Science.gov

Sample records for reference designs study

  1. Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0 Study: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Bret G.

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0 Study seeks to update its long term goals and objective for human exploration missions; flight and surface systems for human missions and supporting infrastructure; operational concept for human and robotic exploration of Mars; key challenges including risk and cost drivers; and, its development schedule options. It additionally seeks to assess strategic linkages between lunar and Mars strategies and develop and understanding of methods for reducing the cost/risk of human Mars missions through investment in research, technology development, and synergy with other exploration plans. Recommendations are made regarding conjunction class (long-stay) missions which are seen as providing the best balance of cost, risk, and performance. Additionally, this study reviews entry, descent, and landing challenges; in-space transportation systems; launch vehicle and Orion assessments; risk and risk mitigation; key driving requirements and challenges; and, lunar linkages.

  2. Mars Aerocapture Studies for the Design Reference Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyne, James Evans; Wercinski, Paul; Walberg, Gerald; Jits, Roman

    1997-01-01

    The recent discovery of possible fossilized microbes in a Martian meteorite sample and the spectacular success of the Mars Pathfinder mission have substantially increased public interest and support for future robotic and manned exploration of Mars. NASA is currently refining a plan known as the Design Reference Mission (DRM) in which the first human landing would occur in 2014 after a series of cargo launches which would place surface systems and an Earth return vehicle at Mars two years prior to the crew's arrival. At each subsequent launch opportunity (which occur approximately every twenty-six months), an additional Earth return vehicle, surface facility and crew would depart for Mars, with each crew employing the systems launched during the previous opportunity. The mission design calls for a long-duration surface stay, rapid crew transits, in-situ manufacture of the Mars ascent propellant, nuclear thermal propulsion for the trans-Mars injection burn, and the use of aerocapture for both the cargo and crew vehicles at Mars.

  3. Interchangeability among reference insulin analogues and their biosimilars: regulatory framework, study design and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Dowlat, H A; Kuhlmann, M K; Khatami, H; Ampudia-Blasco, F J

    2016-08-01

    Biosimilars are regulated differently from small-molecule generic, chemically derived medicines. The complexity of biological products means that small changes in manufacturing or formulation may result in changes in efficacy and safety of the final product. In the face of this complexity, the regulatory landscape for biosimilars continues to evolve, and global harmonization regarding requirements is currently lacking. It is essential that clinicians and patients are reassured that biosimilars are equally safe and effective as their reference product, and this is particularly important when interchangeability, defined as 'changing one medicine for another one which is expected to achieve the same clinical effect in a given clinical setting in any one patient', is considered. Although the automatic substitution (i.e. substitution without input from the prescribing healthcare provider) of biosimilars for reference products is currently not permitted by the majority of countries, this may change in the future. In order to demonstrate interchangeability between reference products and a biosimilar, more stringent and specific studies of the safety and efficacy of biosimilars are likely to be needed; however, guidance on the design of and the need for any such studies is currently limited. The present article provides an overview of the current regulatory framework around the demonstration of interchangeability with biosimilars, with a specific focus on biosimilar insulin analogues, and details experiences with other biosimilar products. In addition, designs for studies to evaluate interchangeability with a biosimilar insulin analogue product are proposed and a discussion about the implications of interchangeability in clinical practice is included. PMID:27097592

  4. ILC cryogenic systems reference design

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, T.J.; Geynisman, M.; Klebaner, A.; Theilacker, J.; Parma, V.; Tavian, L.; /CERN

    2008-01-01

    A Global Design Effort (GDE) began in 2005 to study a TeV scale electron-positron linear accelerator based on superconducting radio-frequency (RF) technology, called the International Linear Collider (ILC). In early 2007, the design effort culminated in a reference design for the ILC, closely based on the earlier TESLA design. The ILC will consist of two 250 GeV linacs, which provide positron-electron collisions for high energy physics research. The particle beams will be accelerated to their final energy in superconducting niobium RF cavities operating at 2 kelvin. At a length of about 12 km each, the main linacs will be the largest cryogenic systems in the ILC. Positron and electron sources, damping rings, and beam delivery systems will also have a large number and variety of other superconducting RF cavities and magnets, which require cooling at liquid helium temperatures. Ten large cryogenic plants with 2 kelvin refrigeration are envisioned to cool the main linacs and the electron and positron sources. Three smaller cryogenic plants will cool the damping rings and beam delivery system components predominately at 4.5 K. This paper describes the cryogenic systems concepts for the ILC.

  5. Ilc Cryogenic Systems Reference Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, T. J.; Geynisman, M.; Klebaner, A.; Parma, V.; Tavian, L.; Theilacker, J.

    2008-03-01

    A Global Design Effort (GDE) began in 2005 to study a TeV scale electron-positron linear accelerator based on superconducting radio-frequency (RF) technology, called the International Linear Collider (ILC). In early 2007, the design effort culminated in a reference design for the ILC, closely based on the earlier TESLA design. The ILC will consist of two 250 GeV linacs, which provide positron-electron collisions for high energy physics research. The particle beams will be accelerated to their final energy in superconducting niobium RF cavities operating at 2 kelvin. At a length of about 12 km each, the main linacs will be the largest cryogenic systems in the ILC. Positron and electron sources, damping rings, and beam delivery systems will also have a large number and variety of other superconducting RF cavities and magnets, which require cooling at liquid helium temperatures. Ten large cryogenic plants with 2 kelvin refrigeration are envisioned to cool the main linacs and the electron and positron sources. Three smaller cryogenic plants will cool the damping rings and beam delivery system components predominately at 4.5 K. This paper describes the cryogenic systems concepts for the ILC.

  6. Design reference missions for the exoplanet starshade (Exo-S) probe-class study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trabert, Rachel; Shaklan, Stuart; Lisman, P. Douglas; Roberge, Aki; Turnbull, Margaret; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Stark, Christopher

    2015-09-01

    Exo-S is a direct imaging space-based mission to discover and characterize exoplanets. The mission is comprised of two formation-flying spacecraft - a starlight suppressing starshade and a telescope separated by ~30,000 km. To align the starshade between the target star and telescope, one of the two spacecraft must perform a retargeting slew. This drives the need for a sophisticated program to help optimize this path to maximize target yield within mission constraints such as solar and earth avoidance angles, thrust and fuel limitations, and target scheduling for previously-discovered known giant planets. The Design Reference Mission (DRM) describes the sequence of observations to be performed and estimates the number of planets that will be detected and characterized. It is executed with a Matlab-based tool developed for the Exo-S Study. Here we analyze four case studies: • Case 1: Starshade with a 1.1m dedicated telescope prioritizing the search for earths in the Habitable Zone (HZ). • Case 2: Starshade with a 1.1m dedicated telescope focused on maximizing planet harvest return and characterization. • Case 3: Starshade that rendezvous with a 2.4 m shared telescope prioritizing the search for earths in the HZ. • Case 4: A Rendezvous Earth Finder mission based on a 40-m diameter starshade with a 2.4 m telescope, operating for 4 years, and focused exclusively on detecting Earths in the HZ Previous starshade DRM tools have been reported in the literature, all of them focused on detection and/or characterization of Earth-twins in the habitable zone. This study has taken then next step and focused on total planet harvest including known Gas Giants, Earths in the Habitable Zone and elsewhere, super-earths, sub-Neptunes, and Jupiters. The DRM employs a hierarchical approach: an observation schedule of known radial velocity gas giants, whose availabilities for observation are known form their orbital parameters, forms a "framework" of observation that have a high

  7. The Reference Ability Neural Network Study: motivation, design, and initial feasibility analyses.

    PubMed

    Stern, Yaakov; Habeck, Christian; Steffener, Jason; Barulli, Daniel; Gazes, Yunglin; Razlighi, Qolamreza; Shaked, Danielle; Salthouse, Timothy

    2014-12-01

    We introduce and describe the Reference Ability Neural Network Study and provide initial feasibility data. Based on analyses of large test batteries administered to individuals ranging from young to old, four latent variables, or reference abilities (RAs) that capture the majority of the variance in age-related cognitive change have been identified: episodic memory, fluid reasoning, perceptual speed, and vocabulary. We aim to determine whether spatial fMRI networks can be derived that are uniquely associated with the performance of each reference ability. We plan to image 375 healthy adults (50 per decade from age 20 to 50; 75 per decade from age 50 to 80) while performing a set of 12 cognitive tasks. Data on 174 participants are reported here. Three tasks were grouped a priori into each of the four reference ability domains. We first assessed to what extent both cognitive task scores and activation patterns readily show convergent and discriminant validity, i.e. increased similarity between tasks within the same domain and decreased similarity between tasks between domains, respectively. Block-based time-series analysis of each individual task was conducted for each participant via general linear modeling. We partialled activation common to all tasks out of the imaging data. For both test scores and activation topographies, we then calculated correlations for each of 66 possible pairings of tasks, and compared the magnitude of correlation of tasks within reference ability domains to that of tasks between domains. For the behavioral data, globally there were significantly stronger inter-task correlations within than between domains. When examining individual abilities, 3 of the domains also met these criteria but memory reached only borderline significance. Overall there was greater topographic similarity within reference abilities than between them (p<0.0001), but when examined individually, statistical significance was reached only for episodic memory and

  8. Validation Studies for Numerical Simulations of Flow Phenomena Expected in the Lower Plenum of a Prismatic VHTR Reference Design

    SciTech Connect

    Richard W. Johnson

    2005-09-01

    The final design of the very high temperature reactor (VHTR) of the fourth generation of nuclear power plants (Gen IV) has not yet been established. The VHTR may be either a prismatic (block) or pebble bed type. It may be either gas-cooled or cooled with an as yet unspecified molten salt. However, a conceptual design of a gas-cooled VHTR, based on the General Atomics GT-MHR, does exist and is called the prismatic VHTR reference design, MacDonald et al [2003], General Atomics [1996]. The present validation studies are based on the prismatic VHTR reference design. In the prismatic VHTR reference design, the flow in the lower plenum will be introduced by dozens of turbulent jets issuing into a large crossflow that must negotiate dozens of cylindrical support columns as it flows toward the exit duct of the reactor vessel. The jets will not all be at the same temperature due to the radial variation of power density expected in the core. However, it is important that the coolant be well mixed when it enters the power conversion unit to ensure proper operation and long life of the power conversion machinery. Hence, it is deemed important to be able to accurately model the flow and mixing of the variable temperature coolant in the lower plenum and exit duct. Accurate flow modeling involves determining modeling strategies including the fineness of the grid needed, iterative convergence tolerance, numerical discretization method used, whether the flow is steady or unsteady, and the turbulence model and wall treatment employed. It also involves validation of the computer code and turbulence model against a series of separate and combined flow phenomena and selection of the data used for the validation. The present report describes progress made to date for the task entitled ‘CFD software validation of jets in crossflow’ which was designed to investigate the issues pertaining to the validation process.

  9. Class Size and Educational Achievement: A Review of Methodology with Particular Reference to Study Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Harvey; Blatchford, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Reviews research into class size effects from a methodological viewpoint, concentrating on various strengths and weaknesses of randomized controlled trials (RCT) and observational studies. Discusses population definitions, causation, and generally sets out criteria for valid inferences from such studies. Illustrates with new findings from data in…

  10. Gathering Design References from Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debs, Luciana; Kelley, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Teaching design to middle and high school students can be challenging. One of the first procedures in teaching design is to help students gather information that will be useful in the design phase. An early stage of engineering design as described by Lewis (2005), calls for the designer to establish the state of the art of the problem. During this…

  11. A reference Pelton turbine design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solemslie, B. W.; Dahlhaug, O. G.

    2012-09-01

    The designs of hydraulic turbines are usually close kept corporation secrets. Therefore, the possibility of innovation and co-operation between different academic institutions regarding a specific turbine geometry is difficult. A Ph.D.-project at the Waterpower Laboratory, NTNU, aim to design several model Pelton turbines where all measurements, simulations, the design strategy, design software in addition to the physical model will be available to the public. In the following paper a short description of the methods and the test rig that are to be utilized in the project are described. The design will be based on empirical data and NURBS will be used as the descriptive method for the turbine geometry. In addition CFX and SPH simulations will be included in the design process. Each turbine designed and produced in connection to this project will be based on the experience and knowledge gained from the previous designs. The first design will be based on the philosophy to keep a near constant relative velocity through the bucket.

  12. Benefits of statistical molecular design, covariance analysis, and reference models in QSAR: a case study on acetylcholinesterase.

    PubMed

    Andersson, C David; Hillgren, J Mikael; Lindgren, Cecilia; Qian, Weixing; Akfur, Christine; Berg, Lotta; Ekström, Fredrik; Linusson, Anna

    2015-03-01

    Scientific disciplines such as medicinal- and environmental chemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology deal with the questions related to the effects small organic compounds exhort on biological targets and the compounds' physicochemical properties responsible for these effects. A common strategy in this endeavor is to establish structure-activity relationships (SARs). The aim of this work was to illustrate benefits of performing a statistical molecular design (SMD) and proper statistical analysis of the molecules' properties before SAR and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis. Our SMD followed by synthesis yielded a set of inhibitors of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) that had very few inherent dependencies between the substructures in the molecules. If such dependencies exist, they cause severe errors in SAR interpretation and predictions by QSAR-models, and leave a set of molecules less suitable for future decision-making. In our study, SAR- and QSAR models could show which molecular sub-structures and physicochemical features that were advantageous for the AChE inhibition. Finally, the QSAR model was used for the prediction of the inhibition of AChE by an external prediction set of molecules. The accuracy of these predictions was asserted by statistical significance tests and by comparisons to simple but relevant reference models. PMID:25351962

  13. EBT-P proposed reference design report

    SciTech Connect

    Boch, A.L.

    1980-01-01

    This report describes the proposed reference design for the EBT-P proof-of-principle test device. The device described is a result of broad studies by many participating organizations from industry and from Department of Energy-sponsored fusion research groups, some working together and some in competitive studies, but all with the goal of defining a device at minimum cost and with maximum probability of meeting its goals. This design work is based upon advances in experimental and theoretical understanding of EBT achieved at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The strategy adopted permits an initial test and validation of the key scaling properties of the ELMO Bumpy Torus concept, with a degree of built-in flexibility to extend the performance parameters toward the condition for containing a fusion reactor plasma. This will lead the way, then, to determination of a later power break-even demonstration and an eventual fusion reactor that can exploit the special high power-density and steady-state properties of the EBT concept.

  14. Crew Transportation System Design Reference Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mango, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Contains summaries of potential design reference mission goals for systems to transport humans to andfrom low Earth orbit (LEO) for the Commercial Crew Program. The purpose of this document is to describe Design Reference Missions (DRMs) representative of the end-to-end Crew Transportation System (CTS) framework envisioned to successfully execute commercial crew transportation to orbital destinations. The initial CTS architecture will likely be optimized to support NASA crew and NASA-sponsored crew rotation missions to the ISS, but consideration may be given in this design phase to allow for modifications in order to accomplish other commercial missions in the future. With the exception of NASA’s mission to the ISS, the remaining commercial DRMs are notional. Any decision to design or scar the CTS for these additional non-NASA missions is completely up to the Commercial Provider. As NASA’s mission needs evolve over time, this document will be periodically updated to reflect those needs.

  15. MSDS sky reference and preamplifier study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, L.; Stewart, S.; Lambeck, P.

    1974-01-01

    The major goals in re-designing the Multispectral Scanner and Data System (MSDS) sky reference are: (1) to remove the sun-elevation angle and aircraft-attitude angle dependence from the solar-sky illumination measurement, and (2) to obtain data on the optical state of the atmosphere. The present sky reference is dependent on solar elevation and provides essentially no information on important atmospheric parameters. Two sky reference designs were tested. One system is built around a hyperbolic mirror and the reflection approach. A second approach to a sky reference utilizes a fish-eye lens to obtain a 180 deg field of view. A detailed re-design of the present sky reference around the fish-eye approach, even with its limitations, is recommended for the MSDS system. A preamplifier study was undertaken to find ways of improving the noise-equivalent reflectance by reducing the noise level for silicon detector channels on the MSDS.

  16. International linear collider reference design report

    SciTech Connect

    Aarons, G.

    2007-06-22

    The International Linear Collider will give physicists a new cosmic doorway to explore energy regimes beyond the reach of today's accelerators. A proposed electron-positron collider, the ILC will complement the Large Hadron Collider, a proton-proton collider at the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland, together unlocking some of the deepest mysteries in the universe. With LHC discoveries pointing the way, the ILC -- a true precision machine -- will provide the missing pieces of the puzzle. Consisting of two linear accelerators that face each other, the ILC will hurl some 10 billion electrons and their anti-particles, positrons, toward each other at nearly the speed of light. Superconducting accelerator cavities operating at temperatures near absolute zero give the particles more and more energy until they smash in a blazing crossfire at the centre of the machine. Stretching approximately 35 kilometres in length, the beams collide 14,000 times every second at extremely high energies -- 500 billion-electron-volts (GeV). Each spectacular collision creates an array of new particles that could answer some of the most fundamental questions of all time. The current baseline design allows for an upgrade to a 50-kilometre, 1 trillion-electron-volt (TeV) machine during the second stage of the project. This reference design provides the first detailed technical snapshot of the proposed future electron-positron collider, defining in detail the technical parameters and components that make up each section of the 31-kilometer long accelerator. The report will guide the development of the worldwide R&D program, motivate international industrial studies and serve as the basis for the final engineering design needed to make an official project proposal later this decade.

  17. Automotive Stirling reference engine design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The reference Stirling engine system is described which provides the best possible fuel economy while meeting or exceeding all other program objectives. The system was designed to meet the requirements of a 1984 Pontiac Phoenix (X-body). This design utilizes all new technology that can reasonably be expected to be developed by 1984 and that is judged to provide significant improvement, relative to development risk and cost. Topics covered include: (1) external heat system; (2) hot engine system; (3) cold engine system; (4) engine drive system; (5) power control system and auxiliaries; (6) engine instalation; (7) optimization and vehicle simulation; (8) engine materials; and (9) production cost analysis.

  18. ILC Reference Design Report: Accelerator Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Phinney, Nan; /SLAC

    2007-12-14

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a 200-500 GeV center-of-mass high-luminosity linear electron-positron collider, based on 1.3 GHz superconducting radiofrequency (SCRF) accelerating cavities. The use of the SCRF technology was recommended by the International Technology Recommendation Panel (ITRP) in August 2004 [1], and shortly thereafter endorsed by the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA). In an unprecedented milestone in high-energy physics, the many institutes around the world involved in linear collider R&D united in a common effort to produce a global design for the ILC. In November 2004, the 1st International Linear Collider Workshop was held at KEK, Tsukuba, Japan. The workshop was attended by some 200 accelerator physicists from around the world, and paved the way for the 2nd ILC Workshop in August 2005, held at Snowmass, Colorado, USA, where the ILC Global Design Effort (GDE) was officially formed. The GDE membership reflects the global nature of the collaboration, with accelerator experts from all three regions (Americas, Asia and Europe). The first major goal of the GDE was to define the basic parameters and layout of the machine--the Baseline Configuration. This was achieved at the first GDE meeting held at INFN, Frascati, Italy in December 2005 with the creation of the Baseline Configuration Document (BCD). During the next 14 months, the BCD was used as the basis for the detailed design work and value estimate (as described in section 1.6) culminating in the completion of the second major milestone, the publication of the draft ILC Reference Design Report (RDR). The technical design and cost estimate for the ILC is based on two decades of world-wide Linear Collider R&D, beginning with the construction and operation of the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC). The SLC is acknowledged as a proof-of-principle machine for the linear collider concept. The ILC SCRF linac technology was pioneered by the TESLA collaboration*, culminating in

  19. Nuclear Thermal Rocket/Vehicle Characteristics And Sensitivity Trades For NASA's Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; McCurdy, David R.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes Phase I and II analysis results from NASA's recent Mars DRA 5.0 study which re-examined mission, payload and transportation system requirements for a human Mars landing mission in the post-2030 timeframe. Nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion was again identified as the preferred in-space transportation system over chemical/aerobrake because of its higher specific impulse (I(sub sp)) capability, increased tolerance to payload mass growth and architecture changes, and lower total initial mass in low Earth orbit (IMLEO) which is important for reducing the number of Ares-V heavy lift launches and overall mission cost. DRA 5.0 features a long surface stay (approximately 500 days) split mission using separate cargo and crewed Mars transfer vehicles (MTVs). All vehicles utilize a common core propulsion stage with three 25 klbf composite fuel NERVA-derived NTR engines (T(sub ex) approximately 2650 - 2700 K, p(sub ch) approximately 1000 psia, epsilon approximately 300:1, I(sub sp) approximately 900 - 910 s, engine thrust-toweight ratio approximately 3.43) to perform all primary mission maneuvers. Two cargo flights, utilizing 1-way minimum energy trajectories, pre-deploy a cargo lander to the surface and a habitat lander into a 24-hour elliptical Mars parking orbit where it remains until the arrival of the crewed MTV during the next mission opportunity (approximately 26 months later). The cargo payload elements aerocapture (AC) into Mars orbit and are enclosed within a large triconicshaped aeroshell which functions as payload shroud during launch, then as an aerobrake and thermal protection system during Mars orbit capture and subsequent entry, descent and landing (EDL) on Mars. The all propulsive crewed MTV is a 0-gE vehicle design that utilizes a fast conjunction trajectory that allows approximately 6-7 month 1-way transit times to and from Mars. Four 12.5 kW(sub e) per 125 square meter rectangular photovoltaic arrays provide the crewed MTV with

  20. Reference repository design concept for bedded salt

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, D.W.; Martin, R.W.

    1980-10-08

    A reference design concept is presented for the subsurface portions of a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. General geologic, geotechnical, hydrologic and geochemical data as well as descriptions of the physical systems are provided for use on generic analyses of the pre- and post-sealing performance of repositories in this geologic medium. The geology of bedded salt deposits and the regional and repository horizon stratigraphy are discussed. Structural features of salt beds including discontinuities and dissolution features are presented and their effect on repository performance is discussed. Seismic hazards and the potential effects of earthquakes on underground repositories are presented. The effect on structural stability and worker safety during construction from hydrocarbon and inorganic gases is described. Geohydrologic considerations including regional hydrology, repository scale hydrology and several hydrological failure modes are presented in detail as well as the hydrological considerations that effect repository design. Operational phase performance is discussed with respect to operations, ventilation system, shaft conveyances, waste handling and retrieval systems and receival rates of nuclear waste. Performance analysis of the post sealing period of a nuclear repository is discussed, and parameters to be used in such an analysis are presented along with regulatory constraints. Some judgements are made regarding hydrologic failure scenarios. Finally, the design and licensing process, consistent with the current licensing procedure is described in a format that can be easily understood.

  1. Design and control of energy efficient food drying processes with specific reference to quality; Model development and experimental studies: Moisture movement and dryer design

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, M.; Litchfield, B.; Singh, R.; Liang, H.; Narsimhan, G.; Waananen, K.

    1989-08-01

    The ultimate goal of the project is to develop procedures, techniques, data and other information that will aid in the design of cost effective and energy efficient drying processes that produce high quality foods. This objective has been sought by performing studies to determine the pertinent properties of food products, by developing models to describe the fundamental phenomena of food drying and by testing the models at laboratory scale. Finally, this information is used to develop recommendations and strategies for improved dryer design and control. This volume, Model Development and Experimental Studies, emphasizes the direct and indirect drying processes. An extensive literature review identifies key characteristics of drying models including controlling process resistances, internal mechanisms of moisture movement, structural and thermodynamic assumptions, and methods of model coefficients and material property measurement/determination, model solution, and model validation. Similarities and differences between previous work are noted, and strategies for future drying model development are suggested.

  2. Reference Design Description for a Geologic Repository

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2000-10-07

    One of the current major national environmental problems is the safe disposal of large quantities of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste materials, which are rapidly accumulating throughout the country. These radioactive byproducts are generated as the result of national defense activities and from the generation of electricity by commercial nuclear power plants. At present, spent nuclear fuel is accumulating at over 70 power plant sites distributed throughout 33 states. The safe disposal of these high-level radioactive materials at a central disposal facility is a high national priority. This Reference Design Description explains the current design for a potential geologic repository that may be located at Yucca Mountain in Nevada for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste materials. This document describes a possible design for the three fundamental parts of a repository: a surface facility, subsurface repository, and waste packaging. It also presents the current conceptual design of the key engineering systems for the final four phases of repository processes: operations, monitoring, closure, and postclosure. In accordance with current law, this design does not include an interim storage option. In addition, this Reference Design Description reviews the expected long-term performance of the potential repository. It describes the natural barrier system which, together with the engineered systems, achieves the repository objectives. This design will protect the public and the environment by allowing the safe disposal of radioactive waste received from government-owned custodial spent fuel sites, high-level radioactive waste sites, and commercial power reactor sites. All design elements meet or exceed applicable regulations governing the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The design will provide safe disposal of waste materials for at least a 10,000 year period. During this time interval, natural radioactive decay

  3. Designing Optical Mark Forms for Reference Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallman, Clark N.

    1981-01-01

    Presents a method for collecting reference desk statistics in machine-readable form using optical marks. Useful data categories are identified, and figures illustrate how data can be recorded for each category. Ten references are listed. (FM)

  4. Moderator design studies for a new neutron reference source based on the D-T fusion reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozhayev, Andrey V.; Piper, Roman K.; Rathbone, Bruce A.; McDonald, Joseph C.

    2016-06-01

    The radioactive isotope Californium-252 (252Cf) is relied upon internationally as a neutron calibration source for ionizing radiation dosimetry because of its high specific activity. The source may be placed within a heavy-water (D2O) moderating sphere to produce a softened spectrum representative of neutron fields common to commercial nuclear power plant environments, among others. Due to termination of the U.S. Department of Energy loan/lease program in 2012, the expense of obtaining 252Cf sources has undergone a significant increase, rendering high output sources largely unattainable. On the other hand, the use of neutron generators in research and industry applications has increased dramatically in recent years. Neutron generators based on deuteriumtritium (D-T) fusion reaction provide high neutron fluence rates and, therefore, could possibly be used as a replacement for 252Cf. To be viable, the 14 MeV D-T output spectrum must be significantly moderated to approximate common workplace environments. This paper presents the results of an effort to select appropriate moderating materials and design a configuration to reshape the primary neutron field toward a spectrum approaching that from a nuclear power plant workplace. A series of Monte-Carlo (MCNP) simulations of single layer high- and low-Z materials are used to identify initial candidate moderators. Candidates are refined through a similar series of simulations involving combinations of 2-5 different materials. The simulated energy distribution using these candidate moderators are rated in comparison to a target spectrum. Other properties, such as fluence preservation and/or enhancement, prompt gamma production and other characteristics are also considered.

  5. Designing a Reference Station for the Information Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becket, Margaret; Smith, Henry Bradford

    1986-01-01

    Relates experiences of University of Rochester's main library during complete renovation of the central reference department including the addition of a full-service reference station. Topics covered include planning the reference station, solutions to seven design requirements, increase in staffing and reference questions after one year, and…

  6. A Future Large-Aperture UVOIR Space Observatory: Reference Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley; Rioux, Norman; Feinberg, Lee; Stahl, H. Philip; Redding, Dave; Jones, Andrew; Sturm, James; Collins, Christine; Liu, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Our joint NASA GSFC/JPL/MSFC/STScI study team has used community-provided science goals to derive mission needs, requirements, and candidate mission architectures for a future large-aperture, non-cryogenic UVOIR space observatory. We describe the feasibility assessment of system thermal and dynamic stability for supporting coronagraphy. The observatory is in a Sun-Earth L2 orbit providing a stable thermal environment and excellent field of regard. Reference designs include a 36-segment 9.2 m aperture telescope that stows within a five meter diameter launch vehicle fairing. Performance needs developed under the study are traceable to a variety of reference designs including options for a monolithic primary mirror.

  7. A future large-aperture UVOIR space observatory: reference designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rioux, Norman; Thronson, Harley; Feinberg, Lee; Stahl, H. Philip; Redding, Dave; Jones, Andrew; Sturm, James; Collins, Christine; Liu, Alice

    2015-09-01

    Our joint NASA GSFC/JPL/MSFC/STScI study team has used community-provided science goals to derive mission needs, requirements, and candidate mission architectures for a future large-aperture, non-cryogenic UVOIR space observatory. We describe the feasibility assessment of system thermal and dynamic stability for supporting coronagraphy. The observatory is in a Sun-Earth L2 orbit providing a stable thermal environment and excellent field of regard. Reference designs include a 36-segment 9.2 m aperture telescope that stows within a five meter diameter launch vehicle fairing. Performance needs developed under the study are traceable to a variety of reference designs including options for a monolithic primary mirror.

  8. High Flux Isotope Reactor cold neutron source reference design concept

    SciTech Connect

    Selby, D.L.; Lucas, A.T.; Hyman, C.R.

    1998-05-01

    In February 1995, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL`s) deputy director formed a group to examine the need for upgrades to the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) system in light of the cancellation of the Advanced neutron Source Project. One of the major findings of this study was that there was an immediate need for the installation of a cold neutron source facility in the HFIR complex. In May 1995, a team was formed to examine the feasibility of retrofitting a liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) cold source facility into an existing HFIR beam tube. The results of this feasibility study indicated that the most practical location for such a cold source was the HB-4 beam tube. This location provides a potential flux environment higher than the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) vertical cold source and maximizes the space available for a future cold neutron guide hall expansion. It was determined that this cold neutron beam would be comparable, in cold neutron brightness, to the best facilities in the world, and a decision was made to complete a preconceptual design study with the intention of proceeding with an activity to install a working LH{sub 2} cold source in the HFIR HB-4 beam tube. During the development of the reference design the liquid hydrogen concept was changed to a supercritical hydrogen system for a number of reasons. This report documents the reference supercritical hydrogen design and its performance. The cold source project has been divided into four phases: (1) preconceptual, (2) conceptual design and testing, (3) detailed design and procurement, and (4) installation and operation. This report marks the conclusion of the conceptual design phase and establishes the baseline reference concept.

  9. Mooring Design for the Floating Oscillating Water Column Reference Model.

    SciTech Connect

    Bull, Diana L; Brefort, Dorian

    2014-09-01

    To reduce the price of the reference Backward Bent Duct Buoy (BBDB), a study was done analyzing the effects of reducing the mooring line length, and a new mooring design was developed. It was found that the overall length of the mooring lines could be reduced by 1290 meters, allowing a significant price reduction of the system. In this paper, we will first give a description of the model and the storm environment it will be subject to. We will then give a recommendation for the new mooring system, followed by a discussion of the severe weather simulation results, and an analysis of the conservative and aggressive aspects of the design.

  10. Independent Study Unit on Accelerated Reference Frames

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poultney, S. K.

    1973-01-01

    Presents a list of topics, research areas, references, and laboratory equipment which is prepared to facilitate general-science students' understanding of physics aspects in accelerated reference frames after their study of circular motion and Galilean relativity in mechanics. (CC)

  11. The Reference Design for the ILC, Costs, and What's Next

    SciTech Connect

    Barish, Barry

    2007-03-26

    A Reference Design for the International Linear Collider was recently released. The scale of the ILC is such that it must be built by an international collaboration and the design is the culmination of a unique global effort. Through ICFA, a decision was made to base the design on superconducting RF technology and then the Global Design Effort (GDE) was created to coordinate the actual accelerator design toward a construction proposal. The reference design establishes all the features of the machine, and defines both the R&D program and engineering design that will now follow over the next few years.

  12. Richards Barrier LA Reference Design Feature Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    N.E. Kramer

    1999-11-17

    The Richards Barrier is one of the design features of the repository to be considered for the License Application (LA), Richards was a soil scientist who first described the diversion of moisture between two materials with different hydrologic properties. In this report, a Richards Barrier is a special type of backfill with a fine-grained material (such as sand) overlaying a coarse-grained material (such as gravel). Water that enters an emplacement drift will first encounter the fine-grained material and be transported around the coarse-grained material covering the waste package, thus protecting the waste package from contact with most of the groundwater. The objective of this report is to discuss the benefits and liabilities to the repository by the inclusion of a Richards Barrier type backfill in emplacement drifts. The Richards Barrier can act as a barrier to water flow, can reduce the waste package material dissolution rate, limit mobilization of the radionuclides, and can provide structural protection for the waste package. The scope of this report is to: (1) Analyze the behavior of barrier materials following the intrusion of groundwater for influxes of 1 to 300 mm per year. The report will demonstrate diversion of groundwater intrusions into the barrier over an extended time period when seismic activity and consolidation may cause the potential for liquefaction and settlement of the Richards Barrier. (2) Review the thermal effects of the Richards Barrier on material behavior. (3) Analyze the effect of rockfall on the performance of the Richards Barrier and the depth of the barrier required to protect waste packages under the barrier. (4) Review radiological and heating conditions on placement of multiple layers of the barrier. Subsurface Nuclear Safety personnel will perform calculations to determine the radiation reduction-time relationship and shielding capacity of the barrier. (5) Evaluate the effects of ventilation on cooling of emplacement drifts and

  13. LOXT mirror design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanspeybroeck, L.; Antrim, W.; Boyd, D.; Giacconi, R.; Sinnamon, G.; Stille, F.

    1972-01-01

    The final report for the large orbiting X-ray telescope (LOXT) high resolution mirror design study is presented. The following tasks were performed: (1) Generation of a reference and alternate preliminary design for the LOXT high resolution mirror assembly, which will meet the LOXT scientific requirements, and are within the present state of the art of materials and fabrication techniques. (2) Measurement, in X-rays, of the scattering properties of a variety of optical flats, embodying materials, coatings, and polishing techniques which might be applicable to the flight configuration LOXT high resolution mirror. (3) Preparation of a procurement specification for a paraboloid test mirror of the size of the innermost paraboloid of the high resolution mirror assembly, including the design requirements for the reference design evolved from this preliminary design study. The results of the engineering and scientific analysis and the conclusions drawn are presented. The procurement specification for the test mirror is included.

  14. The interstellar heliopause probe technology reference study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyngvi, A.; Falkner, P.; Peacock, A.

    The interstellar heliopause probe (IHP) is one of ESA's technology reference studies (TRS). The TRS aim to focus the development of strategically important technologies of relevance to future science missions by studying technologically demanding and scientifically interesting missions that are currently not part of the science mission programme. Equipped with a highly integrated payload suite (HIPS), the IHP will perform in situ exploration of the heliopause and the heliospheric interface. The HIPS, which is a standard element in all TRSs, miniaturize payloads through resource reduction by using miniaturized components and sensors, and by sharing common structures and payload functionality. To achieve the scientific requirements of the mission, the spacecraft is to leave the heliosphere as close to the heliosphere nose as possible and reach a distance of 200 AU from the Sun within 25 years. This is possible by using a trajectory with two solar flybys and a solar sail with characteristic acceleration of 1.1 mm/s 2, which corresponds to a 245 × 245 m 2 solar sail and a sail thickness of 1-2 μm. The trajectory facilitates a modest sail design that could potentially be developed in a reasonable timeframe. In this paper, an update to the results of studies being performed on this mission will be given and the current mission baseline and spacecraft design will be described. Furthermore, alternative solar sail systems and enabling technologies will be discussed.

  15. Jewish Studies: A Guide to Reference Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill Univ., Montreal (Quebec). McLennan Library.

    An annotated bibliography to the reference sources for Jewish Studies in the McLennan Library of McGill University (Canada) is presented. Any titles in Hebrew characters are listed by their transliterated equivalents. There is also a list of relevant Library of Congress Subject Headings. General reference sources listed are: encyclopedias,…

  16. STS ancillary equipment study. User reference book

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plough, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    A record of what is currently known about STS ancillary equipment is presented in this user-oriented design so that a potential user may evaluate whether he could use the described ancillary equipment or if he would need to design and fabricate a payload-unique item. References that the user can use to obtain additional details and requirements to aid in his evaluation and decision are included.

  17. Design Reference Missions for Deep-Space Optical Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breidenthal, J.; Abraham, D.

    2016-05-01

    We examined the potential, but uncertain, NASA mission portfolio out to a time horizon of 20 years, to identify mission concepts that potentially could benefit from optical communication, considering their communications needs, the environments in which they would operate, and their notional size, weight, and power constraints. A set of 12 design reference missions was selected to represent the full range of potential missions. These design reference missions span the space of potential customer requirements, and encompass the wide range of applications that an optical ground segment might eventually be called upon to serve. The design reference missions encompass a range of orbit types, terminal sizes, and positions in the solar system that reveal the chief system performance variables of an optical ground segment, and may be used to enable assessments of the ability of alternative systems to meet various types of customer needs.

  18. Radioisotope Power Systems Reference Book for Mission Designers and Planners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Young; Bairstow, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The RPS Program's Program Planning and Assessment (PPA) Office commissioned the Mission Analysis team to develop the Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Reference Book for Mission Planners and Designers to define a baseline of RPS technology capabilities with specific emphasis on performance parameters and technology readiness. The main objective of this book is to provide RPS technology information that could be utilized by future mission concept studies and concurrent engineering practices. A progress summary from the major branches of RPS technology research provides mission analysis teams with a vital tool for assessing the RPS trade space, and provides concurrent engineering centers with a consistent set of guidelines for RPS performance characteristics. This book will be iterated when substantial new information becomes available to ensure continued relevance, serving as one of the cornerstone products of the RPS PPA Office. This book updates the original 2011 internal document, using data from the relevant publicly released RPS technology references and consultations with RPS technologists. Each performance parameter and RPS product subsection has been reviewed and cleared by at least one subject matter representative. A virtual workshop was held to reach consensus on the scope and contents of the book, and the definitions and assumptions that should be used. The subject matter experts then reviewed and updated the appropriate sections of the book. The RPS Mission Analysis Team then performed further updates and crosschecked the book for consistency. Finally, a second virtual workshop was held to ensure all subject matter experts and stakeholders concurred on the contents.

  19. Human Exploration of Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Bret G.

    2009-01-01

    This document reviews the Design Reference Architecture (DRA) for human exploration of Mars. The DRA represents the current best strategy for human missions. The DRA is not a formal plan, but provides a vision and context to tie current systems and technology developments to potential missions to Mars, and it also serves as a benchmark against which alternative architectures can be measured. The document also reviews the objectives and products of the 2007 study that was to update NASA's human Mars mission reference architecture, assess strategic linkages between lunar and Mars strategies, develop an understanding of methods for reducing cost/risk of human missions through investment in research, technology development and synergy with other exploration plans. There is also a review of the process by which the DRA will continue to be refined. The unique capacities of human exploration is reviewed. The possible goals and objectives of the first three human missions are presented, along with the recommendation that the mission involve a long stay visiting multiple sites.The deployment strategy is outlined and diagrammed including the pre-deployment of the many of the material requirements, and a six crew travel to Mars on a six month trajectory. The predeployment and the Orion crew vehicle are shown. The ground operations requirements are also explained. Also the use of resources found on the surface of Mars is postulated. The Mars surface exploration strategy is reviewed, including the planetary protection processes that are planned. Finally a listing of the key decisions and tenets is posed.

  20. 77 FR 50907 - Airspace Designations; Incorporation by Reference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ...This action amends Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 71 relating to airspace designations to reflect the approval by the Director of the Federal Register of the incorporation by reference of FAA Order 7400.9W, Airspace Designations and Reporting Points. This action also explains the procedures the FAA will use to amend the listings of Class A, B, C, D, and E airspace areas;......

  1. Human Exploration of Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Bret G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of the Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0 (DRA 5.0), which is the latest in a series of NASA Mars reference missions. It provides a vision of one potential approach to human Mars exploration. The reference architecture provides a common framework for future planning of systems concepts, technology development, and operational testing as well as Mars robotic missions, research that is conducted on the International Space Station, and future lunar exploration missions. This summary the Mars DRA 5.0 provides an overview of the overall mission approach, surface strategy and exploration goals, as well as the key systems and challenges for the first three human missions to Mars.

  2. Human Exploration of Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Bret G.; Hoffman, Stephen J.; Beaty, David W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of the 2007 Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0 (DRA 5.0), which is the latest in a series of NASA Mars reference missions. It provides a vision of one potential approach to human Mars exploration including how Constellation systems can be used. The reference architecture provides a common framework for future planning of systems concepts, technology development, and operational testing as well as Mars robotic missions, research that is conducted on the International Space Station, and future lunar exploration missions. This summary the Mars DRA 5.0 provides an overview of the overall mission approach, surface strategy and exploration goals, as well as the key systems and challenges for the first three human missions to Mars.

  3. Women's Studies: A Guide to Reference Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waiser, Joni, Comp.

    Approximately 125 reference materials on women's studies located in the McClennan Library, McGill University (Montreal), are cited in this annotated bibliography. The bibliography serves as an introduction to social science and humanities materials on women. Library of Congress call numbers are included; dates of publication range from the late…

  4. Basic coaxial mass driver reference design. [electromagnetic lunar launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolm, H. H.

    1977-01-01

    The reference design for a basic coaxial mass driver is developed to illustrate the principles and optimization procedures on the basis of numerical integration by programmable pocket calculators. The four inch caliber system uses a single-coil bucket and a single-phase propulsion track with discrete coils, separately energized by capacitors. An actual driver would use multiple-coil buckets and an oscillatory multi-phase drive system. Even the basic, table-top demonstration system should in principle be able to achieve accelerations in the 1,000 m/sq sec range. Current densities of the order of 25 ka/sq cm, continuously achievable only in superconductors, are carried by an ordinary aluminum bucket coil for a short period in order to demonstrate the calculated acceleration. Ultimately the system can be lengthened and provided with a magnetically levitated, superconducting bucket to study levitation dynamics under quasi-steady-state conditions, and to approach lunar escape velocity in an evacuated tube.

  5. Reference Model 2: %22Rev 0%22 Rotor Design.

    SciTech Connect

    Barone, Matthew F.; Berg, Jonathan Charles; Griffith, Daniel

    2011-12-01

    The preliminary design for a three-bladed cross-flow rotor for a reference marine hydrokinetic turbine is presented. A rotor performance design code is described, along with modifications to the code to allow prediction of blade support strut drag as well as interference between two counter-rotating rotors. The rotor is designed to operate in a reference site corresponding to a riverine environment. Basic rotor performance and rigid-body loads calculations are performed to size the rotor elements and select the operating speed range. The preliminary design is verified with a simple finite element model that provides estimates of bending stresses during operation. A concept for joining the blades and support struts is developed and analyzed with a separate finite element analysis. Rotor mass, production costs, and annual energy capture are estimated in order to allow calculations of system cost-of-energy. Evaluation Only. Created with Aspose.Pdf.Kit. Copyright 2002-2011 Aspose Pty Ltd Evaluation Only. Created with Aspose.Pdf.Kit. Copyright 2002-2011 Aspose Pty Ltd

  6. Updated reference design of a liquid metal cooled tandem mirror fusion breeder

    SciTech Connect

    Berwald, D.H.; Whitley, R.H.; Garner, J.K.; Gromada, R.J.; McCarville, T.J.; Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Bandini, B.R.; Fulton, F.J.; Wong, C.P.C.; Maya, I.; Hoot, C.G.; Schultz, K.R.; Miller, L.G.; Beeston, J.M.; Harris, B.L.; Westman, R.A.; Ghoniem, N.M.; Orient, G.; Wolfer, M.; DeVan, J.H.; Torterelli, P.

    1985-09-01

    Detailed studies of key techinical issues for liquid metal cooled fusion breeder (fusion-fission hybrid blankets) have been performed during the period 1983-4. Based upon the results of these studies, the 1982 reference liquid metal cooled tandem mirror fusion breeder blanket design was updated and is described. The updated reference blankets provides increased breeding and lower technological risk in comparison with the original reference blanket. In addition to the blanket design revisions, a plant concept, cost, and fuel cycle economics assessment is provided. The fusion breeder continues to promise an economical source of fissile fuel for the indefinite future.

  7. Content Analysis of Virtual Reference Data: Reshaping Library Website Design.

    PubMed

    Fan, Suhua Caroline; Welch, Jennifer M

    2016-01-01

    An academic health sciences library wanted to redesign its website to provide better access to health information in the community. Virtual reference data were used to provide information about user searching behavior. This study analyzed three years (2012-2014) of virtual reference data, including e-mail questions, text messaging, and live chat transcripts, to evaluate the library website for redesigning, especially in areas such as the home page, patrons' terminology, and issues prompting patrons to ask for help. A coding system based on information links in the current library website was created to analyze the data. PMID:27391180

  8. Importance of reference gene selection for articular cartilage mechanobiology studies

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sabah, A.; Stadnik, P.; Gilbert, S.J.; Duance, V.C.; Blain, E.J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective Identification of genes differentially expressed in mechano-biological pathways in articular cartilage provides insight into the molecular mechanisms behind initiation and/or progression of osteoarthritis (OA). Quantitative PCR (qPCR) is commonly used to measure gene expression, and is reliant on the use of reference genes for normalisation. Appropriate validation of reference gene stability is imperative for accurate data analysis and interpretation. This study determined in vitro reference gene stability in articular cartilage explants and primary chondrocytes subjected to different compressive loads and tensile strain, respectively. Design The expression of eight commonly used reference genes (18s, ACTB, GAPDH, HPRT1, PPIA, RPL4, SDHA and YWHAZ) was determined by qPCR and data compared using four software packages (comparative delta-Ct method, geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper). Calculation of geometric means of the ranked weightings was carried out using RefFinder. Results Appropriate reference gene(s) for normalisation of mechanically-regulated transcript levels in articular cartilage tissue or isolated chondrocytes were dependent on experimental set-up. SDHA, YWHAZ and RPL4 were the most stable genes whilst glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and to a lesser extent Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT), showed variable expression in response to load, demonstrating their unsuitability in such in vitro studies. The effect of using unstable reference genes to normalise the expression of aggrecan (ACAN) and matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3) resulted in inaccurate quantification of these mechano-sensitive genes and erroneous interpretation/conclusions. Conclusion This study demonstrates that commonly used ‘reference genes’ may be unsuitable for in vitro cartilage chondrocyte mechanobiology studies, reinforcing the principle that careful validation of reference genes is essential prior to each experiment to

  9. Reference Design for a Simple, Durable and Refuelable Interplanetary Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, B. S.; Tolley, A. M.

    This article describes a reference design for interplanetary vessels, composed mostly of water, that utilize simplified RF engines for low thrust, long duration propulsion, and hydrogen peroxide for short duration, high thrust burns. The electrothermal engines are designed to heat a wide range of liquid materials, possibly also milled solids or surface dusts. The system emphasizes simple components and processes based on older technologies, many well known since the 1960s, that are understandable, can process a variety of materials, and are easily serviced in flight. The goal is to radically simplify systems and their inter-dependencies, to a point where a reasonably skilled person can learn to operate these vessels, not unlike a sailboat, and to eliminate many design and testing bottlenecks in their construction. The use of water, or hydrogen peroxide generated in situ from that water, is multiply advantageous because it can be used for structure, consumption, irrigation, radiation and debris shielding, and thermal regulation, and thus greatly reduce dead weight by creating an almost fully consumable ship. This also enables the ship to utilize a wide range of in situ materials, and eventually obtain reaction mass from lower gravity sites. The ability to switch between low thrust, constant power and high thrust, short duration maneuvers will enable these ships to travel freely and reach many interesting destinations throughout the solar system. One can think of them as “spacecoaches”, not unlike the prairie schooners of the Old West, which were rugged, serviceable by tradesmen, and easily maintained.

  10. With Reference to Reference Genes: A Systematic Review of Endogenous Controls in Gene Expression Studies

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Joanne R.; Waldenström, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    The choice of reference genes that are stably expressed amongst treatment groups is a crucial step in real-time quantitative PCR gene expression studies. Recent guidelines have specified that a minimum of two validated reference genes should be used for normalisation. However, a quantitative review of the literature showed that the average number of reference genes used across all studies was 1.2. Thus, the vast majority of studies continue to use a single gene, with β-actin (ACTB) and/or glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) being commonly selected in studies of vertebrate gene expression. Few studies (15%) tested a panel of potential reference genes for stability of expression before using them to normalise data. Amongst studies specifically testing reference gene stability, few found ACTB or GAPDH to be optimal, whereby these genes were significantly less likely to be chosen when larger panels of potential reference genes were screened. Fewer reference genes were tested for stability in non-model organisms, presumably owing to a dearth of available primers in less well characterised species. Furthermore, the experimental conditions under which real-time quantitative PCR analyses were conducted had a large influence on the choice of reference genes, whereby different studies of rat brain tissue showed different reference genes to be the most stable. These results highlight the importance of validating the choice of normalising reference genes before conducting gene expression studies. PMID:26555275

  11. NASA's RPS Design Reference Mission Set for Solar System Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balint, Tibor S.

    2007-01-01

    NASA's 2006 Solar System Exploration (SSE) Strategic Roadmap identified a set of proposed large Flagship, medium New Frontiers and small Discovery class missions, addressing key exploration objectives. These objectives respond to the recommendations by the National Research Council (NRC), reported in the SSE Decadal Survey. The SSE Roadmap is down-selected from an over-subscribed set of missions, called the SSE Design Reference Mission (DRM) set. Missions in the Flagship and New Frontiers classes can consider Radioisotope Power Systems (RPSs), while small Discovery class missions are not permitted to use them, due to cost constraints. In line with the SSE DRM set and the SSE Roadmap missions, the RPS DRM set represents a set of missions, which can be enabled or enhanced by RPS technologies. At present, NASA has proposed the development of two new types of RPSs. These are the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG), with static power conversion; and the Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG), with dynamic conversion. Advanced RPSs, under consideration for possible development, aim to increase specific power levels. In effect, this would either increase electric power generation for the same amount of fuel, or reduce fuel requirements for the same power output, compared to the proposed MMRTG or SRG. Operating environments could also influence the design, such that an RPS on the proposed Titan Explorer would use smaller fins to minimize heat rejection in the extreme cold environment; while the Venus Mobile Explorer long-lived in-situ mission would require the development of a new RPS, in order to tolerate the extreme hot environment, and to simultaneously provide active cooling to the payload and other electric components. This paper discusses NASA's SSE RPS DRM set, in line with the SSE DRM set. It gives a qualitative assessment regarding the impact of various RPS technology and configuration options on potential mission architectures, which could

  12. NASA'S RPS Design Reference Mission Set for Solar System Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balint, Tibor S.

    2007-01-01

    NASA's 2006 Solar System Exploration (SSE) Strategic Roadmap identified a set of proposed large Flagship, medium New Frontiers and small Discovery class missions, addressing key exploration objectives. These objectives respond to the recommendations by the National Research Council (NRC), reported in the SSE Decadal Survey. The SSE Roadmap is down-selected from an over-subscribed set of missions, called the SSE Design Reference Mission (DRM) set Missions in the Flagship and New Frontiers classes can consider Radioisotope Power Systems (RPSs), while small Discovery class missions are not permitted to use them, due to cost constraints. In line with the SSE DRM set and the SSE Roadmap missions, the RPS DRM set represents a set of missions, which can be enabled or enhanced by RPS technologies. At present, NASA has proposed the development of two new types of RPSs. These are the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG), with static power conversion; and the Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG), with dynamic conversion. Advanced RPSs, under consideration for possible development, aim to increase specific power levels. In effect, this would either increase electric power generation for the same amount of fuel, or reduce fuel requirements for the same power output, compared to the proposed MMRTG or SRG. Operating environments could also influence the design, such that an RPS on the proposed Titan Explorer would use smaller fins to minimize heat rejection in the extreme cold environment; while the Venus Mobile Explorer long-lived in-situ mission would require the development of a new RPS, in order to tolerate the extreme hot environment, and to simultaneously provide active cooling to the payload and other electric components. This paper discusses NASA's SSE RPS DRM set, in line with the SSE DRM set. It gives a qualitative assessment regarding the impact of various RPS technology and configuration options on potential mission architectures, which could

  13. Detailed cost estimate of reference residential photovoltaic designs

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.S.; Penasa, D.A.; Thomas, M.G.

    1983-04-01

    This report presents estimated installation costs for four reference residential photovoltaic designs. Installation cost estimates ranged from $1.28 to $2.12/W/sub p/ for arrays installed by union labor (4.1 to 6.07 kW/sub p/-systems), and from $1.22 to $1.83 W/sub p/ for non-union installations. Standoff mounting was found to increase costs from $1.63/W/sub p/ to $2.12/W/sub p/ for a representative case, whereas 25 kWh of battery storage capacity increased installation costs from $1.44/W/sub p/ to $2.08/W/sub p/. Overall system costs (union-based were $6000 to $7000 for a 4.1 kW array in the northeast, to approx. $9000 for a 6.07 kW/sub p/ array in the southwest. This range of installation costs, approx. $1 to $2/W/sub p/ (in 1980 dollars), is representative of current installation costs for residential PV systems. Any future cost reductions are likely to be small and can be accomplished only by optimization of mounting techniques, module efficiencies, and module reliability in toto.

