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Sample records for reeve gottfried wolf

  1. Testimony by Melissa Reeves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Communique, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the testimony by Dr. Melissa Reeves, a school psychologist and faculty member in the school psychology program at Winthrop University. Dr. Reeves shares her view of the critical role schools must play in crisis response and recovery. In addition to being a graduate educator and a consulting school psychologist, Dr. Reeves is…

  2. [Gottfried Benn and psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Scherbaum, N

    1994-04-01

    As a young physician the poet Gottfried Benn (1886-1956) gave up a promising career in psychiatry after short period in practice. A psychodynamic analysis of this failure stresses the importance of the relationship of father and son in adolescence for the maturing of ego identity and ego ideal. At the beginning of this century psychiatry was a medical field with strong materialistic and biologistic positions. Benn embraced this position and tried to distance himself from his father, who was a charismatic priest with psychotherapeutic ambition. Benn experienced difficulty in competing with his father and this can be attributed to disturbances in his relationship to his mother in early childhood. The consequence was e.g. a narcissistic vulnerability in adulthood. The contrast of the splendid success in brain research with its inapplicability in routine therapy was characteristic of the state of psychiatry at the time of Benn's failure. PMID:8206462

  3. Johann Christoph Sturm and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (German Title: Johann Christoph Sturm und Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratchovil, Stefan

    Johann Christian Sturm and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz were two well-known scholars of their time, who showed mutual attention and esteem. The history of their relation is described, based on the mutual mentions in letters and publications.

  4. Contextual view of Building 477 along Reeves Road, view facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of Building 477 along Reeves Road, view facing east - U.S. Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay, Golf Course Equipment & Repair Shop, Reeves & Moffett Roads, Kaneohe, Honolulu County, HI

  5. VIEW OF BUILDING 4, FRONT SIDE FROM CORNER OF REEVES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BUILDING 4, FRONT SIDE FROM CORNER OF REEVES AVENUE AND COLORADO STREET, FACING SOUTHEAST - Roosevelt Base, Central Heating Plant, Corner of Colorado Street & Reeves Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. Historical Connections: Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz: The Universal Genius.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimer, Wilbert; Reimer, Luetta

    1994-01-01

    Contains biographical facts, contributions, quotations, and anecdotes about mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. Presents an activity in which students discover patterns in the sums of the reciprocals of the triangular numbers. Contains reproducible student worksheet. (MKR)

  7. Transforming Teacher Leadership: A Conversation with Douglas Reeves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, Patti

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Douglas Reeves, founder of The Leadership and Learning Center and author of a recent book, "Reframing Teacher Leadership to Improve Your School." In an interview, Reeves talks about his book and presents a compelling case that teacher leadership is key to implementing and sustaining effective school…

  8. 14. BRIDGE TENDER ALBERT REEVES (RIGHT) AND YOUTHFUL HELPER (WALLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. BRIDGE TENDER ALBERT REEVES (RIGHT) AND YOUTHFUL HELPER (WALLY HALES), HANDLING HUGE 'KEY' TO WIND OPEN THE CENTER SWING SPAN. - Maurice River Pratt Through-Truss Swing Bridge, Spanning Maurice River, Mauricetown, Cumberland County, NJ

  9. Gottfried sum rule and the ratio Fn2/Fp2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arash, Firooz

    1995-07-01

    We describe the nucleon as a bound state of three constituent objects, called ``valons,'' which themselves have structure. At high enough Q2 it is the valon structure, governed by QCD, which is probed and, thus, the nucleon structure is described in terms of its partonic distributions, while at low Q2 the nucleon is described in terms of its valon distributions, independent of a probe and controlled by nonperturbative QCD. The implications of this phenomenological model, then, are applied to the New Muon Collaboration (NMC) data for Fn2/Fp2 and on the Gottfried sum rule. It is shown that the model successfully reproduces the experimental value of the Gottfried sum rule SG[0<=x1,=4 GeV2]=0.243, consistent with the experimental results as well as the ratio Fn2/Fp2 down to the lowest x value.

  10. Obituary: Edmond M. Reeves, 1934-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noyes, Robert; Parkinson, William

    2009-01-01

    With great sadness we report that Edmond (Ed) M. Reeves, a former leader of solar space research projects at Harvard College Observatory [HCO] and the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics [CfA], died on 8 August 2008, in Arlington, Virginia, after a long and heroic struggle with cancer. Ed was born in London, Ontario, Canada, on 14 January 1934. During his undergraduate and graduate years at the University of Western Ontario [UWO], he was in the Royal Canadian Navy (Reserve) as a Cadet (1952-1956), then as Instructing Officer, HMCS Prevost (1956-1959), and Lieutenant, Royal Canadian Navy (Reserve) retired. He received a Ph.D. in 1959 from the UWO, specializing in atomic and molecular physics. After two years of postdoctoral research in ultraviolet atomic spectroscopy at the Department of Physics, Imperial College, London, England, Ed joined the HCO Solar Satellite project, working with Leo Goldberg, Director of HCO, and pioneer in solar spectroscopy. In 1968, Ed was appointed Senior Research Associate at HCO, and in 1973 he received a joint appointment as Physicist at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory [SAO] when the CfA was initiated under George Field. During his seventeen years at the Observatory, Ed led a large and vibrant group of engineers and scientists in the Solar Satellite Project, developing a series of space missions to explore the extreme ultraviolet emission from the Sun. Ed also maintained his interest and research in laboratory atomic and molecular astrophysics and enjoyed a vigorous involvement in the HCO Shock Tube Laboratory. In the early 1960s, in the area of molecular spectroscopy, Ed and Bill Parkinson photographed the vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectrum of CO (the Fourth Positive system), which was produced at high temperature in a shock tube. This laboratory spectrum shortly led to the discovery of CO as an important source of opacity in the solar ultraviolet. Goldberg, who first identified CO vibration-rotation bands in the

  11. William C. Reeves and arbovirus research in Australia.

    PubMed

    Doherty, R L

    1987-11-01

    William C. Reeves was invited to Australia in 1952 to take part in field studies of Murray Valley encephalitis. The results of his work led to various hypotheses which directed arbovirus research in Australia for a generation. That and the people he influenced in Australia made him a major figure in the development of Australian arbovirus research. PMID:2825554

  12. 15. BRIDGE TENDER ALBERT REEVES OF MAURICETOWN AND HELPER WALLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. BRIDGE TENDER ALBERT REEVES OF MAURICETOWN AND HELPER WALLY HALES HOLDING HUGE KEY ABOVE HOLE IN DECK OF CENTER SWING SPAN TO REVEAL KEY BASETHE KEY IS SET UPON A MALE FITTING USED TO OPEN THE SPAN - Maurice River Pratt Through-Truss Swing Bridge, Spanning Maurice River, Mauricetown, Cumberland County, NJ

  13. Obituary: Edmond M. Reeves, 1934-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noyes, Robert; Parkinson, William

    2009-01-01

    With great sadness we report that Edmond (Ed) M. Reeves, a former leader of solar space research projects at Harvard College Observatory [HCO] and the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics [CfA], died on 8 August 2008, in Arlington, Virginia, after a long and heroic struggle with cancer. Ed was born in London, Ontario, Canada, on 14 January 1934. During his undergraduate and graduate years at the University of Western Ontario [UWO], he was in the Royal Canadian Navy (Reserve) as a Cadet (1952-1956), then as Instructing Officer, HMCS Prevost (1956-1959), and Lieutenant, Royal Canadian Navy (Reserve) retired. He received a Ph.D. in 1959 from the UWO, specializing in atomic and molecular physics. After two years of postdoctoral research in ultraviolet atomic spectroscopy at the Department of Physics, Imperial College, London, England, Ed joined the HCO Solar Satellite project, working with Leo Goldberg, Director of HCO, and pioneer in solar spectroscopy. In 1968, Ed was appointed Senior Research Associate at HCO, and in 1973 he received a joint appointment as Physicist at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory [SAO] when the CfA was initiated under George Field. During his seventeen years at the Observatory, Ed led a large and vibrant group of engineers and scientists in the Solar Satellite Project, developing a series of space missions to explore the extreme ultraviolet emission from the Sun. Ed also maintained his interest and research in laboratory atomic and molecular astrophysics and enjoyed a vigorous involvement in the HCO Shock Tube Laboratory. In the early 1960s, in the area of molecular spectroscopy, Ed and Bill Parkinson photographed the vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectrum of CO (the Fourth Positive system), which was produced at high temperature in a shock tube. This laboratory spectrum shortly led to the discovery of CO as an important source of opacity in the solar ultraviolet. Goldberg, who first identified CO vibration-rotation bands in the

  14. New insights into the biography of Gottfried Kirch. (German Title: Neue Erkenntnisse zur Biographie von Gottfried Kirch)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbst, Klaus-Dieter

    New biographical results of Gottfried Kirch, the most outstanding astronomer around 1700 in German lands, are outlined on the basis of newly found sources and the first-time inclusion of additional letters from his correspondence, which comprises 600 letters. Special attention is drwawn to his stay in Langgrün and Lobenstein in the Vogtland, in Leipzig, Coburg, Guben and Berlin. In addition, new details about his family are revealed, especially about the older children Gottlieb, Heilmann and Theodora, the offspring from his first marriage. A third section deals with the possibilities which are to be expected from a systematic evaluation of Kirch's correspondence. Only about 100 out of 600 letters have been used for historical publications until now.

  15. On Diversity, Empathy, and Community: The Relevance of Johann Gottfried Herder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Howard M.; Durrant, Marie B.; Evans, Matthew T.; Maughan, Suzanne L.

    2008-01-01

    The writings of Johann Gottfried Herder (1744-1803) foreshadowed several of the dominant theories of sociology, social psychology, aesthetics, linguistics and literary theory. His ideas impacted generations of thinkers, but today he is uncelebrated, mostly unknown. His writings on populism, expressionism, and pluralism are relevant to contemporary…

  16. WOLF: FITS file processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamir, Lior

    2012-12-01

    WOLF processes FITS files and generates photometry files, annotated JPGs, opacity maps, background, transient detection and luminance changes detection. This software was used to process data for the Night Sky Live project.

  17. Wolf Trek Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRosa, Bill

    1988-01-01

    Describes a learning center game which is designed to help elementary school students learn about wolves. Includes playing instructions, game board, and questions and answers. Also included is a record of wolf calls narrated by actor Robert Redford. (TW)

  18. Wolf-Rayet Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillier, D.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Wolf-Rayet (W-R) stars are a class of peculiar stars first identified in 1867 by C J E WOLF and G RAYET. Unlike the spectra of most stars, which are dominated by narrow absorption lines, the spectra of W-R stars show broad emission lines. The rich emission line spectrum makes them easy to identify, by spectroscopic observations, even at large distances....

  19. Wolf-Rayet Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, Wolf-Rainer; Sander, Andreas; Todt, Helge

    Nearly 150 years ago, the French astronomers Charles Wolf and Georges Rayet described stars with very conspicuous spectra that are dominated by bright and broad emission lines. Meanwhile termed Wolf-Rayet Stars after their discoverers, those objects turned out to represent important stages in the life of massive stars. As the first conference in a long time that was specifically dedicated to Wolf-Rayet stars, an international workshop was held in Potsdam, Germany, from 1.-5. June 2015. About 100 participants, comprising most of the leading experts in the field as well as as many young scientists, gathered for one week of extensive scientific exchange and discussions. Considerable progress has been reported throughout, e.g. on finding such stars, modeling and analyzing their spectra, understanding their evolutionary context, and studying their circumstellar nebulae. While some major questions regarding Wolf-Rayet stars still remain open 150 years after their discovery, it is clear today that these objects are not just interesting stars as such, but also keystones in the evolution of galaxies. These proceedings summarize the talks and posters presented at the Potsdam Wolf-Rayet workshop. Moreover, they also include the questions, comments, and discussions emerging after each talk, thereby giving a rare overview not only about the research, but also about the current debates and unknowns in the field. The Scientific Organizing Committee (SOC) included Alceste Bonanos (Athens), Paul Crowther (Sheffield), John Eldridge (Auckland), Wolf-Rainer Hamann (Potsdam, Chair), John Hillier (Pittsburgh), Claus Leitherer (Baltimore), Philip Massey (Flagstaff), George Meynet (Geneva), Tony Moffat (Montreal), Nicole St-Louis (Montreal), and Dany Vanbeveren (Brussels).

  20. On the 300th anniversary of the death of Gottfried Kirch, astronomer and calendar-maker (German Title: Zum 300. Todestag des Astronomen und Kalendermachers Gottfried Kirch)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbst, Klaus-Dieter

    2010-12-01

    Almost ten years ago, an article on Gottfried Kirch written by the present author appeared in Vol. 8 of this series, in which new biographical material drawn mainly from unpublished sources (church and burgher registers, letters) was presented. In the meantime, Kirch's correspondence appeared in print. The life of this scientist of early modern times can be traced in more detail from the correspondence and from newly found sources - numerous large writing calendars written by Kirch, previously thought to be lost. Kirch's 300th year of death offers an apt opportunity to prepare a sketch from this rich fund to recall his personality not only as an astronomer and calendar maker, but also as someone who was inclined to the spirit of the early Enlightenment and grounded in the Christianity movement of the Pietists.

  1. Dystopian Visions of Global Capitalism: Philip Reeve's "Mortal Engines" and M.T Anderson's "Feed"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullen, Elizabeth; Parsons, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    This article examines Philip Reeve's novel for children, "Mortal Engines", and M.T. Anderson's young adult novel, "Feed", by assessing these dystopias as prototypical texts of what Ulrich Beck calls risk society. Through their visions of a fictional future, the two narratives explore the hazards created by contemporary techno-economic progress,…

  2. Genetics Home Reference: Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome is a condition that affects many ...

  3. Wolf-Rayet phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conti, P. S.

    1982-01-01

    The properties of stars showing Wolf-Rayet phenomena are outlined along with the direction of future work. Emphasis is placed on the characteristics of W-R spectra. Specifically the following topics are covered: the absolute visual magnitudes; the heterogeneity of WN spectra; the existence of transition type spectra and compositions the mass loss rates; and the existence of very luminous and possibly very massive W-R stars. Also, a brief overview of current understanding of the theoretical aspects of stellar evolution and stellar winds and the various scenarios that have been proposed to understand W-R spectra are included.

  4. The Wolf Boy

    PubMed Central

    Leckman, James F.; Volkmar, Fred R.

    2005-01-01

    An adolescent boy presented with episodic wolf-like aggressive behaviors, for which his rural community planned an exorcism. Admission to a tertiary care hospital revealed an adolescent suffering an array of severe psychiatric symptoms, which best fit the diagnosis of reactive attachment disorder (RAD). The differential diagnosis included delusional disorder, mood problems, anxiety, schizophrenia, and “feral child” syndrome. Nosology and pathophysiology as well as pharmacological and psychosocial treatments are discussed. We highlight the importance of early life events in determining mental health risk and resiliency. PMID:21120097

  5. Hankin and Reeves' approach to estimating fish abundance in small streams: Limitations and alternatives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, W.L.

    2003-01-01

    Hankin and Reeves' (1988) approach to estimating fish abundance in small streams has been applied in stream fish studies across North America. However, their population estimator relies on two key assumptions: (1) removal estimates are equal to the true numbers of fish, and (2) removal estimates are highly correlated with snorkel counts within a subset of sampled stream units. Violations of these assumptions may produce suspect results. To determine possible sources of the assumption violations, I used data on the abundance of steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss from Hankin and Reeves' (1988) in a simulation composed of 50,000 repeated, stratified systematic random samples from a spatially clustered distribution. The simulation was used to investigate effects of a range of removal estimates, from 75% to 100% of true fish abundance, on overall stream fish population estimates. The effects of various categories of removal-estimates-to-snorkel-count correlation levels (r = 0.75-1.0) on fish population estimates were also explored. Simulation results indicated that Hankin and Reeves' approach may produce poor results unless removal estimates exceed at least 85% of the true number of fish within sampled units and unless correlations between removal estimates and snorkel counts are at least 0.90. A potential modification to Hankin and Reeves' approach is the inclusion of environmental covariates that affect detection rates of fish into the removal model or other mark-recapture model. A potential alternative approach is to use snorkeling combined with line transect sampling to estimate fish densities within stream units. As with any method of population estimation, a pilot study should be conducted to evaluate its usefulness, which requires a known (or nearly so) population of fish to serve as a benchmark for evaluating bias and precision of estimators.

  6. STS-112 Crew Interviews - Wolf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    STS-112 Mission Specialist David Wolf is seen during this preflight interview, where he first answers questions on his career path and role models. Other questions cover mission goals, ISS (International Space Station) Expedition 5 spacecrew, crew training, the S1 Truss and its radiators, the MBS (Mobile Base Structure), his experience onboard Mir, and his EVAs (extravehicular activities) on the coming mission. The EVAs are the subject of several questions. Wolf discusses his crew members, and elsewhere discusses Pilot Pamela Melroy's role as an IV crew member during EVAs. In addition, Wolf answers questions on transfer operations, the SHIMMER experiment, and his thoughts on multinational crews and crew bonding.

  7. Wolf-Rayet nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, You-Hua

    2016-07-01

    Since the discovery of nebulae around Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars in the 1960s, it has been established that WR stars are massive stars at advanced evolutionary stages and that their surrounding nebulae result from the interactions between the stellar mass loss and the ambient interstellar medium. Surveys of WR nebulae have been made in the Galaxy, Magellanic Clouds, and other nearby galaxies in the Local Group. Some WR nebulae exhibit He II λ4686 line emission, indicating stellar effective temperatures of 90 — 100 x 103 K. The shocked fast stellar winds from WR nebulae have been detected in soft X-rays, but theoretical models have not been able to reproduce the observed X-ray spectral properties. Elemental abundances of WR nebulae consisting of synthesized stellar material can constrain stellar evolution models, but high-dispersion spectra are needed to kinematically separate the expanding shell of a WR nebula and the background interstellar medium for accurate abundance analyses.

  8. Wolf-Rayet Stars and the Isotopic Anomaly Connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnould, M.; Paulus, G.; Meynet, G.

    1993-07-01

    Isotopic anomalies are now known to be carried by high-temperature inclusions of primitive meteorites that formed from solar reservoirs out of equilibrium with the rest of the solar nebula, as well as by various types of grains (diamond, graphite, SiC) that are considered to be of circumstellar origin, and have survived the process of incorporation into the solar system (see e.g. [1] for a recent review). Such anomalies provide new clues to many important astrophysical problems, and raise the question of their nucleosynthetic origin. In fact, they offer the exciting perspective of confronting abundance observations with nucleosynthesis models for a very limited number of events, even possibly a single one. This situation is in marked contrast with the one encountered when trying to understand the bulk solar system composition. Up to now, Red Giant stars, massive mass loosing objects (of the Wolf-Rayet type), novae or supernovae have been proposed as possible contributors to the observed anomalies. In this paper, we revisit the role that could possibly be played in that respect by Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars. Wolf-Rayet stars are appealing isotopic anomaly contributors for many reasons. In particular (1) they are observed to loose mass at very large rates that can exceed 10^-5M solar masses yr^-l, the ejected material being contaminated with the products of hydrogen and helium burning, and (2) certain WR stars are known to make dust episodically in their winds [e.g., 2]. In addition, the role of WR stars would be well in line with the "bing-bang" model for the isotopic anomalies promoted by Reeves [3]. The aim of this contribution is to extent and update previous calculations [4,5] of the isotopic anomalies that could be carried by the wind of WR stars of various masses and initial compositions during different phases of their evolution, those anomalies possibly loading circumstellar WR grains. The calculation of the WR wind composition is performed on grounds of detailed

  9. Hankin and Reeves' Approach to Estimating Fish Abundance in Small Streams : Limitations and Potential Options.

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, William L.

    2000-11-01

    Hankin and Reeves' (1988) approach to estimating fish abundance in small streams has been applied in stream-fish studies across North America. However, as with any method of population estimation, there are important assumptions that must be met for estimates to be minimally biased and reasonably precise. Consequently, I investigated effects of various levels of departure from these assumptions via simulation based on results from an example application in Hankin and Reeves (1988) and a spatially clustered population. Coverage of 95% confidence intervals averaged about 5% less than nominal when removal estimates equaled true numbers within sampling units, but averaged 62% - 86% less than nominal when they did not, with the exception where detection probabilities of individuals were >0.85 and constant across sampling units (95% confidence interval coverage = 90%). True total abundances averaged far (20% - 41%) below the lower confidence limit when not included within intervals, which implies large negative bias. Further, average coefficient of variation was about 1.5 times higher when removal estimates did not equal true numbers within sampling units (C{bar V} = 0.27 [SE = 0.0004]) than when they did (C{bar V} = 0.19 [SE = 0.0002]). A potential modification to Hankin and Reeves' approach is to include environmental covariates that affect detection rates of fish into the removal model or other mark-recapture model. A potential alternative is to use snorkeling in combination with line transect sampling to estimate fish densities. Regardless of the method of population estimation, a pilot study should be conducted to validate the enumeration method, which requires a known (or nearly so) population of fish to serve as a benchmark to evaluate bias and precision of population estimates.

  10. [Gottfried Ewald and the "operation t4" in Göttingen].

    PubMed

    Beyer, C

    2013-09-01

    Gottfried Ewald (1888-1963) had been director of the State Hospital and Nursing Home and the University Clinic for Psychiatry from 1934. In August 1940, he refused his cooperation as a medical expert in the National Socialist's "euthanasia" operation during a discussion of the "Reich Cooperative for State Hospitals and Nursing Homes" (Reichsarbeitsgemeinschaft Heil- und Pflegeanstalten) in Berlin. Shortly afterwards Ewald wrote a comprehensive position paper against the operation which was sent to Werner Heyde, head of the "T4" medical office, and Leonardo Conti, "Reich physician leader" (Reichsärzteführer), among others.While Ewald's protest remained unsuccessful, it did neither result in any disciplinary consequences. By his own account, he decided to remain in his position on order to be able to rescue at least some of the patients of the State Hospital and Nursing Home destined for transport to the "T4" killing centres. In cooperation with colleagues at the hospital and the Provincial Association in Hanover, he partly succeeded to meet this aim through deferrals, leaves of absence, re-assessments and releases. These strategies were, however, not used to prevent the deportation of Jewish and compulsory detention patients. Thus, Ewald's protest was a partial, pragmatic circumvention of the National Socialist's "euthanasia" operation. PMID:23893259

  11. Diatoms from Brazil: the taxa recorded by Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Weliton José; Jahn, Regine; Menezes, Mariângela

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The flora of diatoms from Brazil has been studied by several authors from the beginning of the 19th up to now. Some of the old lists and descriptions are unknown or have been ignored by Brazilian researchers and the situation of the names cited was not assessed. Here we compiled a list of 101 taxa of diatoms from Brazil registered by Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg during the 19th century. We checked the current nomenclatural status of those taxa and lectotypified species from Brazil described by this author. For this, we accessed the Ehrenberg collection in the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin, Germany, where 11 samples from Brazil studied by Ehrenberg are housed and published in different papers. Using these samples, we found 101 taxa (specific and infraspecific) published by Ehrenberg from Brazil. Five species (Eunotia bidens Ehrenb., Eunotia depressa Ehrenb., Eunotia elephas Ehrenb., Pinnularia microstauron Ehrenb., and Terpsinoe brasiliensis Ehrenb.) were new descriptions and were lectotypified here. The other species cited for Brazil were described initially from other places. However, 23 names were invalid and one illegitimate. PMID:23730191

  12. [Johann Gottfried Bremser (1767-1827) as a protagonist of the cowpox vaccine].

    PubMed

    Sattmann, Helmut; Hörweg, Christoph; Stagl, Verena

    2014-04-01

    Vienna was the first city on the European continent where the cowpox vaccination was applied in 1799, shortly after Jenner's (1798) publication of his encouraging results in England. Nevertheless, substantial denial and distrust was evident among doctors and patients in Europe as well, particularly in Austria. The medical doctor Johann Gottfried Bremser remains well known even today among parasitologists as a pioneer of helminthological research in Austria. He founded, in Vienna, one of the richest parasitic worm collections worldwide and published perceptive papers about helminthology. But his role as a protagonist of the cowpox vaccine has been buried in oblivion. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, Bremser worked as a medical doctor in Vienna and was influenced by the major proponents of the vaccine in Austria, Pascal Joseph Ferro, Jean de Carro, Johann Peter Frank and others. Beyond his practical contribution as vaccinator, he excelled as a propagandist, mainly through his publications on cow pox vaccination. Bremser used his expert knowledge and sophisticated argumentation to prompt people to accept the prophylactic treatment, especially for their children. He argued for an obligatory cowpox vaccination for all. On one hand, his argumentation summarizes the contrarian opinions of that time, on the other hand the discussion shows striking analogies with the controversies of today. In a way, Bremser's commitment was a forerunner for future health policies that led to vaccination laws and ultimately to the eradication of smallpox worldwide in the second half of the 20th century. PMID:24249318

  13. Astronomie, écologie et poésie par Hubert Reeves

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Hubert ReevesL'astrophysicien donne une conférence puis s'entretient avec l'écrivain François Bon autour de :"Astronomie, écologie et poésie"Pour plus d'informations : http://outreach.web.cern.ch/outreach/FR/evenements/conferences.htmlNombre de places limité. Réservation obligatoire à la Réception du CERN : +41 22 767 76 76  Soirée diffusée en direct sur le Web : http://webcast.cern.ch/      

  14. Three Planets Orbiting Wolf 1061

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, D. J.; Wittenmyer, R. A.; Tinney, C. G.; Bentley, J. S.; Zhao, Jinglin

    2016-02-01

    We use archival HARPS spectra to detect three planets orbiting the M3 dwarf Wolf 1061 (GJ 628). We detect a 1.36 M⊕ minimum-mass planet with an orbital period P = 4.888 days (Wolf 1061b), a 4.25 M⊕ minimum-mass planet with orbital period P = 17.867 days (Wolf 1061c), and a likely 5.21 M⊕ minimum-mass planet with orbital period P = 67.274 days (Wolf 1061d). All of the planets are of sufficiently low mass that they may be rocky in nature. The 17.867 day planet falls within the habitable zone for Wolf 1061 and the 67.274 day planet falls just outside the outer boundary of the habitable zone. There are no signs of activity observed in the bisector spans, cross-correlation FWHMs, calcium H & K indices, NaD indices, or Hα indices near the planetary periods. We use custom methods to generate a cross-correlation template tailored to the star. The resulting velocities do not suffer the strong annual variation observed in the HARPS DRS velocities. This differential technique should deliver better exploitation of the archival HARPS data for the detection of planets at extremely low amplitudes.

  15. Disproportionate sex ratios of wolf pups

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.

    1975-01-01

    Males comprised 66 percent of wild wolf (Canis lupus) pups from a saturated, high-density wolf range in northeastern Minnesota, possibly reflecting disproportionate conception of males. Packs from areas of lower wolf density in other areas of Minnesota had equal sex ratios of pups or a disproportionate number of female pups. Captive wolves showed a slight preponderance of male pups.

  16. Record high Wolf, Canis lupus, pack density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Tracy, S.

    2004-01-01

    This report documents a year-around Wolf (Canis lupus) density of 18.2/100 km2 and a summer density of 30.8/100 km2, in a northeastern Minnesota Wolf pack. The previous record was a summer density of 14.1/100 km2, for a Wolf pack on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada.

