and by 1990 elsewhere. Subsistence over-fishing subsequently decimated reef fish populations. Local fisheries accounted for a small fraction

J. B. C. Jackson

1997-01-01

129

The Barrier Reef sediment apron: Tobacco Reef, Belize  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sedimentological and biological surveys of the back-reef sediment apron of Tobacco Reef, a continuous segment of the Belizean Barrier Reef, reveal five distinct biogeological zones: (1) coralline-coral- Dictyota pavement, (2) Turbinaria-Sargassum rubble, (3) Laurencia-Acanthophora sand and gravel, (4) bare sand and 95 Thalassia sand. These zones parallel the entire 9-km reef. The distribution of these zones is related to the spatial patterns of fish herbivory, the size of bottom sediments, and the stability of the substrate. Sedimentological and hydrodynamic studies indicate that most of the sediments in this area are transported from the reef crest and fore reef during periods of storm or hurricane activity and that their size distribution is largely the result of differential transport by high bottom-water velocities during those periods.

MacIntyre, Ian G.; Graus, Richard R.; Reinthal, Peter N.; Littler, Mark M.; Littler, Diane S.

1987-07-01

130

Ecological intereactions of reef building corals  

EPA Science Inventory

Coral reefs are very important marine ecosystems because they support tremendous biodiversity and reefs are critical economic resources many coastal nations. Tropical reef structures are largely built by stony corals. This presentation provides background on basic coral biology t...

131

Role of the collecting agent sorption forms in the elementary act of flotation  

SciTech Connect

A new hypothesis of flotation is substantiated based on the well-known hypotheses, theoretical analysis of the elementary act, and experimental results. The hypothesis presented allows the processes of flotation activation, depression, and intensification to be explained and optimized.

Abramov, A.A. [Moscow State Mining University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2005-02-01

132

46 CFR 180.72 - Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets. 180.72 Section 180.72 Shipping...TONS) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.72 Personal flotation devices...

2013-10-01

133

46 CFR 180.72 - Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets. 180.72 Section 180.72 Shipping...TONS) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.72 Personal flotation devices...

2010-10-01

134

46 CFR 117.72 - Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets. 117.72 Section 117.72 Shipping...PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.72 Personal flotation devices...

2010-10-01

135

46 CFR 117.72 - Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets. 117.72 Section 117.72 Shipping...PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.72 Personal flotation devices...

2011-10-01

136

46 CFR 180.72 - Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets. 180.72 Section 180.72 Shipping...TONS) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.72 Personal flotation devices...

2012-10-01

137

46 CFR 117.72 - Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets. 117.72 Section 117.72 Shipping...PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.72 Personal flotation devices...

2013-10-01

138

46 CFR 117.72 - Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets. 117.72 Section 117.72 Shipping...PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.72 Personal flotation devices...

2012-10-01

139

46 CFR 180.72 - Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Personal flotation devices carried in addition to life jackets. 180.72 Section 180.72 Shipping...TONS) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.72 Personal flotation devices...

2011-10-01

140

Coral Reef Protection: A Watershed Approach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

EPA's home page on coral reef protection activities, including The International Coral Reef Initiative, and The Coral Reef Symposium. A tremendous resource for educators interested in coral reef basics through advanced topics such as coral reef ecology and legislation. Site includes peer-reviewed journal articles, factsheets, maps, and video. The Links section is packed with extensive coral reef information sites covering international and domestic initiatives, research, and even a section for kids and teachers.

141

International Society for Reef Studies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located within the Florida Institute of Technology, the International Society for Reef Studies (ISRS) was founded in 1980, and is designed to disseminate its findings on both living and fossil coral reefs to fellow scholars around the globe and the general public. Before delving into the main site, visitors will want to look through the ISRS in-house publication "Reef Encounters" to get a sense of the various projects the organization is currently working on, and of course, to read brief summaries of its research findings. Of course, for those who already are passionate about coral reefs, there is also a link to sign up for the NOAA "Coral List" forum. The resources section of the site is another good place to look for outside Web resources on other coral reef societies, marine laboratories, and government sites that contain materials on coral reefs and marine biology.

142

Immobilization of copper flotation waste using red mud and clinoptilolite.  

PubMed

The flash smelting process has been used in the copper industry for a number of years and has replaced most of the reverberatory applications, known as conventional copper smelting processes. Copper smelters produce large amounts of copper slag or copper flotation waste and the dumping of these quantities of copper slag causes economic, environmental and space problems. The aim of this study was to perform a laboratory investigation to assess the feasibility of immobilizing the heavy metals contained in copper flotation waste. For this purpose, samples of copper flotation waste were immobilized with relatively small proportions of red mud and large proportions of clinoptilolite. The results of laboratory leaching demonstrate that addition of red mud and clinoptilolite to the copper flotation waste drastically reduced the heavy metal content in the effluent and the red mud performed better than clinoptilolite. This study also compared the leaching behaviour of metals in copper flotation waste by short-time extraction tests such as the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), deionized water (DI) and field leach test (FLT). The results of leach tests showed that the results of the FLT and DI methods were close and generally lower than those of the TCLP methods. PMID:18927060

Coruh, Semra

2008-10-01

143

Leaching characteristics of copper flotation waste before and after vitrification.  

PubMed

Copper flotation waste from copper production using a pyrometallurgical process contains toxic metals such as Cu, Zn, Co and Pb. Because of the presence of trace amounts of these highly toxic metals, copper flotation waste contributes to environmental pollution. In this study, the leaching characteristics of copper flotation waste from the Black Sea Copper Works in Samsun, Turkey have been investigated before and after vitrification. Samples obtained from the factory were subjected to toxicity tests such as the extraction procedure toxicity test (EP Tox), the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and the "method A" extraction procedure of the American Society of Testing and Materials. The leaching tests showed that the content of some elements in the waste before vitrification exceed the regulatory limits and cannot be disposed of in the present form. Therefore, a stabilization or inertization treatment is necessary prior to disposal. Vitrification was found to stabilize heavy metals in the copper flotation waste successfully and leaching of these metals was largely reduced. Therefore, vitrification can be an acceptable method for disposal of copper flotation waste. PMID:16730115

Coruh, Semra; Ergun, Osman Nuri

2006-12-01

144

Spatial Resilience of Coral Reefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been several earlier studies that addressed the influence of natural disturbance regimes on coral reefs. Humans\\u000a alter natural disturbance regimes, introduce new stressors, and modify background conditions of reefs. We focus on how coral\\u000a reef ecosystems relate to disturbance in an increasingly human-dominated environment. The concept of ecosystem resilience—that\\u000a is, the capacity of complex systems with multiple stable

Magnus Nyström; Carl Folke

2001-01-01

145

The Paleoecology of Coral Reefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Reefs are one of the oldest ecosystems in the world, and coral reefs have had a rich and varied history over hundreds of millions\\u000a of years. The long-term history of living reef organisms provides an essential window in which to view a number of fundamental\\u000a evolutionary and ecological processes over extended time frames not available to modern ecology over years

John M. Pandolfi

146

Separation of activated sludge from purified waste water by Induced Air Flotation (IAF)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Induced Air Flotation (IAF) applies a self aspirating and radially discharging funnel-shaped nozzle, which produces extremely fine gas bubbles by using only 10% of the purified waste water recycle as the propulsion jet. This nozzle is installed in a flotation cell, where intimate contact between flocs and gas bubbles takes place. The flotation cell is enclosed by a bigger

Marko Zlokarnik

1998-01-01

147

Millenium Coral Reefs Landsat Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users can access remote imagery of coral reefs by clicking on an interactive world map. The imagery consists of tiled mosaics which can be zoomed, panned, and downloaded. This archive of coral reef images is part of a project whose purpose is to develop global reef maps as a base for future research. It was created in a partnership with NASA, international agencies, universities and other organizations to provide natural resource managers a comprehensive world data resource on coral reefs and adjacent land areas.

148

Geochemistry of sedimentary ore deposits  

SciTech Connect

A text providing a sedimentological treatment of a study on ore deposits, and especially as related to geochemistry. Excellently documented (about 5000 citations). Well indexed with the index of deposits and localities separated. Contents, Iron. Copper and silver. Aluminum and nickel. Manganese. Uranium. Lead and zinc. Volcanic-sedimentary ores. Appendix. Indexes.

Maynard, J. B.

1983-01-01

149

Digital reef rugosity estimates coral reef habitat complexity.  

PubMed

Ecological habitats with greater structural complexity contain more species due to increased niche diversity. This is especially apparent on coral reefs where individual coral colonies aggregate to give a reef its morphology, species zonation, and three dimensionality. Structural complexity is classically measured with a reef rugosity index, which is the ratio of a straight line transect to the distance a flexible chain of equal length travels when draped over the reef substrate; yet, other techniques from visual categories to remote sensing have been used to characterize structural complexity at scales from microhabitats to reefscapes. Reef-scale methods either lack quantitative precision or are too time consuming to be routinely practical, while remotely sensed indices are mismatched to the finer scale morphology of coral colonies and reef habitats. In this communication a new digital technique, Digital Reef Rugosity (DRR) is described which utilizes a self-contained water level gauge enabling a diver to quickly and accurately characterize rugosity with non-invasive millimeter scale measurements of coral reef surface height at decimeter intervals along meter scale transects. The precise measurements require very little post-processing and are easily imported into a spreadsheet for statistical analyses and modeling. To assess its applicability we investigated the relationship between DRR and fish community structure at four coral reef sites on Menjangan Island off the northwest corner of Bali, Indonesia and one on mainland Bali to the west of Menjangan Island; our findings show a positive relationship between DRR and fish diversity. Since structural complexity drives key ecological processes on coral reefs, we consider that DRR may become a useful quantitative community-level descriptor to characterize reef complexity. PMID:23437380

Dustan, Phillip; Doherty, Orla; Pardede, Shinta

2013-01-01

150

Digital Reef Rugosity Estimates Coral Reef Habitat Complexity  

PubMed Central

Ecological habitats with greater structural complexity contain more species due to increased niche diversity. This is especially apparent on coral reefs where individual coral colonies aggregate to give a reef its morphology, species zonation, and three dimensionality. Structural complexity is classically measured with a reef rugosity index, which is the ratio of a straight line transect to the distance a flexible chain of equal length travels when draped over the reef substrate; yet, other techniques from visual categories to remote sensing have been used to characterize structural complexity at scales from microhabitats to reefscapes. Reef-scale methods either lack quantitative precision or are too time consuming to be routinely practical, while remotely sensed indices are mismatched to the finer scale morphology of coral colonies and reef habitats. In this communication a new digital technique, Digital Reef Rugosity (DRR) is described which utilizes a self-contained water level gauge enabling a diver to quickly and accurately characterize rugosity with non-invasive millimeter scale measurements of coral reef surface height at decimeter intervals along meter scale transects. The precise measurements require very little post-processing and are easily imported into a spreadsheet for statistical analyses and modeling. To assess its applicability we investigated the relationship between DRR and fish community structure at four coral reef sites on Menjangan Island off the northwest corner of Bali, Indonesia and one on mainland Bali to the west of Menjangan Island; our findings show a positive relationship between DRR and fish diversity. Since structural complexity drives key ecological processes on coral reefs, we consider that DRR may become a useful quantitative community-level descriptor to characterize reef complexity. PMID:23437380

Dustan, Phillip; Doherty, Orla; Pardede, Shinta

2013-01-01

151

Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this research project is to develop advanced flotation methods for coal cleaning in order to achieve 90% pyritic sulfur removal at 90% Btu recovery, using coal samples procured from six major US coal seams. Concomitantly, the ash content of these coals is to be reduced to 6% or less. Investigation of mechanisms for the control of coal and pyrite surfaces prior to fine coal flotation is an important aspect of the project objectives. The effect of the following additives on flotation response was investigated. These include methanol lethanol, butylbenzaldehyde, glyoxal and several monomers. A second major objective is to investigate factors involved in the progressive weathering and oxidation of coal that had been stored in three storage modes, namely, open, covered and in an argon-inerted'' atmosphere, over a period of twelve months. 33 refs., 134 figs., 98 tabs.

Fuerstenau, D.W.; Sastry, K.V.S.; Hanson, J.S.; Narayanan, K.S.; Herrera-Urbina, R.; Diao, J.; Yin, Y.; Sotillo, F.; Harris, G. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA)); Hu, Weibei; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (USA)); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Xhong, K.; Xiao, L. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (USA)); Choudhry, V.; Shea, S.; Ghosh, A.; Sehgal, R. (Praxis Engineers, Inc., Mi

1990-02-28

152

Flotation treatment of waste water using cationic flocculants  

SciTech Connect

This work has been aimed at studying and comparing the efficiency of the use of cationic flocculants in the two process schemes for treating waste water in continuous pilot-plant and commercial flotation units. Waste water from the Moscow Petroleum Refinery was subjected to treatment. The characteristics of the cationic flocculants that were tested are presented. The test results in the pilot unit are shown. Results of laboratory studies show that the flocculants PPS and KR are more effective. Simplified flow plans of processes for flotation treatment of waste water and of pilot-plant flotation unit are illustrated. Concentration of suspended matter in treated water as a function of flocculant dose is presented.

Butseva, L.N.; Gandurina, L.V.; Ustinov, B.M.; Pridatkin, P.P.

1987-01-01

153

Intensification of flotation treatment by exposure to vibration.  

PubMed

In this paper, an intensification of wastewater flotation treatment by exposure to vibration is studied. Exposure to vibration results in the decrease of air bubble size, increase of air flow through the aerator and more even dispersion of air bubbles in water. This intensifies the aeration process, thus significantly improving the treatment efficiency. A multistage model of flotation kinetics has been applied in order to take into consideration the effects of vibration. The model gives a thorough explanation of the flotation process with consideration of 'air bubble - contaminant particle' aggregate formation. A large series of experiments was conducted with paint and varnish industry wastewaters. It is shown that vibroflotation results in an increase of treatment efficiency by up to three times. A comparison of the experimental data with the results of mathematical modeling is presented, showing a good correlation of theoretical and experimental results. PMID:24718333

Ivanov, M V; Ksenofontov, B S

2014-01-01

154

Reef Environmental Education Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Contains information on REEF, an organization devoted to preserving marine life through education, research and involvement. It includes a fish gallery with images and information on a variety of tropical fish. Membership provides reduced-cost dive trips all over the world to conduct observational research while diving. New data is added daily from volunteers world-wide and is available for download for classroom activities.

155

Coral Reefs on the Edge? Carbon Chemistry on Inshore Reefs of the Great Barrier Reef  

PubMed Central

While increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration alters global water chemistry (Ocean Acidification; OA), the degree of changes vary on local and regional spatial scales. Inshore fringing coral reefs of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) are subjected to a variety of local pressures, and some sites may already be marginal habitats for corals. The spatial and temporal variation in directly measured parameters: Total Alkalinity (TA) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentration, and derived parameters: partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2); pH and aragonite saturation state (?ar) were measured at 14 inshore reefs over a two year period in the GBR region. Total Alkalinity varied between 2069 and 2364 µmol kg?1 and DIC concentrations ranged from 1846 to 2099 µmol kg?1. This resulted in pCO2 concentrations from 340 to 554 µatm, with higher values during the wet seasons and pCO2 on inshore reefs distinctly above atmospheric values. However, due to temperature effects, ?ar was not further reduced in the wet season. Aragonite saturation on inshore reefs was consistently lower and pCO2 higher than on GBR reefs further offshore. Thermodynamic effects contribute to this, and anthropogenic runoff may also contribute by altering productivity (P), respiration (R) and P/R ratios. Compared to surveys 18 and 30 years ago, pCO2 on GBR mid- and outer-shelf reefs has risen at the same rate as atmospheric values (?1.7 µatm yr?1) over 30 years. By contrast, values on inshore reefs have increased at 2.5 to 3 times higher rates. Thus, pCO2 levels on inshore reefs have disproportionately increased compared to atmospheric levels. Our study suggests that inshore GBR reefs are more vulnerable to OA and have less buffering capacity compared to offshore reefs. This may be caused by anthropogenically induced trophic changes in the water column and benthos of inshore reefs subjected to land runoff. PMID:25295864

Uthicke, Sven; Furnas, Miles; L?nborg, Christian

2014-01-01

156

Coral reefs on the edge? Carbon chemistry on inshore reefs of the great barrier reef.  

PubMed

While increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration alters global water chemistry (Ocean Acidification; OA), the degree of changes vary on local and regional spatial scales. Inshore fringing coral reefs of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) are subjected to a variety of local pressures, and some sites may already be marginal habitats for corals. The spatial and temporal variation in directly measured parameters: Total Alkalinity (TA) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentration, and derived parameters: partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2); pH and aragonite saturation state (?ar) were measured at 14 inshore reefs over a two year period in the GBR region. Total Alkalinity varied between 2069 and 2364 µmol kg-1 and DIC concentrations ranged from 1846 to 2099 µmol kg-1. This resulted in pCO2 concentrations from 340 to 554 µatm, with higher values during the wet seasons and pCO2 on inshore reefs distinctly above atmospheric values. However, due to temperature effects, ?ar was not further reduced in the wet season. Aragonite saturation on inshore reefs was consistently lower and pCO2 higher than on GBR reefs further offshore. Thermodynamic effects contribute to this, and anthropogenic runoff may also contribute by altering productivity (P), respiration (R) and P/R ratios. Compared to surveys 18 and 30 years ago, pCO2 on GBR mid- and outer-shelf reefs has risen at the same rate as atmospheric values (?1.7 µatm yr-1) over 30 years. By contrast, values on inshore reefs have increased at 2.5 to 3 times higher rates. Thus, pCO2 levels on inshore reefs have disproportionately increased compared to atmospheric levels. Our study suggests that inshore GBR reefs are more vulnerable to OA and have less buffering capacity compared to offshore reefs. This may be caused by anthropogenically induced trophic changes in the water column and benthos of inshore reefs subjected to land runoff. PMID:25295864

Uthicke, Sven; Furnas, Miles; Lønborg, Christian

2014-01-01

157

Status of coral reef and reef fish resources of Vanuatu  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coral reefs of Vanuatu contribute to rural incomes, nutrition, shoreline protection and, more importantly, self reliance for the people of Vanuatu. The total area of shallow water benthic coral communities is relatively small, approximately 408 square kilometres out of a combined land area of 12, 190 square kilometres. Although there are many reefs of exceptional beauty in good health,

William Naviti; James Aston

158

Black reefs: iron-induced phase shifts on coral reefs  

PubMed Central

The Line Islands are calcium carbonate coral reef platforms located in iron-poor regions of the central Pacific. Natural terrestrial run-off of iron is non-existent and aerial deposition is extremely low. However, a number of ship groundings have occurred on these atolls. The reefs surrounding the shipwreck debris are characterized by high benthic cover of turf algae, macroalgae, cyanobacterial mats and corallimorphs, as well as particulate-laden, cloudy water. These sites also have very low coral and crustose coralline algal cover and are call black reefs because of the dark-colored benthic community and reduced clarity of the overlying water column. Here we use a combination of benthic surveys, chemistry, metagenomics and microcosms to investigate if and how shipwrecks initiate and maintain black reefs. Comparative surveys show that the live coral cover was reduced from 40 to 60% to <10% on black reefs on Millennium, Tabuaeran and Kingman. These three sites are relatively large (>0.75?km2). The phase shift occurs rapidly; the Kingman black reef formed within 3 years of the ship grounding. Iron concentrations in algae tissue from the Millennium black reef site were six times higher than in algae collected from reference sites. Metagenomic sequencing of the Millennium Atoll black reef-associated microbial community was enriched in iron-associated virulence genes and known pathogens. Microcosm experiments showed that corals were killed by black reef rubble through microbial activity. Together these results demonstrate that shipwrecks and their associated iron pose significant threats to coral reefs in iron-limited regions. PMID:21881615

Kelly, Linda Wegley; Barott, Katie L; Dinsdale, Elizabeth; Friedlander, Alan M; Nosrat, Bahador; Obura, David; Sala, Enric; Sandin, Stuart A; Smith, Jennifer E; Vermeij, Mark J A; Williams, Gareth J; Willner, Dana; Rohwer, Forest

2012-01-01

159

Black reefs: iron-induced phase shifts on coral reefs.  

PubMed

The Line Islands are calcium carbonate coral reef platforms located in iron-poor regions of the central Pacific. Natural terrestrial run-off of iron is non-existent and aerial deposition is extremely low. However, a number of ship groundings have occurred on these atolls. The reefs surrounding the shipwreck debris are characterized by high benthic cover of turf algae, macroalgae, cyanobacterial mats and corallimorphs, as well as particulate-laden, cloudy water. These sites also have very low coral and crustose coralline algal cover and are call black reefs because of the dark-colored benthic community and reduced clarity of the overlying water column. Here we use a combination of benthic surveys, chemistry, metagenomics and microcosms to investigate if and how shipwrecks initiate and maintain black reefs. Comparative surveys show that the live coral cover was reduced from 40 to 60% to <10% on black reefs on Millennium, Tabuaeran and Kingman. These three sites are relatively large (>0.75 km(2)). The phase shift occurs rapidly; the Kingman black reef formed within 3 years of the ship grounding. Iron concentrations in algae tissue from the Millennium black reef site were six times higher than in algae collected from reference sites. Metagenomic sequencing of the Millennium Atoll black reef-associated microbial community was enriched in iron-associated virulence genes and known pathogens. Microcosm experiments showed that corals were killed by black reef rubble through microbial activity. Together these results demonstrate that shipwrecks and their associated iron pose significant threats to coral reefs in iron-limited regions. PMID:21881615

Kelly, Linda Wegley; Barott, Katie L; Dinsdale, Elizabeth; Friedlander, Alan M; Nosrat, Bahador; Obura, David; Sala, Enric; Sandin, Stuart A; Smith, Jennifer E; Vermeij, Mark J A; Williams, Gareth J; Willner, Dana; Rohwer, Forest

2012-03-01

160

Coral reef collapse spells danger for millions Island communities that depend on coral reef  

E-print Network

Coral reef collapse spells danger for millions Island communities that depend on coral reef (Canada), published in Current Biology. The report on island coral reef fisheries reveals that 55pc of coral reef would be needed ­ an area 3.7 times greater than Australia's Great Barrier Reef (pictured

Feigon, Brooke

161

AAAS Feb `04 Frontiers in Coral Reef Research Climate Change and Coral Reefs  

E-print Network

AAAS Feb `04 Frontiers in Coral Reef Research Climate Change and Coral Reefs Joan A. Kleypas University of Kansas Lawrence, KS EARTH SeaWiFS image from: Orbimage #12;AAAS Feb `04 Frontiers in Coral Reef Feb `04 Frontiers in Coral Reef Research Effects of CO2 on Coral Reefs Reduced [CO3 2-] Increased

Kleypas, Joanie

162

Can artificial reefs mimic natural reef communities? The roles of structural  

E-print Network

Abstract In light of the deteriorating state of coral reefs worldwide, the need to rehabilitate marine environments has greatly increased. Artificial reefs (ARs) have been suggested as a tool for reef conservation development; Spatial orientation; Structural complexity; Coral reef; Red Sea 1. Introduction Coral reefs

Benayahu, Yehuda

163

Perspectives in coral reef hydrodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some developments in coral reef hydrodynamics over the last decade are reviewed with an overview of papers in this special issue. Advances in hydrodynamics based on improved understanding of topographic complexity are illustrated for the reef at Kilo Nalu Observatory and Kaneohe Bay (both in Hawaii). Models of the roughness layer are discussed as a background to numerical models of reef hydrodynamics for Molokai and Guam. Topographic complexity produces spatial temperature variability over reefs creating thermal microclimates which are reported in this issue for the Red Sea. Uptake of ocean nutrients by reefs is controlled by hydrodynamics, and papers in this issue show its critical role in the ecology of a fringing reef at La Réunion Island; nutrient uptake rates are discussed here using new data for Hearn Roughness and Decadal Rugosity. The role of upwelled water by large amplitude internal waves on reefs is reported for the Similan Islands, providing major new evidence for the role of hydrodynamics in the ecology of reefs and its importance to climate change. The review suggests some important areas for new research including simulated corals used in flumes and the field. Major new modeling based on measured roughness maps combined with small scale lattice Boltzmann simulations should be possible in the next decade.

Hearn, Clifford J.

2011-06-01

164

Confronting the coral reef crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The worldwide decline of coral reefs calls for an urgent reassessment of current management practices. Confronting large-scale crises requires a major scaling-up of management efforts based on an improved understanding of the ecological processes that underlie reef resilience. Managing for improved resilience, incorporating the role of human activity in shaping ecosystems, provides a basis for coping with uncertainty, future changes

T. P. Hughes; C. Folke; M. Nyström; D. R. Bellwood

2004-01-01

165

Keeping Watch on Coral Reefs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity identifies and explains the benefits of and threats to coral reef systems. Students read tutorials, describe the role of satellites, analyze oceanographic data and identify actions that can be undertaken to reduce or eliminate threats to coral reefs. As a culminating activity, students prepare a public education program.

Education, Noaa O.

166

Coral reefs and carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

This commentary argues the conclusion from a previous article, which investigates diurnal changes in carbon dioxide partial pressure and community metabolism on coral reefs, that coral `reefs might serve as a sink, not a source, for atmospheric carbon dioxide.` Commentaries from two groups are given along with the response by the original authors, Kayanne et al. 27 refs.

Buddemeier, R.W. [Kansas Geological Survey, Lawrence, KS (United States)

1996-03-01

167

PBS Online NewsHour: Coral Reefs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In-depth coverage of the role of coral reefs in environment, medicinal properties, and conservation efforts, together with instructional materials. Includes lesson plan; interactive on coral-reef building blocks; extended interviews; and stories on reef threats, international treaties, Caribbean reefs, mangrove shields, and the Aquarius undersea lab. Main story is provided as text, streaming video, and RealAudio.

168

An evaluation of different models of water recovery in flotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water recovery is one of the key parameters in flotation modelling for the purposes of plant design and process control, as it determines the circulating flow and residence time in the individual process units in the plant and has a significant effect on entrainment and froth recovery. This paper reviews some of the water recovery models available in the literature,

X. Zheng; J. P. Franzidis; N. W. Johnson

2006-01-01

169

Heterocoagulation of chalcopyrite and pyrite minerals in flotation separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterocoagulation between various fine mineral particles contained within a mineral suspension with different structural and surface chemistry can interfere with the ability of the flotation processes to selectively separate the minerals involved. This paper examines the interactions between chalcopyrite (a copper mineral) and pyrite (an iron mineral often bearing gold) as they approach each other in suspensions with added chemicals,

Timothy K. Mitchell; Anh V. Nguyen; Geoffrey M. Evans

2005-01-01

170

Fuzzy model based control for a mineral flotation plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a generalized predictive control (GPC) algorithm based on fuzzy models and its application to the tailing grade control in a mineral flotation plant. The control strategy is evaluated using a dynamic process simulator and their results are compared with those obtained with a conventional GPC

A. Cipriano; M. Ramos

1994-01-01

171

Engineering development of advanced froth flotation. Volume 2, Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report is an account of findings related to the Engineering and Development of Advanced Froth Flotation project. The results from benchscale and proof-of-concept (POC) level testing are presented and the important results from this testing are used to refine a conceptual design and cost estimate for a 20 TPH Semi-Works Facility incorporating the final proposed technology.

Ferris, D.D.; Bencho, J.R.; Torak, E.R. [ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1995-03-01

172

Environmental desulphurization of four Canadian mine tailings using froth flotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental desulphurization is an attractive alternative for management of acid generating tailings. This process placed at the end of the primary process treatment circuit will reduce a large amount of the problematic tailings by concentrating the sulphide fraction. To produce desulphurized tailings, non-selective froth flotation is the most adapted method. The desulphurization level is fixed by the sulphide content of

M Benzaazoua; B Bussière; M Kongolo; J McLaughlin; P Marion

2000-01-01

173

Micro-agglomerate flotation for deep cleaning of coal  

SciTech Connect

We are investigating the use of a hybrid process - Micro-agglomerate flotation - which is a combination of oil-agglomeration and froth flotation. The basic concept is to use small quantities of oil to promote the formation of dense micro-agglomerates with minimal entrapment of water and mineral particles, and to use froth flotation to extract these micro-agglomerates from the water/dispersed-mineral phase. Since the floating units are agglomerates (about 30--50 [mu]m in size) rather than individual coal particles (1--10 [mu]m) the problems of froth overload and water/mineral carryover should be significantly alleviated. Micro-agglomerate flotation has considerable potential for the practical deep cleaning of coal on a commercial scale. In principle, it should be possible to achieve both high selectivity and high yield at reasonable cost. The process requires only conventional, off-the-shelf equipment and reagent usage (oil, surfactants, etc.) should be small. There are, however, complications. The process involves at least five phases: two or more solids (coal and mineral), two liquids (oil and water) and one gas (air). It is necessary to maintain precise control over the chemistry of the liquid phases in order to promote the interfacial reactions and interactions between phases necessary to ensure selectivity. Kinetics as well as thermodynamic factors may be critical in determining overall system response.

Chander, S.; Hogg, R.

1993-01-01

174

Selective flotation of fossil resin from Western coal  

SciTech Connect

Technical activities for the fourth quarter involved efforts by both the University of Utah and Advanced Processing Technologies, Inc. Laboratory research at the University of Utah was primarily concerned with surface chemistry/resin characterization, which has emphasized Fourier transform infrared analysis in the past quarter. APT's major activities included proof-of-concept plant testing of the fossil resin flotation circuit. (VC)

Jensen, G.F.; Miller, J.D.

1991-10-15

175

Capitol Reef National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service (NPS) website provides an in-depth look at Capitol Reef National Park in Utah. Specifically, this covers the geology and natural resources of the park. There is a general overview of the geology of this area including the Waterpocket fold, Colorado Plateau, Cathedral Valley and erosion. There is a description of various rock colors and how they form, as well as a detailed stratigraphic column illustrating the names, thicknesses, and ancient environments of rocks and formations that exist in the park. The Natural Resources section discusses some of the history and archeology of the park, as well as birds, mammals, plants, reptiles and environmental problems.

176

The International Coral Reef Information Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This extensive site was originally created to support coral reef conservation by the International Coral Reef Initiative (ICRI). The site serves to provide general coral reef information, tools and resources, and a central coral reef communications and network hub. The site also provides a library which houses descriptions of brochures, books, videos and other items suitable for coral reef awareness and education efforts. Some publications are available for download directly from this site, while others are available for purchase.

International Coral Reef Action Network (ICRAN)

177

Microbial reduction of iron ore  

DOEpatents

A process is provided for reducing iron ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of iron ore, microorganisms operable for reducing the ferric iron of the iron ore to ferrous iron, and a substrate operable as an energy source for the microbial reduction; and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the reduction of the ore. Preferably the microorganism is Pseudomonas sp. 200 and the reduction conducted anaerobically with a domestic wastewater as the substrate. An aqueous solution containing soluble ferrous iron can be separated from the reacted mixture, treated with a base to precipitate ferrous hydroxide which can then be recovered as a concentrated slurry.

Hoffmann, Michael R. (Pasadena, CA); Arnold, Robert G. (Pasadena, CA); Stephanopoulos, Gregory (Pasadena, CA)

1989-01-01

178

An Advanced Control System For Fine Coal Flotation  

SciTech Connect

A model-based flotation control scheme is being implemented to achieve optimal performance in the handling and treatment of fine coal. The control scheme monitors flotation performance through on-line analysis of ash content. Then, based on the economic and metallurgical performance of the circuit, variables such as collector dosage, frother dosage, and pulp level are adjusted using model-based control algorithms to compensate for feed variations and other process disturbances. Recent developments in sensor technology are being applied for on-line determination of slurry ash content. During the ninth quarter of this project, Task 3 (Model Building and Computer Simulation) and Task 4 (Sensor Testing) were nearly completed, and Task 6 (Equipment Procurement and Installation) was initiated. Previously, data collected from the plant sampling campaign (Task 2) were used to construct a population balance model to describe the steady-state and dynamic behavior of the flotation circuit. The details of this model were presented in the Eighth Quarterly Technical Progress Report. During the past quarter, a flotation circuit simulator was designed and used to evaluate control strategies. As a result of this work, a model-based control strategy has been conceived which will allow manipulated variables to be adjusted in response to disturbances to achieve a target incremental ash value in the last cell of the bank. This will, in effect, maximize yield at an acceptable product quality. During this same period, a video-based ash analyzer was installed on the flotation tailings stream at the Moss No. 3 preparation plant. A preliminary calibration curve was established, and data are continuing to be collected in order to improve the calibration of the analyzer.