  14. Proposed CTV design reference missions in support of Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saucillo, Rudy J.; Cirillo, William M.

    1991-01-01

    Use of design reference missions (DRM's) for the cargo transfer vehicle (CTV) in support of Space Station Freedom (SSF) can provide a common baseline for the design and assessment of CTV systems and mission operations. These DRM's may also provide baseline operations scenarios for integrated CTV, Shuttle, and SSF operations. Proposed DRM's for CTV, SSF, and Shuttle operations envisioned during the early post-PMC time frame and continuing through mature, SSF evolutionary operations are described. These proposed DRM's are outlines for detailed mission definition; by treating these DRM's as top-level input for mission design studies, a range of parametric studies for systems/operations may be performed. Shuttle flight design experience, particularly rendezvous flight design, provides an excellent basis for DRM operations studies. To begin analysis of the DRM's, shuttle trajectory design tools were used in single case analysis to define CTV performance requirements. A summary of these results is presented.

  15. Proposed CTV design reference missions in support of Space Station Freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saucillo, Rudy J.; Cirillo, William M.

    Use of design reference missions (DRM's) for the cargo transfer vehicle (CTV) in support of Space Station Freedom (SSF) can provide a common baseline for the design and assessment of CTV systems and mission operations. These DRM's may also provide baseline operations scenarios for integrated CTV, Shuttle, and SSF operations. Proposed DRM's for CTV, SSF, and Shuttle operations envisioned during the early post-PMC time frame and continuing through mature, SSF evolutionary operations are described. These proposed DRM's are outlines for detailed mission definition; by treating these DRM's as top-level input for mission design studies, a range of parametric studies for systems/operations may be performed. Shuttle flight design experience, particularly rendezvous flight design, provides an excellent basis for DRM operations studies. To begin analysis of the DRM's, shuttle trajectory design tools were used in single case analysis to define CTV performance requirements. A summary of these results is presented.

  16. Staffing by Design: A Methodology for Staffing Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, David; Phetteplace, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The growth in number and kind of online reference services has resulted in both new users consulting library research services as well as new patterns of service use. Staffing in-person and virtual reference services desks adequately requires a systematic analysis of patterns of use across service points in order to successfully meet fluctuating…

  17. Large Synoptic Survey Telescope: From Science Drivers To Reference Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivezic, Z.; Axelrod, T.; Brandt, W. N.; Burke, D. L.; Claver, C. F.; Connolly, A.; Cook, K. H.; Gee, P.; Gilmore, D. K.; Jacoby, S. H.; Jones, R. L.; Kahn, S. M.; Kantor, J. P.; Krabbendam, V. V.; Lupton, R. H.; Monet, D. G.; Pinto, P. A.; Saha, A.; Schalk, T. L.; Schneider, D. P.; Strauss, M. A.; Stubbs, C. W.; Sweeney, D.; Szalay, A.; Thaler, J. J.; Tyson, J. A.; LSST Collaboration

    2008-06-01

    In the history of astronomy, major advances in our understanding of the Universe have come from dramatic improvements in our ability to accurately measure astronomical quantities. Aided by rapid progress in information technology, current sky surveys are changing the way we view and study the Universe. Next-generation surveys will maintain this revolutionary progress. We focus here on the most ambitious survey currently planned in the visible band, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). LSST will have unique survey capability in the faint time domain. The LSST design is driven by four main science themes: constraining dark energy and dark matter, taking an inventory of the Solar System, exploring the transient optical sky, and mapping the Milky Way. It will be a large, wide-field ground-based system designed to obtain multiple images covering the sky that is visible from Cerro Pachón in Northern Chile. The current baseline design, with an 8.4 m (6.5 m effective) primary mirror, a 9.6 deg2 field of view, and a 3,200 Megapixel camera, will allow about 10,000 square degrees of sky to be covered using pairs of 15-second exposures in two photometric bands every three nights on average. The system is designed to yield high image quality, as well as superb astrometric and photometric accuracy. The survey area will include 30,000 deg2 with δ<+34.5°, and will be imaged multiple times in six bands, ugrizy, covering the wavelength range 320--1050 nm. About 90% of the observing time will be devoted to a deep-wide-fast survey mode which will observe a 20,000 deg2 region about 1000 times in the six bands during the anticipated 10 years of operation. These data will result in databases including 10 billion galaxies and a similar number of stars, and will serve the majority of science programs. The remaining 10% of the observing time will be allocated to special programs such as Very Deep and Very Fast time domain surveys. We describe how the LSST science drivers led to

  18. Large Synoptic Survey Telescope: From Science Drivers to Reference Design

    SciTech Connect

    Ivezic, Z.; Axelrod, T.; Brandt, W.N.; Burke, D.L.; Claver, C.F.; Connolly, A.; Cook, K.H.; Gee, P.; Gilmore, D.K.; Jacoby, S.H.; Jones, R.L.; Kahn, S.M.; Kantor, J.P.; Krabbendam, V.; Lupton, R.H.; Monet, D.G.; Pinto, P.A.; Saha, A.; Schalk, T.L.; Schneider, D.P.; Strauss, Michael A.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept. /LSST Corp. /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /NOAO, Tucson /LLNL, Livermore /UC, Davis /Princeton U., Astrophys. Sci. Dept. /Naval Observ., Flagstaff /Arizona U., Astron. Dept. - Steward Observ. /UC, Santa Cruz /Harvard U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Illinois U., Urbana

    2011-10-14

    In the history of astronomy, major advances in our understanding of the Universe have come from dramatic improvements in our ability to accurately measure astronomical quantities. Aided by rapid progress in information technology, current sky surveys are changing the way we view and study the Universe. Next-generation surveys will maintain this revolutionary progress. We focus here on the most ambitious survey currently planned in the visible band, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). LSST will have unique survey capability in the faint time domain. The LSST design is driven by four main science themes: constraining dark energy and dark matter, taking an inventory of the Solar System, exploring the transient optical sky, and mapping the Milky Way. It will be a large, wide-field ground-based system designed to obtain multiple images covering the sky that is visible from Cerro Pachon in Northern Chile. The current baseline design, with an 8.4 m (6.5 m effective) primary mirror, a 9.6 deg{sup 2} field of view, and a 3,200 Megapixel camera, will allow about 10,000 square degrees of sky to be covered using pairs of 15-second exposures in two photometric bands every three nights on average. The system is designed to yield high image quality, as well as superb astrometric and photometric accuracy. The survey area will include 30,000 deg{sup 2} with {delta} < +34.5{sup o}, and will be imaged multiple times in six bands, ugrizy, covering the wavelength range 320-1050 nm. About 90% of the observing time will be devoted to a deep-wide-fast survey mode which will observe a 20,000 deg{sup 2} region about 1000 times in the six bands during the anticipated 10 years of operation. These data will result in databases including 10 billion galaxies and a similar number of stars, and will serve the majority of science programs. The remaining 10% of the observing time will be allocated to special programs such as Very Deep and Very Fast time domain surveys. We describe how the

  19. Reference design and operations for deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Herrick, Courtney Grant; Brady, Patrick Vane; Pye, Steven; Arnold, Bill Walter; Finger, John Travis; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2011-10-01

    A reference design and operational procedures for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in deep boreholes have been developed and documented. The design and operations are feasible with currently available technology and meet existing safety and anticipated regulatory requirements. Objectives of the reference design include providing a baseline for more detailed technical analyses of system performance and serving as a basis for comparing design alternatives. Numerous factors suggest that deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste is inherently safe. Several lines of evidence indicate that groundwater at depths of several kilometers in continental crystalline basement rocks has long residence times and low velocity. High salinity fluids have limited potential for vertical flow because of density stratification and prevent colloidal transport of radionuclides. Geochemically reducing conditions in the deep subsurface limit the solubility and enhance the retardation of key radionuclides. A non-technical advantage that the deep borehole concept may offer over a repository concept is that of facilitating incremental construction and loading at multiple perhaps regional locations. The disposal borehole would be drilled to a depth of 5,000 m using a telescoping design and would be logged and tested prior to waste emplacement. Waste canisters would be constructed of carbon steel, sealed by welds, and connected into canister strings with high-strength connections. Waste canister strings of about 200 m length would be emplaced in the lower 2,000 m of the fully cased borehole and be separated by bridge and cement plugs. Sealing of the upper part of the borehole would be done with a series of compacted bentonite seals, cement plugs, cement seals, cement plus crushed rock backfill, and bridge plugs. Elements of the reference design meet technical requirements defined in the study. Testing and operational safety assurance requirements are also defined. Overall

  20. An Engineering Design Reference Mission for a Future Large-Aperture UVOIR Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Clampin, Mark; Crooke, Julie A.; Redding, David; Rioux, Norman; Stahl, H. Philip

    2016-01-01

    From the 2010 NRC Decadal Survey and the NASA Thirty-Year Roadmap, Enduring Quests, Daring Visions, to the recent AURA report, From Cosmic Birth to Living Earths, multiple community assessments have recommended development of a large-aperture UVOIR space observatory capable of achieving a broad range of compelling scientific goals. Of these priority science goals, the most technically challenging is the search for spectroscopic biomarkers in the atmospheres of exoplanets in the solar neighborhood. Here we present an engineering design reference mission (EDRM) for the Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST), which was conceived from the start as capable of breakthrough science paired with an emphasis on cost control and cost effectiveness. An EDRM allows the engineering design trade space to be explored in depth to determine what are the most demanding requirements and where there are opportunities for margin against requirements. Our joint NASA GSFC/JPL/MSFC/STScI study team has used community-provided science goals to derive mission needs, requirements, and candidate mission architectures for a future large-aperture, non-cryogenic UVOIR space observatory. The ATLAST observatory is designed to operate at a Sun-Earth L2 orbit, which provides a stable thermal environment and excellent field of regard. Our reference designs have emphasized a serviceable 36-segment 9.2 m aperture telescope that stows within a five-meter diameter launch vehicle fairing. As part of our cost-management effort, this particular reference mission builds upon the engineering design for JWST. Moreover, it is scalable to a variety of launch vehicle fairings. Performance needs developed under the study are traceable to a variety of additional reference designs, including options for a monolithic primary mirror.

  1. An Earth-Moon system trajectory design reference catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folta, David C.; Bosanac, Natasha; Guzzetti, Davide; Howell, Kathleen C.

    2015-05-01

    As demonstrated by ongoing concept designs and the recent ARTEMIS mission, there is, currently, significant interest in exploiting three-body dynamics in the design of trajectories for both robotic and human missions within the Earth-Moon system. The concept of an interactive and 'dynamic' catalog of potential solutions in the Earth-Moon system is explored within this paper and analyzed as a framework to guide trajectory design. Characterizing and compiling periodic and quasi-periodic solutions that exist in the circular restricted three-body problem may offer faster and more efficient strategies for orbit design, while also delivering innovative mission design parameters for further examination.

  2. An Earth-Moon System Trajectory Design Reference Catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Bosanac, Natasha; Guzzetti, Davide; Howell, Kathleen C.

    2014-01-01

    As demonstrated by ongoing concept designs and the recent ARTEMIS mission, there is, currently, significant interest in exploiting three-body dynamics in the design of trajectories for both robotic and human missions within the Earth-Moon system. The concept of an interactive and 'dynamic' catalog of potential solutions in the Earth-Moon system is explored within this paper and analyzed as a framework to guide trajectory design. Characterizing and compiling periodic and quasi-periodic solutions that exist in the circular restricted three-body problem may offer faster and more efficient strategies for orbit design, while also delivering innovative mission design parameters for further examination.

  3. A Study of Librarians' Attitudes Toward the Reference Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deputy, Michele M.

    The reference interview is a critical function of reference work; what a librarian says and does can either build a relationship of trust and satisfaction with patrons, or serve to distance them from librarians. This pilot study examined the attitudes of academic and public librarians toward the reference interview. Librarians from Kent State…

  4. Crew Exploration Vehicle Environmental Control and Life Support Design Reference Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, John F.; Anderson, Molly K.; Ewert, Mike S.; Stephan, Ryan A.; Carrasquillo, Robyn L.

    2007-01-01

    In preparation for the contract award of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) produced two design reference missions for the vehicle. The design references used teams of engineers across the agency to come up with two configurations. This process helped NASA understand the conflicts and limitations in the CEV design, and investigate options to solve them.

  5. A reference model for model-based design of critical infrastructure protection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Young Don; Park, Cheol Young; Lee, Jae-Chon

    2015-05-01

    Today's war field environment is getting versatile as the activities of unconventional wars such as terrorist attacks and cyber-attacks have noticeably increased lately. The damage caused by such unconventional wars has also turned out to be serious particularly if targets are critical infrastructures that are constructed in support of banking and finance, transportation, power, information and communication, government, and so on. The critical infrastructures are usually interconnected to each other and thus are very vulnerable to attack. As such, to ensure the security of critical infrastructures is very important and thus the concept of critical infrastructure protection (CIP) has come. The program to realize the CIP at national level becomes the form of statute in each country. On the other hand, it is also needed to protect each individual critical infrastructure. The objective of this paper is to study on an effort to do so, which can be called the CIP system (CIPS). There could be a variety of ways to design CIPS's. Instead of considering the design of each individual CIPS, a reference model-based approach is taken in this paper. The reference model represents the design of all the CIPS's that have many design elements in common. In addition, the development of the reference model is also carried out using a variety of model diagrams. The modeling language used therein is the systems modeling language (SysML), which was developed and is managed by Object Management Group (OMG) and a de facto standard. Using SysML, the structure and operational concept of the reference model are designed to fulfil the goal of CIPS's, resulting in the block definition and activity diagrams. As a case study, the operational scenario of the nuclear power plant while being attacked by terrorists is studied using the reference model. The effectiveness of the results is also analyzed using multiple analysis models. It is thus expected that the approach taken here has some merits

  6. 7 CFR 801.12 - Design requirements incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Section 801.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRAIN INSPECTION EQUIPMENT § 801.12 Design requirements...

  7. 7 CFR 801.12 - Design requirements incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 801.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRAIN INSPECTION EQUIPMENT § 801.12 Design requirements...

  8. Multi-point Adjoint-Based Design of Tilt-Rotors in a Noninertial Reference Frame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William T.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Acree, Cecil W.

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of tilt-rotor systems requires the consideration of performance at multiple design points. In the current study, an adjoint-based optimization of a tilt-rotor blade is considered. The optimization seeks to simultaneously maximize the rotorcraft figure of merit in hover and the propulsive efficiency in airplane-mode for a tilt-rotor system. The design is subject to minimum thrust constraints imposed at each design point. The rotor flowfields at each design point are cast as steady-state problems in a noninertial reference frame. Geometric design variables used in the study to control blade shape include: thickness, camber, twist, and taper represented by as many as 123 separate design variables. Performance weighting of each operational mode is considered in the formulation of the composite objective function, and a build up of increasing geometric degrees of freedom is used to isolate the impact of selected design variables. In all cases considered, the resulting designs successfully increase both the hover figure of merit and the airplane-mode propulsive efficiency for a rotor designed with classical techniques.

  9. Factors Influencing Digital Reference Triage: A Think-Aloud Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomerantz, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a think-aloud study conducted to identify factors that influence the decisions made by digital reference "triagers" when performing triage on questions received by digital reference services. This study follows and expands on a Delphi study that identified factors that triagers agreed on after the fact of their performance…

  10. HYBRID SULFUR PROCESS REFERENCE DESIGN AND COST ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Gorensek, M.; Summers, W.; Boltrunis, C.; Lahoda, E.; Allen, D.; Greyvenstein, R.

    2009-05-12

    This report documents a detailed study to determine the expected efficiency and product costs for producing hydrogen via water-splitting using energy from an advanced nuclear reactor. It was determined that the overall efficiency from nuclear heat to hydrogen is high, and the cost of hydrogen is competitive under a high energy cost scenario. It would require over 40% more nuclear energy to generate an equivalent amount of hydrogen using conventional water-cooled nuclear reactors combined with water electrolysis compared to the proposed plant design described herein. There is a great deal of interest worldwide in reducing dependence on fossil fuels, while also minimizing the impact of the energy sector on global climate change. One potential opportunity to contribute to this effort is to replace the use of fossil fuels for hydrogen production by the use of water-splitting powered by nuclear energy. Hydrogen production is required for fertilizer (e.g. ammonia) production, oil refining, synfuels production, and other important industrial applications. It is typically produced by reacting natural gas, naphtha or coal with steam, which consumes significant amounts of energy and produces carbon dioxide as a byproduct. In the future, hydrogen could also be used as a transportation fuel, replacing petroleum. New processes are being developed that would permit hydrogen to be produced from water using only heat or a combination of heat and electricity produced by advanced, high temperature nuclear reactors. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is developing these processes under a program known as the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI). The Republic of South Africa (RSA) also is interested in developing advanced high temperature nuclear reactors and related chemical processes that could produce hydrogen fuel via water-splitting. This report focuses on the analysis of a nuclear hydrogen production system that combines the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR), under development by

  11. COS Design Reference Mission andGround System Volume Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keyes, Charles D.; Kutina, Ray; Morse, Jon A.

    1999-04-01

    We describe a scenario for the expected usage of COS that incorporates predicted instrumental capabilities, the COS IDT DRM as currently envisioned, community input, astudy of planned and actual usage of the previous HST spectrographs (FOS, GHRS, andSTIS), and estimates of the time to be allocated to COS by future TACs. From this input we derive, for times of normal and stressed usage, estimates of the expected frequency of COS science- and calibration-related exposures (~12/day), average downlink volume(~600 Mbits/day), archive volume (TBD), and calibration reference file OPUS on-linestorage volume (~1 Gbyte). We also provide summaries of COS instrumental capabilitiesand predicted sensitivities in comparison with those of the other HST spectrographs.

  12. Reference Materials in LIS Instruction: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabina, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a Delphi study conducted over a two-month period in 2011. The purpose of the study was to identify reference sources that should be covered in basic reference courses taught in LIS programs in the United States. The Delphi method was selected for its appropriateness in soliciting expert opinions and assessing the…

  13. Design of Low Complexity Model Reference Adaptive Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Curt; Schaefer, Jacob; Johnson, Marcus; Nguyen, Nhan

    2012-01-01

    Flight research experiments have demonstrated that adaptive flight controls can be an effective technology for improving aircraft safety in the event of failures or damage. However, the nonlinear, timevarying nature of adaptive algorithms continues to challenge traditional methods for the verification and validation testing of safety-critical flight control systems. Increasingly complex adaptive control theories and designs are emerging, but only make testing challenges more difficult. A potential first step toward the acceptance of adaptive flight controllers by aircraft manufacturers, operators, and certification authorities is a very simple design that operates as an augmentation to a non-adaptive baseline controller. Three such controllers were developed as part of a National Aeronautics and Space Administration flight research experiment to determine the appropriate level of complexity required to restore acceptable handling qualities to an aircraft that has suffered failures or damage. The controllers consist of the same basic design, but incorporate incrementally-increasing levels of complexity. Derivations of the controllers and their adaptive parameter update laws are presented along with details of the controllers implementations.

  14. Human Exploration of Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0, Addendum #2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Bret G. (Editor); Watts Kevin D. (Editor)

    2014-01-01

    This report serves as the second Addendum to NASA-SP-2009-566, "Human Exploration of Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0." The data and descriptions contained within this Addendum capture some of the key assessments and studies produced since publication of the original document, predominately covering those conducted from 2009 through 2012. The assessments and studies described herein are for the most part independent stand-alone contributions. Effort has not been made to assimilate the findings to provide an updated integrated strategy. That is a recognized future effort. This report should not be viewed as constituting a formal plan for the human exploration of Mars.

  15. Ethics in Reference Service: Codes, Case Studies, or Values?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koster, Gregory E.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews the development of codes of ethics for library reference service and the deficiencies of the code approach; surveys published case studies and hypothetical situations on the issue of unbiased service; and proposes a value-based approach that clarifies the real conflicts and leads to personal decision-making. (34 references) (LRW)

  16. Selected Ethnic and Gender Studies Internet Sources for Reference Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillow, Lisa

    1997-01-01

    Gives a general overview of selected reference resources dealing with ethnic and gender studies available on the Web and presents an annotated list of sources. Studies are broken into African and African American Studies; Asian and Asian American Studies; Latino/Chicano Studies; Native American Studies; Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Studies; Men's…

  17. Architectural design proposal for a Martian base to continue NASA Mars Design Reference Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozicki, Janek

    The issue of extraterrestrial bases has recently been a very vivid one. There are orbital stations currently existing and humans will travel to Mars around 2030. They will need stations established there, which will provide them the proper living conditions. Firstly, it might be a small module brought from Earth (e.g. NASA Mars Design Reference Mission module (DRM)), in later stages equivalents of Earth houses may be built from local resources. The goal of this paper is to propose an architectural design for an intermediate stage — for a larger habitable unit transported from Earth. It is inspired by terrestrial portable architecture ideas. A pneumatic structure requires small volume during transportation. However, it provides large habitable space after deployment. It is designed for transport by DRM transportation module and its deployment is considerable easy and brief. An architectural solution analogous to a terrestrial house with a studio and a workshop was assumed. Its form was a result of technical and environmental limitations, and the need for an ergonomic interior. The spatial placement of following zones was carefully considered: residential, agricultural and science, as well as a garage with a workshop, transportation routes, and a control and communication center. The issues of Life Support System, energy, food, water and waste recycling were also discussed. This Martian base was designed to be crewed by a team of eight people to stay on Mars for at least 1.5 year. An Open Plan architectural solution was assumed in pneumatic modules, with a high level of modularity. Walls of standardized sizes with zip-fasteners allow free rearrangement of the interior to adapt to a new situation (e.g. damage of one of the pneumatic modules or a psychological ,,need of a change"). The architectural design focuses on ergonomic and psychological aspects of longer stay in hostile Martian environment. This solution provides Martian crew with a comfortable habitable

  18. Time domain and frequency domain design techniques for model reference adaptive control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boland, J. S., III

    1971-01-01

    Some problems associated with the design of model-reference adaptive control systems are considered and solutions to these problems are advanced. The stability of the adapted system is a primary consideration in the development of both the time-domain and the frequency-domain design techniques. Consequentially, the use of Liapunov's direct method forms an integral part of the derivation of the design procedures. The application of sensitivity coefficients to the design of model-reference adaptive control systems is considered. An application of the design techniques is also presented.

  19. Energy Efficient Drivepower : Literature Reference List, Volume 2, Design Engineer`s Supplement.

    SciTech Connect

    Ula, Sadrul.; Birnbaum, Larry E.; Jordan, Don

    1992-01-01

    A large number of information sources in the area of the efficient use of drivepower are listed. The main list is for the general user of drivepower systems. The other list is a supplemental reference list for the design engineer.

  20. Energy Efficient Drivepower : Literature Reference List, Volume 2 Design Engineer's Supplement.

    SciTech Connect

    Ula, Sadrul; Jordan, Don L.; Birnbaum, Larry E.

    1993-01-01

    A large number of information sources in the area of the efficient use of drivepower are listed. The main list is for the general user of drivepower systems. The other list is a supplemental reference list for the design engineer.

  1. Superior Cross-Species Reference Genes: A Blueberry Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Die, Jose V.; Rowland, Lisa J.

    2013-01-01

    The advent of affordable Next Generation Sequencing technologies has had major impact on studies of many crop species, where access to genomic technologies and genome-scale data sets has been extremely limited until now. The recent development of genomic resources in blueberry will enable the application of high throughput gene expression approaches that should relatively quickly increase our understanding of blueberry physiology. These studies, however, require a highly accurate and robust workflow and make necessary the identification of reference genes with high expression stability for correct target gene normalization. To create a set of superior reference genes for blueberry expression analyses, we mined a publicly available transcriptome data set from blueberry for orthologs to a set of Arabidopsis genes that showed the most stable expression in a developmental series. In total, the expression stability of 13 putative reference genes was evaluated by qPCR and a set of new references with high stability values across a developmental series in fruits and floral buds of blueberry were identified. We also demonstrated the need to use at least two, preferably three, reference genes to avoid inconsistencies in results, even when superior reference genes are used. The new references identified here provide a valuable resource for accurate normalization of gene expression in Vaccinium spp. and may be useful for other members of the Ericaceae family as well. PMID:24058469

  2. Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (CPS) Configuration in Support of NASA's Multiple Design Reference Missions (DRMs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanna, Stephen G.; Jones, David L.; Creech, Stephen D.; Lawrence, Thomas D.

    2012-01-01

    In support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD), the Space Launch System (SLS) is being designed for safe, affordable, and sustainable human and scientific exploration missions beyond Earth's or-bit (BEO). The SLS Team is tasked with developing a system capable of safely and repeatedly lofting a new fleet of spaceflight vehicles beyond Earth orbit. The Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (CPS) is a key enabler for evolving the SLS capability for BEO missions. This paper reports on the methodology and initial recommendations relative to the CPS, giving a brief retrospective of early studies on this promising propulsion hardware. This paper provides an overview of the requirements development and CPS configuration in support of NASA's multiple Design Reference Missions (DRMs).

  3. Aluminum reference plate, heat sink, and actuator design for an adaptive secondary mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Vecchio, Ciro

    1998-09-01

    The design of an adaptive secondary mirror has to satisfy many requirements coming from different fields. The thin mirror must be actuated very precisely with a large bandwidth. The reference plate has to provide a high stability reference for the optical surfaces. The local seeing is not to be degraded by any significant thermal perturbation. In this article, the performances of a configuration with a single aluminum reference plate, that also provides the heat sink, are computed starting from the input power coming from the magnetic actuators, whose magnetic design has been revised.

  4. Time reference in agrammatic aphasia: A cross-linguistic study

    PubMed Central

    Bastiaanse, Roelien; Bamyaci, Elif; Hsu, Chien-Ju; Lee, Jiyeon; Duman, Tuba Yarbay; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown across several languages that verb inflection is difficult for agrammatic aphasic speakers. In particular, Tense inflection is vulnerable. Several theoretical accounts for this have been posed, for example, a pure syntactic one suggesting that the Tense node is unavailable due to its position in the syntactic tree (Friedmann & Grodzinsky, 1997); one suggesting that the interpretable features of the Tense node are underspecified (Burchert, Swoboda-Moll, & De Bleser, 2005; Wenzlaff & Clahsen, 2004, 2005); and a morphosemantic one, arguing that the diacritic Tense features are affected in agrammatism (Faroqi–Shah & Dickey, 2009; Lee, Milman, & Thompson, 2008). However recent findings (Bastiaanse, 2008) and a reanalysis of some oral production studies (e.g. Lee et al., 2008; Nanousi, Masterson, Druks, & Atkinson, 2006) suggest that both Tense and Aspect are impaired and, most importantly, reference to the past is selectively impaired, both through simple verb forms (such as simple past in English) and through periphrastic verb forms (such as the present perfect, ‘has V-ed’, in English). It will be argued that reference to the past is discourse linked and reference to the present and future is not (Zagona, 2003, in press). In-line with Avrutin’s (2000) theory that suggests discourse linking is impaired in Broca’s aphasia, the PAst DIscourse LInking Hypothesis (PADILIH) has been formulated. Three predictions were tested: (1) patients with agrammatic aphasia are selectively impaired in use of grammatical morphology associated with reference to the past, whereas, inflected forms which refer to the present and future are relatively spared; (2) this impairment is language-independent; and (3) this impairment will occur in both production and comprehension. Agrammatic Chinese, English and Turkish speakers were tested with the Test for Assessing Reference of Time (TART; Bastiaanse, Jonkers, & Thompson, unpublished). Results showed that both the

  5. Study Design for Sequencing Studies.

    PubMed

    Honaas, Loren A; Altman, Naomi S; Krzywinski, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Once a biochemical method has been devised to sample RNA or DNA of interest, sequencing can be used to identify the sampled molecules with high fidelity and low bias. High-throughput sequencing has therefore become the primary data acquisition method for many genomics studies and is being used more and more to address molecular biology questions. By applying principles of statistical experimental design, sequencing experiments can be made more sensitive to the effects under study as well as more biologically sound, hence more replicable. PMID:27008009

  6. Scaffolding Students' Development of Creative Design Skills: A Curriculum Reference Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chien-Sing; Kolodner, Janet L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a framework for promoting creative design capabilities in the context of achieving community goals pertaining to sustainable development among high school students. The framework can be used as a reference model to design formal or out-of-school curriculum units in any geographical region. This theme is chosen due to its…

  7. 77 FR 55832 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of a New Equivalent Method

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... made under the provisions of 40 CFR part 53, as ] amended on August 31, 2011 (76 FR 54326-54341). The... AGENCY Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of a New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of the designation of a new equivalent method...

  8. 77 FR 60985 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... 53, as amended on August 31, 2011 (76 FR 54326-54341). The new equivalent methods are automated... AGENCY Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of the designation of three new...

  9. Over-Specified Referring Expressions Impair Comprehension: An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Paul E.; Demiral, S. Baris; Ferreira, Fernanda

    2011-01-01

    Speakers often include extra information when producing referring expressions, which is inconsistent with the Maxim of Quantity (Grice, 1975). In this study, we investigated how comprehension is affected by unnecessary information. The literature is mixed: some studies have found that extra information facilitates comprehension and others reported…

  10. The WFIRST Interim Design Reference Mission: Capabilities, Constraints, and Open Questions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruk, Jeffrey W.

    2012-01-01

    The Project Office and Science Definition Team for the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) are in the midst of a pre-Phase A study to establish a Design Reference Mission (DRM). An Interim report was released in June 2011, with a final report due later in 2012. The predicted performance of the Interim DRM Observatory will be described, including optical quality, observing efficiency, and sensitivity for representative observing scenarios. Observing constraints and other limitations on performance will also be presented, with an emphasis on potential Guest Observer programs. Finally, a brief status update will be provided on open trade studies of interest to the scientific community. The final DRM may differ from the Interim DRM presented here. However, the underlying requirements of the scientific programs are not expected to change, hence the capabilities of the IDRM are likely to be maintained even if the implementation changes in significant ways.

  11. Use of the 4D-Global Reference Atmosphere Model (GRAM) for space shuttle descent design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, S. M.

    1987-01-01

    The method of using the Global Reference Atmosphere Model (GRAM) mean and dispersed atmospheres to study skipout/overshoot requirements, to characterize mean and worst case vehicle temperatures, study control requirements, and verify design was discussed. Landing sites in these analyses range from 65 N to 30 S, while orbit inclinations vary from 20 deg to 98 deg. The primary concern was that they cannot use as small vertical steps in the reentry calculation as desired because the model predicts anomalously large density shear rates for very small vertical step sizes. The winds predicted by the model are not satisfactory. This is probably because they are geostrophic winds and because the model has an error in the computation of winds in the equatorial regions.

  12. Reference Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bivens-Tatum, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    This article presents interesting articles that explore several different areas of reference assessment, including practical case studies and theoretical articles that address a range of issues such as librarian behavior, patron satisfaction, virtual reference, or evaluation design. They include: (1) "Evaluating the Quality of a Chat Service"…

  13. Development of Integrated Programs for Aerospace-vehicle design (IPAD): Reference design process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, D. D.

    1979-01-01

    The airplane design process and its interfaces with manufacturing and customer operations are documented to be used as criteria for the development of integrated programs for the analysis, design, and testing of aerospace vehicles. Topics cover: design process management, general purpose support requirements, design networks, and technical program elements. Design activity sequences are given for both supersonic and subsonic commercial transports, naval hydrofoils, and military aircraft.

  14. Environmental Reference Series, Earth and Environment Studies, Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qutub, Musa, Comp.

    Compiled in this reference work are bibliographic citations for books, articles, films, and organizations dealing with the earth and environmental studies. In addition to the above topics of a general nature, specific categories include food, natural resources, origin of life, recycling, and wastes. Items are indexed only by title but information…

  15. Environmental Reference Series, Earth and Environmental Studies, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qutub, Musa, Comp.

    Compiled in this reference work are bibliographic citations for books and articles dealing with the earth and environmental studies. Specific categories are geology, oceanography, meteorology, and astronomy. Items are indexed only by title but information about author, source, and date of publication is also noted. (BL)

  16. The Value of Chat Reference Services: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacoby, JoAnn; Ward, David; Avery, Susan; Marcyk, Emilia

    2016-01-01

    This article explores student, instructor, and librarian perceptions of chat reference in the context of an introductory composition course. Participants in a mixed-method study responded to an anonymized chat transcript. While student respondents valued speed and efficiency, they were willing to receive instruction and open to questions that…

  17. Design and operation of a Loran-C time reference station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putkovich, K.

    1974-01-01

    Some of the practical questions that arise when one decides to use Loran-C in a time reference system are explored. An extensive effort is made to provide basic, practical information on establishing and operating a reference station. Four areas were covered: (1) the design, configuration and operational concepts which should be considered prior to establishing and operating a reference station using Loran-C, (2) the options and tradeoffs available regarding capabilities, cost, size, versatility, ease of operation, etc., that are available to the designer, (3) what measurements are made, how they are made and what they mean, and (4) the experience the U.S. Naval Observatory Time Service Division has had in the design and operation of such stations.

  18. Human Health and Performance Aspects of the Mars Design Reference Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, John B.

    2000-01-01

    This paper will describe the current planning for exploration-class missions, emphasizing the medical, and human factors aspects of such expeditions. The details of mission architecture are still under study, but a typical Mars design reference mission comprises a six-month transit from Earth to Mar, eighteen months in residence on Mars, and a six-month transit back to Earth. Physiological stressors will include environmental factors such as prolonged exposure to radiation, weightlessness in transit, and hypogravity and a toxic atmosphere while on Mars. Psychological stressors will include remoteness from Earth, confinement, and potential interpersonal conflicts, all complicated by circadian alterations. Medical risks including trauma must also be considered. Results of planning for assuring human health and performance will be presented.

  19. Slurry reactor design studies

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.M.; Degen, B.D.; Cady, G.; Deslate, F.D.; Summers, R.L. ); Akgerman, A. ); Smith, J.M. )

    1990-06-01

    The objective of these studies was to perform a realistic evaluation of the relative costs of tublar-fixed-bed and slurry reactors for methanol, mixed alcohols and Fischer-Tropsch syntheses under conditions where they would realistically be expected to operate. The slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor was, therefore, operated at low H{sub 2}/CO ratio on gas directly from a Shell gasifier. The fixed-bed reactor was operated on 2.0 H{sub 2}/CO ratio gas after adjustment by shift and CO{sub 2} removal. Every attempt was made to give each reactor the benefit of its optimum design condition and correlations were developed to extend the models beyond the range of the experimental pilot plant data. For the methanol design, comparisons were made for a recycle plant with high methanol yield, this being the standard design condition. It is recognized that this is not necessarily the optimum application for the slurry reactor, which is being proposed for a once-through operation, coproducing methanol and power. Consideration is also given to the applicability of the slurry reactor to mixed alcohols, based on conditions provided by Lurgi for an Octamix{trademark} plant using their standard tubular-fixed reactor technology. 7 figs., 26 tabs.

  20. Seal design alternatives study

    SciTech Connect

    Van Sambeek, L.L.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results from a study of various sealing alternatives for the WIPP sealing system. Overall, the sealing system has the purpose of reducing to the extent possible the potential for fluids (either gas or liquid) from entering or leaving the repository. The sealing system is divided into three subsystems: drift and panel seals within the repository horizon, shaft seals in each of the four shafts, and borehole seals. Alternatives to the baseline configuration for the WIPP seal system design included evaluating different geometries and schedules for seal component installations and the use of different materials for seal components. Order-of-magnitude costs for the various alternatives were prepared as part of the study. Firm recommendations are not presented, but the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives are discussed. Technical information deficiencies are identified and studies are outlined which can provide required information.

  1. Shuttle communications design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cartier, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    The design and development of a space shuttle communication system are discussed. The subjects considered include the following: (1) Ku-band satellite relay to shuttle, (2) phased arrays, (3) PN acquisition, (4) quadriplexing of direct link ranging and telemetry, (5) communications blackout on launch and reentry, (6) acquisition after blackout on reentry, (7) wideband communications interface with the Ku-Band rendezvous radar, (8) aeroflight capabilities of the space shuttle, (9) a triple multiplexing scheme equivalent to interplex, and (10) a study of staggered quadriphase for use on the space shuttle.

  2. Integrated technology wing design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, A. P.; Beck, W. E.; Morita, W. H.; Penrose, B. J.; Skarshaug, R. E.; Wainfan, B. S.

    1984-01-01

    The technology development costs and associated benefits in applying advanced technology associated with the design of a new wing for a new or derivative trijet with a capacity for 350 passengers and maximum range of 8519 km, entering service in 1990 were studied. The areas of technology are: (1) airfoil technology; (2) planform parameters; (3) high lift; (4) pitch active control system; (5) all electric systems; (6) E to 3rd power propulsion; (7) airframe/propulsion integration; (8) graphite/epoxy composites; (9) advanced aluminum alloys; (10) titanium alloys; and (11) silicon carbide/aluminum composites. These technologies were applied to the reference aircraft configuration. Payoffs were determined for block fuel reductions and net value of technology. These technologies are ranked for the ratio of net value of technology (NVT) to technology development costs.

  3. The Role of Virtual Reference in Library Web Site Design: A Qualitative Source for Usage Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Amanda Clay; Shedd, Julie; Hill, Clay

    2011-01-01

    Gathering qualitative information about usage behavior of library Web sites is a time-consuming process requiring the active participation of patron communities. Libraries that collect virtual reference transcripts, however, hold valuable data regarding how the library Web site is used that could benefit Web designers. An analysis of virtual…

  4. Application of positive-real functions in hyperstable discrete model-reference adaptive system design.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karmarkar, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    Proposal of an algorithmic procedure, based on mathematical programming methods, to design compensators for hyperstable discrete model-reference adaptive systems (MRAS). The objective of the compensator is to render the MRAS insensitive to initial parameter estimates within a maximized hypercube in the model parameter space.

  5. PERFORMANCE TEST RESULTS AND COMPARATIVE DATA FOR DESIGNATED REFERENCE AND EQUIVALENT METHODS FOR OZONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under Part 53 of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR Part 53), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency designates specific ambient monitoring methods and analyzers as reference or equivalent methods acceptable for use in National Air Monitoring Stations (NAMS), S...

  6. BWID System Design Study

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, M.C.; Rudin, M.J.; Morrison, J.L.; Richardson, J.G.

    1991-12-31

    The mission of the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) System Design Study is to identify and evaluate technology process options for the cradle-to-grave remediation of Transuranic (TRU)-Contaminated Waste Pits and Trenches buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Emphasis is placed upon evaluating system configuration options and associated functional and operational requirements for retrieving and treating the buried wastes. A Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter was developed to evaluate the identified remediation systems and their enabling technologies based upon system requirements and quantification of technical Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability (CERCLA) balancing criteria. Remediation systems will also be evaluated with respect to regulatory and institutional acceptance and cost-effectiveness.

  7. BWID System Design Study

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, M.C.; Rudin, M.J.; Morrison, J.L.; Richardson, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    The mission of the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) System Design Study is to identify and evaluate technology process options for the cradle-to-grave remediation of Transuranic (TRU)-Contaminated Waste Pits and Trenches buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Emphasis is placed upon evaluating system configuration options and associated functional and operational requirements for retrieving and treating the buried wastes. A Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter was developed to evaluate the identified remediation systems and their enabling technologies based upon system requirements and quantification of technical Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability (CERCLA) balancing criteria. Remediation systems will also be evaluated with respect to regulatory and institutional acceptance and cost-effectiveness.

  8. Conceptual design optimization study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollowell, S. J.; Beeman, E. R., II; Hiyama, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of applying multilevel functional decomposition and optimization techniques to conceptual design of advanced fighter aircraft was investigated. Applying the functional decomposition techniques to the conceptual design phase appears to be feasible. The initial implementation of the modified design process will optimize wing design variables. A hybrid approach, combining functional decomposition techniques for generation of aerodynamic and mass properties linear sensitivity derivatives with existing techniques for sizing mission performance and optimization, is proposed.

  9. Thermionic Reactor Design Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred

    1994-06-01

    During the 1960's and early 70's the author performed extensive design studies, analyses, and tests aimed at thermionic reactor concepts that differed significantly from those pursued by other investigators. Those studies, like most others under Atomic Energy Commission (AEC and DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sponsorship, were terminated in the early 1970's. Some of this work was previously published, but much of it was never made available in the open literature. U.S. interest in thermionic reactors resumed in the early 80's, and was greatly intensified by reports about Soviet ground and flight tests in the late 80's. This recent interest resulted in renewed U.S. thermionic reactor development programs, primarily under Department of Defense (DOD) and Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship. Since most current investigators have not had an opportunity to study all of the author's previous work, a review of the highlights of that work may be of value to them. The present paper describes some of the author's conceptual designs and their rationale, and the special analytical techniques developed to analyze their performance. The basic designs, first published in 1963, are based on single-cell converters, either double-ended diodes extending over the full height of the reactor core or single-ended diodes extending over half the core height. In that respect they are similar to the thermionic fuel elements employed in the Topaz-2 reactor subsequently developed in the Soviet Union, copies of which were recently imported by the U.S. As in the Topaz-2 case, electrically heated steady-state performance tests of the converters are possible before fueling. Where the author's concepts differed from the later Topaz-2 design was in the relative location of the emitter and the collector. Placing the fueled emitter on the outside of the cylindrical diodes permits much higher axial conductances to reduce ohmic losses in the electrodes of full

  10. Operationalization of a Frame of Reference for Studying Organizational Culture in Middle Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Larry G.

    A frame of reference for studying culture in middle schools was developed. Items for the Middle School Description Survey (MSDS), which was designed to test elements of the ideal middle school culture, were created based on middle school advocacy literature. The items were conceptually categorized according to E. H. Schein's (1985) cultural…

  11. Mechanical design of the University of Florida Torsion Pendulum for testing the LISA Gravitational Reference Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelley, Ryan; Chilton, Andrew; Olatunde, Tawio; Ciani, Giacomo; Mueller, Guido; Conklin, John

    2014-03-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) requires free falling test masses, whose acceleration must be below 3 fm/s2/rtHz in the lower part of LISA's frequency band ranging from 0.1 to 100 mHz. Gravitational reference sensors (GRS) house the test masses, shield them from external disturbances, control their orientation, and sense their position at the nm/rtHz level. The GRS torsion pendulum is a laboratory test bed for GRS technology. By decoupling the system of test masses from the gravity of the Earth, it is possible to identify and quantify many sources of noise in the sensor. The mechanical design of the pendulum is critical to the study of the noise sources and the development of new technologies that can improve performance and reduce cost. The suspended test mass is a hollow, gold-coated, aluminum cube which rests inside a gold-coated, aluminum housing with electrodes for sensing and actuating all six degrees of freedom. This poster describes the design, analysis, and assembly of the mechanical subsystems of the UF Torsion Pendulum.

  12. Hepatitis B virus genotype A: design of reference sequences for sub-genotypes.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qun; Zhu, Huilan; Zhang, Yafei; Li, Xu; Zhang, Zhenhua

    2016-06-01

    Genotype A of hepatitis B virus (HBV/A) is widespread and is currently divided into six sub-genotypes. Suitable reference sequences for different sub-genotypes can facilitate research on HBV/A. However, the current reference sequences for this virus are insufficient. In the present work, we retrieved 442 full-length HBV/A genomic sequences from the GenBank database and classified them into sub-genotypes by phylogenetic analysis. By the maximum likelihood method using the MEGA6.0 software, we established the reference sequences for different HBV/A sub-genotypes. Our analyses demonstrated that these reference sequences clustered phylogenetically with known strains, indicating that the reference sequences we established indeed belonged to the right sub-genotypes. HBV/A subtype sequences were selected by geographic origins and grouped as sub-genotypes including A1-South Africa, A2-Europe, A3-Cameroon, and A5-Haiti. Reference sequences of sub-genotypes A1, A2, A3, and A5 were constructed and deposited into GenBank (KP234050-KP234053). By applying phylogenetic analyses, we further determined the time to most recent common ancestor of HBV/A lineages. In conclusion, these newly established reference sequences can provide suitable reference standards for studies on the molecular biology and virology of HBV genotype A. PMID:27002608

  13. HEAO attitude reference design. [for satellite attitude control and determination subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, D. P.; Mcelroy, T. T.

    1978-01-01

    The paper deals with the precision onboard attitude reference implemented as part of the attitude control and determination subsystem for the three High Energy Astronomy Observatories (HEAO-A, HEAO-B, and HEAO-C) in the HEAO scientific spacecraft program. The first observatory (HEAO-A, designated HEAO-1 when in orbit) was launched successfully into near-earth orbit on August 12, 1977. The HEAO attitude reference, analysis techniques for performance prediction, and flight results from the HEAO-1 observatory during its first months of operation. The HEAO-B design is specifically described and analyzed in terms of gyro processing, kinematic integration, ground update algorithm, and star tracker update algorithm. Attitude reference performance estimates are also discussed. It is shown that the orbital performance of the attitude reference correlates very well with the developmental predictions, thereby validating the analytical techniques used during the development. This validation provides a firm basis from which to extrapolate to other applications and related design concepts.

  14. Geodetic reference systems for long period studies in earth physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    A simple system of reference axes is defined for possible use in high precision geodetic studies over long periods of time for programs in earth physics. The proposed system is based on the gravitational and dynamic characteristics of the axis of rotation and the earth's center of mass as defined instantaneously at a given epoch. Techniques are outlined for its continuous representation over time intervals of significance for studies in earth physics. The relationship between the proposed system and the representation of extra-terrestrial objects using the celestial sphere concept is also discussed.

  15. Design Of A SCRAMJET Nozzle With Streamline Tracing Technique And Reference Temerature Methode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riehmer, J.; Gulhan, A.

    2011-05-01

    This study presents a method to find an optimal shape of a three-dimensional supersonic nozzle for a rectangular scramjet combustion chamber with rounded edges by taking into account the skin friction effects. The geometric and flow constraints are defined within the German DFG GRK 1095/2 project and the designed nozzle will be part of a scramjet demonstrator configuration [1]. The nozzle inlet conditions are mean values of the combustion chamber exit conditions with the assumption of a constant specific heat ratio. To generate the shape of the nozzle a streamline tracing technique is applied to an axis-symmetric flow field calculated by the Method of Characteristics (MOC). Skin friction in relatively high pressure supersonic flow from the combustion chamber is very dominant and cannot be neglected in the design process. Therefore the skin friction is calculated using the Reference Temperature Method (RTM) and used for the determination of the thrust and moment vectors. This allows considering viscous effects without boundary layer calculations. With this approach an optimal truncated ideal nozzle contour which yields the geometric constraints can be derived. For the validation of this method comparative calculations have been carried out with the DLR code TAU on an exemplary axis-symmetric supersonic nozzle for different flow conditions. Results showed a good agreement. Finally for the three-dimensional nozzle the analytical solution for the inviscous and viscous case provided comparable data like TAU simulations. Further simplifications of the approach for an efficient three-dimensional nozzle design will be addressed in the paper.

  16. Modular antenna design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ribble, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    The mechanical design of a modular antenna concept was developed sufficiently to allow manufacture of a working demonstration model of a module, to predict mass properties, and to make performance estimates for antenna reflectors composed of these modules. The primary features of this concept are: (1) each module is an autonomous structural element which can be attached to adjacent modules through a three point connection; (2) the upper surface is a folding hexagonal truss plate mechanism which serves as the supporting structure for a reflective surface; and (3) the entire truss and surface can be folded into a cylindrical envelope in which all truss elements are essentially parallel. The kinematic studies and engineering demonstration model fully verified the deployment kinematics, stowing philosophy, and deployment sequencing for large antenna modules. It was established that such modules can be stowed in packages as small as 25 cm in diameter, using 1.27 cm diameter structural tubes. The development activity indicates that this deployable modular approach towards building large structures in space will support erection of 450 m apertures for operation up to 3 GHz with a single space shuttle flight.

  17. Bias due to composite reference standards in diagnostic accuracy studies.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Ian; van Smeden, Maarten; Hadgu, Alula; Libman, Michael; Reitsma, Johannes B; Dendukuri, Nandini

    2016-04-30

    Composite reference standards (CRSs) have been advocated in diagnostic accuracy studies in the absence of a perfect reference standard. The rationale is that combining results of multiple imperfect tests leads to a more accurate reference than any one test in isolation. Focusing on a CRS that classifies subjects as disease positive if at least one component test is positive, we derive algebraic expressions for sensitivity and specificity of this CRS, sensitivity and specificity of a new (index) test compared with this CRS, as well as the CRS-based prevalence. We use as a motivating example the problem of evaluating a new test for Chlamydia trachomatis, an asymptomatic disease for which no gold-standard test exists. As the number of component tests increases, sensitivity of this CRS increases at the expense specificity, unless all tests have perfect specificity. Therefore, such a CRS can lead to significantly biased accuracy estimates of the index test. The bias depends on disease prevalence and accuracy of the CRS. Further, conditional dependence between the CRS and index test can lead to over-estimation of index test accuracy estimates. This commonly-used CRS combines results from multiple imperfect tests in a way that ignores information and therefore is not guaranteed to improve over a single imperfect reference unless each component test has perfect specificity, and the CRS is conditionally independent of the index test. When these conditions are not met, as in the case of C. trachomatis testing, more realistic statistical models should be researched instead of relying on such CRSs. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26555849

  18. Bulk transfer protocols on satellite link - Study within the OSI reference model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valet, I.

    Since satellite systems, such as TELECOM1 in France, are available for data transmission, new protocols need to be designed to fit the requirements of satellite communication systems and to offer specific facilities to the users. The main features of these new transmission protocols, as they have been specified by NADIR studies, are described. Next, the reasons for choosing to study these protocols within the OSI Reference Model are explained. A detailed study about introducing the protocol mechanisms described above in the OSI Reference model layers is then presented. Different approaches are presented, and the solutions studied are appraised in terms of efficiency, and of conformity to the OSI Reference Model. Finally, the experiments planned by NADIR are mentionned.

  19. Automated Question Triage for Social Reference: A Study of Adopting Decision Factors from Digital Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jong Do

    2013-01-01

    The increasing popularity of Social Reference (SR) services has enabled a corresponding growth in the number of users engaging in them as well as in the number of questions submitted to the services. However, the efficiency and quality of the services are being challenged because a large quantity of the questions have not been answered or…

  20. Thermal design and test results for SUNLITE ultra-stable reference cavity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amundsen, Ruth M.

    1991-01-01

    SUNLITE (Stanford University-NASA Laser In-Space Technology Experiment) is a space-based experiment which uses a reference cavity to provide a stable frequency reference for a terahertz laser oscillator. Thermal stability of the cavity is a key factor in attaining a stable narrow-linewidth laser beam. The mount which is used to support and align the cavity will provide thermal isolation from the environment. The baseline requirement for thermal stability of the cavity is 0.025 C/min, but the design is directed toward achieving stability well beyond this requirement to improve the science data gained. A prototype of the cavity mount was fabricated and tested to characterize the thermal performance. The thermal vacuum test involved stable high-resolution temperature measurements and stable baseplate temperature control over long durations. Based on test data, the cavity mount design satisfies the severe requirement for the cavity thermal stability.

  1. Analysis of Improved Reference Design for a Nuclear-Driven High Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin A. Harvego; James E. O'Brien; Michael G. McKellar

    2010-06-01

    The use of High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) for the efficient production of hydrogen without the greenhouse gas emissions associated with conventional fossil-fuel hydrogen production techniques has been under investigation at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INL) for the last several years. The activities at the INL have included the development, testing and analysis of large numbers of solid oxide electrolysis cells, and the analyses of potential plant designs for large scale production of hydrogen using an advanced Very-High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) to provide the process heat and electricity to drive the electrolysis process. The results of these system analyses, using the UniSim process analysis software, have shown that the HTE process, when coupled to a VHTR capable of operating at reactor outlet temperatures of 800 °C to 950 °C, has the potential to produce the large quantities of hydrogen needed to meet future energy and transportation needs with hydrogen production efficiencies in excess of 50%. In addition, economic analyses performed on the INL reference plant design, optimized to maximize the hydrogen production rate for a 600 MWt VHTR, have shown that a large nuclear-driven HTE hydrogen production plant can to be economically competitive with conventional hydrogen production processes, particularly when the penalties associated with greenhouse gas emissions are considered. The results of this research led to the selection in 2009 of HTE as the preferred concept in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) hydrogen technology down-selection process. However, the down-selection process, along with continued technical assessments at the INL, has resulted in a number of proposed modifications and refinements to improve the original INL reference HTE design. These modifications include changes in plant configuration, operating conditions and individual component designs. This paper describes the resulting new INL reference design and presents

  2. Control system design for the large space systems technology reference platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmunds, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    Structural models and classical frequency domain control system designs were developed for the large space systems technology (LSST) reference platform which consists of a central bus structure, solar panels, and platform arms on which a variety of experiments may be mounted. It is shown that operation of multiple independently articulated payloads on a single platform presents major problems when subarc second pointing stability is required. Experiment compatibility will be an important operational consideration for systems of this type.