  17. Record high wolf, Canis lupus, pack density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Tracy, S.

    2004-01-01

    This report documents a year-around wolf (Canis lupus) density of 18.2/100 m2 and summer density of 30.8/100 km2, in a northeastern Minnesota wolf pack. The previous record was a summer density of 14.1/100 km2, for a wolf pack on Vancouver Island, BC, Canada.

  18. Results from the 2009 Investigations at the Global Change Observatory "Gottfried Merzbacher" (Tien Shan, Kyrgyz Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häusler, Hermann; Leber, Diethard; Scheibz, Jürgen; Kopecny, Alexander; Wetzel, Hans-Ulrich; Echtler, Helmut; Moldobekov, Bolot

    2010-05-01

    The Global Change Observatory "Gottfried Merzbacher", which was installed near the former confluence of the Southern and Northern Inylchek Glacier, served as a platform for intensive field work in August 2009. "Peremitschka" (meaning "the area between") is a test site in front of the retreating Northern Inylchek Glacier, which regularly is flooded by the increasing glacier-dammed Lake Merzbacher, before it bursts out. Mapping the micro-geomorphology and conducting electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) profiles resulted in a sound interpretation of the surface morphology and of subsurface layers of the Peremitschka plain, which probably is underlain by both, permafrost and dead ice of the retreating Northern Inylchek Glacier. The flat 780 meters long high resolution ERT-profile reveals an undulated multilayer resistivity distribution. The uppermost 3-5 m of the profile show low resistivities ranging from 10 to about 200 ohm.m, indicating fine clastic sediments. In this area the surface of the whole test area is covered by silt and sand, the weathered material from the surrounding hills, which mainly consist of shists and calcareous shists of Upper Silurian to Lower Devonian age (Jamansu-Formation). The second "layer" below this low resistivity zone is characterized by resistivities up to 30.000 ohm.m to the final depth of the profile in approximately 45 m, and probably portraits permafrost overlying dead ice of the retreating Northern Inylchek Glacier. The geophysical measurements enable sound interpretations of the local geomorphology which consequently can be mapped in remote sensing images as flooded plain directly underlain by melting permafrost. Time series analysis of oblique aerial photos and remote sensing images allowed for a detailed reconstruction of the glacier retreat from 1943 to nowadays. It is still under discussion, however, if the Northern Inylchek Glacier surged in the late 1990ies. Compared to other regions in the Tien Shan range the youngest

  19. Water quality study at the Congaree Swamp National monument of Myers Creek, Reeves Creek and Toms Creek. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Rikard, M.

    1991-11-01

    The Congaree Swamp National Monument is one of the last significant near virgin tracts of bottom land hardwood forests in the Southeast United States. The study documents a water quality monitoring program on Myers Creek, Reeves Creek and Toms Creek. Basic water quality parameters were analyzed. High levels of aluminum and iron were found, and recommendations were made for further monitoring.

  20. Q & A with Ed Tech Leaders: Interview with Curtis J. Bonk, Mimi Miyoung Lee, Thomas C. Reeves, & Thomas H. Reynolds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viner, Mark; Gardner, Ellen; Shaughnessy, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    Curtis J. Bonk, is Professor of Instructional Systems Technology at Indiana University and President of CourseShare. Mimi Miyoung Lee is Associate Professor in the Department of Curriculum and instruction at the University of Houston. Thomas C. Reeves is Professor Emeritus of Learning, Design, and Technology at the University of Georgia. Thomas H.…

  1. Wolf-cattle interactions in the northern Rocky Mountains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since gray wolf reintroduction in 1995, wolf populations in the northern Rocky Mountains have increased dramatically. Incidents of wolf predation on livestock have increased with wolf populations. Although rough tallies of livestock death or injury losses caused by wolf predation are made each yea...

  2. Wolf Point Substation, Roosevelt County, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western), an agency of the United States Department of Energy, is proposing to construct the 115-kV Wolf Point Substation near Wolf Point in Roosevelt County, Montana (Figure 1). As part of the construction project, Western's existing Wolf Point Substation would be taken out of service. The existing 115-kV Wolf Point Substation is located approximately 3 miles west of Wolf Point, Montana (Figure 2). The substation was constructed in 1949. The existing Wolf Point Substation serves as a Switching Station'' for the 115-kV transmission in the region. The need for substation improvements is based on operational and reliability issues. For this environmental assessment (EA), the environmental review of the proposed project took into account the removal of the old Wolf Point Substation, rerouting of the five Western lines and four lines from the Cooperatives and Montana-Dakota Utilities Company, and the new road into the proposed substation. Reference to the new proposed Wolf Point Substation in the EA includes these facilities as well as the old substation site. The environmental review looked at the impacts to all resource areas in the Wolf Point area. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Characterization of full-length and polymerase chain reaction-derived partial-length Gottfried and OSU gene 4 probes for serotypic differentiation of porcine rotaviruses.

    PubMed

    Rosen, B I; Parwani, A V; Gorziglia, M; Larralde, G; Saif, L J

    1992-10-01

    To determine the VP4 (P type) specificity of porcine rotaviruses, full- and partial-length gene 4 probes were produced from cloned Gottfried and OSU porcine rotavirus genomic segment 4 cDNAs. The gene 4 segments from the prototype Gottfried (VP7 serotype 4) and OSU (VP7 serotype 5) porcine rotavirus strains were selected for study because of their distinct P types and the occurrence of rotaviruses with similar serotypes among swine. Partial-length gene 4 cDNAs were produced and amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and encompassed portions of the variable region (nucleotides 211 to 612) of VP8 encoded by genomic segment 4. The hybridization stringency conditions necessary for optimal probe specificity and sensitivity were determined by dot or Northern (RNA) blot hybridizations against a diverse group of human and animal rotaviruses of heterologous group A serotypes and against representative group B and C porcine rotaviruses. The PCR-derived gene 4 probes were more specific than the full-length gene 4 probes but demonstrated equivalent sensitivity. The Gottfried PCR-derived probe hybridized with Gottfried, SB2, SB3, and SB5 G serotype 4 porcine rotaviruses. The OSU PCR-derived probe hybridized with OSU, EE, A580, and SB-1A porcine rotaviruses and equine H1 rotavirus. Results of the hybridization reactions of the PCR-derived gene 4 probes with selected porcine rotavirus strains agreed with previous serological or genetic analyses, indicating their suitability as diagnostic reagents. PMID:1328281

  4. James Edmund Reeves (1829-1896) and the contentious 19th century battle for medical professionalism in the United States.

    PubMed

    Harris, John M

    2015-08-01

    During his life, Dr James E Reeves was a national figure in the US. His work included multiple professional publications, civic and professional leadership positions, and the drafting of a landmark law that confirmed the right of states to regulate the medical profession. While much of Reeves' work supported the successful struggle of 19th century regular physicians to gain control of the practice of medicine, he challenged his colleagues when their self-interests conflicted with his perception of the public good. He was frequently lauded for this work by physicians and the public but he also made professional enemies. Perhaps for this reason, his considerable accomplishments were forgotten after his death. His story reminds us of the difficult contradiction that exists within the regulation of medicine, guarding the public's welfare while protecting the interests of medical professionals. It also reminds us that history may temporarily overlook those who fight our difficult battles. PMID:24802355

  5. 33 CFR 117.1107 - Wolf River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wolf River. 117.1107 Section 117.1107 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Wisconsin § 117.1107 Wolf River. The draw of the...

  6. 33 CFR 117.1107 - Wolf River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wolf River. 117.1107 Section 117.1107 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Wisconsin § 117.1107 Wolf River. The draw of the...

  7. 33 CFR 117.1107 - Wolf River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wolf River. 117.1107 Section 117.1107 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Wisconsin § 117.1107 Wolf River. The draw of the...

  8. 33 CFR 117.1107 - Wolf River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wolf River. 117.1107 Section 117.1107 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Wisconsin § 117.1107 Wolf River. The draw of the...

  9. 33 CFR 117.1107 - Wolf River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wolf River. 117.1107 Section 117.1107 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Wisconsin § 117.1107 Wolf River. (a) The draw of the...

  10. Tom Wolfe and the Uses of Argument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallan, Richard A.

    Tom Wolfe is widely regarded as the leading theorist and practitioner of New Journalism, the journalistic genre that combines the stylistic features of fiction and the reportorial obligations of journalism to produce a "novelistic sounding" but nonetheless factual literature. The saliency of Wolfe's stylistic boldness has prompted many to conclude…

  11. Deborah Partridge Wolfe and Education for Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Hover, Stephanie D.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the contributions of Deborah Partridge Wolfe, a previously overlooked female African-American educator, to social education. Throughout her career, Wolfe consistently drew attention to issues of democracy, diversity, and equity through her teaching, curriculum development, scholarly writings, speeches, government service, and…

  12. Morphology and taxonomy of Isognomon spathulatus (Reeve, 1858), a cryptic bivalve from the mangroves of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tëmkin, Ilya; Printrakoon, Cheewarat

    2016-01-01

    Isognomon spathulatus (Reeve, 1858) is redescribed based on type material and original collections from Kungkrabaen Bay, Thailand. The species agrees with previously described isognomonids in most conchological and anatomical features, but possesses a suite of diagnostic characters, including a comma-shaped outline of the nacreous border, an uncoiled ventral diverticulum of the stomach, and the thickened mantle lobes with granulated cells. This study is the most comprehensive morphological analysis to date for any species of Isognomonidae Woodring, 1925 (1828). It describes and illustrates a number of previously unrecognized or underutilized anatomical characters of potential phylogenetic significance: the morphology of the byssal threads (cross-sectional shape, plumate rootlets, and the shape of adhesive disks), the presence and extent of the interdemibranchial buttresses, the presence of secretory cells in the central zone of the mantle, the shape of the ventral diverticulum of the gastric chamber, the presence of the typhlosolar guard ridge, and the position of the renal pore. A comparison is made between I. spathulatus and morphologically similar Isognomon ephippium (Linnaeus, 1758) with which it has been previously synonymized. Pearls of both species are described and illustrated. Individuals of I. spathulatus inhabit mangroves, where they attach by byssus to prop roots, typically in parapatry with individuals of I. ephippium that occupy adjacent mudflats. The spacial distribution and diverging adaptive strategies (pertaining to physical stabilization and response to predation) displayed by the two isognomonid species are considered in the light of the ecological speciation theory. PMID:27394812

  13. Prediction failure of a wolf landscape model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.

    2006-01-01

    I compared 101 wolf (Canis lupus) pack territories formed in Wisconsin during 1993-2004 to the logistic regression predictive model of Mladenoff et al. (1995, 1997, 1999). Of these, 60% were located in putative habitat suitabilities 50% remained unoccupied by known packs after 24 years of recolonization. This model was a poor predictor of wolf re-colonizing locations in Wisconsin, apparently because it failed to consider the adaptability of wolves. Such models should be used cautiously in wolf-management or restoration plans.

  14. Intensity of Territorial Marking Predicts Wolf Reproduction: Implications for Wolf Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    García, Emilio J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The implementation of intensive and complex approaches to monitor large carnivores is resource demanding, restricted to endangered species, small populations, or small distribution ranges. Wolf monitoring over large spatial scales is difficult, but the management of such contentious species requires regular estimations of abundance to guide decision-makers. The integration of wolf marking behaviour with simple sign counts may offer a cost-effective alternative to monitor the status of wolf populations over large spatial scales. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a multi-sampling approach, based on the collection of visual and scent wolf marks (faeces and ground scratching) and the assessment of wolf reproduction using howling and observation points, to test whether the intensity of marking behaviour around the pup-rearing period (summer-autumn) could reflect wolf reproduction. Between 1994 and 2007 we collected 1,964 wolf marks in a total of 1,877 km surveyed and we searched for the pups' presence (1,497 howling and 307 observations points) in 42 sampling sites with a regular presence of wolves (120 sampling sites/year). The number of wolf marks was ca. 3 times higher in sites with a confirmed presence of pups (20.3 vs. 7.2 marks). We found a significant relationship between the number of wolf marks (mean and maximum relative abundance index) and the probability of wolf reproduction. Conclusions/Significance This research establishes a real-time relationship between the intensity of wolf marking behaviour and wolf reproduction. We suggest a conservative cutting point of 0.60 for the probability of wolf reproduction to monitor wolves on a regional scale combined with the use of the mean relative abundance index of wolf marks in a given area. We show how the integration of wolf behaviour with simple sampling procedures permit rapid, real-time, and cost-effective assessments of the breeding status of wolf packs with substantial implications to monitor

  15. Gottfried Kirch's (1639-1710) concept of an astronomical society - an investigation also based on his correspondence and calendars. (German Title: Der Societätsgedanke bei Gottfried Kirch (1639-1710), untersucht unter Einbeziehung seiner Korrespondenz und Kalender)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbst, Klaus-Dieter

    At the end of the 17th century, Gottfried Kirch was not only one of the most widely read authors of calendars, but, following the death of Hevelius in 1687, the most distinguished astronomer of the German countries. Since 1675, the idea of establishing an ``astronomical society in Germany'' emerges in his papers, and he placed himself consciously into the tradition of society foundings in the 17th century. In spite of the fact that the establishment of a purely astronomical society did not materialize, Kirch was involved in projects of other societies, e.g. in the plans of the ``Collegium Artis Consultorum'', promoted by Weigel, and finally he found himself the first astronomer of the Brandenburg society of sciences, whose establishment had been initiated by Leibniz. The evaluation of the written sources suggests that his religious attitude that converged on pietism, inspired him to establish a scientific society. The reasons for the failure of his attempt are manifold. It is important to point out that Kirch was, on one hand, very much dependent on earning his living by his calendar work, since he had no support for his astronomical profession from a potentate. On the other hand, he could publish his (and others') astronomical observations in the scientific journal ``Acta Eruditorum'', which had appeared in Leipzig since 1682, thus fulfilling an essential task of such an astronomical society.

  16. Wolf Creek Generating Station containment model

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, D.H.; Neises, G.J.; Howard, M.L.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents a CONTEMPT-LT/28 containment model that has been developed by Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation (WCNOC) to predict containment pressure and temperature behavior during the postulated events at Wolf Creek Generating Station (WCGS). The model has been validated using data provided in the WCGS Updated Safety Analysis Report (USAR). CONTEMPT-LT/28 model has been used extensively at WCGS to support plant operations, and recently, to support its 4.5% thermal power uprate project.

  17. 75 FR 5631 - Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation, Wolf Creek Generating Station; Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ... Federal Register notice dated March 27, 2009 (74 FR 13967). There will be no change to radioactive... no significant impact [Part 73, Power Reactor Security Requirements, 74 FR 13926, 13967 (March 27... COMMISSION Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation, Wolf Creek Generating Station; Environmental...

  18. The Timber Wolf: Hands-On Activities for Elementary Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Donald G.; Oh, Bobbie S.

    The focus of this manual is the timber wolf and its experience in the United States. The activities are designed to enable students to gain a factual understanding of the timber wolf, question any misinformation they have learned regarding wolves, and learn to appreciate the wolf as a creature of nature rather than fear it as a creature of fairy…

  19. Wolf-livestock interactions in the northern Rocky Mountains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since reintroduction in 1995, gray wolf populations in the northern Rocky Mountains have increased dramatically. Although rough tallies of livestock death/injury losses resulting from wolf predation are made each year, we know almost nothing about the indirect effects of wolf-livestock interactions...

  20. O stars and Wolf-Rayet stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conti, Peter S.; Underhill, Anne B.; Jordan, Stuart (Editor); Thomas, Richard (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Basic information is given about O and Wolf-Rayet stars indicating how these stars are defined and what their chief observable properties are. Part 2 of the volume discussed four related themes pertaining to the hottest and most luminous stars. Presented are: an observational overview of the spectroscopic classification and extrinsic properties of O and Wolf-Rayet stars; the intrinsic parameters of luminosity, effective temperature, mass, and composition of the stars, and a discussion of their viability; stellar wind properties; and the related issues concerning the efforts of stellar radiation and wind on the immediate interstellar environment are presented.

  1. "Beneath Their Cheerful Bunny Faces, His Slippers Had Steel Toe Caps": Traction Cities, Postmodernisms, and Coming of Age in Philip Reeve's "Mortal Engines" and "Predator's Gold"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Janis

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses Philip Reeve's young adult science fiction novels as literary collages. It explores the ways in which the author uses postmodernisms to introduce big ideas and construct a compelling futuristic world that combines fast-paced adventure with the "bildungsroman".

  2. Photoelectric spectrophotometry of Wolf-Rayet stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahng, J. D. R.

    1974-01-01

    Photoelectric spectrum scans of five southern Wolf-Rayet stars in the spectral range lambda lambda 4600-4720 were analyzed to study the variability of brightness and of emission line strengths. No variations of any kind in short time scale were found. However, in WC stars night-to-night variations of three to four percent were detected in the emission line strengths.

  3. Wolf Creek steam line break analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, T.J.; Neises, G.J. )

    1990-07-01

    The Steamline Break transient results are presented to the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to demonstrate the RETRAN analysis of a PWR steamline break. RETRAN analysis results are compared to the Wolf Creek USAR results to demonstrate the adequacy of plant modeling techniques for the Design Basis Accident Methodology with Multidimensional Effects project coordinated by EPRI. 7 refs., 29 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Music Activities for "Little Wolf's Song"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2015-01-01

    Drawn from Britta Techentrup's children's book "Little Wolf's Song", the author shares music activities appropriate for preschool and children in primary grades. Children will enjoy Technentrup's tender family story, while exploring vocal and instrumental timbres, as well as reading, writing, and creating with melodic contour.

  5. Computer simulation of vasectomy for wolf control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haight, R.G.; Mech, L.D.

    1997-01-01

    Recovering gray wolf (Canis lupus) populations in the Lake Superior region of the United States are prompting state management agencies to consider strategies to control population growth. In addition to wolf removal, vasectomy has been proposed. To predict the population effects of different sterilization and removal strategies, we developed a simulation model of wolf dynamics using simple rules for demography and dispersal. Simulations suggested that the effects of vasectomy and removal in a disjunct population depend largely on the degree of annual immigration. With low immigration, periodic sterilization reduced pup production and resulted in lower rates of territory recolonization. Consequently, average pack size, number of packs, and population size were significantly less than those for an untreated population. Periodically removing a proportion of the population produced roughly the same trends as did sterilization; however, more than twice as many wolves had to be removed than sterilized. With high immigration, periodic sterilization reduced pup production but not territory recolonization and produced only moderate reductions in population size relative to an untreated population. Similar reductions in population size were obtained by periodically removing large numbers of wolves. Our analysis does not address the possible effects of vasectomy on larger wolf populations, but it suggests that the subject should be considered through modeling or field testing.

  6. Thomas Wolfe: An Introduction and Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walser, Richard

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major American authors, this volume contains critical studies of Thomas Wolfe. Designed for use by both literary critics and secondary and college teachers of English, this work would also be of value to undergraduate and graduate students of literature. Topics covered…

  7. Effects of Wolf Mortality on Livestock Depredations

    PubMed Central

    Wielgus, Robert B.; Peebles, Kaylie A.

    2014-01-01

    Predator control and sport hunting are often used to reduce predator populations and livestock depredations, – but the efficacy of lethal control has rarely been tested. We assessed the effects of wolf mortality on reducing livestock depredations in Idaho, Montana and Wyoming from 1987–2012 using a 25 year time series. The number of livestock depredated, livestock populations, wolf population estimates, number of breeding pairs, and wolves killed were calculated for the wolf-occupied area of each state for each year. The data were then analyzed using a negative binomial generalized linear model to test for the expected negative relationship between the number of livestock depredated in the current year and the number of wolves controlled the previous year. We found that the number of livestock depredated was positively associated with the number of livestock and the number of breeding pairs. However, we also found that the number of livestock depredated the following year was positively, not negatively, associated with the number of wolves killed the previous year. The odds of livestock depredations increased 4% for sheep and 5–6% for cattle with increased wolf control - up until wolf mortality exceeded the mean intrinsic growth rate of wolves at 25%. Possible reasons for the increased livestock depredations at ≤25% mortality may be compensatory increased breeding pairs and numbers of wolves following increased mortality. After mortality exceeded 25%, the total number of breeding pairs, wolves, and livestock depredations declined. However, mortality rates exceeding 25% are unsustainable over the long term. Lethal control of individual depredating wolves may sometimes necessary to stop depredations in the near-term, but we recommend that non-lethal alternatives also be considered. PMID:25470821

  8. Big bad wolf or man's best friend? Unmasking a false wolf aggression on humans.

    PubMed

    Caniglia, R; Galaverni, M; Delogu, M; Fabbri, E; Musto, C; Randi, E

    2016-09-01

    The return of the wolf in its historical range is raising social conflicts with local communities for the perceived potential threat to people safety. In this study we applied molecular methods to solve an unusual case of wolf attack towards a man in the Northern Italian Apennines. We analysed seven biological samples, collected from the clothes of the injured man, using mtDNA sequences, the Amelogenin gene, 39 unlinked autosomal and four Y-linked microsatellites. Results indicated that the aggression was conducted by a male dog and not by a wolf nor a wolf x dog hybrid. Our findings were later confirmed by the victim, who confessed he had been attacked by the guard dog of a neighbour. The genetic profile of the owned dog perfectly matched with that identified from the samples previously collected. Our results prove once again that the wolf does not currently represent a risk for human safety in developed countries, whereas most animal aggressions are carried out by its domestic relative, the dog. PMID:27353864

  9. Is incest common in gray wolf packs?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.; Meier, T.; Geffen, E.; Mech, L.D.; Burch, J.W.; Adams, L.G.; Wayne, R.K.

    1997-01-01

    Wolf packs generally consist of a breeding pair and their maturing offspring that help provision and protect pack young. Because the reproductive tenure in wolves often is short, reproductively mature offspring might replace their parents, resulting in sibling or parent-offspring matings. To determine the extent of incestuous pairings, we measure relatedness based on variability in 20 microsatellite loci of mated pairs, parent-offspring pairs and siblings in two populations of gray wolves. Our 16 sampled mated pairs had values of relatedness not overlapping those of known parent-offspring or sibling dyads, which is consistent with their being unrelated or distantly related. These results suggest that full siblings or a parent and their offspring rarely mate and that incest avoidance is an important constraint on gray wolf behavioral ecology.

  10. Wolf: What's On the Lunar Farside?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    WOLF (What's On the Lunar Farside?) is a lunar sample return mission to the South Pole-Aitken (SPA) Basin, located on the farside of the moon, seeking to answer some of the remaining questions about our solar system. Through the return and analysis of SPA samples, scientists can constrain the period of inner solar system late heavy bombardment and gain momentous knowledge of the SPA basin. WOLF provides the opportunity for mankind's progression in further understanding our solar system, its history, and unknowns surrounding the lunar farside. The orbiter will provide intermittent, direct communication between the lander and ground operations via the Deep Space Network (DSN). Received images and spectrometry will aid in real-time sample selection.

  11. Sleeping distance in wild wolf packs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knick, S.T.; Mech, L.D.

    1980-01-01

    Sleeping distances were observed among members of 13 wild wolf (Canis lupus) packs and 11 pairs in northeastern Minnesota to determine if the distances correlated with pack size and composition. The study utilized aerial radio-tracking and observation during winter. Pack size and number of adults per pack were inversely related to pack average sleeping distance and variability. No correlation between sleeping distance and microclimate was observed. Possible relationships between social bonding and our results are discussed.

  12. Monte Carlo simulation of Alaska wolf survival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feingold, S. J.

    1996-02-01

    Alaskan wolves live in a harsh climate and are hunted intensively. Penna's biological aging code, using Monte Carlo methods, has been adapted to simulate wolf survival. It was run on the case in which hunting causes the disruption of wolves' social structure. Social disruption was shown to increase the number of deaths occurring at a given level of hunting. For high levels of social disruption, the population did not survive.

  13. Multiple rings around Wolf-Rayet evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marston, A. P.

    1995-01-01

    We present optical narrow-band imaging of multiple rings existing around galactic Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars. The existence of multiple rings of material around Wolf-Rayet stars clearly illustrates the various phases of evolution that massive stars go through. The objects presented here show evidence of a three stage evolution. O stars produce an outer ring with the cavity being partially filled by ejecta from a red supergiant of luminous blue variable phase. A wind from the Wolf-Rayet star then passes into the ejecta materials. A simple model is presented for this three stage evolution. Using observations of the size and dynamics of the rings allows estimates of time scales for each stage of the massive star evolution. These are consistent with recent theoretical evolutionary models. Mass estimates for the ejecta, from the model presented, are consistent with previous ring nebula mass estimates from IRAS data, showing a number of ring nebulae to have large masses, most of which must in be in the form of neutral material. Finally, we illustrate how further observations will allow the determination of many of the parameters of the evolution of massive stars such as total mass loss, average mass loss rates, stellar abundances, and total time spent in each evolutionary phase.

  14. Sunspot Observations of Rudolf Wolf from 1849 - 1893

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedli, Thomas K.

    2016-06-01

    The sunspot observations of Rudolf Wolf form the core of the Wolf series of sunspot relative numbers, or Wolf numbers, since his observations define the original scale of the series and also the main course of solar activity from 1849 to 1893. Unfortunately, the raw data for the years 1856 to 1869 were never published in full detail. The heritage group of the Rudolf Wolf Society in Switzerland digitized parts of the hitherto unpublished original source book of the Wolf series and put it on its website www.wolfinstitute.ch. Now, the Wolf numbers from 1849 to 1876, as provided by the World Data Center for Solar Index and Long-term Solar Observations (WDC-SILSO), can be reconstructed in every detail, since the source book contains all the raw sunspot group and individual spot numbers as well as the implemented calibration and interpolation methods. Thus, the observations made by Rudolf Wolf with the 83/1320 mm Fraunhofer refractor and with the 40/700 mm Parisian refractor as well as those made by Heinrich Schwabe can be identified and separated now. In this article, we describe Wolf's instruments and methods of observation. An inspection of the source book and other published sources reveals that the calibration factor of the 40/700 mm Parisian refractor should probably be lowered. Since no appropriate comparison observations are available, the scale transfer from Heinrich Schwabe to Rudolf Wolf has to be analyzed further.

  15. Leadership in wolf, Canis lupus, packs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.

    2000-01-01

    I examine leadership in Wolf (Canis lupus) packs based on published observations and data gathered during summers from 1986 to 1998 studying a free-ranging pack of Wolves on Ellesmere Island that were habituated to my presence. The breeding male tended to initiate activities associated with foraging and travel, and the breeding female to initiate, and predominate in, pup care and protection. However, there was considerable overlap and interaction during these activities such that leadership could be considered a joint function. In packs with multiple breeders, quantitative information about leadership is needed.

  16. An example of endurance in an old wolf, Canis lupus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.

    1997-01-01

    An 11 to 13-year-old Arctic Wolf (Canis lupus arctos) was observed chasing a young Arctic Hare (Lepus arcticus) for 6 to 7 minutes and catching it. This provides an example of the degree of endurance of which an old wolf is capable.