G. H. Luttrell; G. T. Adel

1998-08-25

179

Expeditions in Conservation: Mesoamerican Reef  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Wildlife Fund (WWF) recently completed this expedition of the largest coral reef system in the Atlantic Ocean and has provided an opportunity for Web users to share some of what they experienced. Visitors can view spectacular photos and videos to learn about the reef and the creatures that reside there, as well as read the daily reports of the expedition. The site offers much more in terms of learning about coral reefs, the people who study them, and the threats that face these unique ecosystems.

1969-12-31

180

Age of tilted reefs, Hawaii.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Submerged carbonate reefs are preserved as a series of submarine terraces between Molokai and Hawaii along a 200-km span of the SE Hawaiian Ridge. Limestones from 2 of the terraces have been dated at 13 and 120 ka. Recognition that the terraces are tilted permits assignment of about a dozen terraces from 150 to 1300 m depth to 8 general reef platforms. These reefs were drowned by the combined effects of island subsidence and sea level rise at the end of successive glacial stages from 13 to 647 ka. The platforms are tilted 5 m/km SE toward the locus of volcanic centered on the island of Hawaii.-from Authors

Moore, J. G.; Campbell, J. F.

1987-01-01

181

Bermuda's Southern Aeolianite Reef Tract.  

PubMed

The outer reef on the explored southeast margin of the Bermuda platform is a submerged dune ridge thinly veneered with encrusting organisms. Aeolianites were deposited on what appears to be an older truncated surface, the reef-front terrace, now submerged to a depth of about 18 meters. Underwater examination reveals relict features of probable solutional origin that honeycomb the aeolinite and that have undergone only minor modification by erosion since the last eustatic rise of the sea. Submarine planation, even in this marginal area of reef growth, is a relatively slow process. PMID:17792849

Stanley, D J; Swift, D J

1967-08-11

182

Commencement on a Coral Reef  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an environmental program in which sixteen students and three biology teachers from Northfield Mount Hermon School in Massachusetts spent two weeks examining the ecology of a Caribbean reef.. (JR)

Webster, Steven K.

1973-01-01

183

Lab 3: Building a Reef  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During this lab, students learn about the life cycle of corals, including how they grow and reproduce. Students consider the chemistry of seawater and the importance of the symbiotic relationship between corals and zooxanthellae in the formation of coral reefs. They blow CO2 through calcium hydroxide (limewater) to model how respiration assists coral in precipitating calcium carbonate. Students also build on the coral polyp models they made in Lab 2 to demonstrate coral growth, reproduction, and reef formation.

184

Miocene precursors to Great Barrier Reef  

SciTech Connect

Huge reefs of Miocene age are present in the Gulf of Papua north of the present-day Great Barrier Reef and to the east on the Marion and Queensland Plateaus. In the Gulf of Papua, Miocene barrier reefs formed the northern forerunner of the Great Barrier Reef, extending for many hundreds of kilometers along the eastern and northern margin of the Australian craton within a developing foreland basin. Barrier reefs, slope pinnacle reefs, and platform reefs are seen in seismic sections and drill holes. Leeside talus deposits testify to the high energy impinging on the eastern margin of these Miocene reefs. The Queensland Plateau is a marginal plateau east of the central Great Barrier Reef and separated from it by a rift trough. Miocene reefs occupied an area of about 50,000 km/sup 2/ and grew on salt-controlled highs on the western margin of the plateau and on a regional basement high extending from the platform interior to its southern margin. Reef growth has continued to the present day, although two major contractions in the area covered by reefs occurred during the Miocene. The Marion Plateau is present directly east of the Great Barrier Reef and during the Micoene formed a 30,000-km/sup 2/ platform with barrier reefs along its northern margin and huge platform reefs and laggons on the platform interior. These reefs grew on a flat peneplained surface, the whole area forming a large shallow epicontinental sea. In all three areas, the middle Miocene formed the acme of reef expansion in the region.

Davies, P.J.; Symonds, P.A.; Feary, D.A.; Pigram, C.

1988-01-01

185

Flotation and flocculation chemistry of coal and oxidized coals  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research project is to understand the fundamentals involved in the flotation and flocculation of coal and oxidized coals and elucidate mechanisms by which surface interactions between coal and various reagents enhance coal beneficiation. An understanding of the nature of the heterogeneity of coal surfaces arising from the intrinsic distribution of chemical moieties is fundamental to the elucidation of mechanism of coal surface modification and its role in interfacial processes such as flotation, flocculation and agglomeration. A new approach for determining the distribution in surface properties of coal particles was developed in this study and various techniques capable of providing such information were identified. Distributions in surface energy, contact angle and wettability were obtained using novel techniques such as centrifugal immersion and film flotation. Changes in these distributions upon oxidation and surface modifications were monitored and discussed. An approach to the modelling of coal surface site distributions based on thermodynamic information obtained from gas adsorption and immersion calorimetry is proposed. Polyacrylamide and dodecane was used to alter the coal surface. Methanol adsorption was also studied. 62 figs.

Somasundaran, P.

1990-01-01

186

Physical chemistry mechanisms of CDR system in sulphide mineral flotation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flotation tests, zeta potential measurements, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis on galena, sphalerite, and pyrite were studied in a collecting-depressing-reactivating (CDR) system. In this system, sulphide minerals were first collected and activated by the collector, and then depressed strongly by Ca(OH)2 in a strong alkaline solution. Finally, they were reactivated by H2SO4. The flotation tests of pure minerals showed that in the Ca(OH)2 depressing process sulphide minerals had similar flotation characteristics because they had already been influenced by the collector. Hence, the flotability differences between them were reduced. However, in the H2SO4 reactivating process considerable differences in the flotability between galena and sphalerite/pyrite were produced. That is to say, galena was relatively easy to be reactivated by H2SO4, but sphalerite and pyrite were not reactivated at pH > 11. The zeta potentials of sulfide minerals measured by the Zeta Plus presented irreversible characteristics on the change of pH values. The results of the FTIR spectra analysis indicated that the collectors already adsorbed on the mineral surface were removed partially by Ca(OH)2.

Pak, To-Hyon; Sun, Ti-Chang; Kou, Jue; Huang, Chol-Ryong

2012-03-01

187

112 National Coral Reef Action Strategy CORAL REEF CONSERVATION ACT OF 2000  

E-print Network

Reef Action Strategy APPENDIX A CORAL REEF CONSERVATION ACT OF 2000 [P.L. 106-562; 16 U.S.C. 6401 et seq; December 23, 2000] TITLE II--CORAL REEF CONSERVATION SEC. 201. SHORT TITLE. This title may be cited as the `Coral Reef Conservation Act of 2000'. SEC. 202. PURPOSES. The purposes of this title are

188

Response of coral reefs to climate change: Expansion and demise of the southernmost Pacific coral reef  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coral reefs track sea level and are particularly sensitive to changes in climate. Reefs are threatened by global warming, with many experiencing increased coral bleaching. Warmer sea surface temperatures might enable reef expansion into mid latitudes. Here we report multibeam sonar and coring that reveal an extensive relict coral reef around Lord Howe Island, which is fringed by the southernmost

Colin D. Woodroffe; Brendan P. Brooke; Michelle Linklater; David M. Kennedy; Brian G. Jones; Cameron Buchanan; Richard Mleczko; Quan Hua; Jian-xin Zhao

2010-01-01

189

Distribution, abundance, and substrate preferences of demersal reef zooplankton at Lizard Island Lagoon, Great Barrier Reef  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demersal zooplankton, those plankton which hide within reef sediments during the day but emerge to swim freely over the reef at night, were sampled quantitatively using emergence traps planced over the substrate at Lizard Island Lagoon, Great Barrier Reef. Densities of zooplankton emerging at night from 6 substrate types (fine, medium, and coarse sand, rubble, living coral and reef rock)

A. L. Alldredge; J. M. King

1977-01-01

190

Reef Odor: A wake up call for navigation in reef fish larvae --Manuscript Draft--  

E-print Network

-ocean; swimming speed; orientation; behavioral arena; chemical cues; tidal current; Great Barrier Reef; drifting, were observed in the two water masses around One Tree Island, southern Great Barrier Reef. The studyPLOS ONE Reef Odor: A wake up call for navigation in reef fish larvae --Manuscript Draft

Paris-Limouzy, Claire B.

191

Response of coral reefs to climate change: Expansion and demise of the southernmost Pacific coral reef  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coral reefs track sea level and are particularly sensitive to changes in climate. Reefs are threatened by global warming, with many experiencing increased coral bleaching. Warmer sea surface temperatures might enable reef expansion into mid latitudes. Here we report multibeam sonar and coring that reveal an extensive relict coral reef around Lord Howe Island, which is fringed by the southernmost reef in the Pacific Ocean. The relict reef, in water depths of 25-50 m, flourished in early Holocene and covered an area more than 20 times larger than the modern reef. Radiocarbon and uranium-series dating indicates that corals grew between 9000 and 7000 years ago. The reef was subsequently drowned, and backstepped to its modern limited extent. This relict reef, with localised re-establishment of corals in the past three millennia, could become a substrate for reef expansion in response to warmer temperatures, anticipated later this century and beyond, if corals are able to recolonise its surface.

Woodroffe, Colin D.; Brooke, Brendan P.; Linklater, Michelle; Kennedy, David M.; Jones, Brian G.; Buchanan, Cameron; Mleczko, Richard; Hua, Quan; Zhao, Jian-xin

2010-08-01

192

A Night in the Coral Reef  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Coral reefs are often portrayed as brightly lit, bustling underwater marvels full of colorful creatures. This video segment, adapted from NOVA, paints a different picture as it explores the nocturnal behavior of organisms in the reef.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2007-04-19

193

Call to protect all coral reefs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The world's coral reefs are in decline, threatening the food security of millions of people. Adopting an ecosystem-scale approach that protects deep as well as shallow reefs would deliver several social and economic benefits.

Bridge, Tom C. L.; Hughes, Terry P.; Guinotte, John M.; Bongaerts, Pim

2013-06-01

194

Coral communities and reef growth in the southern Great Barrier Reef  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  ?Fringing reef development is limited around 22°?S along the inner Great Barrier Reef, although there is substantial development\\u000a north and south of this latitude. This study examined the relationships among coral communities and the extent of reef development.\\u000a Reefs were examined to determine coral composition, colony abundance, colony size and growth form between the latitudes 20°S\\u000a and 23°S. Major reef

R. van Woesik; T. J. Done

1997-01-01

195

The dynamics of benthic microbial communities at Davies Reef, central Great Barrier Reef  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of benthic microbial communities were examined within different functional zones (reef crest, reef flat, lagoon) of Davies Reef, central Great Barrier Reef, in winter. Bacterial numbers did not change significantly across the reef with a mean abundance \\u000a$$(\\\\bar x{\\\\text{ }} \\\\pm {\\\\text{ 1 SE)}}$$\\u000a of 1.3 (±0.6) x 109 cells g-1 DW of sediment. Bacterial production, measured as

L. A. Hansen; D. M. Alongi; D. J. W. Moriarty; P. C. Pollard

1987-01-01

196

Trapping and dispersion of coral eggs around Bowden Reef, Great Barrier Reef, following mass coral spawning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bowden Reef is a 5 km long kidney-shaped coral reef with a lagoon, located on the mid-shelf of the central region of the Great Barrier Reef. Field studies were carried out, in November 1986, at the time of mass coral spawning, of the water circulation around Bowden Reef and in the surrounding inter-reefal waters. The near-reef water circulation was strongly

Eric Wolanski; Derek Burrage; Brian King

1989-01-01

197

Ore Potential of the Olkiluoto District (Finland).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The criticalness of potential future ore occurrences and ore mining in and around the area of the planned Olkiluoto repository for low- and medium-level radioactive waste was analysed. Judging by the theories of ore formation and the statistics based on t...

P. Ilveskivi, H. Niini

1985-01-01

198

Ore Geology and Mineral Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of research work on Ore geology and mineral resources, during the report period (2004-2008) reveals equitable outputs for the precious metals (Au, Ag, PGE), atomic minerals (U), and base metals (Cu, Pb, Zn), modest efforts made for Cr, Sn, W and some rare metals, with less emphasis on Fe and Mn. Again, like the previous reports, the non metals

BISWAJIT MISHRA; MIHIR DEB

199

DETERMINATION OF THORIUM IN ORES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure for the determination of thorium in ores is as follows: The ; sample is decomposed with perchloric and hydrofluoric acids and is dissolved in ; hydrochloric acid. The residue is reserved. Sodium hydroxide precipitation is ; made and the precipitate is dissolved in nitric acid (solution A). The reserved ; residue is then used with sodium peroxide and

S. Sekine; T. Mochizuki

1961-01-01

200

Gaseous reduction of laterite ores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lateritic nickel ores have been reduced under laboratory conditions. The reduction experiments were carried out at temperatures from 500 °C to 1100 °C in a horizontal tube furnace using various mixtures of H2 and CO2. The hydrogen evolution method was used to measure the degree of metallization of the reduced ore. It was found that the rate of reduction was very low at 500 °C but then increased rapidly upon heating the ore to 600 °C. The percent metallics increased with increasing H2 to CO2 ratios in the reducing gas. At temperatures between 600 °C and 1100 °C, a H2 to CO2 ratio of 3 leads to the formation of 5 to 6 pct metallics in the reduced calcine was shown. Heating the ore in air or nitrogen prior to reduction does not affect the degree of metallization. A H2 to CO2 ratio of at least 4 is required to obtain a ferronickel product analyzing 36 pct nickel if no further reduction is carried out during the subsequent smelting operation.

Utigard, T.; Bergman, R. A.

1993-04-01

201

The future of coral reefs Nancy Knowlton*  

E-print Network

Colloquium The future of coral reefs Nancy Knowlton* Marine Biology Research Division 0202, Scripps Tropical Research Institute, Apartado 2072, Balboa, Republic of Panama Coral reefs, with their millions communities, and coral death. (iv) The activities of people near reefs increase both fishing pressure

Bermingham, Eldredge

202

PHOSPHATE METABOLISM OF CORAL REEF FLATS  

E-print Network

PHOSPHATE METABOLISM OF CORAL REEF FLATS A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE GRADUATE DIVISION. Chave Edward A. Laws David M. Karl Robert L. Fox #12;iv ABSTRACT Ihe present dogma on coral reef overlying that community. The reef's nutritional requirements supposedly are met by cycling or retention

Luther, Douglas S.

203

Experimental biology of coral reef ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coral reef ecosystems are at the crossroads. While significant gaps still exist in our understanding of how “normal” reefs work, unprecedented changes in coral reef systems have forced the research community to change its focus from basic research to understand how one of the most diverse ecosystems in the world works to basic research with strong applied implications to alleviate

Michael P. Lesser

2004-01-01

204

REEF fXSHXHQ FISHERY LEAFLET 354  

E-print Network

glance at a chart of the waters of the Philippines will reveal the great extent of the coral reefs mile from the shore. Barrier reefs occur rather sparingly in the Philippines. They are exemplifiedw REEF fXSHXHQ FISHERY LEAFLET 354 FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE United States Department

205

The Pros and Cons of Artificial Reefs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan asks students to consider whether artificial reefs (human-made objects in the ocean or sea) are good for marine ecosystems. Students will look at pictures of artificial reefs and read articles describing the pros and cons of these structures. They will conclude by writing paragraphs explaining whether they think a new artificial reef should be created in Florida waters.

206

40 CFR 230.44 - Coral reefs.  

... 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coral reefs. 230.44 Section 230.44 Protection of...Impacts on Special Aquatic Sites § 230.44 Coral reefs. (a) Coral reefs consist of the skeletal deposit, usually...

2014-07-01

207

Coral Reef Conservation: A Reef of Your Own  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web-based lesson focuses on the physiological, ecological, and behavioral strategies that contribute to the success of reef-building corals. Students will learn to describe and explain the importance of asexual and sexual reproductive strategies to reef-building corals, why it is important that the corals have a nutritional strategy that includes both photosynthesis and carnivory, two behaviors that they use to compete for living space with other species, and how coral reefs can produce high levels of biological material when the waters surroundíing them contain relatively small amounts of the nutriíents normally needed to support biological production. Links to the required online resources are provided.

2011-08-23

208

Flotation froth images velocity feature extraction and analysis based on Fourier-Mellin transform and gray-template matching  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variable of froth velocity is an effective flotation optimal control parameter in the machine vision based flotation monitoring and control, which closely related to the flotation performance indices. However, the bubble velocity extracted based on digital image processing is often difficult to accurately extract, due to the inevitable rotation, scaling and the collapse of the bubbles deformation and so

Mu Xue-min; Liu Jin-ping; Tang Zhao-hui; Gui Wei-hua; Yang Chun-hua

2010-01-01

209

Adsorption of a hydrophobic bacterium onto hematite: Implications in the froth flotation of the mineral  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The present study reports on the relationship between adsorption ofMycobacterium phlei onto hematite and flotation of the mineral. From light and scanning electron microscopy, contact angle and electrophoretic mobility observations it was found thatM. phlei is more negatively charged than hematite, that it readily accumulates onto the mineral and that it functions as a flotation collector for the mineral

Ross W. Smith; Manoranjan Misra; Shuzhong Chen

1993-01-01

210

Pioneering studies on the flotation of corundum from a Montana gneiss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bureau of Mines conducted laboratory-scale beneficiation tests on a sample of corundum gneiss from Montana to devise a method for beneficiating corundum for use as a substitute for refractory-grade bauxite. A flotation process utilizing petroleum sulfonate as the collector in an acid circuit was devised. Results showed that two flotation schemes each produced a concentrate exceeding the national stockpile specifications

C. W. Smith; T. O. Llewellyn

1987-01-01

211

A review of plastics waste recycling and the flotation of plastics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the importance of plastic waste recycling and plastic waste separation. Based on an analysis of the physical and chemical characteristics of plastics and plastic waste, the potentials and limitations of several technological processes are discussed. In addition, a review of the surface chemical aspects of plastic flotation is presented. It can be concluded that the flotation of

Huiting Shent; R. J. Pugh; E. Forssberg

1999-01-01

212

Selective flotation of bastnaesite from monazite in rare earth concentrates using potassium alum as depressant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrokinetic and flotation studies were carried out on single particles of bastnaesite and monazite to develop a flotation scheme for selectively removing monazite in the rare earth bulk concentrate from the Baiyunebo mine, in China (60.7% rare earth oxides or REO, 75% as bastnaesite and 25% as monazite). Low additions of potassium alum were found to efficiently depress monazite at

Jun Ren; Shaoxian Song; Alejandro Lopez-Valdivieso; Shouci Lu

2000-01-01

213

Private development of artificial reefs  

E-print Network

fisheries are held and con- sistent with state and federal law, and; (3) that the pri- vate development of artificial reefs in concert with a char- ter boat business is a financially feasible operation. For the purposes of this thesis the definition... fisheries are held and con- sistent with state and federal law, and; (3) that the pri- vate development of artificial reefs in concert with a char- ter boat business is a financially feasible operation. For the purposes of this thesis the definition...

Burns, Arthur Allen

2012-06-07

214

Effective harvesting of low surface-hydrophobicity microalgae by froth flotation.  

PubMed

Microalgae harvesting by air flotation is a promising technology for large-scale production of biofuel, feed and nutraceuticals from algae. With an adherence-to-hydrocarbon method and two different types of flotation cells (mechanically agitated cell and Jameson cell), microalgal surface hydrophobicity and bubble size were identified to be critical for effective froth flotation of microalgae. Freshwater alga Chlorella sp. BR2 showed naturally a high hydrophobicity and an ideal response to flotation. However, many marine microalgae possess a low surface hydrophobicity and are thus difficult to harvest. This paper shows that a step-wise optimization approach can substantially improve the flotation of a low surface hydrophobicity marine microalga, Tetraselmis sp. M8, to near full recovery with an enrichment ratio of 11.4. PMID:24690467

Garg, Sourabh; Wang, Liguang; Schenk, Peer M

2014-05-01

215

Geomorphology and community structure of Middle Reef, central Great Barrier Reef, Australia: an inner-shelf turbid zone reef subject to episodic mortality events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Middle Reef is an inshore turbid zone reef located 4 km offshore from Townsville, Queensland, Australia. The reef consists\\u000a of four current-aligned, interconnected reef patches that have reached sea level and formed reef flats. It is regularly exposed\\u000a to high turbidity (up to 50 mg l?1) generated by wave-driven sediment resuspension or by episodic flood plumes. Middle Reef has a high mean hard

N. K. Browne; S. G. Smithers; C. T. Perry

2010-01-01

216

Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation  

SciTech Connect

The initial goal of the research project was to develop methods of coal surface control in advanced froth flotation to achieve 90% pyritic sulfur rejection, while operating at Btu recoveries above 90% based on run-of-mine quality coal. Moreover, the technology is to concomitantly reduce the ash content significantly (to six percent or less) to provide a high-quality fuel to the boiler (ash removal also increases Btu content, which in turn decreases a coal's emission potential in terms of lbs SO{sub 2}/million Btu). (VC)

Fuerstenau, D.W.; Hanson, J.S.; Diao, J.; Harris, G.H.; De, A.; Sotillo, F. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)); Hu, W.; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)); Choudhry, V.; Shea, S.; Ghosh, A.; Sehgal, R. (Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United States))

1992-03-01

217

Catchment to Reef: Water Quality Issues in the  

E-print Network

Catchment to Reef: Water Quality Issues in the Great Barrier Reef Region. 9-11 March 2004, Townsville. Conference abstracts. Edited by: David Haynes1,3 and Britta Schaffelke2, 3 1 Great Barrier Reef, Australian Institute of Marine Science, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, Great Barrier Reef Research

Marsh, Helene

218

Method for beneficiating coal ore  

SciTech Connect

A new heavy liquid parting medium comprising an emulsion of water and a substantially water immiscible heavy parting liquid for use in beneficiating ores by gravity separations such as sink -float processes. The specific gravity of the emulsion parting medium can be adjusted by proportioning the relative amounts of water and the substantially water immiscible heavy liquid. Asmined coal is beneficiated using a water-trichlorofluoromethane emulsion as the parting medium in a sink-float separation process.

Irons, S.D.

1983-03-15

219

Quantifying Coral Reef Ecosystem Services  

EPA Science Inventory

Coral reefs have been declining during the last four decades as a result of both local and global anthropogenic stresses. Numerous research efforts to elucidate the nature, causes, magnitude, and potential remedies for the decline have led to the widely held belief that the recov...

220

Coral Reefs (2005) 24: 593 DOI 10.1007/s00338-005-0043-zReef sites  

E-print Network

Coral Reefs (2005) 24: 593 DOI 10.1007/s00338-005-0043-zReef sites Fig. 2 Fossil coral reef in southern Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia. The fossil coral reef is exposed at Point Maxwell et al. (1998) and White et al. (1998). U-series dates obtained from reef corals preserved

Greenstein, Benjamin J.

221

Land-based nutrient enrichment of the Buccoo Reef Complex and fringing coral reefs of Tobago, West Indies  

E-print Network

Land-based nutrient enrichment of the Buccoo Reef Complex and fringing coral reefs of Tobago, West 33701, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Keywords: Coral reef Macroalgae Eutrophication Sewage Nitrogen of Tobago's coral reefs. Ã? 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Coral reefs

Meyers, Steven D.

222

Effects of island mass: Water flow and plankton pattern around a reef in the Great Barrier Reef lagoon, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water currents and zooplankton distributions are described for Pandora Reef, a coralline platform reef topped by a small sand spit, subject to tidal currents within the Great Barrier Reef lagoon (Queensland, Australia). Oncoming tidal currents separated 500 m upstream of the l-km oblong reef. Zooplankton accumulated around the reef variously according to taxo- nomic group. Copepods and chaetognaths were most

W. M. HAMNER; I. R. HAURI

1981-01-01

223

Leukocyte flotation during gravity sedimentation of the whole blood.  

PubMed

The original Westergren blood sedimentation technique was modified to assess leukocyte sedimentation properties. The relative change of leukocyte and erythrocyte counts was measured in the upper half section of blood column in vertically positioned sedimentation tubes in 10-minute-intervals for 60 minutes. During the first 20 minutes of gravity sedimentation, the leukocytes taken from critically ill patients showed upward flotation, however, healthy individuals' leukocytes demonstrated slight sedimentation. The upward flotation rate of leukocytes seemed less dependent on erythrocyte sedimentation during the first 15 minutes of sedimentation time than after it. Based on this observation, the sedimentation properties of leukocytes were characterized by the leukocyte antisedimentation rate taken at the 15th minute of sedimentation time (LAR15). Erythrocyte aggregability index, plasma fibrinogen concentration and native leukocyte count did not correlate to LAR15 in healthy volunteers (n = 25). However, LAR15 was correlated to leukocyte adherence (p < 0.01), to whole blood viscosity (p < 0.05), to hematocrit (p < 0.05) and to the conventional erythrocyte sedimentation rate (p < 0.05). PMID:10711819

Bogar, L; Tekeres, M

2000-01-01

224

A novel mineral flotation process using Thiobacillus ferrooxidans.  

PubMed

Oxidative leaching of metals by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans has proven useful in mineral processing. Here, we report on a new use for T. ferrooxidans, in which bacterial adhesion is used to remove pyrite from mixtures of sulfide minerals during flotation. Under control conditions, the floatabilities of five sulfide minerals tested (pyrite, chalcocite, molybdenite, millerite, and galena) ranged from 90 to 99%. Upon addition of T. ferrooxidans, the floatability of pyrite was significantly suppressed to less than 20%. In contrast, addition of the bacterium had little effect on the floatabilities of the other minerals, even when they were present in relatively large quantities: their floatabilities remained in the range of 81 to 98%. T. ferrooxidans thus appears to selectively suppress pyrite floatability. As a consequence, 77 to 95% of pyrite was removed from mineral mixtures while 72 to 100% of nonpyrite sulfide minerals was recovered. The suppression of pyrite floatability was caused by bacterial adhesion to pyrite surfaces. When normalized to the mineral surface area, the number of cells adhering to pyrite was significantly larger than the number adhering to other minerals. These results suggest that flotation with T. ferrooxidans may provide a novel approach to mineral processing in which the biological functions involved in cell adhesion play a key role in the separation of minerals. PMID:10427053

Nagaoka, T; Ohmura, N; Saiki, H

1999-08-01

225

Elastic responses of a flotation ring in water waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gravity-type fish cage is extensively applied in open-sea fishery aquaculture. Its practicality is closely related to the reliability of the flotation ring which is its main load-bearing component. Therefore, it is necessary to study the elastic responses of the flotation ring in ocean waves. Here, an analytical method is proposed to analyze the elastic deformations of a circular ring subjected to water waves. The governing equations of six degree-of-freedom motions and elastic deformations are obtained according to Euler's laws and curved beam theory. In order to examine the method, a series of physical model tests were carried out. The surge and heave displacements of the ring between the predicted results and experimental measurements are compared, and good correlation is represented. The effects of the propagation directions of the incident wave on elastic responses of the ring are then analyzed. It is concluded that small deformations of the ring occur when the configuration of the mooring cables is symmetrically arranged along the propagation direction of the incident waves. Additionally, the out-of-plane stiffness is suggested to be strengthened in order to diminish the corresponding deformations.

Dong, Guo-Hai; Hao, Shuang-Hu; Zhao, Yun-Peng; Zong, Zhi; Gui, Fu-Kun

2010-01-01

226

Biological models for Mesozoic reef evolution  

SciTech Connect

Throughout the Mesozoic, shallow-water carbonate ramps and platforms of the circumequatorial Tethyan Ocean were characterized by extensive development of reef ecosystems, especially during times of eustatic highstand, expansion of the Tropics, and warm equable global climates. The greatest reef development was north of the paleoequator in the Caribbean and Indo-Mediterranean provinces. These reefs and associated debris facies comprise major petroleum reservoirs, in some cases with remarkable porosity and permeability normally attributed to a combination of sedimentologic, tectonic, and diagenetic factors. The biological evolution of Mesozoic reefs also has had an important, and in some cases dominant, role in determining reservoir quality. Three major biological factors are critical to mesozoic reef-associated reservoir development: (1) the replacement/competitive displacement of coral-algal dominated, highly integrated reef ecosystems by loosely packed rudistid bivalve-dominated reef ecosystems in the Barremian-Albian; (2) the evolution of dominantly aragonitic, highly porous shells among framework-building rudistids in the middle and Late Cretaceous; and (3) competitive strategies among rudistids that effectively prevented widespread biological binding of Cretaceous reefs, leading to the production of large marginal fans that comprise major carbonate reservoirs. Detailed studies of these evolutionary trends in reef/framework development and of the distribution of different groups of bioconstructors on reefs lead to predictive modeling for primary and secondary porosity development in mesozoic carbonate reservoirs. The competitive displacement of coral-algal communities by rudistids on Cretaceous reefs was so effective that, even after Maastrichtian mass extinction of rudistids and other important groups comprising Mesozoic reef/carbonate platform ecosystems, coral-algal reef-building communities did not evolve again until the late Eocene.

Kauffman, E.G. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (USA))

1990-11-01

227

78 FR 67128 - Coral Reef Conservation Program; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Coral Reef Conservation Program; Meeting AGENCY: Coral Reef Conservation Program, Office of Ocean...hereby given of a public meeting of the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force (USCRTF). The meeting...

2013-11-08

228

Cooperative Multi-Agency Reef Fish Monitoring Protocol for the Florida Keys Coral Reef Ecosystem.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Reef fish populations are conspicuous and essential components of coral reef ecosystems in the south Florida region. Recent precipitous declines in these populations are believed to be due to severe habitat degradation as well as significant increases in ...

A. Acosta, J. A. Bohnsack, J. S. Ault, M. E. Brandt, N. Zurcher

2009-01-01

229

Egg flotation estimates nest age for Pacific and Red-throated Loons  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We used Pacific Loon (Gavia pacifica) and Red-throated Loon (G. stellata) nests with known ages to gauge the efficacy of egg flotation for determining nest age in coastal Alaska. Egg flotation accurately estimated nest age for both species; the mean ?? 1SD difference between known age and age determined with egg flotation was - 0.05 ?? 2.00 d and -0.02 ?? 1.63 d for Pacific and Red-throated Loons, respectively. Day of nest initiation did not influence the relationship between known nest age and nest age estimated with egg flotation, indicating incubation period was not shortened in nests initiated later in the season. Additionally, we found no difference in the ability of egg flotation to estimate nest age between two widely dispersed study sites for Pacific Loons, and only a small difference between two of three widely dispersed study sites for Red-throated Loons. Thus, our described relationships between egg flotation categories and nest age should be broadly applicable for these holarctic species. We conclude that for Pacific and Red-throated Loons, egg flotation is a useful technique for determining nest age in the field to better monitor nest fate, and to quantify nest age effects on nest daily survival rate.

Rizzolo, D.J.; Schmutz, J.A.

2007-01-01

230

Softened-Stainless-Steel O-Rings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In fabrication of O-ring of new type, tube of 304 stainless steel bent around mandril into circle and welded closed into ring. Ring annealed in furnace to make it soft and highly ductile. In this condition, used as crushable, deformable O-ring seal. O-ring replacements used in variety of atmospheres and temperatures, relatively inexpensive, fabricated with minimum amount of work, amenable to one-of-a-kind production, reusable, and environmentally benign.

Marquis, G. A.; Waters, William I.