  3. Integrated Design and Production Reference Integration with ArchGenXML V1.00

    SciTech Connect

    Barter, R H

    2004-07-20

    ArchGenXML is a tool that allows easy creation of Zope products through the use of Archetypes. The Integrated Design and Production Reference (IDPR) should be highly configurable in order to meet the needs of a diverse engineering community. Ease of configuration is key to the success of IDPR. The purpose of this paper is to describe a method of using a UML diagram editor to configure IDPR through ArchGenXML and Archetypes.

  4. Coxarthrosis and farm work: a case-referent study.

    PubMed

    Thelin, A; Jansson, B; Jacobsson, B; Ström, H

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this case-referent study was to analyze the association between coxarthrosis and occupation. The study was performed in a Swedish agricultural county and comprised 269 cases of radiologically verified arthrosis of osteoarthritis (< 3 mm joint space) that were compared to 538 randomly selected controls in the same region, matched for age, sex, and place of residence. Farmers and agricultural workers showed an increased risk of coxarthrosis and the observed risk increased with increasing number of years of farming. Tractor driving and milking were associated with coxarthrosis, whereas no association with other types of machine work could be demonstrated. An association between coxarthrosis and heavy physical work before the age of 16 years was also observed. The results give only limited information on the external causes of coxarthrosis, however. More detailed studies of groups of individuals with coxarthrosis in order to obtain more information about contributing and underlying factors would therefore be valuable. PMID:9327073

  5. Developing Areas Studies: A Guide to Reference Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill Univ., Montreal (Quebec). McLennan Library.

    This multi-disciplinary annotated bibliography introduces students to reference resources on developing nations. The collection looks at reference works on developing areas of the world as a whole. The reference collection contains many specialized subject bibliographies that may be identified by a keyword search. Sections of the bibliography…

  6. Thermionic Reactor Design Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred

    1994-08-01

    Paper presented at the 29th IECEC in Monterey, CA in August 1994. The present paper describes some of the author's conceptual designs and their rationale, and the special analytical techniques developed to analyze their (thermionic reactor) performance. The basic designs, first published in 1963, are based on single-cell converters, either double-ended diodes extending over the full height of the reactor core or single-ended diodes extending over half the core height. In that respect they are similar to the thermionic fuel elements employed in the Topaz-2 reactor subsequently developed in the Soviet Union, copies of which were recently imported by the U.S. As in the Topaz-2 case, electrically heated steady-state performance tests of the converters are possible before fueling.

  7. Detailed conceptual designs and economic analyses of a reference Photovoltaic Central Power Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, D. J.; Heller, B. W.; Stephenson, J. E.

    Detailed conceptual designs and economic analyses of a reference 100MWe Photovoltaic Central Power Station (PV CPS) have been completed. Both flat plate dendritic WEB and point focus fresnel concentrator (100X concentration) arrays were used to develop two individual central station reference designs. Design requirements, detailed drawings and system, subsystem and component specifications form the basis for a plant construction cost estimate. The flat plate array PV CPS costs range from $179M to $483M (1982 U.S. Dollars) for array costs ranging from $1/Wp to $3.50/Wp and power conditioning unit (PCU) costs from $.05/Wp to $.50/Wp. Similar costs for the concentrator PV CPS range from $201M to $505M, respectively. Using representative utility financial parameters, in-house economic models, and a plant performance estimate, levelized busbar energy costs (BBEC) are derived for both flat plate and concentrator designs. BBEC range from $.15/kWh to $.41/kWh for the flat plate PV CPS from $.15/kWh to $.37/kWh for the concentrator PV CPS.

  8. Reference-based benefit design changes consumers' choices and employers' payments for ambulatory surgery.

    PubMed

    Robinson, James C; Brown, Timothy; Whaley, Christopher

    2015-03-01

    Some employers are using reference-based benefit (RBB) designs, also known as "reference-based pricing," to encourage patients to select lower-price ambulatory surgery centers instead of expensive hospital outpatient departments. This article analyzes the impact of such benefit designs for cataract removal surgery from the period 2009-13, using data on 2,347 surgical patients covered by the California Public Employees Retirement System (CalPERS), in comparison to 14,867 patients enrolled in non-CalPERS Anthem Blue Cross plans, which are not covered by RBB. After adjusting for changes in patient case-mix and other factors, the shift to RBB was associated with an increase in ambulatory surgery center use by 8.6 percentage points compared to trends among Anthem enrollees. Total employer and employee payments per procedure, after adjusting for changes in case-mix severity and market factors, declined by 19.7 percent compared with Anthem enrollees not subject to RBB. Consumer cost-sharing requirements increased for CalPERS patients who continued to use hospital outpatient departments but who were not exempted from RBB because of geographic or clinical factors. Reference-based benefits for cataract surgery saved CalPERS $1.3 million in the two years after implementation. PMID:25732491

  9. Planetary benchmarks. [structural design criteria for radar reference devices on planetary surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uphoff, C.; Staehle, R.; Kobrick, M.; Jurgens, R.; Price, H.; Slade, M.; Sonnabend, D.

    1978-01-01

    Design criteria and technology requirements for a system of radar reference devices to be fixed to the surfaces of the inner planets are discussed. Offshoot applications include the use of radar corner reflectors as landing beacons on the planetary surfaces and some deep space applications that may yield a greatly enhanced knowledge of the gravitational and electromagnetic structure of the solar system. Passive retroreflectors with dimensions of about 4 meters and weighing about 10 kg are feasible for use with orbiting radar at Venus and Mars. Earth-based observation of passive reflectors, however, would require very large and complex structures to be delivered to the surfaces. For Earth-based measurements, surface transponders offer a distinct advantage in accuracy over passive reflectors. A conceptual design for a high temperature transponder is presented. The design appears feasible for the Venus surface using existing electronics and power components.

  10. Advanced turbocharger design study program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culy, D. G.; Heldenbrand, R. W.; Richardson, N. R.

    1984-01-01

    The advanced Turbocharger Design Study consisted of: (1) the evaluation of three advanced engine designs to determine their turbocharging requirements, and of technologies applicable to advanced turbocharger designs; (2) trade-off studies to define a turbocharger conceptual design and select the engine with the most representative requirements for turbocharging; (3) the preparation of a turbocharger conceptual design for the Curtiss Wright RC2-32 engine selected in the trade-off studies; and (4) the assessment of market impact and the preparation of a technology demonstration plan for the advanced turbocharger.

  11. A standard reference for chamber testing of material VOC emissions: Design principle and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wenjuan; Zhang, Yinping; Xiong, Jianyin; Li, Mu

    2012-02-01

    Environmental chambers are widely used to test formaldehyde and other volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from indoor materials and furniture. However, there is a lack of a proven method to assess the precision of the test results of the chamber system. In this paper, we describe a new standard reference, LIFE (liquid-inner tube diffusion-film-emission), to address this problem. This reference has the following salient features: (1) Constant emission rate, with less than 3.0% change with an ambient airflow speed (>0.014 m/s) at furniture emission range (0.1-1.0 mg/m 3 in a 30 m 3 chamber with air change rate of 1/h) under standard chamber test conditions as specified by ISO 16000-9 (23 °C, 50% RH); (2) Long duration of emissions, on the order of 1000 h; (3) Easy to store, apply and maintain. The design principle and criteria of the LIFE reference are presented. An analytical model and dimensionless analysis were applied to optimize the factors influencing the emission rate, and experiments were conducted to validate the analytical results. In addition, the equivalent emission parameters of the reference, i.e., the initial emittable concentration, the diffusion coefficient and the partition coefficient, were determined through a three-parameter optimizing regression. This can then be used to check the reliability of a chamber method for testing these three parameters. The developed standard reference should prove useful for calibrating chamber systems for indoor material/furniture VOC emissions tests.

  12. Requirements and design reference mission for the WFIRST/AFTA coronagraph instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demers, Richard T.; Dekens, Frank; Calvet, Rob; Chang, Zensheu; Effinger, Robert; Ek, Eric; Hovland, Larry; Jones, Laura; Loc, Anthony; Nemati, Bijan; Noecker, Charley; Neville, Timothy; Pham, Hung; Rud, Mike; Tang, Hong; Villalvazo, Juan

    2015-09-01

    The WFIRST-AFTA coronagraph instrument takes advantage of AFTAs 2.4-meter aperture to provide novel exoplanet imaging science at approximately the same instrument cost as an Explorer mission. The AFTA coronagraph also matures direct imaging technologies to high TRL for an Exo-Earth Imager in the next decade. The coronagraph Design Reference Mission (DRM) optical design is based on the highly successful High Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT), with modifications to accommodate the AFTA telescope design, service-ability, volume constraints, and the addition of an Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS). In order to optimally satisfy the three science objectives of planet imaging, planet spectral characterization and dust debris imaging, the coronagraph is designed to operate in two different modes: Hybrid Lyot Coronagraph or Shaped Pupil Coronagraph. Active mechanisms change pupil masks, focal plane masks, Lyot masks, and bandpass filters to shift between modes. A single optical beam train can thus operate alternatively as two different coronagraph architectures. Structural Thermal Optical Performance (STOP) analysis predicts the instrument contrast with the Low Order Wave Front Control loop closed. The STOP analysis was also used to verify that the optical/structural/thermal design provides the extreme stability required for planet characterization in the presence of thermal disturbances expected in a typical observing scenario. This paper describes the instrument design and the flow down from science requirements to high level engineering requirements.

  13. Selected, annotated bibliography of studies relevant to the isolation of nuclear wastes. [705 references

    SciTech Connect

    Hyder, L.K.; Fore, C.S.; Vaughan, N.D.; Faust, R.A.

    1980-09-01

    This annotated bibliography of 705 references represents the first in a series to be published by the Ecological Sciences Information Center containing scientific, technical, economic, and regulatory information relevant to nuclear waste isolation. Most references discuss deep geologic disposal, with fewer studies of deep seabed disposal; space disposal is also included. The publication covers both domestic and foreign literature for the period 1954 to 1980. Major chapters selected are Chemical and Physical Aspects; Container Design and Performance; Disposal Site; Envirnmental Transport; General Studies and Reviews; Geology, Hydrology and Site Resources; Regulatory and Economic Aspects; Repository Design and Engineering; Transportation Technology; Waste Production; and Waste Treatment. Specialized data fields have been incorporated to improve the ease and accuracy of locating pertinent references. Specific radionuclides for which data are presented are listed in the Measured Radionuclides field, and specific parameters which affect the migration of these radionuclides are presented in the Measured Parameters field. The references within each chapter are arranged alphabetically by leading author, corporate affiliation, or title of the document. When the author is not given, the corporate affiliation appears first. If these two levels of authorship are not given, the title of the document is used as the identifying level. Indexes are provided for author(s), keywords, subject category, title, geographic location, measured parameters, measured radionuclides, and publication description.

  14. Women's Studies: A Student's Guide to Reference Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Maureen, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography lists 73 reference items on the subject of women which are in the Reference Department of McLennan Library at McGill University. Entries are listed according to several categories: directories; encyclopedias; biographical sources; and bibliographies--bibliography, current, general, and specific (Canadian women,…

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF REFERENCE ARTEMIA III FOR MARINE TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    ASTM Practice for Using Brine Shrimp Nauplii as Food for Test Animals in Aquatic Toxicology Tests (E 1203) suggests use of Reference Artemis as a reference standard for evaluating other batches of brine shrimp as food for organisms used in toxicology. in 1988, the U.S. EPA was ab...

  16. INTRODUCTION AND STUDY DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the sponsorship of the UNEP/ILO/IPCS, 17 laboratories from diverse regions of the world participated in evaluating the utility of four plant bioassays for detecting genetic hazards of environmental chemicals. he bioassays included in this collaborative study were Arabidopsi...

  17. A reference frame formulation for the analysis and design of steady manufacturing processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balagangadhar, Dinesh

    A reference frame formulation for large deformation steady state processes is proposed. The displacement and material state variables appear as the primary response fields in this mixed formulation. Unlike displacement based Lagrangian formulations, our formulation does not require a transient analysis to simulate a quasi-steady process and yields results that are free of numerical oscillations and which require considerably less computational effort. And unlike velocity based Eulerian methods, our formulation does not require free surface corrections or streamline integration algorithms. An iterative design environment for quasi-steady forming processes is developed from the computationally efficient reference frame formulation. The direct differentiation method is used to efficiently evaluate the response sensitivities. Select forming response measures and their sensitivities are combined with nonlinear programming methods to optimize the process. Three example problems are presented to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed formulations: a laser surface treatment process is analyzed, a drawing process is analyzed and optimized and a multi-pass rolling process is analyzed and designed.

  18. Design verification of large time constant thermal shields for optical reference cavities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Wu, W; Shi, X H; Zeng, X Y; Deng, K; Lu, Z H

    2016-02-01

    In order to achieve high frequency stability in ultra-stable lasers, the Fabry-Pérot reference cavities shall be put inside vacuum chambers with large thermal time constants to reduce the sensitivity to external temperature fluctuations. Currently, the determination of thermal time constants of vacuum chambers is based either on theoretical calculation or time-consuming experiments. The first method can only apply to simple system, while the second method will take a lot of time to try out different designs. To overcome these limitations, we present thermal time constant simulation using finite element analysis (FEA) based on complete vacuum chamber models and verify the results with measured time constants. We measure the thermal time constants using ultrastable laser systems and a frequency comb. The thermal expansion coefficients of optical reference cavities are precisely measured to reduce the measurement error of time constants. The simulation results and the experimental results agree very well. With this knowledge, we simulate several simplified design models using FEA to obtain larger vacuum thermal time constants at room temperature, taking into account vacuum pressure, shielding layers, and support structure. We adopt the Taguchi method for shielding layer optimization and demonstrate that layer material and layer number dominate the contributions to the thermal time constant, compared with layer thickness and layer spacing. PMID:26931831

  19. A Local Reference For Bar Studies In The Distant Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menéndez-Delmestre, Karín; Sheth, Kartik; S4G Team

    2015-08-01

    Stellar bars are present in ~2/3 of nearby spirals and play a critical role in the evolution of their hosts. With the advent of large high-resolution imaging surveys, bar studies are being extended to distant galaxies. However, photometric studies of the distant universe are invariably subject to the effects of band-shifting, the progressive shift of the photometric band to bluer rest-frame wavelengths. In order to reliably characterize the intrinsic evolution of bars with redshift, safe from band-shifting effects, it is necessary to establish a local anchor of how bar properties vary with wavelength. We present a detailed multi-band study of bar properties from UV through mid-infrared for a sample of 16 large nearby barred galaxies. Based on ellipticity and position angle profiles resulting from fitting elliptical isophotes to the 2D light distribution of each galaxy, we find that both the bar length and the bar ellipticity increase at bluer wavebands. We attribute the increase in bar length to the frequent presence of prominent star forming knots at the end of bars: these regions are significantly brighter in bluer bands, resulting in the “artificial” lengthening of the bar. The increase in bar ellipticity, on the other hand, is driven by the bulge size: the bulge, composed primarily of old/red stars, is less prominent at bluer bands, allowing for thinner ellipses to be fit within the bar region. The resulting effect is that bars appear longer and thinner at bluer bands. Although we find that ~50% of the bars disappear in the UV, the results on bar ellipticity and length extend to those cases in which the bar is still visible in the UV. These results imply that careful correction for band-shifting effects is necessary for high-z studies to reliably gauge any intrinsic evolution of the bar properties with redshift. In the light of the ample space-based optical data now available, this study may be used as a reference to implement band-shifting corrections to

  20. A study on reference standard for cytotoxicity assay of biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Oshima, H; Nakamura, M

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to find a standard substance for use as a reference in the cytotoxicity assay of biomaterials, as an alternative to animal experiments in recent years. Eight kinds of rubber were made in a plate shape to keep their surface area at 1 cm2 against 10 ml of extract volume. They were extracted by the following three extraction methods (a) dynamic extraction at 200 rpm gyration on alumina balls at 37 degrees C for 24 h; (b) static extraction at 37 degrees C for 24 h and (c) extraction by heating in an autoclave at 121 degrees C for 60 min. At the end of each period each extract was examined for cell viability based on an evaluation by neutral red uptake. These methods were repeated up to seven times. Two kinds of chemicals were also tested. The extracts obtained were used to treat human gingival fibroblasts that have been cultured with DMEM supplemented with 5% fetal bovine serum into a 96 well tissue culture plate by 1 x 10(5) cells/ml, in an incubator aerated with 5% CO2, and 95% humidified air at 37 degrees C for 48 h. The extracts of ethylene-propylene, butyl, nitrile rubbers, and two kinds of chemicals yielded strong cytotoxicity in all three kinds of extraction methods, while chloroprene, fluorine-contained, isoprene, India, and silicone rubbers showed little cytotoxicity. The results obtained by the three kinds of extraction methods revealed no differences in the order of cytotoxicity of the materials tested.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7950880

  1. Candidate reference genes for gene expression studies in water lily.

    PubMed

    Luo, Huolin; Chen, Sumei; Wan, Hongjian; Chen, Fadi; Gu, Chunsun; Liu, Zhaolei

    2010-09-01

    The selection of an appropriate reference gene(s) is a prerequisite for the proper interpretation of quantitative Real-Time polymerase chain reaction data. We report the evaluation of eight candidate reference genes across various tissues and treatments in the water lily by the two software packages geNorm and NormFinder. Across all samples, clathrin adaptor complexes medium subunit (AP47) and actin 11 (ACT11) emerged as the most suitable reference genes. Across different tissues, ACT11 and elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1alpha) exhibited a stable expression pattern. ACT11 and AP47 also stably expressed in roots subjected to various treatments, but in the leaves of the same plants the most stably expressed genes were ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 16 (UBC16) and ACT11. PMID:20452325

  2. RAD hard PROM design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The results of a preliminary study on the design of a radiation hardened fusible link programmable read-only memory (PROM) are presented. Various fuse technologies and the effects of radiation on MOS integrated circuits are surveyed. A set of design rules allowing the fabrication of a radiation hardened PROM using a Si-gate CMOS process is defined. A preliminary cell layout was completed and the programming concept defined. A block diagram is used to describe the circuit components required for a 4 K design. A design goal data sheet giving target values for the AC, DC, and radiation parameters of the circuit is presented.

  3. Technical Reference Suite Addressing Challenges of Providing Assurance for Fault Management Architectural Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitz, Rhonda; Whitman, Gerek

    2016-01-01

    Research into complexities of software systems Fault Management (FM) and how architectural design decisions affect safety, preservation of assets, and maintenance of desired system functionality has coalesced into a technical reference (TR) suite that advances the provision of safety and mission assurance. The NASA Independent Verification and Validation (IVV) Program, with Software Assurance Research Program support, extracted FM architectures across the IVV portfolio to evaluate robustness, assess visibility for validation and test, and define software assurance methods applied to the architectures and designs. This investigation spanned IVV projects with seven different primary developers, a wide range of sizes and complexities, and encompassed Deep Space Robotic, Human Spaceflight, and Earth Orbiter mission FM architectures. The initiative continues with an expansion of the TR suite to include Launch Vehicles, adding the benefit of investigating differences intrinsic to model-based FM architectures and insight into complexities of FM within an Agile software development environment, in order to improve awareness of how nontraditional processes affect FM architectural design and system health management.

  4. Designing case-control studies.

    PubMed Central

    Yanagawa, T

    1979-01-01

    Identification of confounding factors, evaluation of their influence on cause-effect associations, and the introduction of appropriate ways to account for these factors are important considerations in designing case-control studies. This paper presents designs useful for these purposes, after first providing a statistical definition of a confounding factor. Differences in the ability to identify and evaluate confounding factors and estimate disease risk between designs employing stratification (matching) and designs randomly sampling cases and controls are noted. Linear logistic models for the analysis of data from such designs are described and are shown to liberalize design requirements and to increase relative risk estimation efficiency. The methods are applied to data from a multiple factor investigation of lung cancer patients and controls. PMID:540588

  5. Characterization of bandgap reference circuits designed for high energy physics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traversi, G.; De Canio, F.; Gaioni, L.; Manghisoni, M.; Mattiazzo, S.; Ratti, L.; Re, V.; Riceputi, E.

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this work is to design a high performance bandgap voltage reference circuit in a standard commercial 65 nm CMOS technology capable of operating in harsh radiation environments. A prototype circuit based on three different devices (diode, bipolar transistor and MOSFET) was fabricated and tested. Measurement results show a temperature variation as low as ±3.4 mV over a temperature range of 170 ° C (-30 °C to 140 °C) and a line regulation at room temperature of 5.2%/V. Measured VREF is 690 mV±15 mV (3σ) for 26 samples on the same wafer. Circuits correctly operate with supply voltages in the range from 1.32 V down to 0.78 V. A reference voltage shift of only 7.6 mV (around 1.1%) was measured after irradiation with 10 keV X-rays up to an integrated dose of 225 Mrad (SiO2).

  6. Performance of three 4. 5 m dipoles for SSC reference design D

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, P.; Cottingham, J.; Fernow, R.; Garber, M.; Ghosh, A.; Goodzeit, C.; Greene, A.; Herrera, J.; Kahn, S.; Kelly, E.

    1985-01-01

    Three 4.5 m long dipoles for Reference Design D of the proposed Superconducting Super Collider have been successfully tested. The magnets are cold-iron (and cold bore) 1-in-1 dipoles, wound with current density-graded high homogeneity NbTi cable in a two-layer cos theta coil of 40 mm inner diameter. The coil is prestressed by 15 mm wide stainless steel collars, and mounted in a circular, split iron yoke of 267 mm outer diameter, supported in a cylindrical yoke containment vessel. At 4.5 K the magnets reached a field of about 6.6T with little training, or the short sample limit of the conductor, and in subcooled (2.6 to 2.4 K) liquid, 8T was achieved. The allowed harmonics were close to the predicted values, and the unallowed harmonics small. The sextupole trim coil operated at eight times the required current without training.

  7. Rocky Flats Plant fluidized-bed incinerator. Engineering design and reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Meile, L.J.

    1982-11-05

    The information in this manual is being presented to complete the documentation of the fluidized-bed incineration (FBI) process development at the Rocky Flats Plant. The information pertains to the 82-kg/hour demonstration unit at the Rocky Flats Plant. This document continues the presentation of design reference material in the aeas of equipment drawings, space requirements, and unit costs. In addition, appendices contain an operating procedure and an operational safety analysis of the process. The cost figures presented are based on 1978 dollars and have not been converted to a current dollar value. Also, the cost of modifications are not included, since they would be insignificant if they were incorporated into a new installation.

  8. [Study of image quality at various positions of reference scan].

    PubMed

    Takatsu, Yasuo; Umezaki, Yoshie; Miyati, Tosiaki

    2013-03-01

    In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we can use sensitivity encoding (SENSE) as a parallel imaging reconstruct from aliasing based on the sensitivity map of each coil element by reference scan. We researched SENSE reconstruction depending on the position of the reference scan. 1.5 T MRI (Achiva, Philips), 32-channel SENSE cardiac coil and rectangular solid phantom (nickel chloride) were used. Seven slices (A to G: from head to foot) were set at the phantom, slice thickness was 1 cm, and each slice interval was 5 cm. When T2 weighted axial images (TR: 3000 ms, TE: 120 ms) were taken, the center of the reference scan (C-Ref) was changed A to G, SENSE factor was changed 1 to 5, and number of signals averaged (NSA) was changed 1 to 3 with fold over suppression. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and coefficient of variation (CV) from 9 regions of interest (ROI) of axial images were calculated. The SNR of slices A and G were lower than the other slices. %CV of slices F with C-Ref D was 69.4% lower than C-Ref A. %CV of slices D to F were higher than the other slices when C-Ref was A. %CV had no relation with SNR. Therefore, a 30 cm area around the center of reference can obtain best SENSE reconstruction. PMID:23514855

  9. Instant Messaging Reference in an Academic Library: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Marianne

    2002-01-01

    During the 2000-2001 academic year, the General Libraries of the University at Buffalo conducted a pilot project to assess feasibility of providing reference through instant messaging. Describes the project, its implementation, the software used, staffing issues, and publicity efforts. Discusses results of the project in terms of user…

  10. Technical Reference Suite Addressing Challenges of Providing Assurance for Fault Management Architectural Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitz, Rhonda; Whitman, Gerek

    2016-01-01

    Research into complexities of software systems Fault Management (FM) and how architectural design decisions affect safety, preservation of assets, and maintenance of desired system functionality has coalesced into a technical reference (TR) suite that advances the provision of safety and mission assurance. The NASA Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) Program, with Software Assurance Research Program support, extracted FM architectures across the IV&V portfolio to evaluate robustness, assess visibility for validation and test, and define software assurance methods applied to the architectures and designs. This investigation spanned IV&V projects with seven different primary developers, a wide range of sizes and complexities, and encompassed Deep Space Robotic, Human Spaceflight, and Earth Orbiter mission FM architectures. The initiative continues with an expansion of the TR suite to include Launch Vehicles, adding the benefit of investigating differences intrinsic to model-based FM architectures and insight into complexities of FM within an Agile software development environment, in order to improve awareness of how nontraditional processes affect FM architectural design and system health management. The identification of particular FM architectures, visibility, and associated IV&V techniques provides a TR suite that enables greater assurance that critical software systems will adequately protect against faults and respond to adverse conditions. Additionally, the role FM has with regard to strengthened security requirements, with potential to advance overall asset protection of flight software systems, is being addressed with the development of an adverse conditions database encompassing flight software vulnerabilities. Capitalizing on the established framework, this TR suite provides assurance capability for a variety of FM architectures and varied development approaches. Research results are being disseminated across NASA, other agencies, and the

  11. Perspectives toward the stereotype production method for public symbol design: a case study of novice designers.

    PubMed

    Ng, Annie W Y; Siu, Kin Wai Michael; Chan, Chetwyn C H

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the practices and attitudes of novice designers toward user involvement in public symbol design at the conceptual design stage, i.e. the stereotype production method. Differences between male and female novice designers were examined. Forty-eight novice designers (24 male, 24 female) were asked to design public symbol referents based on suggestions made by a group of users in a previous study and provide feedback with regard to the design process. The novice designers were receptive to the adoption of user suggestions in the conception of the design, but tended to modify the pictorial representations generated by the users to varying extents. It is also significant that the male and female novice designers appeared to emphasize different aspects of user suggestions, and the female novice designers were more positive toward these suggestions than their male counterparts. The findings should aid the optimization of the stereotype production method for user-involved symbol design. PMID:22632980

  12. Multi-omics data driven analysis establishes reference codon biases for synthetic gene design in microbial and mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Ang, Kok Siong; Kyriakopoulos, Sarantos; Li, Wei; Lee, Dong-Yup

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we analyzed multi-omics data and subsets thereof to establish reference codon usage biases for codon optimization in synthetic gene design. Specifically, publicly available genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and translatomic data for microbial and mammalian expression hosts, Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, were compiled to derive their individual codon and codon pair frequencies. Then, host dependent and -omics specific codon biases were generated and compared by principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering. Interestingly, our results indicated the similar codon bias patterns of the highly expressed transcripts, highly abundant proteins, and efficiently translated mRNA in microbial cells, despite the general lack of correlation between mRNA and protein expression levels. However, for CHO cells, the codon bias patterns among various -omics subsets are not distinguishable, forming one cluster. Thus, we further investigated the effect of different input codon biases on codon optimized sequences using the codon context (CC) and individual codon usage (ICU) design parameters, via in silico case study on the expression of human IFNγ sequence in CHO cells. The results supported that CC is more robust design parameter than ICU for improved heterologous gene design. PMID:26850284

  13. Optical Telescope Design Study Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livas, J.; Sankar, S.

    2015-05-01

    We report on the results of a study conducted from Nov 2012-Apr 2013 to develop a telescope design for a space-based gravitational wave detector. The telescope is needed for efficient power delivery but since it is directly in the beam path, the design is driven by the requirements for the overall displacement sensitivity of the gravitational wave observatory. Two requirements in particular, optical pathlength stability and scattered light performance, are beyond the usual specifications for good image quality encountered in traditional telescopic systems. An important element of the study was to tap industrial expertise to develop an optimized design that can be reliably manufactured. Key engineering and design trade-offs and the sometimes surprising results will be presented.

  14. Multinomial tree models for assessing the status of the reference in studies of the accuracy of tools for binary classification

    PubMed Central

    Botella, Juan; Huang, Huiling; Suero, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Studies that evaluate the accuracy of binary classification tools are needed. Such studies provide 2 × 2 cross-classifications of test outcomes and the categories according to an unquestionable reference (or gold standard). However, sometimes a suboptimal reliability reference is employed. Several methods have been proposed to deal with studies where the observations are cross-classified with an imperfect reference. These methods require that the status of the reference, as a gold standard or as an imperfect reference, is known. In this paper a procedure for determining whether it is appropriate to maintain the assumption that the reference is a gold standard or an imperfect reference, is proposed. This procedure fits two nested multinomial tree models, and assesses and compares their absolute and incremental fit. Its implementation requires the availability of the results of several independent studies. These should be carried out using similar designs to provide frequencies of cross-classification between a test and the reference under investigation. The procedure is applied in two examples with real data. PMID:24106484

  15. Equilibrium Studies of Designed Metalloproteins.

    PubMed

    Gibney, B R

    2016-01-01

    Complete thermodynamic descriptions of the interactions of cofactors with proteins via equilibrium studies are challenging, but are essential to the evaluation of designed metalloproteins. While decades of studies on protein-protein interaction thermodynamics provide a strong underpinning to the successful computational design of novel protein folds and de novo proteins with enzymatic activity, the corresponding paucity of data on metal-protein interaction thermodynamics limits the success of computational metalloprotein design efforts. By evaluating the thermodynamics of metal-protein interactions via equilibrium binding studies, protein unfolding free energy determinations, proton competition equilibria, and electrochemistry, a more robust basis for the computational design of metalloproteins may be provided. Our laboratory has shown that such studies provide detailed insight into the assembly and stability of designed metalloproteins, allow for parsing apart the free energy contributions of metal-ligand interactions from those of porphyrin-protein interactions in hemeproteins, and even reveal their mechanisms of proton-coupled electron transfer. Here, we highlight studies that reveal the complex interplay between the various equilibria that underlie metalloprotein assembly and stability and the utility of making these detailed measurements. PMID:27586343

  16. Homogeneity study of candidate reference material in fish matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, J. C.; Sarkis, J. E. S.; Hortellani, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    A material is perfectly homogeneous with respect to a given characteristic, or composition, if there is no difference between the values obtained from one part to another. Homogeneity is usually evaluated using analysis of variance (ANOVA). However, the requirement that populations of data to be processed must have a normal distribution and equal variances greatly limits the use of this statistical tool. A more suitable test for assessing the homogeneity of RMs, known as "sufficient homogeneity", was proposed by Fearn and Thompson. In this work, we evaluate the performance of the two statistical treatments for assessing homogeneity of methylmercury (MeHg) in candidate reference material of fish tissue.

  17. Stability study of realization of the celestial reference frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatskiv, Ya. S.; Bolotin, S. L.; Kur'yanova, A. N.

    2004-09-01

    We present a short overview of the activity of the IERS as well as the Main Astronomical Observatory (MAO) of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine for maintenance and extention of the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). Special attention is given to the time stabilities of positions of radio sources (RS) and to the selection of a subset of RS to be used for maintenance of the ICRF. It is shown that seven RS qualified by the IERS as defining sources are unstable.

  18. REFERENCE MANUAL FOR RASSMIT VERSION 2.1: SUB-SLAB DEPRESSURIZATION SYSTEM DESIGN PERFORMANCE SIMULATION PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a reference manual for RASSMlT Version 2.1, a computer program that was developed to simulate and aid in the design of sub-slab depressurization systems used for indoor radon mitigation. The program was designed to run on DOS-compatible personal computers to ensure ...

  19. Visual Design Principles: An Empirical Study of Design Lore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Miles A.

    2013-01-01

    Many books, designers, and design educators talk about visual design principles such as balance, contrast, and alignment, but with little consistency. This study uses empirical methods to explore the lore surrounding design principles. The study took the form of two stages: a quantitative literature review to determine what design principles are…

  20. The X-ray Microcalorimeter Spectrometer (XMS): A Reference Cryogenic Instrument Design for Constellation-X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehouse, Paul L.

    2003-01-01

    Constellation-X, a mission now belonging to the Beyond Einstein initiative, is being planned to inherit the x-ray sky from Chandra, XMM-Newton and Astro-E. The first two of four observatories in the constellation will be launched together in 2013 and followed a year later by the launch of the remaining two. The four will independently orbit the Sun-Earth Lagrange point L2. An instrument compliment resides in the Focal Plane Module (FPM) of each observatory 10 m from the Optics Module and consists of three Hard X-ray Telescope (HXT) detectors, a Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) focal plane CCD camera and an X-ray Microcalorimeter Spectrometer (XMS). Instrument awards are scheduled for early 2006. The reference detector for XMS is a 32 x 32 array of microcalorimetric superconducting Transition Edge Sensors (TES). Each pixel casts a variable resistance in a SQUID based multiplexed readout circuit which is coupled to series SQUID arrays for amplification and finally read out by external electronics. A multi-stage continuous ADR will provide the stable 50 mK desired for the TES array and a stable 1 K for the series SQUID arrays while also lifting thermal parasitic and inefficiency loads to a 6 K cryocooler interface. The 6 K cryocooler is expected to emerge from the joint-project Advanced Cryocooler Technology Development Program (ACTDP) in which Constellation-X is an active participant. Project Pre-Formulation activities are marked by extensive technology development necessitating early, but realistic, thermal and cooling load requirements for ADR and ACTDP-cryocooler design points. Such requirements are driven by the encompassing XMS cryostat and ultimately by the thermal environment imposed by the FPM. It is further desired that the XMS instrument be able to operate on its side in the laboratory, with a warm vacuum shell, during an extensive calibration regime. It is that reference system design of the XMS instrument (microcalorimeter, ADR, cryocooler and

  1. [Study on crocins reference extract and application on assay of Croci Stigma].

    PubMed

    He, Feng-yan; Dai, Zhong; He, Yi; Zhang, Yu-mei; Lu, Jing

    2015-06-01

    High price and poor stability of both crocin-1 and crocin-2 reference substance have become obstacles to HPLC assay of Croci Stigma. A new method based on reference extract was proposed. In this study, the reference extract was prepared from gardenia yellow which is cheap and easy to get The content of crocin-1 and crocin-2 in reference extract was determined and factors affecting stability of reference extract were investigated. Twelve batches of Croci Stigma were analyzed with reference extract and reference substance respectively. The results showed no difference. The presented method is feasible for quality control of Croci Stigma and reference extract is suitable to replace reference substances in assay. PMID:26591529

  2. Vehicle occupancy detection camera position optimization using design of experiments and standard image references

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Peter; Hoover, Martin; Rabbani, Mojgan

    2013-03-01

    Camera positioning and orientation is important to applications in domains such as transportation since the objects to be imaged vary greatly in shape and size. In a typical transportation application that requires capturing still images, inductive loops buried in the ground or laser trigger sensors are used when a vehicle reaches the image capture zone to trigger the image capture system. The camera in such a system is in a fixed position pointed at the roadway and at a fixed orientation. Thus the problem is to determine the optimal location and orientation of the camera when capturing images from a wide variety of vehicles. Methods from Design for Six Sigma, including identifying important parameters and noise sources and performing systematically designed experiments (DOE) can be used to determine an effective set of parameter settings for the camera position and orientation under these conditions. In the transportation application of high occupancy vehicle lane enforcement, the number of passengers in the vehicle is to be counted. Past work has described front seat vehicle occupant counting using a camera mounted on an overhead gantry looking through the front windshield in order to capture images of vehicle occupants. However, viewing rear seat passengers is more problematic due to obstructions including the vehicle body frame structures and seats. One approach is to view the rear seats through the side window. In this situation the problem of optimally positioning and orienting the camera to adequately capture the rear seats through the side window can be addressed through a designed experiment. In any automated traffic enforcement system it is necessary for humans to be able to review any automatically captured digital imagery in order to verify detected infractions. Thus for defining an output to be optimized for the designed experiment, a human defined standard image reference (SIR) was used to quantify the quality of the line-of-sight to the rear seats of

  3. Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator for radioactive waste. Volume II. Engineering design reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, R.A.; Draper, W.E.; Newmyer, J.M.; Warner, C.L.

    1982-10-01

    This two-volume report is a detailed design and operating documentation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) and is an aid to technology transfer to other Department of Energy contractor sites and the commercial sector. Volume I describes the CAI process, equipment, and performance, and it recommends modifications based on Los Alamos experience. It provides the necessary information for conceptual design and feasibility studies. Volume II provides descriptive engineering information such as drawings, specifications, calculations, and costs. It aids duplication of the process at other facilities.

  4. Diffusive Barrier and Getter Under Waste Packages VA Reference Design Feature Evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    MacNeil, K.

    1999-05-24

    This technical document evaluates those aspects of the diffusive barrier and getter features which have the potential for enhancing the performance of the Viability Assessment Reference Design and are also directly related to the key attributes for the repository safety strategy of that design. The effects of advection, hydrodynamic dispersion, and diffusion on the radionuclide migration rates through the diffusive barrier were determined through the application of the one-dimensional, advection/dispersion/diffusion equation. The results showed that because advective flow described by the advection-dispersion equation dominates, the diffusive barrier feature alone would not be effective in retarding migration of radiocuclides. However, if the diffusive barrier were combined with one or more features that reduced the potential for advection, then transport of radionuclides would be dominated by diffusion and their migration from the EBS would be impeded. Apatite was chosen as the getter material used for this report. Two getter configurations were developed, Case 1 and Case 2. As in the evaluation of the diffusive barrier, the effects of advection, hydrodynamic dispersion, and diffusion on the migration of radionuclides through the getter are evaluated. However, in addition to these mechanisms, the one-dimensional advection/dispersion/diffusion model is modified to include the effect of sorption on radionuclide migration rates through the sorptive medium (getter). As a result of sorption, the longitudinal dispersion coefficient, and the average linear velocity are effectively reduced by the retardation factor. The retardation factor is a function of the getter material's dry bulk density, sorption coefficient and moisture content. The results of the evaluation showed that a significant delay in breakthrough through the getter can be achieved if the thickness of the getter barrier is increased.

  5. Design of a Model Reference Adaptive Controller for an Unmanned Air Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crespo, Luis G.; Matsutani, Megumi; Annaswamy, Anuradha M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the "Adaptive Control Technology for Safe Flight (ACTS)" architecture, which consists of a non-adaptive controller that provides satisfactory performance under nominal flying conditions, and an adaptive controller that provides robustness under off nominal ones. The design and implementation procedures of both controllers are presented. The aim of these procedures, which encompass both theoretical and practical considerations, is to develop a controller suitable for flight. The ACTS architecture is applied to the Generic Transport Model developed by NASA-Langley Research Center. The GTM is a dynamically scaled test model of a transport aircraft for which a flight-test article and a high-fidelity simulation are available. The nominal controller at the core of the ACTS architecture has a multivariable LQR-PI structure while the adaptive one has a direct, model reference structure. The main control surfaces as well as the throttles are used as control inputs. The inclusion of the latter alleviates the pilot s workload by eliminating the need for cancelling the pitch coupling generated by changes in thrust. Furthermore, the independent usage of the throttles by the adaptive controller enables their use for attitude control. Advantages and potential drawbacks of adaptation are demonstrated by performing high fidelity simulations of a flight-validated controller and of its adaptive augmentation.

  6. A Design Method of Code Correlation Reference Waveform in GNSS Based on Least-Squares Fitting.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chengtao; Liu, Zhe; Tang, Xiaomei; Wang, Feixue

    2016-01-01

    The multipath effect is one of the main error sources in the Global Satellite Navigation Systems (GNSSs). The code correlation reference waveform (CCRW) technique is an effective multipath mitigation algorithm for the binary phase shift keying (BPSK) signal. However, it encounters the false lock problem in code tracking, when applied to the binary offset carrier (BOC) signals. A least-squares approximation method of the CCRW design scheme is proposed, utilizing the truncated singular value decomposition method. This algorithm was performed for the BPSK signal, BOC(1,1) signal, BOC(2,1) signal, BOC(6,1) and BOC(7,1) signal. The approximation results of CCRWs were presented. Furthermore, the performances of the approximation results are analyzed in terms of the multipath error envelope and the tracking jitter. The results show that the proposed method can realize coherent and non-coherent CCRW discriminators without false lock points. Generally, there is performance degradation in the tracking jitter, if compared to the CCRW discriminator. However, the performance promotions in the multipath error envelope for the BOC(1,1) and BPSK signals makes the discriminator attractive, and it can be applied to high-order BOC signals. PMID:27483275

  7. A Cross-Cultural Study of Reference Point Adaptation: Evidence from China, Korea, and the US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkes, Hal R.; Hirshleifer, David; Jiang, Danling; Lim, Sonya S.

    2010-01-01

    We examined reference point adaptation following gains or losses in security trading using participants from China, Korea, and the US. In both questionnaire studies and trading experiments with real money incentives, reference point adaptation was larger for Asians than for Americans. Subjects in all countries adapted their reference points more…

  8. Design and characterisation of a thin-film electrode array with shared reference/counter electrodes for electrochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Uludag, Yildiz; Olcer, Zehra; Sagiroglu, Mahmut Samil

    2014-07-15

    In the current study, a novel electrode array and integrated microfluidics have been designed and characterised in order to create a sensor chip which is not only easy, rapid and cheaper to produce but also have a smaller imprint and good electrochemical sensing properties. The current study includes the assessment of the effects of an Au quasi-reference electrode and the use of shared reference/counter electrodes for the array, in order to obtain a small array that can be produced using a fine metal mask. In the study, it is found that when Au is used as the quasi-reference electrode, the arrays with shared reference and counter electrodes result in faster electron transfer kinetics and prevent the potential change with respect to scan rate, and hence is advantageous with respect to conventional electrodes. In addition, the resulting novel electrode array has been shown to result in higher current density (10.52 µA/cm(2); HRP detection assay) and measured diffusion coefficient (14.40×10(-12) cm(2)/s; calculated from the data of cyclic voltammetry with 1mM potassium ferricyanide) with respect to conventional electrodes tested in the study. Using the new electrode arrays, the detection limits obtained from horse radish peroxidase (HRP) and bisphenol A assays were 12.5 ng/ml (2.84×10(-10) M ) and 10 ng/ml (44×10(-9) M), respectively. Performing the HRP detection assay in a flow injection system using array integrated microfluidics provided 25 times lower detection limit (11.36×10(-12) M), although Ti has been used as electrode material instead of Au. In short, incorporation of this new electrode array to lab-on-a-chip or MEMs (micro-electro mechanic systems) technologies may pave the way for easy to use automated biosensing devices that could be used for a variety of applications from diagnostics to environmental monitoring, and studies will continue to move forward in this direction. PMID:24561521

  9. Bioequivalence study of levothyroxine tablets compared to reference tablets and an oral solution.

    PubMed

    Koytchev, Rossen; Lauschner, Reinhard

    2004-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the bioequivalence of three levothyroxine sodium (CAS 51-48-9) formulations, i.e. a test and a reference tablet and an oral solution. A bioequivalence study was carried out in 25 healthy volunteers, who were administered a single dose of 600 microg levothyroxine in the form of the test formulation (levothyroxine sodium tablets 200 microg; Eferox), the originator product, and an oral solution. The trial was performed in one study center according to an open, randomized, three-way cross-over design with wash-out periods of 35 days between administration. Blood samples were taken up to 48 h post dose, the plasma was separated and the concentrations of levothyroxine and triiodothyronine were determined by radioimmunoassay with I125 labeling method. The levothyroxine mean Cmax were 112.0+/-17.3 ng/ml, 113.4+/-18.5 ng/ ml and 111.3+/-15.1 ng/ml, while the mean AUC0-24 were 2263.7+/-332.8 ng x h/ ml, 2307.3+/-351.3 ng x h/ml and 2286.1+/-331.0 ng x h/ml for the test and reference tablets as well as for the oral solution, respectively. No significant differences were found of principal pharmacokinetic parameters between the studied formulations. The 90%-confidence interval for the primary target parameters, intra-individual ratios of AUC0-24 and Cmax of levothyroxine were within the acceptance ranges for bioequivalence trials, i.e. AUC0-24 0.954-1.016 and 0.966-1.011 as well as Cmax 0.948-1.027 and 0.968-1.032 for test tablets versus reference tablets and the oral solution, respectively. Similar results were observed for triiodothyronine. In the light of the present study it can be concluded that the levothyroxine test tablet is bioequivalent to the reference formulation in respect of extent and rate of absorption. The results of the present trial confirm the findings of a previous study, performed under steady-state conditions with Eferox tablets 100 microg in patients without thyroid function. PMID:15553108

  10. Adjoint-Based Design of Rotors Using the Navier-Stokes Equations in a Noninertial Reference Frame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielsen, Eric J.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Jones, William T.

    2010-01-01

    Optimization of rotorcraft flowfields using an adjoint method generally requires a time-dependent implementation of the equations. The current study examines an intermediate approach in which a subset of rotor flowfields are cast as steady problems in a noninertial reference frame. This technique permits the use of an existing steady-state adjoint formulation with minor modifications to perform sensitivity analyses. The formulation is valid for isolated rigid rotors in hover or where the freestream velocity is aligned with the axis of rotation. Discrete consistency of the implementation is demonstrated by using comparisons with a complex-variable technique, and a number of single- and multipoint optimizations for the rotorcraft figure of merit function are shown for varying blade collective angles. Design trends are shown to remain consistent as the grid is refined.

  11. Adjoint-Based Design of Rotors using the Navier-Stokes Equations in a Noninertial Reference Frame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielsen, Eric J.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Jones, William T.

    2009-01-01

    Optimization of rotorcraft flowfields using an adjoint method generally requires a time-dependent implementation of the equations. The current study examines an intermediate approach in which a subset of rotor flowfields are cast as steady problems in a noninertial reference frame. This technique permits the use of an existing steady-state adjoint formulation with minor modifications to perform sensitivity analyses. The formulation is valid for isolated rigid rotors in hover or where the freestream velocity is aligned with the axis of rotation. Discrete consistency of the implementation is demonstrated using comparisons with a complex-variable technique, and a number of single- and multi-point optimizations for the rotorcraft figure of merit function are shown for varying blade collective angles. Design trends are shown to remain consistent as the grid is refined.

  12. Advanced turbine systems: Studies and conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    van der Linden, S.; Gnaedig, G.; Kreitmeier, F.

    1993-11-01

    The ABB selection for the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) includes advanced developments especially in the hot gas path of the combustion turbine and new state-of-the-art units such as the steam turbine and the HRSG. The increase in efficiency by more than 10% multiplicative compared to current designs will be based on: (1) Turbine Inlet Temperature Increase; (2) New Cooling Techniques for Stationary and Rotating Parts; and New Materials. Present, projected component improvements that will be introduced with the above mentioned issues will yield improved CCSC turbine performance, which will drive the ATS selected gas-fired reference CC power plant to 6 % LHV or better. The decrease in emission levels requires a careful optimization of the cycle design, where cooling air consumption has to be minimized. All interfaces of the individual systems in the complete CC Plant need careful checks, especially to avoid unnecessary margins in the individual designs. This study is an important step pointing out the feasibility of the ATS program with realistic goals set by DOE, which, however, will present challenges for Phase II time schedule of 18 months. With the approach outlined in this study and close cooperation with DOE, ATS program success can be achieved to deliver low emissions and low cost of electricity by the year 2002. The ABB conceptual design and step approach will lead to early component demonstration which will help accelerate the overall program objectives.

  13. Liquid belt radiator design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teagan, W. P.; Fitzgerald, K. F.

    1986-01-01

    The Liquid Belt Radiator (LBR) is an advanced concept developed to meet the needs of anticipated future space missions. A previous study documented the advantages of this concept as a lightweight, easily deployable alternative to present day space heat rejection systems. The technical efforts associated with this study concentrate on refining the concept of the LBR as well as examining the issues of belt dynamics and potential application of the LBR to intermediate and high temperature heat rejection applications. A low temperature point design developed in previous work is updated assuming the use of diffusion pump oil, Santovac-6, as the heat transfer media. Additional analytical and design effort is directed toward determining the impact of interface heat exchanger, fluid bath sealing, and belt drive mechanism designs on system performance and mass. The updated design supports the earlier result by indicating a significant reduction in system specific system mass as compared to heat pipe or pumped fluid radiator concepts currently under consideration (1.3 kg/sq m versus 5 kg/sq m).

  14. National accounts manager: Design study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Waggoner, J.

    1998-09-01

    This document addresses a typical application -- that of a hypothetical nationwide chain of restaurants. The design study uses the Reference Model for Open Distributed Processing (RM-ODP) as a guideline for specifying standard systems. Far from limiting the study`s usefulness to a particular type of National Account, this guideline is highly portable, and will be useful, with slight modifications only, in similarly specifying systems for other types of customers. A brief list of other applications could include many ``campus`` environments -- government agencies and university systems as well as manufacturers, airports, railyards, ski resorts, apartment complexes, hotels, hospitals, telecommunication facilities, oil fields, irrigation systems, municipal water/sewer systems, and so on.

  15. Reference Pricing System and Competition: Case Study from Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Portela, Conceiçăo

    2009-01-01

    Aim To characterize the patterns of competition for a sample of drugs in the Portuguese pharmaceutical market before (January 2002-March 2003) and after (April 2003-June 2003) the introduction of the reference pricing system (RPS). Methods We performed a descriptive, retrospective, longitudinal analysis, with monthly observations from January 2002 until June 2003 of 15 homogeneous groups. The groups represented the upper limit of public pharmaceutical expenditure in the RPS segment in 2003 (n = 270). Measures of competition were: 1) number of presentations; 2) prescriptions’ concentration in the generic and originator (brand) segments, using Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI); and 3) dominant positions of market leader in the homogeneous group. A correlation analysis between the number of presentations, the HHI, and the dominant position of the market leader was performed using Pearson coefficient of correlation. Results The structure of the market changed with the introduction of RPS. We found an increasing number of generic presentations (from 4 ± 3 to 7 ± 4; mean ± standard deviation) and a decrease in the HHI for the generics market segment (from 0.7 ± 0.2 to 0.6 ± 0.3). There was a negative correlation between those variables that increased after the introduction of RPS (from -0.6 to -0.8). The HHI for brands and the dominant positions remained unchanged. Conclusion After the implementation of RPS, the increased competition was mainly driven by economic and social agents in the generics market segment but not in the brands market segment. PMID:19839066

  16. Design and analysis strategies for digital repetitive control systems with time-varying reference/disturbance period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa-Castelló, R.; Olm, J. M.; Ramos, G. A.

    2011-07-01

    This article analyses stability and performance features of different design schemes for digital repetitive control systems subject to references/disturbances that exhibit non-uniform frequency. Aiming at maintaining a constant value for the ratio T p /T s , T p being the period of the reference/disturbance signal and T s being the sampling period, two approaches are proposed. The first one deals with the real-time adaptation of T s to the actual changes of T p ; stability is studied by means of an LMI gridding method and also using robust control techniques. The second one propounds the introduction of an additional compensator that annihilates the effect of the time-varying sampling in the closed-loop system and forces its behaviour to coincide with that of an a priori selected nominal sampling period; the internal stability of the compensator-plant subsystem is checked by means of LMI gridding. The theoretical results are experimentally tested and compared through a mechatronic plant model.

  17. Reference (Axially Graded) Low Enriched Uranium Fuel Design for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR)

    SciTech Connect

    Ilas, Germina; Primm, Trent

    2010-01-01

    During the past five years, staff at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have studied the issue of whether the HFIR could be converted to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel without degrading the performance of the reactor. Using state-of-the-art reactor physics methods and behind-the-state-of-the-art thermal hydraulics methods, the staff have developed fuel plate designs (HFIR uses two types of fuel plates) that are believed to meet physics and thermal hydraulic criteria provided the reactor power is increased from 85 to 100 MW. The paper will present a defense of the results by explaining the design and validation process. A discussion of the requirements for showing applicability of analyses to approval for loading the fuel to HFIR lead test core irradiation currently scheduled for 2016 will be provided. Finally, the potential benefits of upgrading thermal hydraulics methods will be discussed.