  17. View east along Wolf Den Road showing residences on the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View east along Wolf Den Road showing residences on the north side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  18. View northwest along Wolf Den Road showing residences on the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northwest along Wolf Den Road showing residences on the north side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  19. Deborah Partridge Wolfe: Biography of a Kappa Delta Pi Laureate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Hover, Stephanie

    2005-01-01

    In 1988, Kappa Delta Pi selected Dr. Deborah Partridge Wolfe for membership in its Laureate Chapter. Wolfe, a prominent African-American social educator, dedicated her career in education to living and promoting the key ideals of Kappa Delta Pi's mission: scholarship, excellence, diversity, inquiry, reflection, and fellowship. This biography of…

  20. Evaluation of wolf impacts on cattle productivity and behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have initiated and employed an Adaptive Management System (AMS) to document the effects of gray wolves on cattle production systems in Oregon and Idaho. The project has collected information on cattle movement on land in both wolf common and wolf rare areas with GPS collars that record positions ...

  1. Bear-Baiting May Exacerbate Wolf-Hunting Dog Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Bump, Joseph K.; Murawski, Chelsea M.; Kartano, Linda M.; Beyer, Dean E.; Roell, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The influence of policy on the incidence of human-wildlife conflict can be complex and not entirely anticipated. Policies for managing bear hunter success and depredation on hunting dogs by wolves represent an important case because with increasing wolves, depredations are expected to increase. This case is challenging because compensation for wolf depredation on hunting dogs as compared to livestock is less common and more likely to be opposed. Therefore, actions that minimize the likelihood of such conflicts are a conservation need. Methodology/Principal Findings We used data from two US states with similar wolf populations but markedly different wolf/hunting dog depredation patterns to examine the influence of bear hunting regulations, bear hunter to wolf ratios, hunter method, and hunter effort on wolf depredation trends. Results indicated that the ratio of bear hunting permits sold per wolf, and hunter method are important factors affecting wolf depredation trends in the Upper Great Lakes region, but strong differences exist between Michigan and Wisconsin related in part to the timing and duration of bear-baiting (i.e., free feeding). The probability that a wolf depredated a bear-hunting dog increases with the duration of bear-baiting, resulting in a relative risk of depredation 2.12–7.22× greater in Wisconsin than Michigan. The net effect of compensation for hunting dog depredation in Wisconsin may also contribute to the difference between states. Conclusions/Significance These results identified a potential tradeoff between bear hunting success and wolf/bear-hunting dog conflict. These results indicate that management options to minimize conflict exist, such as adjusting baiting regulations. If reducing depredations is an important goal, this analysis indicates that actions aside from (or in addition to) reducing wolf abundance might achieve that goal. This study also stresses the need to better understand the relationship among baiting

  2. Infections and parasitic diseases of the gray wolf and their potential effects on wolf populations in North America.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brand, C.J.; Pybus, M.J.; Ballard, W.B.; Peterson, R.O.

    1995-01-01

    Numerous infections and parasitic diseases have been reported for the gray wolf, including more than 10 viral, bacterial, and mycotic disease and more than 70 species of helminths and ectoparasites. However, few studies have documented the role of diseases in population dynamics. Disease can affect wolf populations directly by causing mortality or indirectly by affecting physiological and homeostatic processes, thriftiness, reproduction, behavior, or social structure. In addition, wolves are hosts to diseases that can affect prey species, thus affecting wolf populations indirectly by reducing prey abundance or increasing vulnerability to predation. Diseases such as canine distemper and infectious canine hepatitis are enzootic in wolf populations, whereas rabies occurs in wolves primarily as a result of transmission from other species such as artic and red foxes. Contact between wolves and domestic pets and livestock may affect the composition of diseases in wolves and their effects on wolf populations. Dogs were suspected of introducing lice and canine parovirus to several wolf populations. THe potential for disease to affect wolf populations and other wild and domestic animals should be considered in wolf management plans, particularly in plans for reintroduction of wolves to area within their former range.

  3. STS-112 Astronaut Wolf Participates in EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Anchored to a foot restraint on the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) or Canadarm2, astronaut David A. Wolf, STS-112 mission specialist, participates in the mission's first session of extravehicular activity (EVA). Wolf is carrying the Starboard One (S1) outboard nadir external camera which was installed on the end of the S1 Truss on the International Space Station (ISS). Launched October 7, 2002 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, the STS-112 mission lasted 11 days and performed three EVAs. Its primary mission was to install the S1 Integrated Truss Structure and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart to the ISS. The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss, attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss installed by the previous STS-110 mission, flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the International Space Station's railway providing a mobile work platform for future extravehicular activities by astronauts.

  4. Minnesota wolf ear lengths as possible indicators of taxonomic differences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David

    2011-01-01

    Genetic findings suggest that 2 types of wolves, Canis lupus (Gray Wolf) and C. lycaon (Eastern Wolf), and/or their hybrids occupy Minnesota (MN), and this study examines adult wolf ear lengths as a possible distinguisher between these two. Photographic evidence suggested that the Eastern Wolf possesses proportionately longer ears than Gray Wolves. Ear lengths from 22 northwestern MN wolves from the early 1970s and 22 Alaskan wolves were used to represent Gray Wolves, and the greatest length of the sample (12.8 cm) was used as the least length to demarcate Eastern Wolf from Gray Wolf influence in the samples. Twenty-three percent of 112 adult wolves from Algonquin Park in eastern Ontario and 30% of 106 recent adult wolves in northeastern MN possessed ears >12.8 cm. The northeastern MN sample differed significantly from that of current and past northwestern MN wolves. Ear-lengths of wolves in the eastern half of the northeastern MN wolf population were significantly longer than those in the western half of that study area, even though the mean distance between the 2 areas was only 40 km, and the mean length of my 2004–2009 sample was significantly longer than that of 1999–2003. These findings support the hypothesis that Eastern Wolves tend to possess longer ears than do Gray Wolves and suggest a dynamic hybridization process is still underway in MN.

  5. Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome: a case study and disease overview.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Regina

    2014-10-01

    Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome is caused by a deletion of a segment on the short arm (p) of chromosome 4. The major features of this disorder include a characteristic facial appearance known as the "Greek helmet," delayed growth and development; prenatally and postnatally, intellectual disabilities, and seizures. To provide comprehensive and appropriate nursing and medical care to infants with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome, it is imperative to know and understand the disorder. A case study of a 36 weeks' gestational age white-Hispanic male infant with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome is presented with the purpose of increasing clinical knowledge and the implications for the clinical nurse and neonatal nurse practitioner. PMID:25137600

  6. Annual arctic wolf pack size related to arctic hare numbers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.

    2007-01-01

    During the summers of 2000 through 2006, I counted arctic wolf (Canis lupus arctos) pups and adults in a pack, arctic hares (Lepus arcticus) along a 9 km index route in the area, and muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) in a 250 km2 part of the area near Eureka (80?? N, 86?? W), Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada. Adult wolf numbers did not correlate with muskox numbers, but they were positively related (r2 = 0.89; p < 0.01) to an arctic hare index. This is the first report relating wolf numbers to non-ungulate prey. ?? The Arctic Institute of North America.

  7. STS-86 Mission Specialist Wolf arrives at SLF before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-86 Mission Specialist David A. Wolf, the next U.S. astronaut slated to live and work on the Russian Space Station Mir, is all smiles after his arrival at KSCs Shuttle Landing Facility on Monday. Wolf is making his second spaceflight on STS-86, scheduled to be the seventh docking of the Shuttle with the Mir. After the docking, Wolf will transfer to the Mir for an approximate four-month stay. He replaces U.S. astronaut C. Michael Foale, who arrived at Mir in May and will return to Earth with the remainder of the STS-86 crew.

  8. STS-86 Mission Specialist Wolf at SLF for TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-86 Mission Specialist David A. Wolf arrives in a T-38 jet at KSCs Shuttle Landing Facility for the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT), a dress rehearsal for launch. STS-86 will be the seventh docking of the Space Shuttle with the Russian Space Station Mir. During the mission, Wolf will transfer to the Mir 24 crew, replacing astronaut C. Michael Foale, who will return to Earth with the rest of the STS-86 crew. Wolf is scheduled to remain on the Mir until his replacement arrives on the STS-89 mission in January. STS-86 is targeted for a Sept. 25 launch aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis.

  9. Decoupled sectors and Wolf-Rayet galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischler, Willy; Jimmy; Lorshbough, Dustin

    2016-06-01

    It has recently been proposed that gamma-ray burst (GRB) events may be modified by the presence of a dark matter sector subcomponent that is charged under an unbroken U(1). This proposal depends upon there being a nontrivial density of charged dark matter in star forming regions of galaxies which host GRBs. We discuss four Wolf-Rayet galaxies (NGC 1614, NGC 3367, NGC 4216 and NGC 5430) which should contain comparable amounts of dark matter gas and visible matter gas in the star forming regions. We show that the ratio of dark jet power to visible jet power depends only on the ratio of particle mass and charge when the densities are equal, allowing for these input parameters to be probed directly by future observations of GRBs.

  10. Models of Wolf-Rayet stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langer, Norbert

    1990-01-01

    The current status of knowledge about formation, structure and evolution of Wolf-Rayet stars is reviewed, with emphasis on a discussion of corresponding stellar models. The relevance of the LBV-scenario for WR star formation is outlined. Hydrogenless WR stars are shown to closely follow simple relations for the dependence of luminosity, radius, and surface temperature as a function of their mass. The use of these relations for simplified WR evolution calculations is demonstrated. Surface abundance predictions for the different WR types are discussed, with special emphasis to the WN + WC spectral type. Details are presented concerning the WR phase of a recent 60 solar mass evolutionary calculation, which was computed with the same input physics which reproduced the progenitor evolution of SN 1987 A in a 20 solar mass case, and which may be a representative case concerning WR stars in many respects.

  11. Properties of Wolf-Rayet Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowther, Paul A.

    2008-06-01

    A review of recent progress relating to Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars is presented. Topics include improved Milky Way statistics from near-IR surveys, different flavours of hydrogen-rich and hydrogen-poor WN stars, WR masses from binary orbits, plus spectroscopic analysis of WR stars resulting in stellar temperatures, luminosities, ionizing fluxes, plus wind properties accounting for clumping. Chemical abundances of WN and WC stars are presented, including a discussion of neon abundances in WC and WO stars from Spitzer observations. Empirical evidence supporting metallicity-dependent winds is also presented, including its effect on subtype distributions in different environments. Finally, difficulties in comparisons between evolutionary models and observations are highlighted, plus outstanding issues with predictions from continuous star formation and instantaneous bursts in the Milky Way,

  12. Wolf Testing: Open Source Testing Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braasch, P.; Gay, P. L.

    2004-12-01

    Wolf Testing is software for easily creating and editing exams. Wolf Testing allows the user to create an exam from a database of questions, view it on screen, and easily print it along with the corresponding answer guide. The questions can be multiple choice, short answer, long answer, or true and false varieties. This software can be accessed securely from any location, allowing the user to easily create exams from home. New questions, which can include associated pictures, can be added through a web-interface. After adding in questions, they can be edited, deleted, or duplicated into multiple versions. Long-term test creation is simplified, as you are able to quickly see what questions you have asked in the past and insert them, with or without editing, into future tests. All tests are archived in the database. Written in PHP and MySQL, this software can be installed on any UNIX / Linux platform, including Macintosh OS X. The secure interface keeps students out, and allows you to decide who can create tests and who can edit information already in the database. Tests can be output as either html with pictures or rich text without pictures, and there are plans to add PDF and MS Word formats as well. We would like to thank Dr. Wolfgang Rueckner and the Harvard University Science Center for providing incentive to start this project, computers and resources to complete this project, and inspiration for the project's name. We would also like to thank Dr. Ronald Newburgh for his assistance in beta testing.

  13. Causes of wolf depredation increase in Minnesota from 1979-1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harper, E.K.; Paul, W.J.; Mech, L.D.

    2005-01-01

    Wolf ( Canis lupus) depredations on livestock in Minnesota have been increasing over the last 20 years. This study concluded that besides wolf range expansion, both wolf colonization of new areas within long-existing range, and learning by wolves in established Minnesota range contributed to wolf depredation increase. The proportion of depredations occurring due to wolf range expansion increased from 20% in 1989 to 48% in 1998.

  14. Gottfried Kirch (1639-1710) and astronomy in Berlin in the 18th century. Contributions of the colloquium held in Berlin-Treptow on March 6, 2010 (German Title: Gottfried Kirch (1639-1710) und die Berliner Astronomie im 18. Jahrhundert.) Beiträge des Kolloquiums am 6. März 2010 in Berlin-Treptow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamel, Jürgen

    2010-12-01

    The contributions of this volume are dedicated to Gottfried Kirch (1639-1710), the first Berlin astronomer, on the occasion of the 300th anniversary of his death. They deal with the astronomy of his times and developments in later times, which are connected to his work. The papers deal with the following topics: The instrumental equipment of Berlin Observatory at the time of G. Kirch and its modernisation up to around 1780; the instruments of Johann Makob Marioni's Viennese observatory around 1730; the heraldic celestial globe by Kirch's teacher Erhard Weigel. In addition, they deal with Kirch's share in the propagation of ideas of the Enlightenment, and with the Berlin meteorological record and its consequences for the investigation of anthropogenous climatic changes. They also deal with astronomical topics in the exchange of letters between Leonhard Euler and Daniel Bernoulli, and with the Berlin "Astronomisches Jahrbuch", which is based on Kirch's activities, as a biographical source.

  15. ["One makes a distinction between 2 color contrasts, the instantaneous and the afterimage". Several color theory comments by Gottfried Semper in the "style" of 1860].

    PubMed

    Rehm, Robin

    2010-01-01

    Gottfried Semper (1803-1879) is well-known for his work on colour schemes in architecture. The architect published several books and articles on related topics, such as polychromy in Greek and Roman edifices, mural paintings of Pompeii, and the colouring of the renaissance architecture. It has been less discussed, however, that Semper was also engaged in the contemporary discourse on colour theory as pursued in Natural Science research. The paper examines theoretical remarks on colour in Semper's publication "Der Stil" of 1860. His terminology, the modality of his explanations and his discussion of colour experiments suggest that Semper was familiar with Michel-Eugène Chevreul's theory of colour. Semper's reception of Chevreul is not surprising. The French chemist wrote one of the most important studies of colour of the nineteenth century. His famous book "De la loi du contraste simultané des couleurs" was published in Paris in 1839, where he developed some of the principles of "harmony and contrast of colours" and their application to the arts. Especially Chevreul's synthesis between theoretical consolidation and practical transformation seem to have attracted Semper's attention. PMID:21322917

  16. STS-86 Mission Specialist David Wolf suits up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-86 Mission Specialist David A. Wolf gets assistance from a suit technician while donning his orange launch and entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building. This will be Wolfs second flight. He and the six other crew members will depart shortly for Launch Pad 39A, where the Space Shuttle Atlantis awaits liftoff on a 10-day mission slated to be the seventh docking of the Space Shuttle with the Russian Space Station Mir. Wolf will transfer to the Mir 24 crew, replacing U.S. astronaut C. Michael Foale, who will return to Earth aboard Atlantis with the rest of the STS-86 crew. Wolf is expected to live and work aboard the Russian space station for about four months.

  17. Death of a wild wolf from canine parvovirus enteritis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Kurtz, H.J.; Goyal, S.

    1997-01-01

    A 9-mo-old female wolf (Canis lupus) in the Superior National Forest of Minnesota (USA) died from a canine parvovirus (CPV) infection. This is the first direct evidence that this infection effects free-ranging wild wolves.

  18. The Long Intron 1 of Growth Hormone Gene from Reeves' Turtle (Chinemys reevesii) Correlates with Negatively Regulated GH Expression in Four Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Sheng; Ma, Jing-E; Li, Wei-Xia; Zhang, Jin-Ge; Wang, Juan; Nie, Qing-Hua; Qiu, Feng-Fang; Fang, Mei-Xia; Zeng, Fang; Wang, Xing; Lin, Xi-Ran; Zhang, Li; Chen, Shao-Hao; Zhang, Xi-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Turtles grow slowly and have a long lifespan. Ultrastructural studies of the pituitary gland in Reeves' turtle (Chinemys reevesii) have revealed that the species possesses a higher nucleoplasmic ratio and fewer secretory granules in growth hormone (GH) cells than other animal species in summer and winter. C. reevesii GH gene was cloned and species-specific similarities and differences were investigated. The full GH gene sequence in C. reevesii contains 8517 base pairs (bp), comprising five exons and four introns. Intron 1 was found to be much longer in C. reevesii than in other species. The coding sequence (CDS) of the turtle's GH gene, with and without the inclusion of intron 1, was transfected into four cell lines, including DF-1 chicken embryo fibroblasts, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, human embryonic kidney 293FT cells, and GH4C1 rat pituitary cells; the turtle growth hormone (tGH) gene mRNA and protein expression levels decreased significantly in the intron-containing CDS in these cell lines, compared with that of the corresponding intronless CDS. Thus, the long intron 1 of GH gene in Reeves' turtle might correlate with downregulated gene expression. PMID:27077853

  19. Composition, diagenesis, and morphology of chlorite and illite/smectite mixed-layer clays in the Cherry Canyon Formation, Delaware Mountain Group, Screwbean field, Reeves County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Thomerson, M.D.; Henderson, S.K. )

    1993-09-01

    Oil and gas production in the Screwbean field of Reeves County, Texas, is predominantly from the subarkosic Bell Canyon (Ramsey sand member) and upper Cherry Canyon sandstones of the Permian (Guadalupian) Delaware Mountain Group. Authigenic clays compromise up to 10% of the bulk rock and can seriously degrade the production potential and performance of reservoir rock. The chlorite and illite/smectite mixed-layer clays can have several effects on the reservoir: loss of permeability as a result of swelling, formation damage because of acid sensitivity, and high irreducible water saturations (bound water) caused by microporosity. Twenty-five powdered samples from whole core taken in the Cherry Canyon Formation from a well in Reeves County were analyzed by x-ray diffraction. The actual x-ray diffraction patterns from the powdered samples were compared to simulated x-ray diffraction patterns generated by a microcomputer. Once matched, the computer models give the fractional clay composition of that particular sample. The prominent morphology of the authigenic clays is also very important. Photomicrographs taken with a scanning electron microscope were employed to delineate the clay morphologies and illustrate the intergranular habits of these clay minerals. The failure to recognize the aforementioned problems can lead to prematurely abandoning and bypassing possible productive zones. The data generated by this study will allow us to better use these reservoirs and more effectively explore future zones.

  20. Spectral characteristics of 22-year Wolf number variations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivin, Yu. R.

    1990-02-01

    A maximum T = 29 - 30 years has been detected as well as T = 22 years with about the same amplitude in the spectrum of yearly Wolf numbers in the frequency range corresponding to 20 year variations. Stability of both maxima for two parts of the common series (before and after solar cycle N. 10) is shown. Some suggestions on the origin of the second maximum are given. A conclusion is made that 20-year variations of Wolf numbers describe a nonstationary process.

  1. Phenotypic variations in wolf-hirschhorn syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sukarova-Angelovska, E; Kocova, M; Sabolich, V; Palcevska, S; Angelkova, N

    2014-06-01

    Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a rare chromosomal disorder caused by terminal deletion of the short arm of chromosome 4. The clinical picture includes growth retardation, severe mental retardation, characteristic "Greek helmet" like face, seizures and midline defects in the brain, heart, palate and genitalia. Recently-used molecular techniques increase the number of diagnosed cases due to the detection of smaller deletions. The severity of the clinical presentation is variable depending on the haploinsufficiency of genes in a deleted region. We present six children with WHS with variable clinical appearance. The assessment of several elements (facial dysmorphism, mental retardation, additional congenital anomalies) provided classification into minor, mild or severe forms. Three of the children had a visible cytogenetic deletion on chromosome 4p, two had microdeletions detected with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and one child with a less characteristic clinical picture had a mosaic type of the deletion. Correlation between the clinical presentation and the length of the deleted region was confirmed. PMID:25741211

  2. The Multiplicity of Wolf-Rayet Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Debra J.

    2004-01-01

    The most massive stars drastically reconfigure their surroundings via their strong stellar winds and powerful ionizing radiation. With this mass fueling their large luminosities, these stars are frequently used as standard candles in distance determination, and as tracers of stellar evolution in different regions and epochs. In their dieing burst, some of the once massive stars will enter a Wolf-Rayet (WR) phase lasting approx.10% of the stellar lifetime. This phase is particularly useful for study because these stars have strong spectroscopic signatures that allow them to be easily identified at great distances. But how accurate are these identifications? Increasingly, the relatively nearby stars we once assumed to be single are revealing themselves to be binary or multiple. New techniques, such as high-resolution imaging and interferometry, are changing our knowledge of these objects. I will discuss recent results in the literature and how this affects the binary distribution of WR stars. I will also discuss the implications of binary vs. single star evolution on evolution through the WR phase. Finally, I will discuss the implications of these revised numbers on both massive stellar evolution itself, and the impact that this has on the role of WR stars as calibrators.

  3. STS-112 Astronaut Wolf Participates in EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Astronaut David A. Wolf, STS-112 mission specialist, participates in the mission's second session of extravehicular activity (EVA), a six hour, four minute space walk, in which an exterior station television camera was installed outside of the Destiny Laboratory. Launched October 7, 2002 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, the STS-112 mission lasted 11 days and performed three EVA sessions. Its primary mission was to install the Starboard (S1) Integrated Truss Structure and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart to the International Space Station (ISS). The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss, attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss installed by the previous STS-110 mission, flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the International Space Station's railway providing a mobile work platform for future extravehicular activities by astronauts.

  4. Population genomics of the inbred Scandinavian wolf.

    PubMed

    Hagenblad, Jenny; Olsson, Maria; Parker, Heidi G; Ostrander, Elaine A; Ellegren, Hans

    2009-04-01

    The Scandinavian wolf population represents one of the genetically most well-characterized examples of a severely bottlenecked natural population (with only two founders), and of how the addition of new genetic material (one immigrant) can at least temporarily provide a 'genetic rescue'. However, inbreeding depression has been observed in this population and in the absence of additional immigrants, its long-term viability is questioned. To study the effects of inbreeding and selection on genomic diversity, we performed a genomic scan with approximately 250 microsatellite markers distributed across all autosomes and the X chromosome. We found linkage disequilibrium (LD) that extended up to distances of 50 Mb, exceeding that of most outbreeding species studied thus far. LD was particularly pronounced on the X chromosome. Overall levels of observed genomic heterozygosity did not deviate significantly from simulations based on known population history, giving no support for a general selection for heterozygotes. However, we found evidence supporting balancing selection at a number of loci and also evidence suggesting directional selection at other loci. For markers on chromosome 23, the signal of selection was particularly strong, indicating that purifying selection against deleterious alleles may have occurred even in this very small population. These data suggest that population genomics allows the exploration of the effects of neutral and non-neutral evolution on a finer scale than what has previously been possible. PMID:19368642

  5. Sublethal responses of wolf spiders (Lycosidae) to organophosphorous insecticides.

    PubMed

    Van Erp, S; Booth, L; Gooneratne, R; O'Halloran, K

    2002-10-01

    The activities of cholinesterase (ChE) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzymes were assessed in the wolf spider (Lycosa hilaris) as biomarkers of organophosphate contamination in agricultural ecosystems. Spiders were exposed to simulated field rates of two commercially available organophosphorous insecticides [Basudin (diazinon) and Lorsban (chlorpyrifos)] under laboratory conditions. In terms of survival, chlorpyrifos and diazinon were more toxic to male than to female wolf spiders, but gender-specific differences in ChE activities were not evident. Cholinesterase activity in male spiders was inhibited to 14% and 61% of control activity by Basudin and Lorsban, respectively. Gluthathione S-transferase activity was not affected by either pesticide. Mortality and biomarker responses in the wolf spider were further investigated following the application of Basudin to pasture. Wolf spiders were deployed into field mesocosms; after 24 h mortality was 40%, and surviving spiders displayed significant inhibition of ChE activity (87%) compared with controls. Cholinesterase activity in spiders exposed for subsequent 24- or 48-h time periods was monitored until it returned to control levels 8 days post-application. Inhibition of ChE activity after a single application of Basudin indicate the potential use of this enzyme in wolf spiders as a biomarker for evaluating organophosphate contamination. PMID:12242675

  6. Wolf-Rayet central stars of planetary nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todt, H.; Hamann, W.-R.

    A significant number of the central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPNe) are hydrogen-deficient, showing a chemical composition of helium, carbon, and oxygen. Most of them exhibit Wolf-Rayet-like emission line spectra, similar to those of the massive WC Pop I stars, and are therefore classified as of spectral type [WC]. In the last years, CSPNe of other Wolf-Rayet spectral subtypes have been identified, namely PB 8, which is of spectral type [WN/C], and IC 4663 and Abell 48, which are of spectral type [WN]. We review spectral analyses of Wolf-Rayet type central stars of different evolutionary stages and discuss the results in the context of stellar evolution. Especially we consider the question of a common evolutionary channel for [WC] stars. The constraints on the formation of [WN] or [WC/N] subtype stars will also be addressed.

  7. Trends and management of wolf-livestock conflicts in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fritts, S.H.; Paul, W.J.; Mech, L.D.; Scott, D.P.

    1992-01-01

    The nature and extent of wolf-livestock conflicts in Minnesota during 1975-86 was studied as part of a wolf depredation control program. The level of wolf (Canis lupus) depredation on livestock in Minnesota, as determined from the total number of complaints verified annually during 1975-86, showed a slight upward trend but did not increase significantly. A significant portion of the annual variation in verified complaints-perhaps the best index on severity of the depredation problem was explained by variation in severity of the winter before the depredation season (inverse relation). The addition of a time variable did not account for a significant portion of the remaining variation. Verified complaints of depredations averaged 30 per year, affecting an average of 21 farms (0.33% of producers) annually. Conflicts were highly seasonal and involved primarily cattle (mainly calves), sheep, and domestic turkeys. Annual variation in losses of sheep and turkeys was higher than for cattle. In recent years, sheep and turkey losses in two northwestern counties have increased; preventive control may be warranted in those areas. Site-specific trapping and removal of wolves in response to depredations was the primary control method, resulting in captures of 437 wolves in 12 depredation seasons. For the wolf range as a whole, no relation was found between wolf removal and subsequent depredation rates; however, wolf removal seemed to reduce depredations locally at some farms. When adults and yearlings were removed, no subsequent losses occurred in about 55% of instances; removal of young of the year reduced losses in 22%. Removal of breeding wolves did not reduce the incidence of subsequent losses more than removal of nonbreeding adults and yearlings did. The low number of conflicts for 1975-86 was remarkable considering the frequent contact between wolves and livestock. However, an update of complaints for 1987-89 revealed a definite upward trend in depredations (Epilogue

  8. The Sixth Catalogue of galactic Wolf-Rayet stars, their past and present

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Der Hucht, K. A.; Conti, P. S.; Lundstrom, I.; Stenholm, B.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents the Sixth Catalogue of galactic Wolf-Rayet stars (Pop. I), a short history on the five earlier WR catalogues, improved spectral classification, finding charts, a discussion on related objects, and a review of the current status of Wolf-Rayet star research. The appendix presents a bibliography on most of the Wolf-Rayet literature published since 1867.