1993-01-01

231

Evolution of ore deposits on terrestrial planets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ore deposits on terrestrial planets materialized after core formation, mantle evolution, crustal development, interactions of surface rocks with the hydrosphere and atmosphere, and, where life exists on a planet, the involvement of biological activity. Core formation removed most of the siderophilic and chalcophilic elements, leaving mantles depleted in many of the strategic and noble metals relative to their chondritic abundances. Basaltic magma derived from partial melting of the mantle transported to the surface several metals contained in immiscible silicate and sulfide melts. Magmatic ore deposits were formed during cooling, fractional crystallization and density stratification from the basaltic melts. Such ore deposits found in earth's Archean rocks were probably generated during early histories of all terrestrial planets and may be the only types of igneous ores on Mars. Where plate tectonic activity was prevalent on a terrestrial planet, temporal evolution of ore deposits took place. Repetitive episodes of subduction modified the chemical compositions of the crust and upper mantles, leading to porphyry copper and molybdenum ores in calc-alkaline igneous rocks and granite-hosted tin and tungsten deposits. Such plate tectonic-induced mineralization in relatively young igneous rocks on earth may also have produced hydrothermal ore deposits on Venus in addition to the massive sulfide and cumulate chromite ores associated with Venusian mafic igneous rock. Sedimentary ore deposits resulting from mechanical and chemical weathering in reducing atmospheres in Archean earth included placer deposits (e.g., uraninite, gold, pyrite ores). Chromite, ilmenite, and other dense unreactive minerals could also be present on channel floors and in valley networks on Mars, while banded iron formations might underlie the Martian northern plains regions. As oxygen evolved in earth's atmosphere, so too did oxide ores. By analogy, gossans above sulfide ores probably occur on Mars, but not submarine ferromanganese nodules and crusts which have precipitated in oxygenated seawater on earth.

Burns, R. G.

1991-01-01

232

The seal reliability analysis of oring seals  

Microsoft Academic Search

First, the seal reliability function of the O-ring, that is the maximum contact stress between O-ring and plunger must be greater than the fluid pressure, is established, then on the basis of the nonlinear constitutive equation Mooney-Rivlin of rubber material, the finite element model of the O-ring is built using commercial software ABAQUS, according to the finite element model, the

Faguo Sun; Tianxiang Yu; Weimin Cui; Xiao Zong

2009-01-01

233

Delineating optimal settlement areas of juvenile reef fish in Ngederrak Reef, Koror state, Republic of Palau.  

PubMed

Establishing the effectiveness of habitat features to act as surrogate measures of diversity and abundance of juvenile reef fish provides information that is critical to coral reef management. When accurately set on a broader spatial context, microhabitat information becomes more meaningful and its management application becomes more explicit. The goal of the study is to identify coral reef areas potentially important to juvenile fishes in Ngederrak Reef, Republic of Palau, across different spatial scales. To achieve this, the study requires the accomplishment of the following tasks: (1) structurally differentiate the general microhabitat types using acoustics; (2) quantify microhabitat association with juvenile reef fish community structure; and (3) conduct spatial analysis of the reef-wide data and locate areas optimal for juvenile reef fish settlement. The results strongly suggest the importance of branching structures in determining species count and abundance of juvenile reef fish at the outer reef slope of Ngederrak Reef. In the acoustic map, the accurate delineation of these features allowed us to identify reef areas with the highest potential to harbor a rich aggregation of juvenile reef fish. Using a developed spatial analysis tool that ranks pixel groups based on user-defined parameters, the reef area near the Western channel of Ngederrak is predicted to have the most robust aggregation of juvenile reef fish. The results have important implications not only in management, but also in modeling the impacts of habitat loss on reef fish community. At least for Ngederrak Reef, the results advanced the utility of acoustic systems in predicting spatial distribution of juvenile fish. PMID:25394769

Ticzon, Victor S; Foster, Greg; David, Laura T; Mumby, Peter J; Samaniego, Badi R; Madrid, Val Randolf

2015-01-01

234

Sintering Characteristics of Indian Chrome Ore Fines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chrome ore concentrate consists of high-temperature melting oxides such as Cr2O3, MgO, and Al2O3. The presence of these refractory constituents makes the ore a very high melting mineral. Hence, it is difficult to produce sinter from chrome ore by a pyrometallurgical route. Currently, chrome ore is ground to below 75 ?m, pelletized, heat hardened through carbothermic reaction at 1300 °C to 1400 °C, and then charged into a submerged electric arc furnace (EAF), along with lumpy ore for ferrochrome/charge-chrome production. Electricity is a major cost element in this extraction process. This work explores the sinterability of chrome ore. The objective of this study was to: (1) determine whether chrome ore is sinterable and, if so, (2) ascertain ways of achieving satisfactory properties at a low temperature of sintering. Sintering of the raw material feed could be a way to reduce electricity consumption, because during sintering a partial reduction of minerals is expected along with agglomeration. Studies carried out by the authors show that it is possible to agglomerate chrome ore fines through sintering. The chrome ore sinter thus produced was found to be inferior in strength, comparable to that of an iron ore sinter, but strength requirements may not be the same for both. Because the heat generation during chrome ore sintering is high owing to some exothermic reactions, compared with iron ore, and because chrome ore contains a high amount of fines, shallow-bed-depth sinter cake production was attempted in the laboratory-scale pot-sintering machine. The sintered product was found to be a good conductor of electricity because of the presence of phases such as magnetite and maghemite. This characteristic of the chrome ore sinter will subsequently have a favorable impact in terms of power consumption during the production of ferrochrome in a submerged EAF. The sinter made was melted in the arc furnace and it was found that the specific melting energy is comparable to that of heat-hardened chrome ore pellets but lower than briquettes and lump ore.

Nandy, Bikash; Chaudhury, Manoj Kumar; Paul, Jagannath; Bhattacharjee, D.

2009-10-01

235

ReefLink Database: A decision support tool for Linking Coral Reefs and Society Through Systems Thinking  

EPA Science Inventory

Coral reefs provide the ecological foundation for productive and diverse fish and invertebrate communities that support multibillion dollar reef fishing and tourism industries. Yet reefs are threatened by growing coastal development, climate change, and over-exploitation. A key i...

236

Hydrophobic Agglomeration of Mineral Fines in Aqueous Suspensions and its Application in Flotation: a Review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrophobic agglomeration is originated from the hydrophobic attraction between particles, which is essentially different from electrolyte coagulation and polymer flocculation. It is applied to mineral processing in floc-flotation process to improve the recovery of mineral fines. In this paper, the applications of this phenomenon in mineral fines were summarized, including the origin of hydrophobic agglomeration, the main factors affect hydrophobic agglomeration (particle hydrophobicity, shear rate and duration, nonpolar oil and tank geometry), as well as hydrophobic agglomeration based separation processes (carrier flotation and floc-flotation).

Yang, Bingqiao; Song, Shaoxian

2014-05-01

237

General Coral Reef Facts Healthy coral reefs are among the most biologically diverse and economically valuable  

E-print Network

it is extremely difficult to clean the oil. Effects of oil and dispersants on coral reefs Laboratory, field on current estimates, shallow water coral reefs occupy approximately 284,300 square kilometers (110,000 square miles) of the sea floor. If all of the world's shallow water coral reefs were placed side

238

Nitrogen excretion by some demersal macrozooplankton in Heron and One Tree Reefs, Great Barrier Reef, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen excretion rates of demersal macrozooplankton were measured together with nitrogen concentrations in the water column and sediments in lagoons of Heron Reef and One Tree Reef, Great Barrier Reef, Australia, during August and November 1991. Excretion rates increased with body weight, and weight-specific excretion rates of the demersal macrozooplankton were comparable to those of pelagic zooplankton and meiofauna in

J. W. Bishop; J. G. Greenwood

1994-01-01

239

Estimates of adult and juvenile mortality for labrid fishes at One Tree Reef, Great Barrier Reef  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few estimates of natural mortality have been reported for coral reef fishes, yet this information is essential for predicting the effects of recruitment fluctuations on adult populations. In this study, mortality of adult (10 species) and juvenile (11 species) labrid fishes resident on ten isolated patch reefs in One Tree Lagoon, southern Great Barrier Reef, was estimated by visual censuses

G. J. Eckert

1987-01-01

240

Microfacies and diagenesis of older Pleistocene (pre-last glacial maximum) reef deposits, Great Barrier Reef,  

E-print Network

Expedition 325, 34 holes were drilled along five transects in front of the Great Barrier Reef of Australia, Great Barrier Reef Environmental Changes, Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, microfacies, PleistoceneMicrofacies and diagenesis of older Pleistocene (pre-last glacial maximum) reef deposits, Great

Schöne, Bernd R.

241

Succession and community structure of reef flat algae at Heron Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is little published information on the distribution, abundance, seasonality and ecological roles of benthic algae on the Great Barrier Reef, although they are of fundamental importance in the ecology of coral reef communities. This study sought to provide information on algal community dynamics in two contrasting reef-flat zones: the live coral and algal turf-dominated outer flat, and the fleshy

Claudia Frances Catterall

2002-01-01

242

Philippine Coral Reefs Under Threat: Lessons Learned After 25 Years of Community-Based Reef Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Philippine archipelago consists of more than 7000 islands. Most of these islands have extensive coral reefs or coral communities. For centuries, reefs and their associated resources have provided the livelihood for a large portion of the coastal population. However, reefs as sources of income are threatened by over-exploitation and by the use of destructive fishing methods. The scientific community,

Alan T White; Helge P Vogt

2000-01-01

243

Microbial photosynthesis in coral reef sediments (Heron Reef, Australia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated microphytobenthic photosynthesis at four stations in the coral reef sediments at Heron Reef, Australia. The microphytobenthos was dominated by diatoms, dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria, as indicated by biomarker pigment analysis. Conspicuous algae firmly attached to the sand grains (ca. 100 ?m in diameter, surrounded by a hard transparent wall) were rich in peridinin, a marker pigment for dinoflagellates, but also showed a high diversity based on cyanobacterial 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. Specimens of these algae that were buried below the photic zone exhibited an unexpected stimulation of respiration by light, resulting in an increase of local oxygen concentrations upon darkening. Net photosynthesis of the sediments varied between 1.9 and 8.5 mmol O 2 m -2 h -1 and was strongly correlated with Chl a content, which lay between 31 and 84 mg m -2. An estimate based on our spatially limited dataset indicates that the microphytobenthic production for the entire reef is in the order of magnitude of the production estimated for corals. Photosynthesis stimulated calcification at all investigated sites (0.2-1.0 mmol Ca 2+ m -2 h -1). The sediments of at least three stations were net calcifying. Sedimentary N 2-fixation rates (measured by acetylene reduction assays at two sites) ranged between 0.9 to 3.9 mmol N 2 m -2 h -1 and were highest in the light, indicating the importance of heterocystous cyanobacteria. In coral fingers no N 2-fixation was measurable, which stresses the importance of the sediment compartment for reef nitrogen cycling.

Werner, Ursula; Blazejak, Anna; Bird, Paul; Eickert, Gabriele; Schoon, Raphaela; Abed, Raeid M. M.; Bissett, Andrew; de Beer, Dirk

2008-03-01

244

Climate change and coral reef connectivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review assesses and predicts the impacts that rapid climate change will have on population connectivity in coral reef\\u000a ecosystems, using fishes as a model group. Increased ocean temperatures are expected to accelerate larval development, potentially\\u000a leading to reduced pelagic durations and earlier reef-seeking behaviour. Depending on the spatial arrangement of reefs, the\\u000a expectation would be a reduction in dispersal

P. L. Munday; J. M. Leis; J. M. Lough; C. B. Paris; M. J. Kingsford; M. L. Berumen; J. Lambrechts

2009-01-01

245

Community ecology of mesophotic coral reef ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the global degradation of shallow-water coral reef ecosystems resulting from anthropogenic activities, mesophotic coral\\u000a reef ecosystems (MCEs) are gaining attention because they are generally considered a de facto refuge for shallow-water species.\\u000a Despite their inferred importance, MCEs remain one of the most understudied reef habitats, and basic information on the taxonomic\\u000a composition, depth range, habitat preferences, and abundance and

S. E. Kahng; J. R. Garcia-Sais; H. L. Spalding; E. Brokovich; D. Wagner; E. Weil; L. Hinderstein; R. J. Toonen

2010-01-01

246

Coral reef ecosystems and anthropogenic climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coral reef ecosystems are among the most biologically diverse ecosystems on the planet. In addition to their value in terms\\u000a of biodiversity, coral reefs provide food and resources for over 500 million people. Despite their importance, coral reefs\\u000a are declining at a rapid rate (1–2% per year) as a result of a range of local (e.g., overexploitation of fisheries, declining\\u000a water

Ove Hoegh-Guldberg

2011-01-01

247

Faunal relationships among the near-reef zooplankton at three locations on heron reef, great barrier reef, and seasonal changes in this fauna  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of zooplankton were collected using a light trap at 5 sites in 3 locations on Heron Reef: (a) near the surface of open water 300 m south of the reef crest; (b) near the surface and at the substratum on the upper reef slope; (c) near the surface and at the substratum on a patch reef in the Heron

P. F. Sale; P. S. McWilliam; D. T. Anderson

1978-01-01

248

Onondage pinnacle reefs in New York State  

SciTech Connect

Onondaga pinnacle reefs, part of the Onondaga Formation, developed in an epeiric setting of the lowermost Middle Devonian (Eifelian). The reefs were initiated as coral-crinoidal mounds in the Edgecliff Member of the formation. Whereas most Devonian reefs are composed of rugose corals. Coral is the predominant kind of fossil, followed by crinoids, brachiopods, mollusks, undifferentiated skeletal debris, and possible sponges. The initial mineralogy of the corals is inferred to have been calcite. The porosity of these reefs is almost unique among reef reservoirs. most reefs produce from secondary or diagenetic porosity; by contrast Onondaga reefs display primary intracoralline or framework porosity. Between framework builders and/or skeletal particles cryptocrystalline/microcrystalline cement fills pores. As observed in modern reefs this kind of cement resembles micrite, but probable formed as high-magnesian calcite in a high-energy setting. Syntaxial or rim cement common lines crinoid particles. Some of these pinnacle reefs, formerly gas producers, are presently under development as gas-storage reservoirs.

Friedman, G.M. [Brooklyn College and Graduate School of CUNY, Brooklyn, NY (United States)

1995-09-01

249

Coral Reef Protection: A Watershed Approach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This colorful, straightforward site from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s Oceans and Coastal Protection division (described in the November 25, 1998 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) outlines coral reef basic ecology and protection. About Coral Reefs provides background ecological information on coral reefs; Initiatives and Activities highlights EPA's activities but includes other US initiatives and links to symposia preceedings, factsheets, and other resources; and Related Links provides additional information on coral reef protection from the international, non-governmental (as well as federal), and educational sectors. A selection of recent news items (on the front page) rounds out the site.

Water., United S.

1998-01-01

250

Studies on the Great Barrier Reef  

SciTech Connect

Proposals to drill for oil on Australia's Great Barrier Reef have led to the appointment of a royal commission to study the environmental impact of such activities. The Australian Institute of Marine Science has developed a 5-part research plant which covers the Australian mangrove environment; nearshore habitat; processes and interactions, energy flows, resource cycling and their consequences within the reef ecosystems; patterns, abundances and relationships within the reef; and the continental shelf of the Great Barrier Reef region. Research in each of these areas is described.

Walton, S.

1985-01-01

251

Impacts of Artificial Reefs on Surrounding Ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Artificial reefs are becoming a popular biological and management component in shallow water environments characterized by soft seabed, representing both important marine habitats and tools to manage coastal fisheries and resources. An artificial reef in the marine environment acts as an open system with exchange of material and energy, altering the physical and biological characteristics of the surrounding area. Reef stability will depend on the balance of scour, settlement, and burial resulting from ocean conditions over time. Because of the unstable nature of sediments, they require a detailed and systematic investigation. Acoustic systems like high-frequency multibeam sonar are efficient tools in monitoring the environmental evolution around artificial reefs, whereas water turbidity can limit visual dive and ROV inspections. A high-frequency multibeam echo sounder offers the potential of detecting fine-scale distribution of reef units, providing an unprecedented level of resolution, coverage, and spatial definition. How do artificial reefs change over time in relation to the coastal processes? How accurately does multibeam technology map different typologies of artificial modules of known size and shape? How do artificial reefs affect fish school behavior? What are the limitations of multibeam technology for investigating fish school distribution as well as spatial and temporal changes? This study addresses the above questions and presents results of a new approach for artificial reef seafloor mapping over time, based upon an integrated analysis of multibeam swath bathymetry data and geoscientific information (backscatter data analysis, SCUBA observations, physical oceanographic data, and previous findings on the geology and sedimentation processes, integrated with unpublished data) from Senigallia artificial reef, northwestern Adriatic Sea (Italy) and St. Petersburg Beach Reef, west-central Florida continental shelf. A new approach for observation of fish aggregations associated with Senigallia reef based on the analysis of multibeam backscatter data in the water column is also explored. The settlement of the reefs and any terrain change are investigated over time providing a useful description of the local hydrodynamics and geological processes. All the artificial structures (made up by water-based concrete for Senigallia reef and mainly steel for St. Petersburg Beach reef) are identified and those showing substantial horizontal and/or vertical movements are analyzed in detail. Most artificial modules of Senigallia reef are not intact and scour signatures are well depicted around them, indicating reversals of the local current. This is due to both the wind pattern and to the quite close arrangement of the reef units that tend to deflect the bottom flow. As regards to the St. Petersburg Beach reef, all the man-made steel units are still in their upright position. Only a large barge shows a gradual collapse of its south side, and presents well-developed scouring at its east-northeast side, indicating dominant bottom flow from west-southwest to east-northeast. While an overall seafloor depth shallowing of about 0.30 m from down-current deposits was observed for Senigallia reef, an overall deepening of about 0.08 m due to scour was observed at the St. Petersburg Beach reef. Based on the backscatter data interpretation, surficial sediments are coarser in the vicinities of both artificial reefs than corresponding surrounding sediments. Scouring reveals this coarser layer underneath the prevalent mud sediment at Senigallia reef, and the predominant silt sediment at St. Petersburg Beach reef. In the ten years of Senigalia reef study, large-scale variations between clay and silt appear to be directly linked to large flood events that have occurred just prior to the change. As regards the water column investigation, acoustic backscatter from fish aggregations gives detailed information on their morphology and spatial distribution. In addition, relative fish biomass estimates can be extrapolated. Results suggest that most of

Manoukian, Sarine

252

Nocturnal relocation of adult and juvenile coral reef fishes in response to reef noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Juvenile and adult reef fishes often undergo migration, ontogenic habitat shifts, and nocturnal foraging movements. The orientation cues used for these behaviours are largely unknown. In this study, the use of sound as an orientation cue guiding the nocturnal movements of adult and juvenile reef fishes at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef was examined. The first experiment compared the movements of fishes to small patch reefs where reef noise was broadcast, with those to silent reefs. No significant responses were found in the 79 adults that were collected, but the 166 juveniles collected showed an increased diversity each morning on the reefs with broadcast noise, and significantly greater numbers of juveniles from three taxa (Apogonidae, Gobiidae and Pinguipedidae) were collected from reefs with broadcast noise. The second experiment compared the movement of adult and juvenile fishes to reefs broadcasting high (>570 Hz), or low (<570 Hz) frequency reef noise, or to silent reefs. Of the 122 adults collected, the highest diversity was seen at the low frequency reefs; and adults from two families (Gobiidae and Blenniidae) preferred these reefs. A similar trend was observed in the 372 juveniles collected, with higher diversity at the reefs with low frequency noises. This preference was seen in the juvenile apogonids; however, juvenile gobiids were attracted to both high and low sound treatments equally, and juvenile stage Acanthuridae preferred the high frequency noises. This evidence that juvenile and adult reef fishes orientate with respect to the soundscape raises important issues for management, conservation and the protection of sound cues used in natural behaviour.

Simpson, S. D.; Jeffs, A.; Montgomery, J. C.; McCauley, R. D.; Meekan, M. G.

2008-03-01

253

Mineral chemical study of U-bearing minerals from the Dominion Reefs, South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Neo-Archean Dominion Reefs (~3.06 Ga) are thin meta-conglomerate layers with concentrations of U- and Th-bearing heavy minerals higher than in the overlying Witwatersrand Reefs. Ore samples from Uranium One Africa's Rietkuil and Dominion exploration areas near Klerksdorp, South Africa, were investigated for their mineral paragenesis, texture and mineral chemical composition. The ore and heavy mineral assemblages consist of uraninite, other uraniferous minerals, Fe sulphides, Ni-Co sulfarsenides, garnet, pyrite, pyrrhotite, monazite, zircon, chromite, magnetite and minor gold. Sub-rounded uraninite grains occur associated with the primary detrital heavy mineral paragenesis. U-Ti, U-Th minerals, pitchblende (colloform uraninite) and coffinite are of secondary, re-mobilised origin as evidenced by crystal shape and texture. Most of the uranium mineralisation is represented by detrital uraninite with up to 70.2 wt.% UO2 and up to 9.3 wt.% ThO2. Re-crystallised phases such as secondary pitchblende (without Th), coffinite, U-Ti and U-Th phases are related to hydrothermal overprint during low-grade metamorphism and are of minor abundance.

Rantzsch, Ulrike; Gauert, Christoph D. K.; van der Westhuizen, Willem A.; Duhamel, Isabelle; Cuney, Michel; Beukes, Gerhard J.

2011-02-01

254

Radiometric Sorting of Rio Algom Uranium Ore.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An ore sample of about 0.2 percent uranium from Quirke Mine was subjected to radiometric sorting by Ore Sorters Limited. Approximately 60 percent of the sample weight fell within the sortable size range: -150 + 25 mm. Rejects of low uranium content (<0.01...

M. A. Cristovici

1983-01-01

255

18 CFR 1304.400 - Flotation devices and material, all floating structures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL OF CONSTRUCTION IN THE TENNESSEE RIVER SYSTEM AND REGULATION OF STRUCTURES...Every flotation device employed in the Tennessee River system must be firmly and...

2010-04-01

256

Commercial tests of cationic flocculant in flotation treatment of waste water  

SciTech Connect

This work has been aimed at testing the efficiency of a polyacrylamide with cationic properties in the flotation separation of oil matter from waste water under industrial conditions. The N-dimethylaminated polyacrylamide that they synthesized manifests the properties of a high-molecular-weight cationic polyelectrolyte. This particular flocculant was selected because of its relatively high flocculating power, the sharp reduction that it gives in the volume of slime (foam) in reagent flotation treatment of waste water, and the lower content of mineral salts in the treated water. Commercial tests of the cationic flocculant were performed at the Gor'kii petroleum oil plant. The treating facilities in this plant include the following: reagent section, pumping station, flotation unit, and section for gravitational compaction of oil slime rejected from the flotation cell.

Sokolov, V.P.; Chikunova, L.A.; Kudrina, L.A.; Gustov, V.A.

1987-07-01

257

18 CFR 1304.400 - Flotation devices and material, all floating structures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...flotation device or material specifically designed for marine applications (for example, pontoons, boat hulls, or other buoyancy devices made of steel, aluminum, fiberglass, or plastic foam, as provided for in paragraph (a) of this section)....

2012-04-01

258

FOAM FLOTATION TREATMENT OF HEAVY METALS AND FLUORIDE-BEARING INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Laboratory studies demonstrated that the floc foam flotation techniques are effective in removing lead, cadmium, mercury, copper, zinc, arsenic, and fluoride from dilute wastewaters to very low levels. Simulated as well as real industrial wastewaters were studied. Industrial wast...

259

Mapping Oyster Reef Habitats in Mobile Bay  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oyster reefs around the world are declining rapidly, and although they haven t received as much attention as coral reefs, they are just as important to their local ecosystems and economies. Oyster reefs provide habitats for many species of fish, invertebrates, and crustaceans, as well as the next generations of oysters. Oysters are also harvested from many of these reefs and are an important segment of many local economies, including that of Mobile Bay, where oysters rank in the top five commercial marine species both by landed weight and by dollar value. Although the remaining Mobile Bay oyster reefs are some of the least degraded in the world, projected climate change could have dramatic effects on the health of these important ecosystems. The viability of oyster reefs depends on water depth and temperature, appropriate pH and salinity levels, and the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water. Projected increases in sea level, changes in precipitation and runoff patterns, and changes in pH resulting from increases in the amount of carbon dioxide dissolved in the oceans could all affect the viability of oyster reefs in the future. Human activities such as dredging and unsustainable harvesting practices are also adversely impacting the oyster reefs. Fortunately, several projects are already under way to help rebuild or support existing or previously existing oyster reefs. The success of these projects will depend on the local effects of climate change on the current and potential habitats and man s ability to recognize and halt unsustainable harvesting practices. As the extent and health of the reefs changes, it will have impacts on the Mobile Bay ecosystem and economy, changing the resources available to the people who live there and to the rest of the country, since Mobile Bay is an important national source of seafood. This project identified potential climate change impacts on the oyster reefs of Mobile Bay, including the possible addition of newly viable habitats in the southeastern regions of the Bay.

Bolte, Danielle

2011-01-01

260

Effects of particle size and chain length on flotation of quaternary ammonium salts onto kaolinite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effects of particle size and chain length on flotation of quaternary ammonium salts (QAS) onto kaolinite have been investigated by flotation tests. Dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride (DTAC) and cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) were used as collectors for kaolinite in different particle size fractions (0.075 ~ 0.01 mm, 0.045 ~ 0.075 mm, 0 ~ 0.045 mm). The anomalous flotation behavior of kaolinite have been further explained based on crystal structure considerations by adsorption tests and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The results show that the flotation recovery of kaolinite in all different particle size fractions decreases with an increase in pH. As the concentration of collectors increases, the flotation recovery increases. The longer the carbon chain of QAS is, the higher the recoveries of coarse kaolinite (0.075 ~ 0.01 mm and 0.045 ~ 0.075 mm) are. But the flotation recovery of the finest kaolinite (0 ~ 0.045 mm) decreases with chain lengths of QAS collectors increasing, which is consistent with the flotation results of unscreened kaolinite (0 ~ 0.075 mm). It is explained by the froth stability related to the residual concentration of QAS collector in mineral pulp. In lower residual concentration, the froth stability becomes worse. Within the range of flotation collector concentration, it's easy of CTAC to be completely adsorbed by kaolinite in the particle size fraction (0-0.045 mm), which led to lower flotation recovery. Moreover, it is interesting that the coarser particle size of kaolinite is, the higher flotation recovery is. The anomalous flotation behavior of kaolinite is rationalized based on crystal structure considerations. The results of MD simulations show that the (001) kaolinite surface has the strongest interaction with DTAC, compared with the (001) face, (010) and (110) edges. On the other hand, when particle size of kaolinite is altered, the number of basal planes and edge planes is changed. It is observed that the finer kaolinite particles size become, the greater relative surface area of edges and the more the number of edges are. It means that fine kaolinite particles have more edges to adsorb fewer cationic colletors than that of coarse kaolinite particles, which is responsible for the poorer floatability of fine kaolinite.

Longhua, Xu; Yuehua, Hu; Faqin, Dong; Hao, Jiang; Houqin, Wu; Zhen, Wang; Ruohua, Liu

2014-05-01

261

Treatment of oil-in-water emulsions by coagulation and dissolved-air flotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of oil-in-water emulsions containing n-octane (used as simulated wastewater) was investigated by means of dissolved-air flotation jar-tests. The effect of several parameters on flotation efficiency for separation of the emulsified oil was examined, namely, (a) the presence the nonionic surfactant Tween 80, used for the stabilization of the emulsions, (b) the initial pH value of the emulsions, (c)

A. I Zouboulis; A Avranas

2000-01-01

262

The effect of ink types and printing processes on flotation deinking efficiency of wastepaper recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastepaper is the largest fraction of solid waste. Flotation deinking plays an essential role in the product quality and process cost of wastepaper recycling. This paper investigated the effect of ink types and printing processes on flotation deinking. Examination of ink types in this study revealed that newsprint oil-based offset-cold and offset-heat inks contain substantial oil (45 to 60%) and

Xiansheng Nie; J. D. Miller; Y. D. Yeboah

1998-01-01

263

The effects of surfactant concentration on grease removal by air flotation in municipal sewage treatment  

E-print Network

THE EFFECTS OF SURFACTANT CONCENTRATION ON GREASE REMOVAL BY AIR FLOTATION IN MUNICIPAL SEWAGE TREATMENT A Thesis by LARRY EUGENE PERRY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 'l97B Major Subject: Civil Engineering THE EFFECTS OF SURFACTANT CONCENTRATION ON GREASE REMOVAL BY AIR FLOTATION IN MUNI'CIPAL SEWAGE TREATMENT A Thesis LARPY EUGENE PERRY Approved as to styie and content by...

Perry, Larry Eugene

2012-06-07

264

Coral reef community composition in the context of disturbance history on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia.  

PubMed

Much research on coral reefs has documented differential declines in coral and associated organisms. In order to contextualise this general degradation, research on community composition is necessary in the context of varied disturbance histories and the biological processes and physical features thought to retard or promote recovery. We conducted a spatial assessment of coral reef communities across five reefs of the central Great Barrier Reef, Australia, with known disturbance histories, and assessed patterns of coral cover and community composition related to a range of other variables thought to be important for reef dynamics. Two of the reefs had not been extensively disturbed for at least 15 years prior to the surveys. Three of the reefs had been severely impacted by crown-of-thorns starfish outbreaks and coral bleaching approximately a decade before the surveys, from which only one of them was showing signs of recovery based on independent surveys. We incorporated wave exposure (sheltered and exposed) and reef zone (slope, crest and flat) into our design, providing a comprehensive assessment of the spatial patterns in community composition on these reefs. Categorising corals into life history groupings, we document major coral community differences in the unrecovered reefs, compared to the composition and covers found on the undisturbed reefs. The recovered reef, despite having similar coral cover, had a different community composition from the undisturbed reefs, which may indicate slow successional processes, or a different natural community dominance pattern due to hydrology and other oceanographic factors. The variables that best correlated with patterns in the coral community among sites included the density of juvenile corals, herbivore fish biomass, fish species richness and the cover of macroalgae. Given increasing impacts to the Great Barrier Reef, efforts to mitigate local stressors will be imperative to encouraging coral communities to persist into the future. PMID:24983747

Graham, Nicholas A J; Chong-Seng, Karen M; Huchery, Cindy; Januchowski-Hartley, Fraser A; Nash, Kirsty L

2014-01-01

265

Coral Reef Community Composition in the Context of Disturbance History on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia  

PubMed Central

Much research on coral reefs has documented differential declines in coral and associated organisms. In order to contextualise this general degradation, research on community composition is necessary in the context of varied disturbance histories and the biological processes and physical features thought to retard or promote recovery. We conducted a spatial assessment of coral reef communities across five reefs of the central Great Barrier Reef, Australia, with known disturbance histories, and assessed patterns of coral cover and community composition related to a range of other variables thought to be important for reef dynamics. Two of the reefs had not been extensively disturbed for at least 15 years prior to the surveys. Three of the reefs had been severely impacted by crown-of-thorns starfish outbreaks and coral bleaching approximately a decade before the surveys, from which only one of them was showing signs of recovery based on independent surveys. We incorporated wave exposure (sheltered and exposed) and reef zone (slope, crest and flat) into our design, providing a comprehensive assessment of the spatial patterns in community composition on these reefs. Categorising corals into life history groupings, we document major coral community differences in the unrecovered reefs, compared to the composition and covers found on the undisturbed reefs. The recovered reef, despite having similar coral cover, had a different community composition from the undisturbed reefs, which may indicate slow successional processes, or a different natural community dominance pattern due to hydrology and other oceanographic factors. The variables that best correlated with patterns in the coral community among sites included the density of juvenile corals, herbivore fish biomass, fish species richness and the cover of macroalgae. Given increasing impacts to the Great Barrier Reef, efforts to mitigate local stressors will be imperative to encouraging coral communities to persist into the future. PMID:24983747

Graham, Nicholas A. J.; Chong-Seng, Karen M.; Huchery, Cindy; Januchowski-Hartley, Fraser A.; Nash, Kirsty L.