  18. A global reference for caesarean section rates (C-Model): a multicountry cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Souza, JP; Betran, AP; Dumont, A; de Mucio, B; Gibbs Pickens, CM; Deneux-Tharaux, C; Ortiz-Panozo, E; Sullivan, E; Ota, E; Togoobaatar, G; Carroli, G; Knight, H; Zhang, J; Cecatti, JG; Vogel, JP; Jayaratne, K; Leal, MC; Gissler, M; Morisaki, N; Lack, N; Oladapo, OT; Tunçalp, Ö; Lumbiganon, P; Mori, R; Quintana, S; Costa Passos, AD; Marcolin, AC; Zongo, A; Blondel, B; Hernández, B; Hogue, CJ; Prunet, C; Landman, C; Ochir, C; Cuesta, C; Pileggi-Castro, C; Walker, D; Alves, D; Abalos, E; Moises, ECD; Vieira, EM; Duarte, G; Perdona, G; Gurol-Urganci, I; Takahiko, K; Moscovici, L; Campodonico, L; Oliveira-Ciabati, L; Laopaiboon, M; Danansuriya, M; Nakamura-Pereira, M; Costa, ML; Torloni, MR; Kramer, MR; Borges, P; Olkhanud, PB; Pérez-Cuevas, R; Agampodi, SB; Mittal, S; Serruya, S; Bataglia, V; Li, Z; Temmerman, M; Gülmezoglu, AM

    2016-01-01

    Objective To generate a global reference for caesarean section (CS) rates at health facilities. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Health facilities from 43 countries. Population/Sample Thirty eight thousand three hundred and twenty-four women giving birth from 22 countries for model building and 10 045 875 women giving birth from 43 countries for model testing. Methods We hypothesised that mathematical models could determine the relationship between clinical-obstetric characteristics and CS. These models generated probabilities of CS that could be compared with the observed CS rates. We devised a three-step approach to generate the global benchmark of CS rates at health facilities: creation of a multi-country reference population, building mathematical models, and testing these models. Main outcome measures Area under the ROC curves, diagnostic odds ratio, expected CS rate, observed CS rate. Results According to the different versions of the model, areas under the ROC curves suggested a good discriminatory capacity of C-Model, with summary estimates ranging from 0.832 to 0.844. The C-Model was able to generate expected CS rates adjusted for the case-mix of the obstetric population. We have also prepared an e-calculator to facilitate use of C-Model (www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/maternal_perinatal_health/c-model/en/). Conclusions This article describes the development of a global reference for CS rates. Based on maternal characteristics, this tool was able to generate an individualised expected CS rate for health facilities or groups of health facilities. With C-Model, obstetric teams, health system managers, health facilities, health insurance companies, and governments can produce a customised reference CS rate for assessing use (and overuse) of CS. PMID:26259689

  19. Heat source reentry vehicle design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, R. L.

    1971-01-01

    The design details are presented of a flight-type heat source reentry vehicle and heat exchanger compatible with the isotope Brayton power conversion system. The reference reentry vehicle and heat exchanger were modified, orbital and superorbital capability was assessed, and a complete set of detail design layout drawings were provided.

  20. Towards a reference cavitating vessel Part III—design and acoustic pressure characterization of a multi-frequency sonoreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lian; Memoli, Gianluca; Hodnett, Mark; Butterworth, Ian; Sarno, Dan; Zeqiri, Bajram

    2015-08-01

    A multi-frequency cavitation vessel (RV-multi) has been commissioned at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL, UK), with the aim of establishing a standard source of acoustic cavitation in water, with reference to which details of the cavitation process can be studied and cavitation measurement techniques evaluated. The vessel is a cylindrical cavity with a maximum capacity up to 17 L, and is designed to work at six frequency ranges, from 21 kHz to 136 kHz, under controlled temperature conditions. This paper discusses the design of RV-multi and reports experiments carried out to establish the reproducibility of the acoustic pressure field established within the vessel and its operating envelope, including sensitivity to aspects such as water depth and temperature. The acoustic field distribution was determined along the radial and depth directions within the vessel using a miniature hydrophone, for two input voltage levels under low power transducer excitation conditions (e.g. below the cavitation threshold). Particular care was taken in determining peak acoustic pressure locations, as these are critical for accompanying cavitation studies. Perturbations of the vessel by the measuring hydrophone were also monitored with a bottom-mounted pressure sensor.

  1. Overview of the STARFIRE reference commercial tokamak fusion power reactor design

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, C.C.; Abdou, M.A.; DeFreece, D.A.; Trachsel, C.A.; Graumann, D.; Barry, K.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of the STARFIRE study is to develop a design concept for a commercial tokamak fusion electric power plant based on the deuterium/tritium/lithium fuel cycle. The major features for STARFIRE include a steady-state operating mode based on a continuous rf lower-hybrid current drive and auxiliary heating, solid tritium breeder material, pressurized water cooling, limiter/vacuum system for impurity control and exhaust, high tritium burnup, superconducting EF coils outside the TF superconducting coils, fully remote maintenance, and a low-activation shield.

  2. Warm gas TVC design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moorhead, S. B., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    A warm gas thrust vector control system was studied to optimize the injection geometry for a specific engine configuration, and an injection valve was designed capable of meeting the base line requirements. To optimize injection geometry, studies were made to determine the performance effects of varying injection location, angle, port size, and port configuration. Having minimized the injection flow rate required, a warm gas valve was designed to handle the required flow. A direct drive hydraulic servovalve capable of operating with highly contaminated hydraulic fluid was designed. The valve is sized to flow 15 gpm at 3000 psia and the direct drive feature is capable of applying a spool force of 200 pounds. The baseline requirements are the development of 6 deg of thrust vector control utilizing 2000 F (total temperature) gas for 180 seconds on a 1.37 million pound thrust engine burning LOX and RP-1 at a chamber pressure of 250 psia with a 155 inch long conical nozzle having a 68 inch diameter throat and a 153 inch diameter exit.

  3. Supersonic airplane study and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, Samson

    1993-01-01

    A supersonic airplane creates shocks which coalesce and form a classical N-wave on the ground, forming a double bang noise termed sonic boom. A recent supersonic commercial transport (the Concorde) has a loud sonic boom (over 100 PLdB) and low aerodynamic performance (cruise lift-drag ratio 7). To enhance the U.S. market share in supersonic transport, an airframer's market risk for a low-boom airplane has to be reduced. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to design airplanes to meet the dual constraints of low sonic boom and high aerodynamic performance. During the past year, a research effort was focused on three main topics. The first was to use the existing design tools, developed in past years, to design one of the low-boom wind-tunnel configurations (Ames Model 3) for testing at Ames Research Center in April 1993. The second was to use a Navier-Stokes code (Overflow) to support the Oblique-All-Wing (OAW) study at Ames. The third was to study an optimization technique applied on a Haack-Adams body to reduce aerodynamic drag.

  4. Lunar astronomical observatories - Design studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Stewart W.; Burns, Jack O.; Chua, Koon Meng; Duric, Nebojsa; Gerstle, Walter H.

    1990-01-01

    The best location in the inner solar system for the grand observatories of the 21st century may be the moon. A multidisciplinary team including university students and faculty in engineering, astronomy, physics, and geology, and engineers from industry is investigating the moon as a site for astronomical observatories and is doing conceptual and preliminary designs for these future observatories. Studies encompass lunar facilities for radio astronomy and astronomy at optical, ultraviolet, and infrared wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum. Although there are significant engineering challenges in design and construction on the moon, the rewards for astronomy can be great, such as detection and study of earth-like planets orbiting nearby stars, and the task for engineers promises to stimulate advances in analysis and design, materials and structures, automation and robotics, foundations, and controls. Fabricating structures in the reduced-gravity environment of the moon will be easier than in the zero-gravity environment of earth orbit, as Apollo and space-shuttle missions have revealed. Construction of observatories on the moon can be adapted from techniques developed on the earth, with the advantage that the moon's weaker gravitational pull makes it possible to build larger devices than are practical on earth.

  5. Using DOE Commercial Reference Buildings for Simulation Studies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Field, K.; Deru, M.; Studer, D.

    2010-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy developed 256 EnergyPlus models for use in studies that aim to characterize about 70% of the U.S. commercial building stock. Sixteen building types - including restaurants, health care, schools, offices, supermarkets, retail, lodging, and warehouses - are modeled across 16 cities to represent the diversity of U.S. climate zones. Weighting factors have been developed to combine the models in proportions similar to those of the McGraw-Hill Construction Projects Starts Database for 2003-2007. This paper reviews the development and contents of these models and their applications in simulation studies.

  6. Superior cross-species reference genes: a blueberry case study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The advent of affordable Next Generation Sequencing technologies has had major impact on studies of many crop species, where access to genomic technologies and genome-scale data sets has been extremely limited until now. The recent development of genomic resources in blueberry will enable the applic...

  7. Design Evolution Study - Aging Options

    SciTech Connect

    P. McDaniel

    2002-04-05

    The purpose of this study is to identify options and issues for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel received for disposal at the Yucca Mountain Mined Geologic Repository. Some early shipments of commercial spent nuclear fuel to the repository may be received with high-heat-output (younger) fuel assemblies that will need to be managed to meet thermal goals for emplacement. The capability to age as much as 40,000 metric tons of heavy metal of commercial spent nuclear he1 would provide more flexibility in the design to manage this younger fuel and to decouple waste receipt and waste emplacement. The following potential aging location options are evaluated: (1) Surface aging at four locations near the North Portal; (2) Subsurface aging in the permanent emplacement drifts; and (3) Subsurface aging in a new subsurface area. The following aging container options are evaluated: (1) Complete Waste Package; (2) Stainless Steel inner liner of the waste package; (3) Dual Purpose Canisters; (4) Multi-Purpose Canisters; and (5) New disposable canister for uncanistered commercial spent nuclear fuel. Each option is compared to a ''Base Case,'' which is the expected normal waste packaging process without aging. A Value Engineering approach is used to score each option against nine technical criteria and rank the options. Open issues with each of the options and suggested future actions are also presented. Costs for aging containers and aging locations are evaluated separately. Capital costs are developed for direct costs and distributable field costs. To the extent practical, unit costs are presented. Indirect costs, operating costs, and total system life cycle costs will be evaluated outside of this study. Three recommendations for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel--subsurface, surface, and combined surface and subsurface are presented for further review in the overall design re-evaluation effort. Options that were evaluated but not recommended are: subsurface aging in a new

  8. Clinicopathological study of rhinosporidiosis with special reference to cytodiagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Anuradha; Phukan, Jyoti P; Bandyopadhyay, Gautam; Sengupta, Sanjay; Bose, Kingshuk; Mondal, Rajib K; Choudhuri, Manoj K

    2012-01-01

    Background: Rhinosporidiosis is a chronic infective disorder caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi. It usually presents as a soft polypoidal pedunculated or sessile mass. Nose and nasopharynx are the commonest sites, followed by conjunctiva, maxillary sinuses, penis, urethra. Aims: The aim of this study is to present the clinicopathological features of rhinosporidiosis in a large series of cases and to asses the role of cytology in diagnosis. Materials and Methods: 63 cases were included in the study group. Diagnosis of rhinosporidiosis was confirmed in all cases by histology with or without cytological evaluation. May-Grünwald-Giemsa and hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) staining was used in all cases, and special stains like periodic acid Schiff and mucicarmine were used in a few cases. Detailed clinical history of all the cases was noted. Routine hematological investigations including ABO blood grouping were done in all possible cases. Results: Evaluation of the clinical data in our series demonstrated male predominance (36 out of 63; 56%). Nose and nasopharynx were the commonest sites involved (74.6%). Routine hematology tests did not show any significant change in most of the cases. However, a significant proportion of the study population (18 out of 41; 44%) had blood group O. Cytodiagnosis attempted in 17 cases out of 63 cases achieved 100% correlation with histology. Conclusion: Morphological appearance alone in a few cases failed to give diagnosis of rhinosporidiosis. Cytology can be very helpful in diagnosis in these cases, but histology is the mainstay of diagnosis. PMID:23326028

  9. A Phobos-Deimos Mission as an Element of the NASA Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    NASA has conducted a series of mission studies over the past 25 years examining the eventual exploration of the surface of Mars by humans. The latest version of this evolutionary series of design reference missions/architectures - Design Reference Architecture 5 or DRA-5 - was completed in 2007. This paper examines the implications of including a human mission to explore the moons of Mars and teleoperate robots in various locations, but not to land the human crews on Mars, as an element of this reference architecture. Such a mission has been proposed several times during this same 25 year evolution leading up to the completion of DRA-5 primarily as a mission of testing the in-space vehicles and operations while surface vehicles and landers are under development. But such a precursor or test mission has never been explicitly included as an element of this Architecture. This paper will first summarize the key features of the DRA-5 to provide context for the remainder of the assessment. This will include a description of the in-space vehicles that would be the subject of a shakedown test during the Mars orbital mission. A decision tree will be used to illustrate the factors that will be analyzed, and the sequence in which they will be addressed, for this assessment. The factors that will be analyzed include the type of interplanetary transfer orbit (opposition class versus conjunction class), the type of parking orbit (circular versus elliptical), and the type of propulsion technology (high thrust chemical versus nuclear thermal rocket). The manner in which each of these factors impacts an individual mission will be described. In addition to the direct impact of these factors, additional considerations impacting crew health and overall programmatic outcomes will be discussed. Numerical results for each of the factors in the decision tree will be grouped with derived qualitative impacts from crew health and programmatic consideration. These quantitative and qualitative

  10. Nationwide Multicenter Reference Interval Study for 28 Common Biochemical Analytes in China

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Liangyu; Chen, Ming; Liu, Min; Tao, Zhihua; Li, Shijun; Wang, Liang; Cheng, Xinqi; Qin, Xuzhen; Han, Jianhua; Li, Pengchang; Hou, Li’an; Yu, Songlin; Ichihara, Kiyoshi; Qiu, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A nationwide multicenter study was conducted in the China to explore sources of variation of reference values and establish reference intervals for 28 common biochemical analytes, as a part of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, Committee on Reference Intervals and Decision Limits (IFCC/C-RIDL) global study on reference values. A total of 3148 apparently healthy volunteers were recruited in 6 cities covering a wide area in China. Blood samples were tested in 2 central laboratories using Beckman Coulter AU5800 chemistry analyzers. Certified reference materials and value-assigned serum panel were used for standardization of test results. Multiple regression analysis was performed to explore sources of variation. Need for partition of reference intervals was evaluated based on 3-level nested ANOVA. After secondary exclusion using the latent abnormal values exclusion method, reference intervals were derived by a parametric method using the modified Box–Cox formula. Test results of 20 analytes were made traceable to reference measurement procedures. By the ANOVA, significant sex-related and age-related differences were observed in 12 and 12 analytes, respectively. A small regional difference was observed in the results for albumin, glucose, and sodium. Multiple regression analysis revealed BMI-related changes in results of 9 analytes for man and 6 for woman. Reference intervals of 28 analytes were computed with 17 analytes partitioned by sex and/or age. In conclusion, reference intervals of 28 common chemistry analytes applicable to Chinese Han population were established by use of the latest methodology. Reference intervals of 20 analytes traceable to reference measurement procedures can be used as common reference intervals, whereas others can be used as the assay system-specific reference intervals in China. PMID:26945390

  11. A pragmatic approach to the design of population pharmacokinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Roy, Amit; Ette, Ene I

    2005-01-01

    The publication of a seminal article on nonlinear mixed-effect modeling led to a revolution in pharmacokinetics (PKs) with the introduction of the population approach. Since then, interest in obtaining accurate and precise estimates of population PK parameters has led to work on population PK study design that extended previous work on optimal sampling designs for individual PK parameter estimation. The issues and developments in the design of population PK studies are reviewed as a prelude to investigating, via simulation, the performance of 2 approaches (population Fisher information matrix D-optimal design and informative block [profile] randomized [IBR] design) for designing population PK studies. The results of our simulation study indicate that the designs based on the 2 approaches yielded efficient parameter estimates. The designs based on the 2 approaches performed similarly, and in some cases designs based on the IBR approach were slightly better. The ease with which the IBR designs can be generated makes them preferable in drug development, where pragmatism and time are of great consideration. We, therefore, refer to the IBR designs as pragmatic designs. Pragmatic designs that achieve high efficiency in the estimation parameters should be used in the design of population PK studies, and simulation should be used to determine the efficiency of the designs. PMID:16353920

  12. Design Issues in Transgender Studies

    PubMed Central

    Emel, Lynda; Hanscom, Brett; Zangeneh, Sahar

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Transgender individuals constitute an important focus for HIV prevention, but studies in this population present some unique methodologic and operational challenges. We consider issues related to sampling, sample size, number of sites, and trial cost. We discuss relevant design issues for evaluating interventions in both HIV-negative and HIV-infected transgender populations, as well as a method for assessing the impact of an intervention on population HIV incidence. We find that HIV-endpoint studies of transgender individuals will likely require fewer participants but more sites and have higher operational costs than HIV prevention trials in other populations. Because any intervention targeted to transgender individuals will likely include antiretroviral drugs, small scale studies looking at potential interactions between antiretroviral therapy and hormone therapy are recommended. Finally, assessing the impact of an intervention targeted to transgender individuals will require better information on the contribution of such individuals to the population HIV incidence. PMID:27429191

  13. Design Issues in Transgender Studies.

    PubMed

    Hughes, James P; Emel, Lynda; Hanscom, Brett; Zangeneh, Sahar

    2016-08-15

    Transgender individuals constitute an important focus for HIV prevention, but studies in this population present some unique methodologic and operational challenges. We consider issues related to sampling, sample size, number of sites, and trial cost. We discuss relevant design issues for evaluating interventions in both HIV-negative and HIV-infected transgender populations, as well as a method for assessing the impact of an intervention on population HIV incidence. We find that HIV-endpoint studies of transgender individuals will likely require fewer participants but more sites and have higher operational costs than HIV prevention trials in other populations. Because any intervention targeted to transgender individuals will likely include antiretroviral drugs, small scale studies looking at potential interactions between antiretroviral therapy and hormone therapy are recommended. Finally, assessing the impact of an intervention targeted to transgender individuals will require better information on the contribution of such individuals to the population HIV incidence. PMID:27429191

  14. AEROSOL PARTICLE COLLECTOR DESIGN STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R

    2007-09-27

    A computational evaluation of a particle collector design was performed to evaluate the behavior of aerosol particles in a fast flowing gas stream. The objective of the work was to improve the collection efficiency of the device while maintaining a minimum specified air throughput, nominal collector size, and minimal power requirements. The impact of a range of parameters was considered subject to constraints on gas flow rate, overall collector dimensions, and power limitations. Potential improvements were identified, some of which have already been implemented. Other more complex changes were identified and are described here for further consideration. In addition, fruitful areas for further study are proposed.

  15. Study designs for dependent happenings.

    PubMed

    Halloran, M E; Struchiner, C J

    1991-09-01

    In 1916, Sir Ronald Ross defined "dependent happenings" as events where the number affected in a unit of time depends on the number already affected. That is, the incidence depends on the prevalence, a characteristic of many infectious diseases. Because of this dependence, interventions against infectious diseases can have not only direct protective effects for the person receiving an intervention, but also indirect effects resulting from changes in the intensity of transmission in the population. This paper develops the conceptual framework for four types of study designs that differentiate and account for direct and indirect effects of intervention programs in dependent happenings. PMID:1742381

  16. The International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Long, K.

    2008-02-21

    The International Design Study for a future Neutrino Factory and super-beam facility (the ISS) established the physics case for a high-precision programme of long-baseline neutrino-oscillation measurements. The ISS also identified baseline specifications for the Neutrino Factory accelerator complex and the neutrino detector systems. This paper summarises the objectives of the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF). The IDS-NF will build on the work of the ISS to deliver a Reference Design Report for the Neutrino Factory by 2012/13 and an Interim Design Report by 2010/11.

  17. MIUS community conceptual design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulbright, B. E.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility, practicality, and applicability of the modular integrated utility systems (MIUS) concept to a satellite new-community development with a population of approximately 100,000 were analyzed. Two MIUS design options, the 29-MIUS-unit (option 1) and the 8-MIUS-unit (option 2) facilities were considered. Each resulted in considerable resource savings when compared to a conventional utility system. Economic analyses indicated that the total cash outlay and operations and maintenance costs for these two options were considerably less than for a conventional system. Computer analyses performed in support of this study provided corroborative data for the study group. An environmental impact assessment was performed to determine whether the MIUS meets or will meet necessary environmental standards. The MIUS can provide improved efficiency in the conservation of natural resources while not adversely affecting the physical environment.

  18. H2FIRST Reference Station Design Task: Project Deliverable 2-2

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, Joseph; Terlip, Danny; Ainscough, Chris; Kurtz, Jennifer; Elgowainy, Amgad

    2015-04-20

    This report presents near-term station cost results and discusses cost trends of different station types. It compares various vehicle rollout scenarios and projects realistic near-term station utilization values using the station infrastructure rollout in California as an example. It describes near-term market demands and matches those to cost-effective station concepts. Finally, the report contains detailed designs for five selected stations, which include piping and instrumentation diagrams, bills of materials, and several site-specific layout studies that incorporate the setbacks required by NFPA 2, the National Fire Protection Association Hydrogen Technologies Code. This work identified those setbacks as a significant factor affecting the ability to site a hydrogen station, particularly liquid stations at existing gasoline stations. For all station types, utilization has a large influence on the financial viability of the station.

  19. 40 CFR 53.8 - Designation of reference and equivalent methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... satisfy the applicable requirements of this part shall be designated as a FRM or FEM (as applicable) by... notice indicating that the method has been designated as a FRM or FEM shall be sent to the applicant. (c) The Administrator will maintain a current list of methods designated as FRM or FEM in accordance...

  20. 40 CFR 53.8 - Designation of reference and equivalent methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... satisfy the applicable requirements of this part shall be designated as a FRM or FEM (as applicable) by... notice indicating that the method has been designated as a FRM or FEM shall be sent to the applicant. (c) The Administrator will maintain a current list of methods designated as FRM or FEM in accordance...

  1. Anaphoric reference to quantified antecedents: an event-related brain potential study.

    PubMed

    Filik, Ruth; Leuthold, Hartmut; Moxey, Linda M; Sanford, Anthony J

    2011-11-01

    We report an event-related brain potential (ERP) study examining how readers process sentences containing anaphoric reference to quantified antecedents. Previous studies indicate that positive (e.g. many) and negative (e.g. not many) quantifiers cause readers to focus on different sets of entities. For example in Many of the fans attended the game, focus is on the fans who attended (the reference set), and subsequent pronominal reference to this set, as in, Their presence was a boost to the team, is facilitated. In contrast, if many is replaced by not many, focus shifts to the fans who did not attend (the complement set), and reference to this set, as in, Their absence was disappointing, is preferred. In the current studies, the electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded while participants read positive or negative quantified statements followed by anaphoric reference to the reference set or complement set. Results showed that the pronoun their elicited a larger N400 following negative than positive quantifiers. There was also a larger N400 on the disambiguating word (presence/absence) for complement set reference following a positive quantifier, and for reference set reference following a negative quantifier. Findings are discussed in relation to theoretical accounts of complement anaphora. PMID:21986293

  2. Design and assembly sequence analysis of option 3 for CETF reference space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, L. Bernard; Andersen, Gregory C.; Hall, John B., Jr.; Allen, Cheryl L.; Scott, A. D., Jr.; So, Kenneth T.

    1987-01-01

    A design and assembly sequence was conducted on one option of the Dual Keel Space Station examined by a NASA Critical Evaluation Task Force to establish viability of several variations of that option. A goal of the study was to produce and analyze technical data to support Task Force decisions to either examine particular Option 3 variations in more depth or eliminate them from further consideration. An analysis of the phasing assembly showed that use of an Expendable Launch Vehicle in conjunction with the Space Transportation System (STS) can accelerate the buildup of the Station and ease the STS launch rate constraints. The study also showed that use of an Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle on the first flight can significantly benefit Station assembly and, by performing Station subsystem functions, can alleviate the need for operational control and reboost systems during the early flights. In addition to launch and assembly sequencing, the study assessed stability and control, and analyzed node-packaging options and the effects of keel removal on the structural dynamics of the Station. Results of these analyses are presented and discussed.

  3. The Mobile Reference Service: a case study of an onsite reference service program at the School of Public Health.

    PubMed

    Tao, Donghua; McCarthy, Patrick G; Krieger, Mary M; Webb, Annie B

    2009-01-01

    The School of Public Health at Saint Louis University is located at a greater distance from the library than other programs on the main medical center campus. Physical distance diminishes the ease of access to direct reference services for public health users. To bridge the gap, the library developed the Mobile Reference Service to deliver on-site information assistance with regular office hours each week. Between September 2006 and April 2007, a total of 57 in-depth reference transactions took place over 25 weeks, averaging 2 transactions per week in a 2-hour period. Overall reference transactions from public health users went up 28%, while liaison contacts with public health users doubled compared to the same period the year before. The Mobile Reference Service program has improved library support for research and scholarship, cultivated and strengthened liaison relationships, and enhanced marketing and delivery of library resources and services to the Saint Louis University School of Public Health. PMID:19159004

  4. Design implementation and control of MRAS error dynamics. [Model-Reference Adaptive System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colburn, B. K.; Boland, J. S., III

    1974-01-01

    Use is made of linearized error characteristic equation for model-reference adaptive systems to determine a parameter adjustment rule for obtaining time-invariant error dynamics. Theoretical justification of error stability is given and an illustrative example included to demonstrate the utility of the proposed technique.

  5. a Study on Producing Highly Reliabile Reference Data Sets for Global Land Cover Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soyama, N.; Muramatsu, K.; Daigo, M.; Ochiai, F.; Fujiwara, N.

    2016-06-01

    Validating the accuracy of land cover products using a reliable reference dataset is an important task. A reliable reference dataset is produced with information derived from ground truth data. Recently, the amount of ground truth data derived from information collected by volunteers has been increasing globally. The acquisition of volunteer-based reference data demonstrates great potential. However information given by volunteers is limited useful vegetation information to produce a complete reference dataset based on the plant functional type (PFT) with five specialized forest classes. In this study, we examined the availability and applicability of FLUXNET information to produce reference data with higher levels of reliability. FLUXNET information was useful especially for forest classes for interpretation in comparison with the reference dataset using information given by volunteers.

  6. Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) and Database for Mission Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; Duvall, Aleta; Johnson, D. L.

    2003-01-01

    Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2001) is an engineering-level Mars atmosphere model widely used for many Mars mission applications. From 0-80 km, it is based on NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model, while above 80 km it is based on Mars Thermospheric General Circulation Model. Mars-GRAM 2001 and MGCM use surface topography from Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter. Validation studies are described comparing Mars-GRAM with Mars Global Surveyor Radio Science and Thermal Emission Spectrometer data. RS data from 2480 profiles were used, covering latitudes 75 deg S to 72 deg N, surface to approximately 40 km, for seasons ranging from areocentric longitude of Sun (Ls) = 70-160 deg and 265-310 deg. RS data spanned a range of local times, mostly 0-9 hours and 18-24 hours. For interests in aerocapture and precision landing, comparisons concentrated on atmospheric density. At a fixed height of 20 km, RS density varied by about a factor of 2.5 over ranges of latitudes and Ls values observed. Evaluated at matching positions and times, these figures show average RSMars-GRAM density ratios were generally 1+/-)0.05, except at heights above approximately 25 km and latitudes above approximately 50 deg N. Average standard deviation of RSMars-GRAM density ratio was 6%. TES data were used covering surface to approximately 40 km, over more than a full Mars year (February, 1999 - June, 2001, just before start of a Mars global dust storm). Depending on season, TES data covered latitudes 85 deg S to 85 deg N. Most TES data were concentrated near local times 2 hours and 14 hours. Observed average TES/Mars-GRAM density ratios were generally 1+/-0.05, except at high altitudes (15-30 km, depending on season) and high latitudes (greater than 45 deg N), or at most altitudes in the southern hemisphere at Ls approximately 90 and 180 deg. Compared to TES averages for a given latitude and season, TES data had average density standard deviation about the mean of

  7. Essentials of College and University Accounting: A Reference Companion to NACUBO's Online Self-Study Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of College and University Business Officers (NJ3), 2006

    2006-01-01

    This reference guide presents the basic accounting concepts, terminology, and definitions used by colleges and universities. The guide, a companion to the National Association of College and University Business Officers' (NACUBO's) online self-study course of the same name or a standalone reference, compares college and university accounting…

  8. The Study Skills Component of the Wisconsin Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamm, Karlyn

    Initial development of the list of skills and related behavioral objectives in the study skills area of The Wisconsin Design for Reading Skill Development began with an extensive search. As an organizational framework, the area was divided into three subareas: maps, graphs and tables, and reference skills. The professional literature,…

  9. Proposed Reference Spectral Irradiance Standards to Improve Photovoltaic Concentrating System Design and Performance Evaluation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D. R.; Emery, K. E.; Gueymard, C.

    2002-05-01

    This conference paper describes the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), and the International Standards Organization (ISO) standard solar terrestrial spectra (ASTM G-159, IEC-904-3, ISO 9845-1) provide standard spectra for photovoltaic performance applications. Modern terrestrial spectral radiation models and knowledge of atmospheric physics are applied to develop suggested revisions to update the reference spectra. We use a moderately complex radiative transfer model (SMARTS2) to produce the revised spectra. SMARTS2 has been validated against the complex MODTRAN radiative transfer code and spectral measurements. The model is proposed as an adjunct standard to reproduce the reference spectra. The proposed spectra represent typical clear sky spectral conditions associated with sites representing reasonable photovoltaic energy production and weathering and durability climates. The proposed spectra are under consideration by ASTM.

  10. Development and Evaluation of Reference Standards for Image-based Telemedicine Diagnosis and Clinical Research Studies in Ophthalmology

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Michael C.; Ostmo, Susan; Jonas, Karyn; Berrocal, Audina; Drenser, Kimberly; Horowitz, Jason; Lee, Thomas C.; Simmons, Charles; Martinez-Castellanos, Maria-Ana; Chan, R.V. Paul; Chiang, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    Information systems managing image-based data for telemedicine or clinical research applications require a reference standard representing the correct diagnosis. Accurate reference standards are difficult to establish because of imperfect agreement among physicians, and discrepancies between clinical vs. image-based diagnosis. This study is designed to describe the development and evaluation of reference standards for image-based diagnosis, which combine diagnostic impressions of multiple image readers with the actual clinical diagnoses. We show that agreement between image reading and clinical examinations was imperfect (689 [32%] discrepancies in 2148 image readings), as was inter-reader agreement (kappa 0.490-0.652). This was improved by establishing an image-based reference standard defined as the majority diagnosis given by three readers (13% discrepancies with image readers). It was further improved by establishing an overall reference standard that incorporated the clinical diagnosis (10% discrepancies with image readers). These principles of establishing reference standards may be applied to improve robustness of real-world systems supporting image-based diagnosis. PMID:25954463

  11. Take A Trip Reference Manual: An Authoring and Storage System for Designing and Sharing Challenging Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Evaluation Section.

    The Take a Trip program is an authoring and storage system for designing challenging curriculum. Using the power of hypermedia, specifically Apple Computer's HyperCard, Take a Trip provides course file stacks, help stacks, and personalized learning plan stacks. Designed to assist the user when new units are written, the help stacks provide an…

  12. Power Requirements for The NASA Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes the power systems analysis results from NASA s recent Mars DRA 5.0 study which examined three architecture options and resulting mission requirements for a human Mars landing mission in the post-2030 timeframe. DRA 5.0 features a long approximately 500 day surface stay split mission using separate cargo and crewed Mars transfer vehicles. Two cargo flights, utilizing minimum energy trajectories, pre-deploy a cargo lander to the surface and a habitat lander into a 24-hour elliptical Mars parking orbit where it remains until the arrival of the crew during the next mission opportunity approximately 26 months later. The pre-deployment of cargo poses unique challenges for set-up and emplacement of surface assets that results in the need for self or robotically deployed designs. Three surface architecture options were evaluated for breadth of science content, extent of exploration range/capability and variations in system concepts and technology. This paper describes the power requirements for the surface operations of the three mission options, power system analyses including discussion of the nuclear fission, solar photovoltaic and radioisotope concepts for main base power and long range mobility.

  13. Novel Compressor Blade Design Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, Abhay

    Jet engine efficiency goals are driving compressors to higher pressure ratios and engines to higher bypass ratios, each one driving to smaller cores. This is leading to larger tip gaps relative to the blade height. These larger relative tip clearances would negate some of the cycle improvements, and ways to mitigate this effect must be found. A novel split tip blade geometry has been created which helps improve the efficiency at large clearances while also improving operating range. Two identical blades are leaned in opposite directions starting at 85% span. They are cut at mid chord and the 2 halves then merged together so a split tip is created. The result is similar to the alula feathers on a soaring bird. The concept is that the split tip will energize the tip flow and increase range. For higher relative tip clearance, this will also improve efficiency. The 6th rotor of a highly loaded 10 stage machine was chosen as the baseline for this study. Three dimensional CFD simulations were performed using CD Adapco's Star-CCM+ at 5 clearances for the baseline and split tip geometry. The choking flow and stall margin of the split tip blade was higher than that of the baseline blade for all tip clearances. The pressure ratio of the novel blade was higher than that of the baseline blade near choke, but closer to stall it decreased. The sensitivity of peak efficiency to clearance was improved. At tight clearances of 0.62% of blade height, the maximum efficiency of the new design was less than the baseline blade, but as the tip clearance was increased above 2.5%, the maximum efficiency increased. Structural analysis was also performed to ascertain the feasibility of the design.

  14. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of Westinghouse Electric Corporation's report on reference conceptual designs for a repository waste package

    SciTech Connect

    Rote, D.M.; Hull, A.B.; Was, G.S.; Macdonald, D.D.; Wilde, B.E.; Russell, J.E.; Kruger, J.; Harrison, W.; Hambley, D.F.

    1985-10-01

    This report documents the findings of the peer panel constituted by Argonne National Laboratory to review Region A of Westinghouse Electric Corporation's report entitled Waste Package Reference Conceptual Designs for a Repository in Salt. The panel determined that the reviewed report does not provide reasonable assurance that US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements for waste packages will be met by the proposed design. It also found that it is premature to call the design a ''reference design,'' or even a ''reference conceptual design.'' This review report provides guidance for the preparation of a more acceptable design document.

  15. Agreement between diagnoses reached by clinical examination and available reference standards: a prospective study of 216 patients with lumbopelvic pain

    PubMed Central

    Laslett, Mark; McDonald, Barry; Tropp, Hans; Aprill, Charles N; Öberg, Birgitta

    2005-01-01

    Background The tissue origin of low back pain (LBP) or referred lower extremity symptoms (LES) may be identified in about 70% of cases using advanced imaging, discography and facet or sacroiliac joint blocks. These techniques are invasive and availability varies. A clinical examination is non-invasive and widely available but its validity is questioned. Diagnostic studies usually examine single tests in relation to single reference standards, yet in clinical practice, clinicians use multiple tests and select from a range of possible diagnoses. There is a need for studies that evaluate the diagnostic performance of clinical diagnoses against available reference standards. Methods We compared blinded clinical diagnoses with diagnoses based on available reference standards for known causes of LBP or LES such as discography, facet, sacroiliac or hip joint blocks, epidurals injections, advanced imaging studies or any combination of these tests. A prospective, blinded validity design was employed. Physiotherapists examined consecutive patients with chronic lumbopelvic pain and/or referred LES scheduled to receive the reference standard examinations. When diagnoses were in complete agreement regardless of complexity, "exact" agreement was recorded. When the clinical diagnosis was included within the reference standard diagnoses, "clinical agreement" was recorded. The proportional chance criterion (PCC) statistic was used to estimate agreement on multiple diagnostic possibilities because it accounts for the prevalence of individual categories in the sample. The kappa statistic was used to estimate agreement on six pathoanatomic diagnoses. Results In a sample of chronic LBP patients (n = 216) with high levels of disability and distress, 67% received a patho-anatomic diagnosis based on available reference standards, and 10% had more than one tissue origin of pain identified. For 27 diagnostic categories and combinations, chance clinical agreement (PCC) was estimated at 13

  16. Design and realization of the high-precision weighing systems as the gravimetric references in PTB's national water flow standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Rainer; Beyer, Karlheinz; Baade, Hans-Joachim

    2012-07-01

    PTB's ‘Hydrodynamic Test Field’, which represents a high-accuracy water flow calibration facility, serves as the national primary standard for liquid flow measurands. As the core reference device of this flow facility, a gravimetric standard has been incorporated, which comprises three special-design weighing systems: 300 kg, 3 tons and 30 tons. These gravimetric references were realized as a combination of a strain-gauge-based and an electromagnetic-force-compensation load-cell-based balance, each. Special emphasis had to be placed upon the dynamics design of the whole weighing system, due to the high measurement resolution and the dynamic behavior of the weighing systems, which are dynamically affected by mechanical vibrations caused by environmental impacts, flow machinery operation, flow noise in the pipework and induced wave motions in the weigh tanks. Taking into account all the above boundary conditions, the design work for the gravimetric reference resulted in a concrete foundation ‘rock’ of some 300 tons that rests on a number of vibration isolators. In addition to these passively operating vibration isolators, the vibration damping effect is enhanced by applying an electronic level regulation device.

  17. Results from heater-induced quenches of A 4. 5 m Reference Design D dipole for the SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Ganetis, G.; Prodell, A.

    1986-01-01

    Quench studies were performed using a 4.5 m long Reference Design D, SSC dipole to determine the temperature rise of the magnet conductor during a quench by measuring the resistance of the conductor cable in the immediate vicinity of the quench. The single bore magnet was wound with improved NbTi conductor in a 2-layer cosine theta coil configuration of 4.0 cm inner diameter. Eight pairs of voltage taps were installed at various locations on the right side of the inner coil of the magnet. ''Spot'' heaters were centrally located between the voltage taps of 4 of these pairs on the midplane turn of the inner coil to initiate magnet quenches. A redundant array of voltage taps and heaters was also installed on the left side of the inner coil. The resistance of the conductor was obtained from observations of the current and voltage during a magnet quench. The temperature of the conductor was then determined by comparing its resistance to an R vs T curve appropriate for the conductor. The quantity ..integral.. I/sup 2/dt and the temperature, T, are presented as a function of current, and the maximum conductor temperature is shown as a function of ..integral.. I/sup 2/dt. Measured longitudinal and azimuthal quench propagation velocities are also presented as a function of magnet current, and the temperatures at several locations on the inner magnet coil are plotted as a function of the time after a quench was initiated.

  18. SP-100 system definition conceptual reference design activities: February through June 1983. Technical information report

    SciTech Connect

    Fortenberry, J.W.; Moore, D.M.; Petrick, S.W.; Smoak, R.H.

    1983-12-01

    The original SP-100 conceptual system design was examined from the mechanical design and integration viewpoint for the purpose of updating the design, identifying concerns, and providing recommendations for future work. Some of the findings were that: Integration of heat pipes into the radiator structure appears practical, but a number of problems remain to be addressed and resolved through development effort; thermal and structural interfacing of the shield and defining shield weight are key areas that need to be addressed; the radiator may be critical in shell buckling which would make beryllium a leading candidate material; material problems such as beryllium vs. shuttle fracture mechanics criteria need to be addressed.

  19. Optimal design for epidemiological studies subject to designed missingness.

    PubMed

    Morara, Michele; Ryan, Louise; Houseman, Andres; Strauss, Warren

    2007-12-01

    In large epidemiological studies, budgetary or logistical constraints will typically preclude study investigators from measuring all exposures, covariates and outcomes of interest on all study subjects. We develop a flexible theoretical framework that incorporates a number of familiar designs such as case control and cohort studies, as well as multistage sampling designs. Our framework also allows for designed missingness and includes the option for outcome dependent designs. Our formulation is based on maximum likelihood and generalizes well known results for inference with missing data to the multistage setting. A variety of techniques are applied to streamline the computation of the Hessian matrix for these designs, facilitating the development of an efficient software tool to implement a wide variety of designs. PMID:18080755

  20. Gain-Scheduled Complementary Filter Design for a MEMS Based Attitude and Heading Reference System

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Tae Suk; Hong, Sung Kyung; Yoon, Hyok Min; Park, Sungsu

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a robust and simple algorithm for an attitude and heading reference system (AHRS) based on low-cost MEMS inertial and magnetic sensors. The proposed approach relies on a gain-scheduled complementary filter, augmented by an acceleration-based switching architecture to yield robust performance, even when the vehicle is subject to strong accelerations. Experimental results are provided for a road captive test during which the vehicle dynamics are in high-acceleration mode and the performance of the proposed filter is evaluated against the output from a conventional linear complementary filter. PMID:22163824

  1. Validation of a set of reference genes to study response to herbicide stress in grasses

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Non-target-site based resistance to herbicides is a major threat to the chemical control of agronomically noxious weeds. This adaptive trait is endowed by differences in the expression of a number of genes in plants that are resistant or sensitive to herbicides. Quantification of the expression of such genes requires normalising qPCR data using reference genes with stable expression in the system studied as internal standards. The aim of this study was to validate reference genes in Alopecurus myosuroides, a grass (Poaceae) weed of economic and agronomic importance with no genomic resources. Results The stability of 11 candidate reference genes was assessed in plants resistant or sensitive to herbicides subjected or not to herbicide stress using the complementary statistical methods implemented by NormFinder, BestKeeper and geNorm. Ubiquitin, beta-tubulin and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were identified as the best reference genes. The reference gene set accuracy was confirmed by analysing the expression of the gene encoding acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase, a major herbicide target enzyme, and of an herbicide-induced gene encoding a glutathione-S-transferase. Conclusions This is the first study describing a set of reference genes (ubiquitin, beta-tubulin and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) with a stable expression under herbicide stress in grasses. These genes are also candidate reference genes of choice for studies seeking to identify stress-responsive genes in grasses. PMID:22233533

  2. Multiple myeloma and engine exhausts, fresh wood, and creosote: a case-referent study

    SciTech Connect

    Flodin, U.; Fredriksson, M.; Persson, B.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of potential risk factors for multiple myeloma was evaluated in a case-referent study encompassing 131 cases and 431 randomized referents, all alive. Information on exposure was obtained with questionnaires mailed to the subjects. An analysis of the material by means of the Miettinen confounder score technique resulted in a few rate ratios significantly exceeding unity--namely, occupational exposure to engine exhausts, creosote, and fresh wood. In view of other studies that suggest ionizing radiation as a risk factor, it was somewhat surprising that low-level gamma radiation from background exposure was less common among the cases than the referents.

  3. Symposium on Reference Service. Is Traditional Reference Service Obsolete? [and] Desk Set Revisited: Reference Librarians, Reality, and Research Systems' Design [and] Traditional Reference Is Dead, Now Let's Move on to Important Questions [and] Reference Service Evolved [and] Reference Service Is More than a Desk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Keith; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This is a collection of five articles which suggest current and future trends in academic library reference services. The first article poses a question, and the remaining four articles offer responses to it. (DGM/JMV)

  4. Genome-wide selection of superior reference genes for expression studies in Ganoderma lucidum.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhichao; Xu, Jiang; Ji, Aijia; Zhu, Yingjie; Zhang, Xin; Hu, Yuanlei; Song, Jingyuan; Chen, Shilin

    2015-12-15

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is widely used for the accurate analysis of gene expression. However, high homology among gene families might result in unsuitability of reference genes, which leads to the inaccuracy of qRT-PCR analysis. The release of the Ganoderma lucidum genome has triggered numerous studies to be done on the homology among gene families with the purpose of selecting reliable reference genes. Based on the G. lucdum genome and transcriptome database, 38 candidate reference genes including 28 novel genes were systematically selected and evaluated for qRT-PCR normalization. The result indicated that commonly used polyubiquitin (PUB), beta-actin (BAT), and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) were unsuitable reference genes because of the high sequence similarity and low primer specificity. According to the evaluation of RefFinder, cyclophilin 5 (CYP5) was ranked as the most stable reference gene for 27 tested samples under all experimental conditions and eighteen mycelial samples. Based on sequence analysis and expression analysis, our study suggested that gene characteristic, primer specificity of high homologous genes, allele-specificity expression of candidate genes and under-evaluation of reference genes influenced the accuracy and sensitivity of qRT-PCR analysis. This investigation not only revealed potential factors influencing the unsuitability of reference genes but also selected the superior reference genes from more candidate genes and testing samples than those used in the previous study. Furthermore, our study established a model for reference gene analysis by using the genomic sequence. PMID:26277249

  5. Concentrator enhanced solar arrays design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lott, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    The analysis and preliminary design of a 25 kW concentrator enhanced lightweight flexible solar array are presented. The study was organized into five major tasks: (1) assessment and specification of design requirements; (2) mechanical design; (3) electric design; (4) concentrator design; and (5) cost projection. The tasks were conducted in an iterative manner so as to best derive a baseline design selection. The objectives of the study are discussed and comparative configurations and mass data on the SEP (Solar Electric Propulsion) array design, concentrator design options and configuration/mass data on the selected concentrator enhanced solar array baseline design are presented. Design requirements supporting design analysis and detailed baseline design data are discussed. The results of the cost projection analysis and new technology are also discussed.

  6. Learning Science by Designing Artifacts (LSDA)--A Case Study of the Development of a Design-Based Science Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamlok, Rachel; Dershimer, Charles; Fortus, David; Krajcik, Joe; Marx, Ron

    The purpose of this study was to document the iterative development of a design-based science curriculum called Learning Science by Designing Artifacts (LSDA). The study refers to the enactment of the Safer Cell Phones curriculum in a high school located in the Midwest. The curriculum was a 5- or 9-week unit in an 18-week science elective course.…

  7. Student-Designed River Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkall, Sheila Florian

    1996-01-01

    Describes an integrated student-designed investigation in which students explore different aspects of the Chagrin River including the river ecosystem, velocity and average depth, river flooding, water quality, and economic and political factors. (JRH)

  8. DAKOTA : a multilevel parallel object-oriented framework for design optimization, parameter estimation, uncertainty quantification, and sensitivity analysis. Version 5.0, user's reference manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Eldred, Michael Scott; Dalbey, Keith R.; Bohnhoff, William J.; Adams, Brian M.; Swiler, Laura Painton; Hough, Patricia Diane; Gay, David M.; Eddy, John P.; Haskell, Karen H.

    2010-05-01

    The DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications) toolkit provides a flexible and extensible interface between simulation codes and iterative analysis methods. DAKOTA contains algorithms for optimization with gradient and nongradient-based methods; uncertainty quantification with sampling, reliability, and stochastic finite element methods; parameter estimation with nonlinear least squares methods; and sensitivity/variance analysis with design of experiments and parameter study methods. These capabilities may be used on their own or as components within advanced strategies such as surrogate-based optimization, mixed integer nonlinear programming, or optimization under uncertainty. By employing object-oriented design to implement abstractions of the key components required for iterative systems analyses, the DAKOTA toolkit provides a flexible and extensible problem-solving environment for design and performance analysis of computational models on high performance computers. This report serves as a reference manual for the commands specification for the DAKOTA software, providing input overviews, option descriptions, and example specifications.

  9. DAKOTA, a multilevel parallel object-oriented framework for design optimization, parameter estimation, uncertainty quantification, and sensitivity analysis:version 4.0 reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, Joshua D. (Sandai National Labs, Livermore, CA); Eldred, Michael Scott; Martinez-Canales, Monica L.; Watson, Jean-Paul; Kolda, Tamara Gibson; Adams, Brian M.; Swiler, Laura Painton; Williams, Pamela J.; Hough, Patricia Diane; Gay, David M.; Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Eddy, John P.; Hart, William Eugene; Guinta, Anthony A.; Brown, Shannon L.

    2006-10-01

    The DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications) toolkit provides a flexible and extensible interface between simulation codes and iterative analysis methods. DAKOTA contains algorithms for optimization with gradient and nongradient-based methods; uncertainty quantification with sampling, reliability, and stochastic finite element methods; parameter estimation with nonlinear least squares methods; and sensitivity/variance analysis with design of experiments and parameter study methods. These capabilities may be used on their own or as components within advanced strategies such as surrogate-based optimization, mixed integer nonlinear programming, or optimization under uncertainty. By employing object-oriented design to implement abstractions of the key components required for iterative systems analyses, the DAKOTA toolkit provides a flexible and extensible problem-solving environment for design and performance analysis of computational models on high performance computers. This report serves as a reference manual for the commands specification for the DAKOTA software, providing input overviews, option descriptions, and example specifications.

  10. Validation of Reference Genes for Expression Studies during Craniofacial Development in Arctic Charr

    PubMed Central

    Ahi, Ehsan Pashay; Guðbrandsson, Jóhannes; Kapralova, Kalina H.; Franzdóttir, Sigríður R.; Snorrason, Sigurður S.; Maier, Valerie H.; Jónsson, Zophonías O.

    2013-01-01

    Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) is a highly polymorphic species and in Lake Thingvallavatn, Iceland, four phenotypic morphs have evolved. These differences in morphology, especially in craniofacial structures are already apparent during embryonic development, indicating that genes important in the formation of the craniofacial features are expressed differentially between the morphs. In order to generate tools to examine these expression differences in Arctic charr, the aim of the present study was to identify reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The specific aim was to select reference genes which are able to detect very small expression differences among different morphs. We selected twelve candidate reference genes from the literature, identified corresponding charr sequences using data derived from transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) and examined their expression using qPCR. Many of the candidate reference genes were found to be stably expressed, yet their quality-rank as reference genes varied considerably depending on the type of analysis used. In addition to commonly used software for reference gene validation, we used classical statistics to evaluate expression profiles avoiding a bias for reference genes with similar expression patterns (co-regulation). Based on these analyses we chose three reference genes, ACTB, UB2L3 and IF5A1 for further evaluation. Their consistency was assessed in an expression study of three known craniofacially expressed genes, sparc (or osteonectin), matrix metalloprotease 2 (mmp2) and sox9 (sex-determining region Y box 9 protein) using qPCR in embryo heads derived from four charr groups at three developmental time points. The three reference genes were found to be very suitable for studying expression differences between the morphotypes, enabling robust detection of small relative expression changes during charr development. Further, the results showed that sparc and mmp2 are differentially expressed in embryos

  11. 77 FR 32632 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ...Notice is hereby given that the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has designated, in accordance with 40 CFR Part 53, three new equivalent methods: One for measuring concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and two for measuring concentrations of lead (Pb) in the ambient...

  12. Protoptype integrated design (Pride) system reference manual. Volume 2: Schema definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishwick, P. A.; Sutter, T. R.; Blackburn, C. L.

    1983-01-01

    An initial description of an evolving relational database schema is presented for the management of finite element model design and analysis data. The report presents a description of each relation including attribute names, data types, and definitions. The format of this report is such that future modifications and enhancements may be easily incorporated.

  13. An Electronic Service Quality Reference Model for Designing E-Commerce Websites Which Maximizes Customer Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaheen, Amer N.

    2011-01-01

    This research investigated Electronic Service Quality (E-SQ) features that contribute to customer satisfaction in an online environment. The aim was to develop an approach which improves E-CRM processes and enhances online customer satisfaction. The research design adopted mixed methods involving qualitative and quantitative methods to…

  14. Environmental Design and Educational Performance, with Particular Reference to "Green" Schools in Hampshire and Essex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Brian W.

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the argument that "green" schools enhance educational performance. Having set the context of the relationship between environmentalism and the design of schools in the twentieth century, the article explores the performance of a number of green schools built in the UK between 1980 and 1995. The aim is to discover whether…

  15. Design and performance of an arcjet nuclear electric propulsion system for a mid-1990's reference mission

    SciTech Connect

    Deininger, W.D.; Vondra, R.J.

    1987-05-01

    The design and performance of an arcjet nuclear-electric-propulsion spacecraft, suitable for use in the Space Nuclear Power System (SNPS) reference mission, are outlined. The vehicle design was based on a 30-kW ammonia arcjet system operating at an Isp of 1050 s and an efficiency of 45 percent. The arcjet/gimbal system, power-processing unit, and propellant-feed system are described. A 100-kWe SNPS was assumed, and the spacecraft mass was baselined at 5250 kg (excluding the propellant-feed system). A radiation/arcjet efflux diagnostics package was included in the performance analysis. This spacecraft, assuming a Shuttle launch from KSC, can perform a 50-deg inclination change and reach a final orbit of 35,860 km with a 120-d trip time providing a 4-mo active load for the SNPS. Alternatively, a Titan IV launch would provide a mass margin of 120 kg to a 10,000-km, 58-deg final orbit in 74 d. This spacecraft meets the reference-mission constraint of low developmental risk, and is scalable to power levels projected for future space platforms. 36 references.