  9. 75 FR 24741 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Mexican Wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) Conservation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... Entity The Mexican wolf was listed as an endangered subspecies of gray wolf in 1976 (41 FR 17736, April... endangered, except in Minnesota where it was listed as threatened (43 FR 9607, March 9, 1978). The 1978... subspecies for purposes of research and conservation (43 FR 9607). After the 1978 listing of the gray wolf...

  10. The Zurich Tradition: Backbone of the Wolf Number Series (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedli, T. K.

    2013-12-01

    The Wolf Series of Sunspot Relative Numbers is divided into a more recent part starting from 1849 up to present which is based on dedicated visual observations and into a reconstructed part reaching back to the mythological ages of Galileo, Harriot and Scheiner which is based solely on indirect countings made from drawings or texts from various archives. The Zurich tradition consists of a framework of rules and prerequisites concerning the quality and power of the instrumentation, the observation and counting techniques, the methods for calibration and preservation of scale and the construction of a long-term record. This framework guarantees the homogeneity of the series and the preservation of the original scale. In the modern part of the series up to 1980, the published Wolf numbers are based in over 90% of the days on calibrated visual observations of the original Fraunhofer refractor. The long term preservation of the original scale is thus mainly determined by the quality and validity of the calibration from one generation of standard observers to the next and on the internal consistency of the individual observing and counting methods of each standard observer. Since 1996 the historical standard refractor of Rudolf Wolf, in succession of the Zurich observers, has been used by the author for the daily determination of the sunspot relative number. With the aid of a small network of keen amateur astronomers of the Rudolf Wolf Gesellschaft these observations could be calibrated to the former Zurich scale. This results in an extension of the original Zurich series which is independent from the official one by SIDC or from the one by AAVSO. The main lesson learned from this exercise is that calibration functions reduce to simple proportionality factors as long as the calculations are made within a proper statistical regression framework over a sufficiently long evaluation period covering both maximum and minimum activity phases. Based on the original observations

  11. The systematic status of the Italian wolf Canis lupus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowak, R.M.; Federoff, N.E.

    2002-01-01

    In the past, the gray wolf Canis lupus Linnaeus, 1758, has been recognized in Italy as either the subspecies lupus or italicus. It has also been postulated that this population has undergone introgression from the domestic dog Canis familiaris. In order to clarify these issues, multistatistical analyses were made of 10 skull measurements of 34 full grown male wolves from the Italian Peninsula, 91 other male Eurasian wolves, and 20 domestic dogs. The analyses, together with other morphological evidence and prior genetic research, support recognition of the Italian wolf as a separate subspecies, Canis lupus italicus. The same evidence indicates that the subspecies has not been affected through hybridization with the domestic dog.

  12. Reflections on My Time in the Wolfe Den

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2012-01-01

    The three and a half years I spent as a member of the Infrared Group were transitional. Bill Wolfe was the nexus. Bill played a role in getting me to Arizona and keeping me there. He helped me advance professionally and taught me how to think like a systems engineer. He played a central role in my effort to earn a PhD. And, he helped start me in SPIE. This paper contains my personal and honest reflections on the impact which Bill Wolfe has had on me.

  13. The Wolf effect and the redshift of quasars

    SciTech Connect

    James, Daniel F.V.

    1998-01-23

    We consider a simple model, based on currently accepted models for active galactic nuclei, for a quasi-stellar object (QSO or "quasar") and examine the influence that correlation-induced spectral changes ("The Wolf Effect") may have upon the redshifts of the optical emission lines.

  14. Complete genomic sequence of rabies virus from an ethiopian wolf.

    PubMed

    Marston, Denise A; Wise, Emma L; Ellis, Richard J; McElhinney, Lorraine M; Banyard, Ashley C; Johnson, Nicholas; Deressa, Asefa; Regassa, Fekede; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Fooks, Anthony R; Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Ethiopian wolves are the rarest canid in the world, with only 500 found in the Ethiopian highlands. Rabies poses the most immediate threat to their survival, causing epizootic cycles of mass mortality. The complete genome sequence of a rabies virus (RABV) derived from an Ethiopian wolf during the most recent epizootic is reported here. PMID:25814597

  15. A Potential Wolf in Sheep's Clothing: The Ambiguity of "Cooperation."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Sue

    1992-01-01

    Explores the meanings constructed around the concept of cooperation by a teacher and her fifth-grade students during cooperative learning. Their experiences indicate that cooperative learning has the potential to be a wolf in sheep's clothing, promising much but actually stifling the empowerment of students for proactive social action. (SLD)

  16. Astronaut David Wolf in medical experiment in SLS-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut David A. Wolf, mission specialist, participates in an experiment that investigates in-space distribution and movement of blood and gas in the pulmonary system. The data gathered during the two-week flight will be compared with results of tests performed on Earth to determine the changes that occur in pulmonary functions.

  17. Jernigan and Wolf in Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Astronauts Tamara Jernigan (#1) and David Wolf (#2) are training in the Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS) at Marshall Space Flight center with an exercise for International Space Station Alpha. The NBS provided the weightless environment encountered in space needed for testing and the practices of Extravehicular Activities (EVA).

  18. Girlhood, Sexual Violence, and Agency in Francesca Lia Block's "Wolf"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This essay examines the representation of adolescent girlhood, sexual violence and agency in Francesca Lia Block's contemporary fairy tale collection "The Rose and The Beast." Focusing specifically on the tale "Wolf," the author provides a literary analysis of how Block draws on and reworks traditional Western fairy tale variants to reintroduce…

  19. Exploring the "Lone Wolf" Phenomenon in Student Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Terri Feldman; Dixon, Andrea L.; Gassenheimer, Jule B.

    2005-01-01

    The proliferation of projects using student teams has motivated researchers to examine factors that affect both team process and outcomes. This research introduces an individual difference variable found in the business environment that has not been examined in a classroom context. The lone wolf appears to play a role in how teams function and…

  20. Detection of parvoviruses in wolf feces by electron microscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muneer, M.A.; Farah, I.O.; Pomeroy, K.A.; Goyal, S.M.; Mech, L.D.

    1988-01-01

    One hundred fifteen wolf (Canis lupus) feces were collected between 1980 and 1984 from northeastern Minnesota and were examined for canine parvovirus by negative contrast electron microscopy. Of these, seven (6%) samples revealed the presence of parvovirus. Some of these viruses were able to grow in cell cultures forming intranuclear inclusion bodies and giant cells.

  1. A new epidioxy-tetracyclic triterpenoid from Poria cocos Wolf.

    PubMed

    Li, Shiping; Wang, Zhixin; Gu, Rui; Zhao, Yiwu; Huang, Wenzhe; Wang, Zhenzhong; Xiao, Wei

    2016-08-01

    A new epidioxy-tetracyclic triterpenoid, 3-(2-hydroxyacetoxy)-5α, 8α-peroxydehydrotumulosic acid (10), along with nine known compounds were isolated from Poria cocos Wolf (Polyporaceae). Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic analyses and comparison with literature data. The cytotoxicity of these compounds against human cancer cell lines MNK-45 was evaluated by MTT method. PMID:26838715

  2. The Wolf, the Moose, and the Fir Tree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortier, Gary

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a case study for upper grade levels and undergraduate students that is designed to increase students' ability to read and comprehend scientific information. Discusses ecological parameters and evaluates trophic level interactions. Questions the fluctuations in the moose and wolf populations and the growth rates of balsam firs. Includes…

  3. Diagnostics of the unstable envelopes of Wolf-Rayet stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassitelli, L.; Chené, A.-N.; Sanyal, D.; Langer, N.; St-Louis, N.; Bestenlehner, J. M.; Fossati, L.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The envelopes of stars near the Eddington limit are prone to various instabilities. A high Eddington factor in connection with the iron opacity peak leads to convective instability, and a corresponding envelope inflation may induce pulsational instability. Here, we investigate the occurrence and consequences of both instabilities in models of Wolf-Rayet stars. Aims: We determine the convective velocities in the sub-surface convective zones to estimate the amplitude of the turbulent velocity at the base of the wind that potentially leads to the formation of small-scale wind structures, as observed in several Wolf-Rayet stars. We also investigate the effect of stellar wind mass loss on the pulsations of our stellar models. Methods: We approximated solar metallicity Wolf-Rayet stars in the range 2-17 M⊙ by models of mass-losing helium stars, computed with the Bonn stellar evolution code. We characterized the properties of convection in the envelope of these stars adopting the standard mixing length theory. Results: Our results show the occurrence of sub-surface convective regions in all studied models. Small (≈1 km s-1) surface velocity amplitudes are predicted for models with masses below ≈10 M⊙. For models with M ≳ 10 M⊙, the surface velocity amplitudes are of the order of 10 km s-1. Moreover we find the occurrence of pulsations for stars in the mass range 9-14 M⊙, while mass loss appears to stabilize the more massive Wolf-Rayet stars. We confront our results with observationally derived line variabilities of 17 WN stars, of which we analysed eight here for the first time. The data suggest variability to occur for stars above 10 M⊙, which is increasing linearly with mass above this value, in agreement with our results. We further find our models in the mass range 9-14M⊙ to be unstable to radial pulsations, and predict local magnetic fields of the order of hundreds of gauss in Wolf-Rayet stars more massive than ≈10 M⊙. Conclusions: Our

  4. Diagnostics of the unstable envelopes of Wolf-Rayet stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassitelli, L.; Chené, A.-N.; Sanyal, D.; Langer, N.; St-Louis, N.; Bestenlehner, J. M.; Fossati, L.

    2016-04-01

    Context. The envelopes of stars near the Eddington limit are prone to various instabilities. A high Eddington factor in connection with the iron opacity peak leads to convective instability, and a corresponding envelope inflation may induce pulsational instability. Here, we investigate the occurrence and consequences of both instabilities in models of Wolf-Rayet stars. Aims: We determine the convective velocities in the sub-surface convective zones to estimate the amplitude of the turbulent velocity at the base of the wind that potentially leads to the formation of small-scale wind structures, as observed in several Wolf-Rayet stars. We also investigate the effect of stellar wind mass loss on the pulsations of our stellar models. Methods: We approximated solar metallicity Wolf-Rayet stars in the range 2-17 M⊙ by models of mass-losing helium stars, computed with the Bonn stellar evolution code. We characterized the properties of convection in the envelope of these stars adopting the standard mixing length theory. Results: Our results show the occurrence of sub-surface convective regions in all studied models. Small (≈1 km s-1) surface velocity amplitudes are predicted for models with masses below ≈10 M⊙. For models with M ≳ 10 M⊙, the surface velocity amplitudes are of the order of 10 km s-1. Moreover we find the occurrence of pulsations for stars in the mass range 9-14 M⊙, while mass loss appears to stabilize the more massive Wolf-Rayet stars. We confront our results with observationally derived line variabilities of 17 WN stars, of which we analysed eight here for the first time. The data suggest variability to occur for stars above 10 M⊙, which is increasing linearly with mass above this value, in agreement with our results. We further find our models in the mass range 9-14M⊙ to be unstable to radial pulsations, and predict local magnetic fields of the order of hundreds of gauss in Wolf-Rayet stars more massive than ≈10 M⊙. Conclusions: Our

  5. Gray wolf density and its association with weights and hematology of pups from 1970 to 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.

    1991-01-01

    We examined weights and hematologic profiles of gray wolf (Canis lupus) pups and the associated wolf density in the east-central Superior National Forest of northeastern Minnesota (USA) during 1970 to 1988. We collected weight and hematologic data from 117 pups (57 females, 60 males) during 1 September to 22 November each year. The wolf density (wolves/800 km2) trend was divided into three phases: high (72 +/- 7), 1970 to 1975; medium (44 +/- 2), 1976 to 1983; and low (27 +/- 2), 1984 to 1988. Wolf numbers declined (P = 0.0001) 39 and 63% from 1970 to 1975 to 1976 to 1983 and from 1970 to 1975 to 1984 to 1988, respectively. Weight was similar between male and female pups and did not vary as wolf density changed. Mean hemoglobin (P = 0.04), red (P = 0.0001) and white blood cells (P = 0.002), mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (P = 0.0001) did differ among the multi-annual phases of changing wolf density. Weight and hematologic data also were compared to values from captive wolf pups. The high, but declining wolf density was associated with macrocytic, normochromic anemia in wolf pups, whereas the lowest density coincided with a hypochromic anemia. Although hematologic values show promise for assessing wolf pup condition and wolf population status, they must be used cautiously until data are available from other populations.

  6. Monitoring gray wolf populations using multiple survey methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ausband, David E.; Rich, Lindsey N.; Glenn, Elizabeth M.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Zager, Pete; Miller, David A.W.; Waits, Lisette P.; Ackerman, Bruce B.; Mack, Curt M.

    2013-01-01

    The behavioral patterns and large territories of large carnivores make them challenging to monitor. Occupancy modeling provides a framework for monitoring population dynamics and distribution of territorial carnivores. We combined data from hunter surveys, howling and sign surveys conducted at predicted wolf rendezvous sites, and locations of radiocollared wolves to model occupancy and estimate the number of gray wolf (Canis lupus) packs and individuals in Idaho during 2009 and 2010. We explicitly accounted for potential misidentification of occupied cells (i.e., false positives) using an extension of the multi-state occupancy framework. We found agreement between model predictions and distribution and estimates of number of wolf packs and individual wolves reported by Idaho Department of Fish and Game and Nez Perce Tribe from intensive radiotelemetry-based monitoring. Estimates of individual wolves from occupancy models that excluded data from radiocollared wolves were within an average of 12.0% (SD = 6.0) of existing statewide minimum counts. Models using only hunter survey data generally estimated the lowest abundance, whereas models using all data generally provided the highest estimates of abundance, although only marginally higher. Precision across approaches ranged from 14% to 28% of mean estimates and models that used all data streams generally provided the most precise estimates. We demonstrated that an occupancy model based on different survey methods can yield estimates of the number and distribution of wolf packs and individual wolf abundance with reasonable measures of precision. Assumptions of the approach including that average territory size is known, average pack size is known, and territories do not overlap, must be evaluated periodically using independent field data to ensure occupancy estimates remain reliable. Use of multiple survey methods helps to ensure that occupancy estimates are robust to weaknesses or changes in any 1 survey method

  7. Extinct Beringian wolf morphotype found in the continental U.S. has implications for wolf migration and evolution.

    PubMed

    Meachen, Julie A; Brannick, Alexandria L; Fry, Trent J

    2016-05-01

    Pleistocene diversity was much higher than today, for example there were three distinct wolf morphotypes (dire, gray, Beringian) in North America versus one today (gray). Previous fossil evidence suggested that these three groups overlapped ecologically, but split the landscape geographically. The Natural Trap Cave (NTC) fossil site in Wyoming, USA is an ideally placed late Pleistocene site to study the geographical movement of species from northern to middle North America before, during, and after the last glacial maximum. Until now, it has been unclear what type of wolf was present at NTC. We analyzed morphometrics of three wolf groups (dire, extant North American gray, Alaskan Beringian) to determine which wolves were present at NTC and what this indicates about wolf diversity and migration in Pleistocene North America. Results show NTC wolves group with Alaskan Beringian wolves. This provides the first morphological evidence for Beringian wolves in mid-continental North America. Their location at NTC and their radiocarbon ages suggest that they followed a temporary channel through the glaciers. Results suggest high levels of competition and diversity in Pleistocene North American wolves. The presence of mid-continental Beringian morphotypes adds important data for untangling the history of immigration and evolution of Canis in North America. PMID:27252837

  8. The potential of ocean acidification on suppressing larval development in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and blood cockle Arca inflata Reeve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiaqi; Jiang, Zengjie; Zhang, Jihong; Mao, Yuze; Bian, Dapeng; Fang, Jianguang

    2014-11-01

    We evaluated the effect of pH on larval development in larval Pacific oyster ( Crassostrea gigas) and blood cockle ( Arca inflata Reeve). The larvae were reared at pH 8.2 (control), 7.9, 7.6, or 7.3 beginning 30 min or 24 h post fertilization. Exposure to lower pH during early embryonic development inhibited larval shell formation in both species. Compared with the control, larvae took longer to reach the D-veliger stage when reared under pH 7.6 and 7.3. Exposure to lower pH immediately after fertilization resulted in significantly delayed shell formation in the Pacific oyster larvae at pH 7.3 and blood cockle larvae at pH 7.6 and 7.3. However, when exposure was delayed until 24 h post fertilization, shell formation was only inhibited in blood cockle larvae reared at pH 7.3. Thus, the early embryonic stages were more sensitive to acidified conditions. Our results suggest that ocean acidification will have an adverse effect on embryonic development in bivalves. Although the effects appear subtle, they may accumulate and lead to subsequent issues during later larval development.

  9. Camera Traps on Wildlife Crossing Structures as a Tool in Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) Management - Five-Years Monitoring of Wolf Abundance Trends in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Šver, Lidija; Bielen, Ana; Križan, Josip; Gužvica, Goran

    2016-01-01

    The conservation of gray wolf (Canis lupus) and its coexistence with humans presents a challenge and requires continuous monitoring and management efforts. One of the non-invasive methods that produces high-quality wolf monitoring datasets is camera trapping. We present a novel monitoring approach where camera traps are positioned on wildlife crossing structures that channel the animals, thereby increasing trapping success and increasing the cost-efficiency of the method. In this way we have followed abundance trends of five wolf packs whose home ranges are intersected by a motorway which spans throughout the wolf distribution range in Croatia. During the five-year monitoring of six green bridges we have recorded 28 250 camera-events, 132 with wolves. Four viaducts were monitored for two years, recording 4914 camera-events, 185 with wolves. We have detected a negative abundance trend of the monitored Croatian wolf packs since 2011, especially severe in the northern part of the study area. Further, we have pinpointed the legal cull as probable major negative influence on the wolf pack abundance trends (linear regression, r2 > 0.75, P < 0.05). Using the same approach we did not find evidence for a negative impact of wolves on the prey populations, both wild ungulates and livestock. We encourage strict protection of wolf in Croatia until there is more data proving population stability. In conclusion, quantitative methods, such as the one presented here, should be used as much as possible when assessing wolf abundance trends. PMID:27327498

  10. Camera Traps on Wildlife Crossing Structures as a Tool in Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) Management - Five-Years Monitoring of Wolf Abundance Trends in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Križan, Josip; Gužvica, Goran

    2016-01-01

    The conservation of gray wolf (Canis lupus) and its coexistence with humans presents a challenge and requires continuous monitoring and management efforts. One of the non-invasive methods that produces high-quality wolf monitoring datasets is camera trapping. We present a novel monitoring approach where camera traps are positioned on wildlife crossing structures that channel the animals, thereby increasing trapping success and increasing the cost-efficiency of the method. In this way we have followed abundance trends of five wolf packs whose home ranges are intersected by a motorway which spans throughout the wolf distribution range in Croatia. During the five-year monitoring of six green bridges we have recorded 28 250 camera-events, 132 with wolves. Four viaducts were monitored for two years, recording 4914 camera-events, 185 with wolves. We have detected a negative abundance trend of the monitored Croatian wolf packs since 2011, especially severe in the northern part of the study area. Further, we have pinpointed the legal cull as probable major negative influence on the wolf pack abundance trends (linear regression, r2 > 0.75, P < 0.05). Using the same approach we did not find evidence for a negative impact of wolves on the prey populations, both wild ungulates and livestock. We encourage strict protection of wolf in Croatia until there is more data proving population stability. In conclusion, quantitative methods, such as the one presented here, should be used as much as possible when assessing wolf abundance trends. PMID:27327498

  11. INTEGRATED SACHS-WOLFE EFFECT FOR GRAVITATIONAL RADIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Laguna, Pablo; Larson, Shane L.; Spergel, David; Yunes, Nicolas

    2010-05-20

    Gravitational waves (GWs) are messengers carrying valuable information about their sources. For sources at cosmological distances, the waves will also contain the imprint left by the intervening matter. The situation is in close analogy with cosmic microwave photons, for which the large-scale structures the photons traverse contribute to the observed temperature anisotropies, in a process known as the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect. We derive the GW counterpart of this effect for waves propagating on a Friedman-Robertson-Walker background with scalar perturbations. We find that the phase, frequency, and amplitude of the GWs experience Sachs-Wolfe-type integrated effects, in addition to the magnification effects on the amplitude from gravitational lensing. We show that for supermassive black hole binaries, the integrated effects could account for measurable changes on the frequency, chirp mass, and luminosity distance of the binary, thus unveiling the presence of inhomogeneities, and potentially dark energy, in the universe.

  12. A rare subtelomeric deletion syndrome: Wolf Hirschhorn syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zorlu, P; Eksioglu, A S; Ozkan, M; Tos, T; Senel, S

    2014-01-01

    Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome is caused by a deletion of the distal portion of the short arm of chromosome 4, and is characterized by psychomotor retardation, seizures, congenital malformations, and typical facial appearance including 'Greek warrior helmet' appearance of the nose. The form and the severity of clinical manifestations vary according to the size and location of the deletion. Major complications are severe growth retardation, developmental delay, seizures, feeding difficulties due to hypotonia, and predisposition to respiratory infections. Patients will benefit from supportive therapy and special education. It is important in terms of prognosis to provide counseling to families in this respect. We present here a case with Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome in order to remind its rarity and the ability of the patients' progress in the areas of motor skills, speech, social interaction. PMID:25365852

  13. Searching for Wolf-Rayet Stars in the Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shara, M. M.; Zurek, D.; Kanarek, G.; Faherty, J.

    2012-12-01

    Tony Moffat has been inspiring the hunt for new Wolf-Rayet stars for over 40 years. These extraordinary objects offer critical tests of stellar evolution theory, and are predicted to be progenitors of type Ib and Ic supernovae. We're only going to know if that prediction is correct (in our lifetimes) by locating and spectrographically confirming of order 10 000 WR stars - a daunting but increasingly doable task. Our 2009 prediction that roughly 6 500 Wolf-Rayet stars live in our Galaxy has been followed by demonstrations in the past few years that, via narrowband infrared imaging and spectroscopy, we can find and confirm almost all Galactic WR stars. The rest of the Local Group is unlikely to contain more than 1 000 WR stars, so the Milky Way is THE place to search exhaustively for them. I briefly describe how we hunt and gather WR stars and give a current (mid-2011) Local Group census of them.

  14. Severe maxillary osteomyelitis in a Gray Wolf (Canis lupus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber-Meyer, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Dental injuries to or abnormalities in functionally important teeth and associated bones in predators may significantly reduce the ability to kill and consume prey (Lazar et al. 2009). This impairment is likely exacerbated in coursing predators, such as Gray Wolves, that bite and hold onto fleeing and kicking prey with their teeth. Damage to carnassials (upper fourth premolar, P4, and lower first molar, M1) and associated bones in Gray Wolves may especially inhibit the consumption of prey because these teeth slice meat and crush bone. Here I report maxillary osteomyelitis involving the carnassials in a wild Gray Wolf from northeastern Minnesota of such severity that I hypothesize it ultimately caused the Gray Wolf to starve to death.

  15. The role of the transference in the Wolf Man case.

    PubMed

    Muslin, H L

    1991-01-01

    The Wolf Man case offers the last detailed record of Freud's work and his appraisal of the therapeutic vectors in analysis, including the transference. The Wolf Man, Sergius Pankejeff, died on May 7, 1979 in Vienna in a municipal institution at the age of 92. Kurt Eissler (1980) reported in the International Journal of Psycho-Analysis that although his mental faculties were in a decline, his last two years of life were peaceful (pp. 104-105). This essay has attempted to demonstrate that Freud's therapeutic emphases in 1914 were centered on memory revival sufficient to allow for reconstruction to be made that would explain the neurotic conflicts. The transference was in fact viewed as a facilitator in the revival of the significant childhood memories. PMID:1938588

  16. STS-86 Mission Specialist David Wolf in white room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-86 Mission Specialist David A. Wolf, at center facing camera, prepares to enter the Space Shuttle Atlantis at Launch Pad 39A, with the assistance of Rick Welty, in foreground at center, United Space Alliance (USA) orbiter vehicle closeout chief; and closeout team members, in background from left, Jim Davis, NASA quality assurance specialist; and George Schramm, USA mechanical technician. STS-86 Mission Specialist Vladimir Georgievich Titov, in foreground at far left, is awaiting his turn.

  17. Canine parvovirus effect on wolf population change and pup survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Goyal, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    Canine parvovirus infected wild canids more than a decade ago, but no population effect has been documented. In wild Minnesota wolves (Canis lupus) over a 12-yr period, the annual percent population increase and proportion of pups each were inversely related to the percentage of wolves serologically positive to the disease. Although these effects did not seem to retard this large extant population, similar relationships in more isolated wolf populations might hinder recovery of this endangered and threatened species.

  18. Max Wolf's Discovery of Near-Earth Asteroid 887 Alinda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connors, Martin; Mandel, Holger; Demleitner, Markus; Heidelberg Digitized Astronomical Plates Project

    2016-01-01

    Max Wolf, director of the Heidelberg Observatory (Landessternwarte Königsstuhl), was the most prodigious discoverer of asteroids in the early twentieth century. He is now best known for the discovery of the Trojan asteroids associated with Jupiter in 1906, but was a pioneer in the application of photographic techniques to astronomy, particularly for conducting asteroid surveys. His attention to detail and perseverance also led to the discovery of the near-Earth asteroid 887 Alinda, which is the eponym of an orbital class in 3:1 resonance with Jupiter. Alinda class contains several potentially hazardous asteroids, and has been particularly instructive in development of theories of eccentricity increase for resonant asteroids. Alinda was discovered on January 3, 1918, on the very edge of one of two plates taken with the 40 cm aperture Bruce double astrograph. The inability to reduce a long trail going off the plate meant that only one month later could the object again be found with the Bruce telescope, and later observed with the follow-up instrument, the 72 cm aperture Waltz reflector. In what Wolf referred to as "the greatest embarrassment of my life", reflector observations had him conclude that Alinda had a satellite. At a time when plates had to be exposed for several hours, laboriously developed and analyzed, and in the case of high eccentricity objects like Alinda, predicted with inadequate theories, Wolf's persistence allowed it never to be lost. Despite this, its essential resonant nature was not determined until 1969, despite the pioneering work by Brown (1911) on resonance in the asteroid belt and the knowledge dating to the late nineteenth century work of Kirkwood that commensurabilities were important in its structure. The majority of Wolf's plates are available as online scans through the Heidelberg Digitized Astronomical Plates project of the German Astrophysical Virtual Observatory, but the Alinda discovery plate, which was broken, was scanned

  19. Microarray analysis of unbalanced translocation in Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ying; Yang, Jing; Chen, Yuanyuan; Bao, Liming; Cheng, Qian

    2013-06-01

    Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is caused by deletions involving chromosome region 4p16.3, which is characterized by growth delay, mild-to-severe mental retardation, hypotonia, facial dysmorphisms and shows extensive phenotypic variability include feeding difficulties, epilepsy and congenital anomalies. Variation in the size of the deletion involving chromosome region 4p16.3 may explain the clinical variation. However, previous studies indicate that duplication for another chromosome region due to an unbalanced translocation elucidate approximately 40-45% WHS patients. Therefore, we used whole genomic cytogenetics array to analyze the entire genome at a significantly higher resolution over conventional cytogenetics to characterize the exact subtelomeric aberration region of one patient with developmental delay and several facial characteristics reminiscent Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome. Here we report that our patient had 3.7 Mb deletion at the 4p16.2 and 6.8 Mb duplication at 8p23.1 resulted from the unbalanced translocations der(4)t(4;8)(p16.2;p23.1). We confirmed that our patient with monosomy 4p16.2 which is consistent with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome and trisomy 8p23.1. The combination of the 4p deletion with 8p partial trisomy explains the complex phenotype presented by our patient. PMID:23782367

  20. Discovery of two Galactic Wolf-Rayet stars in Circinus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman-Lopes, A.