2014-01-01

266

Project O.R.B (Operation Reef Ball): Creating Artificial Reefs, Educating the Community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Project O.R.B. (Operation Reef Ball) team at South Plantation High School's Everglades Restoration & Environmental Science Magnet Program is trying to help our ailing south Florida coral reefs by constructing, deploying, and monitoring designed artificial reefs. Students partnered with the Reef Ball Foundation, local concrete companies, state parks, Girl Scouts, Sea Scouts, local universities and environmental agencies to construct concrete reef balls, each weighing approximately 500 lbs (227 kg). Students then deployed two artificial reefs consisting of over 30 concrete reef balls in two sites previously permitted for artificial reef deployment. One artificial reef was placed approximately 1.5 miles (2.4 km) offshore of Golden Beach in Miami-Dade County with the assistance of Florida Atlantic University and their research vessel. A twin reef was deployed at the mouth of the river in Oleta River State Park in Miami. Monitoring and maintenance of the sites is ongoing with semi-annual reports due to the Reef Ball Foundation and DERM (Department of Environmental Resource Management) of Miami-Dade County. A second goal of Project O.R.B. is aligned with the Florida Local Action Strategy, the Southeast Florida Coral Reef Initiative, and the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force, all of which point out the importance of awareness and education as key components to the health of our coral reefs. Project O.R.B. team members developed and published an activity book targeting elementary school students. Outreach events incorporate cascade learning where high school students teach elementary and middle school students about various aspects of coral reefs through interactive "edu-tainment" modules. Attendees learn about water sampling, salinity, beach erosion, surface runoff, water cycle, ocean zones, anatomy of coral, human impact on corals, and characteristics of a well-designed artificial reef. Middle school students snorkel on the artificial reef to witness first-hand the success of this artificial reef. Over 3,000 students have been reached through the educational outreach endeavors of Project O.R.B. This successful STEM project models the benefits of partnerships with universities, local K-12 public schools and community conservation organizations and provides students with authentic learning experiences. Students are able to have a positive impact on their local coral reef environment, their peers and their community through this comprehensive service-learning project.

Phipps, A.

2012-04-01

267

Influence of the roughness and shape of quartz particles on their flotation kinetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface roughness and shape play an important role on the behavior of particles in various processes such as flotation. In this research, the influence of different grinding methods on the surface roughness and shape characteristics of quartz particles as well as the effect of these parameters on the flotation of the particles was investigated. The surface roughness of the particles was determined by measuring their specific surface area via the gas adsorption method. The shape characteristics of the particles were measured and calculated by images obtained by scanning electron microscopy via an image analysis system. The flotation kinetics was determined using a laboratory flotation cell. The results showed that the particles of rod mill products have higher roughness and elongation ratio and lower roundness than the particles of ball mill products. The flotation kinetics constant of the particles increased with their surface roughness increasing. Particles with higher elongation and lower roundness indicated higher floatability. In addition, the influence of the surface roughness on the flotation kinetics was greater than that of shape parameters.

Rahimi, Mehdi; Dehghani, Fahimeh; Rezai, Bahram; Aslani, Mohammad Reza

2012-04-01

268

Along-Track Reef Imaging System (ATRIS)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

"Along-Track Reef Imaging System (ATRIS)" describes the U.S. Geological Survey's Along-Track Reef Imaging System, a boat-based sensor package for rapidly mapping shallow water benthic environments. ATRIS acquires high resolution, color digital images that are accurately geo-located in real-time.

Brock, John; Zawada, Dave

2006-01-01

269

Preliminary observations on coral reef plankton  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTBRCT Plankton collections near coral reefs were made by hand-towing nets while swimming and by using a suction device for sampling caves. Plankton in sheltered areas was con- sidcrably different from that in nonsheltered areas; some plankton forms maintained position near coral reefs, indicating that the terms planktonic and epibenthic may represent extremes of a behavior continuum. Copepods were observed

ALAN R. EMERY

1968-01-01

270

Silurian pinnacle reefs of the Canadian Arctic  

SciTech Connect

Pinnacle reefs are commonly an attractive target for oil exploration because they are usually porous carbonate bodies entombed in impervious, deep-water shales that provide both the source and the seal for hydrocarbons. Silurian pinnacle reefs, the first described in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, are exposed on Ellesmere and Devon Islands. Two main reef trends occur, one of early middle Llandovery to middle Ludlow age and a second of middle Ludlow to Late Silurian or Early Devonian age. Reefs of both phases contain lime mudstone cores: some are stromatactoid-rich and others consist predominantly of microbialite-rich lime mudstone or microbial boundstone. Facies sequences of both reef phases show evidence of upward-shallowing overall, but, in the older reefs, isochronous capping facies are dominated either by coral-mirian or by stromatoporoid boundstone and floatstone. This difference perhaps reflects variation in wave stress and apparent ability of a few corals,thickly encrusted by or associated with microbial boundstone and skeletal algae, to withstand greater wave energy than a stromatoporoid-coral-rich reef community. These reefs constitute one of the bright prospects of hydrocarbon exploration in rocks of the Franklinian succession. 43 refs., 9 figs.

De Freitas, T.A.; Dixon, O.A. (Univ. of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)); Mayr, U. (Institute of Sedimentary and Petroleum Geology, Alberta (Canada))

1993-04-01

271

Reproductive ecology of Caribbean reef corals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last decade has seen a resurgence of interest in the processes of sexual reproduction by scleractinian reef corals. Earlier investigations had focused fortuitously on brooding (planulating) species, which resulted in the general misconception that brooding was the main form of larval development of reef corals. More recent work on Indo-Pacific species has shown broadcast spawning and short annual reproductive

Alina M. Szmant

1986-01-01

272

Along-Track Reef Imaging System (ATRIS)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

'Along-Track Reef Imaging System (ATRIS)' describes the U.S. Geological Survey's Along-Track Reef Imaging System, a boat-based sensor package for rapidly mapping shallow water benthic environments. ATRIS acquires high resolution, color digital images that are accurately geo-located in real-time.

Brock, John; Zawada, Dave

2006-01-01

273

Disease of coral and coral reef fishes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Department of the Interior protects sensitive habitats amounting to about 3,600,000 acres of coral reefs and other submerged lands. These reefs are important ecosystems in 13 National Wildlife Refuges, 10 National Parks and in certain territorial waters such as the Wake Atoll.

Panek, Frank

2008-01-01

274

Reefs and Learning: Education Evaluation Techniques  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Marine education research designs are discussed, and student learning outcomes while monitoring a coral reef is evaluated. Changes in environmental knowledge and attitudes, ecological intention to act, and direct reef experience were investigated. Differences between student pre-test and the post-test responses were observed, and analysis is…

Stepath, Carl M.

2006-01-01

275

Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page describes the unique Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Ecosystem Reserve. Provides resources focused on NWHI coral reef ecosystems, and introductions to reef research, management and protection activities. Educational outreach includes: teacher workshops; student activities, and a Discovery Center in Hilo, Hawaii that features exhibits and activities for schools and the public.

2011-04-22

276

Subtropical Biotic Fringing Reefs as Ecological Laboratories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a 16-week course in marine biology involving a class-coordinated investigation of a subtropical biotic fringing reef of Hawaii. Describes in detail the development of preliminary hypotheses regarding general cause-effect relationships on the reef, and the exploration of specific areas, such as chemical or physical factors. (CS)

Hunt, Jeffrey W.

1980-01-01

277

Artificial Reefs--A Coastal Classroom Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the construction of artificial reefs for such uses as commercial fishing and recreational boating. Describes a class project in which students construct a small artificial reef and observe the changes over time in terms of temperature, salinity, flora and fauna. (TW)

Dindo, John J.

1986-01-01

278

Coral Reef Conservation in Marine Protected Areas  

E-print Network

Coral Reef Conservation in Marine Protected Areas A Case Study of Parque Nacional del Este 22203, USA Telephone: (703) 841-4860 Coral Reef Conservation in Marine Protected Areas: A Case Study Bello y Georgina Bustamante Coral(inside)-R1.id 11/5/01, 4:55 PM1 #12;Derechos reservados © 2001

Greer, Lisa

279

Coral reefs: Conserving the evolutionary sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current worldwide degradation of coral reefs constitutes an international problem that calls for immediate attention. A multitude of conservation hotspots scattered over the circumtropical seas have been identified, but there has been no general agreement as to how to attack the problem. The major difficulty seems to be the lack of a priority system. Are some reefs more important

John C. Briggs

2005-01-01

280

Numerical Modeling on Waves over Fringing Reef  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fringing reef is a common type of coral reef which is composed with two main components, the reef flat and reef slope. The reef flat is usually found in fairly shallow water with a mild slope. Because the reef flat is adjacent to land, it plays an important role on dissipating the wave energy. Reef slope, on the other hand, is often quite steep which reflects the wave energy directly and introducing wave breaking. In order to have profound understanding on the energy dissipating mechanism, we idealize the reef setup and explore the flow field numerically. The wave flume is 30.35m long and the water depth is 0.45m. A 1:5.71 slope is used to represent the reef slope. Considering the complex wave field with strong turbulent, we perform the numerical simulation by solving the Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) model with volume-of-fluid (VOF) interface tracking algorithm. The numerical results are compared with our laboratory measurements. To accurately describe the incident wave generated by a piston-type wave maker, we utilize the moving-solid algorithm (MSA) to describe the interaction between the flow field and the moving paddle. The nonlinearity of the incident wave is 0.21. Highly accurate results can be seen in terms of the surface-elevation and mean velocity field. The results show that the when the waves are passing the fringing reef, they are able to generate the wave-driven current with wave set-up and set-down. Plunging-type breaking waves can also be observed at the crest area of the fringing reefs. Three different reef heights, 0.025m 0.05m, and 0.075m, are simulated and discussed where the still water depth is 0.1m. The results show that adding additional 50% of the reef height will increase about 15% of the vortex intensity in the reef upstream face and reduce about 10% of the current velocity in the downstream area.

Hsuan, H. P.; Wu, T.; Huang, Z.; Yao, Y.

2012-12-01

281

Coral Reef Information System: Discover NOAA's Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Coral Reef Information System (CoRIS), this Web site is "designed to be a single point of access to NOAA coral reef information and data products, especially those derived from NOAA's Coral Reef Initiative Program." With Discover NOAA's Data, users can access information by a text search of metadata records, or by a spatial search using an Arc IMS application. The two approaches share many of the same data sets. With the text search, users may search NOAA coral reef information by title, author, keyword, etc. The map program includes "over 19,000 aerial photos, 400 preview navigational charts, tide stations, paleoclimatological studies, photo mosaics, coral reef monitoring, bleaching reports, and more." The site provides numerous help features for both search methods.

2008-06-09

282

Coral Reef Information System: Discover NOAA's Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Coral Reef Information System (CoRIS), this Web site is "designed to be a single point of access to NOAA coral reef information and data products, especially those derived from NOAA's Coral Reef Initiative Program." With Discover NOAA's Data, users can access information by a text search of metadata records, or by a spatial search using an Arc IMS application. The two approaches share many of the same data sets. With the text search, users may search NOAA coral reef information by title, author, keyword, etc. The map program includes "over 19,000 aerial photos, 400 preview navigational charts, tide stations, paleoclimatological studies, photo mosaics, coral reef monitoring, bleaching reports, and more." The site provides numerous help features for both search methods.

283

Food availability affects growth in a coral reef fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pomacentrus amboinensis is common on small patch reefs within One Tree Lagoon (Great Barrier Reef), where it preferentially settles onto deep reefs. A preliminary experiment, in which juveniles were transplanted to identical reef structures at two sites, within two depth strata, indicated that juvenile growth and survivorship were better in deeper water. The hypothesis that this difference was due to

G. P. Jones

1986-01-01

284

Automated Annotation of Coral Reef Survey Images Oscar Beijbom  

E-print Network

Automated Annotation of Coral Reef Survey Images Oscar Beijbom Peter J. Edmunds David I. Kline B in image libraries awaiting annotation. This work addresses one such domain: coral reef coverage estimation. In this setting, the goal, as de- fined by coral reef ecologists, is to determine the percent- age of the reef

Jaffe, Jules

285

Parrotfish abundance and selective corallivory on a Belizean coral reef  

E-print Network

Parrotfish abundance and selective corallivory on a Belizean coral reef Randi D. Rotjan *, Sara M of coral reef communities because they consume macroalgae that would otherwise outcompete reef grazing by parrotfish on particular coral species, differences in grazing incidence among reef habitats

Lewis, Sara

286

Status of the Coral Reef Ecosystems of Guam  

E-print Network

Status of the Coral Reef Ecosystems of Guam By Val Porter, Trina Leberer, Mike Gawel, Jay Gutierrez Marine Laboratory Technical Report No. 113 October 2005 #12;Status of the Coral Reef Ecosystems of Guam of the Coral Reef Ecosystems of Guam ii #12;Status of the Coral Reef Ecosystems of Guam iii Guam

Mcilwain, Jenny

287

Science and management of coral reefs: problems and prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

It should be recognised that many principles of reef management do not need further research, as they involve changing human behaviour and activities in order to remove or reduce impacts on reefs. Much of the time of a reef manager is taken up with social, economic and political issues: the integration of reef management into broad coastal zone management objectives;

S. M. Wells

1995-01-01

288

SIGHTINGS OF HUMPBACK WHALES IN GREAT BARRIER REEF WATERS  

E-print Network

SIGHTINGS OF HUMPBACK WHALES IN GREAT BARRIER REEF WATERS MARK L. SIMMONS* AND HELENE MARSH*+ ABSTRACT Oral J-ristoryintewiews indicate that humpback whales used to winter in Great Barrier Reef waters in the Great Barrier Reef lagoon. Some females "pp"...,ity ."r* before they reach reef waters. Hump6acks

Marsh, Helene

289

A Global Estimate of the Number of Coral Reef Fishers  

PubMed Central

Overfishing threatens coral reefs worldwide, yet there is no reliable estimate on the number of reef fishers globally. We address this data gap by quantifying the number of reef fishers on a global scale, using two approaches - the first estimates reef fishers as a proportion of the total number of marine fishers in a country, based on the ratio of reef-related to total marine fish landed values. The second estimates reef fishers as a function of coral reef area, rural coastal population, and fishing pressure. In total, we find that there are 6 million reef fishers in 99 reef countries and territories worldwide, of which at least 25% are reef gleaners. Our estimates are an improvement over most existing fisher population statistics, which tend to omit accounting for gleaners and reef fishers. Our results suggest that slightly over a quarter of the world’s small-scale fishers fish on coral reefs, and half of all coral reef fishers are in Southeast Asia. Coral reefs evidently support the socio-economic well-being of numerous coastal communities. By quantifying the number of people who are employed as reef fishers, we provide decision-makers with an important input into planning for sustainable coral reef fisheries at the appropriate scale. PMID:23840327

Teh, Louise S. L.; Teh, Lydia C. L.; Sumaila, U. Rashid

2013-01-01

290

-Congressional Policy Brief -International Year of the Reef 2008  

E-print Network

of these ecosystems. How can Congress help coral reef conservation? · Support reauthorization of the Coral Reef, coordinate, and strengthen U.S. government actions to conserve both domestic and international coral reef of sustainable use and conservation of coral reefs for future generations. The ICRI is an informal mechanism

291

Mineral and Elemental Composition Features of "Loose" Oolitic Ores in Bakchar Iron Ore Cluster (Tomsk Oblast)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geo-technological investigation considerations of iron ore deposits within the Bakchar ore cluster are being carried out. The mineral and elemental composition of "loose" ores have been studied, embracing such important aspects as the distribution pattern of valuable and harmful impurities, the determination of element concentrators (such as vanadium, phosphate and sulphur) in basic minerals and the analysis of ore composition varaiation in volume ore cluster. Based on investigation results the mineral and elemental composition characteristic features of "loose" ores were defined. Although hydrogoethite was the basic identified ore mineral, such minerals as goethite, lepidocrocite, leptochlorite, siderite and hisingerite were also found. The deportment of calcium phosphate (anapaite) and phosphates of rare-earth elements (monazite, killarite), which are associated with the harmful impurity- phosphorous, are described. It has been defined that the ore constituent composition contains such persistent impurities as vanadium and manganese, the content of which is 0.35% and 0.03%, respectively. The "loose" ores are continuous in mineral composition, both in area and cross-section throughout the Bakchar ore cluster. Based on the sample element composition analysis the most perspective areas for further mineral processing could be: western with the fraction of 1....0.2mm. and eastern- fraction of 1...0.1mm.

Rudmin, M.; Mazurov, A.; Bolsunovskaya, L.

2014-08-01

292

Ecology of a Caribbean coral reef. The Porites reef-flat biotope: Part II. Plankton community with evidence for depletion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantitative assessment of drifting net plankton crossing a reef-flat biotope was obtained on a Caribbean coral reef. The spatial distribution and abundance of plankton were sampled to provide estimates of the removal of this potential food resource by suspension-feeding populations. Sampling was largely confined to the reef flat and adjacent waters of Laurel Cay, a flourishing coral reef present

P. W. Glynn

1973-01-01

293

Geomorphology and sediment transport on a submerged back-reef sand apron: One Tree Reef, Great Barrier Reef  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Back-reef sand aprons are conspicuous and dynamic sedimentary features in coral reef systems. The development of these features influences the evolution and defines the maturity of coral reefs. However, the hydrodynamic processes that drive changes on sand aprons are poorly understood with only a few studies directly assessing sediment entrainment and transport. Current and wave conditions on a back-reef sand apron were measured during this study and a digital elevation model was developed through topographic and bathymetric surveying of the sand apron, reef flats and lagoon. The current and wave processes that may entrain and transport sediment were assessed using second order small amplitude (Stokes) wave theory and Shields equations. The morphodynamic interactions between current flow and geomorphology were also examined. The results showed that sediment transport occurs under modal hydrodynamic conditions with waves the main force entraining sediment rather than average currents. A morphodynamic relationship between current flow and geomorphology was also observed with current flow primarily towards the lagoon in shallow areas of the sand apron and deeper channel-like areas directing current off the sand apron towards the lagoon or the reef crest. These results show that the short-term mutual interaction of hydrodynamics and geomorphology in coral reefs can result in morphodynamic equilibrium.

Harris, Daniel L.; Vila-Concejo, Ana; Webster, Jody M.

2014-10-01

294

Islands, Reefs, and a Hotspot  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students investigate the formation of the Hawaiian archipelago to see what geological processes produced the different physical forms seen among the Hawaiian Islands. Students will be able to describe eight stages in the formation of islands in the Hawaiian archipelago and will describe the movement of tectonic plates in the region including submarine volcanic eruptions, caldera formation, erosion, coral reef building, and atoll stages. They will also learn how a combination of hotspot activity and tectonic plate movement could produce the arrangement of seamounts observed in the Hawaiian archipelago.

Goodwin, Mel

295

The Reef Environmental Education Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of REEF is to educate and enlist divers in the conservation of marine habitats. The main focus of this site is the Fish Survey Project, in which volunteer scuba divers and snorkelers collect and report information on marine fish populations. The data is accessible through this website, and users can both contribute data they gather and generate reports from the database. A variety of reports can be created, including lists of all species found within a specific geographic area or the distribution of a fish species or family. There is an excellent explanation of how the data can be interpreted and what the parameters in the reports represent.

2003-02-17

296

25. FRONT END LOADERS MOMENTARILY IN REPOSE IN THE ORE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. FRONT END LOADERS MOMENTARILY IN REPOSE IN THE ORE STORAGE YARD. AN ORE BRIDGE THAT FORMERLY TRANSFERRED ORE WITHIN THE STORAGE YARD WAS DESTROYED BY A BLIZZARD IN 1978. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

297

Characterisation and Processing of Some Iron Ores of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lack of process characterization data of the ores based on the granulometry, texture, mineralogy, physical, chemical, properties, merits and limitations of process, market and local conditions may mislead the mineral processing entrepreneur. The proper implementation of process characterization and geotechnical map data will result in optimized sustainable utilization of resource by processing. A few case studies of process characterization of some Indian iron ores are dealt with. The tentative ascending order of process refractoriness of iron ores is massive hematite/magnetite < marine black iron oxide sands < laminated soft friable siliceous ore fines < massive banded magnetite quartzite < laminated soft friable clayey aluminous ore fines < massive banded hematite quartzite/jasper < massive clayey hydrated iron oxide ore < manganese bearing iron ores massive < Ti-V bearing magnetite magmatic ore < ferruginous cherty quartzite. Based on diagnostic process characterization, the ores have been classified and generic process have been adopted for some Indian iron ores.

Krishna, S. J. G.; Patil, M. R.; Rudrappa, C.; Kumar, S. P.; Ravi, B. P.

2013-10-01

298

Miocene reef carbonates of Mariana Islands  

SciTech Connect

Miocene carbonates in the southern Mariana Islands are impressive for their lithologic diversity, thicknesses (over 250 m), and geographic extent (> 20% combined outcrop coverage over four major high islands: Guam, Rota, Tinian and Saipan). Sections are dominated either by lagoonal algal-foraminiferal wackestones and mudstones with locally abundant high-energy shelly-skeletal facies, or by rubbly to muddy, fore-reef-to-bank deposits of packstones and grainstones with highly diverse and variable biogenic clasts. Fresh to deeply weathered volcaniclastic material may comprise at least 80% of some high-energy fore-reef facies, whereas lagoonal and bank deposits usually contain less than 0.5% terrigenous material. Surprisingly, the Miocene in the Marianas lacks almost completely any reef-core facies. Several poorly developed coral-rich mounds on Saipan and localized laminated red algal buildups on Guam appear to constitute the extant reef-wall facies in the Miocene. The lack of buildups may be a matter of differential survival; it may result from headland erosion and benching associated with emergence of narrow reef tracts as has been postulated by others for south Guam. Alternatively, the authors are proposing that Miocene bathymetry and the volume of terrigenous influx militated against significant reef core formation. Radiometric age dating of these reef carbonates has proven unsuccessful because pervasive diagenesis has transformed the entire Miocene section into low-magnesium calcite with minor and occasional dolomite. Freshwater phreatic diagenesis accounts for the principal porosity variation and trace element distribution.

Siegrist, H.G. Jr.

1988-02-01

299

Distribution of ore deposits and spectrographic analyses of some rocks and ores on the Colorado Plateau  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The geographic pattern of known igneous rocks and ore deposits on the Colorado Plateau suggests a zonal arrangement of several types of ore deposits around centers of igneous activity. Spectrographic analyses of rocks and ores on the Plateau have been obtained in an effort to determine the distribution of elements and to examine the relationships between types of ore deposits and between the ore deposits and igneous rocks. Over 170 analyses of rocks and ores are given in this report. A preliminary study of these analyses suggests that the proportion of uranium, vanadium, copper, and silver in the uranium ores varies geographically, and that the pattern of variation may be in part concentric about some of the major laccolithic intrusions. It is also suggested that the following ratios of metals contained in the uranium ores are possible guides to larger-than-average ore deposits: (1) lead/uranium greater than 1, (2) lead/zinc greater than 10, and (3) zinc/geometric mean of cobalt and nickel less than 10.

Riley, Leonard Benjamin; Shoemaker, Eugene Merle

1952-01-01

300

The sources of our iron ores. II  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In this instalment** the iron ore deposits of the Lake Superior States, which normally furnish about 80 per cent, of the annual output of the United States, are described together with historical notes on discovery and transportation of ore. Deposits in the Mississippi Valley and Western States are likewise outlined and the sources of imported ore are given. Reviewing the whole field, it is indicated that the great producing deposits of the Lake Superior and southern Appalachian regions are of hematite in basin areas of sedimentary rocks, that hydrated iron oxides and iron carbonates are generally found in undisturbed comparatively recent sediments, and that magnetite occurs in metamorphic and igneous rocks; also that numerical abundance of deposits is not a criterion as to their real importance as a source of supply. Statistics of production of iron ore and estimates of reserves of present grade conclude the paper.

Burchard, E.F.

1933-01-01

301

Local variation in herbivore feeding activity on an inshore reef of the Great Barrier Reef  

Microsoft Academic Search

Threats to coral reefs may be manifested through an increase in macroalgae. Across the globe, phase-shifts from coral to macroalgal\\u000a dominance have been reported from the Caribbean, Indian and Pacific Oceans. While the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) is in relatively\\u000a good condition, inshore reefs may exhibit over 50% macroalgal cover. However, our understanding of the processes preventing\\u000a the macroalgal expansion

C. Cvitanovic; D. R. Bellwood

2009-01-01

302

Coral Reef Remote Sensing Database and Monitoring of Coral Reefs by ASTER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coral reefs in the world are under the crisis of degradation both by increasing human activities in coastal zone and by the global changes. All the factors of the global change scenario would bring serious impact on coral reefs. Increase in CO2 suppress calcification in coral reefs. The world-wide bleaching event in 1997-1998 was supposed to be at least partly

H. Kayanne; T. Matsunaga; H. Kanbara; M. Kato

2001-01-01

303

Halimeda biomass, growth rates and sediment generation on reefs in the central great barrier reef province  

Microsoft Academic Search

The average biomass ofHalimeda per m2 of solid substratum increased progressively on a series of reefs situated at increasing distances from the shore in the central\\u000a Great Barrier Reef. There was none on a reef close inshore, increasing to nearly 500 g m?2 total biomass (?90% calcium carbonate) on an oceanic atoll system in the Coral Sea. The biomass measured

Edward A. Drew

1983-01-01

304

Spectral reflectance of coral reef bottom-types worldwide and implications for coral reef remote sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coral reef benthic communities are mosaics of individual bottom-types that are distinguished by their taxonomic composition and functional roles in the ecosystem. Knowledge of community structure is essential to understanding many reef processes. To develop techniques for identification and mapping of reef bottom-types using remote sensing, we measured 13,100 in situ optical reflectance spectra (400–700 nm, 1-nm intervals) of 12

Eric J Hochberg; Marlin J Atkinson; Serge Andréfouët

2003-01-01

305

Heap bioleaching of a complex sulfide ore  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of pH on the bioleaching of a low-grade, black schist ore from Finland containing pyrrhotite, pyrite, pentlandite, chalcopyrite and other mineral sulfides was studied using columns containing 9.0 kg of agglomerated ore that was irrigated with nutrient supplemented surface water from the deposit at ambient temperature. Iron and sulfur-oxidizing enriched culture was used to inoculate the columns. Iron oxidation

Anna-Kaisa Halinen; Nelli Rahunen; Anna H. Kaksonen; Jaakko A. Puhakka

2009-01-01

306

Numerical modeling of atoll reef harbors  

SciTech Connect

The effect of the shape of a harbor cut through a reef on mitigating waves from the deep ocean was studied using a shallow water, nonlinear, long wave code called SWAN. A significant amount of the wave energy is dissipated over the reef regardless of the design of the harbor. The reef resulted in decreasing the wave height by a factor 3. The wave height at the shore can be further decreased by another factor of 2 by a ''V'' shaped or parabolic bottom design.

Mader, C.L.; Vitousek, M.; Lukas, S.

1986-01-01

307

Could some coral reefs become sponge reefs as our climate changes?  

PubMed

Coral reefs across the world have been seriously degraded and have a bleak future in response to predicted global warming and ocean acidification (OA). However, this is not the first time that biocalcifying organisms, including corals, have faced the threat of extinction. The end-Triassic mass extinction (200 million years ago) was the most severe biotic crisis experienced by modern marine invertebrates, which selected against biocalcifiers; this was followed by the proliferation of another invertebrate group, sponges. The duration of this sponge-dominated period far surpasses that of alternative stable-ecosystem or phase-shift states reported on modern day coral reefs and, as such, a shift to sponge-dominated reefs warrants serious consideration as one future trajectory of coral reefs. We hypothesise that some coral reefs of today may become sponge reefs in the future, as sponges and corals respond differently to changing ocean chemistry and environmental conditions. To support this hypothesis, we discuss: (i) the presence of sponge reefs in the geological record; (ii) reported shifts from coral- to sponge-dominated systems; and (iii) direct and indirect responses of the sponge holobiont and its constituent parts (host and symbionts) to changes in temperature and pH. Based on this evidence, we propose that sponges may be one group to benefit from projected climate change and ocean acidification scenarios, and that increased sponge abundance represents a possible future trajectory for some coral reefs, which would have important implications for overall reef functioning. PMID:23553821

Bell, James J; Davy, Simon K; Jones, Timothy; Taylor, Michael W; Webster, Nicole S

2013-09-01

308

76 FR 63904 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Coral Reef Conservation Program Administration  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Information Collection; Comment Request; Coral Reef Conservation Program Administration...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract The Coral Reef Conservation Act of 2000 (Act) was...enacted to provide a framework for conserving coral reefs. The Coral Reef Conservation...

2011-10-14

309

Deinking of recycled pulps using column flotation: Energy and environmental benefits  

SciTech Connect

Deinking of recycled pulps is an important operation intended to provide pulps appropriate for making paper and paperboard products from recycled wastepaper. Conventionally, deinking of recycled pulp is conducted in a flotation cell equipped with an agitator. The authors have investigated the applicability of a new flotation cell based on a column without an agitator present to accomplish the deinking of typical wastepaper feedstocks and also a feedstock consisting of rejects from a conventional deinking cell. Experimental results on the deinking operation indicate that it is possible to achieve deinking of a mixture of photocopier and laserprinted paper in the column flotation cell. The performance of the column as measured by the resultant pulp's brightness and ink particle size distributions is comparable to that of a conventional laboratory cell which incorporates severe agitation regimens. Thus, it is found that the agitator can be eliminated by using the column flotation design which could yield significant electrical energy savings in addition to savings in capital costs and other operational and maintenance costs. A series of deinking experiments were also performed on a feedstock consisting of rejected waste obtained from a conventional cell in a pilot plant. The authors found that de-inking of the rejected waste could yield significant usable fiber. This indicates the potential of the column flotation technique in enhancing the reuse of a waste component thus reducing the volume of deinking waste rejected into the environment.

Chaiarrekij, S.; Dhingra, H.; Ramarao, B.V.

1999-07-01

310

Anglesite and silver recovery from jarosite residues through roasting and sulfidization-flotation in zinc hydrometallurgy.  

PubMed

Hazardous jarosite residues contain abundant valuable minerals that are difficult to be recovered by traditional flotation process. This study presents a new route, roasting combined with sulfidization-flotation, for the recovery of anglesite and silver from jarosite residues of zinc hydrometallurgy. Surface appearance and elemental distribution of jarosite residues was examined by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry analysis, respectively. Decomposition and transformation mechanisms of jarosite residues were illustrated by differential thermal analysis. Results showed that after roasting combined with flotation, the grade and recovery of lead were 43.89% and 66.86%, respectively, and those of silver were 1.3 kg/t and 81.60%, respectively. At 600-700 °C, jarosite was decomposed to release encapsulated valuable minerals such as anglesite (PbSO4) and silver mineral; silver jarosite decomposed into silver sulfate (Ag2SO4); and zinc ferrite (ZnO · Fe2O3) decomposed into zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) and hematite (Fe2O3). Bared anglesite and silver minerals were modified by sodium sulfide and easily collected by flotation collectors. This study demonstrates that the combination of roasting and sulfidization-flotation provides a promising process for the recovery of zinc, lead, and silver from jarosite residues of zinc hydrometallurgy. PMID:24953935

Han, Haisheng; Sun, Wei; Hu, Yuehua; Jia, Baoliang; Tang, Honghu

2014-08-15

311

Oil shales, evaporites and ore deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationships between oil shales, evaporites and sedimentary ore deposits can be classified in terms of stratigraphic and geochemical coherence. Oil shale and black shale deposition commonly follows continental red beds and is in turn followed by evaporite deposition. This transgressive-regressive sequence represents an orderly succession of depositional environments in space and time and results in stratigraphic coherence. The amount of organic carbon of a sediment depends on productivity and preservation, both of which are enhanced by saline environments. Work on Great Salt Lake. Utah, allows us to estimate that only 5% of TOC originally deposited is preserved. Inorganic carbonate production is similar to TOC production, but preservation is much higher. Oil shales and black shales commonly are enriched in heavy metals through scavenging by biogenic particles and complexation by organic matter. Ore deposits are formed from such rocks through secondary enrichment processes, establishing a geochemical coherence between oil shales and ore deposits. The Permian Kupferschiefer of N. Europe is used as an example to define a Kupferschiefer type (KST) deposit. Here oxygenated brines in contact with red beds become acidified through mineral precipitation and acquire metals by dissolving oxide coatings. Oxidation of the black shale leads to further acid production and metal acquisition and eventually to sulfide deposition along a reducing front. In order to form ore bodies, the stratigraphic coherence of the red bed-black shale-evaporite succession must be joined by the geochemical coherence of the ore body-evaporite-black shale association. The Cretaceous Cu-Zn deposits of Angola, the Zambian Copperbelt as well as the Creta, Oklahoma, deposits are other KST examples. In the Zambian Copperbelt, evaporites are indicated by the carbonate lenticles thought to be pseudomorphs after gypsum-anhydrite nodules. MVT deposits are also deposited by acid brines, but at more elevated temperatures and with carbonates as principal host rocks. The Pine Point deposits are cited for their close association with evaporites. Alkaline, metal-rich brines are postulated for the HYC deposit of McArthur River, Australia. Such brines are known from the Green River Formation and deposits formed from such brines constitute the GRT class. They can be recognized by the presence of Magadi-type cherts and zeolite-analcime-K-spar tuffs. The Cu-Co ore bodies of Outokumpu, Finland, might also belong to this type. A new classification of sedimentary ore deposits is proposed, based on their geochemical environment. KST and MVT are formed from acid ore fluids, while GRT and CT (Creede type) are derived from basic ore fluids. pH of the fluids is best evaluated not from the ores themselves, but from their effect on the host-rocks.