  16. Durability-Based Design Properties of Reference Crossply Carbon-Fiber Composite

    SciTech Connect

    Corum, J.M.

    2001-04-16

    This report provides recommended durability-based design properties and criteria for a crossply carbon-fiber composite for possible automotive structural applications. Although the composite utilized aerospace-grade carbon-fiber reinforcement, it was made by a rapid-molding process suitable for high-volume automotive use. The material is the first in a planned progression of candidate composites to be characterized as part of an Oak Ridge National Laboratory project entitled Durability of Carbon-Fiber Composites. The overall goal of the project, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies and is closely coordinated with the Advanced Composites Consortium, is to develop durability-driven design data and criteria to assure the long-term integrity of carbon-fiber-based composite systems for automotive structural applications. The composite addressed in this report is a ({+-}45{degree})3S crossply consisting of continuous Thornel T300 fibers in a Baydur 420 IMR urethane matrix. This composite is highly anisotropic with two dominant fiber orientations--0/90{degree} and {+-}45{degree}. Properties and models were developed for both orientations. This document is in two parts. Part 1 provides design data and correlations, while Part 2 provides the underlying experimental data and models. The durability issues addressed include the effects of short-time, cyclic, and sustained loadings; temperature; fluid environments; and low-energy impacts (e.g., tool drops and kickups of roadway debris) on deformation, strength, and stiffness. Guidance for design analysis, time-independent and time-dependent allowable stresses, rules for cyclic loadings, and damage-tolerance design guidance are provided.

  17. A study of commuter airplane design optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roskam, J.; Wyatt, R. D.; Griswold, D. A.; Hammer, J. L.

    1977-01-01

    Problems of commuter airplane configuration design were studied to affect a minimization of direct operating costs. Factors considered were the minimization of fuselage drag, methods of wing design, and the estimated drag of an airplane submerged in a propellor slipstream; all design criteria were studied under a set of fixed performance, mission, and stability constraints. Configuration design data were assembled for application by a computerized design methodology program similar to the NASA-Ames General Aviation Synthesis Program.

  18. Managing data for a multicountry longitudinal study: experience from the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study.

    PubMed

    Onyango, Adelheid W; Pinol, Alain J; de Onis, Mercedes

    2004-03-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Multicentre Growth Reference (MGRS) data management protocol was designed to create and manage a large data bank of information collected from multiple sites over a period of several years. Data collection and processing instruments were prepared centrally and used in a standardized fashion across sites. The data management system contained internal validation features for timely detection of data errors, and its standard operating procedures stipulated a method of master file updating and correction that maintained a clear trail for data auditing purposes. Each site was responsible for collecting, entering, verifying, and validating data, and for creating site-level master files. Data from the sites were sent to the MGRS Coordinating Centre every month for master file consolidation and more extensive quality control checking. All errors identified at the Coordinating Centre were communicated to the site for correction at source. The protocol imposed transparency on the sites' data management activities but also ensured access to technical help with operation and maintenance of the system. Through the rigorous implementation of what has been a highly demanding protocol, the MGRS has accumulated a large body of very high-quality data. PMID:15069919

  19. Identification of suitable reference genes for gene expression studies of shoulder instability.

    PubMed

    Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Belangero, Paulo Santoro; Cohen, Carina; Figueiredo, Eduardo Antônio; Loyola, Leonor Casilla; Pochini, Alberto Castro; Smith, Marília Cardoso; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Belangero, Sintia Iole; Ejnisman, Benno; Cohen, Moises

    2014-01-01

    Shoulder instability is a common shoulder injury, and patients present with plastic deformation of the glenohumeral capsule. Gene expression analysis may be a useful tool for increasing the general understanding of capsule deformation, and reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) has become an effective method for such studies. Although RT-qPCR is highly sensitive and specific, it requires the use of suitable reference genes for data normalization to guarantee meaningful and reproducible results. In the present study, we evaluated the suitability of a set of reference genes using samples from the glenohumeral capsules of individuals with and without shoulder instability. We analyzed the expression of six commonly used reference genes (ACTB, B2M, GAPDH, HPRT1, TBP and TFRC) in the antero-inferior, antero-superior and posterior portions of the glenohumeral capsules of cases and controls. The stability of the candidate reference gene expression was determined using four software packages: NormFinder, geNorm, BestKeeper and DataAssist. Overall, HPRT1 was the best single reference gene, and HPRT1 and B2M composed the best pair of reference genes from different analysis groups, including simultaneous analysis of all tissue samples. GenEx software was used to identify the optimal number of reference genes to be used for normalization and demonstrated that the accumulated standard deviation resulting from the use of 2 reference genes was similar to that resulting from the use of 3 or more reference genes. To identify the optimal combination of reference genes, we evaluated the expression of COL1A1. Although the use of different reference gene combinations yielded variable normalized quantities, the relative quantities within sample groups were similar and confirmed that no obvious differences were observed when using 2, 3 or 4 reference genes. Consequently, the use of 2 stable reference genes for normalization, especially HPRT1 and B2M, is a

  20. Validation of endogenous control reference genes for normalizing gene expression studies in endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ayakannu, Thangesweran; Taylor, Anthony H; Willets, Jonathon M; Brown, Laurence; Lambert, David G; McDonald, John; Davies, Quentin; Moss, Esther L; Konje, Justin C

    2015-09-01

    Real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) is a powerful technique used for the relative quantification of target genes, using reference (housekeeping) genes for normalization to ensure the generation of accurate and robust data. A systematic examination of the suitability of endogenous reference genes for gene expression studies in endometrial cancer tissues is absent. The aims of this study were therefore to identify and evaluate from the thirty-two possible reference genes from a TaqMan(®) array panel their suitability as an internal control gene. The mathematical software packages geNorm qBasePLUS identified Pumilio homolog 1 (Drosophila) (PUM1), ubiquitin C (UBC), phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK1), mitochondrial ribosomal protein L19 (MRPL19) and peptidylpropyl isomerase A (cyclophilin A) (PPIA) as the best reference gene combination, whilst NormFinder identified MRPL19 as the best single reference gene, with importin 8 (IPO8) and PPIA being the best combination of two reference genes. BestKeeper ranked MRPL19 as the most stably expressed gene. In addition, the study was validated by examining the relative expression of a test gene, which encodes the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1). A significant difference in CB1 mRNA expression between malignant and normal endometrium using MRPL19, PPIA, and IP08 in combination was observed. The use of MRPL19, IPO8 and PPIA was identified as the best reference gene combination for the normalization of gene expression levels in endometrial carcinoma. This study demonstrates that the arbitrary selection of endogenous control reference genes for normalization in qRT-PCR studies of endometrial carcinoma, without validation, risks the production of inaccurate data and should therefore be discouraged. PMID:26124453

  1. Advanced Design Studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, Don

    2012-12-01

    The ARIES-CS project was a multi-year multi-institutional project to assess the feasibility of a compact stellarator as a fusion power plant. The work herein describes efforts to help design one aspect of the device, the divertor, which is responsible for the removal of particle and heat flux from the system, acting as the first point of contact between the magnetically confined hot plasma and the outside world. Specifically, its location and topology are explored, extending previous work on the sub ject. An optimized design is determined for the thermal particle flux using a suite of 3D stellarator design codes which trace magnetic field lines from just inside the confined plasma edge to their strike points on divertor plates. These divertor plates are specified with a newly developed plate design code. It is found that a satisfactory thermal design exists which maintains the plate temperature and heat load distribution below tolerable engineering limits. The design is unique, including a toroidal taper on the outboard plates which was found to be important to our results. The maximum thermal heat flux for the final design was 3.61 M W/m2 and the maximum peaking factor was 10.3, below prescribed limits of 10 M W/m2 and 15.6, respectively. The median length of field lines reaching the plates is about 250 m and their average angle of inclination to the surface is 2 deg. Finally, an analysis of the fast alphas, resulting from fusion in the core, which escape the plasma was performed. A method is developed for obtaining the mapping from magnetic coordinates to real-space coordinates for the ARIES-CS. This allows the alpha exit locations to be identified in real space for the first time. These were then traced using the field line algorithm as well as a guiding center routine accounting for their mass, charge, and specific direction and energy. Results show that the current design is inadequate for accommodating the alpha heat flux, capturing at most 1/3 of lost alphas

  2. Light weight radioisotope heater unit (LWRHU): a technical description of the reference design

    SciTech Connect

    Tate, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    The Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU), a new radioisotope heater unit for use in space missions, is a /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled unit designed to provide a thermal watt in dispersed locations on a spacecraft. The LWRHU is required to maintain the temperature of a component at a level where the component will function reliably in space. Two major constraints are placed on the unit's design; it must be as light as possible and must provide enough protection to immobilize the plutonium fuel to the maximum extent in all phases of the unit's lifetime. The four components are pelletized fuel, platinum-alloy encapsulation, pyrolytic graphite thermal insulation, and high-technology graphite ablation shell. The LWRHU is a cylinder 32 mm (1.26 in.) high and 26 mm (1.02 in.) in diameter. It weighs slightly less than 40 g(.09 lb).

  3. Vertical Field of View Reference Point Study for Flight Path Control and Hazard Avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, J. Raymond, Jr.; Rudisill, Marianne; Kramer, Lynda J.; Busquets, Anthony M.

    2002-01-01

    Researchers within the eXternal Visibility System (XVS) element of the High-Speed Research (HSR) program developed and evaluated display concepts that will provide the flight crew of the proposed High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) with integrated imagery and symbology to permit path control and hazard avoidance functions while maintaining required situation awareness. The challenge of the XVS program is to develop concepts that would permit a no-nose-droop configuration of an HSCT and expanded low visibility HSCT operational capabilities. This study was one of a series of experiments exploring the 'design space' restrictions for physical placement of an XVS display. The primary experimental issues here was 'conformality' of the forward display vertical position with respect to the side window in simulated flight. 'Conformality' refers to the case such that the horizon and objects appear in the same relative positions when viewed through the forward windows or display and the side windows. This study quantified the effects of visual conformality on pilot flight path control and hazard avoidance performance. Here, conformality related to the positioning and relationship of the artificial horizon line and associated symbology presented on the forward display and the horizon and associated ground, horizon, and sky textures as they would appear in the real view through a window presented in the side window display. No significant performance consequences were found for the non-conformal conditions.

  4. Schematic designs for penetration seals for a reference repository in bedded salt

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsall, P.C.; Case, J.B.; Meyer, D.; Coons, W.E.

    1982-11-01

    The isolation of radioactive wastes in geologic repositories requires that man-made penetrations such as shafts, tunnels, or boreholes are adequately sealed. This report describes schematic seal designs for a repository in bedded salt referenced to the straitigraphy of southeastern New Mexico. The designs are presented for extensive peer review and will be updated as site-specific conceptual designs when a site for a repository in salt has been selected. The principal material used in the seal system is crushed salt obtained from excavating the repository. It is anticipated that crushed salt will consolidate as the repository rooms creep close to the degree that mechanical and hydrologic properties will eventually match those of undisturbed, intact salt. For southeastern New Mexico salt, analyses indicate that this process will require approximately 1000 years for a seal located at the base of one of the repository shafts (where there is little increase in temperature due to waste emplacement) and approximately 400 years for a seal located in an access tunnel within the repository. Bulkheads composed of contrete or salt bricks are also included in the seal system as components which will have low permeability during the period required for salt consolidation.

  5. Epidemiological study air disaster in Amsterdam (ESADA): study design

    PubMed Central

    Slottje, Pauline; Huizink, Anja C; Twisk, Jos WR; Witteveen, Anke B; van der Ploeg, Henk M; Bramsen, Inge; Smidt, Nynke; Bijlsma, Joost A; Bouter, Lex M; van Mechelen, Willem; Smid, Tjabe

    2005-01-01

    Background In 1992, a cargo aircraft crashed into apartment buildings in Amsterdam, killing 43 victims and destroying 266 apartments. In the aftermath there were speculations about the cause of the crash, potential exposures to hazardous materials due to the disaster and the health consequences. Starting in 2000, the Epidemiological Study Air Disaster in Amsterdam (ESADA) aimed to assess the long-term health effects of occupational exposure to this disaster on professional assistance workers. Methods/Design Epidemiological study among all the exposed professional fire-fighters and police officers who performed disaster-related task(s), and hangar workers who sorted the wreckage of the aircraft, as well as reference groups of their non-exposed colleagues who did not perform any disaster-related tasks. The study took place, on average, 8.5 years after the disaster. Questionnaires were used to assess details on occupational exposure to the disaster. Health measures comprised laboratory assessments in urine, blood and saliva, as well as self-reported current health measures, including health-related quality of life, and various physical and psychological symptoms. Discussion In this paper we describe and discuss the design of the ESADA. The ESADA will provide additional scientific knowledge on the long-term health effects of technological disasters on professional workers. PMID:15921536

  6. A channel simulator design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devito, D. M.; Goutmann, M. M.; Harper, R. C.

    1971-01-01

    A propagation path simulator was designed for the channel between a Tracking and Data Relay Satellite in geostationary orbit and a user spacecraft orbiting the earth at an altitude between 200 and 4000 kilometers. The simulator is required to duplicate the time varying parameters of the propagation channel.

  7. Preliminary aerosol generator design studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stampfer, J. F., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The design and construction of a prototype vaporization generator for highly dispersed sodium chloride aerosols is described. The aerosol generating system is to be used in the Science Simulator of the Cloud Physics Laboratory Project and as part of the Cloud Physics Laboratory payload to be flown on the shuttle/spacelab.

  8. Altair Descent and Ascent Reference Trajectory Design and Initial Dispersion Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kos, Larry D.; Polsgrove, Tara T.; Sostaric, Ronald r.; Braden, Ellen M.; Sullivan, Jacob J.; Lee, Thanh T.

    2010-01-01

    The Altair Lunar Lander is the linchpin in the Constellation Program (CxP) for human return to the Moon. Altair is delivered to low Earth orbit (LEO) by the Ares V heavy lift launch vehicle, and after subsequent docking with Orion in LEO, the Altair/Orion stack is delivered through translunar injection (TLI). The Altair/Orion stack separating from the Earth departure stage (EDS) shortly after TLI and continues the flight to the Moon as a single stack. Altair performs the lunar orbit insertion (LOI) maneuver, targeting a 100-km circular orbit. This orbit will be a polar orbit for missions landing near the lunar South Pole. After spending nearly 24 hours in low lunar orbit (LLO), the lander undocks from Orion and performs a series of small maneuvers to set up for descending to the lunar surface. This descent begins with a small deorbit insertion (DOI) maneuver, putting the lander on an orbit that has a perilune of 15.24 km (50,000 ft), the altitude where the actual powered descent initiation (PDI) commences. At liftoff from Earth, Altair has a mass of 45 metric tons (mt). However after LOI (without Orion attached), the lander mass is slightly less than 33 mt at PDI. The lander currently has a single descent module main engine, with TBD lb(sub f) thrust (TBD N), providing a thrust-to-weight ratio of approximately TBD Earth g's at PDI. LDAC-3 (Lander design and analysis cycle #3) is the most recently closed design sizing and mass properties iteration. Upgrades for loss of crew (LDAC-2) and loss of mission (LDAC-3) have been incorporated into the lander baseline design (and its Master Equipment List). Also, recently, Altair has been working requirements analyses (LRAC-1). All nominal data here are from the LDAC-3 analysis cycle. All dispersions results here are from LRAC-1 analyses.

  9. Human Health and Performance Aspects of Mars Design Reference Mission of July, 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, John B.

    1999-01-01

    The human element is the most complex element of the mission design Mars missions will pose significant physiological and psychological challenges to crew members Some challenges (human engineering, life support) must be overcome (potential "non-starters") Some challenges (bone, radiation) may be show-stoppers ISS will only Indirectly address Mars questions before any "Go/No Go" decision Significant amount of ground-based and specialized flight research will be required -- Critical Path Roadmap project will direct HSLSPO's research toward Mars exploration objectives

  10. Destination Deimos: A Design Reference Architecture for Initial Human Exploration of the Mars System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, James S.; Adamo, D. R.

    2011-01-01

    The two biggest challenges to successful human operations in interplanetary space are flight dynamics, constrained by the cold hard physics of the rocket equation, and bioastronautics, the psychophysiological realities of human adaptation, or lack thereof, to the deep space environment. Without substantial innovation in project/mission architecture and vehicle design, human exploration of the Mars system could be problematic for decades. Although a human landing on Mars is inevitable, humans-in-the-loop telerobotic exploration from the outer Martian moon Deimos is the best way to begin. Precursor robotic missions for reconnaissance and local site preparation will be required.

  11. Reference values for spirometry – report from the Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden studies

    PubMed Central

    Backman, Helena; Lindberg, Anne; Odén, Anders; Ekerljung, Linda; Hedman, Linnéa; Kainu, Annette; Sovijärvi, Anssi; Lundbäck, Bo; Rönmark, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Background Abnormal lung function is commonly identified by comparing observed spirometric values to corresponding reference values. It is recommended that such reference values for spirometry are evaluated and updated frequently. The aim of this study was to estimate new reference values for Swedish adults by fitting a multivariable regression model to a healthy non-smoking general population sample from northern Sweden. Further aims were to evaluate the external validity of the obtained reference values on a contemporary sample from south-western Sweden, and to compare them to the Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI) reference values. Method Sex-specific multivariable linear regression models were fitted to the spirometric data of n=501 healthy non-smoking adults aged 22–91 years, with age and height as predictors. The models were extended to allow the scatter around the outcome variable to depend on age, and age-dependent spline functions were incorporated into the models to provide a smooth fit over the entire age range. Mean values and lower limits of normal, defined as the lower 5th percentiles, were derived. Result This modelling approach resulted in unbiased estimates of the spirometric outcomes, and the obtained estimates were appropriate not only for the northern Sweden sample but also for the south-western Sweden sample. On average, the GLI reference values for forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and, in particular, forced expiratory vital capacity (FVC) were lower than both the observed values and the new reference values, but higher for the FEV1/FVC ratio. Conclusion The evaluation based on the sample of healthy non-smokers from northern Sweden show that the Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden reference values are valid. Furthermore, the evaluation based on the south-western Sweden sample indicates a high external validity. The comparison with GLI brought further evidence to the consensus that, when available, appropriate local

  12. Blood Reference Intervals for Preterm Low-Birth-Weight Infants: A Multicenter Cohort Study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Masayuki; Matsushita, Yuki; Inoue, Hirosuke; Kusuda, Takeshi; Kang, Dongchon; Ichihara, Kiyoshi; Nakashima, Naoki; Ihara, Kenji; Ohga, Shouichi; Hara, Toshiro

    2016-01-01

    Preterm low-birth-weight infants remain difficult to manage based on adequate laboratory tests. The aim of this study was to establish blood reference intervals (RIs) in those newborns who were admitted to and survived in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). A multicenter prospective study was conducted among all infants admitted to 11 affiliated NICUs from 2010 to 2013. The clinical information and laboratory data were registered in a network database designed for this study. The RIs for 26 items were derived using the parametric method after applying the latent abnormal values exclusion method. The influence of birth weight (BW) and gestational age (GA) on the test results was expressed in terms of the standard deviation ratio (SDR), as SDRBW and SDRGA, respectively. A total of 3189 infants were admitted during the study period; 246 were excluded due to a lack of blood sampling data, and 234 were excluded for chromosomal abnormalities (n = 108), congenital anomalies requiring treatment with surgical procedures (n = 76), and death or transfer to another hospital (n = 50). As a result, 2709 infants were enrolled in this study. Both the SDRGA and SDRBW were above 0.4 in the test results for total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and red blood cells (RBC); their values increased in proportion to the BW and GA. We derived 26 blood RIs for infants who were admitted to NICUs. These RIs should help in the performance of proper clinical assessments and research in the field of perinatal-neonatal medicine. PMID:27552225

  13. Blood Reference Intervals for Preterm Low-Birth-Weight Infants: A Multicenter Cohort Study in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Hirosuke; Kusuda, Takeshi; Kang, Dongchon; Ichihara, Kiyoshi; Nakashima, Naoki; Ihara, Kenji; Ohga, Shouichi; Hara, Toshiro

    2016-01-01

    Preterm low-birth-weight infants remain difficult to manage based on adequate laboratory tests. The aim of this study was to establish blood reference intervals (RIs) in those newborns who were admitted to and survived in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). A multicenter prospective study was conducted among all infants admitted to 11 affiliated NICUs from 2010 to 2013. The clinical information and laboratory data were registered in a network database designed for this study. The RIs for 26 items were derived using the parametric method after applying the latent abnormal values exclusion method. The influence of birth weight (BW) and gestational age (GA) on the test results was expressed in terms of the standard deviation ratio (SDR), as SDRBW and SDRGA, respectively. A total of 3189 infants were admitted during the study period; 246 were excluded due to a lack of blood sampling data, and 234 were excluded for chromosomal abnormalities (n = 108), congenital anomalies requiring treatment with surgical procedures (n = 76), and death or transfer to another hospital (n = 50). As a result, 2709 infants were enrolled in this study. Both the SDRGA and SDRBW were above 0.4 in the test results for total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and red blood cells (RBC); their values increased in proportion to the BW and GA. We derived 26 blood RIs for infants who were admitted to NICUs. These RIs should help in the performance of proper clinical assessments and research in the field of perinatal-neonatal medicine. PMID:27552225

  14. Analysis of Reference Design for Nuclear-Assisted Hydrogen Production at 750°C Reactor Outlet Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Michael G. McKellar; Edwin A. Harvego

    2010-05-01

    The use of High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) for the efficient production of hydrogen without the greenhouse gas emissions associated with conventional fossil-fuel hydrogen production techniques has been under investigation at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INL) for the last several years. The activities at the INL have included the development, testing and analysis of large numbers of solid oxide electrolysis cells, and the analyses of potential plant designs for large scale production of hydrogen using a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) to provide the process heat and electricity to drive the electrolysis process. The results of this research led to the selection in 2009 of HTE as the preferred concept in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) hydrogen technology down-selection process. However, the down-selection process, along with continued technical assessments at the INL, has resulted in a number of proposed modifications and refinements to improve the original INL reference HTE design. These modifications include changes in plant configuration, operating conditions and individual component designs. This report describes the resulting new INL reference design coupled to two alternative HTGR power conversion systems, a Steam Rankine Cycle and a Combined Cycle (a Helium Brayton Cycle with a Steam Rankine Bottoming Cycle). Results of system analyses performed to optimize the design and to determine required plant performance and operating conditions when coupled to the two different power cycles are also presented. A 600 MWt high temperature gas reactor coupled with a Rankine steam power cycle at a thermal efficiency of 44.4% can produce 1.85 kg/s of hydrogen and 14.6 kg/s of oxygen. The same capacity reactor coupled with a combined cycle at a thermal efficiency of 42.5% can produce 1.78 kg/s of hydrogen and 14.0 kg/s of oxygen.

  15. Economic Analysis of the Reference Design for a Nuclear-Driven High-Temperature-Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    SciTech Connect

    E. A. Harvego; M. G. McKellar; M. S. Sohal; J. E. O'Brien; J. S. Herring

    2008-01-01

    A reference design for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production was developed to provide a basis for comparing the HTE concept with other hydrogen production concepts. The reference plant design is driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled reactor coupled to a direct Brayton power cycle. The reference design reactor power is 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 540°C and 900°C, respectively. The electrolysis unit used to produce hydrogen consists of 4,009,177 cells with a per-cell active area of 225 cm2. A nominal cell area-specific resistance, ASR, value of 0.4 Ohm•cm2 with a current density of 0.25 A/cm2 was used, and isothermal boundary conditions were assumed. The optimized design for the reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes an air-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode side of the electrolyzer. The inlet air for the air-sweep system is compressed to the system operating pressure of 5.0 MPa in a four-stage compressor with intercooling. The alternating current, AC, to direct current, DC, conversion is 96%. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the low heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 47.12% at a hydrogen production rate of 2.356 kg/s. An economic analysis of the plant was also performed using the H2A Analysis Methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program. The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a competitive cost using realistic financial and cost estimating assumptions. A required cost of $3.23 per kg of hydrogen produced was calculated assuming an internal rate of return of 10%. Approximately 73% of this cost ($2.36/kg) is the result of capital costs associated

  16. Reference gene selection for gene expression studies in lily using quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Zhang, M F; Liu, Q; Jia, G X

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is an important technology used to analyze gene-expression levels. Reference genes, which are assumed to be expressed consistently across various developmental stages and in different tissues, were selected for expression level analysis. Using digital gene expression technology, we selected nine reference genes (18S, EF, CYCOL, SAND, GAPDH, ACTIN, BHLH, TIP, and Clathrin) as candidate reference genes for further study. Using three different analysis methods (GeNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper), a total of 144 lily (Lilium x formolongi "Raizan 3") samples were analyzed. The samples were collected from four different tissues under various developmental stages. In addition, leaves treated with different plant hormones were collected and analyzed. The data showed that the stability of the nine reference genes differed among samples, but TIP, EF, Clathrin, and BHLH could be identified as the most stable genes overall. In addition, the relative expression level of LfFT in different lily tissues with the competence to flower was also analyzed to verify the selected reference genes. This study constitutes an important source for selecting reference genes when analyzing the expression patterns of flowering time and floral development regulation genes in lily cultivars. PMID:27173307

  17. The Semantic Automated Discovery and Integration (SADI) Web service Design-Pattern, API and Reference Implementation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The complexity and inter-related nature of biological data poses a difficult challenge for data and tool integration. There has been a proliferation of interoperability standards and projects over the past decade, none of which has been widely adopted by the bioinformatics community. Recent attempts have focused on the use of semantics to assist integration, and Semantic Web technologies are being welcomed by this community. Description SADI - Semantic Automated Discovery and Integration - is a lightweight set of fully standards-compliant Semantic Web service design patterns that simplify the publication of services of the type commonly found in bioinformatics and other scientific domains. Using Semantic Web technologies at every level of the Web services "stack", SADI services consume and produce instances of OWL Classes following a small number of very straightforward best-practices. In addition, we provide codebases that support these best-practices, and plug-in tools to popular developer and client software that dramatically simplify deployment of services by providers, and the discovery and utilization of those services by their consumers. Conclusions SADI Services are fully compliant with, and utilize only foundational Web standards; are simple to create and maintain for service providers; and can be discovered and utilized in a very intuitive way by biologist end-users. In addition, the SADI design patterns significantly improve the ability of software to automatically discover appropriate services based on user-needs, and automatically chain these into complex analytical workflows. We show that, when resources are exposed through SADI, data compliant with a given ontological model can be automatically gathered, or generated, from these distributed, non-coordinating resources - a behaviour we have not observed in any other Semantic system. Finally, we show that, using SADI, data dynamically generated from Web services can be explored in a manner

  18. Elasmobranch qPCR reference genes: a case study of hypoxia preconditioned epaulette sharks

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Elasmobranch fishes are an ancient group of vertebrates which have high potential as model species for research into evolutionary physiology and genomics. However, no comparative studies have established suitable reference genes for quantitative PCR (qPCR) in elasmobranchs for any physiological conditions. Oxygen availability has been a major force shaping the physiological evolution of vertebrates, especially fishes. Here we examined the suitability of 9 reference candidates from various functional categories after a single hypoxic insult or after hypoxia preconditioning in epaulette shark (Hemiscyllium ocellatum). Results Epaulette sharks were caught and exposed to hypoxia. Tissues were collected from 10 controls, 10 individuals with single hypoxic insult and 10 individuals with hypoxia preconditioning (8 hypoxic insults, 12 hours apart). We produced sequence information for reference gene candidates and monitored mRNA expression levels in four tissues: cerebellum, heart, gill and eye. The stability of the genes was examined with analysis of variance, geNorm and NormFinder. The best ranking genes in our study were eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 beta (eef1b), ubiquitin (ubq) and polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide F (polr2f). The performance of the ribosomal protein L6 (rpl6) was tissue-dependent. Notably, in one tissue the analysis of variance indicated statistically significant differences between treatments for genes that were ranked as the most stable candidates by reference gene software. Conclusions Our results indicate that eef1b and ubq are generally the most suitable reference genes for the conditions and tissues in the present epaulette shark studies. These genes could also be potential reference gene candidates for other physiological studies examining stress in elasmobranchs. The results emphasise the importance of inter-group variation in reference gene evaluation. PMID:20416043

  19. Reference allocations and use of a disparity measure to inform the design of allocation funding formulas in public health programs.

    PubMed

    Buehler, James W; Bernet, Patrick M; Ogden, Lydia L

    2012-01-01

    Funding formulas are commonly used by federal agencies to allocate program funds to states. As one approach to evaluating differences in allocations resulting from alternative formula calculations, we propose the use of a measure derived from the Gini index to summarize differences in allocations relative to 2 referent allocations: one based on equal per-capita funding across states and another based on equal funding per person living in poverty, which we define as the "proportionality of allocation" (PA). These referents reflect underlying values that often shape formula-based allocations for public health programs. The size of state populations serves as a general proxy for the amount of funding needed to support programs across states. While the size of state populations living in poverty is correlated with overall population size, allocations based on states' shares of the national population living in poverty reflect variations in funding need shaped by the association between poverty and multiple adverse health outcomes. The PA measure is a summary of the degree of dispersion in state-specific allocations relative to the referent allocations and provides a quick assessment of the impact of selecting alternative funding formula designs. We illustrate the PA values by adjusting a sample allocation, using various measures of the salary costs and in-state wealth, which might modulate states' needs for federal funding. PMID:22635187

  20. Collaborative studies on the development of national reference standards for potency determination of H7N9 influenza vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Li, Changgui; Xu, Kangwei; Hashem, Anwar; Shao, Ming; Liu, Shuzhen; Zou, Yong; Gao, Qiang; Zhang, Yongchao; Yuan, Liyong; Xu, Miao; Li, Xuguang; Wang, Junzhi

    2015-01-01

    The outbreak of human infections of a novel avian influenza virus A (H7N9) prompted the development of the vaccines against this virus. Like all types of influenza vaccines, H7N9 vaccine must be tested for its potency prior to being used in humans. However, the unavailability of international reference reagents for the potency determination of H7N9 vaccines substantially hinders the progress in vaccine development. To facilitate clinical development, we enlisted 5 participants in a collaborative study to develop critical reagents used in Single Radial Immunodiffusion (SRID), the currently acceptable assay for potency determination of influenza vaccine. Specifically, the hemagglutinin (HA) content of one vaccine bulk for influenza A (H7N9), herein designated as Primary Liquid Standard (PLS), was determined by SDS-PAGE. In addition, the freeze-dried antigen references derived from PLS were prepared to enhance the stability for long term storage. The final HA content of lyophilized antigen references were calibrated against PLS by SRID assay in a collaborative study. Importantly, application of these national reference standards to potency analyses greatly facilitated the development of H7N9 vaccines in China. PMID:25970793

  1. Religious Studies: The Shaping of a Field and a Guide to Reference Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippy, Charles H.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the development of religious studies as an academic discipline. Examines the work of leading thinkers in the field, including anthropologists Sir James Fraser and Edward Burnett Taylor, sociologist Max Weber, and psychologist Erik Erikson. Identifies some of the many reference works that deal with religious studies. (SG)

  2. Anaphoric Reference to Quantified Antecedents: An Event-Related Brain Potential Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filik, Ruth; Leuthold, Hartmut; Moxey, Linda M.; Sanford, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    We report an event-related brain potential (ERP) study examining how readers process sentences containing anaphoric reference to quantified antecedents. Previous studies indicate that positive (e.g. "many") and negative (e.g. "not many") quantifiers cause readers to focus on different sets of entities. For example in "Many of the fans attended the…

  3. The Value of Coordinated Services with Court-Referred Clients and Their Families: An Outcome Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coll, Kenneth M.; Stewart, Roger A.; Morse, Renee; Moe, Amber

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of building partnerships with community resources and systems for court-referred clients and their families through a participant outcome evaluation. Specific variables studied included change in substance abuse patterns, family well-being, child safety, and recidivism. Results from pre-post testing revealed…

  4. Identification of reference genes and validation for gene expression studies in diverse axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) tissues.

    PubMed

    Guelke, Eileen; Bucan, Vesna; Liebsch, Christina; Lazaridis, Andrea; Radtke, Christine; Vogt, Peter M; Reimers, Kerstin

    2015-04-10

    For the precise quantitative RT-PCR normalization a set of valid reference genes is obligatory. Moreover have to be taken into concern the experimental conditions as they bias the regulation of reference genes. Up till now, no reference targets have been described for the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum). In a search in the public database SalSite for genetic information of the axolotl we identified fourteen presumptive reference genes, eleven of which were further tested for their gene expression stability. This study characterizes the expressional patterns of 11 putative endogenous control genes during axolotl limb regeneration and in an axolotl tissue panel. All 11 reference genes showed variable expression. Strikingly, ACTB was to be found most stable expressed in all comparative tissue groups, so we reason it to be suitable for all different kinds of axolotl tissue-type investigations. Moreover do we suggest GAPDH and RPLP0 as suitable for certain axolotl tissue analysis. When it comes to axolotl limb regeneration, a validated pair of reference genes is ODC and RPLP0. With these findings, new insights into axolotl gene expression profiling might be gained. PMID:25637570

  5. On the Design of Attitude-Heading Reference Systems Using the Allan Variance.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo-Carrió, Javier; Arnold, Sascha; Poulakis, Pantelis

    2016-04-01

    The Allan variance is a method to characterize stochastic random processes. The technique was originally developed to characterize the stability of atomic clocks and has also been successfully applied to the characterization of inertial sensors. Inertial navigation systems (INS) can provide accurate results in a short time, which tend to rapidly degrade in longer time intervals. During the last decade, the performance of inertial sensors has significantly improved, particularly in terms of signal stability, mechanical robustness, and power consumption. The mass and volume of inertial sensors have also been significantly reduced, offering system-level design and accommodation advantages. This paper presents a complete methodology for the characterization and modeling of inertial sensors using the Allan variance, with direct application to navigation systems. Although the concept of sensor fusion is relatively straightforward, accurate characterization and sensor-information filtering is not a trivial task, yet they are essential for good performance. A complete and reproducible methodology utilizing the Allan variance, including all the intermediate steps, is described. An end-to-end (E2E) process for sensor-error characterization and modeling up to the final integration in the sensor-fusion scheme is explained in detail. The strength of this approach is demonstrated with representative tests on novel, high-grade inertial sensors. Experimental navigation results are presented from two distinct robotic applications: a planetary exploration rover prototype and an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). PMID:26800535

  6. Final safety analysis report for the Galileo Mission: Volume 1, Reference design document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-01

    The Galileo mission uses nuclear power sources called Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) to provide the spacecraft's primary electrical power. Because these generators contain nuclear material, a Safety Analysis Report (SAR) is required. A preliminary SAR and an updated SAR were previously issued that provided an evolving status report on the safety analysis. As a result of the Challenger accident, the launch dates for both Galileo and Ulysses missions were later rescheduled for November 1989 and October 1990, respectively. The decision was made by agreement between the DOE and the NASA to have a revised safety evaluation and report (FSAR) prepared on the basis of these revised vehicle accidents and environments. The results of this latest revised safety evaluation are presented in this document (Galileo FSAR). Volume I, this document, provides the background design information required to understand the analyses presented in Volumes II and III. It contains descriptions of the RTGs, the Galileo spacecraft, the Space Shuttle, the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS), the trajectory and flight characteristics including flight contingency modes, and the launch site. There are two appendices in Volume I which provide detailed material properties for the RTG.

  7. Final safety analysis report for the Galileo Mission. Volume 1: Reference design document

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1988-05-01

    The Galileo mission uses nuclear power sources called Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) to provide the spacecraft's primary electrical power. Because these generators contain nuclear material, a Safety Analysis Report (SAR) is required. A preliminary SAR and an updated SAR were previously issued that provided an evolving status report on the safety analysis. As a result of the Challenger accident, the launch dates for both Galileo and Ulysses missions were later rescheduled for November 1989 and October 1990, respectively. The decision was made by agreement between the DOE and the NASA to have a revised safety evaluation and report (FSAR) prepared on the basis of these revised vehicle accidents and environments. The results of this latest revised safety evaluation are presented in this document (Galileo FSAR). Volume 1, this document, provides the background design information required to understand the analyses presented in Volumes 2 and 3. It contains descriptions of the RTGs, the Galileo spacecraft, the Space Shuttle, the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS), the trajectory and flight characteristics including flight contingency modes, and the launch site. There are two appendices in Volume 1 which provide detailed material properties for the RTG.

  8. Bacterial reference genes for gene expression studies by RT-qPCR: survey and analysis.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Danilo J P; Santos, Carolina S; Pacheco, Luis G C

    2015-09-01

    The appropriate choice of reference genes is essential for accurate normalization of gene expression data obtained by the method of reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). In 2009, a guideline called the Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments (MIQE) highlighted the importance of the selection and validation of more than one suitable reference gene for obtaining reliable RT-qPCR results. Herein, we searched the recent literature in order to identify the bacterial reference genes that have been most commonly validated in gene expression studies by RT-qPCR (in the first 5 years following publication of the MIQE guidelines). Through a combination of different search parameters with the text mining tool MedlineRanker, we identified 145 unique bacterial genes that were recently tested as candidate reference genes. Of these, 45 genes were experimentally validated and, in most of the cases, their expression stabilities were verified using the software tools geNorm and NormFinder. It is noteworthy that only 10 of these reference genes had been validated in two or more of the studies evaluated. An enrichment analysis using Gene Ontology classifications demonstrated that genes belonging to the functional categories of DNA Replication (GO: 0006260) and Transcription (GO: 0006351) rendered a proportionally higher number of validated reference genes. Three genes in the former functional class were also among the top five most stable genes identified through an analysis of gene expression data obtained from the Pathosystems Resource Integration Center. These results may provide a guideline for the initial selection of candidate reference genes for RT-qPCR studies in several different bacterial species. PMID:26149127

  9. Reliable reference gene selection for Cordyceps militaris gene expression studies under different developmental stages and media.

    PubMed

    Lian, Tiantian; Yang, Tao; Liu, Guijun; Sun, Junde; Dong, Caihong

    2014-07-01

    Cordyceps militaris is considered a model organism for the study of Cordyceps species, which are highly prized in traditional Chinese medicine. Gene expression analysis has become more popular and important in studies of this fungus. Reference gene validation under different experimental conditions is crucial for RT-qPCR analysis. In this study, eight candidate reference genes, actin, cox5, gpd, rpb1, tef1, try, tub, and ubi, were selected and their expression stability was evaluated in C. militaris samples using four algorithms, genorm, normfinder, bestkeeper, and the comparative ∆Ct method. Three sets of samples, five different developmental stages cultured in wheat medium and pupae, and all the samples pool were included. The results showed that rpb1 was the best reference gene during all developmental stages examined, while the most common reference genes, actin and tub, were not suitable internal controls. Cox5 also performed poorly and was less stable in our analysis. The ranks of ubi and gpd were inconsistent in different sample sets by different methods. Our results provide guidelines for reference gene selection at different developmental stages and also represent a foundation for more accurate and widespread use of RT-qPCR in C. militaris gene expression analysis. PMID:24953133

  10. Pilot study for U.S. Geological Survey Standard Reference Water Samples for pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, L.C.; Fishman, M. J.; Boyle, D.K.

    1984-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey has been preparing and maintaining a library of standard reference water samples for inorganic constituents for 19 years. Recently, a pilot study was conducted to see if the reference-sample program could be expanded to include pesticides and other organic materials. Two samples containing organochlorine and organophosphorus insecticides, and chlorophenoxy acid herbicides were distributed to a number of laboratories in the United States. One of the samples also contained polychlorinated biphenyls. Interlaboratory data obtained from these round robin studies are presented with intralaboratory information on long-term stability.

  11. Study of the influence of reference system in surface finishing parameters evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz, A.; Fernández, R.; Pindado, S.; Núñez, P.

    2012-04-01

    In the present paper the influence of the reference system with regard to the characterization of the surface finishing is analyzed. The effect of the reference system's choice on the most representative surface finishing parameters (e.g. roughness average Ra and root mean square values Rq) is studied. The study can also be applied to their equivalent parameters in waviness and primary profiles. Based on ISO and ASME standards, three different types of regression lines (central, mean and orthogonal) are theoretically and experimentally analyzed, identifying the validity and applicability fields of each one depending on profile's geometry.

  12. Assessment of Suitable Reference Genes for Quantitative Gene Expression Studies in Melon Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Qiusheng; Gao, Lingyun; Cao, Lei; Liu, Yue; Saba, Hameed; Huang, Yuan; Bie, Zhilong

    2016-01-01

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is an attractive model plant for investigating fruit development because of its morphological, physiological, and biochemical diversity. Quantification of gene expression by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) with stably expressed reference genes for normalization can effectively elucidate the biological functions of genes that regulate fruit development. However, the reference genes for data normalization in melon fruits have not yet been systematically validated. This study aims to assess the suitability of 20 genes for their potential use as reference genes in melon fruits. Expression variations of these genes were measured in 24 samples that represented different developmental stages of fertilized and parthenocarpic melon fruits by qRT-PCR analysis. GeNorm identified ribosomal protein L (CmRPL) and cytosolic ribosomal protein S15 (CmRPS15) as the best pair of reference genes, and as many as five genes including CmRPL, CmRPS15, TIP41-like family protein (CmTIP41), cyclophilin ROC7 (CmCYP7), and ADP ribosylation factor 1 (CmADP) were required for more reliable normalization. NormFinder ranked CmRPS15 as the best single reference gene, and RAN GTPase gene family (CmRAN) and TATA-box binding protein (CmTBP2) as the best combination of reference genes in melon fruits. Their effectiveness was further validated by parallel analyses on the activities of soluble acid invertase and sucrose phosphate synthase, and expression profiles of their respective encoding genes CmAIN2 and CmSPS1, as well as sucrose contents during melon fruit ripening. The validated reference genes will help to improve the accuracy of gene expression studies in melon fruits. PMID:27536316

  13. Implementation and evaluation of a statistical framework for nerve conduction study reference range calculation.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xuan; Schoenfeld, David A; Lesser, Eugene A; Gozani, Shai N

    2010-01-01

    Nerve conduction studies (NCS) play a central role in the clinical evaluation of neuropathies. Their clinical utilization depends on reference ranges that define the expected parameter values in disease-free individuals. In this paper, a statistical framework is proposed and described in detail for deriving NCS parameter reference ranges. The bootstrap technique is used to identify demographic and physiologic covariates that influence the NCS measurements. Multi-variate linear regression is used to improve the accuracy and effectiveness of NCS interpretation by reducing parameter variance. Non-linear mappings are used to transform parameters into a Gaussian distribution in order to minimize the influence of outliers. Modeling of heteroscedasticity observed in this and other studies leads to more sensible normal limits for several parameters. The proposed reference range method is automated using the MATLAB programming language. Data from a large sample of healthy subjects are used to establish reference ranges for 24 commonly measured NCS parameters. All but three parameters follow Gaussian distributions in their respective transformed domains. Excluding the distal motor latency difference between median and ulnar nerves, the reduction of the parameter variance as a result of regression in the transform domain is greater than 50% for all F-wave latency parameters and at least 10% for all other NCS parameters. Subject age is found to influence normal limits of all but one parameter and height has a statistically significant impact on all but three parameters. These reference range specifications provide clinicians with an alternative to developing their own reference ranges as long as their NCS techniques are consistent with those described in this paper. The proposed method should also be applicable to reference range development for other NCS techniques and physiological measurements. PMID:19497634

  14. Assessment of Suitable Reference Genes for Quantitative Gene Expression Studies in Melon Fruits.

    PubMed

    Kong, Qiusheng; Gao, Lingyun; Cao, Lei; Liu, Yue; Saba, Hameed; Huang, Yuan; Bie, Zhilong

    2016-01-01

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is an attractive model plant for investigating fruit development because of its morphological, physiological, and biochemical diversity. Quantification of gene expression by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) with stably expressed reference genes for normalization can effectively elucidate the biological functions of genes that regulate fruit development. However, the reference genes for data normalization in melon fruits have not yet been systematically validated. This study aims to assess the suitability of 20 genes for their potential use as reference genes in melon fruits. Expression variations of these genes were measured in 24 samples that represented different developmental stages of fertilized and parthenocarpic melon fruits by qRT-PCR analysis. GeNorm identified ribosomal protein L (CmRPL) and cytosolic ribosomal protein S15 (CmRPS15) as the best pair of reference genes, and as many as five genes including CmRPL, CmRPS15, TIP41-like family protein (CmTIP41), cyclophilin ROC7 (CmCYP7), and ADP ribosylation factor 1 (CmADP) were required for more reliable normalization. NormFinder ranked CmRPS15 as the best single reference gene, and RAN GTPase gene family (CmRAN) and TATA-box binding protein (CmTBP2) as the best combination of reference genes in melon fruits. Their effectiveness was further validated by parallel analyses on the activities of soluble acid invertase and sucrose phosphate synthase, and expression profiles of their respective encoding genes CmAIN2 and CmSPS1, as well as sucrose contents during melon fruit ripening. The validated reference genes will help to improve the accuracy of gene expression studies in melon fruits. PMID:27536316

  15. Critical Studies in Art and Design Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thistlewood, David, Ed.

    This book brings together British and U.S. contributions to the debate of a critical studies approach to art and design education. The approach links practice and appreciation. But critical differences exist in definitions of the term design, with the U.S. recognition of design as the use of principles and elements of art in works and a British…

  16. Construction of Polarimetric Radar-Based Reference Rain Maps for the Iowa Flood Studies Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Walt; Krajewski, Witek; Wolff, David; Gatlin, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Iowa Flood Studies (IFloodS) campaign was conducted in central and northeastern Iowa during the months of April-June, 2013. Specific science objectives for IFloodS included quantification of uncertainties in satellite and ground-based estimates of precipitation, 4-D characterization of precipitation physical processes and associated parameters (e.g., size distributions, water contents, types, structure etc.), assessment of the impact of precipitation estimation uncertainty and physical processes on hydrologic predictive skill, and refinement of field observations and data analysis approaches as they pertain to future GPM integrated hydrologic validation and related field studies. In addition to field campaign archival of raw and processed satellite data (including precipitation products), key ground-based platforms such as the NASA NPOL S-band and D3R Ka/Ku-band dual-polarimetric radars, University of Iowa X-band dual-polarimetric radars, a large network of paired rain gauge platforms, and a large network of 2D Video and Parsivel disdrometers were deployed. In something of a canonical approach, the radar (NPOL in particular), gauge and disdrometer observational assets were deployed to create a consistent high-quality distributed (time and space sampling) radar-based ground "reference" rainfall dataset, with known uncertainties, that could be used for assessing the satellite-based precipitation products at a range of space/time scales. Subsequently, the impact of uncertainties in the satellite products could be evaluated relative to the ground-benchmark in coupled weather, land-surface and distributed hydrologic modeling frameworks as related to flood prediction. Relative to establishing the ground-based "benchmark", numerous avenues were pursued in the making and verification of IFloodS "reference" dual-polarimetric radar-based rain maps, and this study documents the process and results as they pertain specifically

  17. Construction of Polarimetric Radar-Based Reference Rain Maps for the Iowa Flood Studies Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Walter; Wolff, David; Krajewski, Witek; Gatlin, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Iowa Flood Studies (IFloodS) campaign was conducted in central and northeastern Iowa during the months of April-June, 2013. Specific science objectives for IFloodS included quantification of uncertainties in satellite and ground-based estimates of precipitation, 4-D characterization of precipitation physical processes and associated parameters (e.g., size distributions, water contents, types, structure etc.), assessment of the impact of precipitation estimation uncertainty and physical processes on hydrologic predictive skill, and refinement of field observations and data analysis approaches as they pertain to future GPM integrated hydrologic validation and related field studies. In addition to field campaign archival of raw and processed satellite data (including precipitation products), key ground-based platforms such as the NASA NPOL S-band and D3R Ka/Ku-band dual-polarimetric radars, University of Iowa X-band dual-polarimetric radars, a large network of paired rain gauge platforms, and a large network of 2D Video and Parsivel disdrometers were deployed. In something of a canonical approach, the radar (NPOL in particular), gauge and disdrometer observational assets were deployed to create a consistent high-quality distributed (time and space sampling) radar-based ground "reference" rainfall dataset, with known uncertainties, that could be used for assessing the satellite-based precipitation products at a range of space/time scales. Subsequently, the impact of uncertainties in the satellite products could be evaluated relative to the ground-benchmark in coupled weather, land-surface and distributed hydrologic modeling frameworks as related to flood prediction. Relative to establishing the ground-based "benchmark", numerous avenues were pursued in the making and verification of IFloodS "reference" dual-polarimetric radar-based rain maps, and this study documents the process and results as they pertain specifically

  18. Defining reference levels for intra-operative radiation exposure in orthopaedic trauma: A retrospective multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Hardman, J; Elvey, M; Shah, N; Simson, N; Patel, S; Anakwe, R

    2015-12-01

    There is currently limited data to define reference levels for the use of ionising radiation in orthopaedic trauma surgery. In this multicentre study, we utilise methodology employed by the Health Protection Agency in establishing reference levels for diagnostic investigations in order to define analogous levels for common and reproducible orthopaedic trauma procedures. Four hundred ninety-five procedures were identified across four Greater London hospitals over a 1-year period. Exposure was defined in terms of both time and dose area product (DAP). Third quartile mean values for either parameter were used to define reference levels. Variations both between centres and grades of lead surgeon were analysed as secondary outcomes. Reference levels; dynamic hip screw (DHS) 1.9225000 Gycm(2)/70.50 s, intramedullary (IM) femoral nail 1.5837500 Gycm(2)/126.00 s, open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) clavicle 0.2042500 Gycm(2)/21.50 s, ORIF lateral malleolus 0.32250500 Gycm(2)/35.00 s, ORIF distal radius 0.1300000 Gycm(2)/56.00 s. Grade of surgeon did not influence exposure in dynamic hip screw, and was inversely related to exposure in intramedullary femoral nails. Less variation was observed with exposure time than with DAP. This study provides the most comprehensive reference to guide fluoroscopy use in orthopaedic trauma to date, and is of value both at the point of delivery and for audit of local practice. PMID:26604035

  19. Evaluation of validity of British anthropometric reference data for assessing nutritional state of elderly people in Edinburgh: cross sectional study.

    PubMed Central

    Bannerman, E.; Reilly, J. J.; MacLennan, W. J.; Kirk, T.; Pender, F.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the appropriateness of two sets of commonly used anthropometric reference data for nutritional assessment of elderly people. DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: Two general practices in Edinburgh. SUBJECTS: 200 independently living men and women aged 75 or over randomly recruited from the age and sex register of the practices. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Weight (kg), knee height (cm), demispan (cm), mid-upper arm circumference (cm), triceps skinfold thickness (mm), arm muscle circumference (cm) body mass index (kg/m2), and demiquet (kg/m2) in men and mindex (kg/m) in women. RESULTS: Men and women in Edinburgh were significantly shorter than those in measured for the Nottingham reference data (demispan 0.79 v 0.80 (P < 0.05) for men and 0.72 v 0.73 (P < 0.01) for women). Comparison with data from South Wales showed that men and women from Edinburgh had significantly greater mid-upper arm circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, and arm muscle circumference. No one fell below the 10th centile of the South Wales data (the commonly used out off point for determining malnutrition) for these measures. CONCLUSIONS: Both sets of reference data commonly used in Britain may be inappropriate for nutritional screening of elderly people in Edinburgh. Contemporary reference data appropriate for the whole of Britain need to be developed, and in the longer term biologically or clinically defined criteria for undernutrition should be established. PMID:9270454

  20. Vehicle systems design optimization study

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmour, J. L.

    1980-04-01

    The optimization of an electric vehicle layout requires a weight distribution in the range of 53/47 to 62/38 in order to assure dynamic handling characteristics comparable to current production internal combustion engine vehicles. It is possible to achieve this goal and also provide passenger and cargo space comparable to a selected current production sub-compact car either in a unique new design or by utilizing the production vehicle as a base. Necessary modification of the base vehicle can be accomplished without major modification of the structure or running gear. As long as batteries are as heavy and require as much space as they currently do, they must be divided into two packages - one at front under the hood and a second at the rear under the cargo area - in order to achieve the desired weight distribution. The weight distribution criteria requires the placement of batteries at the front of the vehicle even when the central tunnel is used for the location of some batteries. The optimum layout has a front motor and front wheel drive. This configuration provides the optimum vehicle dynamic handling characteristics and the maximum passsenger and cargo space for a given size vehicle.