    2011-01-01

    I report the discovery of two new Galactic Wolf-Rayet stars in Circinus via detection of their C, N and He near-infrared emission lines, using ESO-NTT-SOFI archival data. The H- and K-band spectra of WR 67a and WR 67b indicate that these are Wolf-Rayet stars of WN 6h and WC 8 subtypes, respectively. WR 67a presents a weak-lined spectrum probably reminiscent of young hydrogen-rich main-sequence stars, such as WR 25 in Car OB1 and HD 97950 in NGC 3603. Indeed, this conclusion is reinforced by the close morphological match of the WR 67a H- and K-band spectra with that for WR 21a, a known extremely massive binary system. WR 67b is probably a non-dusty WC 8 Wolf-Rayet star that has an estimated heliocentric distance of 2.7 ± 0.9 kpc, which for its Galactic coordinates puts the star probably in the near portion of the Scutum-Centaurus arm.

  1. DoGSD: the dog and wolf genome SNP database.

    PubMed

    Bai, Bing; Zhao, Wen-Ming; Tang, Bi-Xia; Wang, Yan-Qing; Wang, Lu; Zhang, Zhang; Yang, He-Chuan; Liu, Yan-Hu; Zhu, Jun-Wei; Irwin, David M; Wang, Guo-Dong; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2015-01-01

    The rapid advancement of next-generation sequencing technology has generated a deluge of genomic data from domesticated dogs and their wild ancestor, grey wolves, which have simultaneously broadened our understanding of domestication and diseases that are shared by humans and dogs. To address the scarcity of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data provided by authorized databases and to make SNP data more easily/friendly usable and available, we propose DoGSD (http://dogsd.big.ac.cn), the first canidae-specific database which focuses on whole genome SNP data from domesticated dogs and grey wolves. The DoGSD is a web-based, open-access resource comprising ∼ 19 million high-quality whole-genome SNPs. In addition to the dbSNP data set (build 139), DoGSD incorporates a comprehensive collection of SNPs from two newly sequenced samples (1 wolf and 1 dog) and collected SNPs from three latest dog/wolf genetic studies (7 wolves and 68 dogs), which were taken together for analysis with the population genetic statistics, Fst. In addition, DoGSD integrates some closely related information including SNP annotation, summary lists of SNPs located in genes, synonymous and non-synonymous SNPs, sampling location and breed information. All these features make DoGSD a useful resource for in-depth analysis in dog-/wolf-related studies. PMID:25404132

  2. Hercules and Wolf 630 stellar streams and galactic bar kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobylev, V. V.; Bajkova, A. T.

    2016-04-01

    We have identified the four most significant features in the UV velocity distribution of solarneighborhood stars: H1, H2 in the Hercules stream and W1, W2 in the Wolf 630 stream. We have formulated the problemof determining several characteristics of the centralGalactic bar independently from each of the identified features by assuming that the Hercules and Wolf 630 streams are of a bar-induced dynamical nature. The problem has been solved by constructing 2: 1 resonant orbits in the rotating bar frame for each star in these streams. Analysis of the resonant orbits found has shown that the bar pattern speed is 45-55 km s-1 kpc-1, while the bar angle lies within the range 40°-60°. The results obtained are consistent with the view that the Hercules andWolf 630 streams could be formed by a long-term influence of the Galactic bar leading to a characteristic bimodal splitting of the UV velocity plane.

  3. DoGSD: the dog and wolf genome SNP database

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Bing; Zhao, Wen-Ming; Tang, Bi-Xia; Wang, Yan-Qing; Wang, Lu; Zhang, Zhang; Yang, He-Chuan; Liu, Yan-Hu; Zhu, Jun-Wei; Irwin, David M.; Wang, Guo-Dong; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2015-01-01

    The rapid advancement of next-generation sequencing technology has generated a deluge of genomic data from domesticated dogs and their wild ancestor, grey wolves, which have simultaneously broadened our understanding of domestication and diseases that are shared by humans and dogs. To address the scarcity of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data provided by authorized databases and to make SNP data more easily/friendly usable and available, we propose DoGSD (http://dogsd.big.ac.cn), the first canidae-specific database which focuses on whole genome SNP data from domesticated dogs and grey wolves. The DoGSD is a web-based, open-access resource comprising ∼19 million high-quality whole-genome SNPs. In addition to the dbSNP data set (build 139), DoGSD incorporates a comprehensive collection of SNPs from two newly sequenced samples (1 wolf and 1 dog) and collected SNPs from three latest dog/wolf genetic studies (7 wolves and 68 dogs), which were taken together for analysis with the population genetic statistics, Fst. In addition, DoGSD integrates some closely related information including SNP annotation, summary lists of SNPs located in genes, synonymous and non-synonymous SNPs, sampling location and breed information. All these features make DoGSD a useful resource for in-depth analysis in dog-/wolf-related studies. PMID:25404132

  4. THE EXEMPLAR T8 SUBDWARF COMPANION OF WOLF 1130

    SciTech Connect

    Mace, Gregory N.; McLean, Ian S.; Logsdon, Sarah E.; Wright, Edward L.; Kulas, Kristin R.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R.; Beichman, Charles A.; Cushing, Michael C.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.

    2013-11-01

    We have discovered a wide separation (188.''5) T8 subdwarf companion to the sdM1.5+WD binary Wolf 1130. Companionship of WISE J200520.38+542433.9 is verified through common proper motion over a ∼3 yr baseline. Wolf 1130 is located 15.83 ± 0.96 pc from the Sun, placing the brown dwarf at a projected separation of ∼3000 AU. Near-infrared colors and medium resolution (R ≈ 2000-4000) spectroscopy establish the uniqueness of this system as a high-gravity, low-metallicity benchmark. Although there are a number of low-metallicity T dwarfs in the literature, WISE J200520.38+542433.9 has the most extreme inferred metallicity to date with [Fe/H] = –0.64 ± 0.17 based on Wolf 1130. Model comparisons to this exemplar late-type subdwarf support it having an old age, a low metallicity, and a small radius. However, the spectroscopic peculiarities of WISE J200520.38+542433.9 underscore the importance of developing the low-metallicity parameter space of the most current atmospheric models.

  5. Wolf Attack Probability: A Theoretical Security Measure in Biometric Authentication Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Une, Masashi; Otsuka, Akira; Imai, Hideki

    This paper will propose a wolf attack probability (WAP) as a new measure for evaluating security of biometric authentication systems. The wolf attack is an attempt to impersonate a victim by feeding “wolves” into the system to be attacked. The “wolf” means an input value which can be falsely accepted as a match with multiple templates. WAP is defined as a maximum success probability of the wolf attack with one wolf sample. In this paper, we give a rigorous definition of the new security measure which gives strength estimation of an individual biometric authentication system against impersonation attacks. We show that if one reestimates using our WAP measure, a typical fingerprint algorithm turns out to be much weaker than theoretically estimated by Ratha et al. Moreover, we apply the wolf attack to a finger-vein-pattern based algorithm. Surprisingly, we show that there exists an extremely strong wolf which falsely matches all templates for any threshold value.

  6. Astronaut David Wolf participates in training for contingency EVA in WETF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut David A. Wolf participates in training for contingency extravehicular activity (EVA) for the STS-58 mission. The mission specialist was about to be submerged ito a point of neutral buoyancy in the JSC Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF). In this view, Wolf is displaying the flexibility of his training version of the Shuttle extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) by lifting his arms above his head (31701); Wolf waves to the camera before he is submerged in the WETF (31702).

  7. Multiple Shells Around Wolf-Rayet Stars: Space Based Astrometric Observing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marston, Anthony P.

    1995-01-01

    The completion of a complementary optical emission-line survey of the nebulae associated with Wolf-Rayet stars in the southern sky is reported, along with the completion of a survey the large-scale environments of Wolf-Rayet stars using IRAS Skyflux data. HIRES IRAS maps in the four IRAS wavebands for appoximately half of all galactic Wolf-Rayet stars are created.

  8. Causes of wolf depredation increase in Minnesota from 1979-1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harper, E.K.; Paul, W.J.; Mech, L.D.

    2005-01-01

    Wolf (Canis lupus) depredations on livestock in Minnesota have been increasing over the last 20 years. A major explanation cited for this increase is wolf range expansion, but no studies have tested this explanation. Additional reasons could include 1) wolf colonization of new areas within long-existing wolf range, 2) learning by wolves in established range, and 3) increased wolf density. We did not assess increasing wolf density as a factor because estimated wolf density in Minnesota has not increased. To assess how each of the other factors might have affected depredations, we created and analyzed a database of Minnesota's 923 verified depredations at 435 farms. We graphed the numbers of verified depredations and the number of farms with verified depredations to assess temporal trends and used ArcView GIS software to assess spatial relationships of the depredations. All 3 factors tested (colonization, range expansion, and learning) seemed to have contributed to wolf depredation increase. However, the proportion of depredations occurring due to wolf range expansion increased from 20% in 1989 to 48% in 1998.

  9. Considerations for developing wolf harvesting regulations in the contiguous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David

    2010-01-01

    As gray wolves (Canis lupus) are removed from the federal Endangered Species List, management reverts to the states. Eventually most states will probably allow public wolf harvesting. Open seasons between about 1 November and 1 March accord more with basic wolf biology than during other times. Managers who consider wolf biology and public sensitivities, adapt public-taking regulations accordingly, and adjust harvest regulations as they learn will be best able to maximize the recreational value of wolf harvesting, minimize public animosity toward it, and meet their harvest objectives.

  10. Wolf restoration to the Adirondacks: the advantages and disadvantages of public participation in the decision

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David

    2000-01-01

    The first time I ever saw a wolf in New York State's Adirondack Mountains was in 1956. It was a brush wolf, or coyote (Canis latrans), not a real wolf, but to an eager young wildlife student this distinction meant little. The presence of this large deer-killing canid let my fresh imagination view the Adirondacks as a real northern wilderness. Since then I have spent the last 40 years studying the real wolf: the gray wolf (Canis lupus). Although inhabiting nearby Quebec and Ontario, the gray wolf still has not made its way back to the Adirondacks as it has to Wisconsin, Michigan, and Montana. Those three states had the critical advantages of a nearby reservoir population of wolves and wilderness corridors through which dispersers from the reservoirs could immigrate. The Adirondacks, on the other hand, are geographically more similar to the greater Yellowstone area in that they are separated from any wolf reservoir by long distances and intensively human-developed areas aversive to wolves from the reservoir populations. If wolves are to return to the Adirondacks, they almost certainly will have to be reintroduced, as they were to Yellowstone National Park. Wolf reintroduction, as distinct from natural recovery, is an especially contentious issue, for it entails dramatic, deliberate action that must be open to public scrutiny, thorough discussion and review, and highly polarized debate. This is as it should be because once a wolf population is reintroduced to an area, it must be managed forever. There is no turning back. The wolf was once eradicated not just from the Adirondacks but from almost all of the 48 contiguous states. That feat was accomplished by a primarily pioneering society that applied itself endlessly to the task, armed with poison. We can never return to those days, so once the wolf is reintroduced successfully, it will almost certainly be here to stay.

  11. UV and radiofrequency observations of Wolf-Rayet stars.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, H. M.

    1973-01-01

    Available spectrometric and photometric observations of Wolf-Rayet stars by the OAO 2 spacecraft in the UV range are discussed along with radio astronomical observations of W stars with symmetrical nebulae around them. The scanned spectrum of the WN5 star HD 50896 between 1200 and 1900 A is illustrated together with the photometered spectrum of the WN6 star HD 192163 from 1330 to 3320 A. RF observations of NGC 6888 around HD 192163 are examined relative to interpretation of the properties of a WN6 star ejecting mass into a nebular shell.

  12. Is climate change affecting wolf populations in the high Arctic?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.

    2004-01-01

    Global climate change may affect wolves in Canada's High Arctic (80DG N) acting through three trophic levels (vegetation, herbivores, and wolves). A wolf pack dependent on muskoxen and arctic hares in the Eureka area of Ellesmere Island denned and produced pups most years from at least 1986 through 1997. However when summer snow covered vegetation in 1997 and 2000 for the first time since records were kept, halving the herbivore nutrition-replenishment period, muskox and hare numbers dropped drastically, and the area stopped supporting denning wolves through 2003. The unusual weather triggering these events was consistent with global-climate-change phenomena.

  13. The missing Wolf-Rayet X-ray binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz, M.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Hill, G. M.; Richardson, N. D.; Pablo, H.

    We investigate the rarity of the Wolf-Rayet X-ray binaries (WRXRBs) in contrast to their predecessors, the high mass X-ray binaries (HMXRBs). Recent studies suggest that common envelope (CE) mergers during the evolution of a HMXRBs may be responsible (Linden et al. 2012). We conduct a binary population synthesis to generate a population of HMXRBs mimicking the Galactic sample and vary the efficiency parameter during the CE phase to match the current WRXRB to HMXRB ratio. We find that ˜50% of systems must merge to match observational constraints.

  14. Wolf-Hirschhorn (4p-) syndrome with West syndrome.

    PubMed

    Motoi, Hirotaka; Okanishi, Tohru; Kanai, Sotaro; Yokota, Takuya; Yamazoe, Tomohiro; Nishimura, Mitsuyo; Fujimoto, Ayataka; Yamamoto, Takamichi; Enoki, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a chromosome disorder (4p-syndrome) which is characterized by craniofacial features and epileptic seizures. Here, we report a case of WHS with West syndrome, in whom the seizures were refractory to several antiepileptic drugs but were responsive to the addition of lamotrigine. The patient had epileptic spasms at age seven months. The interictal electroencephalogram was hypsarrhythmic. After adding lamotrigine, seizures decreased remarkably, and spasms disappeared. We have identified and described the very rare case of a girl with WHS who also developed West syndrome. In this case, adding lamotrigine to her medications effectively treated the spasms. PMID:27504263

  15. Preface: Phragmites australis: A sheep in wolf's clothing?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weinstein, M.P.; Keough, J.R.; Guntenspergen, G.R.; Litvin, S.Y.

    2003-01-01

    A. problem with national priorities for control or prevention of aquatic nuisance species is that we often do not know the full extent of the problem, if there is one. To address this issue, we hosted a technical forum and workshop-Phragmites australis: A Sheep in Wolf's Clothing?--with a focus on new research and critical reviews that address the role of Phragmites as a noxious weed. ... The Workshop helped focus the national effort in new multidisciplinary research to better understand the ecology of P australis and its ecosystem-level effects on the structure and function of coastal wetlands.

  16. Is climate change affecting wolf populations in the high Arctic?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.

    2004-01-01

    Gobal climate change may affect wolves in Canada's High Arctic (80?? N) acting through three trophic levels (vegetation, herbivores, and wolves). A wolf pack dependent on muskoxen and arctic hares in the Eureka area of Ellesmere Island denned and produced pups most years from at least 1986 through 1997. However, when summer snow covered vegetation in 1997 and 2000 for the first time since records were kept, halving the herbivore nutrition-replenishment period, muskox and hare numbers dropped drastically, and the area stopped supporting denning wolves through 2003. The unusual weather triggering these events was consistent with global-climate-change phenomena. ?? 2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  17. Americans' Attitudes Toward Wolves and Wolf Reintroduction: An Annotated Bibliography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Browne-Nunez, Christine; Taylor, Jonathan G.

    2002-01-01

    During the period 1974-2000, 50 reports were published in peer-reviewed journals and in theses and dissertations concerning public altitudes and preferences toward wolves and their reinstatement into previously occupied habitat in the continental U.S. This publication provides annotated synopses of these 50 reports, arranged chronologically, but also cross-referenced by authors and by geographic area. In general, Americans favor reinstatement of wolf populations except for those people who perceive them to be a direct threat to their livelihood.

  18. The anomalous molecular abundances of Comet P/Wolf-Harrington

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schleicher, David G.; Bus, Schelte J.; Osip, David J.

    1993-01-01

    Production rates of OH, CN, C2, C3, NH, and NH2 were derived from different data sets for the Comet P/Wolf-Harrington, and a dust production measure was calculated. This comet is found to be depleted by more than an order of magnitude in its pure carbon species compared with OH and CN. The data obtained suggest that a nonnegligible fraction of comets or their constituent components formed at a different temperature and thus at a different location and/or time than the majority of comets.

  19. STS-112 M.S. Wolf suits up for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-112 Mission Specialist David Wolf suits up for launch, just hours away. STS-112 is the 15th assembly flight to the International Space Station, carrying the S1 Integrated Truss Structure and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart A. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the ISS railway, providing mobile work platforms for future spacewalking astronauts. On the 11-day mission, three spacewalks are planned to attach the S1 truss to the Station. Launch is scheduled for 3:46 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39B. .

  20. A gray wolf (Canis lupus) delivers live prey to a pup

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David

    2014-01-01

    A two-year-old sibling Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) carefully captured an Arctic Hare (Lepus arcticus) leveret alive on Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada, and delivered it alive to a pup 28–33 days old. This appears to be the first observation of a Gray Wolf delivering live prey to a pup.

  1. Astronaut David Wolf participates in training for contingency EVA in WETF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut David A. Wolf participates in training for contingency extravehicular activity (EVA) for the STS-58 mission. The mission specialist was about to be submerged to a point of neutral buoyancy in the JSC Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF). In this view, Wolf is aided by technicians in donning the gloves for his extravehicular mobility unit (EMU).

  2. Wolf (Canis lupus) generation time and proportion of current breeding females by age

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David; Barber-Meyer, Shannon M.; Erb, John

    2016-01-01

    Information is sparse about aspects of female wolf (Canis lupus) breeding in the wild, including age of first reproduction, mean age of primiparity, generation time, and proportion of each age that breeds in any given year. We studied these subjects in 86 wolves (113 captures) in the Superior National Forest (SNF), Minnesota (MN), during 1972–2013 where wolves were legally protected for most of the period, and in 159 harvested wolves from throughout MN wolf range during 2012–2014. Breeding status of SNF wolves were assessed via nipple measurements, and wolves from throughout MN wolf range, by placental scars. In the SNF, proportions of currently breeding females (those breeding in the year sampled) ranged from 19% at age 2 to 80% at age 5, and from throughout wolf range, from 33% at age 2 to 100% at age 7. Excluding pups and yearlings, only 33% to 36% of SNF females and 58% of females from throughout MN wolf range bred in any given year. Generation time for SNF wolves was 4.3 years and for MN wolf range, 4.7 years. These findings will be useful in modeling wolf population dynamics and in wolf genetic and dog-domestication studies.

  3. Proximity of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, ranges to wolf Canis lupus, pack homesites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

    2001-01-01

    Seven adult female White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in northeastern Minnesota lived within 1.8 km of Wolf pack (Canis lupus) homesites without vacating their home ranges. Six of these deer and at least three of their fawns survived through the Wolf homesite period.

  4. 77 FR 19682 - Proposed Information Collection; Wolf Livestock Demonstration Project Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Proposed Information Collection; Wolf Livestock Demonstration Project Grant... the Secretary of the Interior and the Secretary of Agriculture to develop a Wolf Livestock... activities to reduce the risk of livestock loss due to predation by wolves; and Compensate...

  5. The Work-Related Flow Inventory: Construction and Initial Validation of the WOLF

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakker, Arnold B.

    2008-01-01

    The WOrk-reLated Flow inventory (WOLF) measures flow at work, defined as a short-term peak experience characterized by absorption, work enjoyment, and intrinsic work motivation. Results of Study 1 among 7 samples of employees (total N=1346) from different occupational groups offer support for the factorial validity and reliability of the WOLF.…

  6. 78 FR 53666 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Wolf River, Gills Landing and Winneconne, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... Operation Regulation; Wolf River, Gills Landing and Winneconne, WI'' in the Federal Register (78 FR 27336... Acronyms CFR Code of Federal Regulations DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Wolf River,...

  7. Wolf (Canis lupus) Generation Time and Proportion of Current Breeding Females by Age

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Information is sparse about aspects of female wolf (Canis lupus) breeding in the wild, including age of first reproduction, mean age of primiparity, generation time, and proportion of each age that breeds in any given year. We studied these subjects in 86 wolves (113 captures) in the Superior National Forest (SNF), Minnesota (MN), during 1972–2013 where wolves were legally protected for most of the period, and in 159 harvested wolves from throughout MN wolf range during 2012–2014. Breeding status of SNF wolves were assessed via nipple measurements, and wolves from throughout MN wolf range, by placental scars. In the SNF, proportions of currently breeding females (those breeding in the year sampled) ranged from 19% at age 2 to 80% at age 5, and from throughout wolf range, from 33% at age 2 to 100% at age 7. Excluding pups and yearlings, only 33% to 36% of SNF females and 58% of females from throughout MN wolf range bred in any given year. Generation time for SNF wolves was 4.3 years and for MN wolf range, 4.7 years. These findings will be useful in modeling wolf population dynamics and in wolf genetic and dog-domestication studies. PMID:27258193

  8. A Teacher is Forever: The Legacy of Harry Kirke Wolfe (1858-1918).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Ludy T. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    This article traces the career of Harry Kirke Wolfe, Nebraska educator and one of the earliest U.S. psychologists to earn a doctorate in psychology from Wilhelm Wundt at Leipzig. Emphasis is placed on Wolfe's blending of psychology and pedagogy, and his qualities as a teacher. (Author/JDH)

  9. Wolf (Canis lupus) Generation Time and Proportion of Current Breeding Females by Age.

    PubMed

    Mech, L David; Barber-Meyer, Shannon M; Erb, John

    2016-01-01

    Information is sparse about aspects of female wolf (Canis lupus) breeding in the wild, including age of first reproduction, mean age of primiparity, generation time, and proportion of each age that breeds in any given year. We studied these subjects in 86 wolves (113 captures) in the Superior National Forest (SNF), Minnesota (MN), during 1972-2013 where wolves were legally protected for most of the period, and in 159 harvested wolves from throughout MN wolf range during 2012-2014. Breeding status of SNF wolves were assessed via nipple measurements, and wolves from throughout MN wolf range, by placental scars. In the SNF, proportions of currently breeding females (those breeding in the year sampled) ranged from 19% at age 2 to 80% at age 5, and from throughout wolf range, from 33% at age 2 to 100% at age 7. Excluding pups and yearlings, only 33% to 36% of SNF females and 58% of females from throughout MN wolf range bred in any given year. Generation time for SNF wolves was 4.3 years and for MN wolf range, 4.7 years. These findings will be useful in modeling wolf population dynamics and in wolf genetic and dog-domestication studies. PMID:27258193

  10. Wolf, Canis lupus, visits towhite-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, summer ranges: Optimal foraging?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demma, D.J.; Mech, L.D.

    2009-01-01

    We tested whether Wolf (Canis lupus) visits to individual female White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) summer ranges during 2003 and 2004 in northeastern Minnesota were in accord with optimal-foraging theory. Using GPS collars with 10- to 30-minute location attempts on four Wolves and five female deer, plus eleven VHF-collared female deer in the Wolves' territory, provided new insights into the frequency of Wolf visits to summer ranges of female deer. Wolves made a mean 0.055 visits/day to summer ranges of deer three years and older, significantly more than their 0.032 mean visits/day to ranges of two-year-old deer, which generally produce fewer fawns, and most Wolf visits to ranges of older deer were much longer than those to ranges of younger deer. Because fawns comprise the major part of the Wolf's summer diet, this Wolf behavior accords with optimal-foraging theory.

  11. Computer simulation of wolf-removal strategies for animal-damage control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haight, R.G.; Travis, L.E.; Nimerfro, K.; Mech, L.D.

    2002-01-01

    Because of the sustained growth of the gray wolf (Canis lupus) population in the western Great Lakes region of the United States, management agencies are anticipating gray wolf removal from the federal endangered species list and are proposing strategies for wolf management. Strategies are needed that would balance public demand for wolf conservation with demand for protection against wolf depredation on livestock, poultry, and pets. We used a stochastic, spatially structured, individually based simulation model of a hypothetical wolf population, representing a small subset of the western Great Lakes wolves, to predict the relative performance of 3 wolf-removal strategies. Those strategies included reactive management (wolf removal occurred in summer after depredation), preventive management (wolves removed in winter from territories with occasional depredation), and population-size management (wolves removed annually in winter from all territories near farms). Performance measures included number of depredating packs and wolves removed, cost, and population size after 20 years. We evaluated various scenarios about immigration, trapping success, and likelihood of packs engaging in depredation. Four robust results emerged from the simulations: 1) each strategy reduced depredation by at least 40% compared with no action, 2) preventive and population-size management removed fewer wolves than reactive management because wolves were removed in winter before pups were born, 3)population-size management was least expensive because repeated annual removal kept most territories near farms free of wolves, and 4) none of the strategies threatened wolf populations unless they were isolated because wolf removal took place near farms and not in wild areas. For isolated populations, reactive management alone ensured conservation and reduced depredation. Such results can assist decision makers in managing gray wolves in the western Great Lakes states.

  12. Integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect in interacting dark energy models

    SciTech Connect

    Olivares, German; Pavon, Diego; Atrio-Barandela, Fernando

    2008-05-15

    Models with dark energy decaying into dark matter have been proposed in cosmology to solve the coincidence problem. We study the effect of such coupling on the cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies. The interaction changes the rate of evolution of the metric potentials and the growth rate of matter density perturbations and modifies the integrated Sachs-Wolfe component of cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies, enhancing the effect. Cross correlation of galaxy catalogs with cosmic microwave background maps provides a model-independent test to constrain the interaction. We particularize our analysis for a specific interacting model and show that galaxy catalogs with median redshifts z{sub m}=0.1-0.9 can rule out models with an interaction parameter strength of c{sup 2}{approx_equal}0.1 better than 99.95% confidence level. Values of c{sup 2}{<=}0.01 are compatible with the data and may account for the possible discrepancy between the fraction of dark energy derived from Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe 3 yr data and the fraction obtained from the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect. Measuring the fraction of dark energy by these two methods could provide evidence of an interaction.

  13. Potsdam Wolf-Rayet model atmosphere grids for WN stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todt, H.; Sander, A.; Hainich, R.; Hamann, W.-R.; Quade, M.; Shenar, T.

    2015-07-01

    We present new grids of Potsdam Wolf-Rayet (PoWR) model atmospheres for Wolf-Rayet stars of the nitrogen sequence (WN stars). The models have been calculated with the latest version of the PoWR stellar atmosphere code for spherical stellar winds. The WN model atmospheres include the non-LTE solutions of the statistical equations for complex model atoms, as well as the radiative transfer equation in the co-moving frame. Iron-line blanketing is treated with the help of the superlevel approach, while wind inhomogeneities are taken into account via optically thin clumps. Three of our model grids are appropriate for Galactic metallicity. The hydrogen mass fraction of these grids is 50%, 20%, and 0%, thus also covering the hydrogen-rich late-type WR stars that have been discovered in recent years. Three grids are adequate for LMC WN stars and have hydrogen fractions of 40%, 20%, and 0%. Recently, additional grids with SMC metallicity and with 60%, 40%, 20%, and 0% hydrogen have been added. We provide contour plots of the equivalent widths of spectral lines that are usually used for classification and diagnostics. The full set of synthetic spectra and the spectral energy distributions are available online at http://www.astro.physik.uni-potsdam.de/PoWR.html

  14. Effectiveness of lethal, directed wolf-depredation control in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harper, E.K.; Paul, W.J.; Mech, L.D.; Weisberg, S.