Eugster, Hans P.

1985-03-01

312

Hydrocarbon-oil encapsulated air bubble flotation of fine coal. 1st Quarterly report, October 1, 1990--December 31, 1990  

SciTech Connect

In the froth flotation process, whether accomplished In a conventional stirred tank flotation cell, in a column flotation cell, in an air sparged cyclone flotation or in a static-tube cell by using microbubbles, it requires the addition of large quantity of surfactants such as frother and/or collector (or promoter). In coarse coal flotation, special reagents are used such as high molecular weight frothers, the collector with a non-ionic, low foam emulsifier, Sherex Shur Coal 159 or Sherex Shur Coal 168 blended with fuel oil No. 2. These reagents in liquid forms are directly added into the coal pulp in the flotation cell. Frequently, a conditioning tank is required to achieve the dispersion of the reagents. The dispersion of the collector such as hydrocarbon-oil (insoluble or partially soluble) by a mechanical mixer in the coal pulp is often inadequate. In this work, in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of collector droplet size and dispersion on froth flotation processes, a unique gasified collector dispersion and oil-coated bubble generation system was used. The hydrocarbon oil collector was gasified at a temperature approximately 40 degrees C above the fractionation temperature of the collector to avoid pyrolysis. Gasified collector is first mixed in the air stream and transported to the air diffusion hood in the flotation cell. The oil-coated air bubbles were then generated and diffused into solid-water phases.

Peng, F.F.

1995-01-01

313

EPA Field Manual for Coral Reef Assessments  

EPA Science Inventory

The Water Quality Research Program (WQRP) supports development of coral reef biological criteria. Research is focused on developing methods and tools to support implementation of legally defensible biological standards for maintaining biological integrity, which is protected by ...

314

In Brief. ... A Tire Reef, "Ghost" Sea  

E-print Network

,,",o prohlbiteu.... ....A "tire baler." making artificial reef from old auto tires along Te\\as' coa,t thl' ,ummel niver~it) . . .. .Cold winter weather, combined with extremely low water level . caused a widespread

315

MANGROVE-DERIVED NUTRIENTS AND CORAL REEFS  

EPA Science Inventory

Understanding the consequences of the declining global cover of mangroves due to anthropogenic disturbance necessitates consideration of how mangrove-derived nutrients contribute to threatened coral reef systems. We sampled potential sources of organic matter and a suite of sessi...

316

Oysters and Oyster Reef Communities in Florida.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The habitat, life history, feeding, classification, anatomy and pearl production of the American oyster (Crassostrea virginica) are presented. A list of other oyster reef inhabitants and predators is provided. Harvest and habitat loss are discussed. (CW)

Knight, Jean; Bly, Joe

1989-01-01

317

Ocean acidification impairs vermetid reef recruitment.  

PubMed

Vermetids form reefs in sub-tropical and warm-temperate waters that protect coasts from erosion, regulate sediment transport and accumulation, serve as carbon sinks and provide habitat for other species. The gastropods that form these reefs brood encapsulated larvae; they are threatened by rapid environmental changes since their ability to disperse is very limited. We used transplant experiments along a natural CO2 gradient to assess ocean acidification effects on the reef-building gastropod Dendropoma petraeum. We found that although D. petraeum were able to reproduce and brood at elevated levels of CO2, recruitment success was adversely affected. Long-term exposure to acidified conditions predicted for the year 2100 and beyond caused shell dissolution and a significant increase in shell Mg content. Unless CO2 emissions are reduced and conservation measures taken, our results suggest these reefs are in danger of extinction within this century, with significant ecological and socioeconomic ramifications for coastal systems. PMID:24577050

Milazzo, Marco; Rodolfo-Metalpa, Riccardo; Chan, Vera Bin San; Fine, Maoz; Alessi, Cinzia; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Chemello, Renato

2014-01-01

318

Extinction vulnerability of coral reef fishes  

PubMed Central

With rapidly increasing rates of contemporary extinction, predicting extinction vulnerability and identifying how multiple stressors drive non-random species loss have become key challenges in ecology. These assessments are crucial for avoiding the loss of key functional groups that sustain ecosystem processes and services. We developed a novel predictive framework of species extinction vulnerability and applied it to coral reef fishes. Although relatively few coral reef fishes are at risk of global extinction from climate disturbances, a negative convex relationship between fish species locally vulnerable to climate change vs. fisheries exploitation indicates that the entire community is vulnerable on the many reefs where both stressors co-occur. Fishes involved in maintaining key ecosystem functions are more at risk from fishing than climate disturbances. This finding is encouraging as local and regional commitment to fisheries management action can maintain reef ecosystem functions pending progress towards the more complex global problem of stabilizing the climate. PMID:21320260

Graham, Nicholas A J; Chabanet, Pascale; Evans, Richard D; Jennings, Simon; Letourneur, Yves; Aaron MacNeil, M; McClanahan, Tim R; Ohman, Marcus C; Polunin, Nicholas V C; Wilson, Shaun K

2011-01-01

319

Comparing the Invasibility of Experimental "Reefs" with Field Observations of Natural Reefs and Artificial Structures  

PubMed Central

Natural systems are increasingly being modified by the addition of artificial habitats which may facilitate invasion. Where invaders are able to disperse from artificial habitats, their impact may spread to surrounding natural communities and therefore it is important to investigate potential factors that reduce or enhance invasibility. We surveyed the distribution of non-indigenous and native invertebrates and algae between artificial habitats and natural reefs in a marine subtidal system. We also deployed sandstone plates as experimental ‘reefs’ and manipulated the orientation, starting assemblage and degree of shading. Invertebrates (non-indigenous and native) appeared to be responding to similar environmental factors (e.g. orientation) and occupied most space on artificial structures and to a lesser extent reef walls. Non-indigenous invertebrates are less successful than native invertebrates on horizontal reefs despite functional similarities. Manipulative experiments revealed that even when non-indigenous invertebrates invade vertical “reefs”, they are unlikely to gain a foothold and never exceed covers of native invertebrates (regardless of space availability). Community ecology suggests that invertebrates will dominate reef walls and algae horizontal reefs due to functional differences, however our surveys revealed that native algae dominate both vertical and horizontal reefs in shallow estuarine systems. Few non-indigenous algae were sampled in the study, however where invasive algal species are present in a system, they may present a threat to reef communities. Our findings suggest that non-indigenous species are less successful at occupying space on reef compared to artificial structures, and manipulations of biotic and abiotic conditions (primarily orientation and to a lesser extent biotic resistance) on experimental “reefs” explained a large portion of this variation, however they could not fully explain the magnitude of differences. PMID:22666459

Dafforn, Katherine A.; Glasby, Tim M.; Johnston, Emma L.

2012-01-01

320

Paleobiologic and paleoenvironmental context of coral-bearing Early Cambrian reefs: Implications for Phanerozoic reef development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early Cambrian corals from South Australia have been found within fossil reefs of unusual biological and paleoecological composition. The framework of these reefs is composed of a diverse assemblage of calcareous sponges (e.g., archaeocyaths and sphinctozoans), calci-microbes, and at least two species of coral-like organisms, one of which is first reported herein and bears similarities to younger Paleozoic tabulate corals. Complex growth interactions occur among these organisms, suggesting that space was a limiting factor in Early Cambrian reef ecosystems, as it is today in modern scleractinian reefs. In striking contrast to most Early Cambrian archaeocyath-calcimicrobe reefs, these South Australian reefs flourished within energetic, mixed silici-clastic-carbonate shallow-marine environments along the margins of arid, coarse-grained, sea-marginal alluvial fans. The implications of these coral-bearing reefs are multifold. First, their existence not only extends the range of tabulatelike corals to the Botomian (middle Early Cambrian), but it adds an additional clade of participants to the Early Cambrian metazoan radiation event. Second, the existence of Botomian-aged skeletonized colonial cnidarians necessitates an earliest Cambrian or Neoproterozoic ancestor for the group. Third, the presence of tabulatelike corals and their involvement in reef building prior to the Toyonian extinction (late Early Cambrian) challenges hypotheses (e.g., lack of a suitable reef builder after the extinction of archaeocyaths until the Ordovician) used to explain the paucity of Middle and Late Cambrian reefs worldwide. The presence of these corals on sea-marginal fans contradicts the perception that early reefs were restricted to low-energy, predominantly carbonate subtidal environments.

Savarese, Michael; Mount, Jeffrey F.; E., James; Bucklin, Louis

1993-10-01

321

Rapid vertical accretion on a `young' shore-detached turbid zone reef: Offshore Paluma Shoals, central Great Barrier Reef, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the age structure and net accretion rates determined for an open water turbid zone reef, known as Offshore Paluma Shoals, located on the inner central Great Barrier Reef. Twenty-eight radiocarbon dates from 5 cores through the reef structure indicate that this reef began growing ~1,700 years ago and that net vertical accretion through the main phase of reef development was rapid (averaging 7.8 mm yr-1), this despite the reef growing in highly turbid waters. The most rapid growth phases coincided with the accumulation of mud-rich terrigenoclastic sediments within the reef fabric. The study emphasises the capacity of turbid zone reefs to vertically accrete at rates matching or exceeding many clear water reefs despite seemingly detrimental water quality conditions.

Perry, C. T.; Smithers, S. G.; Gulliver, P.

2013-12-01

322

Predation in Ancient Reef-Builders  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Avoidance of predation is of critical importance to any organism, but reef-building organisms might be considered particularly\\u000a vulnerable due to their immobile, epifaunal life habit. The need for photosymbiotic metazoans to expose large areas of soft\\u000a tissue to light further increases the risk of predation, as well as fouling. It has been well established that modern coral\\u000a reefs grow in

Rachel Wood

323

Explore coral reefs around the world  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Earth science resource uses a world map to show students the locations of five coral reefs. Students are instructed to toggle between maps coded according to ocean depth or water temperature to determine the conditions required for coral growth. Each reef is indicated by a red dot that students click on to view a photograph and to read additional information. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Education, Terc. C.; Littell, Mcdougal

2003-01-01

324

Separation of packaging plastics by froth flotation in a continuous pilot plant.  

PubMed

The objective of the research was to apply froth flotation to separate post-consumer PET (Polyethylene Terephthalate) from other packaging plastics with similar density, in a continuously operated pilot plant. A representative sample composed of 85% PET, 2.5% PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride) and 11.9% PS (Polystyrene) was subjected to a combination of alkaline treatment and surfactant adsorption followed by froth flotation. A mineral processing pilot plant, owned by a Portuguese mining company, was adapted for this purpose. The experimentation showed that it is possible to produce an almost pure concentrate of PET, containing 83% of the PET in feed, in a single bank of mechanical flotation cells. The concentrate grade attained was 97.2% PET, 1.1% PVC and 1.1% PS. By simulation it was shown that the Portuguese recycling industry specifications can be attained if one cleaning and one scavenger stages are added to the circuit. PMID:20576423

Carvalho, Teresa; Durão, Fernando; Ferreira, Célia

2010-11-01

325

Separation of packaging plastics by froth flotation in a continuous pilot plant  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the research was to apply froth flotation to separate post-consumer PET (Polyethylene Terephthalate) from other packaging plastics with similar density, in a continuously operated pilot plant. A representative sample composed of 85% PET, 2.5% PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride) and 11.9% PS (Polystyrene) was subjected to a combination of alkaline treatment and surfactant adsorption followed by froth flotation. A mineral processing pilot plant, owned by a Portuguese mining company, was adapted for this purpose. The experimentation showed that it is possible to produce an almost pure concentrate of PET, containing 83% of the PET in feed, in a single bank of mechanical flotation cells. The concentrate grade attained was 97.2% PET, 1.1% PVC and 1.1% PS. By simulation it was shown that the Portuguese recycling industry specifications can be attained if one cleaning and one scavenger stages are added to the circuit.

Carvalho, Teresa, E-mail: teresa.carvalho@ist.utl.p [CERENA, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Durao, Fernando; Ferreira, Celia [CERENA, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)

2010-11-15

326

Optimized conditions for selective gold flotation by ToF-SIMS and ToF-LIMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work describes a comprehensive characterization of the factors controlling the floatability of free gold from flotation test using reagents (collectors) at plant concentration levels. A relationship between the collectors loadings on gold particles and their surface composition has been established. The findings of this study show that silver activates gold flotation and there is a strong correlation between the surface concentration of silver and the loading of certain collectors. The organic surface analysis was done by ToF-SIMS while the inorganic surface analysis was carried out by time-of-flight laser ionization mass spectrometry (ToF-LIMS). The developed testing protocol based on ToF-LIMS and ToF-SIMS complementary surface analysis allows for optimization of the flotation scheme and hence improved gold recovery.

Chryssoulis, S. L.; Dimov, S. S.

2004-06-01

327

Miocene reef carbonates of Mariana Islands  

SciTech Connect

Miocene carbonates in the southern Mariana Islands are impressive for their lithologic diversity, thicknesses (over 250 m), and geographic extend (>20% combined outcrop coverage over four major high islands: Guam, Rota, Tinian and Saipan). Sections are dominated either by lagoonal algal-foraminiferal wackestones and mudstones with locally abundant high-energy shelly-skeletal facies, or by rubbly to muddy, fore-reef-to-bank deposits of packstones and grainstones with highly diverse and variable biogenic clasts. Fresh to deeply weathered volcaniclastic material may comprise at least 80% of some high-energy fore-reef facies, whereas lagoonal and bank deposits usually contain less than 0.5% terrigenous material. Surprisingly, the Miocene in the Marianas lacks almost completely any reef-core facies. Several poorly developed coral-rich mounds on Saipan and localized laminated red algal buildups on Guam appear to constitute the extant reef-wall facies in the Miocene. The lack of buildups may be a matter of differential survival; it may result from headland erosion and benching associated with emergency of narrow reef tracts as has been postulated by others for south Guam. Radiometric age dating of these reef carbonates has proven unsuccessful because pervasive diagenesis has transformed the entire Miocene section into low-magnesium calcite with minor and occasional dolomite. Freshwater phreatic diagenesis accounts for the principal porosity variation and trace element distribution.

Siegrist, H.G. Jr.

1988-01-01

328

Coral Reef Ecosystems: The Abiotic Setting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Object is the second of four Science Objects in the Coral Reef Ecosystems SciPack. It investigates the abiotic characteristics that affect the coral reef ecosystem. The number and kinds of organisms found along each reef depend on the physical conditions of the environment and resources available, including food, light, water quality, temperature, and other organisms living in the reef. If conditions change significantly due to changes in climate, loss of food sources, excessive predation, or loss of habitat, the health and stability of the ecosystem will be affected. Like many complex systems, coral ecosystems tend to have cyclic fluctuations around a state of rough equilibrium. In the long run, if conditions remain reasonably constant a coral ecosystem can be stable for hundreds of years. Learning Outcomes:� Identify the characteristics of an ecosystem, and describe the interdependence between biotic and abiotic features in an ecosystem.� Describe how the following abiotic factors provide coral with the energy needed to survive and grow within their ecosystem: sunlight, water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide.� Describe the optimal environmental conditions for coral reef growth, and explain the process of coral reef development (including the role of available sunlight and calcium).� Explain how the following environmental factors might affect coral ecosystems: increase in dissolved CO2, changes in global temperatures, increase in ocean water turbidity through water pollution.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2006-11-01

329

ReefSAM - Reef Sedimentary Accretion Model: A new 3D coral reef evolution model/simulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coral reefs show characteristic morphological patterns (e.g. coral dominated margins with detrital carbonate dominated lagoons/back-reef) and temporal development (e.g. Hopley et al. 2007). While the processes which lead to predictable patterns on a range of scales have been discussed qualitatively, a full quantitative understanding of the range of processes and parameters involved requires modelling. Previous attempts to model complex Holocene reef systems (i.e. One Tree Reef, GBR - Barrett and Webster 2012) using a carbonate stratigraphic forward model (Carbonate3D - Warrlich et al. 2002) identified a number of important but unsimulated processes and potential model improvements. ReefSAM has been written from scratch in Matlab using these findings and experiences from using Carbonate3D. It simulates coralgal accretion and carbonate sand production and transport. Specific improvements include: 1. a more complex hydrodynamic model based on wave refraction and incorporating vertical (depth) and lateral (substrate dependent) variations in transport energy and erosion. 2. a complex reef growth model incorporating depth, wave energy/turbidity and substrate composition. 3. Paleo-water depth, paleo-wave energy and bio-zone (combination of paleo-water depth and wave energy) model outputs allowing coralgal habitat changes through time and space to be simulated and compared to observational data. The model is compared to the well studied One Tree Reef - tests similar to those undertaken in Barrett and Webster 2012 with Carbonate3D are presented. Model development coincides with plans for further intensive drilling at One Tree Reef (mid 2013) providing an opportunity to test the model predictively. The model is still in active development. References: Barrett, S.J., Webster, J.M.,2012. Holocene evolution of the Great Barrier Reef: Insights from 3D numerical modelling. Sedimentary Geology 265-266, 56-71. Warrlich, G.M.D., Waltham, D.A., Bosence D.W.J., 2002. Quantifying the sequence stratigraphy and drowning mechanisms of atolls using a new 3-D forward modelling program (CARBONATE 3D). Basin Research 14, 379-400. Hopley, D., Smithers, S.G., Parnell, K.E., 2007. The geomorphology of the Great Barrier Reef. Cambridge.

Barrett, Samuel; Webster, Jody

2013-04-01

330

CoralReefs(1995)14:91-97 CoralReefs9 Springer-Verlag1995 ~  

E-print Network

CoralReefs(1995)14:91-97 CoralReefs9 Springer-Verlag1995 ~ Taphonomy of crown-of-thorns starfish of the > 4 mm class. Taphonomic biasing increased the abund- ance of crown-of-thorns starfish (COTS) skeletal of population explosions of the crown-of-thorns starfish (Acanthaster planci) on the Great Barrier Reefhas been

Greenstein, Benjamin J.

331

Internal structure and Holocene evolution of One Tree Reef, southern Great Barrier Reef  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of core from six drill holes and ten vibrocores from One Tree Reef has delineated five major biosedimentological facies: algal pavement, coral head facies, branching coral facies, reef flat rubble facies and sand facies. Holocene growth began around 8,000 years B.P. with a high energy coral head facies on windward margins and a lower energy branching coral facies on

J. F. Marshall; P. J. Davies

1982-01-01

332

Philippine Coral Reefs Under Threat: The Economic Losses Caused by Reef Destruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Philippines, coral reef fisheries provide livelihood for more than a million small-scale fishers who contribute almost US$ 1 billion annually to the country’s economy. The rapidly growing population needs increasing amounts of fish and other marine organisms. However, overfishing, destructive fishing methods and sedimentation have damaged or destroyed many reef areas. Fish catches have fallen well below the

Alan T White; Helge P Vogt; Tijen Arin

2000-01-01

333

Contamination of soils near a tailing pond at the Zlate Hory polymetallic ore deposit  

SciTech Connect

The relationship between concentrations of trace elements in soils and their content in plants has became a frequently discussed issue. Attention also focuses on the effects of trace element concentrations on the healthy development of vegetation. The Zlate Hory Mining District (in the northern part of the Jeseniky Mountains, 14 km east of Jesenik) with its polymetallic mineral deposits represents an important geochemical source area. It provides opportunities for the study of trace element distributions in the soil horizons and vegetation of a forest comprising mainly Norway spruce, Picea abies (L.) Karsten. Conditions of geochemical migration vary widely from geochemical background to the anomalous areas affected by a high level of mining activity. Trace element distribution in soil horizons was studied in the flood plain of Prudnik Creek. The study area was delineated using basic square units, 10 x 10 m, alternated regularly with free squares. Soil sampling was performed inside the basic square units simultaneously with geobotanical mapping. The study area was located where soils of the flood plain are influenced by waters discharged from a tailing pond and by the highly contaminated waters of Prudnik Creek. The tailing pond is situated above the study area, on the western slope of the Prudnik valley. The mine and mineral dressing plant is located two kilometers upstream to the south. Flotation technology is used to produce chalcopyrite concentrate from ore of the disseminated type. Stratiform ore bodies formed by chalcopyrite and pyrite, with some admixtures of galena and sphalerite, are deposited in metamorphosed Devonian series with quartzite and phyllites predominant.

Raclavska, H. [Univ. of Mining and Metallurgy, Ostrava (Czechoslovakia); Raclavska, K. [Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Ostrava (Czechoslovakia). Institute of Industrial Landscape Ecology

1994-12-31

334

How many ore-bearing asteroids?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple formalism is presented to assess how many asteroids contain ore, i.e., commercially profitable material, and not merely a high concentration of a resource. I apply this formalism to two resource cases: platinum group metals (PGMs) and water. Assuming for now that only Ni-Fe asteroids are of interest for PGMs, then 1% of NEOs are rich in PGMs. The dearth of ultra-low delta-v (<4.5 km s-1) NEOs larger than 100 m diameter reduces the ore-bearing fraction to only 1 in 2000 NEOs. As 100 m diameter NEOs are needed to have a value ?US$1B and the population of near-Earth objects (NEOs) larger than 100 m diameter is 20,000 (Mainzer et al., 2011) the total population of PGM ore-bearing NEOs is roughly 10. I stress that this is a conservative and highly uncertain value. For example, an order of magnitude increase in PGM ore-bearing NEOs occurs if delta-v can be as large as 5.7 km s-1. Water ore for utilization in space is likely to be found in 1/1100 NEOs. NEOs as small as 18 m diameter can be water-ore-bodies because of the high richness of water ( 20%) expected in 25% of carbonaceous asteroids, bringing the number of water-ore-bearing NEOs to 9000 out of the 10 million NEOs of this size. These small NEOs are, however, hard to find with present surveys. There will be 18 water-ore-bearing NEOs >100 m diameter. These estimates are at present highly imprecise and sensitive to small changes, especially in the maximum delta-v allowed. Nonetheless the low values found here mean that much improved determinations of each of the terms of the formalism are urgently needed. If better estimates still find small numbers of ore-bearing NEOs then thorough surveys for NEA discovery and, especially, characterization are needed. Strategies for the two classes are likely to be different.

Elvis, Martin

2014-02-01

335

Laboratory and in situ flotation rates of lecithotrophic eggs from the bathyal echinoid Phormosoma placenta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The large, lecithotrophic eggs of the bathyal echinothuriid echinoid Phormosoma placenta are positively buoyant both in vitro and in situ to depths of at least 608 m. Eggs attain terminal velocity in less than 5 cm. At constant salinity, flotation rate is related linearly to temperature; eggs move more slowly at lower temperatures. This effect is attributed to increased water viscosity at lower temperatures, not differential changes in egg and water density. Based on an average flotation velocity of 0.42 cm s -1, it is predicted that eggs produced at bathyal depths will reach the surface in approximately 2 days.

Young, Craig M.; Cameron, J. Lane

1987-09-01

336

Machine vision system for ore sizing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A machine vision systelu has been developed to size and count ore as it passes down a conveyor belt. The imaging system consists of a line scan camera a zoom lens and a structured lighting arrangenient. The structured lighting produces a line of light which is projected onto the conveyor belt at an angle with respect to the caniera. When a piece of ore is present the line of light covering the piece is displaced out of the field of view of the camera. This method is used to overcome the poor contrast between the ore and the conveyor belt. Iniages are acquired using an iiaage processor which performs real-tiiae thresholding of the iraage before it is passed to a frame buffer. A coniputer progrant locates the ore pieces in the image and identifies the boundaries between those pieces which are touching. Chords corresponding to the approximate major and minor axes of each piece are calculated. Using these measurements the size distribution for a population of ore is determined. 1.

Eichelberger, Christopher L.; Blair, Steven M.; Khorana, Brij M.

1991-03-01

337

Reef structure drives parrotfish species composition on shelf edge reefs in La Parguera, Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shelf edge reefs that exist in coral reef ecosystems provide essential habitats for a large variety of fish and other marine organisms. Marine herbivores act as differential algal grazers that advocate coral reef colonization. In the Caribbean basin parrotfishes make up a large contingency of such herbivores and act as important ecological ichthyofauna. By investigating parrotfish relationship with habitat, this study aims to aid in future predictive mapping techniques that will outline parrotfish distributions via benthic quantification. Parrotfish communities were evaluated on the shelf edge reef off of La Parguera, Puerto Rico. Parrotfish abundances were found to positively correlate with high values of overall reef structure. High values of coral cover and of rugosity were strong indicators of most parrotfish species. The lone exception, Scarus taeniopterus, negatively correlated with these factors and positively correlated with algal cover. Indications exist that Scarus taeniopterus and Scarus iseri are sympatric species and can be found in abundance at opposite locations.

Tzadik, Orian E.; Appeldoorn, Richard S.

2013-02-01

338

Soundscapes from a Tropical Eastern Pacific reef and a Caribbean Sea reef  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Underwater soundscapes vary due to the abiotic and biological components of the habitat. We quantitatively characterized the acoustic environments of two coral reef habitats, one in the Tropical Eastern Pacific (Panama) and one in the Caribbean (Florida Keys), over 2-day recording durations in July 2011. We examined the frequency distribution, temporal variability, and biological patterns of sound production and found clear differences. The Pacific reef exhibited clear biological patterns and high temporal variability, such as the onset of snapping shrimp noise at night, as well as a 400-Hz daytime band likely produced by damselfish. In contrast, the Caribbean reef had high sound levels in the lowest frequencies, but lacked clear temporal patterns. We suggest that acoustic measures are an important element to include in reef monitoring programs, as the acoustic environment plays an important role in the ecology of reef organisms at multiple life-history stages.

Staaterman, E.; Rice, A. N.; Mann, D. A.; Paris, C. B.

2013-06-01

339

Reef odor: a wake up call for navigation in reef fish larvae.  

PubMed

The behavior of reef fish larvae, equipped with a complex toolbox of sensory apparatus, has become a central issue in understanding their transport in the ocean. In this study pelagic reef fish larvae were monitored using an unmanned open-ocean tracking device, the drifting in-situ chamber (DISC), deployed sequentially in oceanic waters and in reef-born odor plumes propagating offshore with the ebb flow. A total of 83 larvae of two taxonomic groups of the families Pomacentridae and Apogonidae were observed in the two water masses around One Tree Island, southern Great Barrier Reef. The study provides the first in-situ evidence that pelagic reef fish larvae discriminate reef odor and respond by changing their swimming speed and direction. It concludes that reef fish larvae smell the presence of coral reefs from several kilometers offshore and this odor is a primary component of their navigational system and activates other directional sensory cues. The two families expressed differences in their response that could be adapted to maintain a position close to the reef. In particular, damselfish larvae embedded in the odor plume detected the location of the reef crest and swam westward and parallel to shore on both sides of the island. This study underlines the critical importance of in situ Lagrangian observations to provide unique information on larval fish behavioral decisions. From an ecological perspective the central role of olfactory signals in marine population connectivity raises concerns about the effects of pollution and acidification of oceans, which can alter chemical cues and olfactory responses. PMID:24015278

Paris, Claire B; Atema, Jelle; Irisson, Jean-Olivier; Kingsford, Michael; Gerlach, Gabriele; Guigand, Cedric M

2013-01-01

340

The indirect electrochemical refining of lunar ores  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent work performed on an electrolytic cell is reported which addresses the implicit limitations in various approaches to refining lunar ores. The cell uses an oxygen vacancy conducting stabilized zirconia solid electrolyte to effect separation between a molten salt catholyte compartment where alkali metals are deposited, and an oxygen-evolving anode of composition La(0.89)Sr(0.1)MnO3. The cell configuration is shown and discussed along with a polarization curve and a steady-state current-voltage curve. In a practical cell, cathodically deposited liquid lithium would be continuously removed from the electrolytic cell and used as a valuable reducing agent for ore refining under lunar conditions. Oxygen would be indirectly electrochemically extracted from lunar ores for breathing purposes.

Semkow, Krystyna W.; Sammells, Anthony F.

1987-01-01

341

36 CFR 7.73 - Buck Island Reef National Monument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.73 Buck Island Reef National Monument. (a) Extractive uses...hermit crabs (soldier crabs), seashells, corals, dead coral, sea fans, sponges and all associated reef invertebrates, plants, fruits and...

2013-07-01

342

Recent and relict topography of Boo Bee patch reef, Belize  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Five core borings were taken on and around Boo Bee Patch Reef to better understand the origin of such shelf lagoon reefs. The cores reveal 4 stages of development: (1) subaerial exposure of a Pleistocene "high" having about 8 meters of relief, possibly a Pleistocene patch reef; (2) deposition of peat and impermeable terrigenous clay 3 meters thick around the high; (3) initiation of carbonate sediment production by corals and algae on the remaining 5 meters of hard Pleistocene topography and carbonate mud on the surrounding terrigenous clay; and (4) accelerated organic accumulation on the patch reef. Estimates of patch reef sedimentation rates (1.6 m/1000 years) are 3 to 4 times greater than off-reef sedimentation rates (0.4-0.5 m/1000 years). During periods of Pleistocene sedimentation on the Belize shelf, lagoon patch reefs may have grown above one another, stacking up to form reef accumulation of considerable thickness.

Halley, R.B.; Shinn, E.A.; Hudson, J.H.; Lidz, B.

1977-01-01

343

Sewage sludge and fly ash mixture as an alternative for decontaminating lead and zinc ore regions.  