  1. Recycler ring conceptual design study

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, G.

    1995-07-18

    The Tevatron Collider provides the highest center of mass energy collisions in the world. To fully exploit this unique tool, Fermilab is committed to a program of accelerator upgrades for the purpose of increasing the Collider luminosity. Over the past 7 years the luminosity has been increased from a peak of 1.6{times}10{sup 30}cm{sup {minus}2}sec{sup {minus}1} in 1989 to over 3{times}10{sup 31}cm{sup {minus}2}sec{sup {minus}1} during 1995. The Main Injector will supply a larger flux of protons for antiproton production and more intense proton bunches for use in the Collider, and this is expected to increase the peak luminosity to close to 1{times}10{sup 32}cm{sup {minus}2}sec{sup {minus}1}. Further increases in luminosity will require additional upgrades to the Fermilab accelerator complex. This report documents the design of a new fixed-energy storage ring to be placed in the Main Injector tunnel which will provide an initial factor of 2 increase to 2{times}10{sup 32}cm{sup {minus}2}sec{sup {minus}1}, and ultimately provide the basis for an additional order of magnitude luminosity increase up to 1{times}10{sup 33}cm{sup {minus}2}sec{sup {minus}1}.

  2. Design Study for a Mars Geyser Hopper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Oleson, Steven J.; McGuire, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    The Mars Geyser Hopper is a design reference missions (DRMs) for a Discovery-class spacecraft using Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) power source. The Geyser Hopper is a mission concept that will investigate the springtime carbon-dioxide geysers found in regions around the south pole of Mars. The Geyser Hopper design uses Phoenix heritage systems and approach, but uses a single ASRG as the power source, rather than twin solar arrays, and is designed to last over a one-year stay on the South Pole. The spacecraft will land at a target landing area near the south pole of Mars, and have the ability to "hop" after a summertime landing to reposition itself close to a geyser site, and wait through the winter until the first sunlight of spring to witness first-hand the geyser phenomenon.

  3. A Panel of Stably Expressed Reference Genes for Real-Time qPCR Gene Expression Studies of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Joanne R.; Helin, Anu S.; Wille, Michelle; Atterby, Clara; Järhult, Josef D.; Fridlund, Jimmy S.; Waldenström, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Determining which reference genes have the highest stability, and are therefore appropriate for normalising data, is a crucial step in the design of real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) gene expression studies. This is particularly warranted in non-model and ecologically important species for which appropriate reference genes are lacking, such as the mallard—a key reservoir of many diseases with relevance for human and livestock health. Previous studies assessing gene expression changes as a consequence of infection in mallards have nearly universally used β-actin and/or GAPDH as reference genes without confirming their suitability as normalisers. The use of reference genes at random, without regard for stability of expression across treatment groups, can result in erroneous interpretation of data. Here, eleven putative reference genes for use in gene expression studies of the mallard were evaluated, across six different tissues, using a low pathogenic avian influenza A virus infection model. Tissue type influenced the selection of reference genes, whereby different genes were stable in blood, spleen, lung, gastrointestinal tract and colon. β-actin and GAPDH generally displayed low stability and are therefore inappropriate reference genes in many cases. The use of different algorithms (GeNorm and NormFinder) affected stability rankings, but for both algorithms it was possible to find a combination of two stable reference genes with which to normalise qPCR data in mallards. These results highlight the importance of validating the choice of normalising reference genes before conducting gene expression studies in ducks. The fact that nearly all previous studies of the influence of pathogen infection on mallard gene expression have used a single, non-validated reference gene is problematic. The toolkit of putative reference genes provided here offers a solid foundation for future studies of gene expression in mallards and other waterfowl. PMID:26886224

  4. Status of the International Design Study of the Neutrino Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Kenneth

    2010-03-30

    The International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) has been established by the Neutrino Factory community to deliver the Reference Design Report (RDR) for the facility by 2012. The baseline design for the facility, developed from that defined in the International Scoping Study of a future Neutrino Factory and super-beam facility (the ISS), will provide 10{sup 21} muon decays per year from 25 GeV stored muon beams. The facility will serve two neutrino detectors; one situated at source-detector distance of between 3000-5000 km, the second at 7000-8000 km. The baseline design for the facility will be described and the status of the IDS-NF effort will be summarised.

  5. Interval Management Display Design Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Beyer, Timothy M.; Cooke, Stuart D.; Grant, Karlus A.

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) estimated that U.S. commercial air carriers moved 736.7 million passengers over 822.3 billion revenue-passenger miles. The FAA also forecasts, in that same report, an average annual increase in passenger traffic of 2.2 percent per year for the next 20 years, which approximates to one-and-a-half times the number of today's aircraft operations and passengers by the year 2033. If airspace capacity and throughput remain unchanged, then flight delays will increase, particularly at those airports already operating near or at capacity. Therefore it is critical to create new and improved technologies, communications, and procedures to be used by air traffic controllers and pilots. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the FAA, and the aviation industry are working together to improve the efficiency of the National Airspace System and the cost to operate in it in several ways, one of which is through the creation of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). NextGen is intended to provide airspace users with more precise information about traffic, routing, and weather, as well as improve the control mechanisms within the air traffic system. NASA's Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 (ATD-1) Project is designed to contribute to the goals of NextGen, and accomplishes this by integrating three NASA technologies to enable fuel-efficient arrival operations into high-density airports. The three NASA technologies and procedures combined in the ATD-1 concept are advanced arrival scheduling, controller decision support tools, and aircraft avionics to enable multiple time deconflicted and fuel efficient arrival streams in high-density terminal airspace.

  6. Identification of Reference Genes in Human Myelomonocytic Cells for Gene Expression Studies in Altered Gravity

    PubMed Central

    Thiel, Cora S.; Hauschild, Swantje; Tauber, Svantje; Paulsen, Katrin; Raig, Christiane; Raem, Arnold; Biskup, Josefine; Gutewort, Annett; Hürlimann, Eva; Philpot, Claudia; Lier, Hartwin; Engelmann, Frank; Layer, Liliana E.

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression studies are indispensable for investigation and elucidation of molecular mechanisms. For the process of normalization, reference genes (“housekeeping genes”) are essential to verify gene expression analysis. Thus, it is assumed that these reference genes demonstrate similar expression levels over all experimental conditions. However, common recommendations about reference genes were established during 1 g conditions and therefore their applicability in studies with altered gravity has not been demonstrated yet. The microarray technology is frequently used to generate expression profiles under defined conditions and to determine the relative difference in expression levels between two or more different states. In our study, we searched for potential reference genes with stable expression during different gravitational conditions (microgravity, normogravity, and hypergravity) which are additionally not altered in different hardware systems. We were able to identify eight genes (ALB, B4GALT6, GAPDH, HMBS, YWHAZ, ABCA5, ABCA9, and ABCC1) which demonstrated no altered gene expression levels in all tested conditions and therefore represent good candidates for the standardization of gene expression studies in altered gravity. PMID:25654098

  7. PILOT STUDY FOR ESTABLISHMENT OF A NETWORK OF COASTAL REFERENCE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have joined in partnership for a pilot study for the establishment of a network of reference sites, the Coastal Int...

  8. The Learning Outcomes of Mentoring Library Science Students in Virtual World Reference: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purpur, Geraldine; Morris, Jon Levi

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on the cognitive and affective development of students being mentored in virtual reference interview skills by professional librarians. The authors present a case study which examines the impact on student learning resulting from librarian mentor participation and collaboration with students on a course assignment. This study…

  9. Selection of Reference Genes for Expression Studies of Xenobiotic Adaptation in Tetranychus urticae

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Mariany Ashanty; Mendoza, Bianca Marie; Lavine, Laura Corley; Lavine, Mark Daniel; Walsh, Douglas Bruce; Zhu, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is an extensively used, high-throughput method to analyze transcriptional expression of genes of interest. An appropriate normalization strategy with reliable reference genes is required for calculating gene expression across diverse experimental conditions. In this study, we aim to identify the most stable reference genes for expression studies of xenobiotic adaptation in Tetranychus urticae, an extremely polyphagous herbivore causing significant yield reduction of agriculture. We chose eight commonly used housekeeping genes as candidates. The qRT-PCR expression data for these genes were evaluated from seven populations: a susceptible and three acaricide resistant populations feeding on lima beans, and three other susceptible populations which had been shifted host from lima beans to three other plant species. The stability of the candidate reference genes was then assessed using four different algorithms (comparative ΔCt method, geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper). Additionally, we used an online web-based tool (RefFinder) to assign an overall final rank for each candidate gene. Our study found that CycA and Rp49 are best for investigating gene expression in acaricide susceptible and resistant populations. GAPDH, Rp49, and Rpl18 are best for host plant shift studies. And GAPDH and Rp49 were the most stable reference genes when investigating gene expression under changes in both experimental conditions. These results will facilitate research in revealing molecular mechanisms underlying the xenobiotic adaptation of this notorious agricultural pest. PMID:27570487

  10. A Survey and Empirical Study of Virtual Reference Service in Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mu, Xiangming; Dimitroff, Alexandra; Jordan, Jeanette; Burclaff, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Virtual Reference Services (VRS) have high user satisfaction. The main problem is its low usage. We surveyed 100 academic library web sites to understand how VRS are presented. We then conducted a usability study to further test an active VRS model regarding its effectiveness.

  11. Selection of Reference Genes for Expression Studies of Xenobiotic Adaptation in Tetranychus urticae.

    PubMed

    Morales, Mariany Ashanty; Mendoza, Bianca Marie; Lavine, Laura Corley; Lavine, Mark Daniel; Walsh, Douglas Bruce; Zhu, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is an extensively used, high-throughput method to analyze transcriptional expression of genes of interest. An appropriate normalization strategy with reliable reference genes is required for calculating gene expression across diverse experimental conditions. In this study, we aim to identify the most stable reference genes for expression studies of xenobiotic adaptation in Tetranychus urticae, an extremely polyphagous herbivore causing significant yield reduction of agriculture. We chose eight commonly used housekeeping genes as candidates. The qRT-PCR expression data for these genes were evaluated from seven populations: a susceptible and three acaricide resistant populations feeding on lima beans, and three other susceptible populations which had been shifted host from lima beans to three other plant species. The stability of the candidate reference genes was then assessed using four different algorithms (comparative ΔCt method, geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper). Additionally, we used an online web-based tool (RefFinder) to assign an overall final rank for each candidate gene. Our study found that CycA and Rp49 are best for investigating gene expression in acaricide susceptible and resistant populations. GAPDH, Rp49, and Rpl18 are best for host plant shift studies. And GAPDH and Rp49 were the most stable reference genes when investigating gene expression under changes in both experimental conditions. These results will facilitate research in revealing molecular mechanisms underlying the xenobiotic adaptation of this notorious agricultural pest. PMID:27570487

  12. Identification of reference genes in human myelomonocytic cells for gene expression studies in altered gravity.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Cora S; Hauschild, Swantje; Tauber, Svantje; Paulsen, Katrin; Raig, Christiane; Raem, Arnold; Biskup, Josefine; Gutewort, Annett; Hürlimann, Eva; Unverdorben, Felix; Buttron, Isabell; Lauber, Beatrice; Philpot, Claudia; Lier, Hartwin; Engelmann, Frank; Layer, Liliana E; Ullrich, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression studies are indispensable for investigation and elucidation of molecular mechanisms. For the process of normalization, reference genes ("housekeeping genes") are essential to verify gene expression analysis. Thus, it is assumed that these reference genes demonstrate similar expression levels over all experimental conditions. However, common recommendations about reference genes were established during 1 g conditions and therefore their applicability in studies with altered gravity has not been demonstrated yet. The microarray technology is frequently used to generate expression profiles under defined conditions and to determine the relative difference in expression levels between two or more different states. In our study, we searched for potential reference genes with stable expression during different gravitational conditions (microgravity, normogravity, and hypergravity) which are additionally not altered in different hardware systems. We were able to identify eight genes (ALB, B4GALT6, GAPDH, HMBS, YWHAZ, ABCA5, ABCA9, and ABCC1) which demonstrated no altered gene expression levels in all tested conditions and therefore represent good candidates for the standardization of gene expression studies in altered gravity. PMID:25654098

  13. Researching Refugee and Forced Migration Studies: An Introduction to the Field and the Reference Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Elisa

    1999-01-01

    Describes the evolution of refugee and forced migration studies, identifies factors that render it a challenging field to research, and highlights a variety of Internet-based and other electronic resources that can be used to locate monographs, periodicals, grey literature, and current information. Provides a bibliography of reference materials in…

  14. International Linear Collider Reference Design Report Volume 2: Physics at the ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Aarons, Gerald; Abe, Toshinori; Abernathy, Jason; Ablikim, Medina; Abramowicz, Halina; Adey, David; Adloff, Catherine; Adolphsen, Chris; Afanaciev, Konstantin; Agapov, Ilya; Ahn, Jung-Keun; Aihara, Hiroaki; Akemoto, Mitsuo; del Carmen Alabau, Maria; Albert, Justin; Albrecht, Hartwig; Albrecht, Michael; Alesini, David; Alexander, Gideon; Alexander, Jim; Allison, Wade; /SLAC /Tokyo U. /Victoria U. /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Tel Aviv U. /Birmingham U. /Annecy, LAPP /Minsk, High Energy Phys. Ctr. /DESY /Royal Holloway, U. of London /CERN /Pusan Natl. U. /KEK, Tsukuba /Orsay, LAL /Notre Dame U. /Frascati /Cornell U., Phys. Dept. /Oxford U. /Hefei, CUST /Bangalore, Indian Inst. Sci. /Fermilab

    2011-11-14

    The triumph of 20th century particle physics was the development of the Standard Model and the confirmation of many of its aspects. Experiments determined the particle constituents of ordinary matter, and identified four forces that hold matter together and transform it from one form to another. Particle interactions were found to obey precise laws of relativity and quantum theory. Remarkable features of quantum physics were observed, including the real effects of 'virtual' particles on the visible world. Building on this success, particle physicists are now able to address questions that are even more fundamental, and explore some of the deepest mysteries in science. The scope of these questions is illustrated by this summary from the report Quantum Universe: (1) Are there undiscovered principles of nature; (2) How can we solve the mystery of dark energy; (3) Are there extra dimensions of space; (4) Do all the forces become one; (5) Why are there so many particles; (6) What is dark matter? How can we make it in the laboratory; (7) What are neutrinos telling us; (8) How did the universe begin; and (9) What happened to the antimatter? A worldwide program of particle physics investigations, using multiple approaches, is already underway to explore this compelling scientific landscape. As emphasized in many scientific studies, the International Linear Collider is expected to play a central role in what is likely to be an era of revolutionary advances. Discoveries from the ILC could have breakthrough impact on many of these fundamental questions. Many of the scientific opportunities for the ILC involve the Higgs particle and related new phenomena at Terascale energies. The Standard Model boldly hypothesizes a new form of Terascale energy, called the Higgs field, that permeates the entire universe. Elementary particles acquire mass by interacting with this field. The Higgs field also breaks a fundamental electroweak force into two forces, the electromagnetic and weak

  15. Principles of study design in environmental epidemiology.

    PubMed Central

    Morgenstern, H; Thomas, D

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the principles of study design and related methodologic issues in environmental epidemiology. Emphasis is given to studies aimed at evaluating causal hypotheses regarding exposures to suspected health hazards. Following background sections on the quantitative objectives and methods of population-based research, we present the major types of observational designs used in environmental epidemiology: first, the three basic designs involving the individual as the unit of analysis (i.e., cohort, cross-sectional, and case-control studies) and a brief discussion of genetic studies for assessing gene-environment interactions; second, various ecologic designs involving the group or region as the unit of analysis. Ecologic designs are given special emphasis in this paper because of our lack of resources or inability to accurately measure environmental exposures in large numbers of individuals. The paper concludes with a section highlighting current design issues in environmental epidemiology and several recommendations for future work. PMID:8206038

  16. Library Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Constance; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Seven articles on library reference services highlight reference obsolescence in academic libraries, major studies of unobtrusive reference tests, methods for evaluating reference desk performance, reference interview evaluation, problems of reference desk control, online searching by end users, and reference collection development in…

  17. Evaluation of reference genes for gene expression studies in human brown adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Taube, Magdalena; Andersson-Assarsson, Johanna C; Lindberg, Kristin; Pereira, Maria J; Gäbel, Markus; Svensson, Maria K; Eriksson, Jan W; Svensson, Per-Arne

    2015-01-01

    Human brown adipose tissue (BAT) has during the last 5 year been subjected to an increasing research interest, due to its putative function as a target for future obesity treatments. The most commonly used method for molecular studies of human BAT is the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). This method requires normalization to a reference gene (genes with uniform expression under different experimental conditions, e.g. similar expression levels between human BAT and WAT), but so far no evaluation of reference genes for human BAT has been performed. Two different microarray datasets with samples containing human BAT were used to search for genes with low variability in expression levels. Seven genes (FAM96B, GNB1, GNB2, HUWE1, PSMB2, RING1 and TPT1) identified by microarray analysis, and 8 commonly used reference genes (18S, B2M, GAPDH, LRP10, PPIA, RPLP0, UBC, and YWHAZ) were selected and further analyzed by quantitative PCR in both BAT containing perirenal adipose tissue and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Results were analyzed using 2 different algorithms (Normfinder and geNorm). Most of the commonly used reference genes displayed acceptably low variability (geNorm M-values <0.5) in the samples analyzed, but the novel reference genes identified by microarray displayed an even lower variability (M-values <0.25). Our data suggests that PSMB2, GNB2 and GNB1 are suitable novel reference genes for qPCR analysis of human BAT and we recommend that they are included in future gene expression studies of human BAT. PMID:26451284

  18. Evaluation of reference genes for gene expression studies in human brown adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Taube, Magdalena; Andersson-Assarsson, Johanna C; Lindberg, Kristin; Pereira, Maria J; Gäbel, Markus; Svensson, Maria K; Eriksson, Jan W; Svensson, Per-Arne

    2015-01-01

    Human brown adipose tissue (BAT) has during the last 5 year been subjected to an increasing research interest, due to its putative function as a target for future obesity treatments. The most commonly used method for molecular studies of human BAT is the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). This method requires normalization to a reference gene (genes with uniform expression under different experimental conditions, e.g. similar expression levels between human BAT and WAT), but so far no evaluation of reference genes for human BAT has been performed. Two different microarray datasets with samples containing human BAT were used to search for genes with low variability in expression levels. Seven genes (FAM96B, GNB1, GNB2, HUWE1, PSMB2, RING1 and TPT1) identified by microarray analysis, and 8 commonly used reference genes (18S, B2M, GAPDH, LRP10, PPIA, RPLP0, UBC, and YWHAZ) were selected and further analyzed by quantitative PCR in both BAT containing perirenal adipose tissue and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Results were analyzed using 2 different algorithms (Normfinder and geNorm). Most of the commonly used reference genes displayed acceptably low variability (geNorm M-values <0.5) in the samples analyzed, but the novel reference genes identified by microarray displayed an even lower variability (M-values <0.25). Our data suggests that PSMB2, GNB2 and GNB1 are suitable novel reference genes for qPCR analysis of human BAT and we recommend that they are included in future gene expression studies of human BAT. PMID:26451284

  19. Design and characterization of an RF excited micro atmospheric pressure plasma jet for reference in plasma medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz-von der Gathen, Volker

    2015-09-01

    Over the last decade a huge variety of atmospheric pressure plasma jets has been developed and applied for plasma medicine. The efficiency of these non-equilibrium plasmas for biological application is based on the generated amounts of reactive species and radiation. The gas temperatures stay within a range tolerable for temperature-sensitive tissues. The variety of different discharge geometries complicates a direct comparison. In addition, in plasma-medicine the combination of plasma with reactive components, ambient air, as well as biologic tissue - typically also incorporating fluids - results in a complex system. Thus, real progress in plasma-medicine requires a profound knowledge of species, their fluxes and processes hitting biological tissues. That will allow in particular the necessary tailoring of the discharge to fit the conditions. The complexity of the problem can only be overcome by a common effort of many groups and requires a comparison of their results. A reference device based on the already well-investigated micro-scaled atmospheric pressure plasma jet is presented. It is developed in the frame of the European COST initiative MP1101 to establish a publicly available, stable and reproducible source, where required plasma conditions can be investigated. Here we present the design and the ideas behind. The presentation discusses the requirements for the reference source and operation conditions. Biological references are also defined by the initiative. A specific part of the talk will be attributed to the reproducibility of results from various samples of the device. Funding by the DFG within the Package Project PAK816 ``Plasma Cell Interaction in Dermatology'' and the Research Unit FOR 1123 ``Physics of microplasmas'' is gratefully acknowledged.

  20. Lunar NTR vehicle design and operations study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, John

    1993-01-01

    The results of a lunar nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) vehicle design and operations study are presented in text and graphic form. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the potential applications of a specific NTR design to past and current (First Lunar Outpost) mission profiles for piloted and cargo lunar missions, and to assess the applicability of utilizing lunar vehicle design concepts for Mars missions.

  1. Mobile Variable Depth Sampling System Design Study

    SciTech Connect

    BOGER, R.M.

    2000-08-25

    A design study is presented for a mobile, variable depth sampling system (MVDSS) that will support the treatment and immobilization of Hanford LAW and HLW. The sampler can be deployed in a 4-inch tank riser and has a design that is based on requirements identified in the Level 2 Specification (latest revision). The waste feed sequence for the MVDSS is based on Phase 1, Case 3S6 waste feed sequence. Technical information is also presented that supports the design study.

  2. Effects of zero reference position on bladder pressure measurements: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although the World Society for Abdominal Compartment Syndrome in its guidelines recommends midaxillary line (MAL) as zero reference level in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) measurements in aiming at standardizing the technique, evidence supporting this suggestion is scarce. The aim of this study is to study if the zero reference position influences bladder pressure measurements as estimate for IAP. Methods The IAP of 100 surgical patients was measured during the first 24 h of admission to the surgical intensive care unit of General Calixto Garcia Hospital in Havana (Cuba) following laparotomy. The period was January 2009 to January 2010. The IAP was measured twice with a six-hour interval using the transurethral technique with a priming volume of 25 ml. IAP was first measured with the zero reference level placed at MAL (IAPMAL), followed by a second measurement at the level of the symphysis pubis (SP) after 3 minutes (IAPSP). Correlations were made between IAP and body mass index (BMI), type of surgery, gender, and age. Results Mean IAPMAL was 8.5 ± 2.8 mmHg vs. IAPSP 6.5 ± 2.8 mmHg (p < 0.0001). The bias between measurements was 2.0 ± 1.5, 95% confidence interval of 1.4 to 3.0, upper limit of 4.9, lower limit of -0.9, and a percentage error of 35.1%. IAPMAL was consistently higher than IAPSP regardless of the type of surgery. The BMI correlated with IAP values regardless of the zero reference level (R2 = 0.4 and 0.3 with IAPMAL and IAPSP respectively, p < 0.0001). Conclusions The zero reference level has an important impact on IAP measurement in surgical patients after laparotomy and can potentially lead to over or underestimation. Further anthropometric studies are needed with regard to the relative MAL and SP zero reference position in relation to the theoretical ideal reference level at midpoint of the abdomen. Until better evidence is available, MAL remains the recommended zero reference position due to its best anatomical localization at iliac

  3. Reference values of clinical pathology parameters in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) used in preclinical studies

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun-Kyu; Cho, Jae-Woo; Lee, Byoung-Seok; Park, Heejin; Han, Ji-Seok; Yang, Mi-Jin; Im, Wan-Jung; Park, Do-Yong; Kim, Woo-Jin; Han, Su-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Nonhuman primates are increasingly used in biomedical research since they are highly homologous to humans compared to other rodent animals. However, there is limited reliable reference data of the clinical pathology parameters in cynomolgus monkeys, and in particular, only some coagulation and urinalysis parameters have been reported. Here, we reported the reference data of clinical chemical, hematological, blood coagulation, and urinalysis parameters in cynomolgus monkeys. The role of sex differences was analyzed and several parameters (including hematocrit, hemoglobin, red blood cell, blood urea nitrogen, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine kinase, gamma-glutamyl tranferase, and lactate dehydrogenase) significantly differed between male and female subjects. In addition, compared to previous study results, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine kinase, and aspartate aminotransferase showed significant variation. Interstudy differences could be affected by several factors, including age, sex, geographic origin, presence/absence of anesthetics, fasting state, and the analytical methods used. Therefore, it is important to deliberate with the overall reference indices. In conclusion, the current study provides a comprehensive and updated reference data of the clinical pathology parameters in cynomolgus monkeys and provides improved assessment criteria for evaluating preclinical studies or biomedical research. PMID:27382375

  4. On the Science of Education Design Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shavelson, Richard J.; Phillips, D. C.; Towne, Lisa; Feuer, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that design studies, like all scientific work, must comport with guiding scientific principles and provide adequate warrants for their knowledge claims. Provides a framework that links design study research questions as they evolve over time with corresponding research methods, thus allowing an integration of research methods focused on…

  5. [Choosing study design in urologic research].

    PubMed

    Barreales Tolosa, Laura; Mato Chaín, Gloria; Mariano Lázaro, Alberto; Fernández Pérez, Cristina; Rodríguez Caravaca, Gil; Fereres Castiel, José

    2003-01-01

    The design of an epidemiological study includes the procedures, methods and techniques by which the researcher tries to obtain valid (avoiding systematic errors or bias) and precise (avoiding random errors) answers to the research question posed. This principal question aimed to be answered is the specific objective of the study, which guides the election of an adequate type of design. The objective of this article is to describe the classification criteria (finality, temporal sequence, directionality, and control of the assignation of different study factors) of the different types of epidemiological studies (experimental, almost-experimental, and observational) and the main advantages, disadvantages, utilities and objectives of each investigation design. PMID:12958995

  6. ACSYNT inner loop flight control design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bortins, Richard; Sorensen, John A.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Ames Research Center developed the Aircraft Synthesis (ACSYNT) computer program to synthesize conceptual future aircraft designs and to evaluate critical performance metrics early in the design process before significant resources are committed and cost decisions made. ACSYNT uses steady-state performance metrics, such as aircraft range, payload, and fuel consumption, and static performance metrics, such as the control authority required for the takeoff rotation and for landing with an engine out, to evaluate conceptual aircraft designs. It can also optimize designs with respect to selected criteria and constraints. Many modern aircraft have stability provided by the flight control system rather than by the airframe. This may allow the aircraft designer to increase combat agility, or decrease trim drag, for increased range and payload. This strategy requires concurrent design of the airframe and the flight control system, making trade-offs of performance and dynamics during the earliest stages of design. ACSYNT presently lacks means to implement flight control system designs but research is being done to add methods for predicting rotational degrees of freedom and control effector performance. A software module to compute and analyze the dynamics of the aircraft and to compute feedback gains and analyze closed loop dynamics is required. The data gained from these analyses can then be fed back to the aircraft design process so that the effects of the flight control system and the airframe on aircraft performance can be included as design metrics. This report presents results of a feasibility study and the initial design work to add an inner loop flight control system (ILFCS) design capability to the stability and control module in ACSYNT. The overall objective is to provide a capability for concurrent design of the aircraft and its flight control system, and enable concept designers to improve performance by exploiting the interrelationships between

  7. Preliminary design study of lunar housing configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, K. H.

    1992-01-01

    A preliminary design study assesses various configurations for habitation of the lunar surface. The study assumes an initial 4-man habitation module expandable to a 48-man concept. Through the numerous coupling combinations of identical modules, five basic configuration types are identified. A design model presents each configuration in light of certain issues. The issues include circulation, internal and external spatial characteristics, functional organizations, and future growth potential. The study discusses the attributes, potentials, and unique requirements of each configuration.

  8. Reference region modeling approaches for amphetamine challenge studies with [11C]FLB 457 and PET.

    PubMed

    Sandiego, Christine M; Gallezot, Jean-Dominique; Lim, Keunpoong; Ropchan, Jim; Lin, Shu-fei; Gao, Hong; Morris, Evan D; Cosgrove, Kelly P

    2015-04-01

    Detecting fluctuations in synaptic dopamine levels in extrastriatal brain regions with [(11)C]FLB 457 and positron emission tomography (PET) is a valuable tool for studying dopaminergic dysfunction in psychiatric disorders. The evaluation of reference region modeling approaches would eliminate the need to obtain arterial input function data. Our goal was to explore the use of reference region models to estimate amphetamine-induced changes in [(11)C]FLB 457 dopamine D2/D3 binding. Six healthy tobacco smokers were imaged with [(11)C]FLB 457 at baseline and at 3 hours after amphetamine (0.4 to 0.5 mg/kg, per os) administration. Simplified reference tissue models, SRTM and SRTM2, were evaluated against the 2-tissue compartmental model (2TC) to estimate [(11)C]FLB 457 binding in extrastriatal regions of interest (ROIs), using the cerebellum as a reference region. No changes in distribution volume were observed in the cerebellum between scan conditions. SRTM and SRTM2 underestimated binding, compared with 2TC, in ROIs by 26% and 9%, respectively, with consistent bias between the baseline and postamphetamine scans. Postamphetamine, [(11)C]FLB 457 binding significantly decreased across several brain regions as measured with SRTM and SRTM2; no significant change was detected with 2TC. These data support the sensitivity of [(11)C]FLB 457 for measuring amphetamine-induced dopamine release in extrastriatal regions with SRTM and SRTM2. PMID:25564239

  9. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study interim design report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    The status of the design of a tenth-of-a-kind commercial tandem-mirror fusion reactor is described at the midpoint of a two-year study. When completed, the design is to serve as a strategic goal for the mirror fusion program. The main objectives of the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) are: (1) to design an attractive tandem-mirror fusion reactor producing electricity and synfuels (in alternate versions), (2) to identify key development and technology needs, and (3) to exploit the potential of fusion for safety, low activation, and simple disposal of radioactive waste. In the first year we have emphasized physics and engineering of the central cell and physics of the end cell. Design optimization and trade studies are continuing, and we expect additional modifications in the end cells to further improve the performance of the final design.

  10. Defining Top-of-Atmosphere Flux Reference Level for Earth Radiation Budget Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeb, N. G.; Kato, S.; Wielicki, B. A.

    2002-01-01

    To estimate the earth's radiation budget at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) from satellite-measured radiances, it is necessary to account for the finite geometry of the earth and recognize that the earth is a solid body surrounded by a translucent atmosphere of finite thickness that attenuates solar radiation differently at different heights. As a result, in order to account for all of the reflected solar and emitted thermal radiation from the planet by direct integration of satellite-measured radiances, the measurement viewing geometry must be defined at a reference level well above the earth s surface (e.g., 100 km). This ensures that all radiation contributions, including radiation escaping the planet along slant paths above the earth s tangent point, are accounted for. By using a field-of- view (FOV) reference level that is too low (such as the surface reference level), TOA fluxes for most scene types are systematically underestimated by 1-2 W/sq m. In addition, since TOA flux represents a flow of radiant energy per unit area, and varies with distance from the earth according to the inverse-square law, a reference level is also needed to define satellite-based TOA fluxes. From theoretical radiative transfer calculations using a model that accounts for spherical geometry, the optimal reference level for defining TOA fluxes in radiation budget studies for the earth is estimated to be approximately 20 km. At this reference level, there is no need to explicitly account for horizontal transmission of solar radiation through the atmosphere in the earth radiation budget calculation. In this context, therefore, the 20-km reference level corresponds to the effective radiative top of atmosphere for the planet. Although the optimal flux reference level depends slightly on scene type due to differences in effective transmission of solar radiation with cloud height, the difference in flux caused by neglecting the scene-type dependence is less than 0.1%. If an inappropriate

  11. A Case Study in Acoustical Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledford, Bruce R.; Brown, John A.

    1992-01-01

    Addresses concerns of both facilities planners and instructional designers in planning for the audio component of group presentations. Factors in the architectural design of enclosures for the reproduction of sound are described, including frequency, amplitude, and reverberation; and a case study for creating an acceptable enclosure is presented.…

  12. An oil flow study of the reference Shuttle-C configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pokora, Darlene C.; Springer, Anthony M.

    1994-01-01

    An oil flow study of the reference Shuttle-C configuration is presented. The Shuttle-C vehicle was a proposed shuttle derived vehicle where the orbiter was to be replaced by an unmanned cargo carrier element. Oil flows are shown for the range of Mach numbers from Mach 1.10 to 3.48 at various angles-of-attack and roll angles. The major flow field phenomena over the Shuttle-C reference configuration are shown in these oil flows. Using the oil flows, a qualitative understanding of the flow around the vehicle can be determined, aiding the quantitative definition of aerodynamic data from theoretical analyses and test results. The oil flows presented in this study were obtained from configurations tested in the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's 14-Inch Trisonic Wind Tunnel from October 1988 through February 1989.

  13. A feasibility study for producing an egg matrix candidate reference material for the polyether ionophore salinomycin.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Rosana Gomes; Monteiro, Mychelle Alves; Pereira, Mararlene Ulberg; da Costa, Rafaela Pinto; Spisso, Bernardete Ferraz; Calado, Veronica

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work was to study the feasibility of producing an egg matrix candidate reference material for salinomycin. Preservation techniques investigated were freeze-drying and spray drying dehydration. Homogeneity and stability studies of the produced batches were conducted according to ISO Guides 34 and 35. The results showed that all produced batches were homogeneous and both freeze-drying and spray drying techniques were suitable for matrix dehydrating, ensuring the material stability. In order to preserve the material integrity, it must be transported within the temperature range of -20 up to 25°C. The results constitute an important step towards the development of an egg matrix reference material for salinomycin is possible. PMID:27216677

  14. Reference tissue modeling with parameter coupling: application to a study of SERT binding in HIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endres, Christopher J.; Hammoud, Dima A.; Pomper, Martin G.

    2011-04-01

    When applicable, it is generally preferred to evaluate positron emission tomography (PET) studies using a reference tissue-based approach as that avoids the need for invasive arterial blood sampling. However, most reference tissue methods have been shown to have a bias that is dependent on the level of tracer binding, and the variability of parameter estimates may be substantially affected by noise level. In a study of serotonin transporter (SERT) binding in HIV dementia, it was determined that applying parameter coupling to the simplified reference tissue model (SRTM) reduced the variability of parameter estimates and yielded the strongest between-group significant differences in SERT binding. The use of parameter coupling makes the application of SRTM more consistent with conventional blood input models and reduces the total number of fitted parameters, thus should yield more robust parameter estimates. Here, we provide a detailed evaluation of the application of parameter constraint and parameter coupling to [11C]DASB PET studies. Five quantitative methods, including three methods that constrain the reference tissue clearance (kr2) to a common value across regions were applied to the clinical and simulated data to compare measurement of the tracer binding potential (BPND). Compared with standard SRTM, either coupling of kr2 across regions or constraining kr2 to a first-pass estimate improved the sensitivity of SRTM to measuring a significant difference in BPND between patients and controls. Parameter coupling was particularly effective in reducing the variance of parameter estimates, which was less than 50% of the variance obtained with standard SRTM. A linear approach was also improved when constraining kr2 to a first-pass estimate, although the SRTM-based methods yielded stronger significant differences when applied to the clinical study. This work shows that parameter coupling reduces the variance of parameter estimates and may better discriminate between

  15. How Toddlers and Preschoolers Learn to Uniquely Identify Referents for Others: A Training Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Danielle; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This training study investigates how children learn to refer to things unambiguously. Two hundred twenty-four children aged 2.6, 3.6, and 4.6 years were pre- and post-tested for their ability to request stickers from a dense array. Between test sessions, children were assigned to a training condition in which they (a) asked for stickers from an…

  16. Screening for the Most Suitable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies in Equine Milk Somatic Cells.

    PubMed

    Cieslak, Jakub; Mackowski, Mariusz; Czyzak-Runowska, Grazyna; Wojtowski, Jacek; Puppel, Kamila; Kuczynska, Beata; Pawlak, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Apart from the well-known role of somatic cell count as a parameter reflecting the inflammatory status of the mammary gland, the composition of cells isolated from milk is considered as a valuable material for gene expression studies in mammals. Due to its unique composition, in recent years an increasing interest in mare's milk consumption has been observed. Thus, investigating the genetic background of horse's milk variability presents and interesting study model. Relying on 39 milk samples collected from mares representing three breeds (Polish Primitive Horse, Polish Cold-blooded Horse, Polish Warmblood Horse) we aimed to investigate the utility of equine milk somatic cells as a source of mRNA and to screen the best reference genes for RT-qPCR using geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. The results showed that despite relatively low somatic cell counts in mare's milk, the amount and the quality of the extracted RNA are sufficient for gene expression studies. The analysis of the utility of 7 potential reference genes for RT-qPCR experiments for the normalization of equine milk somatic cells revealed some differences between the outcomes of the applied algorithms, although in both cases the KRT8 and TOP2B genes were pointed as the most stable. Analysis by geNorm showed that the combination of 4 reference genes (ACTB, GAPDH, TOP2B and KRT8) is required for apropriate RT-qPCR experiments normalization, whereas NormFinder algorithm pointed the combination of KRT8 and RPS9 genes as the most suitable. The trial study of the relative transcript abundance of the beta-casein gene with the use of various types and numbers of internal control genes confirmed once again that the selection of proper reference gene combinations is crucial for the final results of each real-time PCR experiment. PMID:26437076

  17. Screening for the Most Suitable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies in Equine Milk Somatic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cieslak, Jakub; Mackowski, Mariusz; Czyzak-Runowska, Grazyna; Wojtowski, Jacek; Puppel, Kamila; Kuczynska, Beata; Pawlak, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Apart from the well-known role of somatic cell count as a parameter reflecting the inflammatory status of the mammary gland, the composition of cells isolated from milk is considered as a valuable material for gene expression studies in mammals. Due to its unique composition, in recent years an increasing interest in mare's milk consumption has been observed. Thus, investigating the genetic background of horse’s milk variability presents and interesting study model. Relying on 39 milk samples collected from mares representing three breeds (Polish Primitive Horse, Polish Cold-blooded Horse, Polish Warmblood Horse) we aimed to investigate the utility of equine milk somatic cells as a source of mRNA and to screen the best reference genes for RT-qPCR using geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. The results showed that despite relatively low somatic cell counts in mare's milk, the amount and the quality of the extracted RNA are sufficient for gene expression studies. The analysis of the utility of 7 potential reference genes for RT-qPCR experiments for the normalization of equine milk somatic cells revealed some differences between the outcomes of the applied algorithms, although in both cases the KRT8 and TOP2B genes were pointed as the most stable. Analysis by geNorm showed that the combination of 4 reference genes (ACTB, GAPDH, TOP2B and KRT8) is required for apropriate RT-qPCR experiments normalization, whereas NormFinder algorithm pointed the combination of KRT8 and RPS9 genes as the most suitable. The trial study of the relative transcript abundance of the beta-casein gene with the use of various types and numbers of internal control genes confirmed once again that the selection of proper reference gene combinations is crucial for the final results of each real-time PCR experiment. PMID:26437076

  18. Initial Piloted Simulation Evaluation of the Reference-H High-Speed Civil Transport Design During Takeoff and Recovery From Limit Flight Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaab, Louis J.

    1999-01-01

    An initial assessment of a proposed High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) was conducted in the fall of 1995 at the NASA Langley Research Center. This configuration, known as the Industry Reference-H (Ref.-H), was designed by the Boeing Aircraft Company as part of their work in the High Speed Research program. It included a conventional tail, a cranked-arrow wing, four mixed-flow turbofan engines, and capacity for transporting approximately 300 passengers. The purpose of this assessment was to evaluate and quantify operational aspects of the Reference-H configuration from a pilot's perspective with the additional goal of identifying design strengths as well as any potential configuration deficiencies. This study was aimed at evaluating the Ref.-H configuration at many points of the aircraft's envelope to determine the suitability of the vehicle to accomplish typical mission profiles as well as emergency or envelope-limit conditions. Pilot-provided Cooper-Harper ratings and comments constituted the primary vehicle evaluation metric. The analysis included simulated real-time piloted evaluations, performed in a 6 degree of freedom motion base NASA Langley Visual-Motion Simulator, combined with extensive bath analysis. The assessment was performed using the third major release of the simulation data base (known as Ref.-H cycle 2B).

  19. Cost studies for commercial fuselage crown designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, T. H.; Smith, P. J.; Truslove, G.; Willden, K. S.; Metschan, S. L.; Pfahl, C. L.

    1991-01-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the cost and weight potential of advanced composite design concepts in the crown region of a commercial transport. Two designs from each of three design families were developed using an integrated design-build team. A range of design concepts and manufacturing processes were included to allow isolation and comparison of cost centers. Detailed manufacturing/assembly plans were developed as the basis for cost estimates. Each of the six designs was found to have advantages over the 1995 aluminum benchmark in cost and weight trade studies. Large quadrant panels and cobonded frames were found to save significant assembly labor costs. Comparisons of high- and intermediate-performance fiber systems were made for skin and stringer applications. Advanced tow placement was found to be an efficient process for skin lay up. Further analysis revealed attractive processes for stringers and frames. Optimized designs were informally developed for each design family, combining the most attractive concepts and processes within that family. A single optimized design was selected as the most promising, and the potential for further optimization was estimated. Technical issues and barriers were identified.

  20. 20 CFR 10.301 - May the physician designated on Form CA-16 refer the employee to another medical specialist or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Benefits Emergency Medical Care § 10.301 May the physician designated on Form CA-16 refer the employee to... employee for further examination, testing, or medical care. OWCP will pay this physician or facility's bill... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May the physician designated on Form...

  1. Relating clinical study design to basic research.

    PubMed

    Choh, V; Priolo, S

    1999-07-01

    Devising any research study involves careful attention to its design, as well as the development of an appropriate research question and hypothesis. Together, these attributes ensure the validity of the study in question. In most clinical or epidemiological studies, the types of research designs are often explicitly noted, whereas in papers describing basic or biological research, they are couched in different terms or, more often, are ignored, thus potentially hindering communication between basic and clinical researchers. However, given that the framework for all valid scientific research is based on sound logic, it is proposed that for each study design, a direct homology exists between clinical and basic research paradigms, despite the problem of relating epidemiological vernacular to basic research. By applying examples of basic research protocols to traditional clinical study designs, this paper shows that parallels can be drawn between the two strategies, suggesting that in the absence of a conventional nomenclature to describe basic research study designs, the use of traditional clinical design jargon is valid in describing basic research protocols. PMID:10445637

  2. Selection and Validation of Reference Genes for Functional Studies in the Calliphoridae Family

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Gisele Antoniazzi; Matiolli, Cleverson Carlos; de Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria Lima; Torres, Tatiana Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    The genera Cochliomyia and Chrysomya contain both obligate and saprophagous flies, which allows the comparison of different feeding habits between closely related species. Among the different strategies for comparing these habits is the use of qPCR to investigate the expression levels of candidate genes involved in feeding behavior. To ensure an accurate measure of the levels of gene expression, it is necessary to normalize the amount of the target gene with the amount of a reference gene having a stable expression across the compared species. Since there is no universal gene that can be used as a reference in functional studies, candidate genes for qPCR data normalization were selected and validated in three Calliphoridae (Diptera) species, Cochliomyia hominivorax Coquerel, Cochliomyia macellaria Fabricius, and Chrysomya albiceps Wiedemann. The expression stability of six genes (Actin, Gapdh, Rp49, Rps17, α-tubulin, and GstD1) was evaluated among species within the same life stage and between life stages within each species. The expression levels of Actin, Gapdh, and Rp49 were the most stable among the selected genes. These genes can be used as reliable reference genes for functional studies in Calliphoridae using similar experimental settings. PMID:25373149

  3. Homogeneity study of a corn flour laboratory reference material candidate for inorganic analysis.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Ana Maria Pinto; Dos Santos, Liz Oliveira; Brandao, Geovani Cardoso; Leao, Danilo Junqueira; Bernedo, Alfredo Victor Bellido; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Lemos, Valfredo Azevedo

    2015-07-01

    In this work, a homogeneity study of a corn flour reference material candidate for inorganic analysis is presented. Seven kilograms of corn flour were used to prepare the material, which was distributed among 100 bottles. The elements Ca, K, Mg, P, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn and Mo were quantified by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) after acid digestion procedure. The method accuracy was confirmed by analyzing the rice flour certified reference material, NIST 1568a. All results were evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and principal component analysis (PCA). In the study, a sample mass of 400mg was established as the minimum mass required for analysis, according to the PCA. The between-bottle test was performed by analyzing 9 bottles of the material. Subsamples of a single bottle were analyzed for the within-bottle test. No significant differences were observed for the results obtained through the application of both statistical methods. This fact demonstrates that the material is homogeneous for use as a laboratory reference material. PMID:25704713

  4. Blood lead reference values: the results of an Italian polycentric study.

    PubMed

    Apostoli, P; Baj, A; Bavazzano, P; Ganzi, A; Neri, G; Ronchi, A; Soleo, L; Di, Lorenzo L; Spinelli, P; Valente, T; Minoia, C

    2002-03-15

    This paper presents the results of a polycentric study carried out in seven different areas, organized by the Italian Society of Reference Values (SIVR) for assessing reference values of lead in blood (B-Pb) at the current doses of the metal to general population. The estimated arithmetic mean for B-Pb in males was of 45.1 microg/l and 30.6 microg/l in females; the 95th centile was 100 and 60 for males and females, respectively. The main variables influencing B-Pb levels were gender, age, BMI, outside sport practice, alcohol consumption and smoking habits, while the geographic area and the urban residence did not affect the metal concentration in blood. PMID:11883751

  5. Reference Charts for Fetal Cerebellar Vermis Height: A Prospective Cross-Sectional Study of 10605 Fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Cignini, Pietro; Giorlandino, Maurizio; Brutti, Pierpaolo; Mangiafico, Lucia; Aloisi, Alessia; Giorlandino, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Objective To establish reference charts for fetal cerebellar vermis height in an unselected population. Methods A prospective cross-sectional study between September 2009 and December 2014 was carried out at ALTAMEDICA Fetal–Maternal Medical Centre, Rome, Italy. Of 25203 fetal biometric measurements, 12167 (48%) measurements of the cerebellar vermis were available. After excluding 1562 (12.8%) measurements, a total of 10605 (87.2%) fetuses were considered and analyzed once only. Parametric and nonparametric quantile regression models were used for the statistical analysis. In order to evaluate the robustness of the proposed reference charts regarding various distributional assumptions on the ultrasound measurements at hand, we compared the gestational age-specific reference curves we produced through the statistical methods used. Normal mean height based on parametric and nonparametric methods were defined for each week of gestation and the regression equation expressing the height of the cerebellar vermis as a function of gestational age was calculated. Finally the correlation between dimension/gestation was measured. Results The mean height of the cerebellar vermis was 12.7mm (SD, 1.6mm; 95% confidence interval, 12.7–12.8mm). The regression equation expressing the height of the CV as a function of the gestational age was: height (mm) = -4.85+0.78 x gestational age. The correlation between dimension/gestation was expressed by the coefficient r = 0.87. Conclusion This is the first prospective cross-sectional study on fetal cerebellar vermis biometry with such a large sample size reported in literature. It is a detailed statistical survey and contains new centile-based reference charts for fetal height of cerebellar vermis measurements. PMID:26812238

  6. Reference Mission Version 3.0 Addendum to the Human Exploration of Mars: The Reference Mission of the NASA Mars Exploration Study Team. Addendum; 3.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Bret G. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This Addendum to the Mars Reference Mission was developed as a companion document to the NASA Special Publication 6107, "Human Exploration of Mars: The Reference Mission of the NASA Mars Exploration Study Team." It summarizes changes and updates to the Mars Reference Missions that were developed by the Exploration Office since the final draft of SP 6107 was printed in early 1999. The Reference Mission is a tool used by the exploration community to compare and evaluate approaches to mission and system concepts that could be used for human missions to Mars. It is intended to identify and clarify system drivers, significant sources of cost, performance, risk, and schedule variation. Several alternative scenarios, employing different technical approaches to solving mission and technology challenges, are discussed in this Addendum. Comparing alternative approaches provides the basis for continual improvement to technology investment plan and a general understanding of future human missions to Mars. The Addendum represents a snapshot of work in progress in support of planning for future human exploration missions through May 1998.

  7. Design of Linear DC Motor Two-degree-of-freedom Positioning System using Model Reference type Sliding Mode Controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urushihara, Shiro; Kamano, Takuya; Yura, Satoshi; Yasuno, Takashi; Suzuki, Takayuki

    One of fundamental problems in the factory automation is how to obtain linear motion. Linear motors produce directly the linear motion force without a motion-transform mechanism. Linear d.c. motors (LDMs) have excellent performance and controllability. However, the dynamics of small-sized LDMs is adversely affected by the dead-band due to the friction between brushes and commutators. In this paper, it is described that the design of the two-degree-of-freedom positioning system with a LDM using model reference type sliding mode controller (SMC). The proposed positioning system consists of a fixed gain feedforward controller and a SMC used as a feedback controller. The objective of the SMC is to repress the influence of nonlinear characteristics (the dead-band and parameter variations etc.). The tracking performance can be improved as the fixed gain feedforward controller makes a dynamic inverse system in the feedforward path. The effectiveness of the proposed system for improvement of the tracking performance is demonstrated by experimental results.

  8. Design optimization studies using COSMIC NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitrof, Stephen M.; Bharatram, G.; Venkayya, Vipperla B.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to create, test and document a procedure to integrate mathematical optimization algorithms with COSMIC NASTRAN. This procedure is very important to structural design engineers who wish to capitalize on optimization methods to ensure that their design is optimized for its intended application. The OPTNAST computer program was created to link NASTRAN and design optimization codes into one package. This implementation was tested using two truss structure models and optimizing their designs for minimum weight, subject to multiple loading conditions and displacement and stress constraints. However, the process is generalized so that an engineer could design other types of elements by adding to or modifying some parts of the code.

  9. Design Considerations for Artificial Pancreas Pivotal Studies.

    PubMed

    Russell, Steven J; Beck, Roy W

    2016-07-01

    The development of artificial pancreas systems has evolved to the point that pivotal studies designed to assess efficacy and safety are in progress or soon to be initiated. These pivotal studies are intended to provide the necessary data to gain clearance from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, coverage by payers, and adoption by patients and clinicians. Although there will not be one design that is appropriate for every system, there are certain aspects of protocol design that will be considerations in all pivotal studies designed to assess efficacy and safety. One key aspect of study design is the intervention to be used by the control group. A case can be made that the control group should use the currently available best technology, which is sensor-augmented pump therapy. However, an equally, if not more, compelling case can be made that the control intervention should be usual care. In this Perspective, we elaborate on this issue and provide a pragmatic approach to the design of clinical trials of artificial pancreas systems. PMID:27330125

  10. Odontogenic keratocysts: a clinical and histological study with special reference to enzyme histochemistry.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, B C

    1978-02-01

    Of a total of 1,420 odontogenic cysts, 52 (3.3%) were diagnosed as odontogenic keratocysts. Clinical and histological findings in these 52 cysts are reported. Frozen sections of 26 of the keratocysts were incubated to show the following enzyme activities: NADH2- and NADPH2-diaphorase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase, acid phosphatase, leucine aminopeptidase and ATPase. Furthermore, keratinization was studied with the rhodamine B method and lipids with the oil red O, the OTAN and the acid hematein methods. Sections from epidermis, oral mucosa, radicular cysts, residual cysts and follicular cysts served as reference material. The oxidative enzymes showed strong activity in the keratocyst epithelium which contrasted with weak activity in the reference cysts. Acid phosphatase activity was weak in all epithelia except that in keratocysts, which displayed a marked activity. In the fibrous capsule of the keratocyst a high activity of leucine aminopeptidase was recorded. This high activity contrasted with a weak activity in the reference material. The significance of the histochemical results in relation to the aggressive behavior of the keratocyst is discussed. PMID:148497

  11. Consensus Characterization of 16 FMR1 Reference Materials: A Consortium Study

    PubMed Central

    Amos Wilson, Jean; Pratt, Victoria M.; Phansalkar, Amit; Muralidharan, Kasinathan; Highsmith, W. Edward; Beck, Jeanne C.; Bridgeman, Scott; Courtney, Ebony M.; Epp, Lidia; Ferreira-Gonzalez, Andrea; Hjelm, Nick L.; Holtegaard, Leonard M.; Jama, Mohamed A.; Jakupciak, John P.; Johnson, Monique A.; Labrousse, Paul; Lyon, Elaine; Prior, Thomas W.; Richards, C. Sue; Richie, Kristy L.; Roa, Benjamin B.; Rohlfs, Elizabeth M.; Sellers, Tina; Sherman, Stephanie L.; Siegrist, Karen A.; Silverman, Lawrence M.; Wiszniewska, Joanna; Kalman, Lisa V.