    2008-01-01

    Wolf (Canis lupus) depredations on livestock in Minnesota, USA, are an economic problem for many livestock producers, and depredating wolves are lethally controlled. We sought to determine the effectiveness of lethal control through the analysis of data from 923 government-verified wolf depredations from 1979 to 1998. We analyzed the data by 1) assessing the correlations between the number of wolves killed in response to depredations with number of depredations the following year at state and local levels, and 2) the time to the next depredation. No analysis indicated that trapping wolves substantially reduced the following year's depredations at state or local levels. However, more specific analyses indicated that in certain situations, killing wolves was more effective than no action (i.e., not trapping). For example, trapping and killing adult males decreased the re-depredation risk. At sheep farms, killing wolves was generally effective. Attempting to trap, regardless of the results, seemed more effective at reducing depredations than not trapping, suggesting that mere human activity near depredation sites might deter future depredations.

  15. STS-86 crew members (Parazynski, Wolf, Lawrence) in slidewire basket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-86 Mission Specialists Scott E. Parazynski, at left, David A. Wolf, and Wendy B. Lawrence, at right, participate in emergency egress training at Launch Pad 39A as part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities. They are the three U.S. astronauts who will serve as mission specialists during the planned 10-day flight to the Russian Space Station Mir. Also serving as mission specialists will be Vladimir Georgievich Titov of the Russian Space Agency and Jean-Loup J.M. Chretien of the French Space Agency, CNES. STS-86 will be the seventh docking of the Space Shuttle with the Mir. During the docking, Wolf will transfer to the orbiting Russian station and become a member of the Mir 24 crew, replacing U.S. astronaut C. Michael Foale, who has been on the Mir since the last docking mission, STS-84, in May. Launch of Mission STS-86 aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis is targeted for Sept. 25.

  16. ELEVEN NEW HEAVILY REDDENED FIELD WOLF-RAYET STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J. D. T.; Cushing, Michael; Barletta, Anthony; McCarthy, Don; Kulesa, Craig; Van Dyk, Schuyler D.

    2012-12-01

    We report the results of a medium-narrowband 2 {mu}m line survey covering 5.8 deg{sup 2} near the Galactic plane. We confirm 11 new field Wolf-Rayet stars along three lines of sight probing the inner Galaxy, demonstrating the capability to uncover distant and highly reddened populations of Galactic wind-borne emission-line stars suffering extinction as high as A{sub V} {approx} 40 and as distant as 9 kpc down to modest magnitude limits of K{sub s} {approx} 12.5. All stars are of subtype WC7-8, with median distance d = 6 kpc and median extinction A{sub K{sub s}} = 2.5. Over the fields surveyed, the density of Wolf-Rayet stars to limiting magnitude K{sub s} {approx} 12.5 was found to be 1.9 deg{sup -2}. We compare this to models which predict their distribution within the Galaxy and find that, even neglecting survey and subtype incompleteness, they consistently underpredict the number of newly discovered stars along the surveyed lines of sight.

  17. Wolf body mass cline across Minnesota related to taxonomy?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Paul, W.J.

    2008-01-01

    Recent genetic studies suggest that in northern Minnesota two species of wolves (Canis lupus L., 1758 or western wolf and Canis lycaon Schreber, 1775 (= Canis rufus Audubon and Bachman, 1851) or eastern wolf) meet and hybridize. However, little morphological information is available about these two types of wolves in Minnesota. We analyzed the mass of 950 female wolves and 1006 males older than 1 year from across northern Minnesota and found that it increased from 26.30 ?? 0.56 kg (mean ?? SE) for females and 30.60 ?? 0.72 kg for males in northeastern Minnesota to 30.01 ?? 0.43 kg for females and 35.94 ?? 0.45 kg for males in northwestern Minnesota (females: r2 = 0.79, P < 0.02; males: r2 = 0.63, P = 0.06). These mass differences add morphological information to the identities of eastern and western wolves and support the view that ranges of the two species meet in Minnesota. ?? 2008 NRC.

  18. The origins of the enigmatic Falkland Islands wolf.

    PubMed

    Austin, Jeremy J; Soubrier, Julien; Prevosti, Francisco J; Prates, Luciano; Trejo, Valentina; Mena, Francisco; Cooper, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The origins of the extinct Falkland Islands wolf (FIW), Dusicyon australis, have remained a mystery since it was first recorded by Europeans in the seventeenth century. It is the only terrestrial mammal on the Falkland Islands (also known as the Malvinas Islands), which lie ~460 km from Argentina, leading to suggestions of either human-mediated transport or overwater dispersal. Previous studies used ancient DNA from museum specimens to suggest that the FIW diverged from its closest living relative, the South American maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) around 7 Ma, and colonized the islands ~330 ka by unknown means. Here we retrieve ancient DNA from subfossils of an extinct mainland relative, Dusicyon avus, and reveal the FIW lineage became isolated only 16 ka (8-31 ka), during the last glacial phase. Submarine terraces, formed on the Argentine coastal shelf by low sea-stands during this period, suggest that the FIW colonized via a narrow, shallow marine strait, potentially while it was frozen over. PMID:23462995

  19. Theories for the winds from Wolf Rayet stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassinelli, J. P.

    The massive and fast winds of Wolf Rayet stars present a serious momentum problem for the line-driven wind theories that are commonly used to explain the fast winds of early type stars. It is perhaps possible for the winds to be driven by lines, if multiple scattering occurs and if there are a sufficient number of lines in the spectrum so that large fraction of the continuum is blocked by line opacity in the winds. Several other mechanisms are discussed, in particular two that rely on strong magnetic fields: (1) Alfven wave driven wind models like those recently developed by Hartmann and MacGregor for late type supergiants and (2) the 'Fast Magnetic Rotator' model that was developed by Belcher and MacGregor for the winds from pre-main sequence stars. In either model, large magnetic fields (about 10,000 gauss) are required to drive the massive and fast winds of Wolf Rayet stars. Smaller fields might be possible if the multiple scattering line radiation force can be relied on to provide a final acceleration to terminal velocity.

  20. Reconstructing the Shock Wave From the Wolfe Creek Meteorite Impact.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heine, C.; O'Neill, C. J.

    2003-12-01

    The Wolfe Creek meteorite crater is an 800m diameter impact structure located in the Tanami Desert near Hall's Creek, Western Australia. The crater formed <300000 years ago, and is the 2nd largest crater from which fragments of the impacting meteorite (a medium octahedrite) have been recovered. We present the results of new ground based geophysical (magnetics and gravity) surveys conducted over the structure in July-August, 2003. The results highlight the simple structure of the crater under the infilling sediments, and track the extent of deformation and the ejecta blanket under the encroaching sanddunes. The variations in the dip of the foliations around the crater rim confirm that the crater approached from East-Northeast, as deduced from the ejecta distribution, and provide constraints on the kinetic energy and angle of the impactor. We also use the distribution of shocked quartz in the target rock (Devonian sandstones) to reconstruct the shock loading conditions of the impact using the Grieve and Robertson (1976) criterion. We also use a Simplified Arbitrary Langrangian-Eulerian hydrocode (SALE 2) to simulate the propagation of shock waves through a material described by a Tillotson equation of state. Using the deformational and PT constraints of the Wolfe-Creek crater, we can estimate the partitioning of kinetic energy as a result of this medium-size impact.

  1. Differentiation of the Italian wolf and the domestic dog based on microsatellite analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dolf, Gaudenz; Schläpfer, Jörg; Gaillard, Claude; Randi, Ettore; Lucchini, Vittorio; Breitenmoser, Urs; Stahlberger-Saitbekova, Nasikhat

    2000-01-01

    The Italian wolf is in the process of regaining the Alpine region which comes into conflict with the extensive sheep keeping practiced in Switzerland during the summer. As in Switzerland, the wolf is a protected species, the government reimburses losses caused by wolves. Therefore we wanted to know whether the Italian wolf could be distinguished from the domestic dog by microsatellite analysis if DNA samples of the predators could be secured. The evaluation of combined genotypes for the microsatellites CanBern6, CPH4, CPH7, CPH9, CPH12, CPH22 and ZuBeCa1 made it possible to identify an individual as either a domestic dog or an Italian wolf. The assignment of an individual to either one of the two populations is based on the logarithm of the likelihood ratio of an individual being an Italian wolf rather than a domestic dog, given a specific combined genotype. The distribution of the Italian wolf combined genotypes (n = 42) is clearly distinct from the distribution of the domestic dog combined genotypes (n = 90). The likelihood ratio for the "worst" Italian wolf combined genotype was 2.3 E+5 and for the "worst" domestic dog combined genotype was 3.8 E-5. PMID:14736381

  2. Differentiation of the Italian wolf and the domestic dog based on microsatellite analysis.

    PubMed

    Dolf, G; Schläpfer, J; Gaillard, C; Randi, E; Lucchini, V; Breitenmoser, U; Stahlberger-Saitbekova, N

    2000-01-01

    The Italian wolf is in the process of regaining the Alpine region which comes into conflict with the extensive sheep keeping practiced in Switzerland during the summer. As in Switzerland, the wolf is a protected species, the government reimburses losses caused by wolves. Therefore we wanted to know whether the Italian wolf could be distinguished from the domestic dog by microsatellite analysis if DNA samples of the predators could be secured. The evaluation of combined genotypes for the microsatellites CanBern6, CPH4, CPH7, CPH9, CPH12, CPH22 and ZuBeCa1 made it possible to identify an individual as either a domestic dog or an Italian wolf. The assignment of an individual to either one of the two populations is based on the logarithm of the likelihood ratio of an individual being an Italian wolf rather than a domestic dog, given a specific combined genotype. The distribution of the Italian wolf combined genotypes (n=42) is clearly distinct from the distribution of the domestic dog combined genotypes (n=90). The likelihood ratio for the "worst" Italian wolf combined genotype was 2.3 E+5 and for the "worst" domestic dog combined genotype was 3.8 E-5. PMID:14736381

  3. WOLF - A computer expert system for sunspot classification and solar-flare prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Richard W.

    1988-08-01

    An expert systmem, WOLF, has been developed that acts as an expert in analyzing solar active regions and predicting the probable occurrence of solar flares. The system has a knowledge base consisting of a set of IF-THEN rules and an inference engine which applies the rules. WOLF asks questions concerning an observed solar active region and uses the answers to determine the McIntosh (1968) sunspot classification. WOLF then indicates the probability of that group producing a flare of specified X-ray intensity based on the statistical analysis of past flare activity of similar groups.

  4. INTEGRATED SACHS-WOLFE IMPRINT OF SUPERSTRUCTURES ON LINEAR SCALES

    SciTech Connect

    Papai, Peter; Szapudi, Istvan; Granett, Benjamin R.

    2011-05-01

    We build a model for the density and integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) profile of supervoid and supercluster structures. Our model assumes that fluctuations evolve linearly from an initial Gaussian random field. We find these assumptions capable of describing N-body simulations and simulated ISW maps remarkably well on large scales. We construct an ISW map based on locations of superstructures identified previously in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Luminous Red Galaxy sample. A matched filter analysis of the cosmic microwave background confirms a signal at the 3.2{sigma} confidence level and estimates the radius of the underlying structures to be 55 {+-} 28 h{sup -1} Mpc. The amplitude of the signal, however, is 2{sigma} higher than {Lambda}CDM predictions.

  5. Searching for Wolf-Rayet Stars Beyond the Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibby, J. L.; Shara, M. M.; Crowther, P. A.; Moffat, A. F. J.

    2012-12-01

    We present preliminary results from our HST/WFC3 F469N narrow-band imaging of the nearby star-forming galaxy M101 in which we search for Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars, possible progenitors of Type Ibc core-collapse supernovae (ccSNe). From analysis of the central pointing of M101 we identify ˜1000 WR candidates from photometric analysis and estimate ˜ 450 using the “blinking” method. From analysis of a sample region we find that 35% of our WR candidates would not be detected in ground-based surveys and 40% of sources are not detected in the HST F435W images, highlighting the importance of high spatial resolution narrow-band imaging.

  6. Clinical features in adult patient with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Quintana, E; Rodríguez-González, F

    2014-06-01

    The Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) encompasses deletions at the distal part of the short arm of one chromosome 4 (4p16 region). Clinical signs frequently include a typical facial appearance, mental retardation, intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation, hypotonia with decreased muscle bulk and seizures besides congenital heart malformations, midline defects, urinary tract malformations and brain, hearing and ophthalmologic malformations. Pathogenesis of WHS is multigenic and many factors are involved in prediction of prognosis such as extent of deletion, the occurrence of severe chromosome anomalies, the severe of seizures, the existence of serious internal, mainly cardiac, abnormalities and the degree of mental retardation. The phenotype of adult with WHS is in general similar to that of childhood being facial dysmorphism, growth retardation and mental retardation the rule in both adults and children. Avoid long-term complications and provide rehabilitation programs and genetic counseling may be essential in these patients. PMID:24656633

  7. [General anesthesia for a boy with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome].

    PubMed

    Kondo, Satoko; Okuyama, Katsumi; Ikemoto, Koudai; Furuya, Atsushi; Matsukawa, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a rare chromosomal abnormality in which there is deletion of the short arm of chromosome no. 4. Features of the condition include severe psychomotor retardation, characteristic facies and various congenital midline fusion anomalies. We report the anesthetic management in a 6-year-old boy with WHS, scheduled for renal biopsy under general anesthesia. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with sevoflurane and nitrous oxide in oxygen. Mask ventilation was performed easily. After establishment of mask ventilation, laryngeal mask airway (LMA) was inserted smoothly without muscle relaxant and an adequate airway was established with a LMA. He has episodes of transient deterioration in renal function with physical stress. To decrease renal effects of perioperative stress, transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block and intravenous patient controlled analgesia (IV-PCA) were administered for postoperative analgesia. The operation ended without any complications. Anesthetic emergence was rapid and he had no pain and decline in renal function. PMID:24498785

  8. Wolf-Rayet content of the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowther, P. A.

    An overview of the known Wolf-Rayet (WR) population of the Milky Way is presented, including a brief overview of historical catalogues and recent advances based on infrared photometric and spectroscopic observations resulting in the current census of 642 (vl.13 online catalogue). The observed distribution of WR stars is considered with respect to known star clusters, given that ≤20% of WR stars in the disk are located in clusters. WN stars outnumber WC stars at all galactocentric radii, while early-type WC stars are strongly biased against the inner Milky Way. Finally, recent estimates of the global WR population in the Milky Way are reassessed, with 1,200±100 estimated, such that the current census may be 50% complete. A characteristic WR lifetime of 0.25 Myr is inferred for an initial mass threshold of 25 M⊙.

  9. Contraction scour at a bridge over Wolf Creek, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, Edward E.

    1995-01-01

    Contraction scour at the State Highway 14 bridge over Wolf Creek in south-central Iowa was caused by a large flood on September 14 and 15, 1992. The bridge is a 30.5-m, single-span steel structure supported by vertical-wall concrete abutments with wingwalls. Approximately 6 meters of scour resulted from the flood. The peak discharge was estimated by water-surface profile analysis to be 2,200 cubic meters per second. A crude stage hydrograph is depicted by a line of gravel deposits created by water overflowing the downstream face of the highway embankment. The fall of the water surface at the bridge was 3.4 m when water began to flow over the highway.

  10. The 'Baldwin Effect' in Wolf-Rayet stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Patrick; Conti, Peter S.; Lamers, Henny J. G. L. M.; Koenigsberger, Gloria

    1993-01-01

    The equivalent widths of a number of emission lines in the spectra of WN-type Wolf-Rayet stars are found to inversely correlate with the luminosity of the underlying continuum. This is the well-known Baldwin Effect that has previously been observed in quasars and some Seyfert I galaxies. The Effect can be inferred from line and continuum predictions in published non-LTE model helium atmospheres and is explainable in terms of differences in wind density among WN stars. Using a simple wind model, we show that the Effect arises from the fact that both the effective radius for the local continuum and the emission measure of the layers above the continuum-forming region depend on the density in the wind. The Effect provides a new method for distance determinations of W-R stars.

  11. Growth profiles of 34 patients with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Shimojima, Keiko; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) encompasses multiple congenital anomalies and mental retardation and is caused by partial deletions in the short arm of chromosome 4. Prenatal-onset growth deficiency is one of the WHS characteristics. Assessing and recording growth profiles of patients with WHS were the aims of this study. Anonymous questionnaire surveys were conducted with cooperation of a WHS peer-support group in Japan, and data from 34 WHS patients (12 males and 22 females; age, 1–23 years) were retrospectively collected. Height, weight, and head circumference (occipitofrontal head circumference) were measured and plotted on the standard growth charts of healthy Japanese children. Results indicated that most WHS patients showed growth retardation under the 3rd percentile since the first year of life and extremely poor body-weight gain after pubertal age. These findings are characteristic of WHS patients. The assessed growth patterns in this study could help monitoring and documentation of growth of WHS patients.

  12. Higher spin currents in Wolf space for generic N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Changhyun; Kim, Hyunsu

    2014-12-01

    We obtain the 16 higher spin currents with spins , , and in the superconformal Wolf space coset . The antisymmetric second rank tensor occurs in the quadratic spin- Kac-Moody currents of the higher spin-1 current. Each higher spin- current contains the above antisymmetric second rank tensor and three symmetric (and traceless) second rank tensors (i.e. three antisymmetric almost complex structures contracted by the above antisymmetric tensor) in the product of spin- and spin-1 Kac-Moody currents respectively. Moreover, the remaining higher spin currents of spins contain the combinations of the (symmetric) metric, the three almost complex structures, the antisymmetric tensor or the three symmetric tensors in the multiple product of the above Kac-Moody currents as well as the composite currents from the large nonlinear superconformal algebra.

  13. Howling at two Minnesota wolf pack summer homesites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrington, F.H.; Mech, L.D.

    1978-01-01

    Howling sessions were monitored at two Minnesota wolf pack homesites for 2255 h between 29 April and 3 August 1973. All sessions recorded occurred from dusk through early morning, with an evening peak for one pack. Within a night, multiple sessions were grouped temporally, most occurring within an hour of one another. Howling rates for both packs increased throughout the homesite season, with the larger pack howling twice as frequently. The role of howling in both intrapack and interpack contexts was considered. Much of the howling seemed to be involved in the coordination of pack activities. Further, the low frequency and clumped temporal distribution of sessions suggest that howling plays a secondary role in interpack contexts to other modes such as scent marking during the homesite season, but may increase in relative importance once homesites are abandoned and pack travel becomes nomadic.

  14. Wolf-Rayet stars in the Andromeda Galaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Moffat, A.F.J.; Shara, M.M.

    1987-09-01

    A survey of M31 for strong-line Wolf-Rayet (W-R) stars has been completed, confirming the trends found previously, that (1) M31 is at present about an order of magnitude less active in star formation than the Galaxy, as reflected in the total number of W-R stars, assumed to have evolved from massive progenitors; (2) the number ratio of late to early WC stars, WCL/WCE, varies systematically with galactocentric radius as in the Galaxy, possibly a consequence of the metallicity gradient in the disk; and (3) most W-R stars lie in the prominent ring of active star formation at R = 7-12 kpc from the center of M31. 19 references.

  15. Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome with improvement of renal function.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, P; Del Bufalo, F; Nicoletti, A; Romano, V; Gatto, A; Leoni, C; Zampino, G

    2010-05-01

    Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a chromosomal disorder characterized by partial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 4. We describe a girl with a de novo unbalanced traslocation t(4;7)(p16.2;p22), associated with a mild version of a classical WHS phenotype. She did not present major urinary tract abnormalities but had parenchymal hyperechogenicity at renal ultrasound at the birth with normal renal scintigraphy. She had also a reduction of GFR with elevated levels of blood urea nitrogen and serum potassium until the age of 6 months. We followed the patient with periodic clinical examination and laboratory and radiological investigations and observed at the age of 5 years a normal renal ultrasound without parenchymal hyperechogenicity. PMID:20425837

  16. Shimony-Wolf states and hidden coherences in classical light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberly, J. H.

    2015-10-01

    The classical theory of polarisation coherence is briefly summarised and then extended. The extension is motivated by the recognition that the traditional theory of two-point coherence provides only what we identify as 'diagonal' correlation functions and their associated two-point coherence matrices. It is pointed out that a wider focus is possible when taking account of the three-sector vector space underlying all two-point coherences in classical optics. This reveals the possibility of observing a new type of 'off-diagonal' correlations that arise when the correlation functions under investigation are associated with points in two distinct vector spaces, pairs of points that are not analogous to the pairs of space points or time points that underlie traditional measures of spatial and temporal coherence. Quantum theory has experience with correlations engaging such 'cross-sector' coherences, for example in tests of Bell inequalities, and the quantum formulations are shown to be easily adopted by classical theory without incorporating quantum features in the optical signals. The familiar theory of classical coherence that is associated with the pioneering work of Emil Wolf is extended in conformance with three criteria advanced by Abner Shimony to obtain formulas for correlation functions and for the Bell measure ? of coherence. Values of ? greater than the standard upper limit ? are predicted for certain classical Shimony-Wolf fields, indicating strong cross-sector coherence, but only when standard measures of coherence such as degree of polarisation ? are minimised. Experimental results confirming the predictions for cross-sector coherence are exhibited.

  17. A New Galactic Wolf-Rayet Star in Centaurus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman-Lopes, A.

    2011-09-01

    I communicate the detection of a new Galactic Wolf-Rayet star (WR60a) in Centaurus. The H- and K-band spectra of WR60a show strong carbon near-infrared emission lines, characteristic of Wolf-Rayet stars of the WC5-7 subtype. Adopting mean absolute magnitude MK and mean intrinsic (J-Ks) and (H-Ks) colours, it was found that WR60a suffers a mean visual extinction of 3.8+/-1.3 magnitudes, being located at a probable heliocentric distance of 5.2+/-0.8 Kpc, which for the related Galactic longitude puts this star probably in the Carina-Sagittarius arm at about 5.9 kpc from the Galactic center. I searched for clusters in the vicinity of WR60a and in principle found no previously known clusters in a search radius region of several tens arcminutes. The detection of a well-isolated WR star induced us to seek for some still unknown cluster, somewhere in the vicinity of WR60a. From inspection of 5.8 microns and 8.0 microns Spitzer/IRAC GLIMPSE images of the region around the new WR star, strong mid-infrared extended emission at about 13.5 arcmin south-west of WR60a was found. The study of the H-KS colour distribution of point sources associated with the extended emission reveals the presence of a new Galactic cluster candidate probably formed by at least 85 stars.

  18. A 3-decade dearth of deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a wolf (Canis lupus)-dominated ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

    2006-01-01

    Some 30 y after wolves (Canis lupus) were implicated in decimating wintering white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a 3000-km2 area of northeastern Minnesota, wintering deer still have not recolonized the area. From 1976 to 2004, we aerially radio-tracked wolves there during 250 h and recorded 2 deer (in 1985 and 2000) killed or eaten by wolves during February and March. We observed no other deer or deer sign, but regularly observed deer, deer sign and wolf-killed deer in adjacent wolf-pack territories. Although habitat in the study area generally remains poor, some regeneration has taken place, and deer have increased adjacent to the area. However, wolf numbers have persisted by preying on moose (Alces alces). We could detect no reason other than wolf predation and deer migration traditions for why wintering deer have not recolonized the area.

  19. Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome: A case demonstrated by a cytogenetic study.

    PubMed

    Pokale, Yamini S; Jadhav, Ajinkya M; Kate, Ushang

    2012-01-01

    We present a case with a 4p terminal deletion, evidenced in GTG-banded chromosome study. Phenotypic signs described in the classical Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome were found on clinical examination of our patient. PMID:22754235

  20. Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) dyad monthly association rates by demographic group.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber-Meyer, Shannon M.; Mech, L. David

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary data from GPS-collared wolves (Canis lupus) in the Superior National Forest of northeastern Minnesota indicated wolves had low association rates with packmates during summer. However, aerial-telemetry locations of very high frequency (VHF)-radioed wolves in this same area showed high associations among packmates during winter. We analyzed aerial-telemetry-location data from VHF-collared wolves in several packs (n=18 dyads) in this same area from 1994-2012 by month, and found lowest association rates occurred during June. While other studies have found low association among wolf packmates during summer, information on differences in association patterns depending on the wolf associates’ demographics is sparse. During May-July, association rates were greatest for breeding pairs, followed by sibling dyads, and lowest for parent– offspring dyads. Our findings improve our understanding of how individual wolf relationships affect monthly association rates. We highlight some important remaining questions regarding wolf packmate associations.

  1. STS-86 crew members Wolf and Lawrence at SLF for TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-86 Mission Specialists Wendy B. Lawrence, at left, and David A. Wolf confer -- possibly about the Russian Space Station Mir? - - after their arrival at KSCs Shuttle Landing Facility for the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT). Lawrence was supposed to be the next U.S. astronaut slated for a long-duration stay aboard Mir, but was replaced by Wolf in late July. Unlike Lawrence, Wolf has undergone spacewalk training and fits in the Orlan spacesuit used by Russians on spacewalks. Lawrence will remain on the STS-86 crew, but will return to Earth at the conclusion of the planned 10-day mission. Wolf will take the place on Mir of astronaut C. Michael Foale, who arrived on the Russian space station during the STS-84 mission in May. STS-86 will be the seventh docking of the Space Shuttle with the Mir. The mission is targeted for a Sept. 25 launch aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis.

  2. STS-86 Mission Specialist Wolf visits LC 39A on L-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-86 Mission Specialist David A. Wolf waves to family members, friends and other well-wishers during a brief visit to Launch Pad 39A the day before the scheduled Sept. 25 launch aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis. STS-86 is slated to be the seventh docking of the Space Shuttle with the Russian Space Station Mir. Wolf will be making his second spaceflight. After the docking, Wolf is scheduled to become a member of the Mir 24 crew, replacing U.S. astronaut C. Michael Foale. Wolf would remain on the Mir for about four months. Foale, who has been on the Mir since the STS- 84 mission in mid-May, will return to Earth with the remaining six members of the STS-86 crew at the end of the planned 10-day flight.

  3. Astronaut David Wolf draws blood from Martin Fettman for SLS-2 investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Inside the science module aboard the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Columbia, Astronaut David A. Wolf draws blood from payload specialists Martin J. Fettman, DVM. Blood samples from crew members are critical to several Spacelab Life Sciences (SLS-2) investigations.

  4. STS-86 Mission Specialist Wolf and friend visit LC 39A on L-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-86 Mission Specialist David A. Wolf waves to family members, friends and other well-wishers during a brief visit to Launch Pad 39A the day before the scheduled Sept. 25 launch aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis. STS-86 is slated to be the seventh docking of the Space Shuttle with the Russian Space Station Mir. Wolf will be making his second spaceflight. After the docking, Wolf is scheduled to become a member of the Mir 24 crew, replacing U.S. astronaut C. Michael Foale. Wolf would remain on the Mir for about four months. Foale, who has been on the Mir since the STS- 84 mission in mid-May, will return to Earth with the remaining six members of the STS-86 crew at the end of the planned 10-day flight.