PubMed

Many years of heavy industrial processes in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region in Poland (ore flotation, metal smelting and battery scrap processing) have resulted in lead, zinc and cadmium pollution of the air and soil. The most significant issues stem not only from elevated levels of these metals in environmental compartments, but also from the uneven pattern of their distribution. Point sources of local metal concentration are to be found dispersed over areas of contaminated soil. Such distribution is a challenge for remediation technology, as it precludes the introduction of standard procedures. Metals present in the soil pose a constant risk for living organisms. One of the most effective ways of limiting their ecological impact is by decreasing their mobility. In this study, the effect of introducing sewage sludge and fly ash mixtures (sluash material) into contaminated soil was evaluated. We tested the mixture in terms of the probability of its ecotoxicological impact on plant growth and development. The data obtained have shown that even low doses (3 %) of sluash are effective in reducing the bioavailability of lead, cadmium and zinc, resulting in a decrease of their concentration in plants. The application of sluash also led to stabilize soil pH. It also had a positive impact on the total number of soil bacteria and soil fungi. PMID:25381583

Pogrzeba, M; Galimska-Stypa, R; Krzy?ak, J; Sas-Nowosielska, A

2015-01-01

344

Studies on impeller type, impeller speed and air flow rate in an industrial scale flotation cell. Part 4: Effect of bubble surface area flux on flotation performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metallurgical performance of a 2.8m3 portable industrial scale flotation cell was measured when treating zinc cleaner feed at Hellyer concentrator in Tasmania, Australia. The cell was fitted in turn with four different impeller-stator systems and operated over a wide range of air flow rates and impeller speeds. Bubble size, gas holdup and superficial gas velocity were measured at each

B. K. Gorain; J. P. Franzidis; E. V. Manlapig

1997-01-01

345

Upper Carboniferous reef mounds and climate change  

SciTech Connect

Tetractinomorph demosponges (chaetetids) are a minor component of extant tropical reefs, but they were the major framebuilder of reef mounds during the Westphalian (Carboniferous). These chaetetids were confined to tropical latitudes during the Carboniferous, reached an abundance peak in the Westphalian, and then declined suddenly until the Upper Triassic. After their decline, red and green algae became the dominant reef builders of the Stephanian. The marked decline of chaetetids corresponds with the disappearance, and/or decline of other marine benthic invertebrates, as well as some terrestrial plants and is the basis for the biostratigraphic boundary between the Westphalian and Stephanian (Desmoinesian and Missourian). This biostratigraphic boundary coincides with a minor extinction event and a major'' climatic change. The Westphalian climate was wetter than that of the Stephanian, and in the midcontinent this change is recorded by a gradual decline in coals and siliciclastic lithologies and a corresponding increase in carbonate lithologies. A rise in water temperature might be expected in a drier tropical climate, and if extant chaetetids are any clue, elevated water temperature may have been detrimental. Extant chaetetids are associated with tropical coral reefs that are confined to a narrow temperature range. It is not unreasonable to suggest that elevated seawater temperatures were responsible, in part, for the disappearance of chaetetid reef mounds. Red and green algae, presumably more tolerate of higher water temperatures, became the major framebuilders of reef mounds in the Stephanian. Thus, the demise of chaetetid reef mounds, and other organisms at the end of the Westphalian, may be the result of global warming.

West, R.R.; Archer, A.W. (Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States))

1992-01-01

346

Reef-sourced slope deposits, Holocene, Bahamas  

SciTech Connect

Observations and sampling to 350 m from a two-person submersible off Chub Cay, Berry Island, Bahamas, support the idea that the Holocene deep reef is a principal source of talus, now cemented, that foots the windward margins of Great Bahama Bank. At the Chub Cay dive site, a wall extends from 30 to 170 m subsea; below is a low-relief fore reef slope, ca. 50/sup 0/, of limestone veneered with sediment. The upper wall from 30 to 80 m, the deep reef, has a luxuriant growth of corals and a profusion of the calcareous alga halimeda spp. Below 50 m, living coral decreases, and from 80 to 170 m the wall is highly irregular with discontinuous ledges and blind-end caves. At depths from 150 to 170 m, the wall gives way to the fore reef slope whose relative smooth surface dips at 50/sup 0/ to 60/sup 0/ and extends to 350 m. The fore reef is limestone, but its topography resembles that of alluvial fans; rounded ridges rise a few meters above the intervening valleys that are tens of meters wide. The limestone surface has a discontinuous veneer of fine sediment and algal plates, and locally loose cobble and boulder-sized blocks of limestone. A sample of the limestone slope is of well-cemented coral clasts and skeletal sediment. They infer that the deep reef grows outward so rapidly that it caves periodically. The resulting debris bypasses the wall, but some is perched on the steep fore reef slope below where it is soon incorporated into the slope by submarine cementation.

Ginsburg, R.N.; Eberli, G.P.; Harris, P.M.; Slater, R.; Swart, P.K.

1987-05-01

347

Coralline reefs classification in Banco Chinchorro, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coralline reefs in Banco Chinchorro, Mexico, are part of the great reef belt of the western Atlantic. This reef complex is formed by an extensive coralline structure with great biological richness and diversity of species. These colonies are considered highly valuable ecologically, economically, socially and culturally, and they also inherently provide biological services. Fishing and scuba diving have been the main economic activities in this area for decades. However, in recent years, there has been a bleaching process and a decrease of the coral colonies in Quintana Roo, Mexico. This drop is caused mainly by the production activities performed in the oil platforms and the presence of hurricanes among other climatic events. The deterioration of the reef system can be analyzed synoptically using remote sensing. Thanks to this type of analysis, it is possible to have updated information of the reef conditions. In this paper, satellite imagery in Landsat TM and SPOT 5 is applied in the coralline reefs classification in the 1980- 2006 time period. Thus, an integral analysis of the optical components of the water surrounding the coralline reefs, such as on phytoplankton, sediments, yellow substance and even on the same water adjacent to the coral colonies, is performed. The use of a texture algorithm (Markov Random Field) was a key tool for their identification. This algorithm, does not limit itself to image segmentation, but also works on edge detection. In future work the multitemporal analysis of the results will determine the deterioration degree of these habitats and the conservation status of the coralline areas.

Contreras-Silva, Ameris I.; López-Caloca, Alejandra A.

2009-09-01

348

Hydrodynamic Regimes Affect Coral Reef Resilience to Ocean Acidification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Caribbean reefs hold tremendous value as sources of food, income, coastal protection, in addition to their cultural significance. Recently, studies showed that Caribbean reef growth has been surpassed in places by excessive rates of erosion due to climate change. The rates of coral reef response to ocean pH changes and warming and the implications for ecosystem resilience remain largely unknown. One way to investigate the potential structural resilience of reefs to climate change is to measure the physical oceanographic conditions in the area. Determining the hydrodynamic regimes and residence time of water in a particular reef environment is crucial to understanding the rates of future warming and acidification a reef site would experience. Our work on Pacific Islands' hydrodynamics - Central Equatorial Pacific, Great Barrier Reef, and Western Pacific -- would be of interest to Caribbean physical oceanographers and coral reef scientists. We use a combination of Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers, Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters, temperature and salinity sensors, and pressure sensors to characterize reef hydrodynamic regimes. Our work indicates that shallower, more protected reef habitats are characterized by longer residence times, their biological signals are strongly tidally modulated, essentially subjecting such habitats to higher rates of warming and acidification in the future. Reef crest environments and fore reef habitats, on the other hand, are well-mixed with open-ocean water. The hydrodynamic regimes there condition such reef sites to more attenuated temperature and pH ranges, conditions more typical of the open ocean. Our work suggests that investigating the geomorphology and resulting localized hydrodynamics in a reef area can provide insights into the relative rates at which a reef could resist or succumb to impacts of ocean acidification. Such information for different reef islands, in the Pacific or Caribbean basins, could provide helpful insights into predictions for economic losses to coastal communities due to climate change.

Teneva, L. T.; Dunbar, R. B.; Koseff, J. R.; Fleischfresser, J. D.; Koweek, D.

2013-05-01

349

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Coral Reef Conservation Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NOAA program supports effective management and sound science to preserve, sustain and restore valuable coral reef ecosystems. Students can read about the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force, learn more about local and national coral reef action strategies, and find links to more information on coral reefs. The site also offers a search for publications and data and a general search of the site.

350

New estimates of global and regional coral reef areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  ?Global and regional coral reef area statistics are of considerable value in fields ranging from global environmental change\\u000a to fisheries to conservation. Although widely quoted, Smith’s 1978 figure of 600?000?km2 is only an approximate calculation. The World Conservation Monitoring Centre has prepared a new estimate of reef coverage\\u000a by mapping emergent reef crest and very shallow reef systems. These data

M. D. Spalding; A. M. Grenfell

1997-01-01

351

3. DETAIL OF ORE RECEIVING PLATFORM AND GRIZZLY, VIEW TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. DETAIL OF ORE RECEIVING PLATFORM AND GRIZZLY, VIEW TO WEST. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Sampling Building & Ore Receiving Platform, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

352

2. VIEW TO NORTHEAST (ORE RECEIVING PLATFORM OUT OF VIEW ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW TO NORTHEAST (ORE RECEIVING PLATFORM OUT OF VIEW TO RIGHT). - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Sampling Building & Ore Receiving Platform, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

353

4. DETAIL OF ORE RECEIVING PLATFORM AND GRIZZLY, VIEW TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. DETAIL OF ORE RECEIVING PLATFORM AND GRIZZLY, VIEW TO EAST. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Sampling Building & Ore Receiving Platform, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

354

1. VIEW TO SOUTH (RETAINING WALL OF ORE RECEIVING PLATFORM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW TO SOUTH (RETAINING WALL OF ORE RECEIVING PLATFORM TO LEFT). - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Sampling Building & Ore Receiving Platform, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

355

The Global Coral Reef Crisis: Trends and Solutions (Coral Reefs: Values, Threats, and the Marine Aquarium Trade)  

SciTech Connect

Second only to tropical rainforests, coral reefs support one of the world's most diverse natural habitats. Over 350 million individuals depend on coral reef resources for food and income. Unfortunately, the Earth is in the midst of a coral reef crisis. Anthropogenic impacts including overfishing, destructive fishing practices, sedimentation and pollution, as well as global climate change, have served to disrupt the natural processes that maintain the health of these ecosystems. Until recently, however, the global extent of the coral reef crisis was unknown. Reef Check was developed in 1996 as a volunteer, community-based monitoring protocol designed to measure the health of coral reefs on a global scale. With goals of education, monitoring, and management, Reef Check has activities in over 60 countries and territories. They have not only provided scientific evidence of the global extent of the coral reef crisis, but have provided the first community based steps to alleviate this urgent situation.

Shuman, Craig S. (Reef Check, UCLA) [Reef Check, UCLA

2003-02-05

356

Boundary Reefs: Glass Sponge (Porifera Hexactinellidae) Reefs on the International Border Between Canada and the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hexactinellid sponge reefs have been discovered in shallow-water areas in Portland Canal on the international boundary between Southeast Alaska and British Columbia. The reefs were first observed on multibeam imagery data collected in 2008 and were examin...

D. J. Csepp, J. V. Barrie, K. W. Conway, R. P. Stone

2014-01-01

357

Tortugas Reef Fish & Habitat Assessment: 2004 Expedition Report Page 1 Fishery-Independent Monitoring of Coral Reef Fishes and  

E-print Network

-Independent Monitoring of Coral Reef Fishes and Macro-invertebrates in the Dry Tortugas Jerald S. Ault, Steven G. Smith of Coral Reef Fishes and Macro-invertebrates in the Dry Tortugas Jerald S. Ault, Steven G. Smith, James A

Miami, University of

358

Climate Change, Human Impacts, and the Resilience of Coral Reefs  

E-print Network

Climate Change, Human Impacts, and the Resilience of Coral Reefs T. P. Hughes,1 * A. H. Baird,1 D. Rosen,13 J. Roughgarden14 The diversity, frequency, and scale of human impacts on coral reefs and temperature over the next 50 years exceed the conditions under which coral reefs have flourished over the past

Kleypas, Joanie

359

EDUCATOR'S GUIDE he coral reef is an entire living system,  

E-print Network

Educator's Guide #12;EDUCATOR'S GUIDE 1 T he coral reef is an entire living system, a structure as terrestrial rainforests, coral reefs, with their extraordinary beauty, bright palette of colors, and oddly and other research institutions worldwide, we are learning how the coral reef ecosystem is dependent

Mathis, Wayne N.

360

-Congressional Policy Brief -United States Coral Reef Task Force  

E-print Network

- Congressional Policy Brief - United States Coral Reef Task Force "NOAA, on behalf of the Department of Commerce, is honored to serve as Co-Chair of the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force, along and better understand our nation's valuable coral reef ecosystems." - Tim Keeney Deputy Assistant Secretary

361

Multiplatform Remote Sensing for Coral Reef Community Assessment  

E-print Network

Multiplatform Remote Sensing for Coral Reef Community Assessment Quinta Reuni�n Nacional de Operated Vehicles (ROV) Optical Imaging #12;Direct vs. Indirect Monitoring of Coral Reefs Using Remote Sensing Direct � includes benthic mapping and characterization of coral reef and other biotopes using

Gilbes, Fernando

362

Functionally diverse reef-fish communities ameliorate coral disease  

E-print Network

Functionally diverse reef-fish communities ameliorate coral disease Laurie J. Raymundoa,1 , Andrew for review January 13, 2009) Coral reefs, the most diverse of marine ecosystems, currently experience-forming corals and are complicit in phase shifts of reef ecosystems to algal-dominated states worldwide. Even so

Raymundo, Laurie

363

Phase shifts in coral reef communities and their ecological significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many coral reefs around the world have degraded to a degree that their present intrinsic value and utility are greatly reduced: (mass coral mortality followed by algal invasions; local depletions of reef fisheries; deficit of reef accretion compared to physical and biological erosion). Though we can sometimes identify proximal causes (outbreaks of coral predators and eroders; over-fishing; habitat destruction), we

T. J. Done; Townsville MC

1992-01-01

364

CARBON TURNOVER AND ACCUMULu..TION BY CORAL REEFS  

E-print Network

CARBON TURNOVER AND ACCUMULu..TION BY CORAL REEFS A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE GRADUATE GIVIS the other sites. There is great operational unifor~ity in coral reef metabolism apparentiy re- gardless ism is great, probably at all latitudes at which coral reefs are found. Unperturbed systems

Luther, Douglas S.

365

Unsupervised Learning of Terrain Appearance for Automated Coral Reef Exploration  

E-print Network

Unsupervised Learning of Terrain Appearance for Automated Coral Reef Exploration Philippe Giguere above a coral reef, without the need to maintain pose estimates. We tested the technique in simulation autonomously above a coral reef during a 20 minutes period. 1. Introduction Underwater marine environments

Dudek, Gregory

366

Explore Online: Question-Driven Coral-Reef Monitoring  

E-print Network

Explore Online: Question-Driven Coral-Reef Monitoring Agriculture and Greenhouse Gas Emissions / Vol. 63 No. 4 · BioScience 297 Progress and Perspectives on Question-Driven Coral-Reef Monitoring Peter Houk and robert van Woesik Despite a steady growth in coral-reef monitoring efforts

Mcilwain, Jenny

367

Coral Reef Biodiversity in the Face of Climatic Changes  

E-print Network

4 Coral Reef Biodiversity in the Face of Climatic Changes Stéphane La Barre Université Pierre et to fight against emerging diseases. Recent studies have shown that thermal stresses on coral reef involved in the climate-driven loss of coral reef biodiversity predicted within the next few decades

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

368

Coral Reef Conservation through Outreach Education Judith C. LANG  

E-print Network

Coral Reef Conservation through Outreach Education Judith C. LANG , Janie L. WULFF , Carol R, USA * National Coral Reef Institute, Dania Beach, Florida, USA; fretwelc@nsu.nova.edu; fax, +1 threaten coral reefs and undermine the capability of tropical coastal populations to meet basic health

Ronquist, Fredrik

369

Coral Reefs Under Rapid Climate Change and Ocean Acidification  

E-print Network

Coral Reefs Under Rapid Climate Change and Ocean Acidification O. Hoegh-Guldberg,1 * P. J. Mumby,2 carbonate accretion, with corals becoming increasingly rare on reef systems. The result will be less diverse, coral reefs have continued to deteriorate as a result of human in- fluences (3, 4). Rapid increases

Schweik, Charles M.

370

Digital Moorea Cyberinfrastructure for Coral Reef Tony Fountain #1  

E-print Network

Digital Moorea Cyberinfrastructure for Coral Reef Monitoring Tony Fountain #1 , Sameer Tilak #2 of a coral reef ecosystem instrumented with real-time sensors connected to high-performance backend resources to reality at the Moorea Coral Reef site (MCR LTER, www.mcr.lternet.edu) of the U.S. National Science

Fabrikant, Sara Irina

371

Coral Reefs: A Gallery Program, Grades 7-12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gallery classes at the National Aquarium in Baltimore give the opportunity to study specific aquarium exhibits which demonstrate entire natural habitats. The coral reef gallery class features the gigantic western Atlantic coral reef (325,000 gallons) with over 1,000 fish. The exhibit simulates a typical Caribbean coral reef and nearby sandy…

National Aquarium in Baltimore, MD. Dept. of Education.

372

EFFECTS OF DRILLING FLUIDS ON REEF CORALS: A REVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

This chapter reviews research on the effects of drilling mud on coral reef communities, concentrating on the major reef fauna: the reef-building or hermatypic corals. Drilling mud is an effluent introduced to the marine environment in large quantities during the typical offshore ...

373

Coral Reef Education and Australian High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational programs that focus on humans and their relationship to coral reefs are becoming necessary, as reef structures along the Queensland coast come under mounting ecological pressure. This paper reports on a PhD research project which investigated marine education and learning with high school students in coral reef environments along the…

Stepath, Carl M.

2004-01-01

374

Experimental Assessment of Coral Reef Rehabilitation Following Blast Fishing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Illegal fishing with explosives has damaged coral reefs throughout Southeast Asia. In addition to killing fish and other organisms, the blasts shatter coral skeletons, leaving fields of broken rubble that shift in the current, abrading or burying new coral recruits, and thereby slowing or preventing reef recovery. Successful restoration and rehabilitation efforts can contribute to coral reef conservation. We used

HELEN E. FOX; PETER J. MOUS; JOS S. PET; ANDREAS H. MULJADI; ROY L. CALDWELL

2005-01-01

375

Watersheds and Coral Reefs: Conservation Science, Policy, and Implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coral reefs worldwide are being degraded by human-induced disturbances, resulting in ecological, economic, and cultural losses. Runoff and sedimentation are among the greatest threats to the coastal reefs surrounding high islands and adjacent to continental landmasses. Existing scientific data identify the key stressors, synergisms, and outcomes at the coral reef ecosystem, community, and population levels. These data demonstrate that marine

ROBERT H. RICHMOND; TEINA RONGO; YIMNANG GOLBUU; STEVEN VICTOR; NOAH IDECHONG; GERRY DAVIS; WILLY KOSTKA; LEINSON NETH; MICHAEL HAMNETT; ERIC WOLANSKI

2007-01-01

376

FINAL REPORT to the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority  

E-print Network

FINAL REPORT to the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority Seasonal distribution of the dugong in the southern Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. Helene Marsh and Helen Penrose #12;i Table of Contents Executive Sandy Strait DPA. 38 39 #12;1 Seasonal distribution of the dugong in the southern Great Barrier Reef

Marsh, Helene

377

Pressures and effects on the Great Barrier Reef lagoon  

E-print Network

SESSION 2 Pressures and effects on the Great Barrier Reef lagoon Chair: Terry Done Rapporteur: Chris Crossland Keynote Paper: Biological oceanography of the Great Barrier Reef M Furnas* and A Mitchell Soft-bottom benthic communities and processes in the Great Barrier Reef lagoon D Alongi (Paper

Marsh, Helene

378

Managing the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area  

E-print Network

SESSION 7 Managing the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area Chair: Ian McPhail Rapporteur: Helene (abstract only) The changing roles of aboriginal people in the management of the Great Barrier Reef. Noel Pearson and A Leibler- (presented by A Tanner, abstract only) State of the Great Barrier Reef World

Marsh, Helene

379

The Great Barrier Reef Total Eclipse of the Sun!  

E-print Network

Australia: The Great Barrier Reef Total Eclipse of the Sun! November 10 2012 (US Departure? There are two full days on the Great Barrier Reef - snorkeling equipment, instruction and lunch is provided according to selection and availability when depositing, 2 glorious days exploring the Great Barrier Reef

Stowell, Michael

380

A Global Assessment of Human Effects on Coral Reefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coral reefs have been used by humans as recreation areas and as a source of food and other products for thousands of years. The effects of humans on coral reefs are not well understood, especially on a regional or global scale. A special survey protocol called “Reef Check” was designed to be used by volunteer recreational divers, trained and led

G. Hodgson

1999-01-01

381

Are catch-up reefs an artefact of coring?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drill cores through modern coral reefs commonly show a time lag in reef initiation followed by a phase of rapid accretion to sea level from submerged foundations - the so-called 'catch-up response'. But because of the difficulty of drilling in these environments, core distribution is usually restricted to accessible areas that may not fully represent reef history, especially if the

PAUL B LANCHON; DAVID B LAKEWAY

2003-01-01

382

The recreational value of coral reefs: A meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coral reefs are highly productive ecosystems that provide a variety of valuable goods and services, including recreational opportunities. The open-access nature and public good characteristics of coral reefs often result in them being undervalued in decision making related to their use and conservation. In response to this, there now exists a substantial economic valuation literature on coral reefs. For the

Luke M. Brander; Pieter Van Beukering; Herman S. J. Cesar

2007-01-01

383

A Global Assessment of Human EÄects on Coral Reefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coral reefs have been used by humans as recreation areas and as a source of food and other products for thousands of years. The eÄects of humans on coral reefs are not well understood, especially on a regional or global scale. A special survey protocol called ''Reef Check'' was designed to be used by volunteer recreational divers, trained and led

G. HODGSON

1999-01-01

384

Exploring Drowned Reefs on Gardner Pinnacles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gardner Pinnacles (GP), located in the Northwest Hawaiian Islands within Papah?naumoku?kea Marine National Monument, is one of the largest volcanic structures in the entire Hawaiian-Emperor chain. In Oct. 2011, the R/V Ka'imikai-o-Kanaloa mapped and the Pisces IV submersible explored the GP during 7 dives, mainly on drowned reef terraces. New multibeam bathymetric data from the cruise, combined with pre-existing multibeam data mostly collected during transits across the structure, show at least 4 separate volcanoes partially surrounded by several Miocene to Pleistocene drowned coral reefs with extensive lagoons, with the largest volcano surmounted by an active carbonate platform. Large landslides modify the flanks, and the eastern flank is incised by submarine canyons. Seven submersible dives explored and sampled mainly the drowned reef structures. The largest reef complex is on the NW flank above the main break-in-slope, and is a barrier reef surrounding extensive lagoon deposits with complex channel structures. Similar wide lagoons with deep channels parallel to the outer reef terraces are present elsewhere on GP, but unusual elsewhere in the Hawaiian Islands. Seven corals, coralline algae, and echinoid spines from dive P4-266 on that NW edge of GP from 1268-1637 m depth yield a tight age cluster based on Sr-isotopes calibrated to seawater that range from 15.51 to 15.98 Ma, and average 15.76 Ma. Five ages of echinoid spines, mollusk shells, and large foraminfers from dive P4-255 on the SW edge of GP from 1538-1558 m depth range from 14.88 to 15.10 Ma, and average 14.98 Ma. Three ages of corals and coralline algae from dive P4-253 on the SE edge of GP at 1955 m depth range from 12.35 and 12.7 Ma, and average 12.57 Ma. The ages of these reefs indicate when volcanic activity waned and reef deposits could accumulate without constant burial by lava flows; the nearly 3.2 Ma range in reef ages from the flanks of GP suggest that volcanic activity at GP spanned a similar time period. The NW barrier reef is a 310-m-tall ridge surmounted by 140-m pinnacles, consistent with rapid upward growth during the Middle Miocene Climatic Optimum. With two exceptions, all carbonate samples collected from <910 m and a few from deeper terraces, yielded Pleistocene or younger ages. The Pleistocene aged samples on such deep reefs suggest extensive downslope transport of reef debris. Lava samples collected during the dives include tholeiitic shield-stage lavas and several rounded postshield-stage hawaiite cobbles in volcanic/carbonate beach sandstone. Published K-Ar age of volcanic rocks from GP of 12.3±1.0 Ma (Garcia et al., 1987) is inconsistent with the older ages of the overlying reefs. New Ar-Ar age data of samples from the dive program will be presented.

Clague, D. A.; Paduan, J. B.; Braga, J. C.; Humphrey, C.; Hinestrosa, G.; Fullagar, P. D.

2012-12-01

385

Use of alkyl sulfates in the dewaterng of a coal flotation concentrate  

SciTech Connect

The possibility has been shown of using anionic SAAs in the dewatering of a coal flotation concentrate. It has been established that the adsorption of alkyl sulfates (ASs) obeys the general laws of the adsorption of organic substances from solutions on coals. The addition of electrolytes intensifies the adsorption of ASs, leading to the hydrophobization of the coal particles. 10 refs.

Zubkova, Yu.N.; Basenkova, V.L.; Kucher, R.V.

1981-01-01

386

Development of a method for separation of PVC and PET using flame treatment and flotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flame treatment can be used to modify the surface of plastics to allow water-based coatings to be attached. The effect of the treatment is to produce hydrophilic species on the surface of the plastic. The process is therefore potentially useful for the separation of plastics by froth flotation, provided that the production of the hydrophilic surface can be achieved selectively.

R. D. Pascoe; B. O’Connell

2003-01-01

387

Inclusion Removal by Bubble Flotation in Continuous Casting Mold Lifeng Zhang, Jun Aoki, Brian G. Thomas  

E-print Network

the continuous casting of steel. First, the attachment probability of inclusions on a bubble surface or rejected castings. Many methods have been developed to remove inclusions from molten steel. Gas injectionInclusion Removal by Bubble Flotation in Continuous Casting Mold Lifeng Zhang, Jun Aoki, Brian G

Thomas, Brian G.

388

Role of crystal structure in flotation separation of diaspore from kaolinite, pyrophyllite and illite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wettability and electrokinetics of kaolinite, illite, pyrophyllite and diaspore were measured in the context of reverse flotation using cationic collectors. The results were interpreted by crystal structure analysis of the minerals. The point of zero charge (PZC) was calculated using crystallographic parameters of the minerals and compared well with the corresponding iso-electrical point (IEP) determined experimentally. The decreasing order of

Y Hu; X Liu; Zhenghe Xu

2003-01-01

389

Mathematical Modeling and Computer Simulation of Molten Aluminum Purification by Flotation in Stirred Reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The removal of inclusions by flotation in mechanically agitated vessels is widely used in liquid aluminum treatments. Originating from different sources (oxide skins, refractory, or recycling wastes), inclusions may have disastrous repercussions such as deterioration of the physical properties of the cast products or difficulties during forging processes. With the aim of both a better understanding of the physical processes acting during flotation and the optimization of the refining process, a mathematical modeling of the behavior of the population of inclusions has been set up. Transport phenomena, agglomeration of inclusions, and flotation are considered here. The model combines population balance with convective transport of the inclusions, in order to calculate the time evolution of the inclusion size distribution. An operator-splitting technique is employed to solve the coupled population balance equation (PBE) and the transport equation. The transport equation is solved using a finite volume technique associated with a total variation diminishing scheme, whereas the PBE resolution relies on the fixed pivot technique developed by Kumar and Ramkrishna. A laboratory-scale flotation vessel is modeled and the results of a two-dimensional (2-D) simulation are presented.

Mirgaux, O.; Ablitzer, D.; Waz, E.; Bellot, J. P.

2009-06-01

390

The recovery of plastics from waste with reference to froth flotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some authors have overstated the problem of plastics wastes accumulating in large quantities. The amounts and types of such wastes must be well understood if recovery methods, such as froth flotation, are to be applied successfully. Not all plastics discards are reasonably recoverable and statistics on gross quantities must be analyzed for those that are. The amount of plastic wastes

Harvey Alter

2005-01-01

391

Sensory Isolation in Flotation Tanks: Altered States of Consciousness and Effects on Well-Being  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A qualitative analysis (The Empirical Phenomenological Psychological method) of interviews involving eight patients (depression, burn-out syndrome, and chronic pain) was carried out in order to obtain knowledge regarding the effects of flotation tank therapy. This knowledge might be helpful for both professionals and potential floaters. The…

Kjellgren, Anette; Lyden, Francisca; Norlander, Torsten

2008-01-01

392

Long term sealing ability of butyl o-rings  

SciTech Connect

This article reports on accelerated aging tests carried out to anticipate the long term performance of o-rings in the Galileo spacecraft during its mission to Jupiter. This topics discussed include the impetus for the investigation, the operating conditions for the o-rings, the conditions leading to degradation of performance of the o-rings, and a prediction of the ability of the o-rings to complete their intended mission.

Ytterboe, S.N.; Catsiff, E.H.; Kelchner, R.E.

1991-10-01

393

Long term sealing ability of butyl o-rings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on accelerated aging tests carried out to anticipate the long term performance of o-rings in the Galileo spacecraft during its mission to Jupiter. This topics discussed include the impetus for the investigation, the operating conditions for the o-rings, the conditions leading to degradation of performance of the o-rings, and a prediction of the ability of the o-rings

S. N. Ytterboe; E. H. Catsiff; R. E. Kelchner

1991-01-01

394

New directions in coral reef microbial ecology.  

PubMed

Microbial processes largely control the health and resilience of coral reef ecosystems, and new technologies have led to an exciting wave of discovery regarding the mechanisms by which microbial communities support the functioning of these incredibly diverse and valuable systems. There are three questions at the forefront of discovery: What mechanisms underlie coral reef health and resilience? How do environmental and anthropogenic pressures affect ecosystem function? What is the ecology of microbial diseases of corals? The goal is to understand the functioning of coral reefs as integrated systems from microbes and molecules to regional and ocean-basin scale ecosystems to enable accurate predictions of resilience and responses to perturbations such as climate change and eutrophication. This review outlines recent discoveries regarding the microbial ecology of different microenvironments within coral ecosystems, and highlights research directions that take advantage of new technologies to build a quantitative and mechanistic understanding of how coral health is connected through microbial processes to its surrounding environment. The time is ripe for natural resource managers and microbial ecologists to work together to create an integrated understanding of coral reef functioning. In the context of long-term survival and conservation of reefs, the need for this work is immediate. PMID:21955796

Garren, Melissa; Azam, Farooq

2012-04-01

395

Climate change and coral reef connectivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review assesses and predicts the impacts that rapid climate change will have on population connectivity in coral reef ecosystems, using fishes as a model group. Increased ocean temperatures are expected to accelerate larval development, potentially leading to reduced pelagic durations and earlier reef-seeking behaviour. Depending on the spatial arrangement of reefs, the expectation would be a reduction in dispersal distances and the spatial scale of connectivity. Small increase in temperature might enhance the number of larvae surviving the pelagic phase, but larger increases are likely to reduce reproductive output and increase larval mortality. Changes to ocean currents could alter the dynamics of larval supply and changes to planktonic productivity could affect how many larvae survive the pelagic stage and their condition at settlement; however, these patterns are likely to vary greatly from place-to-place and projections of how oceanographic features will change in the future lack sufficient certainty and resolution to make robust predictions. Connectivity could also be compromised by the increased fragmentation of reef habitat due to the effects of coral bleaching and ocean acidification. Changes to the spatial and temporal scales of connectivity have implications for the management of coral reef ecosystems, especially the design and placement of marine-protected areas. The size and spacing of protected areas may need to be strategically adjusted if reserve networks are to retain their efficacy in the future.

Munday, P. L.; Leis, J. M.; Lough, J. M.; Paris, C. B.; Kingsford, M. J.; Berumen, M. L.; Lambrechts, J.

2009-06-01

396

Distributions of coral reef macroalgae in a back reef habitat in Moorea, French Polynesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On tropical reefs where macroalgae are subjected to continuous herbivore pressure, spatial refuges typically are identified as large-scale, landscape interfaces that limit foraging behavior. However, algal distributions and community assemblages may also rely on the availability of smaller scale spatial refuges within the reef. The results of this study demonstrate that the patterns of macroalgal distribution across the back reef of Moorea, French Polynesia, are maintained by herbivores interacting with the small-scale structural complexities of the coral reef landscape. Although the majority of space available for colonization is composed of exposed surfaces, macroalgae rarely are found in the open. Instead, macroalgal occurrence is highest in the protected narrow crevices and hole microhabitats provided by massive Porites spp. coral heads. These distributions are determined initially by post-settlement mortality of young algal recruits in exposed habitats. Rates of consumption for two of the most common macroalgal species found in refuges across the back reef, Halimeda minima and Amansia rhodantha, indicate that algal recruits in exposed habitats are limited by herbivory. While algal abundance and community structure are highly dependent upon herbivore grazing, the availability of small-scale spatial refuges ultimately shapes the distinct community patterns and distributional boundaries of coral reef macroalgae in the back reefs of Moorea.