    2008-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome, which is caused by expansion of a (CGG)n repeat in the FMR1 gene, occurs in approximately 1:3500 males and causes mental retardation/behavioral problems. Smaller (CGG)n repeat expansions in FMR1, premutations, are associated with premature ovarian failure and fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome. An FMR1-sizing assay is technically challenging because of high GC content of the (CGG)n repeat, the size limitations of conventional PCR, and a lack of reference materials available for test development/validation and routine quality control. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Association for Molecular Pathology, together with the genetic testing community, have addressed the need for characterized fragile X mutation reference materials by developing characterized DNA samples from 16 cell lines with repeat lengths representing important phenotypic classes and diagnostic cutoffs. The alleles in these materials were characterized by consensus analysis in nine clinical laboratories. The information generated from this study is available on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Coriell Cell Repositories websites. DNA purified from these cell lines is available to the genetics community through the Coriell Cell Repositories. The public availability of these reference materials should help support accurate clinical fragile X syndrome testing. PMID:18165276

  12. Small-Angle Neutron Scattering study of the NIST mAb reference material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellanos, Maria Monica; Liu, Yun; Krueger, Susan; Curtis, Joseph

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are of great interest to the biopharmaceutical industry because they can be engineered to target specific antigens. Due to their importance, the biomanufacturing initiative at NIST is developing an IgG1 mAb reference material `NIST mAb', which can be used by industry, academia, and regulatory authorities. As part of this collaborative effort, we aim at characterizing the reference material using neutron scattering techniques. We have studied the small-angle scattering profile of the NIST mAb in a histidine buffer at 0 and 150 mM NaCl. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we generate an ensemble of structures and calculate their theoretical scattering profile, which can be directly compared with experimental data. Moreover, we analyze the structure factor to understand the effect of solution conditions on the protein-protein interactions. Finally, we have measured the solution scattering of the NIST mAb, while simultaneously performing freeze/thaw cycles, in order to investigate if the solution structure was affected upon freezing. The results from neutron scattering not only support the development of the reference material, but also provide insights on its stability and guide efforts for its development under different formulations.

  13. Neural correlates for aesthetic appraisal of pictograph and its referent: An fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Lai, Siyan; He, Xianyou; Zhao, Xueru; Lai, Shuxian

    2016-05-15

    As one kind of language symbols, pictograph has a graphical structure based on its referential object. Are the aesthetic qualities of these referential objects reflected in the cognitive and neural processing of the font structure of pictographs? In this present study, participants performed aesthetic judgments on both pictographs and their referential object images whilst acquiring fMRI data. Square luminance judgment was served as baseline to control for activity in motor brain regions associated with the key responses. Behavioral results showed both font structures of pictographs and their corresponding object images which refer to beautiful objects were rated significantly higher on beauty than those refer to ugly objects. Functional MRI revealed regions of occipital lobe, frontal lobe and inferior orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) that were commonly activated for pictographs and object images referring to beautiful objects in the direct contrasts between beautiful judgment and luminance judgment. Moreover, only the aesthetic judgments of beauty for the pictographs but not the object images elicited activation of motor areas, which implied relevant embodied experience was elicited during the aesthetic perception of novel pictographs. In contrast, activities associated with pictographs referring to ugly objects were limited to visual processing regions of the bilateral inferior occipital gyri, which could be due to the intentions of avoiding ugly or aversive stimulus. In addition, object images were associated with broader recruitment in cortical areas than pictographs, likely due to the increased visual processing demands for the more visually complex object images. These findings indicate that aesthetic perceptions for the font structures of pictographs were derived from their referential objects, which could arouse a similar sense of beauty supported by common neural mechanisms with other aesthetic objects. PMID:26952886

  14. Generic turbine design study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of Task 12, Generic Turbine Design Study was to develop a conceptual design of a combustion turbine system that would perform in a pressurized fluidized bed combustor (PFBC) application. A single inlet/outlet casing design that modifies the W251B12 combustion turbine to provide compressed air to the PFBC and accept clean hot air from the PFBC was developed. Performance calculations show that the net power output expected, at an inlet temperature of 59{degrees}F, is 20,250 kW.

  15. Engineering study for ISSTRS design concept

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzel, J.S.

    1997-01-31

    Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., is pleased to transmit the attached Conceptual Design Package for the Initial Single Shell Tank Retrieval System (ISSTRS), 90% Conceptual Design Review. The package includes the following: (1) ISSTRS Trade Studies: (a) Retrieval Facility Cooling Requirements; (b) Equipment Re-usability between Project W-320 and Tanks 241-C-103 and 241-C-1 05; (c) Sluice Line Options; and (d) Options for the Location of Tanks AX-103 and A-1 02 HVAC Equipment; (2) Drawings; (3) Risk Management Plan; (4) 0850 Interface Control Document; (5) Requirements Traceability Report; and (6) Project Design Specification.

  16. Controlled air incinerator conceptual design study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    This report presents a conceptual design study for a controlled air incinerator facility for incineration of low level combustible waste at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2). The facility design is based on the use of a Helix Process Systems controlled air incinerator. Cost estimates and associated engineering, procurement, and construction schedules are also provided. The cost estimates and schedules are presented for two incinerator facility designs, one with provisions for waste ash solidification, the other with provisions for packaging the waste ash for transport to an undefined location.

  17. Early infections are associated with increased risk for celiac disease: an incident case-referent study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Celiac disease is defined as a ‘chronic small intestinal immune-mediated enteropathy precipitated by exposure to dietary gluten in genetically predisposed individuals’. Sweden has experienced an “epidemic” of celiac disease in children below two years of age. Celiac disease etiology is considered multifactorial; however, little is known regarding potential risk- or protecting factors. We present data on the possible association between early infectious episodes and celiac disease, including their possible contribution to the Swedish celiac disease epidemic. Methods A population-based incident case-referent study (475 cases, 950 referents) with exposure information obtained via a questionnaire (including family characteristics, infant feeding, and the child’s general health) was performed. Celiac disease cases were diagnosed before two years of age, fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition. Referents were randomly selected from the national population register after fulfilling matching criteria. The final analyses included 954 children, 373 (79%) cases and 581 (61%) referents, with complete information on main variables of interest in a matched set of one case with one or two referents. Results Having three or more parental-reported infectious episodes, regardless of type of infection, during the first six months of life was associated with a significantly increased risk for later celiac disease, and this remained after adjusting for infant feeding and socioeconomic status (odds ratio [OR] 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-2.0; P=0.014). The celiac disease risk increased synergistically if, in addition to having several infectious episodes, infants were introduced to dietary gluten in large amounts, compared to small or medium amounts, after breastfeeding was discontinued (OR 5.6; 95% CI, 3.1-10; P<0.001). Conclusion This study suggests that having repeated

  18. Development of a new cucumber reference material for pesticide residue analysis: feasibility study for material processing, homogeneity and stability assessment.

    PubMed

    Grimalt, Susana; Harbeck, Stefan; Shegunova, Penka; Seghers, John; Sejerøe-Olsen, Berit; Emteborg, Håkan; Dabrio, Marta

    2015-04-01

    The feasibility of the production of a reference material for pesticide residue analysis in a cucumber matrix was investigated. Cucumber was spiked at 0.075 mg/kg with each of the 15 selected pesticides (acetamiprid, azoxystrobin, carbendazim, chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, diazinon, (α + β)-endosulfan, fenitrothion, imazalil, imidacloprid, iprodione, malathion, methomyl, tebuconazole and thiabendazole) respectively. Three different strategies were considered for processing the material, based on the physicochemical properties of the vegetable and the target pesticides. As a result, a frozen spiked slurry of fresh cucumber, a spiked freeze-dried cucumber powder and a freeze-dried cucumber powder spiked by spraying the powder were studied. The effects of processing and aspects related to the reconstitution of the material were evaluated by monitoring the pesticide levels in the three materials. Two separate analytical methods based on LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS were developed and validated in-house. The spiked freeze-dried cucumber powder was selected as the most feasible material and more exhaustive studies on homogeneity and stability of the pesticide residues in the matrix were carried out. The results suggested that the between-unit homogeneity was satisfactory with a sample intake of dried material as low as 0.1 g. A 9-week isochronous stability study was undertaken at -20 °C, 4 °C and 18 °C, with -70 °C designated as the reference temperature. The pesticides tested exhibited adequate stability at -20 °C during the 9-week period as well as at -70 °C for a period of 18 months. These results constitute a good basis for the development of a new candidate reference material for selected pesticides in a cucumber matrix. PMID:25627789

  19. The human studies database project: federating human studies design data using the ontology of clinical research.

    PubMed

    Sim, Ida; Carini, Simona; Tu, Samson; Wynden, Rob; Pollock, Brad H; Mollah, Shamim A; Gabriel, Davera; Hagler, Herbert K; Scheuermann, Richard H; Lehmann, Harold P; Wittkowski, Knut M; Nahm, Meredith; Bakken, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    Human studies, encompassing interventional and observational studies, are the most important source of evidence for advancing our understanding of health, disease, and treatment options. To promote discovery, the design and results of these studies should be made machine-readable for large-scale data mining, synthesis, and re-analysis. The Human Studies Database Project aims to define and implement an informatics infrastructure for institutions to share the design of their human studies. We have developed the Ontology of Clinical Research (OCRe) to model study features such as design type, interventions, and outcomes to support scientific query and analysis. We are using OCRe as the reference semantics for federated data sharing of human studies over caGrid, and are piloting this implementation with several Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) institutions. PMID:21347149

  20. New SCALE Sensitivity/Uncertainty Capabilities Applied to Bias Estimation and to Design of MIRTE Reference Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Rearden, Bradley T; Duhamel, Isabelle; Letang, Eric

    2009-01-01

    New TSUNAMI tools of SCALE 6, TSURFER and TSAR, are demonstrated to examine the bias effects of small-worth test materials, relative to reference experiments. TSURFER is a data adjustment bias and bias uncertainty assessment tool, and TSAR computes the sensitivity of the change in reactivity between two systems to the cross-section data common to their calculation. With TSURFER, it is possible to examine biases and bias uncertainties in fine detail. For replacement experiments, the application of TSAR to TSUNAMI-3D sensitivity data for pairs of experiments allows the isolation of sources of bias that could otherwise be obscured by materials with more worth in an individual experiment. The application of TSUNAMI techniques in the design of nine reference experiments for the MIRTE program will allow application of these advanced techniques to data acquired in the experimental series. The validation of all materials in a complex criticality safety application likely requires consolidating information from many different critical experiments. For certain materials, such as structural materials or fission products, only a limited number of critical experiments are available, and the fuel and moderator compositions of the experiments may differ significantly from those of the application. In these cases, it is desirable to extract the computational bias of a specific material from an integral keff measurement and use that information to quantify the bias due to the use of the same material in the application system. Traditional parametric and nonparametric methods are likely to prove poorly suited for such a consolidation of specific data components from a diverse set of experiments. An alternative choice for consolidating specific data from numerous sources is a data adjustment tool, like the ORNL tool TSURFER (Tool for Sensitivity/Uncertainty analysis of Response Functionals using Experimental Results) from SCALE 6.1 However, even with TSURFER, it may be difficult to

  1. Office Design: A Study of Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Peter, Ed.

    Reporting upon a study of environment which was based on the design of office buildings and office space, the study forms part of a continuing program of environmental research sponsored by Pilkington Brothers Limited of St. Helens, England. In this report the word 'environment' is used in the sense of the sum of the physical and emotional…

  2. Limnological study with reference to fish culture of Bothali (Mendha) reservoir, district - Gadchiroli (India).

    PubMed

    Tijare, Rajendra V

    2012-04-01

    Limnological study with reference to fish culture was carried out at Bothali (Mendha) reservoir, district Gadchiroli, India. Water samples from different sampling locations were collected and processed for physico-chemical analysis. The physico-chemical analysis revealed that the reservoir is favourable for fish culture as the phosphate content in water is moderate in amount. This reservoir can produce a good yield of fishes. Though the reservoir is presently exploited and is under pisciculture, a better treatment of the reservoir such as prevention of entry of organic matter, reduction of phosphate ion concentration to certain extent is necessary to obtain a maximum fish yield. PMID:24749375

  3. Comparison of setup error using different reference images: a phantom and lung cancer patients study

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Bo; Dai Jianrong; Zhang Ye; Zhang Ke; Men Kuo; Zhou Zongmei; Liang Jun; Wang Lvhua

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare setup errors obtained with kilovoltage cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and 2 different kinds of reference images, free-breathing 3D localization CT images (FB-CT) and the average images of 4-D localization CT images (AVG-CT) for phantom and lung cancer patients. This study also explored the correlation between the difference of translational setup errors and the gross tumor volume (GTV) motion. A respiratory phantom and 14 patients were enrolled in this study. For phantom and each patient, 3D helical CT and 4D CT images were acquired, and AVG-CT images were generated from the 4D CT. The setup errors were determined based on the image registration between the CBCT and the 2 different reference images, respectively. The data for both translational and rotational setup errors were analyzed and compared. The GTV centroid movement as well as its correlation with the translational setup error differences was also evaluated. In the phantom study, the AVG-CT method was more accurate than the FB-CT method. For patients, the translational setup errors based on FB-CT were significantly larger than those from AVG-CT in the left-right (LR), superior-inferior (SI), and anterior-posterior (AP) directions (p < 0.05). Translational setup errors differed by >1 mm in 32.6% and >2 mm in 12.9% of CBCT scans. The rotational setup errors from FB-CT were significantly different from those from AVG-CT in the LR and AP directions (p < 0.05). The correlation coefficient of the translational setup error differences and the GTV centroid movement in the LR, SI, and AP directions was 0.515 (p = 0.060), 0.902 (p < 0.001), and 0.510 (p = 0.062), respectively. For lung cancer patients, respiration may affect the on-line target position location. AVG-CT provides different reference information than FB-CT. The difference in SI direction caused by the 2 methods increases with the GTV movement. Therefore, AVG-CT should be the prefered choice of reference

  4. Contribution of animal studies to evaluate the similarity of biosimilars to reference products.

    PubMed

    van Meer, Peter J K; Ebbers, Hans C; Kooijman, Marlous; Gispen-de Wied, Christine C; Silva-Lima, Beatriz; Moors, Ellen H M; Schellekens, Huub

    2015-04-01

    The European Union (EU) was the first region to establish a regulatory framework for biosimilars, in which animal studies are required to confirm similarity to a reference product. However, animal studies described in European public assessment reports (EPARs) or marketing authorization applications (MAAs) did not identify clinically or toxicologically relevant differences despite differences in quality, suggesting that animal studies lack the sensitivity to confirm biosimilarity. Scientific advice provided learning opportunities to evolve existing guidance. Altogether, the data support a step-wise approach to develop biosimilars that focuses on quality and clinical efficacy of biosimilar. This approach might be more effective and does not necessarily require animal studies, which is also reflected in new EU draft guidance. PMID:25463036

  5. Second Generation Waste Package Design Study

    SciTech Connect

    Armijo, J.S.; Misra, M.; Kar, Piyush

    2007-06-28

    The following describes the objectives of Project Activity 023 “Second Generation Waste Package Design Study” under DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC28-04RW12232. The objectives of this activity are: to review the current YMP baseline environment and establish corrosion testenvironments representative of the range of dry to intermittently wet conditions expected in the drifts as a function of time; to demonstrate the oxidation and corrosion resistance of A588 weathering steel and reference Alloy 22 samples in the representative dry to intermittently dry conditions; and to evaluate backfill and design features to improve the thermal performance analyses of the proposed second-generation waste packages using existing models developed at the University of Nevada, Reno(UNR). The work plan for this project activity consists of three major tasks: Task 1. Definition of expected worst-case environments (humidity, liquid composition and temperature) at waste package outer surfaces as a function of time, and comparison with environments defined in the YMP baseline; Task 2. Oxidation and corrosion tests of proposed second-generation outer container material; and Task 3. Second Generation waste package thermal analyses. Full funding was not provided for this project activity.

  6. Optimal Reference Strain Structure for Studying Dynamic Responses of Flexible Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsushima, Natsuki; Su, Weihua; Wolf, Michael G.; Griffin, Edwin D.; Dumoulin, Marie P.

    2017-01-01

    In the proposed paper, the optimal design of reference strain structures (RSS) will be performed targeting for the accurate observation of the dynamic bending and torsion deformation of a flexible rocket. It will provide the detailed description of the finite-element (FE) model of a notional flexible rocket created in MSC.Patran. The RSS will be attached longitudinally along the side of the rocket and to track the deformation of the thin-walled structure under external loads. An integrated surrogate-based multi-objective optimization approach will be developed to find the optimal design of the RSS using the FE model. The Kriging method will be used to construct the surrogate model. For the data sampling and the performance evaluation, static/transient analyses will be performed with MSC.Natran/Patran. The multi-objective optimization will be solved with NSGA-II to minimize the difference between the strains of the launch vehicle and RSS. Finally, the performance of the optimal RSS will be evaluated by checking its strain-tracking capability in different numerical simulations of the flexible rocket.

  7. Fish consumption and colorectal cancer: a case-reference study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yang, C-X; Takezaki, T; Hirose, K; Inoue, M; Huang, X-E; Tajima, K

    2003-04-01

    Several clinical studies have suggested that supplementation with fish oils can suppress the proliferation of colorectal mucosa and therefore inhibit the development of colorectal cancer. However, epidemiological evidence concerning fish consumption and risk is inconsistent and limited. To clarify the association between intake of fish and the likelihood of developing colorectal cancer, we conducted a large sample size case-reference study with 928 cases of colon cancer, 622 of rectal cancer and 46886 cancer-free outpatient references aged 40-79 years. The data showed frequent raw/cooked fish intake to be associated with decreased odds ratio (OR) 0.68 with 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.47-0.99 for male colon cancer, especially for males aged over 60 years, smokers and frequent meat eaters. A marginal decrease in the OR (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.31-1.07) was also detected for female rectal cancer, especially in the regular physical exercise subgroup. However, frequent dried/salted fish intake was found to be associated with increased OR in females younger than 60 years old and alcohol drinkers. Although there is some possible bias in epidemiological studies, the results suggest that frequent raw/cooked fish intake may decrease the risk while dried/salted fish, in contrast, may exert a detrimental effect. PMID:12671534

  8. Validation of reference genes for real-time quantitative RT-PCR studies in Talaromyces marneffei.

    PubMed

    Dankai, Wiyada; Pongpom, Monsicha; Vanittanakom, Nongnuch

    2015-11-01

    Talaromyces marneffei (or Penicillium marneffei) is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause disseminated disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, especially in Southeast Asia. T. marneffei is a thermally dimorphic fungus. Typically, T. marneffei has an adaptive morphology. It grows in a filamentous form (mould) at 25°C and can differentiate to produce asexual spores (conidia). In contrast, at 37°C, it grows as yeast cells that divide by fission. This study aimed to validate a quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) for gene expression analysis in T. marneffei. Analysis of relative gene expression by qRT-PCR requires normalization of data using a proper reference gene. However, suitable reference genes have not been identified in gene expression studies across different cell types or under different experimental conditions in T. marneffei. In this study, four housekeeping genes were selected for analysis: β-actin (act); glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh); β-tubulin (benA) and 18S rRNA. Two analysis programs; BestKeeper and geNorm software tools were used to validate the expression of the candidate normalized genes. The results indicated that the actin gene was the one which was most stably expressed and was recommended for use as the endogenous control for gene expression analysis of all growth forms in T. marneffei by qRT-PCR under normal and stress conditions. PMID:26327538

  9. Reference gene selection for gene expression studies using RT-qPCR in virus-infected planthoppers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Planthoppers not only severely affect crops by causing mechanical damage when feeding but are also vectors of several plant virus species. The analysis of gene expression in persistently infected planthoppers might unveil the molecular basis of viral transmission. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) is currently the most accurate and sensitive method used for quantitative gene expression analysis. In order to normalize the resulting quantitative data, reference genes with constant expression during the experimental procedures are needed. Results Partial sequences of the commonly used reference genes actin (ACT), α1-tubulin (TUB), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1A), ribosomal protein S18 (RPS18) and polyubiquitin C (UBI) from Delphacodes kuscheli, a planthopper capable of persistently transmitting the plant fijivirus Mal de Río Cuarto virus (MRCV), were isolated for the first time. Specific RT-qPCR primers were designed and the expression stability of these genes was assayed in MRCV-infective and naïve planthoppers using geNorm, Normfinder and BestKeeper tools. The overall analysis showed that UBI, followed by 18S and ACT, are the most suitable genes as internal controls for quantitative gene expression studies in MRCV-infective planthoppers, while TUB and EF1A are the most variable ones. Moreover, EF1A was upregulated by MRCV infection. Conclusions A RT-qPCR platform for gene expression analysis in the MRCV-infected planthopper vector Delphacodes kuscheli was developed. Our work is the first report on reference gene selection in virus-infected insects, and might serve as a precedent for future gene expression studies on MRCV and other virus-planthopper pathosystems. PMID:21679431

  10. Experimental design of a waste glass study

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, G.F.; Redgate, P.E.; Hrma, P.

    1995-04-01

    A Composition Variation Study (CVS) is being performed to support a future high-level waste glass plant at Hanford. A total of 147 glasses, covering a broad region of compositions melting at approximately 1150{degrees}C, were tested in five statistically designed experimental phases. This paper focuses on the goals, strategies, and techniques used in designing the five phases. The overall strategy was to investigate glass compositions on the boundary and interior of an experimental region defined by single- component, multiple-component, and property constraints. Statistical optimal experimental design techniques were used to cover various subregions of the experimental region in each phase. Empirical mixture models for glass properties (as functions of glass composition) from previous phases wee used in designing subsequent CVS phases.

  11. The Reference Ability Neural Network Study: Life-time stability of reference-ability neural networks derived from task maps of young adults.

    PubMed

    Habeck, C; Gazes, Y; Razlighi, Q; Steffener, J; Brickman, A; Barulli, D; Salthouse, T; Stern, Y

    2016-01-15

    Analyses of large test batteries administered to individuals ranging from young to old have consistently yielded a set of latent variables representing reference abilities (RAs) that capture the majority of the variance in age-related cognitive change: Episodic Memory, Fluid Reasoning, Perceptual Processing Speed, and Vocabulary. In a previous paper (Stern et al., 2014), we introduced the Reference Ability Neural Network Study, which administers 12 cognitive neuroimaging tasks (3 for each RA) to healthy adults age 20-80 in order to derive unique neural networks underlying these 4 RAs and investigate how these networks may be affected by aging. We used a multivariate approach, linear indicator regression, to derive a unique covariance pattern or Reference Ability Neural Network (RANN) for each of the 4 RAs. The RANNs were derived from the neural task data of 64 younger adults of age 30 and below. We then prospectively applied the RANNs to fMRI data from the remaining sample of 227 adults of age 31 and above in order to classify each subject-task map into one of the 4 possible reference domains. Overall classification accuracy across subjects in the sample age 31 and above was 0.80±0.18. Classification accuracy by RA domain was also good, but variable; memory: 0.72±0.32; reasoning: 0.75±0.35; speed: 0.79±0.31; vocabulary: 0.94±0.16. Classification accuracy was not associated with cross-sectional age, suggesting that these networks, and their specificity to the respective reference domain, might remain intact throughout the age range. Higher mean brain volume was correlated with increased overall classification accuracy; better overall performance on the tasks in the scanner was also associated with classification accuracy. For the RANN network scores, we observed for each RANN that a higher score was associated with a higher corresponding classification accuracy for that reference ability. Despite the absence of behavioral performance information in the

  12. Study and design of cryogenic propellant acquisition systems. Volume 1: Design studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burge, G. W.; Blackmon, J. B.

    1973-01-01

    An in-depth study and selection of practical propellant surface tension acquisition system designs for two specific future cryogenic space vehicles, an advanced cryogenic space shuttle auxiliary propulsion system and an advanced space propulsion module is reported. A supporting laboratory scale experimental program was also conducted to provide design information critical to concept finalization and selection. Designs using localized pressure isolated surface tension screen devices were selected for each application and preliminary designs were generated. Based on these designs, large scale acquisition prototype hardware was designed and fabricated to be compatible with available NASA-MSFC feed system hardware.

  13. Phenotypic extremes in rare variant study designs.

    PubMed

    Peloso, Gina M; Rader, Daniel J; Gabriel, Stacey; Kathiresan, Sekar; Daly, Mark J; Neale, Benjamin M

    2016-06-01

    Currently, next-generation sequencing studies aim to identify rare and low-frequency variation that may contribute to disease. For a given effect size, as the allele frequency decreases, the power to detect genes or variants of interest also decreases. Although many methods have been proposed for the analysis of such data, study design and analytic issues still persist in data interpretation. In this study we present sequencing data for ABCA1 that has known rare variants associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). We contrast empirical findings from two study designs: a phenotypic extreme sample and a population-based random sample. We found differing strengths of association with HDL-C across the two study designs (P=0.0006 with n=701 phenotypic extremes vs P=0.03 with n=1600 randomly sampled individuals). To explore this apparent difference in evidence for association, we performed a simulation study focused on the impact of phenotypic selection on power. We demonstrate that the power gain for an extreme phenotypic selection study design is much greater in rare variant studies than for studies of common variants. Our study confirms that studying phenotypic extremes is critical in rare variant studies because it boosts power in two ways: the typical increases from extreme sampling and increasing the proportion of relevant functional variants ascertained and thereby tested for association. Furthermore, we show that when combining statistical evidence through meta-analysis from an extreme-selected sample and a second separate population-based random sample, power is lower when a traditional sample size weighting is used compared with weighting by the noncentrality parameter. PMID:26350511

  14. Defining and Designing Mixed Research Synthesis Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sandelowski, Margarete; Voils, Corrine I.; Barroso, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Mixed research synthesis is the latest addition to the repertoires of mixed methods research and systematic review. Mixed research synthesis requires that the problems generated by the methodological diversity within and between qualitative and quantitative studies be resolved. Three basic research designs accommodate this diversity, including the segregated, integrated, and contingent designs. Much work remains to be done before mixed research synthesis can secure its place in the repertoires of mixed methods research and systematic review, but the effort is well worth it as it has the potential to enhance both the significance and utility for practice of the many qualitative and quantitative studies constituting shared domains of research. PMID:20098638

  15. Mortality pattern among pulp and paper mill workers in Sweden: a case-referent study

    SciTech Connect

    Wingren, G.; Persson, B.; Thoren, K.; Axelson, O. )

    1991-01-01

    The mortality pattern among Swedish pulp and paper mill workers was evaluated in a case-referent study encompassing 4,070 men decreased during the period 1950-1987. The subjects were identified from the register of deaths and burials in six parishes. A significantly increased mortality was seen for diabetes mellitus and for secondary tumors of the lung and liver among the pulp and paper mill workers. Indications of excess risks were also found for obstructive lung disorders, pulmonary emboli, accidents, and pneumonia, as well as for malignant lymphomas, leukemias, and cancer of the pancreas and stomach. In the only parish where a sulfite process was exclusively used, cancer of the digestive tract and especially of the rectum was found to be in excess. Except for this parish, the sulfate process predominated in the plants included. The mortality pattern found in this study is in reasonable agreement with findings in various studies from this type of industry.

  16. Selection of Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies Related to Intramuscular Fat Deposition in Capra hircus Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wuzheng; Lin, Yaqiu; Liao, Honghai; Wang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    The identification of suitable reference genes is critical for obtaining reliable results from gene expression studies using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) because the expression of reference genes may vary considerably under different experimental conditions. In most cases, however, commonly used reference genes are employed in data normalization without proper validation, which may lead to incorrect data interpretation. Here, we aim to select a set of optimal reference genes for the accurate normalization of gene expression associated with intramuscular fat (IMF) deposition during development. In the present study, eight reference genes (PPIB, HMBS, RPLP0, B2M, YWHAZ, 18S, GAPDH and ACTB) were evaluated by three different algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper) in two types of muscle tissues (longissimus dorsi muscle and biceps femoris muscle) across different developmental stages. All three algorithms gave similar results. PPIB and HMBS were identified as the most stable reference genes, while the commonly used reference genes 18S and GAPDH were the most variably expressed, with expression varying dramatically across different developmental stages. Furthermore, to reveal the crucial role of appropriate reference genes in obtaining a reliable result, analysis of PPARG expression was performed by normalization to the most and the least stable reference genes. The relative expression levels of PPARG normalized to the most stable reference genes greatly differed from those normalized to the least stable one. Therefore, evaluation of reference genes must be performed for a given experimental condition before the reference genes are used. PPIB and HMBS are the optimal reference genes for analysis of gene expression associated with IMF deposition in skeletal muscle during development. PMID:25794179

  17. Nanomaterials for environmental studies: classification, reference material issues, and strategies for physico-chemical characterisation.

    PubMed

    Stone, Vicki; Nowack, Bernd; Baun, Anders; van den Brink, Nico; Kammer, Frank von der; Dusinska, Maria; Handy, Richard; Hankin, Steven; Hassellöv, Martin; Joner, Erik; Fernandes, Teresa F

    2010-03-01

    NanoImpactNet is a European Commission Framework Programme 7 (FP7) funded project that provides a forum for the discussion of current opinions on nanomaterials in relation to human and environmental issues. In September 2008, in Zurich, a NanoImpactNet environmental workshop focused on three key questions: 1. What properties should be characterised for nanomaterials used in environmental and ecotoxicology studies? 2. What reference materials should be developed for use in environmental and ecotoxicological studies? 3. Is it possible to group different nanomaterials into categories for consideration in environmental studies? Such questions have been, at least partially, addressed by other projects/workshops especially in relation to human health effects. Such projects provide a useful basis on which this workshop was based, but in this particular case these questions were reformulated in order to focus specifically on environmental studies. The workshop participants, through a series of discussion and reflection sessions, generated the conclusions listed below. The physicochemical characterisation information identified as important for environmental studies included measures of aggregation/agglomeration/dispersability, size, dissolution (solubility), surface area, surface charge, surface chemistry/composition, with the assumption that chemical composition would already be known. There is a need to have test materials for ecotoxicology, and several substances are potentially useful, including TiO(2) nanoparticles, polystyrene beads labelled with fluorescent dyes, and silver nanoparticles. Some of these test materials could then be developed into certified reference materials over time. No clear consensus was reached regarding the classification of nanomaterials into categories to aid environmental studies, except that a chemistry-based classification system was a reasonable starting point, with some modifications. It was suggested, that additional work may be

  18. The impact of regular lifestyle behavior in migraine: a prevalence case-referent study.

    PubMed

    Woldeamanuel, Yohannes W; Cowan, Robert P

    2016-04-01

    Regular lifestyle behaviors (RLBs) of sleep, exercise, mealtime pattern and hydration status independently affect migraine occurrence. We aimed herein to evaluate the differences in migraine occurrence among participants who do and do not maintain the RLB triumvirate. Cases of chronic migraine (CM) and referents of episodic migraine (EM) ≥aged 15 years with charts regularly documenting RLB notes were continuously enrolled from a retrospective case-referent cohort study performed on electronic chart review from January 1, 2014 to January 1, 2015 at the Stanford Headache and Facial Pain Program. Association between RLB prevalence and migraine occurrence was studied. 175 CM and 175 EM patients were enrolled (mean age 44.4 years, 22 % males). Migraine was diagnosed according to the ICHD-3 beta criteria, and was confirmed by a Headache Specialist attending the Clinic. The CM cohort (22 %) exhibited less RLB than the EM cohort (69 %), with crude odds ratio of 0.13 (95 % confidence interval or CI 0.08-0.21). The adjusted odds ratio and adjusted relative risk between RLB+, Meds+ (those taking medication) and CM were 0.67 (95 % CI 0.32-1.40) and 0.74 (95 % CI 0.43-1.28), indicating no significant effect modification. Engaging in regular lifestyle behavior helps quell chronic migraine. PMID:26810728

  19. Risk factors for traffic accidents in Bangkok Metropolis: a case-reference study.

    PubMed

    Na Ayuthya, R S; Böhning, D

    1997-12-01

    It was aimed to study injures from road traffic accidents in Bangkok Metropolis and identify patients' characteristics as well as to search for risk factors for traffic accidents leading to hospitalization. The study included 346 in-patient cases suffering injuries from road traffic accidents in Bangkok Metropolis. The patients were recruited during a period of 4 months of the year 1992 from five hospitals in various areas of Bangkok which were judged to be representative for Bangkok Metropolis. Using the method of case-reference, relative risk could be estimated for various exposure factors. Most of the patients drove a motorcycle, had their license for only a short period, and drove more than 5 hours a day. About one third of the patients were under the influence of alcohol. The traffic accident characteristics were that they occurred mainly at night time with the peak between 21.00 and 24.00 hours. About 90% of all traffic accidents occurred during the rainy season and most of them occurred near to road junctions. Reference data was available for some variables and the following risk group could be identified: RR (male-age 20-24) = 17.06 (8.8-33.9), RR (single-marital status) = 2.25 (1.7-3.1), RR (primary-education) = 6.2 (2.9-12.6), RR (unskilled labourer-occupation) = 3.91 (2.7-5.9), RR (salesperson-occupation) = 3.34 (2.2-5.0). PMID:9656420

  20. Lower Columbia River and Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program Reference Site Study: 2011 Restoration Analysis - FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Borde, Amy B.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Kaufmann, Ronald M.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Sagar, Jina; Buenau, Kate E.; Corbett, C.

    2012-05-31

    The Reference Site (RS) study is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) effort developed by the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration [BPA], U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District [USACE], and U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) in response to Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinions (BiOp). While the RS study was initiated in 2007, data have been collected at relatively undisturbed reference wetland sites in the LCRE by PNNL and collaborators since 2005. These data on habitat structural metrics were previously summarized to provide baseline characterization of 51 wetlands throughout the estuarine and tidal freshwater portions of the 235-km LCRE; however, further analysis of these data has been limited. Therefore, in 2011, we conducted additional analyses of existing field data previously collected for the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program (CEERP) - including data collected by PNNL and others - to help inform the multi-agency restoration planning and ecosystem management work underway in the LCRE.

  1. A case-referent study: light at night and breast cancer risk in Georgia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Literature has identified detrimental health effects from the indiscriminate use of artificial nighttime light. We examined the co-distribution of light at night (LAN) and breast cancer (BC) incidence in Georgia, with the goal to contribute to the accumulating evidence that exposure to LAN increases risk of BC. Methods Using Georgia Comprehensive Cancer Registry data (2000–2007), we conducted a case-referent study among 34,053 BC cases and 14,458 lung cancer referents. Individuals with lung cancer were used as referents to control for other cancer risk factors that may be associated with elevated LAN, such as air pollution, and since this cancer type was not previously associated with LAN or circadian rhythm disruption. DMSP-OLS Nighttime Light Time Series satellite images (1992–2007) were used to estimate LAN levels; low (0–20 watts per sterradian cm2), medium (21–41 watts per sterradian cm2), high (>41 watts per sterradian cm2). LAN levels were extracted for each year of exposure prior to case/referent diagnosis in ArcGIS. Results Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using logistic regression models controlling for individual-level year of diagnosis, race, age at diagnosis, tumor grade, stage; and population-level determinants including metropolitan statistical area (MSA) status, births per 1,000 women aged 15–50, percentage of female smokers, MSA population mobility, and percentage of population over 16 in the labor force. We found that overall BC incidence was associated with high LAN exposure (OR = 1.12, 95% CI [1.04, 1.20]). When stratified by race, LAN exposure was associated with increased BC risk among whites (OR = 1.13, 95% CI [1.05, 1.22]), but not among blacks (OR = 1.02, 95% CI [0.82, 1.28]). Conclusions Our results suggest positive associations between LAN and BC incidence, especially among whites. The consistency of our findings with previous studies suggests that there could be

  2. Learning Designs: Study, Learn, Design; Repeat as Necessary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Bruce R.; Calhoun, Emily F.

    2011-01-01

    Designers reside mostly in school districts and schools and can have primary assignments of all sorts. In many districts, central office personnel are most visible on design committees, but teachers, principals, and superintendents are included. Members of professional learning communities can design their own processes, and individual teachers…

  3. Instructional Design by Novice Designers: Two Empirical Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verstegen, Danielle; Barnard, Yvonne; Pilot, Albert

    2008-01-01

    In many cases advanced instructional products, such as computer-based training, e-learning programs, simulations, and simulators are not designed by experienced instructional designers, but by novices: subject matter experts, teachers, instructors, or inexperienced designers. The literature indicates that these novices do not always have the…

  4. Has the Internet Changed Anything in Reference? The Library Visit Study, Phase 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Catherine Sheldrick; Nilsen, Kirsti

    2000-01-01

    Examines users' accounts of asking reference questions in Canadian public or academic libraries. Discusses problems, including failure to conduct a reference interview, unmonitored referral, and failure to ask follow-up questions; and considers how the availability of electronic resources, including the Web, has changed reference transactions and…

  5. Designing a Futuristic Business Studies Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mei, Chiew Wye; Siraj, Saedah

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a discourse on the theoretical aspects underpinning the design of the Business Studies curriculum domain. It draws on recent shifts in the business and educational environment of Malaysia, and maps out the methodology and method for expanding and revamping the core ground of the discipline. Using the pragmatic worldview stance, this…

  6. Deepening Kindergarteners' Science Vocabulary: A Design Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Allison Ward; Bryant, Camille Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Early, effective instruction to introduce both science vocabulary and general academic language may help children build a strong conceptual and linguistic foundation for later instruction. In this study, a design research intervention was employed to expose children to a variety of interrelated science content words to increase both the breadth…

  7. Overall Rationale and Design of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegsted, D. Mark

    This paper outlines research designed to establish dietary correlates of malnutrition, and questions the common assumption that high protein foods should be used as dietary supplements in humans. Because thorough investigation of dietary needs in children is ethically unfeasible, squirrel monkeys were used in the research to study the biological…

  8. Preliminary design study of a baseline MIUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfer, B. M.; Shields, V. E.; Rippey, J. O.; Roberts, H. L.; Wadle, R. C.; Wallin, S. P.; Gill, W. L.; White, E. H.; Monzingo, R.

    1977-01-01

    Results of a conceptual design study to establish a baseline design for a modular integrated utility system (MIUS) are presented. The system concept developed a basis for evaluating possible projects to demonstrate an MIUS. For the baseline study, climate conditions for the Washington, D.C., area were used. The baseline design is for a high density apartment complex of 496 dwelling units with a planned full occupancy of approximately 1200 residents. Environmental considerations and regulations for the MIUS installation are discussed. Detailed cost data for the baseline MIUS are given together with those for design and operating variations under climate conditions typified by Las Vegas, Nevada, Houston, Texas, and Minneapolis, Minnesota. In addition, results of an investigation of size variation effects, for 300 and 1000 unit apartment complexes, are presented. Only conceptual aspects of the design are discussed. Results regarding energy savings and costs are intended only as trend information and for use in relative comparisons. Alternate heating, ventilation, and air conditioning concepts are considered in the appendix.

  9. LST phase A design update study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An update is presented of the Phase A study of the Large Space Telescope (LST), based on changes in guidelines and new data developed subsequent to the Phase A study. The study defines an LST concept based on the broad mission guidelines provided by the Office of Space Science (OSS), the scientific requirements developed by OSS with the scientific community, and an understanding of long range NASA planning current at the time the study was performed. A low cost design approach was followed. This resulted in the use of standard spacecraft hardware, the provision for maintenance at the black box level, growth potential in systems designs, and sharing of shuttle maintenance flights with other payloads (See N73-18449 through N73-18453)

  10. Selection of Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies related to lung injury in a preterm lamb model

    PubMed Central

    Pereira-Fantini, Prue M.; Rajapaksa, Anushi E.; Oakley, Regina; Tingay, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Preterm newborns often require invasive support, however even brief periods of supported ventilation applied inappropriately to the lung can cause injury. Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR (qPCR) has been extensively employed in studies of ventilation-induced lung injury with the reference gene 18S ribosomal RNA (18S RNA) most commonly employed as the internal control reference gene. Whilst the results of these studies depend on the stability of the reference gene employed, the use of 18S RNA has not been validated. In this study the expression profile of five candidate reference genes (18S RNA, ACTB, GAPDH, TOP1 and RPS29) in two geographical locations, was evaluated by dedicated algorithms, including geNorm, Normfinder, Bestkeeper and ΔCt method and the overall stability of these candidate genes determined (RefFinder). Secondary studies examined the influence of reference gene choice on the relative expression of two well-validated lung injury markers; EGR1 and IL1B. In the setting of the preterm lamb model of lung injury, RPS29 reference gene expression was influenced by tissue location; however we determined that individual ventilation strategies influence reference gene stability. Whilst 18S RNA is the most commonly employed reference gene in preterm lamb lung studies, our results suggest that GAPDH is a more suitable candidate. PMID:27210246

  11. Establishment of diagnostic reference levels in computed tomography for paediatric patients in Sudan: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sulieman, A

    2015-07-01

    Paediatric patients are recognised to be at higher risk of developing radiation-induced cancer than adults. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the radiation doses to paediatric patients during computed tomography (CT) procedures in order to propose local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs). A total of 296 patients (aged 6-10 y) were investigated in 8 hospitals equipped with 64-, 16- and dual-slice CT machines. The mean dose length product values were 772, 446 and 178 mGy cm for head, abdomen and chest, respectively. Imaging protocols were not adapted to the patient's weight in certain CT machines. The results confirmed that paediatric patients are exposed to an unnecessary radiation dose. The established DRLs were higher than those available in other countries. This study showed the need for harmonisation of the practice in CT departments and radiation dose optimisation. PMID:25836694

  12. A Study of Friction Stir Welded 2195 Al-Li Alloy by the Scanning Reference Electrode Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donford, M. D.; Ding, R. J.

    1998-01-01

    A study of the corrosion of friction stir welded 2195 Al-Li alloy has been carried out using the scanning reference electrode technique (SRET). The results are compared to those obtained from a study of heterogeneously welded samples.

  13. Results of a Saxitoxin Proficiency Test Including Characterization of Reference Material and Stability Studies

    PubMed Central

    Harju, Kirsi; Rapinoja, Marja-Leena; Avondet, Marc-André; Arnold, Werner; Schär, Martin; Luginbühl, Werner; Kremp, Anke; Suikkanen, Sanna; Kankaanpää, Harri; Burrell, Stephen; Söderström, Martin; Vanninen, Paula

    2015-01-01

    A saxitoxin (STX) proficiency test (PT) was organized as part of the Establishment of Quality Assurance for the Detection of Biological Toxins of Potential Bioterrorism Risk (EQuATox) project. The aim of this PT was to provide an evaluation of existing methods and the European laboratories’ capabilities for the analysis of STX and some of its analogues in real samples. Homogenized mussel material and algal cell materials containing paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins were produced as reference sample matrices. The reference material was characterized using various analytical methods. Acidified algal extract samples at two concentration levels were prepared from a bulk culture of PSP toxins producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii. The homogeneity and stability of the prepared PT samples were studied and found to be fit-for-purpose. Thereafter, eight STX PT samples were sent to ten participating laboratories from eight countries. The PT offered the participating laboratories the possibility to assess their performance regarding the qualitative and quantitative detection of PSP toxins. Various techniques such as official Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) methods, immunoassays, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used for sample analyses. PMID:26602927

  14. Argon metastable densities in the GEC reference cell: A numerical study

    SciTech Connect

    Rauf, S.; Kushner, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    The Gaseous Electronics Conference (GEC) reference cell was introduced several years ago as a standard parallel plate capacitively coupled experimental platform for comparing measurements from different research groups and providing reliable data for evaluating models. Recently, McMillin and Zachariah applied planar laser-induced fluorescence to construct two-dimensional profiles of argon metastable densities in argon, Ar, Ar/O{sub 2} and Ar/CF{sub 4} plasmas over a wide range of gas pressures and applied rf voltages. They observed systematic trends in the spatial distributions and magnitudes of the Ar* densities. In this paper, the authors report on a numerical investigation of the GEC reference cell for the conditions of these experiments with the goals of identifying the processes responsible for the experimental observations. The numerical model used in this study is based on a previously described hybrid simulation originally developed for inductively coupled plasmas. In the model, ions and neutrals are simulated using fluid techniques, while a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is used for computing the electron dynamics. The fluid and MC modules, coupled with a solution of Poisson`s equation, are iterated until quasi-steady state conditions are obtained. Simulations were performed for the experimental parameter space of 100--1,000 mTorr and rf voltage of 75--300 V.

  15. Towards generalised reference condition models for environmental assessment: a case study on rivers in Atlantic Canada.

    PubMed

    Armanini, D G; Monk, W A; Carter, L; Cote, D; Baird, D J

    2013-08-01

    Evaluation of the ecological status of river sites in Canada is supported by building models using the reference condition approach. However, geography, data scarcity and inter-operability constraints have frustrated attempts to monitor national-scale status and trends. This issue is particularly true in Atlantic Canada, where no ecological assessment system is currently available. Here, we present a reference condition model based on the River Invertebrate Prediction and Classification System approach with regional-scale applicability. To achieve this, we used biological monitoring data collected from wadeable streams across Atlantic Canada together with freely available, nationally consistent geographic information system (GIS) environmental data layers. For the first time, we demonstrated that it is possible to use data generated from different studies, even when collected using different sampling methods, to generate a robust predictive model. This model was successfully generated and tested using GIS-based rather than local habitat variables and showed improved performance when compared to a null model. In addition, ecological quality ratio data derived from the model responded to observed stressors in a test dataset. Implications for future large-scale implementation of river biomonitoring using a standardised approach with global application are presented. PMID:23250724

  16. Results of a Saxitoxin Proficiency Test Including Characterization of Reference Material and Stability Studies.

    PubMed

    Harju, Kirsi; Rapinoja, Marja-Leena; Avondet, Marc-André; Arnold, Werner; Schär, Martin; Luginbühl, Werner; Kremp, Anke; Suikkanen, Sanna; Kankaanpää, Harri; Burrell, Stephen; Söderström, Martin; Vanninen, Paula

    2015-12-01

    A saxitoxin (STX) proficiency test (PT) was organized as part of the Establishment of Quality Assurance for the Detection of Biological Toxins of Potential Bioterrorism Risk (EQuATox) project. The aim of this PT was to provide an evaluation of existing methods and the European laboratories' capabilities for the analysis of STX and some of its analogues in real samples. Homogenized mussel material and algal cell materials containing paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins were produced as reference sample matrices. The reference material was characterized using various analytical methods. Acidified algal extract samples at two concentration levels were prepared from a bulk culture of PSP toxins producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii. The homogeneity and stability of the prepared PT samples were studied and found to be fit-for-purpose. Thereafter, eight STX PT samples were sent to ten participating laboratories from eight countries. The PT offered the participating laboratories the possibility to assess their performance regarding the qualitative and quantitative detection of PSP toxins. Various techniques such as official Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) methods, immunoassays, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used for sample analyses. PMID:26602927

  17. Investigation and macroscopic anatomical study of referred pain in patients with hip disease.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Junya; Morimoto, Yosuke; Ishii, Shun; Nakano, Jiro; Manabe, Yoshitaka; Okita, Minoru; Tsurumoto, Toshiyuki

    2014-02-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the incidence and patterns of referred pain in patients with hip disease, as well as the nerve distribution in the hip and knee joints of 2 cadavers. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 113 patients with hip joint disease were included in the investigation. The incidence of regional pain and referred pain patterns were evaluated before and after arthroplasty. Two cadavers were macroscopically observed to verify the nerve innervation of the hip and knee joints. [Results] Anterior knee pain was observed preoperatively in 13.3% (in resting) and 33.6% (in motion) of the patients, which was comparable with the incidence of greater trochanter pain. In addition, the preoperative incidence rates of knee pain in resting and motion markedly decreased postoperatively. Of note is the remarkable incidence of pain radiating to the ventral lower limb. An anteromedial innervation was determined in the cadavers by the articular branches of the obturator and femoral nerve, which supply small branches to the knee joints. [Conclusion] Our results suggest that the distribution of the incidence of pain among the patients with hip disease is diverse owing to the sensory distribution of the femoral and obturator nerves. PMID:24648632

  18. Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and exposure to vibration, repetitive wrist movements, and heavy manual work: a case-referent study.

    PubMed Central

    Wieslander, G; Norbäck, D; Göthe, C J; Juhlin, L

    1989-01-01

    Possible connections between carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and exposure to vibrating handheld tools, repetitive wrist movements, and heavy manual work were examined in a case-referent study. The cases were 38 men operated on for CTS between 1974 and 1980. For each case, two referents were drawn from among other surgical cases (hospital referents) and two further referents from the population register and telephone directory, respectively (population referents). Thirty four of 38 cases (89%) and 143 of 152 referents (94%) were interviewed by telephone. An increased prevalence of obesity, rheumatoid disease, diabetes, or thyroid disease was observed among the cases but most did not suffer from any of these disorders. CTS was significantly correlated with exposure to vibration from handheld tools and to repetitive wrist movements but showed a weaker correlation with work producing a heavy load on the wrist. A cause-effect relation between CTS and exposures to handheld vibrating tools and to work causing repetitive movements of the wrist seems probable. Some differences between hospital and population referents indicate that a case-referent study of this type could be biased by inappropriate selection of referents. PMID:2920142

  19. Eliminating traditional reference services in an academic health sciences library: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, Stephanie J

    2011-01-01

    Question: How were traditional librarian reference desk services successfully eliminated at one health sciences library? Setting: The analysis was done at an academic health sciences library at a major research university. Method: A gap analysis was performed, evaluating changes in the first eleven months through analysis of reference transaction and instructional session data. Main Results: Substantial increases were seen in the overall number of specialized reference transactions and those conducted by librarians lasting more than thirty minutes. The number of reference transactions overall increased after implementing the new model. Several new small-scale instructional initiatives began, though perhaps not directly related to the new model. Conclusion: Traditional reference desk services were eliminated at one academic health sciences library without negative impact on reference and instructional statistics. Eliminating ties to the confines of the physical library due to staffing reference desk hours removed one significant barrier to a more proactive liaison program. PMID:22022221

  20. An empirical study of software design practices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, David N.; Church, Victor E.; Agresti, William W.

    1986-01-01

    Software engineers have developed a large body of software design theory and folklore, much of which was never validated. The results of an empirical study of software design practices in one specific environment are presented. The practices examined affect module size, module strength, data coupling, descendant span, unreferenced variables, and software reuse. Measures characteristic of these practices were extracted from 887 FORTRAN modules developed for five flight dynamics software projects monitored by the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL). The relationship of these measures to cost and fault rate was analyzed using a contingency table procedure. The results show that some recommended design practices, despite their intuitive appeal, are ineffective in this environment, whereas others are very effective.

  1. International Studies of Broadcasting; With Special Reference to the Japanese Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eguchi, H., Ed.; Ichinohe, H., Ed.

    A set of 10 articles which first appeared in the Japanese periodical "Studies in Broadcasting" comprises this collection. Of the four essays dealing with Japan, one covers the historical changes in its broadcasting policies, treats the legal character of the Japanese public broadcasting company (Nippon Hoso Kyokai), and also reports on the social…

  2. Inverting the Object of Study: Recalibrating the Frame of Reference in Study Abroad Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Norris W.

    2015-01-01

    This essay is concerned with study abroad experiences as opportunities for student cognitive development, using the interpretive lens of educational psychologist William G. Perry. A standard and often valuable assignment in courses on world religions is a site visit to a religious institution in one's local area. This may concretize otherwise…

  3. 20 CFR 10.301 - May the physician designated on Form CA-16 refer the employee to another medical specialist or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false May the physician designated on Form CA-16 refer the employee to another medical specialist or medical facility? 10.301 Section 10.301 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION...

  4. 20 CFR 10.301 - May the physician designated on Form CA-16 refer the employee to another medical specialist or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true May the physician designated on Form CA-16 refer the employee to another medical specialist or medical facility? 10.301 Section 10.301 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION...