  5. Familial translocation resulting in Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome in two related unbalanced individuals: Clinical evaluation of a 39-year-old man with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, P.G.; Weaver, D.D.; Palmer, C.G.

    1995-02-13

    A chromosomal translocation between chromosomes 4 and 8 resulting in Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome in 2 individuals has been traced through 4 generations of a family. Ascertainment of the family was through a newborn infant with evident Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome who had an unbalanced chromosomal translocation (46,XY,-4,+der(4),t(4;8) (p15.32;p22)). Discussion with the family documented a paternal great-uncle who also had a similar phenotype and profound mental retardation. Subsequently this individual was found to have the same unbalanced chromosome constitution as the propositus. The 39-year-old great-uncle is the oldest reported individual with the Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome. The importance of chromosome evaluation of older individuals with mental retardation syndromes is emphasized. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Gauge-invariant treatment of the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect on general spherically symmetric spacetimes

    SciTech Connect

    Tomita, Kenji

    2010-03-15

    On the basis of the Gerlach-Sengupta theory of gauge-invariant perturbations, a formula of the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect for a central observer is derived on general spherically symmetric spacetimes. It will be useful for comparative studies of theoretical and observational aspects of the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect in the Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi cosmological models which have been noticed by explaining the apparent acceleration without cosmological constant.

  7. The challenge of wolf recovery: an ongoing dilemma for state managers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David

    2013-01-01

    “Dave, would you do another legal declaration on the wolf for us?” The weary voice on the phone belonged to Mike Jimenez, Northern Rocky Mountain Wolf Management and Science Coordinator for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS). He was calling from Wyoming to ask me to prepare a document to address a legal challenge to the FWS’s August 2012 delisting of the wolf (Canis lupus) in Wyoming, a highly controversial move. Mike’s tone reflected the reality that — as so many wildlife biologists know and live each day — wildlife management is mainly people management. This contention could not be truer for managing any wildlife species than for managing the wolf. Dubbed “the beast of waste and desolation” by Teddy Roosevelt (The Wilderness Hunter 1893/1900), wolves had been universally hated as prolific predators of valuable livestock and game. Around the turn of the 20th century, members of the U.S. Biological Survey and various state agents, ranchers, cowboys, and other frontiersmen poisoned and persecuted wolves, extirpating them from most of the contiguous United States (Young and Goldman 1944). By 1967, Minnesota and nearby Isle Royale National Park in Michigan held the only remaining wolves in the Lower 48 states, prompting the FWS to place the wolf on the Endangered Species List (established by the Endangered Species Preservation Act of 1966). The wolf then became the list’s poster species, and the timing was ideal: Silent Spring (Carson 1962) had just seeded and fertilized the environmental movement, which blossomed on Earth Day (April 22, 1970) into the environmental revolution. “Save the wolf!” became one of the movement’s rallying cries. And save the wolf we did.

  8. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Natura 2000 Network for Wolf Conservation: A Case-Study in Greece.

    PubMed

    Votsi, Nefta-Eleftheria P; Zomeni, Maria S; Pantis, J D

    2016-02-01

    The wolf (Canis lupus) is used as a case study to rate Natura 2000 sites in Greece based on preferred wolf habitat characteristics and test whether the network is suitable for their conservation. Road density, agricultural area, site area, connectivity, food availability (i.e., presence of natural prey), and elevation in 237 sites are combined in a logistic regression model. The occurrence of the wolf's natural prey was the most prevalent factor determining wolf presence, followed by agricultural cover. Considering the current status of these features at N2K site level, most sites currently hosting wolves (85.7%) have good or excellent prospects for the long-term presence of the wolf. On the contrary, 11 sites which now have wolves are predicted to be ineffective in keeping them in the future due to the absence of wild ungulates and their high agricultural coverage. Four sites with no wolf presence currently have excellent prospects to host wolves in the future. Roadless sites are a priority for protection and retaining their current condition is strongly suggested. The proposed approach aims to detect gaps in protection for the wolf and identify priority sites in need of mitigation actions. It can also assist the assessment of conservation policies in Greece and elsewhere toward accomplishing set goals in protected areas. By focusing on wolf protection, we hope to increase agencies' attention to deal with conservation effectiveness, especially in cases like Greece, where a number of sites are insufficiently known and protected and management measures are not properly implemented. PMID:26411554

  9. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Natura 2000 Network for Wolf Conservation: A Case-Study in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Votsi, Nefta-Eleftheria P.; Zomeni, Maria S.; Pantis, J. D.

    2016-02-01

    The wolf ( Canis lupus) is used as a case study to rate Natura 2000 sites in Greece based on preferred wolf habitat characteristics and test whether the network is suitable for their conservation. Road density, agricultural area, site area, connectivity, food availability (i.e., presence of natural prey), and elevation in 237 sites are combined in a logistic regression model. The occurrence of the wolf's natural prey was the most prevalent factor determining wolf presence, followed by agricultural cover. Considering the current status of these features at N2K site level, most sites currently hosting wolves (85.7 %) have good or excellent prospects for the long-term presence of the wolf. On the contrary, 11 sites which now have wolves are predicted to be ineffective in keeping them in the future due to the absence of wild ungulates and their high agricultural coverage. Four sites with no wolf presence currently have excellent prospects to host wolves in the future. Roadless sites are a priority for protection and retaining their current condition is strongly suggested. The proposed approach aims to detect gaps in protection for the wolf and identify priority sites in need of mitigation actions. It can also assist the assessment of conservation policies in Greece and elsewhere toward accomplishing set goals in protected areas. By focusing on wolf protection, we hope to increase agencies' attention to deal with conservation effectiveness, especially in cases like Greece, where a number of sites are insufficiently known and protected and management measures are not properly implemented.

  10. The spectrum of HM Sagittae: A planetary nebula excited by a Wolf-Rayet star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, L. W.; Feibelman, W. A.; Hobbs, R. W.; Mccracken, C. W.

    1977-01-01

    A total of image tube spectrograms of HM Sagittae were obtained. More than 70 emission lines, including several broad emission features, were identified. An analysis of the spectra indicates that HM Sagittae is a planetary nebula excited by a Wolf-Rayet star. The most conspicuous Wolf-Rayet feature is that attributed to a blend of C III at 4650 A and He II at 4686 A.

  11. Testing global positioning system telemetry to study wolf predation on deer fawns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demma, D.J.; Barber-Meyer, S. M.; Mech, L.D.

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a pilot study to test the usefulness of Global Positioning System (GPS) collars for investigating wolf (Canis lupus) predation on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns. Using GPS collars with short location-attempt intervals on 5 wolves and 5 deer during summers 2002-2004 in northeastern Minnesota, USA, demonstrated how this approach could provide new insights into wolf hunting behavior of fawns. For example, a wolf traveled ???1.5-3.0 km and spent 20-22 hours in the immediate vicinity of known fawn kill sites and ???0.7 km and 8.3 hours at scavenging sites. Wolf travel paths indicated that wolves intentionally traveled into deer summer ranges, traveled ???0.7-4.2 km in such ranges, and spent <1-22 hours per visit. Each pair of 3 GPS-collared wolf pack members were located together for ???6% of potential locations. From GPS collar data, we estimated that each deer summer range in a pack territory containing 5 wolves ???1 year old and hunting individually would be visited by a wolf on average every 3-5 days. This approach holds great potential for investigating summer hunting behavior of wolves in areas where direct observation is impractical or impossible.

  12. Ancient Himalayan wolf (Canis lupus chanco) lineage in Upper Mustang of the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Chetri, Madhu; Jhala, Yadvendradev V; Jnawali, Shant R; Subedi, Naresh; Dhakal, Maheshwar; Yumnam, Bibek

    2016-01-01

    The taxonomic status of the wolf (Canis lupus) in Nepal's Trans-Himalaya is poorly understood. Recent genetic studies have revealed the existence of three lineages of wolves in the Indian sub-continent. Of these, the Himalayan wolf, Canis lupus chanco, has been reported to be the most ancient lineage historically distributed within the Nepal Himalaya. These wolves residing in the Trans-Himalayan region have been suggested to be smaller and very different from the European wolf. During October 2011, six fecal samples suspected to have originated from wolves were collected from Upper Mustang in the Annapurna Conservation Area of Nepal. DNA extraction and amplification of the mitochondrial (mt) control region (CR) locus yielded sequences from five out of six samples. One sample matched domestic dog sequences in GenBank, while the remaining four samples were aligned within the monophyletic and ancient Himalayan wolf clade. These four sequences which matched each other, were new and represented a novel Himalayan wolf haplotype. This result confirms that the endangered ancient Himalayan wolf is extant in Nepal. Detailed genomic study covering Nepal's entire Himalayan landscape is recommended in order to understand their distribution, taxonomy and, genetic relatedness with other wolves potentially sharing the same landscape. PMID:27199590

  13. Ancient Himalayan wolf (Canis lupus chanco) lineage in Upper Mustang of the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Chetri, Madhu; Jhala, Yadvendradev V.; Jnawali, Shant R.; Subedi, Naresh; Dhakal, Maheshwar; Yumnam, Bibek

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The taxonomic status of the wolf (Canis lupus) in Nepal’s Trans-Himalaya is poorly understood. Recent genetic studies have revealed the existence of three lineages of wolves in the Indian sub-continent. Of these, the Himalayan wolf, Canis lupus chanco, has been reported to be the most ancient lineage historically distributed within the Nepal Himalaya. These wolves residing in the Trans-Himalayan region have been suggested to be smaller and very different from the European wolf. During October 2011, six fecal samples suspected to have originated from wolves were collected from Upper Mustang in the Annapurna Conservation Area of Nepal. DNA extraction and amplification of the mitochondrial (mt) control region (CR) locus yielded sequences from five out of six samples. One sample matched domestic dog sequences in GenBank, while the remaining four samples were aligned within the monophyletic and ancient Himalayan wolf clade. These four sequences which matched each other, were new and represented a novel Himalayan wolf haplotype. This result confirms that the endangered ancient Himalayan wolf is extant in Nepal. Detailed genomic study covering Nepal’s entire Himalayan landscape is recommended in order to understand their distribution, taxonomy and, genetic relatedness with other wolves potentially sharing the same landscape. PMID:27199590

  14. Survival of adult female elk in yellowstone following wolf restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, S.B.; Mech, L.D.; White, P.J.; Sargeant, G.A.

    2006-01-01

    Counts of northern Yellowstone elk (Cervus elaphus) in northwestern Wyoming and adjacent Montana, USA, have decreased at an average rate of 6-8% per year since wolves (Canis lupus) were reintroduced in 1995. Population growth rates of elk are typically sensitive to variations in adult female survival; populations that are stable or increasing exhibit high adult female survival. We used survival records for 85 radiocollared adult female elk 1-19 years old to estimate annual survival from March 2000 to February 2004. Weighted average annual survival rates were approximately 0.83 (95% CI = 0.77-0.89) for females 1-15 years old and 0.80 (95% CI = 0.73-0.86) for all females. Our estimates were much lower than the rate of 0.99 observed during 1969-1975 when fewer elk were harvested by hunters, wolves were not present, and other predators were less numerous. Of 33 documented deaths included in our analysis, we attributed 11 to hunter harvest, 14 to predation (10 wolf, 2 unknown, 1 cougar [Puma concolor], and 1 bear [Ursus sp.]), 6 to unknown causes, and 2 to winter-kill. Most deaths occurred from December through March. Estimates of cause-specific annual mortality rates were 0.09 (0.05-0.14) for all predators, 0.08 (0.04-0.13) for hunting, and 0.07 (0.03-0.11) for wolves specifically. Wolf-killed elk were typically older (median = 12 yr) than hunter-killed elk (median = 9 yr, P = 0.03). However, elk that winter outside the park where they were exposed to hunting were also younger (median = 7 yr) than elk that we did not observe outside the park (median = 9 yr, P < 0.01). Consequently, differences in ages of elk killed by wolves and hunters may reflect characteristics of elk exposed to various causes of mortality, as well as differences in susceptibility. Unless survival rates of adult females increase, elk numbers are likely to continue declining. Hunter harvest is the only cause of mortality that is amenable to management at the present time.

  15. Are inland wolf-ungulate systems influenced by marine subsidies of Pacific salmon?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, L.G.; Farley, Sean D.; Stricker, C.A.; Demma, D.J.; Roffler, G.H.; Miller, D.C.; Rye, R.O.

    2010-01-01

    Wolves (Canis lupus) in North America are considered obligate predators of ungulates with other food resources playing little role in wolf population dynamics or wolf-prey relations. However, spawning Pacific salmon (Oncorhyncus spp.) are common throughout wolf range in northwestern North America and may provide a marine subsidy affecting inland wolf-ungulate food webs far from the coast. We conducted stable-isotope analyses for nitrogen and carbon to evaluate the contribution of salmon to diets of wolves in Denali National Park and Preserve, 1200 river-km from tidewater in interior Alaska, USA. We analyzed bone collagen from 73 wolves equipped with radio collars during 1986-2002 and evaluated estimates of salmon in their diets relative to the availability of salmon and ungulates within their home ranges. We compared wolf densities and ungulate : wolf ratios among regions with differing salmon and ungulate availability to assess subsidizing effects of salmon on these wolf-ungulate systems. Wolves in the northwestern flats of the study area had access to spawning salmon but low ungulate availability and consumed more salmon (17% ?? 7% [mean ?? SD]) than in upland regions, where ungulates were sixfold more abundant and wolves did or did not have salmon spawning areas within their home ranges (8% ?? 6% and 3% ?? 3%, respectively). Wolves were only 17% less abundant on the northwestern flats compared to the remainder of the study area, even though ungulate densities were 78% lower. We estimated that biomass from fall runs of chum (O. keta) and coho (O. kisutch) salmon on the northwestern flats was comparable to the ungulate biomass there, and the contribution of salmon to wolf diets was similar to estimates reported for coastal wolves in southeast Alaska. Given the ubiquitous consumption of salmon by wolves on the northwestern flats and the abundance of salmon there, we conclude that wolf numbers in this region were enhanced by the allochthonous subsidy provided by

  16. Integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect in time varying vacuum model

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y. T.; Gui, Y. X.; Xu, L. X.; Lu, J. B.

    2010-04-15

    The integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect is an important implication for dark energy. In this paper, we have calculated the power spectrum of the ISW effect in the time varying vacuum cosmological model, where the model parameter {beta}=4.407 is obtained by the observational constraint of the growth rate. It is found that the source of the ISW effect is not only affected by the different evolutions of the Hubble function H(a) and the dimensionless matter density {Omega}{sub m}(a), but also by the different growth function D{sub +}(a), all of which are changed due to the presence of a matter production term in the time varying vacuum model. However, the difference of the ISW effect in the {Lambda}(t)CDM model and the {Lambda}CDM model is lessened to a certain extent because of the integration from the time of last scattering to the present. It is implied that the observations of the galaxies with high redshift are required to distinguish the two models.

  17. Reconstructing the integrated Sachs-Wolfe map with galaxy surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muir, Jessica; Huterer, Dragan

    2016-08-01

    The integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect is a large-angle modulation of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), generated when CMB photons traverse evolving potential wells associated with large scale structure (LSS). Recent efforts have been made to reconstruct maps of the ISW signal using information from surveys of galaxies and other LSS tracers, but investigation into how survey systematics affect their reliability has so far been limited. Using simulated ISW and LSS maps, we study the impact of galaxy survey properties and systematic errors on the accuracy of a reconstructed ISW signal. We find that systematics that affect the observed distribution of galaxies along the line of sight, such as photo-z and bias-evolution related errors, have a relatively minor impact on reconstruction quality. In contrast, however, we find that direction-dependent calibration errors can be very harmful. Specifically, we find that, in order to avoid significant degradation of our reconstruction quality statistics, direction-dependent number density fluctuations due to systematics must be controlled so that their variance is smaller than 10-6 (which corresponds to a 0.1% calibration). Additionally, we explore the implications of our results for attempts to use reconstructed ISW maps to shed light on the origin of large-angle CMB alignments. We find that there is only a weak correlation between the true and reconstructed angular momentum dispersion, which quantifies alignment, even for reconstructed ISW maps which are fairly accurate overall.

  18. Uncommon oral cleft in Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Sibele Nascimento de; Machado, Renato A; Paranaíba, Lívia Maris R; Coletta, Ricardo D; Aguiar, Marcos J Burle de; Fernandes, Cassandro; Martelli Júnior, Hercílio

    2015-01-01

    Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a syndrome with craniofacial and systemic abnormalities, which is related to 4p deletion. A 3-month old girl with an undiagnosed syndrome was referred for evaluation of the cleft lip and palate. Hypotonia, short stature, cardiac malformation, hypertrophied clitoris, and atypical thumb of both hands was observed. Microcephaly, low-set ear, prominent glabella, downslanting palpebral fissures, a characteristic "Greek warrior helmet" appearance, micrognathia, ears with pits/tags and bilateral incomplete cleft lip apart from incomplete cleft palate were observed as craniofacial findings. With clinical diagnosis of WHS, blood was subjected to karyotyping, which showed a 4p15.2 deletion, consistent with the condition. Here is reported the case of this WHS patient with an uncommon oral cleft extending the phenotypic spectrum of the disorder. The child was referred to a multidisciplinary team to reparative surgery of the cleft lip and palate. The patient is on regular medical follow-up and will be further assisted by dentists, physical therapists, occupational therapists and psychologists. The genotype-phenotype correlation of the affected patient with previous WSH syndrome reports is described. PMID:25831115

  19. The integrated Sachs-Wolfe signal from BOSS superstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granett, B. R.; Kovács, A.; Hawken, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Cosmic structures leave an imprint on the microwave background radiation through the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect. We construct a template map of the linear signal using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III Baryon Acoustic Oscillation Survey at redshift 0.43 < z < 0.65. We verify the imprint of this map on the Planck cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature map at the 97 per cent confidence level and show consistency with the density-temperature cross-correlation measurement. Using this ISW reconstruction as a template, we investigate the presence of ISW sources and further examine the properties of the Granett-Neyrinck-Szapudi supervoid and supercluster catalogue. We characterize the three-dimensional density profiles of these structures for the first time and demonstrate that they are significant structures. Model fits demonstrate that the supervoids are elongated along the line of sight and we suggest that this special orientation may be picked out by the void-finding algorithm in photometric redshift space. We measure the mean temperature profiles in Planck maps from public void and cluster catalogues. In an attempt to maximize the stacked ISW signal, we construct a new catalogue of superstructures based upon local peaks and troughs of the gravitational potential. However, we do not find a significant correlation between these structures and the CMB temperature.

  20. Massive Wolf-Rayet stars on the verge to explode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramper, F.; Straal, S. M.; Sanyal, D.; Sana, H.; de Koter, A.; Gräfener, G.; Langer, N.; Vink, J. S.; de Mink, S. E.; Kaper, L.

    The enigmatic oxygen-sequence Wolf-Rayet stars represent a rare stage in the evolution of massive stars. Their properties can provide unique constraints on the pre-supernova evolution of massive stars. This work presents the results of a quantitative spectroscopic analysis of the known single WO stars, with the aim to obtain the key stellar parameters and deduce their evolutionary state.X-Shooter spectra of the WO stars are modeled using the line-blanketed non-local thermal equilibrium atmosphere code cmfgen. The obtained stellar parameters show that the WO stars are very hot, with temperatures ranging from 150 kK to 210 kK. Their chemical composition is dominated by carbon (>50%), while the helium mass fraction is very low (down to 14%). Oxygen mass fractions reach as high as 25%. These properties can be reproduced with dedicated evolutionary models for helium stars, which show that the stars are post core-helium burning and very close to their eventual supernova explosion. The helium-star masses indicate initial masses or approximately 40 - 60M⊙.Thus, WO stars represent the final evolutionary stage of stars with estimated initial masses of 40 - 60M⊙. They are post core-helium burning and may explode as type Ic supernovae within a few thousand years.

  1. Weaning in an Arctic wolf pack: behavioral mechanisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Packard, J.M.; Mech, L.D.; Ream, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    If behavioral mechanisms controlling suckling have been shaped by parent-offspring conflict in the ultimate sense, then proximate behavioral determinants of conflict should occur throughout lactation, with greatest intensity in the terminal phase, and offspring should have tactics for overcoming parental resistance. We observed the weaning process in a habituated wild wolf pack (Canis lupus) on Ellesmere Island, Canada, from estimated ages 5 through 10 weeks (including a continuous record for 192 h). The following variables declined with age: percentage of suckling bouts initiated by the nurser, persistence by pups, and mean duration of suckling bouts. Variables that increased with age were interbout interval, percentage of suckling bouts terminated by the nurser, and wincing or agonistic actions of the nurser. Behavioral conflict appeared in the develop mental stage (estimated age 7 -8 weeks) during which pups could feed on opened carcasses. Countertactics by pups to obtain milk were not apparent, although the pups developed diverse tactics for obtaining and sharing meat. In this group of wolves, weaning mechanisms were a complex function of food-delivery by adults, discomfort of the nursing female as pups developed, and declining persistence of pups. If there is a conflict over what is optimal for pups and for the nurser in the ultimate sense, behavioral conflict is more likely to be expressed with regard to access to meat, or as conditional tactics dependent on food availability, rather than weaning conflict being controlleg by fixed rules in this species.

  2. Visual odometry in the wolf spider Lycosa tarantula (Araneae: Lycosidae).

    PubMed

    Ortega-Escobar, J; Ruiz, M A

    2014-02-01

    The wolf spider Lycosa tarantula homes using path integration. The angular component of the displacement is measured using a polarized-light compass associated with the functioning of the anterior median eyes. However, how L. tarantula estimates the linear component of the displacement was not known prior to this investigation. The ability of L. tarantula to gauge the distance walked after being displaced from its burrow was investigated using experimental channels placed in an indoor setup. Firstly, we manipulated the perception of visual stimuli by covering all the spider's eyes. Secondly, we changed the optic flow supplied by a black-and-white grating (λ=2 cm) perceived either in the lateral or in the ventral field of view. Finally, the period of the lateral or ventral grating was changed from λ=2 cm to λ=1 cm. Our results indicate that visual information contributes to distance estimation because when the spider's eyes were covered, the spiders tended to search for the burrow at very variable distances. This visual information is created by the motion of the image as the spider walks, the motion in the lateral field of view being the most important. The preference of a lateral optic flow over the ventral flow can be explained by the difference in the resolution capacity of the posterior lateral eyes and the anterior lateral eyes. PMID:24477612

  3. TRIGGERED STAR FORMATION SURROUNDING WOLF-RAYET STAR HD 211853

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Tie; Wu Yuefang; Zhang Huawei; Qin Shengli

    2012-05-20

    The environment surrounding Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star HD 211853 is studied in molecular, infrared, as well as radio, and H I emission. The molecular ring consists of well-separated cores, which have a volume density of 10{sup 3} cm{sup -3} and kinematic temperature {approx}20 K. Most of the cores are under gravitational collapse due to external pressure from the surrounding ionized gas. From the spectral energy distribution modeling toward the young stellar objects, the sequential star formation is revealed on a large scale in space spreading from the W-R star to the molecular ring. A small-scale sequential star formation is revealed toward core 'A', which harbors a very young star cluster. Triggered star formations are thus suggested. The presence of the photodissociation region, the fragmentation of the molecular ring, the collapse of the cores, and the large-scale sequential star formation indicate that the 'collect and collapse' process functions in this region. The star-forming activities in core 'A' seem to be affected by the 'radiation-driven implosion' process.

  4. Helium stars: towards an understanding of Wolf-Rayet evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClelland, L. A. S.; Eldridge, J. J.

    2016-06-01

    Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars are massive stars that have lost most or all of their hydrogen via powerful stellar winds. Recent observations have indicated that hydrogen-free WR stars have cooler temperatures than those predicted by current evolutionary models. To investigate how varying mass-loss rate affects WR evolution, we have created a grid of pure helium star models. We compare our results with Galactic and Large Magellanic Cloud WR observations and show that the temperature ranges of observed WR stars can be reproduced by varying the mass-loss rate, which effectively determines the size of the helium envelope around the core. We also find that WN and WO stars arise from more massive stars, whereas WC stars come from lower masses. This contradicts the standard Conti scenario by which WN and WC stars evolve in an age sequence. We also predict the magnitudes of our models at core-collapse and compare with observations of nearby progenitors of Type Ib/c supernovae. We confirm the findings of previous studies that suggest WR stars are the progenitors of core-collapse supernovae; the progenitors would remain unobserved except in the cases where the progenitor is a low-mass helium giant, as is the case of iPTF13bvn.

  5. How Turing and Wolf influenced my Decision Support Systems.

    PubMed

    Richards, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Decision Support Systems (DSS) have a vital role to play in today's scenario for Patient Care. They can embody a vast knowledge not normally found in one individual where diagnosis and treatment are involved. This paper highlights the training in minute details and precise mathematics needed in a successful DSS and indicates how such attention-to-detail was instilled into the writer as a result of working with Alan Turing and Emil Wolf who have both since achieved world-wide recognition in their own fields as a result of international publicity by the current writer. The article discusses four Decision Support Systems written by the present writer all of which have been shown to improve patient treatment and care, and which are of such complexity that, without their use, patient care would fall short of optimum. The Systems considered are those for Intensive Care Units, Cardiovascular Surgery, a Programmed Investigation Unit, and Diagnosis of Congenital Abnormalities. All these Systems have performed better than the human alternatives and have shown their value in the improvement of patient care. PMID:23542962

  6. Accuracy of estimating wolf summer territories by daytime locations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demma, D.J.; Mech, L.D.

    2011-01-01

    We used locations of 6 wolves (Canis lupus) in Minnesota from Global Positioning System (GPS) collars to compare day-versus-night locations to estimate territory size and location during summer. We employed both minimum convex polygon (MCP) and fixed kernel (FK) methods. We used two methods to partition GPS locations for day-versus-night home-range comparisons: (1) daytime = 0800-2000 Ah; nighttime = 2000-0800 Ah; and (2) sunup versus sundown. Regardless of location-partitioning method, mean area of daytime MCPs did not differ significantly from nighttime MCPs. Similarly, mean area of daytime FKs (95% probability contour) were not significantly different from nightime FKs. FK core use areas (50% probability contour) did not differ between daytime and nighttime nor between sunup and sundown locations. We conclude that in areas similar to our study area day-only locations are adequate for describing the location, extent and core use areas of summer wolf territories by both MCP and FK methods. ?? 2011 American Midland Naturalist.