Poray, A. K.; Carpenter, R. C.

2014-03-01

397

Coral Reef Remote Sensing: Helping Managers Protect Reefs in a Changing Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change and ocean acidification are already having severe impacts on coral reef ecosystems. Warming oceans have caused corals to bleach, or expel their symbiotic algae (zooxanthellae) with alarming frequency and severity and have contributed to a rise in coral infectious diseases. Ocean acidification is reducing the availability of carbonate ions needed by corals and many other marine organisms to build structural components like skeletons and shells and may already be slowing the coral growth. These two impacts are already killing corals and slowing reef growth, reducing biodiversity and the structure needed to provide crucial ecosystem services. NOAA’s Coral Reef Watch (CRW) uses a combination of satellite data, in situ observations, and models to provide coral reef managers, scientists, and others with information needed to monitor threats to coral reefs. The advance notice provided by remote sensing and models allows resource managers to protect corals, coral reefs, and the services they provide, although managers often encounter barriers to implementation of adaptation strategies. This talk will focus on application of NOAA’s satellite and model-based tools that monitor the risk of mass coral bleaching on a global scale, ocean acidification in the Caribbean, and coral disease outbreaks in selected regions, as well as CRW work to train managers in their use, and barriers to taking action to adapt to climate change. As both anthropogenic CO2 and temperatures will continue to rise, local actions to protect reefs are becoming even more important.

Eakin, C.; Liu, G.; Li, J.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Heron, S. F.; Gledhill, D. K.; Christensen, T.; Rauenzahn, J.; Morgan, J.; Parker, B. A.; Skirving, W. J.; Nim, C.; Burgess, T.; Strong, A. E.

2010-12-01

398

Surface alkaline phosphatase activities of macroalgae on coral reefs of the central Great Barrier Reef, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inshore reefs of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) are subject to episodic nutrient supply, mainly by flood events, whereas midshelf reefs have a more consistent low nutrient availability. Alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) enables macroalgae to increase their phosphorus (P) supply by using organic P. APA was high (~4.0 to 15.5 µmol PO4 3- g DW-1 h-1) in species colonising predominantly inshore reefs and low (<2 µmol PO4 3- g DW-1 h-1) in species with a cross-shelf distribution. However, APA values of GBR algae in this study were much lower than data reported from other coral reef systems. In experiments with two Sargassum species tissue P levels were correlated negatively, and N:P ratios were positively correlated with APA. High APA can compensate for a relative P-limitation of macroalgae in coral reef systems that are subject to significant N-inputs, such as the GBR inshore reefs. APA and other mechanisms to acquire a range of nutrient species allow inshore species to thrive in habitats with episodic nutrient supply. These species also are likely to benefit from an increased nutrient supply caused by human activity, which currently is a global problem.

Schaffelke, B.

2001-05-01

399

18. VIEW OF CRUDE ORE BINS FROM WEST. WEST CRUDE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. VIEW OF CRUDE ORE BINS FROM WEST. WEST CRUDE ORE BIN AND TRESTLE FROM TWO JOHNS TRAMLINE TO SOUTH, CRUDE ORE BIN IN FOREGROUND. MACHINE SHOP IN BACKGROUND. THE TRAM TO PORTLAND PASSED TO NORTH OF MACHINE SHOP. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

400

3. EAGLE MILL, DETAIL OF CRUDE ORE BIN FROM NORTH, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. EAGLE MILL, DETAIL OF CRUDE ORE BIN FROM NORTH, c. 1908-10. SHOWS EXPOSED CRUSHER HOUSE IN FRONT OF (SOUTH) CRUDE ORE BIN AND SNOW SHED ADDED OVER TRAM TRACKS. NOTE LACK OF EAST OR WEST CRUDE ORE BINS. CREDIT JW. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

401

Process and apparatus for separating fine particles by microbubble flotation together with a process and apparatus for generation of microbubbles  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus are disclosed for the microbubble flotation separation of very fine particles, especially coal, so as to produce a high purity and large recovery efficiently. This is accomplished through the use of a high aspect ratio flotation column, microbubbles, and a countercurrent use of wash water to gently wash the froth. Also, disclosed are unique processes and apparatus for generating microbubbles for flotation in a high efficient and inexpensive manner using either a porous tube or an in-line static generator. 23 figures.

Yoon, R.H.; Adel, G.T.; Luttrell, G.H.

1991-01-01

402

Funcitonal importance of Belize coral reefs, Wulff52 FUNCTIONAL IMPORTANCE OF BIODIVERSITY FOR CORAL REEFS OF BELIZE1  

E-print Network

Funcitonal importance of Belize coral reefs, Wulff52 FUNCTIONAL IMPORTANCE OF BIODIVERSITY FOR CORAL REEFS OF BELIZE1 Janie Wulff Department of Biological Science, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA; wulff@bio.fsu.edu ABSTRACT A thriving coral reef results from an intricate collaboration

Ronquist, Fredrik

403

76 FR 82413 - Amendments to the Reef Fish, Spiny Lobster, Queen Conch and Coral and Reef Associated Plants and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...50 CFR Part 622 Amendments to the Reef Fish, Spiny Lobster, Queen Conch and Coral...RIN 0648-BA62 Amendments to the Reef Fish, Spiny Lobster, Queen Conch and Coral...Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for the Reef Fish Fishery of Puerto Rico and the...

2011-12-30

404

Measurements of the local energy balance over a coral reef flat, Heron Island, southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coral reefs are thought to face significant threat from global warming due to increased water temperatures and ocean acidity. However, research into the surface energy balance of coral reefs and their associated micrometeorology is rare. Here we present, through a case study approach, the first direct in situ measurements of the surface energy balance of Heron Reef, a small platform

Hamish A. McGowan; Andrew P. Sturman; Melissa C. MacKellar; Andrew H. Wiebe; David T. Neil

2010-01-01

405

Reef Water CO2 System and Carbon Production of Coral Reefs: Topographic Control of System-Level Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variations of seawater CO2 system and organic and inorganic carbon production of coral reefs were investigated with respect to topographic types and oceanographic settings. Because of dominant carbonate production in coral reef ecosystems, most coral reefs are likely to act as a net or at least a potential CO2 source to the atmosphere. The comparison of the seawater CO2

Atsushi SUZUKI; Hodaka KAWAHATA

2004-01-01

406

Viton B O-Ring Resilience Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Challenger accident in January 1986 was attributed to failure of the pressure seal in the aft field joint of the solid rocket motor. It was concluded that the elastomeric O-ring seals did not perform their sealing function because of the low temperatu...

T. W. Giants

2001-01-01

407

Production of uranium ore in capitalist countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uranium deposits of the USA are concentrated in the sedimentary rocks of the Colorado plateau [2, 12]. The ore bodies are adapted to arkosic sandstones, conglomerates, limestones, and argillites. The reserves are distributed into a rather small number of large deposits and a large number of small deposits. Large deposits, each with reserves of from 50 to 100 thousand

N. I. Chesnokov; V. G. Ivanov

1973-01-01

408

Detecting and Sorting Disseminated Native Copper Ores.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes and evaluates a detector-sorting device to separate copper-bearing and non-copper-bearing rock in native Cu ore. Results of small-scale sorting tests on four Michigan native copper samples showed 60 to 85 pct of the copper was recover...

V. R. Miller, R. W. Nash, A. E. Schwaneke

1974-01-01

409

Metalliferous black shales and related ore deposits  

SciTech Connect

This book comprises papers and extended abstracts dealing with a variety of topics including the geochemistry and organic geochemistry of several black shale formations: the nature of modern Black Sea sediments: metal- organic complexes in ore fluids; black shales related to disseminated gold deposits; vanadium concentrations and molybdenum-nickel deposits; and the problem of defining metalliferous black shales.

Grauch, R.I. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)); Huyck, H.L.O. (Cincinnati Univ., OH (United States))

1990-01-01

410

Ore Melting and Reduction in Silicomanganese Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The charge for silicomangansese production consists of manganese ore (often mixed with ferromanganese slag) dolomite or calcite, quartz, and in some cases, other additions. These materials have different melting properties, which have a strong effect on reduction and smelting reactions in the production of a silicomanganese alloy. This article discusses properties of Assman, Gabonese, and Companhia Vale do Rio Doce (CVRD) ores, CVRD sinter and high-carbon ferromanganese (HC FeMn) slag, and their change during silicomanganese production. The melting and reduction temperatures of these manganese sources were measured in a carbon monoxide atmosphere, using the sessile drop method and a differential thermal analysis/thermogravimetric analysis. Equilibrium phases were analyzed using FACTSage (CRCT, Montreal, Canada and GTT, Aachen, Germany) software. Experimental investigations and an analysis of equilibrium phases revealed significant differences in the melting behavior and reduction of different manganese sources. The difference in smelting of CVRD ore and CVRD sinter was attributed to a faster reduction of sinter by the graphite substrate and carbon monoxide. The calculation of equilibrium phases in the reduction process of manganese ores using FACTSage correctly reflects the trends in the production of manganese alloys. The temperature at which the manganese oxide concentration in the slag was reduced below 10 wt pct can be assigned to the top of the coke bed in the silicomanganese furnace. This temperature was in the range 1823 K to 1883 K (1550 °C to 1610 °C).

Ringdalen, Eli; Gaal, Sean; Tangstad, Merete; Ostrovski, Oleg

2010-12-01

411

Sources of ores of the ferroalloy metals  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Since all steel is made with the addition of alloying elements, the record of the metallic raw materials contributory to the steel industry would be far from complete without reference to the ferroalloy metals. This paper, therefore, supplements two preceding arvicles on the sources of our iron ores. The photographs, with the exception of those relating to molybdenum and vanadium, are by the author.

Burchard, E.F.

1933-01-01

412

Sensitivity of double centrifugation sugar fecal flotation for detecting intestinal helminths in coyotes (Canis latrans).  

PubMed

Fecal analysis is commonly used to estimate prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminths in wild carnivores, but few studies have assessed the reliability of fecal flotation compared to analysis of intestinal tracts. We investigated sensitivity of the double centrifugation sugar fecal flotation and kappa agreement between fecal flotation and postmortem examination of intestines for helminths of coyotes (Canis latrans). We analyzed 57 coyote carcasses that were collected between October 2010 and March 2011 in the metropolitan area of Calgary and Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Before analyses, intestines and feces were frozen at -80 C for 72 hr to inactivate Echinococcus eggs, protecting operators from potential exposure. Five species of helminths were found by postmortem examination, including Toxascaris leonina, Uncinaria stenocephala, Ancylostoma caninum, Taenia sp., and Echinococcus multilocularis. Sensitivity of fecal flotation was high (0.84) for detection of T. leonina but low for Taenia sp. (0.27), E. multilocularis (0.46), and U. stenocephala (0.00). Good kappa agreement between techniques was observed only for T. leonina (0.64), for which we detected also a significant correlation between adult female parasite intensity and fecal egg counts (R(s)=0.53, P=0.01). Differences in sensitivity may be related to parasite characteristics that affect recovery of eggs on flotation. Fecal parasitologic analyses are highly applicable to study the disease ecology of urban carnivores, and they often provide important information on environmental contamination and potential of zoonotic risks. However, fecal-based parasitologic surveys should first assess the sensitivity of the techniques to understand their biases and limitations. PMID:22740537

Liccioli, Stefano; Catalano, Stefano; Kutz, Susan J; Lejeune, Manigandan; Verocai, Guilherme G; Duignan, Padraig J; Fuentealba, Carmen; Ruckstuhl, Kathreen E; Massolo, Alessandro

2012-07-01

413

Separation of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) from automobile shredder residue (ASR) by froth flotation with ozonation.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to develop froth flotation to separate polyvinyl chloride (PVC) from automobile shredder residue (ASR) plastic mixtures of variable composition. Some polymers in ASR polymer mixtures have similar density and hydrophobicity with PVC and thus selective flotation of PVC from ASR polymer mixtures cannot be achieved. The present study focused on the surface modification of PVC with ozonation, and then the modified PVC can be separated from other polymers by the following froth flotation. The results of this study indicate that the selective recovery of PVC from real ASR polyethylene tetra pethelate (PET), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), polybutyl methacralate (PBMA), ethyl acrylate (EA), polycarbonate (PC) and rubber mixtures can be accomplished in a three-step process involving a gravity separation, ozonation and froth flotation. The rubber was removed from other heavy ASR (PVC, PET, PMMA, PBMA, EA and PC) polymers by froth flotation without mixing. It was found that ozonation process produced the desired difference in contact angle required (from 89.5 to 73.0 degrees ) for separation of PVC from other heavy ASR polymers, whereas the contact angles of other polymers was slightly decreased. The most of the load ASR, i.e. about 72.4% is floated away and 27.6% was settled down. The highest component 96.7% of PVC was recovered in the settled fraction. As a result of this research effort, the surface modification of PVC with ozonation can be efficiently useful to separate the PVC from other similar density ASR mixed polymers. PMID:17360113

Reddy, Mallampati Srinivasa; Kurose, Keisuke; Okuda, Tetsuji; Nishijima, Wataru; Okada, Mitsumasa

2007-08-25

414

Perturbation and change in coral reef communities  

PubMed Central

Ninety-six percent of surveyed shallow-water Dry Tortugas reef corals died during the severe winter of 1976-1977. Data from skeletal stains indicate that death occurred during the mid-January intrusion of 14°C water onto the reef. In deeper water, community parameters such as percent cover, species number, and relative abundance showed no significant change. However, an analysis of competitive interactions at the growing edges of adjacent colonies reveals a 70% reduction in space competition during this environmental disturbance. These results can explain high variability in the growth rate of Floridian reefs and demonstrate the importance of obtaining long-term spatial information to interpret successional dynamics of complex communities. Images PMID:16578761

Porter, James W.; Battey, James F.; Smith, G. Jason

1982-01-01

415

Impact of CLOD Pathogen on Pacific Coral Reefs.  

PubMed

A bacterial pathogen of coralline algae was initially observed during June 1993 and now occurs in South Pacific reefs that span a geographic range of at least 6000 kilometers. The occurrence of the coralline algal pathogen at Great Astrolabe Reef sites (Fiji) increased from zero percent in 1992 to 100 percent in 1993, which indicates that the pathogen may be in an early stage of virulence and dispersal. Because of the important role played by coralline algae in reef building, this pathogen, designated coralline lethal orange disease (CLOD), has the potential to greatly influence coral reef ecology and reef-building processes. PMID:17812612

Littler, M M; Littler, D S

1995-03-01

416

Climate change, human impacts, and the resilience of coral reefs.  

PubMed

The diversity, frequency, and scale of human impacts on coral reefs are increasing to the extent that reefs are threatened globally. Projected increases in carbon dioxide and temperature over the next 50 years exceed the conditions under which coral reefs have flourished over the past half-million years. However, reefs will change rather than disappear entirely, with some species already showing far greater tolerance to climate change and coral bleaching than others. International integration of management strategies that support reef resilience need to be vigorously implemented, and complemented by strong policy decisions to reduce the rate of global warming. PMID:12920289

Hughes, T P; Baird, A H; Bellwood, D R; Card, M; Connolly, S R; Folke, C; Grosberg, R; Hoegh-Guldberg, O; Jackson, J B C; Kleypas, J; Lough, J M; Marshall, P; Nyström, M; Palumbi, S R; Pandolfi, J M; Rosen, B; Roughgarden, J

2003-08-15

417

Fiji's largest marine reserve benefits reef sharks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To provide more information about whether sharks benefit from no-take marine reserves, we quantified the relative abundance and biomass of reef sharks inside and outside of Namena, Fiji's largest reserve (60.6 km2). Using stereo baited remote underwater video systems (stereo-BRUVs), we found that the abundance and biomass of sharks was approximately two and four times greater in shallow and deep locations, respectively, within the Namena reserve compared to adjacent fished areas. The greater abundance and biomass of reef sharks inside Namena is likely a result of greater prey availability rather than protection from fishing. This study demonstrates that marine reserves can benefit sharks.

Goetze, J. S.; Fullwood, L. A. F.

2013-03-01

418

The relative importance of local retention and inter-reef dispersal of neutrally buoyant material on coral reefs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reef-scale, eddy-resolving numerical models are applied to discriminate between local trapping of neutrally buoyant passive material coming from a natal reef versus trapping of this material on reefs downstream. A hydrodynamic model is coupled with a Lagrangian (nongridded) dispersal simulation to map the movement of material such as passive larvae within and between natural reefs. To simplify the interpretation, a number of schematic reef shapes, sizes and spacings were devised to represent the most common cases typifying Australia's Great Barrier Reef. Prior investigations have shown that coral reefs on the Great Barrier Reef may retain material for times equivalent to the pelagic dispersal period of many species. This paper explores whether larvae are more likely to settle on the natal reef, settle downstream or fail to settle at all. The modelling neglects active larval behaviour and treats the vertically well-mixed case of notionally weightless particles only. The crown-of-thorns starfish larvae with a pelagic dispersal period of at least 10 days are one example of this case. Larvae are most likely to be found near the natal reef rather than its downstream neighbour, mostly because the currents take the vertically well-mixed material around, rather than onto, the downstream reef. Of all the simulations, the highest numbers were found on natal reefs (e.g. 8% after 10 days) while downstream numbers mostly varied between 0 and 1% after 10 days. Particle numbers equalised only when spacing between the two reefs was less than the reef length (6 km), or when the downstream reef was in the direct path of the larval stream.

Black, Kerry P.

1993-03-01

419

Predicting the Location and Spatial Extent of Submerged Coral Reef Habitat in the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area, Australia  

PubMed Central

Aim Coral reef communities occurring in deeper waters have received little research effort compared to their shallow-water counterparts, and even such basic information as their location and extent are currently unknown throughout most of the world. Using the Great Barrier Reef as a case study, habitat suitability modelling is used to predict the distribution of deep-water coral reef communities on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. We test the effectiveness of a range of geophysical and environmental variables for predicting the location of deep-water coral reef communities on the Great Barrier Reef. Location Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Methods Maximum entropy modelling is used to identify the spatial extent of two broad communities of habitat-forming megabenthos phototrophs and heterotrophs. Models were generated using combinations of geophysical substrate properties derived from multibeam bathymetry and environmental data derived from Bio-ORACLE, combined with georeferenced occurrence records of mesophotic coral communities from autonomous underwater vehicle, remotely operated vehicle and SCUBA surveys. Model results are used to estimate the total amount of mesophotic coral reef habitat on the GBR. Results Our models predict extensive but previously undocumented coral communities occurring both along the continental shelf-edge of the Great Barrier Reef and also on submerged reefs inside the lagoon. Habitat suitability for phototrophs is highest on submerged reefs along the outer-shelf and the deeper flanks of emergent reefs inside the GBR lagoon, while suitability for heterotrophs is highest in the deep waters along the shelf-edge. Models using only geophysical variables consistently outperformed models incorporating environmental data for both phototrophs and heterotrophs. Main Conclusion Extensive submerged coral reef communities that are currently undocumented are likely to occur throughout the Great Barrier Reef. High-quality bathymetry data can be used to identify these reefs, which may play an important role in resilience of the GBR ecosystem to climate change. PMID:23118952

Bridge, Tom; Beaman, Robin; Done, Terry; Webster, Jody

2012-01-01

420

Porosity controls in Late Jurassic algal reefs, Mississippi salt basin  

SciTech Connect

Reefs associated with high-rise salt structures that were active during Late Jurassic deposition (Smackover-Haynesville) have been the target of numerous deep tests in the Mississippi Salt basin. One such test, in Wayne County, Mississippi, encountered a 24-m reef. The reef exhibited no porosity or permeability, while sequences above (21 m) and below (24 m) were dolomitized, porous, and permeable. The reef sequence consists of a facies mosaic of encrusting to columnar massive red coralline algae, laminated to stromatolitic blue-green algae(.) with associated pelleted internal sediments and other features characteristic of modern framework reefs. The reef complex exhibits a strong early marine diagenetic overprint consisting of bladed to fibrous magnesian calcite(.) cements and botryoidal masses of magnesian calcite or aragonite. The lack of discernible freshwater diagenesis and the nature of the reef framework seem to indicate deeper water conditions for reef development and subsequent early diagenesis. The associated dolomites have relict texture indicating that they were originally grainstones, perhaps derived from the reef itself. In the reef sequence, the geologic setting (relatively deep water), early marine cementation, and encrusting nature of the reef-formers produced a non-porous rock which was not susceptible to early dolomitization. However, the associated porous grainstones allowed active circulation of dolomitizing fluids (marine water.), leading to total dolomitization and a favorable reservoir facies.

Heydari, E.; Moore, C.H.

1987-05-01

421

Upper Miocene reef complex of Mallorca, Balearic Islands, Spain  

SciTech Connect

The late Tortonian-Messinian coral reef platform of south Mallorca onlaps a folded middle late Miocene carbonate platform on which progradation of up to 20 km occurs. Vertical sea cliffs (up to 100 m high) superbly show the last 5 km of this progradation and complement the numerous water-well cores from the island interior. The Mallorca reef presents the most complete facies zonation of the Miocene reefs of the western Mediterranean. The reef wall framework is up to 20 m thick and shows (1) erosional reef flat with reef breccia and small corals; (2) spur-and-grove zone with large, massive corals; (3) deep buttresses and pinnacles with terraces of branching corals; and (4) deep reef wall with flat, laminar coral colonies, branching red algae, and Halimeda sands.

Pomar, L.

1988-02-01

422

The continuing decline of coral reefs in Bahrain.  

PubMed

Historically coral reefs of Bahrain were among the most extensive in the southern basin of the Arabian Gulf. However, Bahrain's reefs have undergone significant decline in the last four decades as a result of large-scale coastal development and elevated sea surface temperature events. Here we quantitatively surveyed six sites including most major coral reef habitats around Bahrain and a reef located 72 km offshore. Fleshy and turf algae now dominate Bahrain's reefs (mean: 72% cover), and live coral cover is low (mean: 5.1%). Formerly dominant Acropora were not observed at any site. The offshore Bulthama reef had the highest coral cover (16.3%) and species richness (22 of the 23 species observed, 13 of which were exclusive to this site). All reefs for which recent and historical data are available show continued degradation, and it is unlikely that they will recover under continuing coastal development and projected climate change impacts. PMID:22980773

Burt, John A; Al-Khalifa, Khalifa; Khalaf, Ebtesam; Alshuwaikh, Bassem; Abdulwahab, Ahmed

2013-07-30

423

Reefing Line Tension in CPAS Main Parachute Clusters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reefing lines are an essential feature to manage inflation loads. During each Engineering Development Unit (EDU) test of the Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS), a chase aircraft is staged to be level with the cluster of Main ringsail parachutes during the initial inflation and reefed stages. This allows for capturing high-quality still photographs of the reefed skirt, suspension line, and canopy geometry. The over-inflation angles are synchronized with measured loads data in order to compute the tension force in the reefing line. The traditional reefing tension equation assumes radial symmetry, but cluster effects cause the reefed skirt of each parachute to elongate to a more elliptical shape. This effect was considered in evaluating multiple parachutes to estimate the semi-major and semi-minor axes. Three flight tests are assessed, including one with a skipped first stage, which had peak reefing line tension over three times higher than the nominal parachute disreef sequence.

Ray, Eric S.

2013-01-01

424

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Black reefs: iron-induced phase shifts on coral reefs  

E-print Network

the shipwreck debris are characterized by high benthic cover of turf algae, macroalgae, cyanobacterial mats, metagenomics and microcosms to investigate if and how shipwrecks initiate and maintain black reefs. Comparative rubble through microbial activity. Together these results demonstrate that shipwrecks

Smith, Jennifer E.

425

Pulley reef: a deep photosynthetic coral reef on the West Florida Shelf, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pulley Reef (24°50?N, 83°40?W) lies on a submerged late Pleistocene shoreline feature that formed during a sea-level stillstand from 13.8 to 14.5 ka (Jarrett et al. 2005). The reef is currently 60–75 m deep, exhibits 10–60% coral cover, and extends over approximately 160 km2 of the sea floor. Zooxanthellate corals are primarily Agaricia lamarcki, A. fragilis, Leptoseris cucullata, and less common Madracis formosa, M. pharensis, M. decactis, Montastraea cavernosa, Porites divaricata, Scolymia cubensis and Oculina tenella. Coralline algae are comparable in abundance to stony corals. Other macroalgae include Halimeda tuna, Dictyota divaricata, Lobophora variegata, Ventricatri ventricosa, Verdigelas pelas, and Kallymenia sp. Anadyomene menziesii is abundant. The reef provides a habitat for organisms typically observed at much shallower depths, and is the deepest known photosynthetic coral reef on the North America continental shelf (Fig. 1).

Culter, J.K.; Ritchie, K.B.; Earle, S.A.; Guggenheim, D.E.; Halley, R.B.; Ciembronowicz, K.T.; Hine, A.C.; Jarrett, B.D.; Locker, S.D.; Jaap, W.C.

2006-01-01

426

DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER TRAM TERMINAL, SECONDARY ORE BIN, CRUSHER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER TRAM TERMINAL, SECONDARY ORE BIN, CRUSHER FOUNDATION, AND BALL MILL FOUNDATIONS, LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST. ORE FROM THE MINES WAS DUMPED FROM THE TRAM BUCKETS INTO THE PRIMARY ORE BIN UNDER THE TRAM TERMINAL. A SLIDING CONTROL DOOR INTRODUCED THE INTO THE JAW CRUSHER (FOUNDATIONS,CENTER). THE CRUSHED ORE WAS THEN CONVEYED INTO THE SECONDARY ORE BIN AT CENTER LEFT. A HOLE IN THE FLOOR OF THE ORE BIN PASSED ORE ONTO ANOTHER CONVEYOR THAT BROUGHT IT OUT TO THE BALL MILL(FOUNDATIONS,CENTER BOTTOM). THIS SYSTEM IS MOST LIKELY NOT THE ORIGINAL SET UP, PROBABLY INSTALLED IN THE MINE'S LAST OCCUPATION IN THE EARLY 1940s. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

427

Degradation Characteristics of O-rings on Highly Aged GIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Owing to increasing number of highly aged GIS, the investigation of the remaining lifetimes of those systems are becoming more important. Because a lot of O-rings are used in GIS, the study of degradation mechanism and lifetime estimation method of O-ring is essential. In this paper, the information about O-ring degradation mechanism is described, and the statistical method for estimating the remaining lifetime of O-ring is proposed. The degradation of O-ring is mainly subject to chemical reactions triggered by oxygen. Because there are many factors influencing those chemical reactions, the dispersion of degradation rates of O-rings in GIS is very large. Consequently the statistical analysis is one of the effective techniques for lifetime estimation of O-rings in GIS.

Minagawa, Tadao; Nagao, Eiichi; Tsuchie, Ei; Yonezawa, Hiroshi; Takayama, Daisuke; Yamakawa, Yutaka

428

Nutrient enrichment on coral reefs: Is it a major cause of coral reef decline?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coral reefs are degrading worldwide at an alarming rate. Nutrient over-enrichment is considered a major cause of this decline\\u000a because degraded coral reefs generally exhibit a shift from high coral cover (low algal cover) to low coral cover with an\\u000a accompanying high cover and biomass of fleshy algae. Support for such claims is equivocal at best. Critical examination of\\u000a both

Alina M. Szmant

2002-01-01

429

Coral bleaching: one disturbance too many for near-shore reefs of the Great Barrier Reef  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamic nature of coral communities can make it difficult to judge whether a reef system is resilient to the current disturbance\\u000a regime. To address this question of resilience for near-shore coral communities of the Great Barrier Reef (Australia) a data\\u000a set consisting of 350 annual observations of benthic community change was compiled from existing monitoring data. These data\\u000a spanned

A. A. Thompson; A. M. Dolman

2010-01-01

430

Introduction: A Diversity of Oceans, Reefs, People, and Ideas: A Perspective of US Coral Reef Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

By virtue of its geographical extent and the size and wealth of its population, US surveyors and academics entered the scientific\\u000a coral reef world soon after the study of the latter became of interest. But even earlier, the coral reefs of what are today\\u000a territories of the USA have been noted and, at least cursorily, studied out of necessity since

Bernhard M. Riegl; Richard E. Dodge

431

A unique coral reef formation discovered on the Great Astrolabe Reef, Fiji  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  ?A spectacular mound-like reef formation (126?m in circumference, 10?m high) dominated by highly arched and record-size colonies\\u000a of the unattached mushroom coral Halomitra pileus, along with 17 other species of the family Fungiidae, occurs in 31?m of water on the sedimentary lagoon floor of the Great\\u000a Astrolabe Reef, Fiji. Core samples show radiocarbon dates which indicate that the formation hypothetically

M. M. Littler; D. S. Littler; B. L. Brooks; J. F. Koven

1997-01-01

432

M. Zuschin J. Hohenegger F.F. Steininger Molluscan assemblages on coral reefs and associated hard  

E-print Network

REPORT M. Zuschin á J. Hohenegger á F.F. Steininger Molluscan assemblages on coral reefs- bution patterns of organisms in coral reef environments is necessary to evaluate the increasing types of subtidal, reef-associated hard substrata (reef ¯ats, reef slopes, coral carpets, coral patches

Zuschin, Martin

433

-Congressional Policy Brief -Coral Reefs: For Health, For Wealth, For Life  

E-print Network

- Congressional Policy Brief - Coral Reefs: For Health, For Wealth, For Life Table of Contents Introduction ­ 1 What are Corals and Coral Reefs? ­ 1 Coral Reef Biology ­ 2 Hazards to Coral Reefs ­ 2 Major Reef-building Coral Diseases ­ 3 Coral Bleaching ­ 4 References and Resource Links ­ 4 "The

434

Functional Roles of Sponges on Coral Reefs Janie L. Wulff 1  

E-print Network

38 Functional Roles of Sponges on Coral Reefs Janie L. Wulff 1 Barrel sponge on patch of reef excavating sponges can dismantle reefs, and some sponges can overgrow corals, it is now known that sponges also substantially benefit coral reefs and associated ecosystems. Sponges benefit reefs by efficiently

Ronquist, Fredrik

435

Sustaining Dry Tortugas National Park Coral Reef Resources Page 1.1 FINAL REPORT FY 2008  

E-print Network

Sustaining Dry Tortugas National Park Coral Reef Resources Page 1.1 FINAL REPORT FY 2008 Fishery-Independent Monitoring of Coral Reef Fishes, Coral Reefs, and Macro-invertebrates in the Dry Tortugas Jerald S. Ault Park Coral Reef Resources Page 1.2 FINAL REPORT FY 2008 Fishery-Independent Monitoring of Coral Reef

Miami, University of

436

Serge Andre foue t Hector M. Guzman Coral reef distribution, status and geomorphologybiodiversity  

E-print Network

REPORT Serge Andre´ foue¨ t � Hector M. Guzman Coral reef distribution, status and geomorphology of the reef geomor- phology and benthic communities of Kuna Yala coral reefs (Caribbean Panama) comes from of coral, octocorals, and sponges) and reef health (coral versus algal cover). For a total reef system

Bermingham, Eldredge

437

Coral Reefs: An English Compilation of Activities for Middle School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This activity book on coral reefs for middle school students is divided into 10 sections. Section 1 contains the introduction. Section 2 describes what coral reefs are while section 3 describes how coral reefs reproduce and grow. Section 4 discusses where coral reefs are found and section 5 describes life on a coral reef. Section 6 discusses the…

Walker, Sharon H.; Newton, R. Amanda; Ortiz, Alida

438

Encouraging Proximal Relations: Queensland High School Students Go to the Reef  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This article concerns learning with high school students and the effect of snorkeling and coral reef monitoring at the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. The effectiveness of classroom learning, student-reef relationships and reef trips were investigated. Purpose: This paper presents selected student accounts of reef educational…

Stepath, Carl; Whitehouse, Hilary

2006-01-01

439

Environmental factors associated with the spatial distribution of crustose coralline algae on the Great Barrier Reef  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crustose coralline algae (CCA) fulfill two key functional roles in coral reef ecosystems: they contribute significantly to reef calcification, and they induce larval settlement of many benthic organisms. Percentage cover of CCA, and environmental conditions, were visually estimated on 144 reefs of the Great Barrier Reef between 10 and 24° latitude S. Reefs were located across the shelf and ranged

K. Fabricius; G. De'ath

2001-01-01

440

DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE OF BRLFISH LARVAE (PISCES: ISTIOPHORIDAE) IN THE GREAT BARRIER REEF LAGOON  

E-print Network

DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE OF BRLFISH LARVAE (PISCES: ISTIOPHORIDAE) IN THE GREAT BARRIER REEF) of the outer ribbon reefs. Concentration and abundance within the Great Barrier Reef Lagoon were not usually of reef fishes in the vicinity of Lizard Island in the northern region ofthe Great Barrier Reef, Australia

441

Measurements of the local energy balance over a coral reef flat, Heron Island, southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coral reefs are thought to face significant threat from global warming due to increased water temperatures and ocean acidity. However, research into the surface energy balance of coral reefs and their associated micrometeorology is rare. Here we present, through a case study approach, the first direct in situ measurements of the surface energy balance of Heron Reef, a small platform coral reef in the southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Surface energy exchanges were measured using the eddy covariance method and show that during winter and spring an estimated 80-98% of net radiation goes into heating of the water overlaying the reef and reef substrate. As a result, cloud cover is considered the dominant control on heating of the reef flat environment. Change in cloud cover may therefore significantly affect the thermal environment of coral reefs and their ecology. Sensible and latent heat fluxes reached their highest values during wintertime advection of dry and cool continental air blowing from mainland Australia. This resulted in a net loss of energy from the reef flat and a decreasing trend in water temperature. Turbulent fluxes otherwise remained small, with sensible heat flux often close to zero. Results indicate that coral reefs may act as heat sinks during winter and as heat sources during spring, thereby affecting local water and atmosphere heat budgets and associated thermodynamics.

McGowan, Hamish A.; Sturman, Andrew P.; MacKellar, Melissa C.; Wiebe, Andrew H.; Neil, David T.

2010-10-01

442

Last interglacial reef growth beneath Belize barrier and isolated platform reefs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We report the first radiometric dates (thermal-ionization mass spectrometry) from late Pleistocene reef deposits from offshore Belize, the location of the largest modern reef complex in the Atlantic Ocean. The results presented here can be used to explain significant differences in bathymetry, sedimentary facies, and reef development of this major reef area, and the results are significant because they contribute to the knowledge of the regional geology of the eastern Yucatán. The previously held concept of a neotectonically stable eastern Yucatán is challenged. The dates indicate that Pleistocene reefs and shallow-water limestones, which form the basement of modern reefs in the area, accumulated ca. 125–130 ka. Significant differences in elevation of the samples relative to present sea level (>10 m) have several possible causes. Differential subsidence along a series of continental margin fault blocks in combination with variation in karstification are probably the prime causes. Differential subsidence is presumably related to initial extension and later left-lateral movements along the adjacent active boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates. Increasing dissolution toward the south during Pleistocene sea-level lowstands is probably a consequence of higher precipitation rates in mountainous southern Belize.

Gischler, Eberhard; Lomando, Anthony J.; Hudson, J. Harold; Holmes, Charles W.

2000-01-01

443

Spectrophotometric and atomic absorption determination of Ni(II) in fresh and sea waters after preconcentration by flotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A highly selective and sensitive procedure for flotation separation followed by spectrophotometric determination, confirmed by AAS, of Ni(II) traces is proposed. The maximum flotation separation (100%) is achieved at 25° C in the pH range of 1–3 using sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (as a collector) and oleic acid surfactant. The floated (1 : 2) colored complex is measured spectrophotometrically at 430 nm

M. A. Kabil; S. E. Ghazy; M. A. Shallaby; M. R. Lasheen; N. S. Amar

1996-01-01

444

Modelling Coral Reef Futures to Inform Management: Can Reducing Local-Scale Stressors Conserve Reefs under Climate Change?  

PubMed Central

Climate change has emerged as a principal threat to coral reefs, and is expected to exacerbate coral reef degradation caused by more localised stressors. Management of local stressors is widely advocated to bolster coral reef resilience, but the extent to which management of local stressors might affect future trajectories of reef state remains unclear. This is in part because of limited understanding of the cumulative impact of multiple stressors. Models are ideal tools to aid understanding of future reef state under alternative management and climatic scenarios, but to date few have been sufficiently developed to be useful as decision support tools for local management of coral reefs subject to multiple stressors. We used a simulation model of coral reefs to investigate the extent to which the management of local stressors (namely poor water quality and fishing) might influence future reef state under varying climatic scenarios relating to coral bleaching. We parameterised the model for Bolinao, the Philippines, and explored how simulation modelling can be used to provide decision support for local management. We found that management of water quality, and to a lesser extent fishing, can have a significant impact on future reef state, including coral recovery following bleaching-induced mortality. The stressors we examined interacted antagonistically to affect reef state, highlighting the importance of considering the combined impact of multiple stressors rather than considering them individually. Further, by providing explicit guidance for management of Bolinao's reef system, such as which course of management action will most likely to be effective over what time scales and at which sites, we demonstrated the utility of simulation models for supporting management. Aside from providing explicit guidance for management of Bolinao's reef system, our study offers insights which could inform reef management more broadly, as well as general understanding of reef systems. PMID:24260347

Gurney, Georgina G.; Melbourne-Thomas, Jessica; Geronimo, Rollan C.; Alino, Perry M.; Johnson, Craig R.

2013-01-01

445

Headgroup interactions and ion flotation efficiency in mixtures of a chelating surfactant, different foaming agents, and divalent metal ions.  

PubMed

The correlation between interaction parameters and ion flotation efficiency in mixtures of chelating surfactant metal complexes and different foaming agents was investigated. We have recently shown that chelating surfactant 2-dodecyldiethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (4-C12-DTPA) forms strong coordination complexes with divalent metal ions, and this can be utilized in ion flotation. Interaction parameters for mixed micelles and mixed monolayer formation for Mg(2+) and Ni(2+) complexes with the chelating surfactant 4-C12-DTPA and different foaming agents were calculated by Rubingh's regular solution theory. Parameters for the calculations were extracted from surface tension measurements and NMR diffusometry. The effects of metal ion coordination on the interactions between 4-C12-DTPA and the foaming agents could be linked to a previously established difference in coordination chemistry between the examined metal ions. As can be expected from mixtures of amphoteric surfactants, the interactions were strongly pH-dependent. Strong correlation was found between interaction parameter ?(?) for mixed monolayer formation and the phase-transfer efficiency of Ni(2+) complexes with 4-C12-DTPA during flotation in a customized flotation cell. In a mixture of Cu(2+) and Zn(2+), the significant difference in conditional stability constants (log K) between the metal complexes was utilized to selectively recover the metal complex with the highest log K (Cu(2+)) by ion flotation. Flotation experiments in an excess concentration of metal ions confirmed the coordination of more than one metal ion to the headgroup of 4-C12-DTPA. PMID:24824327

Svanedal, Ida; Boija, Susanne; Norgren, Magnus; Edlund, Håkan

2014-06-10

446

GLOBAL CHANGE EFFECTS ON CORAL REEF CONDITION  

EPA Science Inventory

Fisher, W., W. Davis, J. Campbell, L. Courtney, P. Harris, B. Hemmer, M. Parsons, B. Quarles and D. Santavy. In press. Global Change Effects on Coral Reef Condition (Abstract). To be presented at the EPA Science Forum: Healthy Communities and Ecosystems, 1-3 June 2004, Washington...

447

History of coral reefs and sea level  

SciTech Connect

Charles Darwin proposed crustal subsidence for atoll growth, on the Beagle, between England and Brazil, before even seeing a coral reef, on the basis of charts and discussions with Captain Fitzroy. Relative change of sea level due to crustal movements was then well-accepted from evidence of raised strandlines in Scandinavia and Scotland and sunken forests in England. Darwin added global change of sea level (tectonoeustasy) caused by remote tectonic activity, as explained by Robert Chambers (1848, p. 319). The glacioeustasy concept was mooted soon afterwards, though the term itself came later. When Suess in 1888 proposed eustatic change, he had in mind Archimedian displacement of water by sediment or lava accumulation on the sea floor. Integrated ideas of reef development also came in the 20th century. The powerful arguments against Darwin were led by Murray with his solution hypothesis, which can not be judged as good observation but from a narrow viewpoint. The Royal Society reef borings at Funafuti were heroic but at the same time misread. Subsequently came isotopic geochemistry, absolute dating, the Milankovitch insolation theory, and plate tectonics. And much more field work. The result is an integrated reef growth theory.

Fairbridge, R.W.

1985-01-01

448

Acanthaster Planci: Impact on Pacific Coral Reefs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ten teams of scientists went to 16 islands to assess the population structure of the starfish A. planci and the impact of this species on Pacific coral reefs. The findings of the study generally substantiated reports of recent increases in populations of ...

R. H. Chester

1969-01-01

449

Arsenic Accumulation in Great Barrier Reef Invertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic concentrates in the kidneys of the giant clams of Australia's Great Barrier Reef. The highest concentrations measured were 1004 parts per million, of which most, 2066 parts per million, were in the water-soluble fraction containing trimethylarsoniumlactate and its derivatives. This accumulation is ascribed to a mechanism in which oceanic arsenate is assimilated by symbiotic zooxanthellae and subsequently deposited in

A. A. Benson; R. E. Summons

1981-01-01

450

Macroalgal blooms on southeast Florida coral reefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive blooms of the siphonaceous green algae Codium spp. have been considered a symptom of coastal eutrophication but, to date, only limited biochemical evidence supports a linkage to land-based nutrient pollution. Beginning in the summer of 1990, spectacular blooms of unattached Codium isthmocladum developed on deep coral reef habitats in southern Palm Beach County and northern Broward County, and in

Brian E. Lapointe; Peter J. Barile; Mark M. Littler; Diane S. Littler; Bradley J. Bedford; Constance Gasque

2005-01-01

451

Macroalgal blooms on southeast Florida coral reefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1990, coral reefs off southeast Florida have experienced an unprecedented succession of macroalgal blooms and invasions. To determine if anthropogenic land-based nitrogen (N) sources support these HABs, we collected macroalgal tissue for stable nitrogen isotope (?15N) analysis at three spatially distinct depths ranging from the shallow subtidal to the shelf break (?43m) along seven transects from Jupiter to Deerfield

Brian E. Lapointe; Peter J. Barile; Mark M. Littler; Diane S. Littler

2005-01-01

452

CORAL REEF RESPONSES TO GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Increased emissions of greenhouse gases and synthetic compounds are related to rising sea temperatures and increased penetration of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), two factors that are consistently linked to bleaching and disease of corals. Coral reefs play a major role in the envir...

453

Introduction Reef fish spawning aggregations have  

E-print Network

of their importance in species conservation and their socio-economic contribu- tion to many Caribbean, tropical Campus Box 8208 Raleigh, NC 27695-8208 Peter S.Rand The Wild Salmon Center The Natural Capital Center 721 migrate great distances (in some cases documented on a scale of 100's of km) to aggre- gate on reefs

454

SEALEX — Internal reef chronology and virtual drill logs from a spreadsheet-based reef growth model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A reef growth model has been developed using an Excel spreadsheet. The 1D forward model is driven by a user definable sea-level curve. Other adjustable model parameters include maximum coral growth rate, coral growth rate depth dependence and light attenuation, subaerial erosion and subsidence. A time lag for the establishment of significant reef accretion may also be set. During the model run, both, the external shape and the internal chronologic structure of the growing reef as well as the paleo-water-depths are continuously displayed and recorded. We tested the model on fossil reef systems growing in a range of different tectonic settings such as both on slowly subsiding islands like Tahiti (subsidence rates of 0.25 m ka - 1 ) and rapidly subsiding islands like Hawaii (subsidence rate of 2.5 mka - 1 ) as well as rapidly uplifting coastal settings like Huon Peninsula (uplift rates of 0.5 to 4 m ka - 1 ) and more slowly uplifting settings like Haiti (uplift rates of 0.55 mka - 1 ). The model runs show the sensitivity of the resulting overall morphology and internal age structure to different model parameters. Additionally the water depth at the time of deposition is recorded. This allows the constructions of virtual borehole logs with the coral age profiles and the paleo water depth at the time of growth both displayed and recorded. Because the model is implemented as a macro in a popular spreadsheet program, it may be easily adapted or extended to model the growth of different reef and carbonate platform settings. Single model runs take a few minutes on a standard (2 GHz CoreDuo) desktop computer under Windows XP. The model may be used to investigate the effects of different boundary conditions such as maximum reef growth, erosion rates, subsidence or uplift on both, the general morphology of the reefs, and the internal chronologic structure. These results can then be compared to observed data allowing different hypothesis concerning reefs development to be tested. The model may also be used to assist in finding sampling locations in reef bodies that are likely to contain critical information for sea level studies. SEALEX is available online at http://www.rcom.marum.de/English/SEALEX_reef_growth_model.html.

Koelling, Martin; Webster, Jody Michael; Camoin, Gilbert; Iryu, Yasufumi; Bard, Edouard; Seard, Claire

2009-03-01

455

Community dynamics of Pleistocene coral reefs during alternative climatic regimes.  

PubMed

Reef ecosystems built during successive periods of Pleistocene sea level rise have shown remarkable persistence in coral community structure, but little is known of the ecological characteristics of reef communities during periods of low sea stands or sea level falls. We sampled the relative species abundance of coral, benthic foraminifera, and calcareous red algae communities from eight submerged coral reefs in the Huon Gulf, Papua New Guinea, which formed during successive sea level fall and lowstand periods over the past approximately kyr. We found that dissimilarity in coral species composition increased significantly with increasing time between reef-building events. However, neither coral diversity nor the taxonomic composition of benthic foraminifera and calcareous red algae assemblages varied significantly over time. The taxonomic composition of coral communities from lowstand reefs was significantly different from that of highstand reefs previously reported from the nearby Huon Peninsula. We interpret the community composition and temporal dynamics of lowstand reefs as a result of shifting energy regimes in the Huon Gulf, and differences between low and highstand reefs as a result of differences in the interaction between biotic and environmental factors between the Huon Gulf and Huon Peninsula. Regardless of the exact processes driving these trends, our study represents the first glimpse into the ecological dynamics of coral reefs during low sea level stands when climatic conditions for reef growth were much different and less optimal than during previously studied highstand periods. PMID:20380208

Tager, Danika; Webster, Jody M; Potts, Donald C; Renema, Willem; Braga, Juan C; Pandolfi, John M

2010-01-01

456

Holocene coral reef rubble and its binding agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A literature review regarding reef rubble (defined as mechanically or chemically abraded parts of framebuilders or reef rock larger than sand fraction) and its binding agents is presented. Rubble is produced by natural and man-made events such as storms, wave agitation, earthquakes, bioerosion, ship groundings, and dynamite fisheries. The regeneration of reefs after rubble-forming processes requires rigid rubble binding, which is always preceded by preliminary stabilization. Preliminary stabilization can be achieved by a decline in hydrodynamic energy, interlocking of components, seagrass, and overgrowth by sponges or algae. Rigid binding is primarily achieved by diagenetic cementation. The literature indicates that binding by coralline algae or other organisms (corals, worms, bryozoans) is only of subordinate importance. Highest rates of rigid rubble binding are known from fore-reef areas with low sloping angles above fair-weather wave base; rigid rubble binding is particularly rare in deeper fore-reef environments and not described from the reef crest. Rigid binding by diagenetic cementation is generally known from inter- and supratidal near-shore ramparts as well as back-reef, reef-flat, and shallow fore-reef rubble accumulations, while coralline algae rigidly bind rubble only in very shallow fore-reef environments. Rubble binding does not appear to be easily achieved and fewer reports of bound rubble were found than of loose rubble.

Rasser, M.; Riegl, B.

2002-04-01

457

Fishing down the largest coral reef fish species.  

PubMed

Studies on remote, uninhabited, near-pristine reefs have revealed surprisingly large populations of large reef fish. Locations such as the northwestern Hawaiian Islands, northern Marianas Islands, Line Islands, U.S. remote Pacific Islands, Cocos-Keeling Atoll and Chagos archipelago have much higher reef fish biomass than islands and reefs near people. Much of the high biomass of most remote reef fish communities lies in the largest species, such as sharks, bumphead parrots, giant trevally, and humphead wrasse. Some, such as sharks and giant trevally, are apex predators, but others such as bumphead parrots and humphead wrasse, are not. At many locations, decreases in large reef fish species have been attributed to fishing. Fishing is well known to remove the largest fish first, and a quantitative measure of vulnerability to fishing indicates that large reef fish species are much more vulnerable to fishing than small fish. The removal of large reef fish by fishing parallels the extinction of terrestrial megafauna by early humans. However large reef fish have great value for various ecological roles and for reef tourism. PMID:24889317

Fenner, Douglas

2014-07-15

458

The Role of Turtles as Coral Reef Macroherbivores  

PubMed Central

Herbivory is widely accepted as a vital function on coral reefs. To date, the majority of studies examining herbivory in coral reef environments have focused on the roles of fishes and/or urchins, with relatively few studies considering the potential role of macroherbivores in reef processes. Here, we introduce evidence that highlights the potential role of marine turtles as herbivores on coral reefs. While conducting experimental habitat manipulations to assess the roles of herbivorous reef fishes we observed green turtles (Chelonia mydas) and hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) showing responses that were remarkably similar to those of herbivorous fishes. Reducing the sediment load of the epilithic algal matrix on a coral reef resulted in a forty-fold increase in grazing by green turtles. Hawksbill turtles were also observed to browse transplanted thalli of the macroalga Sargassum swartzii in a coral reef environment. These responses not only show strong parallels to herbivorous reef fishes, but also highlight that marine turtles actively, and intentionally, remove algae from coral reefs. When considering the size and potential historical abundance of marine turtles we suggest that these potentially valuable herbivores may have been lost from many coral reefs before their true importance was understood. PMID:22768189

Goatley, Christopher H. R.; Hoey, Andrew S.; Bellwood, David R.

2012-01-01

459

Method for simultaneous use of a single additive for coal flotation, dewatering, and reconstitution  

DOEpatents

A single dose of additive contributes to three consecutive fine coal unit operations, i.e., flotation, dewatering and reconstitution, whereby the fine coal is first combined with water in a predetermined proportion so as to formulate a slurry. The slurry is then mixed with a heavy hydrocarbon-based emulsion in a second predetermined proportion and at a first predetermined mixing speed and for a predetermined period of time. The conditioned slurry is then cleaned by a froth flotation method to form a clean coal froth and then the froth is dewatered by vacuum filtration or a centrifugation process to form reconstituted products that are dried to dust-less clumps prior to combustion.

Wen, Wu-Wey (Murrysville, PA); Gray, McMahan L. (Pittsburgh, PA); Champagne, Kenneth J. (Finleyville, PA)

1995-01-01

460

Review of pollutants removed by electrocoagulation and electrocoagulation/flotation processes.  

PubMed

The word "electrocoagulation" (EC) will be sometimes used with "electroflotation" (EF) and can be considered as the electrocoagulation/flotation (ECF) process. Through the process of electrolysis, coagulating agents such as metal hydroxides are produced. When aluminium electrodes are used, the aluminium dissolves at the anode and hydrogen gas is released at the cathode. The coagulating agent combines with the pollutants to form large size flocs. As the bubbles rise to the top of the tank they adhere to particles suspended in the water and float them to the surface. In fact, a conceptual framework of the overall ECF process is linked to coagulant generation, pollutant aggregation, and pollutant removal by flotation and settling when it has been applied efficiently to various water and wastewater treatment processes. This review paper considers a significant number of common applications of EC and ECF processes which have been published in journal and conference papers. PMID:19181438

Emamjomeh, Mohammad M; Sivakumar, Muttucumaru

2009-04-01

461

High-pH-induced flocculation-flotation of the hypersaline microalga Dunaliella salina.  

PubMed

Natural autoflocculation was not observed in a Dunaliella salina hypersaline culture and the microalgae did not float without destabilization of the algal suspension. High-pH-induced flocculation by sodium hydroxide addition was chosen to induce flotation. Recovery efficiencies greater than 90% and concentration factors of around 20 were reached. An autoflocculation mechanism, with precipitation of magnesium hydroxide, is proposed to explain a sweeping flotation of D. salina cells. The influence of the flow rate of sodium hydroxide addition was also studied to anticipate the constraints related to the industrialization of this process. The flow rate of sodium hydroxide addition had no effect on the recovery efficiency and reduced the concentration factor only for abrupt injections. Natural increase of culture pH by photosynthetic activity could reduce the amount of base consumed. Non-harvested cells remained viable during pH increase and could be used as inoculum for a new culture. PMID:24012843

Besson, Alexandre; Guiraud, Pascal

2013-11-01

462

Investigation of thermal treatment on selective separation of post consumer plastics prior to froth flotation.  

PubMed

Plastics have become the widely used materials because of their advantages, such as cheapness, endurance, lightness, and hygiene. However, they cause waste and soil pollution and they do not easily decompose. Many promising technologies are being investigated for separating mixed thermoplastics, but they are still uneconomical and unreliable. Depending on their surface characteristics, these plastics can be separated from each other by flotation method which is useful mineral processing technique with its low cost and simplicity. The main objective of this study is to investigate the flotation characteristics of PET and PVC and determine the effect of plasticizer reagents on efficient plastic separation. For that purpose, various parameters such as pH, plasticizer concentration, plasticizer type, conditioning temperature and thermal conditioning were investigated. As a result, PET particles were floated with 95.1% purity and 65.3% efficiency while PVC particles were obtained with 98.1% purity and 65.3% efficiency. PMID:23747135

Guney, Ali; Poyraz, M Ibrahim; Kangal, Olgac; Burat, Firat

2013-09-01

463

Possibility of using strain F9 ( Serratia marcescens) as a bio-collector for hematite flotation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we characterized strain F9 and evaluated the interaction between strain F9 and hematite by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR), zeta potential, flotation, and other methods. The results showed that strain F9 belongs to Serratia marcescens. This brevibacterium had CH2, CH3, and hydroxyl groups on its cell wall, which imparted a strong hydrophobic and negative charge. Adsorption of strain F9 reduced the zeta potential of the hematite surface and increased the hydrophobicity of the hematite surface, thereby generating hydrophobic hematite agglomerates. At least four groups on strain F9 interacted with the hematite surface, which contributed to chemical interactions of carboxylic groups and hydrophobic association among hydrophobic hematite particles. The possible use of strain F9 as a bio-collector for hematite flotation was proved.

Yang, Hui-fen; Li, Tian; Chang, Yan-hong; Luo, Hui; Tang, Qiong-yao

2014-03-01

464

Theory and method of genetic-neural optimizing cut-off grade and grade of crude ore  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cut-off grade for ore drawing is a kind of technological method used to control the process of drawing in sublevel caving with no sill pillar. The cut-off grade for ore drawing means the grade of ore in the last time (current time) of ore drawing. Grade of crude ore is the grade of ore entering the milling workshop after ore

Yong He; Kejun Zhu; Si-wei Gao; Ting Liu; Yue Li

2009-01-01

465

75 FR 21650 - Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, Biscayne National...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Draft Programmatic...Environmental Impact Statement for the Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Biscayne National...Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the Coral Reef Restoration Plan for Biscayne...

2010-04-26

466

77 FR 12567 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Coral Reef Ecosystems...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Coral Reef Ecosystems Logbook and Reporting AGENCY...U.S. citizen issued with, a Special Coral Reef Ecosystem Fishing Permit (authorized under the Fishery Management Plan for Coral Reef Ecosystems of the Western...

2012-03-01

467

76 FR 38618 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Coral Reef Conservation Program Survey  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Information Collection; Comment Request; Coral Reef Conservation Program Survey AGENCY...States (U.S.) jurisdictions containing coral reefs. Specifically, NOAA is seeking...related to the communities affected by coral reef conservation programs. The...

2011-07-01

468

76 FR 77779 - Availability of Seats for the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Advisory...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Seats for the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Advisory Council...seats on the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Advisory Council...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The NWHI Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve is a [[Page...

2011-12-14

469

77 FR 16211 - Availability of Seats for the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Advisory...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Seats for the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Advisory Council...seats on the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Advisory Council...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The NWHI Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve is a marine...

2012-03-20

470

76 FR 24050 - Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, Biscayne National...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Park Service [2310-0003-422] Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Final Programmatic...Environmental Impact Statement for the Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Biscayne National...Environmental Impact Statement for the Coral Reef Restoration Plan (Plan/FEIS)...

2011-04-29

471

77 FR 48504 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Economic Value of Puerto Rico's Coral Reef...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Request; Economic Value of Puerto Rico's Coral Reef Ecosystems for Recreation-Tourism...non-market economic values of Puerto Rico's coral reef ecosystems. Estimates will be made...recreation-tourism for all of Puerto Rico's coral reef ecosystems. The required...

2012-08-14

472

Two waves of colonization straddling the K–Pg boundary formed the modern reef fish fauna  

E-print Network

reef fishes. We find that reef lineages successively colonized reef habitats throughout the Late Cretaceous and early Palaeogene. Two waves of invasion were accompanied by increasing morphological convergence: one in the Late Cretaceous from 90 to 72 Ma...

Price, S. A.; Schmitz, L.; Oufiero, C. E.; Eytan, R. I.; Dornburg, A.; Smith, William Leo; Friedman, M.; Near, T. J.; Wainwright, P. C.

2014-05-22

473

Key Ecological Interactions of Reef Building Corals - 11-16-2011  

EPA Science Inventory

Coral reefs are very important marine ecosystems because they support tremendous biodiversity and reefs are critical economic resources many coastal nations. Tropical reef structures are largely built by stony corals. This presentation provides background on basic coral biology t...

474

Monitoring Herbivorous Fishes as Indicators of Coral Reef Resilience in American Samoa  

E-print Network

Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Coral Reef Conservation Program (http:// coralreefMonitoring Herbivorous Fishes as Indicators of Coral Reef Resilience in American Samoa Adel Heenan1, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States of America, 2 Coral Reef Ecosystem Division, Pacific Islands Fisheries

475

The first case of Demodex gatoi in Austria, detected with fecal flotation.  

PubMed

Feline demodicosis is a rare parasitic condition caused by three different species of mites (Demodex cati, Demodex gatoi, and an unnamed species). D. gatoi inhabits the superficial skin layer (stratum corneum) and is easily transmitted between individual cats. A 2-year-old female spayed Cornish Rex was presented with alopecia and pruritus. The dermatological examination revealed bilateral alopecia and excoriations on trunk, limbs, and belly. The second cat in the household, a 3-year-old female spayed Thai, showed no clinical signs. Superficial and deep skin scrapings were performed and cellophane tapes applied, and living D. gatoi mites could be detected in both cats. Oral ivermectin (0.25 mg/kg every other day) was subscribed. Feces were collected from both cats and fecal flotation with sugar and zinc solutions performed. When compared to skin scrapings and cellophane tapes, D. gatoi was detected more frequently and in higher numbers in fecal samples. Our findings suggest that D. gatoi can be efficiently diagnosed with coproscopy, particularly in asymptomatic carrier animals. DNA was extracted from the flotation liquid, and a PCR protocol for the species verification was designed. A fragment targeting a 325-bp DNA fragment of the D. gatoi mitochondrial 16S rDNA gene was amplified with a 100% similarity to the D. gatoi entry in GenBank® (GI 421920216). We report the first finding of D. gatoi in Austria and propose fecal flotation as a valuable tool for mite detection. Fecal flotation liquid is suitable for DNA extraction and PCR-based species verification of D. gatoi. PMID:23681192

Silbermayr, Katja; Joachim, Anja; Litschauer, Barbara; Panakova, Lucia; Sastre, Natalia; Ferrer, Lluis; Horvath-Ungerboeck, Christa

2013-08-01

476

Wastewater treatment using flocculation, coagulation, and flotation. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, and evaluation of flocculation coagulation and flotation processes for the treatment of sewage and industrial wastes. Citations examine technology requirements and limitations, activated sludge and anaerobic processes, chlorination, runoff pollution control, wastewater recycling and reuse, and materials recovery.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-12-01

477

Wastewater treatment using flocculation, coagulation, and flotation. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, and evaluation of flocculation coagulation and flotation processes for the treatment of sewage and industrial wastes. Citations examine technology requirements and limitations, activated sludge and anaerobic processes, chlorination, runoff pollution control, wastewater recycling and reuse, and materials recovery.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-11-01

478

Zeta potential measurements on three clays from Turkey and effects of clays on coal flotation  

SciTech Connect

There is a growing trend of characterizing coal and coal wastes in order to study the effect of clays present in them during coal washing. Coarse wastes from the Zonguldak Coal Washery, Turkey, were characterized and found to contain kaolinite, illite, and chlorite. These three clays, obtained in almost pure form from various locations in Turkey, have been subjected to X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis to assess their purity and zeta potential measurements in order to evaluate their properties in terms of their surface charge and point of zero charge (pzc) values. It was found from XRD data that these clays were almost pure and their electrokinetic potential should therefore be representative of their colloidal behavior. All three clay minerals were negatively charged over the range from pH 2.5 to 11. Chlorite and illite have pzc at pH 3 and pH 2.5, respectively, whereas kaolinite has no pzc. The effect of these clays in Zonguldak coal, wastes, and black waters on coal flotation was studied by floating artificial mixtures of Zonguldak clean coal (4.5% ash) and individual clay. The flotation tests on coal/individual clay revealed that each clay influences coal flotation differently according to its type and amount. Illite had the worst effect on coal floated, followed by chlorite and kaolinite. The loss of yield in coal was found to be 18% for kaolinite, 20% for chlorite, and 28% for illite, indicating the worst effect of illite and least for kaolinite during coal flotation.

Hussain, S.A. [Univ. of Engineering and Technology, Lahore (Pakistan). Mining Engineering Dept.] [Univ. of Engineering and Technology, Lahore (Pakistan). Mining Engineering Dept.; Demirici, S.; Oezbayoglu, G. [Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey)] [Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey)

1996-12-25

479

Some aspects of using ultrasounds to improve sulfurous mineral flotation technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results are discussed which were obtained with a new method of desorption of collector reagents connected with improving the selectivity of the flotation of copper and lead concentrate through the action of ultrasounds. Analysis of the results obtained by treating copper and lead concentrate in an ultraacoustic field indicates an increase in the copper content of the copper concentrate, of the lead content in the lead concentrate and, at the same time, a reduction in the lead of the copper concentrate.

Mihu, V. P.; Pop, I.

1974-01-01

480

Flotation of coal with latex emulsions of hydrocarbon animal or vegetable based oil  

SciTech Connect

Employment of a latex emulsion prepared from a hydrocarbon, animal or vegetable based oil with a hydrophobic water-in-oil emulsifier and a hydrophilic surfactant in the froth flotation of coal improves coal recovery without increasing the ash content. The emulsifier employed should have an hlb value of 5.0 or less while the surfactant should have an hlb value of 9.0 or higher.

Scanlon, M.J.; Wang, S.S.

1982-07-20

481

Separation of mixed post-consumer PET–POM–PVC plastic waste using selective flotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this research is to separate a mixed post-consumer engineering plastic waste (PET, POM, and PVC) based on type of plastic using selective flotation separation. Depressing effect of wetting agent and aluminium sulfate on plastic is attributed mainly to the separation. POM is separated from the mixture waste when using 500mg\\/l calcium lignosulfonate as a wetting agent

Thongchai Takoungsakdakun; Sangobtip Pongstabodee

2007-01-01

482

Degradation of oily sludge from a flotation unit by free and immobilized microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degradation rate of hydrocarbons in oily sludge obtained from a flotation unit by free and immobilized cells in shaking flasks and in a stirred tank reactor was investigated. For the biodegration of 3.3% hydrocarbons free cells and cells immobilized on granular clay were used. Free cells needed 7–8 weeks to use 30% of the 3.3% hydrocarbons, whereas with immobilized

S. H. Omar; U. Biidecker; H.-J. Rehm

1990-01-01