  7. Accuracy of estimating wolf summer territories by daytime locations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demma, Dominic J.; Mech, L. David

    2011-01-01

    We used locations of 6 wolves (Canis lupus) in Minnesota from Global Positioning System (GPS) collars to compare day-versus-night locations to estimate territory size and location during summer. We employed both minimum convex polygon (MCP) and fixed kernel (FK) methods. We used two methods to partition GPS locations for day-versus-night home-range comparisons: (1) daytime = 0800–2000 h; nighttime = 2000–0800 h; and (2) sunup versus sundown. Regardless of location-partitioning method, mean area of daytime MCPs did not differ significantly from nighttime MCPs. Similarly, mean area of daytime FKs (95% probability contour) were not significantly different from nightime FKs. FK core use areas (50% probability contour) did not differ between daytime and nighttime nor between sunup and sundown locations. We conclude that in areas similar to our study area day-only locations are adequate for describing the location, extent and core use areas of summer wolf territories by both MCP and FK methods.

  8. Helminth parasites in the endangered Ethiopian wolf, Canis simensis.

    PubMed

    van Kesteren, F; Piggott, K J; Bengui, T; Kubri, S B; Mastin, A; Sillero-Zubiri, C; Paris, M; Millar, R P; Macdonald, D W; Shiferaw, F; Craig, P S

    2015-07-01

    Ethiopian wolves, Canis simensis, are an endangered carnivore endemic to the Ethiopian highlands. Although previous studies have focused on aspects of Ethiopian wolf biology, including diet, territoriality, reproduction and infectious diseases such as rabies, little is known of their helminth parasites. In the current study, faecal samples were collected from 94 wild Ethiopian wolves in the Bale Mountains of southern Ethiopia, between August 2008 and February 2010, and were screened for the presence of helminth eggs using a semi-quantitative volumetric dilution method with microscopy. We found that 66 of the 94 faecal samples (70.2%) contained eggs from at least one group of helminths, including Capillaria, Toxocara, Trichuris, ancylostomatids, Hymenolepis and taeniids. Eggs of Capillaria sp. were found most commonly, followed by Trichuris sp., ancylostomatid species and Toxocara species. Three samples contained Hymenolepis sp. eggs, which were likely artefacts from ingested prey species. Four samples contained taeniid eggs, one of which was copro-polymerase chain reaction (copro-PCR) and sequence positive for Echinococcus granulosus, suggesting a spillover from a domestic parasite cycle into this wildlife species. Associations between presence/absence of Capillaria, Toxocara and Trichuris eggs were found; and egg burdens of Toxocara and ancylostomatids were found to be associated with geographical location and sampling season. PMID:25007150

  9. Testing Gravity Against Early Time Integrated Sachs-Wolfe Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Pengjie; /Shanghai, Astron. Observ. /Fermilab

    2005-11-01

    A generic prediction of general relativity is that the cosmological linear density growth factor D is scale independent. But in general, modified gravities do not preserve this signature. A scale dependent D can cause time variation in gravitational potential at high redshifts and provides a new cosmological test of gravity, through early time integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect-large scale structure (LSS) cross correlation. We demonstrate the power of this test for a class of f(R) gravity, with the form f(R) = {lambda}{sub 1}H{sub 0}{sup 2} exp(-R/{lambda}{sub 2}H{sub 0}{sup 2}). Such f(R) gravity, even with degenerate expansion history to {Lambda}CDM, can produce detectable ISW effect at z {approx}> 3 and l {approx}> 20. Null-detection of such effect would constrain {lambda}{sub 2} to be {lambda}{sub 2} > 1000 at > 95% confidence level. On the other hand, robust detection of ISW-LSS cross correlation at high z will severely challenge general relativity.

  10. The Cryptic African Wolf: Canis aureus lupaster Is Not a Golden Jackal and Is Not Endemic to Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Rueness, Eli Knispel; Asmyhr, Maria Gulbrandsen; Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio; Macdonald, David W.; Bekele, Afework; Atickem, Anagaw; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

    2011-01-01

    The Egyptian jackal (Canis aureus lupaster) has hitherto been considered a large, rare subspecies of the golden jackal (C. aureus). It has maintained its taxonomical status to date, despite studies demonstrating morphological similarities to the grey wolf (C. lupus). We have analyzed 2055 bp of mitochondrial DNA from C. a. lupaster and investigated the similarity to C. aureus and C. lupus. Through phylogenetic comparison with all wild wolf-like canids (based on 726 bp of the Cytochrome b gene) we conclusively (100% bootstrap support) place the Egyptian jackal within the grey wolf species complex, together with the Holarctic wolf, the Indian wolf and the Himalayan wolf. Like the two latter taxa, C. a. lupaster seems to represent an ancient wolf lineage which most likely colonized Africa prior to the northern hemisphere radiation. We thus refer to C. a. lupaster as the African wolf. Furthermore, we have detected C. a. lupaster individuals at two localities in the Ethiopian highlands, extending the distribution by at least 2,500 km southeast. The only grey wolf species to inhabit the African continent is a cryptic species for which the conservation status urgently needs assessment. PMID:21298107

  11. Problems with the claim of ecotype and taxon status of the wolf in the Great Lakes region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, Matthew A.; Mech, L. David

    2009-01-01

    Koblmuller et al. (2009) analysed molecular genetic data of the wolf in the Great Lakes (GL) region of the USA and concluded that the animal was a unique ecotype of grey wolf and that genetic data supported the population as a discrete wolf taxon. However, some of the literature that the researchers used to support their position actually did not, and additional confusion arises from indefinite use of terminology. Herein, we discuss the problems with designation of a wolf population as a taxon or ecotype without proper definition and assessment of criteria.

  12. The cryptic African wolf: Canis aureus lupaster is not a golden jackal and is not endemic to Egypt.

    PubMed

    Rueness, Eli Knispel; Asmyhr, Maria Gulbrandsen; Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio; Macdonald, David W; Bekele, Afework; Atickem, Anagaw; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2011-01-01

    The Egyptian jackal (Canis aureus lupaster) has hitherto been considered a large, rare subspecies of the golden jackal (C. aureus). It has maintained its taxonomical status to date, despite studies demonstrating morphological similarities to the grey wolf (C. lupus). We have analyzed 2055 bp of mitochondrial DNA from C. a. lupaster and investigated the similarity to C. aureus and C. lupus. Through phylogenetic comparison with all wild wolf-like canids (based on 726 bp of the Cytochrome b gene) we conclusively (100% bootstrap support) place the Egyptian jackal within the grey wolf species complex, together with the Holarctic wolf, the Indian wolf and the Himalayan wolf. Like the two latter taxa, C. a. lupaster seems to represent an ancient wolf lineage which most likely colonized Africa prior to the northern hemisphere radiation. We thus refer to C. a. lupaster as the African wolf. Furthermore, we have detected C. a. lupaster individuals at two localities in the Ethiopian highlands, extending the distribution by at least 2,500 km southeast. The only grey wolf species to inhabit the African continent is a cryptic species for which the conservation status urgently needs assessment. PMID:21298107

  13. A survey of nebulae around galactic wolf-rayet stars in the southern sky, 2.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marston, A. P.; Yocum, D. R.; Garcia-Segura, G.; Chu, Y.-H.

    1994-01-01

    We present the second half of a charge coupled device (CCD) narrow-band imaging survey of galactic Wolf-Rayet stars located in the southern hemisphere as listed by van der Hucht et al. (1981). Images of 50 Wolf-Rayet stars were taken using a wide-field CCD and narrowband interference filters centered on H alpha and (O III) 5007 A wavelengths. The first half of the survey (Marston, Chu, & Garcia-Segura 1993, hereafter Paper I) revealed six new ring nebulae residing around Wolf-Rayet stars. Here we reveal a possible 11 new rings and the existence of multiple rings associated with two previously known nebula, RCW 118 and G2.4+1.4 and around the stars WR 16 and WR 43. Combining our results with those of Miller & Chu (1993) and Paper I, 92% of the van der Hucht catalog of Wolf-Rayet stars have now been surveyed. Of the 38 possible ring nebulae found in our surveys to date, 22 reside around WN subtype Wolf-Rayet stars, 13 around WC stars, one around a triplet of Wolf-Rayet stars and one around a WO star (WR 102). One ring exists around a WN/WC star (WR 98). A bias toward rings being observed around W-R + OB binaries is noted. Such pairings are generally bright, and the detection of a ring around them may merely be a function of their combined luminosity. Several Wolf-Rayet stars are shown to be surrounded by multiple rings (two or three) which suggests that a number of ejections of stellar material have taken place during their evolution.

  14. Parasite species of the endangered Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus) and a sympatric widespread carnivore.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Ana; Oliveira, Lucia; Madeira de Carvalho, Luís; Fonseca, Carlos; Torres, Rita Tinoco

    2016-08-01

    Parasites have a profound impact on wildlife population dynamics. However, until some years ago, studies on the occurrence and prevalence of wildlife parasites were neglected comparatively with the studies on humans and domestic animals. In this study, we determined the parasite prevalence of two sympatric wild canids: the endangered Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus) and the widespread red fox (Vulpes vulpes), in central Portugal. From November 2014 to July 2015, fresh fecal samples from both species were collected monthly in several transects distributed throughout the study area. All samples were submitted to several coprological techniques. In total, 6 helminth parasites (Crenosoma vulpis, Angiostrongylus vasorum, Toxocara canis, Trichuris vulpis, Ancylostomatidae, Toxascaris leonina), and a protozoa (Balantidium coli) were identified based on size and morphology. The red fox was infected by seven different parasites while the Iberian wolf was infected by four. All parasites present in wolf were also present in the red fox. C. vulpis had the higher prevalence in red fox, while Ancylostomatidae were the most prevalent parasites in wolf. To our knowledge, this is the first study in this isolated subpopulation of the Iberian wolf. Our results show that both carnivores carry parasites that are of concern as they are pathogenic to humans and other wild and domestic animals. We suggest that surveillance programs must also include monitoring protocols of wildlife; particularly endangered species. PMID:27358768

  15. Wolf management in the 21st century: From public input to sterilization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Fritts, S.H.; Nelson, M.E.

    1996-01-01

    Human-population increase and land development portend increasing conflict with large predators. Concurrently, changes and diversification of human attitudes are bringing increased disagreement about wildlife management. Animal-rights advocacy resulting from urbanization of human populations conflicts with traditional wildlife management. These forces focus more on wolves than on other wildlife because of strong public and media interest in wolves. Thus wolf management in the future will come under even greater public scrutiny, involve more public input, and may have greater restrictions imposed on it. This will lead to increased complexity in wolf management including more zoning, more experimentation with lethal and non-lethal capture techniques and alternate methods of alleviating damage to pets, livestock, and large ungulate herds, and greater public and private subsidy of wolf damage. One form of non-lethal control of wolf populations that may hold some promise is direct sterilization of males to reduce the biotic potential of the wolf population. Experimental vasectomy of five wild male wolves from four packs in Minnesota indicates that sterile males will continue to hold mates and territories, which would be necessary if sterilization is to be a viable technique for assisting with population control. If sterile males held territories but failed to produce pups, such territories might contain only about a third the number of wolves as fertile pack territories. Because wolves are long-lived in unexploited populations and their territories are large, direct sterilization of relatively few animals each year might significantly reduce populations.

  16. Assessment of attachment behaviour to human caregivers in wolf pups (Canis lupus lupus).

    PubMed

    Hall, Nathaniel J; Lord, Kathryn; Arnold, Anne-Marie K; Wynne, Clive D L; Udell, Monique A R

    2015-01-01

    Previous research suggested that 16-week old dog pups, but not wolf pups, show attachment behaviour to a human caregiver. Attachment to a caregiver in dog pups has been demonstrated by differential responding to a caregiver compared to a stranger in the Ainsworth Strange Situation Test. We show here that 3-7 week old wolf pups also show attachment-like behaviour to a human caregiver as measured by preferential proximity seeking, preferential contact, and preferential greeting to a human caregiver over a human stranger in a modified and counterbalanced version of the Ainsworth Strange Situation Test. In addition, our results show that preferential responding to a caregiver over a stranger is only apparent following brief isolation. In initial episodes, wolf pups show no differentiation between the caregiver and the stranger; however, following a 2-min separation, the pups show proximity seeking, more contact, and more greeting to the caregiver than the stranger. These results suggest intensive human socialization of a wolf can lead to attachment--like responding to a human caregiver during the first two months of a wolf pup's life. PMID:25447510

  17. Estimated costs of maintaining a recovered wolf population in agricultural regions of Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.

    1999-01-01

    The annual costs of maintaining Minnesota gray wolves (Canis lupus), now numbering about 2,500, under 2 plans are compared: (1) maintaining a population of about 1,400 primarily in the wilderness and semi-wilderness as recommended by the Eastern Timber Wolf Recovery Plan, and (2) allowing wolves to continue colonizing agricultural areas for 5 years after removal from the endangered species list, as recommended by a consensus of wolf stakeholders (Minnesota Wolf Management Roundtable). Under the first plan, each year an estimated 27 farms would suffer livestock losses; wolves would kilt about 3 dogs; 36 wolves would be destroyed; and the cost per wolf in the total population would be $86. Under the second plan, conservative estimates are that by the year 2005, there would be an estimated 3,500 wolves; each year 94-171 farms would suffer damage; wolves would kill 8-52 dogs; 109-438 wolves would have to be killed for depredation control; and the annual cost averaged over the total population would be $86 for each of the 1,438 wolves living primarily in the wilderness and an additional $197 for each wolf outside the wilderness.

  18. A survey of nebulae around Galactic Wolf-Rayet stars in the southern sky, 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marston, A. P.; Chu, Y.-H.; Garcia-Segura, G.

    1994-01-01

    Images are presented from the first half of a survey of all Galactic Wolf-Rayet stars in the catalog of van der Hucht et al. (1981) residing in the southern skies. Previous surveys used only existing broad-band photographic plates. Encouraged by successes using CCD imaging with interference filters of the LMC and northern Galaxy (Miller & Chu 1993), we have expanded the survey to the southern hemisphere. In the first half of our southern survey, H alpha and (O III) narrow-band CCD images of fields centered on known Wolf-Rayet stars have indicated the existence of six new ring nebulae as well as revealing previously unobserved morphological features in the known ring nebulae. An example of this is an almost perfect ring of (O III) emission residing interior to the previously observed H alpha filaments of the Wolf-Rayet ring nebulae RCW 104. Our surveys to date indicate that 21% of all Wolf-Rayet stars have ring nebulae, with WN-type Wolf-Rayet stars having a greater likelihood for an associated ring.

  19. Assessing factors that may predispose Minnesota farms to wolf predation on cattle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Harper, E.K.; Meier, T.J.; Paul, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    Wolf (Canis lupus) depredations on livestock cause considerable conflict and expense in Minnesota. Furthermore, claims are made that such depredations are fostered by the type of animal husbandry practiced. Thus, we tried to detect factors that might predispose farms in Minnesota to wolf depredations. We compared results of interviews with 41 cattle farmers experiencing chronic cattle losses to wolves (chronic farms) with results from 41 nearby matched farms with no wolf losses to determine farm characteristics or husbandry practices that differed and that therefore might have affected wolf depredations. We also used a Geographic Information System (GIS) to detect any habitat differences between the 2 types of farms. We found no differences between chronic and matched farms in the 11 farm characteristics and management practices that we surveyed, except that farms with chronic losses were larger, had more cattle, and had herds farther from human dwellings. Habitat types were the same around farms with and without losses. The role of proper carcass disposal as a possible factor predisposing farms to wolf depredations remains unclear

  20. Design and optimization of wheel-legged robot: Rolling-Wolf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yang; Li, Qimin; Liu, Zhangxing

    2014-11-01

    Though the studies of wheel-legged robots have achieved great success, the existing ones still have defects in load distribution, structure stability and carrying capacity. For overcoming these shortcomings, a new kind of wheel-legged robot(Rolling-Wolf) is designed. It is actuated by means of ball screws and sliders, and each leg forms two stable triangle structures at any moment, which is simple but has high structure stability. The positional posture model and statics model are built and used to analyze the kinematic and mechanical properties of Rolling-Wolf. Based on these two models, important indexes for evaluating its motion performance are analyzed. According to the models and indexes, all of the structure parameters which influence the motion performance of Rolling-Wolf are optimized by the method of Archive-based Micro Genetic Algorithm(AMGA) by using Isight and Matlab software. Compared to the initial values, the maximum rotation angle of the thigh is improved by 4.17%, the maximum lifting height of the wheel is improved by 65.53%, and the maximum driving forces of the thigh and calf are decreased by 25.5% and 12.58%, respectively. The conspicuous optimization results indicate that Rolling-Wolf is much more excellent. The novel wheel-leg structure of Rolling-Wolf is efficient in promoting the load distribution, structure stability and carrying capacity of wheel-legged robot and the proposed optimization method provides a new approach for structure optimization.

  1. The dynamics of Wolf numbers based on nonlinear dynamos with magnetic helicity: comparisons with observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleeorin, Y.; Safiullin, N.; Kleeorin, N.; Porshnev, S.; Rogachevskii, I.; Sokoloff, D.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the dynamics of solar activity using a nonlinear one-dimensional dynamo model and a phenomenological equation for the evolution of Wolf numbers. This system of equations is solved numerically. We take into account the algebraic and dynamic nonlinearities of the alpha effect. The dynamic nonlinearity is related to the evolution of a small-scale magnetic helicity, and it leads to a complicated behaviour of solar activity. The evolution equation for the Wolf number is based on a mechanism of formation of magnetic spots as a result of the negative effective magnetic pressure instability (NEMPI). This phenomenon was predicted 25 yr ago and has been investigated intensively in recent years through direct numerical simulations and mean-field simulations. The evolution equation for the Wolf number includes the production and decay of sunspots. Comparison between the results of numerical simulations and observational data of Wolf numbers shows a 70 per cent correlation over all intervals of observation (about 270 yr). We determine the dependence of the maximum value of the Wolf number versus the period of the cycle and the asymmetry of the solar cycles versus the amplitude of the cycle. These dependences are in good agreement with observations.

  2. Estimating occupancy and predicting numbers of gray wolf packs in Montana using hunter surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rich, Lindsey N.; Russell, Robin E.; Glenn, Elizabeth M.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Gude, Justin A.; Podruzny, Kevin M.; Sime, Carolyn A.; Laudon, Kent; Ausband, David E.; Nichols, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Reliable knowledge of the status and trend of carnivore populations is critical to their conservation and management. Methods for monitoring carnivores, however, are challenging to conduct across large spatial scales. In the Northern Rocky Mountains, wildlife managers need a time- and cost-efficient method for monitoring gray wolf (Canis lupus) populations. Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) conducts annual telephone surveys of >50,000 deer and elk hunters. We explored how survey data on hunters' sightings of wolves could be used to estimate the occupancy and distribution of wolf packs and predict their abundance in Montana for 2007–2009. We assessed model utility by comparing our predictions to MFWP minimum known number of wolf packs. We minimized false positive detections by identifying a patch as occupied if 2–25 wolves were detected by ≥3 hunters. Overall, estimates of the occupancy and distribution of wolf packs were generally consistent with known distributions. Our predictions of the total area occupied increased from 2007 to 2009 and predicted numbers of wolf packs were approximately 1.34–1.46 times the MFWP minimum counts for each year of the survey. Our results indicate that multi-season occupancy models based on public sightings can be used to monitor populations and changes in the spatial distribution of territorial carnivores across large areas where alternative methods may be limited by personnel, time, accessibility, and budget constraints.

  3. THE WOLF-RAYET CONTENT OF M33

    SciTech Connect

    Neugent, Kathryn F.; Massey, Philip E-mail: phil.massey@lowell.edu

    2011-06-01

    Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars are evolved massive stars, and the relative number of WC-type and WN-type WRs should vary with metallicity, providing a sensitive test of stellar evolutionary theory. The observed WC/WN ratio is much higher than that predicted by theory in some galaxies but this could be due to observational incompleteness for WN types, which have weaker lines. Previous studies of M33's WR content show a galactocentric gradient in the relative numbers of WCs and WNs, but only small regions have been surveyed with sufficient sensitivity to detect all of the WNs. Here, we present a sensitive survey for WRs covering all of M33, finding 55 new WRs, mostly of WN type. Our spectroscopy also improves the spectral types of many previously known WRs, establishing in one case that the star is actually a background quasar. The total number of spectroscopically confirmed WRs in M33 is 206, a number we argue is complete to {approx}5%, with most WRs residing in OB associations, although {approx}2% are truly isolated. The WC/WN ratio in the central regions (<2 kpc) of M33 is much higher than that predicted by the current Geneva evolutionary models, while the WC/WN ratios in the outer regions are in good accord, as are the values in the Small Magellanic Cloud and Large Magellanic Cloud. The WC/WN ratio and the WC subtype distribution both argue that the oxygen abundance gradient in M33 is significantly larger than that found by some recent studies, but are consistent with the two-component model proposed by Magrini et al.

  4. The Masses of Black Holes with Wolf-Rayet Companions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laycock, Silas; Steiner, James F.; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Christodoulou, Dimitris M.; Binder, Breanna A.; Yang, Jun; Cappallo, Rigel

    2016-04-01

    Black Holes with Wolf-Rayet companions represent a channel for forming the most massive stellar BHs. The recent, stunning LIGO detection of the gravitational wave signature from a merging stellar BH binary points to the importance of understanding the progenitor systems formation and evolution. The BH+WR binary IC 10 X-1 holds important clues to the puzzle, by helping establish the upper observed BH mass and pointing to an association between maximum possible BH mass and low metallicity environments. However, securing dynamical mass determiniations for WR+BH binaries appears to be complicated by interaction between the radiation field of the BH and the stellar wind. This causes a substantial change to our understanding of IC 10 X-1, and by extension to the mass distribution of BH binaries. A high precision ephemeris derived from a decade of Chandra/XMM X-ray timing observations, when combined with the optical RV curve, reveals a surprizing simultenaity of mid X-ray eclipse and the maximum blueshift velocity of He II emission lines. The optical emission lines appear to originate in a shielded sector of the WR star's stellar wind which escapes total X-ray ionization by the compact object. Unravelling this projection effect is necessary to obtain the system's true mass function. Complementary Chandra, XMM and NuStar datasets offer new insights into the mass and spin of the BH, and the structure of the photo-ionized wind. We will discuss possible routes toward the mass function in BH+WR binaries via multi-wavelength observations, and the additional leverage provided by further constraining the orbital period derivative.

  5. Finding Wolf-Rayet Stars in the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marston, A. P.; Mauerhan, J.; Morris, P. W.; Van Dyk, S.

    The total population of Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars in the Galaxy is predicted by models to be as many as ~6000 stars, and yet the number of catalogued WR stars as a result of optical surveys was far lower than this (~200) at the turn of this century. When beginning our WR searches using infrared techniques it was not clear whether WR number predictions were too optimistic or whether there was more hidden behind interstellar and circumstellar extinction. During the last decade we pioneered a technique of exploiting the near- and mid-infrared continuum colours for individual point sources provided by large-format surveys of the Galaxy, including 2MASS and Spitzer/GLIMPSE, to pierce through the dust and reveal newly discovered WR stars throughout the Galactic Plane. The key item to the colour discrimination is via the characteristic infrared spectral index produced by the strong winds of the WR stars, combined with dust extinction, which place WR stars in a relatively depopulated area of infrared colour-colour diagrams. The use of the Spitzer/GLIMPSE 8µm and, more recently, WISE 22µm fluxes together with cross-referencing with X-ray measurements in selected Galactic regions have enabled improved candidate lists that increased our confirmation success rate, achieved via follow-up infrared and optical spectroscopy. To date a total of 102 new WR stars have been found with many more candidates still available for follow-up. This constitutes an addition of ~16% to the current inventory of 642 Galactic WR stars. In this talk we review our methods and provide some new results and a preliminary review of their stellar and interstellar medium environments. We provide a roadmap for the future of this search, including statistical modeling, and what we can add to star formation and high mass star evolution studies.

  6. Red / Infrared Observations of WOLF:424AB - are the Components Substellar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, T. J.; Johnson, D. S.; McCarthy, D. W., Jr.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.

    1992-02-01

    The binary system Wolf 424 AB has been reported by Heintz (1989) to be a possible brown dwarf pair. The component masses, 0.06 and 0.05 Msun, were determined dynamically using an orbit defined by elongated photographic images and visual observations spanning three orbital periods. We present infrared speckle interferometric, photometric, and spectroscopic data on the Wolf 424 system - specifically, the position angles measured from the speckle observations are consistently ahead of the predicted positions, indicating that the orbital parameters require revision. Because the determination that the masses are substellar depends upon the orbit, which appears to be in error, and since all other data suggests stellar masses, it is quite probable that Wolf 424 A and B are stars, not brown dwarfs.

  7. WOLF: a computer code package for the calculation of ion beam trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, D.L.

    1985-10-01

    The WOLF code solves POISSON'S equation within a user-defined problem boundary of arbitrary shape. The code is compatible with ANSI FORTRAN and uses a two-dimensional Cartesian coordinate geometry represented on a triangular lattice. The vacuum electric fields and equipotential lines are calculated for the input problem. The use may then introduce a series of emitters from which particles of different charge-to-mass ratios and initial energies can originate. These non-relativistic particles will then be traced by WOLF through the user-defined region. Effects of ion and electron space charge are included in the calculation. A subprogram PISA forms part of this code and enables optimization of various aspects of the problem. The WOLF package also allows detailed graphics analysis of the computed results to be performed.

  8. NASA astronaut and Mir 24 crew member David Wolf after landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA astronaut and Mir 24 crew member David Wolf, M.D., who was on the Russian Space Station Mir since late September 1997, greets his friend, Tammy Kruse, shortly after his return to Earth on Jan. 31. Dr. Wolf returned aboard the orbiter Endeavour with the rest of the STS-89 crew, including Commander Terrence Wilcutt; Pilot Joe Edwards Jr.; and Mission Specialists James Reilly, Ph.D.; Michael Anderson; Bonnie Dunbar, Ph.D.; and Salizhan Sharipov with the Russian Space Agency. STS-89 Mission Specialist Andrew Thomas, Ph.D., succeeded Dr. Wolf on Mir and is scheduled to remain on the Russian space station until the STS-91 Shuttle mission returns in June 1998. In addition to the docking and crew exchange, STS-89 included the transfer of science, logistical equipment and supplies between the two orbiting spacecrafts.

  9. STS-86 crew member Wolf dons a gas mask during TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-86 Mission Specialist David A. Wolf dons a gas mask as part of training exercises during the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT), a dress rehearsal for launch. Wolf is wearing the patch from his first and only mission to date, STS-58 in 1993. STS-86 will be the seventh docking of the Space Shuttle with the Russian Space Station Mir. During the docking, Wolf will transfer to the orbiting Russian station and become a member of the Mir 24 crew, replacing U.S. astronaut C. Michael Foale, who has been on the Mir since the last docking mission, STS-84, in May. Launch of Mission STS-86 aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis is targeted for Sept. 25.

  10. Yellowstone wolf (Canis lupus) denisty predicted by elk (Cervus elaphus) biomass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David; Barber-Meyer, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    The Northern Range (NR) of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) hosts a higher prey biomass density in the form of elk (Cervus elaphus L., 1758) than any other system of gray wolves (Canis lupus L., 1758) and prey reported. Therefore, it is important to determine whether that wolf–prey system fits a long-standing model relating wolf density to prey biomass. Using data from 2005 to 2012 after elk population fluctuations dampened 10 years subsequent to wolf reintroduction, we found that NR prey biomass predicted wolf density. This finding and the trajectory of the regression extend the validity of the model to prey densities 19% higher than previous data and suggest that the model would apply to wolf–prey systems of even higher prey biomass.