  5. Cryogenic Propellant Management Device: Conceptual Design Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollen, Mark; Merino, Fred; Schuster, John; Newton, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Concepts of Propellant Management Devices (PMDs) were designed for lunar descent stage reaction control system (RCS) and lunar ascent stage (main and RCS propulsion) missions using liquid oxygen (LO2) and liquid methane (LCH4). Study ground rules set a maximum of 19 days from launch to lunar touchdown, and an additional 210 days on the lunar surface before liftoff. Two PMDs were conceptually designed for each of the descent stage RCS propellant tanks, and two designs for each of the ascent stage main propellant tanks. One of the two PMD types is a traditional partial four-screen channel device. The other type is a novel, expanding volume device which uses a stretched, flexing screen. It was found that several unique design features simplified the PMD designs. These features are (1) high propellant tank operating pressures, (2) aluminum tanks for propellant storage, and (3) stringent insulation requirements. Consequently, it was possible to treat LO2 and LCH4 as if they were equivalent to Earth-storable propellants because they would remain substantially subcooled during the lunar mission. In fact, prelaunch procedures are simplified with cryogens, because any trapped vapor will condense once the propellant tanks are pressurized in space.

  6. Thermodynamic Studies for Drug Design and Screening

    PubMed Central

    Garbett, Nichola C.; Chaires, Jonathan B.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction A key part of drug design and development is the optimization of molecular interactions between an engineered drug candidate and its binding target. Thermodynamic characterization provides information about the balance of energetic forces driving binding interactions and is essential for understanding and optimizing molecular interactions. Areas covered This review discusses the information that can be obtained from thermodynamic measurements and how this can be applied to the drug development process. Current approaches for the measurement and optimization of thermodynamic parameters are presented, specifically higher throughput and calorimetric methods. Relevant literature for this review was identified in part by bibliographic searches for the period 2004 – 2011 using the Science Citation Index and PUBMED and the keywords listed below. Expert opinion The most effective drug design and development platform comes from an integrated process utilizing all available information from structural, thermodynamic and biological studies. Continuing evolution in our understanding of the energetic basis of molecular interactions and advances in thermodynamic methods for widespread application are essential to realize the goal of thermodynamically-driven drug design. Comprehensive thermodynamic evaluation is vital early in the drug development process to speed drug development towards an optimal energetic interaction profile while retaining good pharmacological properties. Practical thermodynamic approaches, such as enthalpic optimization, thermodynamic optimization plots and the enthalpic efficiency index, have now matured to provide proven utility in design process. Improved throughput in calorimetric methods remains essential for even greater integration of thermodynamics into drug design. PMID:22458502

  7. Searching for missing heritability: designing rare variant association studies.

    PubMed

    Zuk, Or; Schaffner, Stephen F; Samocha, Kaitlin; Do, Ron; Hechter, Eliana; Kathiresan, Sekar; Daly, Mark J; Neale, Benjamin M; Sunyaev, Shamil R; Lander, Eric S

    2014-01-28

    Genetic studies have revealed thousands of loci predisposing to hundreds of human diseases and traits, revealing important biological pathways and defining novel therapeutic hypotheses. However, the genes discovered to date typically explain less than half of the apparent heritability. Because efforts have largely focused on common genetic variants, one hypothesis is that much of the missing heritability is due to rare genetic variants. Studies of common variants are typically referred to as genomewide association studies, whereas studies of rare variants are often simply called sequencing studies. Because they are actually closely related, we use the terms common variant association study (CVAS) and rare variant association study (RVAS). In this paper, we outline the similarities and differences between RVAS and CVAS and describe a conceptual framework for the design of RVAS. We apply the framework to address key questions about the sample sizes needed to detect association, the relative merits of testing disruptive alleles vs. missense alleles, frequency thresholds for filtering alleles, the value of predictors of the functional impact of missense alleles, the potential utility of isolated populations, the value of gene-set analysis, and the utility of de novo mutations. The optimal design depends critically on the selection coefficient against deleterious alleles and thus varies across genes. The analysis shows that common variant and rare variant studies require similarly large sample collections. In particular, a well-powered RVAS should involve discovery sets with at least 25,000 cases, together with a substantial replication set. PMID:24443550

  8. Searching for missing heritability: Designing rare variant association studies

    PubMed Central

    Zuk, Or; Schaffner, Stephen F.; Samocha, Kaitlin; Do, Ron; Hechter, Eliana; Kathiresan, Sekar; Daly, Mark J.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Sunyaev, Shamil R.; Lander, Eric S.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic studies have revealed thousands of loci predisposing to hundreds of human diseases and traits, revealing important biological pathways and defining novel therapeutic hypotheses. However, the genes discovered to date typically explain less than half of the apparent heritability. Because efforts have largely focused on common genetic variants, one hypothesis is that much of the missing heritability is due to rare genetic variants. Studies of common variants are typically referred to as genomewide association studies, whereas studies of rare variants are often simply called sequencing studies. Because they are actually closely related, we use the terms common variant association study (CVAS) and rare variant association study (RVAS). In this paper, we outline the similarities and differences between RVAS and CVAS and describe a conceptual framework for the design of RVAS. We apply the framework to address key questions about the sample sizes needed to detect association, the relative merits of testing disruptive alleles vs. missense alleles, frequency thresholds for filtering alleles, the value of predictors of the functional impact of missense alleles, the potential utility of isolated populations, the value of gene-set analysis, and the utility of de novo mutations. The optimal design depends critically on the selection coefficient against deleterious alleles and thus varies across genes. The analysis shows that common variant and rare variant studies require similarly large sample collections. In particular, a well-powered RVAS should involve discovery sets with at least 25,000 cases, together with a substantial replication set. PMID:24443550

  9. Study of unconventional aircraft engines designed for low energy consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neitzel, R. E.; Hirschkron, R.; Johnston, R. P.

    1976-01-01

    A study of unconventional engine cycle concepts, which may offer significantly lower energy consumption than conventional subsonic transport turbofans, is described herein. A number of unconventional engine concepts were identified and parametrically studied to determine their relative fuel-saving potential. Based on results from these studies, regenerative, geared, and variable-boost turbofans, and combinations thereof, were selected along with advanced turboprop cycles for further evaluation and refinement. Preliminary aerodynamic and mechanical designs of these unconventional engine configurations were conducted and mission performance was compared to a conventional, direct-drive turofan reference engine. Consideration is given to the unconventional concepts, and their state of readiness for application. Areas of needed technology advancement are identified.

  10. Studies of localized corrosion in welded aluminum alloys by the scanning reference electrode technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, M. D.; Nunes, A. C.

    1995-01-01

    Localized corrosion in welded samples of 2219-T87 Al alloy (2319 filler), 2090 Al-Li alloy (4043 and 2319 fillers), and 2195 Al-Li alloy (4043 and 2319 fillers) has been investigated using the relatively new scanning reference electrode technique. The weld beads are cathodic in all cases, leading to reduced anode/cathode ratios. A reduction in anode/cathode ratio leads to an increase in the corrosion rates of the welded metals, in agreement with results obtained in previous electrochemical and stress corrosion studies involving the overall corrosion rates of welded samples. The cathodic weld beads are bordered on both sides by strong anodic regions, with high propensity for corrosion.

  11. Oxide etch dusty plasma studies in the GEC reference cell using dynamic laser light scattering techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, H.M.; Radovanov, S.

    1995-12-31

    Particulate generation has been studied during reactive on etching (RIE) of oxide wafers in CF{sub 4}/CHF{sub 3} plasmas using the GEC Reference Cell. Under certain discharge process conditions, copious amounts of submicron particles form due to plasma interaction with the oxide substrate. Particles were observed in situ by laser light scattering (LLS) and dynamic laser light scattering (DLSS). DLLS can be used to determine information about particle size, motion, and growth dynamics. DLSS measurements show process-induced dust particles confined in an electrostatic trap exhibit low-frequency oscillatory motion consistent with charge density wave (CDW) motion. These results are also consistent with the plasma dust particles forming a strongly coupled Coulomb liquid phase.

  12. Fundamental studies to develop certified reference material to calibrate spectrophotometer in the ultraviolet region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Conceição, F. C.; Borges, P. P.; Gomes, J. F. S.

    2016-07-01

    Spectrophotometry is the technique used in a great number of laboratories around the world. Quantitative determination of a high number of inorganic, organic and biological species can be made by spectrophotometry using calibrated spectrophotometers. International standards require the use of optical filters to perform the calibration of spectrophotometers. One of the recommended materials is the crystalline potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7), which is used to prepare solutions in specific concentrations for calibration or verification of spectrophotometers in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral regions. This paper presents the results concerning the fundamental studies for developing a certified reference material (CRM) of crystalline potassium dichromate to be used as standard of spectrophotometers in order to contribute to reliable quantitative analyses.

  13. The dynamics of hydroponic crops for simulation studies of the CELSS initial reference configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volk, Tyler

    1992-01-01

    The goal of this research is to develop a progressive series of mathematical models for the CELSS hydroponic crops. These models will systematize the experimental findings from the crop researchers in the CELSS Program into a form useful to investigate system-level considerations, for example, dynamic studies of the CELSS Initial Reference Configurations. The crop models will organize data from different crops into a common modeling framework. This is the fifth semiannual report for this project. The following topics are discussed: (1) use of field crop models to explore phasic control of CELSS crops for optimizing yield; (2) seminar presented at Purdue CELSS NSCORT; and (3) paper submitted on analysis of bioprocessing of inedible plant materials.

  14. Parallax studies of four selected fields. [and their central and reference stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, J. L.; Gatewood, G. D.; Worek, T. F.

    1982-01-01

    Astrometric studies have been completed for four central stars Wolf 294, 39 Com, Case 2, and Vega - and selected reference stars in each of those regions. The parallax of Wolf 294 was measured as 0.1806 + or - 0.0033 arcsec. 39 Com is a visual/astrometric binary with an estimated period of 125 yr and a parallax of 0.0297 + or - 0.0044 arcsec. C 2 was measured as a white dwarf from a Warner and Swasey Observatory spectral survey; its white dwarf status is confirmed by its parallax of 0.0186 + or - 0.0109 arcsec. Vega's parallax was measured as 0.1243 + or - 0.0049 arcsec; a small apparent nonrandom distribution in the residuals is most likely an error from the neutral density filter used for magnitude reduction of the central star.

  15. A multi-reference study of the byproduct formation for a ring-closed dithienylethene photoswitch.

    PubMed

    Matis, Jochen René; Schönborn, Jan Boyke; Saalfrank, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Photodriven molecular switches are sometimes hindered in their performance by forming byproducts which act as dead ends in sequences of switching cycles, leading to rapid fatigue effects. Understanding the reaction pathways to unwanted byproducts is a prerequisite for preventing them. This article presents a study of the photochemical reaction pathways for byproduct formation in the photochromic switch 1,2-bis-(3-thienyl)-ethene. Specifically, using single- and multi-reference methods the post-deexcitation reaction towards the byproduct in the electronic ground state S0 when starting from the S1-S0 conical intersection (CoIn), is considered in detail. We find an unusual low-energy pathway, which offers the possibility for the formation of a dyotropic byproduct. Several high-energy pathways can be excluded with high probability. PMID:25959839

  16. Validation of Reference Housekeeping Genes for Gene Expression Studies in Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera)

    PubMed Central

    Barros Rodrigues, Thaís; Khajuria, Chitvan; Wang, Haichuan; Matz, Natalie; Cunha Cardoso, Danielle; Valicente, Fernando Hercos; Zhou, Xuguo; Siegfried, Blair

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is a powerful technique to investigate comparative gene expression. In general, normalization of results using a highly stable housekeeping gene (HKG) as an internal control is recommended and necessary. However, there are several reports suggesting that regulation of some HKGs is affected by different conditions. The western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a serious pest of corn in the United States and Europe. The expression profile of target genes related to insecticide exposure, resistance, and RNA interference has become an important experimental technique for study of western corn rootworms; however, lack of information on reliable HKGs under different conditions makes the interpretation of qRT-PCR results difficult. In this study, four distinct algorithms (Genorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and delta-CT) and five candidate HKGs to genes of reference (β-actin; GAPDH, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; β-tubulin; RPS9, ribosomal protein S9; EF1a, elongation factor-1α) were evaluated to determine the most reliable HKG under different experimental conditions including exposure to dsRNA and Bt toxins and among different tissues and developmental stages. Although all the HKGs tested exhibited relatively stable expression among the different treatments, some differences were noted. Among the five candidate reference genes evaluated, β-actin exhibited highly stable expression among different life stages. RPS9 exhibited the most similar pattern of expression among dsRNA treatments, and both experiments indicated that EF1a was the second most stable gene. EF1a was also the most stable for Bt exposure and among different tissues. These results will enable researchers to use more accurate and reliable normalization of qRT-PCR data in WCR experiments. PMID:25356627

  17. A study to establish international diagnostic reference levels for paediatric computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Vassileva, J; Rehani, M; Kostova-Lefterova, D; Al-Naemi, H M; Al Suwaidi, J S; Arandjic, D; Bashier, E H O; Kodlulovich Renha, S; El-Nachef, L; Aguilar, J G; Gershan, V; Gershkevitsh, E; Gruppetta, E; Hustuc, A; Jauhari, A; Kharita, Mohammad Hassan; Khelassi-Toutaoui, N; Khosravi, H R; Khoury, H; Kralik, I; Mahere, S; Mazuoliene, J; Mora, P; Muhogora, W; Muthuvelu, P; Nikodemova, D; Novak, L; Pallewatte, A; Pekarovič, D; Shaaban, M; Shelly, E; Stepanyan, K; Thelsy, N; Visrutaratna, P; Zaman, A

    2015-07-01

    The article reports results from the largest international dose survey in paediatric computed tomography (CT) in 32 countries and proposes international diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in terms of computed tomography dose index (CTDI vol) and dose length product (DLP). It also assesses whether mean or median values of individual facilities should be used. A total of 6115 individual patient data were recorded among four age groups: <1 y, >1-5 y, >5-10 y and >10-15 y. CTDIw, CTDI vol and DLP from the CT console were recorded in dedicated forms together with patient data and technical parameters. Statistical analysis was performed, and international DRLs were established at rounded 75th percentile values of distribution of median values from all CT facilities. The study presents evidence in favour of using median rather than mean of patient dose indices as the representative of typical local dose in a facility, and for establishing DRLs as third quartile of median values. International DRLs were established for paediatric CT examinations for routine head, chest and abdomen in the four age groups. DRLs for CTDI vol are similar to the reference values from other published reports, with some differences for chest and abdomen CT. Higher variations were observed between DLP values, based on a survey of whole multi-phase exams. It may be noted that other studies in literature were based on single phase only. DRLs reported in this article can be used in countries without sufficient medical physics support to identify non-optimised practice. Recommendations to improve the accuracy and importance of future surveys are provided. PMID:25836685

  18. Validation of reference housekeeping genes for gene expression studies in western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Thaís Barros; Barros Rodrigues, Thaís; Khajuria, Chitvan; Wang, Haichuan; Matz, Natalie; Cunha Cardoso, Danielle; Valicente, Fernando Hercos; Zhou, Xuguo; Siegfried, Blair

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is a powerful technique to investigate comparative gene expression. In general, normalization of results using a highly stable housekeeping gene (HKG) as an internal control is recommended and necessary. However, there are several reports suggesting that regulation of some HKGs is affected by different conditions. The western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a serious pest of corn in the United States and Europe. The expression profile of target genes related to insecticide exposure, resistance, and RNA interference has become an important experimental technique for study of western corn rootworms; however, lack of information on reliable HKGs under different conditions makes the interpretation of qRT-PCR results difficult. In this study, four distinct algorithms (Genorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and delta-CT) and five candidate HKGs to genes of reference (β-actin; GAPDH, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; β-tubulin; RPS9, ribosomal protein S9; EF1a, elongation factor-1α) were evaluated to determine the most reliable HKG under different experimental conditions including exposure to dsRNA and Bt toxins and among different tissues and developmental stages. Although all the HKGs tested exhibited relatively stable expression among the different treatments, some differences were noted. Among the five candidate reference genes evaluated, β-actin exhibited highly stable expression among different life stages. RPS9 exhibited the most similar pattern of expression among dsRNA treatments, and both experiments indicated that EF1a was the second most stable gene. EF1a was also the most stable for Bt exposure and among different tissues. These results will enable researchers to use more accurate and reliable normalization of qRT-PCR data in WCR experiments. PMID:25356627

  19. Validity Study of a Jump Mat Compared to the Reference Standard Force Plate

    PubMed Central

    Rogan, Slavko; Radlinger, Lorenz; Imhasly, Caroline; Kneubuehler, Andrea; Hilfiker, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Background: In the field of vertical jump diagnostics, force plates (FP) are the reference standard. Recently, despite a lack of evidence, jump mats have been used increasingly. Important factors in favor of jumping mats are their low cost and portability. Objectives: This validity study compared the Haynl-Elektronik jump mat (HE jump mat) with the reference standard force plate. Materials and Methods: Ten healthy volunteers participated and each participant completed three series of five drop jumps (DJ). The parameters ground contact time (GCT) and vertical jump height (VJH) from the HE jump mat and the FP were used to evaluate the concurrent validity. The following statistical calculations were performed: Pearson's correlation (r), Bland-Altman plots (standard and for adjusted trend), and regression equations. Results: The Bland-Altman plots suggest that the HE jump mat measures shorter contact times and higher jump heights than the FP. The trend-adjusted Bland-Altman plot shows higher mean differences and wider wing-spreads of confidence limits during longer GCT. During the VJH the mean differences and the wing-spreads of the confidence limits throughout the range present as relatively constant. The following regression equations were created, as close as possible to the true value: GCT = 5.920385 + 1.072293 × [value HE jump mat] and VJH = -1.73777 + 1.011156 × [value HE jump mat]. Conclusions: The HE jump mat can be recommended in relation to the validity of constraints. In this study, only a part of the quality criteria were examined. For the final recommendation it is advised to examine the HE jump mat on the other quality criteria (test-retest reliability, sensitivity change). PMID:26715970

  20. Feasibility study on production of a matrix reference material for cyanobacterial toxins.

    PubMed

    Hollingdale, Christie; Thomas, Krista; Lewis, Nancy; Békri, Khalida; McCarron, Pearse; Quilliam, Michael A

    2015-07-01

    The worldwide increase in cyanobacterial contamination of freshwater lakes and rivers is of great concern as many cyanobacteria produce potent hepatotoxins and neurotoxins (cyanotoxins). Such toxins pose a threat to aquatic ecosystems, livestock, and drinking water supplies. In addition, dietary supplements prepared from cyanobacteria can pose a risk to consumers if they contain toxins. Analytical monitoring for toxins in the environment and in consumer products is essential for the protection of public health. Reference materials (RMs) are an essential tool for the development and validation of analytical methods and are necessary for ongoing quality control of monitoring operations. Since the availability of appropriate RMs for cyanotoxins has been very limited, the present study was undertaken to examine the feasibility of producing a cyanobacterial matrix RM containing various cyanotoxins. The first step was large-scale culturing of various cyanobacterial cultures that produce anatoxins, microcystins, and cylindrospermopsins. After harvesting, the biomass was lyophilized, blended, homogenized, milled, and bottled. The moisture content and physical characteristics were assessed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the production process. Toxin levels were measured by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry and ultraviolet detection. The reference material was found to be homogeneous for toxin content. Stability studies showed no significant degradation of target toxins over a period of 310 days at temperatures up to +40 °C except for the anatoxin-a, which showed some degradation at +40 °C. These results show that a fit-for-purpose matrix RM for cyanotoxins can be prepared using the processes and techniques applied in this work. PMID:25929442

  1. Guide for conducting treatability studies under CERCLA: Solvent extraction quick reference fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Rawe, J.

    1992-08-01

    Systematically conducted, well-documented treatability studies are an important component of remedy evaluation and selection under the Superfund Program. This fact sheet focuses on solvent extraction treatability studies, and is a highly abridged version of the guide which bears the same title. This fact sheet presents an abbreviated guide for designing and implementing solvent extraction treatability studies. The fact sheet presents a description of and discusses the applicability and limitations of solvent extraction technologies and defines the prescreening and field measurement data needed to determine if treatability testing is required.

  2. Analytical and experimental study of control effort associated with model reference adaptive control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messer, R. S.; Haftka, R. T.; Cudney, H. H.

    1992-01-01

    Numerical simulation results presently obtained for the performance of model reference adaptive control (MRAC) are experimentally verified, with a view to accounting for differences between the plant and the reference model after the control function has been brought to bear. MRAC is both experimentally and analytically applied to a single-degree-of-freedom system, as well as analytically to a MIMO system having controlled differences between the reference model and the plant. The control effort is noted to be sensitive to differences between the plant and the reference model.

  3. Electrostatic camera system functional design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botticelli, R. A.; Cook, F. J.; Moore, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    A functional design study for an electrostatic camera system for application to planetary missions is presented. The electrostatic camera can produce and store a large number of pictures and provide for transmission of the stored information at arbitrary times after exposure. Preliminary configuration drawings and circuit diagrams for the system are illustrated. The camera system's size, weight, power consumption, and performance are characterized. Tradeoffs between system weight, power, and storage capacity are identified.

  4. Conceptual design studies for surface infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bufkin, Ann L.; Jones, William R., II

    1986-01-01

    The utimate design of a manned Mars base will be the result of considerable engineering analysis and many trade studies to optimize the configuration. Many options and scenarios are available and all need to be considered at this time. Initial base elements, two base configuration concepts, internal space architectural concerns, and two base set-up scenarios are discussed. There are many variables as well as many unknowns to be reckoned with before people set foot on the red planet.

  5. Validation of reference genes for quantitative gene expression studies in Volvox carteri using real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Kianianmomeni, Arash; Hallmann, Armin

    2013-12-01

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a sensitive technique for analysis of gene expression under a wide diversity of biological conditions. However, the identification of suitable reference genes is a critical factor for analysis of gene expression data. To determine potential reference genes for normalization of qRT-PCR data in the green alga Volvox carteri, the transcript levels of ten candidate reference genes were measured by qRT-PCR in three experimental sample pools containing different developmental stages, cell types and stress treatments. The expression stability of the candidate reference genes was then calculated using the algorithms geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. The genes for 18S ribosomal RNA (18S) and eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1α2 (eef1) turned out to have the most stable expression levels among the samples both from different developmental stages and different stress treatments. The genes for the ribosomal protein L23 (rpl23) and the TATA-box binding protein (tbpA) showed equivalent transcript levels in the comparison of different cell types, and therefore, can be used as reference genes for cell-type specific gene expression analysis. Our results indicate that more than one reference gene is required for accurate normalization of qRT-PCRs in V. carteri. The reference genes in our study show a much better performance than the housekeeping genes used as a reference in previous studies. PMID:24057254

  6. A Numerical Climate Observing Network Design Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stammer, Detlef

    2003-01-01

    This project was concerned with three related questions of an optimal design of a climate observing system: 1. The spatial sampling characteristics required from an ARGO system. 2. The degree to which surface observations from ARGO can be used to calibrate and test satellite remote sensing observations of sea surface salinity (SSS) as it is anticipated now. 3. The more general design of an climate observing system as it is required in the near future for CLIVAR in the Atlantic. An important question in implementing an observing system is that of the sampling density required to observe climate-related variations in the ocean. For that purpose this project was concerned with the sampling requirements for the ARGO float system, but investigated also other elements of a climate observing system. As part of this project we studied the horizontal and vertical sampling characteristics of a global ARGO system which is required to make it fully complementary to altimeter data with the goal to capture climate related variations on large spatial scales (less thanAttachment: 1000 km). We addressed this question in the framework of a numerical model study in the North Atlantic with an 1/6 horizontal resolution. The advantage of a numerical design study is the knowledge of the full model state. Sampled by a synthetic float array, model results will therefore allow to test and improve existing deployment strategies with the goal to make the system as optimal and cost-efficient as possible. Attachment: "Optimal observations for variational data assimilation".

  7. Design and Development of an Equipotential Voltage Reference (Grounding) System for a Low-Cost Rapid-Development Modular Spacecraft Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lukash, James A.; Daley, Earl

    2011-01-01

    This work describes the design and development effort to adapt rapid-development space hardware by creating a ground system using solutions of low complexity, mass, & cost. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft is based on the modular common spacecraft bus architecture developed at NASA Ames Research Center. The challenge was building upon the existing modular common bus design and development work and improving the LADEE spacecraft design by adding an Equipotential Voltage Reference (EVeR) system, commonly referred to as a ground system. This would aid LADEE in meeting Electromagnetic Environmental Effects (E3) requirements, thereby making the spacecraft more compatible with itself and its space environment. The methods used to adapt existing hardware are presented, including provisions which may be used on future spacecraft.

  8. SDU 6 MODELING STUDY TO SUPPORT DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.

    2012-05-02

    In response to Technical Task Request (TTR) HLW-SSF-TTR-2012-0017 (1), SRNL performed modeling studies to evaluate alternative design features for the 32 million gallon Saltstone Disposal Unit (SDU) referred to as SDU 6. This initial modeling study was intended to assess the performance of major components of the structure that are most significant to the PA. Information provided by the modeling will support the development of a SDU 6 Preliminary Design Model and Recommendation Report to be written by SRR Closure and Waste Disposal Authority. Key inputs and assumptions for the modeling were provided to SRNL in SRR-SPT-2011-00113 (2). A table reiterates the base case and four sensitivity case studies requested in this reference. In general, as shown in Table 4, when compared to Vault 2 Case A, the Base Case SDU 6 design produced higher peak fluxes to the water table during the 10,000 year period of analysis but lower peak fluxes within a 15,000 to 20,000 time frame. SDU 6 will contain approximately ten times the inventory of a single Vault 2 and the SDU 6 footprint is comparable to that of a group of four Vault 2 disposal units. Therefore, the radionuclide flux from SDU 6 and that from a single Vault 2 are not directly comparable. A more direct comparison would be to compare the maximum dose obtained at the 100 m boundary from the seven SDU's that will replace the 64 FDC's analyzed in the 2009 PA. This analysis will be performed in the next set of calculations planned for SDU design evaluation. Aquifer transport and dose calculations were not intended to be part of this initial scoping study. However, results from this study do indicate that replacement of the FDC design with SDU would not yield significantly higher peak doses. If the thickness of the SDU 6 floor is increased, peak doses would not occur during the 10,000 year period of analysis.

  9. MRF study. Part 2: Antenna design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An assessment of the practical feasibility of the design and construction of an antenna to meet the requirements of a conceptual radar system is studied. Both the subscale antenna, nominally 5 by 4 meters in dimensions, and the full scale antenna, taken as nominally 18 by 4 meters in size, were considered. The examination of feasibility was from electrical, mechanical, and thermal standpoints. Fundamental, electrical, microwave design questions applying to both the subscale and the full scale antennas were considered in greater detail than questions of mechanical configuration and thermal design. Layouts were made in the development of preliminary configurations, along with a deployment method, for the subscale antenna in conjunction with an antenna cluster for alternate arrangements of the three pallet configuration. Implementation of the array and support structure and attachment of the array to the support and thermal provision was considered. Results show that a microwave design of antennas that incorporate traveling wave arrays can be effected with the beam scanned to 45 degrees in elevation without occurrence of higher order beams.

  10. Microgravity isolation system design: A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampton, R. D.; Knospe, C. R.; Allaire, P. E.; Grodsinsky, C. M.

    1994-01-01

    Many acceleration-sensitive, microgravity science experiments will require active vibration isolation from manned orbiters on which they will be mounted. The isolation problem, especially in the case of a tethered payload, is a complex three-dimensional one that is best suited to modern-control design methods. In this paper, extended H(sub 2) synthesis is used to design an active isolator (i.e., controller) for a realistic single-input-multiple-output (SIMO) microgravity vibration isolation problem. Complex mu-analysis methods are used to analyze the isolation system with respect to sensor, actuator, and umbilical uncertainties. The paper fully discusses the design process employed and the insights gained. This design case study provides a practical approach for isolation problems of greater complexity. Issues addressed include a physically intuitive state-space description of the system, disturbance and noise filters, filters for frequency weighting, and uncertainty models. The controlled system satisfies all the performance specifications and is robust with respect to model uncertainties.

  11. Assessment of reference values for mercury in urine: the results of an Italian polycentric study.

    PubMed

    Apostoli, P; Cortesi, I; Mangili, A; Elia, G; Drago, I; Gagliardi, T; Soleo, L; Valente, T; Sciarra, G F; Aprea, C; Ronchi, A; Minoia, C

    2002-04-22

    The results of a polycentric study to assess the reference values of urinary mercury (U-Hg) in four Italian cities are presented. A total of 383 subjects were selected on the basis of standardised criteria by a questionnaire on personal habits, lifestyle, occupational or non-occupational exposure to Hg, medical history, number and area of dental amalgams. U-Hg was determined by hydride generation atomic absorption method (HG-AAS), with a detection limit of 0.5 microg/l and by flow injection (FI) inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), with a detection limit of 0.03 microg/l. The median value of U-Hg, determined by HG-AAS, was 0.78 microg/g creatinine (0.75 for males and 0.83 for females), with 5 degrees and 95 degrees percentiles, respectively, of 0.17 and 3.66 microg/g creatinine. When determined by FI ICP-MS, the median value was 0.79 microg/g creatinine (0.77 for males and 0.79 for females) with 5 degrees and 95 degrees percentiles of, respectively, 0.12 and 5.02 microg/g creatinine. Among the independent variables, city of origin, area of dental amalgams, fish intake and tobacco smoking significantly influenced the U-Hg levels. The U-Hg reference values from this survey are lower than those from other recent investigations, probably due to characteristics and selection of the examined individuals and to the strict control of pre-analytical and analytical factors of variability. PMID:12049389

  12. Proton-binding study of standard and reference fulvic acids, humic acids, and natural organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchie, Jason D.; Perdue, E. Michael

    2003-01-01

    The acid-base properties of 14 standard and reference materials from the International Humic Substances Society (IHSS) were investigated by potentiometric titration. Titrations were conducted in 0.1 M NaCl under a nitrogen atmosphere, averaging 30 min from start to finish. Concentrations of carboxyl groups and phenolic groups were estimated directly from titration curves. Titration data were also fit to a modified Henderson-Hasselbalch model for two classes of proton-binding sites to obtain "best fit" parameters that describe proton-binding curves for the samples. The model was chosen for its simplicity, its ease of implementation in computer spreadsheets, and its excellent ability to describe the shapes of the titration curves. The carboxyl contents of the IHSS samples are in the general order: terrestrial fulvic acids > aquatic fulvic acids > Suwannee River natural organic matter (NOM) > aquatic humic acids > terrestrial humic acids. Overall, fulvic acids and humic acids have similar phenolic contents; however, all of the aquatically derived samples have higher phenolic contents than the terrestrially derived samples. The acid-base properties of reference Suwannee River NOM are surprisingly similar to those of standard Suwannee River humic acid. Results from titrations in this study were compared with other published results from both direct and indirect titrations. Typically, carboxyl contents for the IHSS samples were in agreement with the results from both methods of titration. Phenolic contents for the IHSS samples were comparable to those determined by direct titrations, but were significantly less than estimates of phenolic content that were based on indirect titrations with Ba(OH) 2 and Ca(OAc) 2. The average phenolic-to-carboxylic ratio of the IHSS samples is approximately 1:4. Models that assume a 1:2 ratio of phenolic-to-carboxylic groups may overestimate the relative contribution of phenolic groups to the acid-base chemistry of humic substances.

  13. Age and gender leucocytes variances and references values generated using the standardized ONE-Study protocol.

    PubMed

    Kverneland, Anders H; Streitz, Mathias; Geissler, Edward; Hutchinson, James; Vogt, Katrin; Boës, David; Niemann, Nadja; Pedersen, Anders Elm; Schlickeiser, Stephan; Sawitzki, Birgit

    2016-06-01

    Flow cytometry is now accepted as an ideal technology to reveal changes in immune cell composition and function. However, it is also an error-prone and variable technology, which makes it difficult to reproduce findings across laboratories. We have recently developed a strategy to standardize whole blood flow cytometry. The performance of our protocols was challenged here by profiling samples from healthy volunteers to reveal age- and gender-dependent differences and to establish a standardized reference cohort for use in clinical trials. Whole blood samples from two different cohorts were analyzed (first cohort: n = 52, second cohort: n = 46, both 20-84 years with equal gender distribution). The second cohort was run as a validation cohort by a different operator. The "ONE Study" panels were applied to analyze expression of >30 different surface markers to enumerate proportional and absolute numbers of >50 leucocyte subsets. Indeed, analysis of the first cohort revealed significant age-dependent changes in subsets e.g. increased activated and differentiated CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell subsets, acquisition of a memory phenotype for Tregs as well as decreased MDC2 and Marginal Zone B cells. Males and females showed different dynamics in age-dependent T cell activation and differentiation, indicating faster immunosenescence in males. Importantly, although both cohorts consisted of a small sample size, our standardized approach enabled validation of age-dependent changes with the second cohort. Thus, we have proven the utility of our strategy and generated reproducible reference ranges accounting for age- and gender-dependent differences, which are crucial for a better patient monitoring and individualized therapy. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. PMID:27144459

  14. Identification and Validation of Reference Genes for qRT-PCR Studies of Gene Expression in Dioscorea opposita

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiting; Zhang, Xiaoli; Guo, Xiaobo; Li, Shujie; Han, Linlin; Song, Zhihui; Wang, Yunying; Li, Junhua; Li, Mingjun

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is one of the most common methods for gene expression studies. Data normalization based on reference genes is essential for obtaining reliable results for qRT-PCR assays. This study evaluated potential reference genes of Chinese yam (Dioscorea opposita Thunb.), which is an important tuber crop and medicinal plant in East Asia. The expression of ten candidate reference genes across 20 samples from different organs and development stages was assessed. We identified the most stable genes for qRT-PCR studies using combined samples from different organs. Our results also suggest that different suitable reference genes or combinations of reference genes for normalization should be applied according to different organs and developmental stages. To validate the suitability of the reference genes, we evaluated the relative expression of PE2.1 and PE53, which are two genes that may be associated with microtuber formation. Our results provide the foundation for reference gene(s) selection in D. opposita and will contribute toward more accurate gene analysis studies of the genus Dioscorea. PMID:27314014

  15. Identification and Validation of Reference Genes for qRT-PCR Studies of Gene Expression in Dioscorea opposita.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiting; Zhang, Xiaoli; Guo, Xiaobo; Li, Shujie; Han, Linlin; Song, Zhihui; Wang, Yunying; Li, Junhua; Li, Mingjun

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is one of the most common methods for gene expression studies. Data normalization based on reference genes is essential for obtaining reliable results for qRT-PCR assays. This study evaluated potential reference genes of Chinese yam (Dioscorea opposita Thunb.), which is an important tuber crop and medicinal plant in East Asia. The expression of ten candidate reference genes across 20 samples from different organs and development stages was assessed. We identified the most stable genes for qRT-PCR studies using combined samples from different organs. Our results also suggest that different suitable reference genes or combinations of reference genes for normalization should be applied according to different organs and developmental stages. To validate the suitability of the reference genes, we evaluated the relative expression of PE2.1 and PE53, which are two genes that may be associated with microtuber formation. Our results provide the foundation for reference gene(s) selection in D. opposita and will contribute toward more accurate gene analysis studies of the genus Dioscorea. PMID:27314014

  16. AFE ion mass spectrometer design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Willie

    1989-01-01

    This final technical report covers the activities engaged in by the University of Texas at Dallas, Center for Space Sciences in conjunction with the NASA Langley Research Center, Systems Engineering Division in design studies directed towards defining a suitable ion mass spectrometer to determine the plasma parameter around the Aeroassisted Flight Experiment vehicle during passage through the earth's upper atmosphere. Additional studies relate to the use of a Langmuir probe to measure windward ion/electron concentrations and temperatures. Selected instrument inlet subsystems were tested in the NASA Ames Arc-Jet Facility.

  17. Design of high-resolution and multilevel reference pattern for improvement of both light utilization efficiency and signal-to-noise ratio in coaxial holographic data storage.

    PubMed

    Nobukawa, Teruyoshi; Nomura, Takanori

    2014-06-10

    A high-resolution and multilevel designed reference pattern (DRP) is presented for improvement of both light utilization efficiency and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of reconstructed images in coaxial holographic data storage. With a DRP, the desired Fourier power spectrum of a reference beam is obtained. Numerical and experimental results show that the DRP increases the SNR compared with that of a random phase mask (RPM). Moreover, the light utilization efficiency of the DRP is higher than that of a high-resolution RPM. In addition, the effect of the phase level and the pixel pitch of DRPs on the SNR and the light utilization efficiency are investigated. PMID:24921144

  18. High Power Density Blanket Design Study for Fusion Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J. H.; Zhu, Y. K.; Deng, P. Zh.

    2003-06-01

    A conceptual design study of a high power density blanket has been carried out. The Fusion Experimental Breeder, FEB, is adopted as the reference reactor. The neutron wall loading is 0.5 MW/m2. The blanket is cooled by 10 MPa helium in tube. The concept of LiPb eutectic/transuranium oxide suspension is adopted. The neutronics design is performed to provide the design basis, and it gives an energy multiplication of 37 and a flattened power density distribution with a peak value of 70 W/m3. Multiple cooling panels are introduced to reduce the peak temperature of the blanket. In spite of up to 15 cooling panels, the blanket module is calculated using the ANSYS code and analytically as well. The results are consistent with each other and can meet the thermal criteria. However, structural calculation results from ANSYS did not satisfy the criterion: The blanket structure design is then improved by using curved cooling panels to model the structure in detail. Temperature distribution is obtained using the Pro/Mechanica code. Detailed structural analyses are also done by this code. Some satisfactory results are obtained.

  19. Relationship between Vitamin D Status and Striae Distensae: A Case-Referent Study

    PubMed Central

    Zanella, Rafaela Koehler; Valente, Denis Souto; Doncatto, Leo Francisco; Rossi, Daniele Dos Santos; Lerias, Aline Grimaldi; Padoin, Alexandre Vontobel

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D (VD) plays a role in the skin regulation. Striae Distensae (SD) are manifestations of epidermal atrophy that occurs after tissue tearing due to overstretching or rapid growth. The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between serum VD and occurrence of SD in women who had undergone mammaplasty with silicone implants. A case-referent study was conducted. The blood values of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) were measured before the surgery. For each patient postoperatively diagnosed with SD, four other participants submitted to the same surgery, without the development of SD, were enrolled as the healthy controls. 67 women with SD after the surgery entered the study. 268 formed the control group. In the serum of healthy controls 25OHD mean was 27 ng/mL, and SD cases presented 20 ng/mL (P = 0.01). Scarce values of VD have been observed in 56.71% of the cases presenting SD and in 39.91% without SD (P = 0.002). Chance of having VD values lower than 20 ng/mL amongst cases with SD is 2.38 (P = 0.0001). Lower serum levels of VD are linked to a higher occurrence of SD. PMID:26635874

  20. A Survey of Telephone Inquiries: Case Study and Operational Impact in an Academic Library Reference Department.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Frank R.; Smith, Rita H.

    1993-01-01

    Describes a survey that was conducted at the University of Tennessee at Knoxville library to count and categorize the types of questions coming into the reference department from telephone calls. Informational and directional calls are examined, implications for staffing are considered, and queuing theory is applied. (seven references) (LRW)

  1. Solar power satellite system definition study, phase 2. Volume 2: Reference system description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    System descriptions and cost estimates for the reference system of the solar power satellite program are presented. The reference system is divided into five principal elements: the solar power satellites; space construction and support; space and ground transportation; ground receiving stations; and operations control. The program scenario and non-recurring costs are briefly described.

  2. Competencies for Adult Basic Education and Diploma Programs: A Summary of Studies and Cross-Reference of Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Joan Keller

    This report summarizes and cross-references the results of 12 studies dealing with competencies for Adult Basic Education (ABE) and diploma programs. Described in the report are the following studies/projects: (1) the Adult Performance Level (APL) Study; (2) five APL-based validation studies (the New Jersey ABE Study, the New Jersey English as a…

  3. Study of joint designing on composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazushi, Haruna

    In this paper, strength design techniques of CFRP mechanical joints and adhesively bonded joints were examined. Remarkable stress concentration generates at the mechanical hole edge and the adhesive edge, therefore an unskillful design of joints often causes a reduction in the strength of composite structures. In mechanical joints, a study on predicting the joint strength has been performed, but bearing failure that is most important failure mode for designing joints can not be predicted. So in this paper, the strength prediction method in consideration with bearing failure was examined. On the other hand, the criterion using the intensity of stress singularity was suggested in adhesive joints, but it was clarified in this paper, that this method can not be applied the prediction of the final failure strength. So the critical stress distribution of single-lap adhesive bonded carbon/epoxy joints was examined to obtain the failure criterion of the final failure. Moreover the simulation method for an internal stress generated by cure shrinkage of adhesive was also examined. In the proposed method for mechanical joint, 2-parameter criterion, that is combined the characteristic length with the Yamada-Sun criterion, was applied and the characteristic length for compression was determined from "bearing failure test" that was newly conceived to take bearing failure into consideration. In case of adhesive joints, it was thought that 2-parameter criterion was effective. So the prediction method using 2-parameter criterion was applied to other adhesive joints. Good agreement was obtained between predicted and experimental results in both mechanical and adhesive joints. And it was cleared that an internal stress could be simulated by the proposed method. Moreover, in mechanical joints, the most suitable stacking sequence, the reduction technique of interlaminar stress, and the elevation of joint strength by application of high toughness matrix were also shown. Consequently

  4. Design of a Personnel and Training Information System for Educational R&D Personnel: Recommended Journals and References. Project Product.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattas, Frank W.

    This document comprises a list of periodicals, references, and sources recommended by the Far West Laboratory for Educational Research and Development for a "core" collection of information resources useful in meeting the information needs of those concerned with personnel and training in educational research, development, diffusion, and…

  5. Reference Equation for Respiratory Pressures in Pediatric Population: A Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Lanza, Fernanda Cordoba; de Moraes Santos, Mara Lisiane; Selman, Jessyca Pachi Rodrigues; Silva, Jaksoel Cunha; Marcolin, Natalia; Santos, Jeniffer; Oliveira, Cilmery M. G.; Dal Lago, Pedro; Dal Corso, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have proposed only one prediction equation for respiratory muscle strength without taking into consideration differences between ages in pediatric population. In addition, those researches were single-center studies. The objective of this study was to establish reference equations for maximal inspiratory pressure (PImax) and maximal expiratory pressure (PEmax) in children and teenagers. In a multicenter study, 450 healthy volunteers were evaluated (aged 6–18yrs). There were included volunteers with normal lung function. We excluded volunteers who could not perform the tests; participated in physical activity more than twice a week; were born prematurely; smokers; chronic respiratory, cardiologic, and/or neurologic diseases; had acute respiratory disease during the prior three weeks. The volunteers were divided into two groups: Group 6–11 (6–11yrs) and Group 12–18 (12–18yrs). PImax and PEmax were measured according to statement. The mean PImax value was 85.6 (95%IC 83.6–87.6 cmH2O), and PEmax 84.6 (95%IC 85.5–86.2 cmH2O). The prediction equations for PImax and PEmax for Group 6–11 were 37.458–0.559 + (age * 3.253) + (BMI * 0.843) + (age * gender * 0.985); and 38.556 + 15.892 + (age * 3.023) + (BMI * 0.579) + (age * gender * 0.881), respectively (R2 = 0.34 and 0.31, P<0.001). The equations for Group 12–18 were 92.472 + (gender * 9.894) + 7.103, (R2 = 0.27, P = 0.006) for PImax; and 68.113 + (gender * 17.022) + 6.46 + (BMI * 0.927), (R2 = 0.34, P<0.0001) for PEmax. This multicenter study determined the respiratory muscle strength prediction equations for children and teenagers. PMID:26291318

  6. Interreligious education: Conceptualising a needs assessment framework for curriculum design in plural societies (with special reference to Mauritius)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maudarbux, Mohammad Belall

    2016-06-01

    The growing debate on intercultural and interreligious dialogue has one major drawback: how to translate academic and theoretical contributions into practical tools for educators and policy makers. This paper aims to fill this gap by presenting a transferable "needs assessment model" based on five criteria and twenty measurable indicators of interreligious relations within a country. Using the example of Mauritius, a densely multilingual and multireligious country, the paper gives an inside view of the preparations which led to the launch of an innovative "Peace and Interfaith Studies" course at the University of Mauritius in 2010. The author was himself involved first as a curriculum consultant and then as a project manager of this course at the Council of Religions in Mauritius. After clarifying the differences between related concepts like multicultural education, intercultural education and religious education, the author defines "interreligious education" as being distinct from all of the above. The paper then proceeds to explain the rationale of interreligious education, followed by the identification of the critical factors which affect curriculum design and policy making. It uses these factors to highlight how each of them operates in Mauritius to create a web of complexity which makes interreligious education extremely volatile. This is followed by an overview of religious education in the Mauritian schooling system, an overview of the needs assessment framework and a description of the innovative "Peace and Interfaith Studies" course. The paper ends with a brief discussion of the main challenges of this model.

  7. Interreligious education: Conceptualising a needs assessment framework for curriculum design in plural societies (with special reference to Mauritius)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maudarbux, Mohammad Belall

    2016-08-01

    The growing debate on intercultural and interreligious dialogue has one major drawback: how to translate academic and theoretical contributions into practical tools for educators and policy makers. This paper aims to fill this gap by presenting a transferable "needs assessment model" based on five criteria and twenty measurable indicators of interreligious relations within a country. Using the example of Mauritius, a densely multilingual and multireligious country, the paper gives an inside view of the preparations which led to the launch of an innovative "Peace and Interfaith Studies" course at the University of Mauritius in 2010. The author was himself involved first as a curriculum consultant and then as a project manager of this course at the Council of Religions in Mauritius. After clarifying the differences between related concepts like multicultural education, intercultural education and religious education, the author defines "interreligious education" as being distinct from all of the above. The paper then proceeds to explain the rationale of interreligious education, followed by the identification of the critical factors which affect curriculum design and policy making. It uses these factors to highlight how each of them operates in Mauritius to create a web of complexity which makes interreligious education extremely volatile. This is followed by an overview of religious education in the Mauritian schooling system, an overview of the needs assessment framework and a description of the innovative "Peace and Interfaith Studies" course. The paper ends with a brief discussion of the main challenges of this model.

  8. A geospatial reference framework for a university campus: a case study for managing student surveyed topographic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, D.; Sepehr, S.; Stefanakis, E.

    2014-11-01

    This presentation describes a geospatial reference framework for managing student surveyed topographic data of a university campus. This topographic data is collected annually by Geodesy and Geomatics Engineering (GGE) students at the University of New Brunswick (UNB) as part of the requirements for a UNB course. Examples of the type of features collected include: buildings, roads, sidewalks, walking paths, bike racks, parking lots and parking designation (e.g. accessibility parking). The applications and the information products built for managing this student surveyed topographic data can be viewed as a geospatial reference framework for this GGE survey camp.

  9. VXIbus data collection system -- A design study

    SciTech Connect

    Hacker, U.; Richter, B.; Weinert, A.; Arlt, R.; Lewis, W.; Swinhoe, M.

    1995-12-31

    The German support program has sponsored the work to investigate the VXIbus as integration platform for safeguards instrumentation. This paper will cover the analysis of the user requirements for a VXIbus based monitoring system for integrated safeguards -- primarily for reliable unattended in-field collection of large amounts of data. The goal is to develop a suitable system architecture. The design of the system makes use of the VXIbus standard as the selected hardware platform Based upon the requirement analysis and the overriding need for high reliability and robustness, a systematic investigation of different operating system options, as well as development and integration tools will be considered. For the software implementation cycle high and low level programming tools are required. The identification of the constraints for the programming platform and the tool selection will be presented. Both the strategic approach, the rules for analysis and design work as well as the executive components for the support of the implementation and production cycle are given. Here all the conditions for reliable, unattended and integrated safeguards monitoring systems will be addressed. The definition of the basic and advanced design principles are covered. The paper discusses the results of a study on a system produced to demonstrate a high data rate timer/counter application.

  10. Advanced Subsonic Airplane Design and Economic Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebeck, Robert H.; Andrastek, Donald A.; Chau, Johnny; Girvin, Raquel; Lyon, Roger; Rawdon, Blaine K.; Scott, Paul W.; Wright, Robert A.

    1995-01-01

    A study was made to examine the effect of advanced technology engines on the performance of subsonic airplanes and provide a vision of the potential which these advanced engines offered. The year 2005 was selected as the entry-into-service (EIS) date for engine/airframe combination. A set of four airplane classes (passenger and design range combinations) that were envisioned to span the needs for the 2005 EIS period were defined. The airframes for all classes were designed and sized using 2005 EIS advanced technology. Two airplanes were designed and sized for each class: one using current technology (1995) engines to provide a baseline, and one using advanced technology (2005) engines. The resulting engine/airframe combinations were compared and evaluated on the basis on sensitivity to basic engine performance parameters (e.g. SFC and engine weight) as well as DOC+I. The advanced technology engines provided significant reductions in fuel burn, weight, and wing area. Average values were as follows: reduction in fuel burn = 18%, reduction in wing area = 7%, and reduction in TOGW = 9%. Average DOC+I reduction was 3.5% using the pricing model based on payload-range index and 5% using the pricing model based on airframe weight. Noise and emissions were not considered.

  11. Human Exploration of Mars: The Reference Mission of the NASA Mars Exploration Study Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Stephen J. (Editor); Kaplan, David I. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Personnel representing several NASA field centers have formulated a "Reference Mission" addressing human exploration of Mars. This report summarizes their work and describes a plan for the first human missions to Mars, using approaches that are technically feasible, have reasonable risks, and have relatively low costs. The architecture for the Mars Reference Mission builds on previous work of the Synthesis Group (1991) and Zubrin's (1991) concepts for the use of propellants derived from the Martian Atmosphere. In defining the Reference Mission, choices have been made. In this report, the rationale for each choice is documented; however, unanticipated technology advances or political decisions might change the choices in the future.

  12. Protecting count queries in study design

    PubMed Central

    Sarwate, Anand D; Boxwala, Aziz A

    2012-01-01

    Objective Today's clinical research institutions provide tools for researchers to query their data warehouses for counts of patients. To protect patient privacy, counts are perturbed before reporting; this compromises their utility for increased privacy. The goal of this study is to extend current query answer systems to guarantee a quantifiable level of privacy and allow users to tailor perturbations to maximize the usefulness according to their needs. Methods A perturbation mechanism was designed in which users are given options with respect to scale and direction of the perturbation. The mechanism translates the true count, user preferences, and a privacy level within administrator-specified bounds into a probability distribution from which the perturbed count is drawn. Results Users can significantly impact the scale and direction of the count perturbation and can receive more accurate final cohort estimates. Strong and semantically meaningful differential privacy is guaranteed, providing for a unified privacy accounting system that can support role-based trust levels. This study provides an open source web-enabled tool to investigate visually and numerically the interaction between system parameters, including required privacy level and user preference settings. Conclusions Quantifying privacy allows system administrators to provide users with a privacy budget and to monitor its expenditure, enabling users to control the inevitable loss of utility. While current measures of privacy are conservative, this system can take advantage of future advances in privacy measurement. The system provides new ways of trading off privacy and utility that are not provided in current study design systems. PMID:22511018

  13. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN STUDY OF HORN POWER SUPPLY.

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG,W.; SANDBERG,J.; WENG,W.T.

    2003-06-16

    A 250 kA pulsed power supply is required for the focusing horn of the proposed Brookhaven AGS Super Neutrino Beam Facility for long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. It is expected to pulse at 2.5 Hz repetition rate. A preliminary study is being conducted to explore the key issues associated with the power supply system design. Advanced technologies used in similar systems as well as new ideas are being examined, simulated and evaluated. This power supply will be a very high stored energy, high average power, and high peak power system.

  14. Study of wrap-rib antenna design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, W. D.; Sinha, A.; Singh, R.

    1979-01-01

    The results of a parametric design study conducted to develop the significant characteristics and technology limitations of space deployable antenna systems with aperture sizes ranging from 50 up to 300 m and F/D ratios between 0.5 and 3.0 are presented. Wrap/rib type reflectors of both the prime and offset fed geometry and associated feed support structures were considered. The significant constraints investigated as limitations on achievable aperture were inherent manufacturability, orbit dynamic and thermal stability, antenna weight, and antenna stowed volume. A data base, resulting in the defined maximum achievable aperture size as a function of diameter, frequency and estimated cost, was formed.

  15. Design Study: Rocket Based MHD Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This report addresses the technical feasibility and design of a rocket based MHD generator using a sub-scale LOx/RP rocket motor. The design study was constrained by assuming the generator must function within the performance and structural limits of an existing magnet and by assuming realistic limits on (1) the axial electric field, (2) the Hall parameter, (3) current density, and (4) heat flux (given the criteria of heat sink operation). The major results of the work are summarized as follows: (1) A Faraday type of generator with rectangular cross section is designed to operate with a combustor pressure of 300 psi. Based on a magnetic field strength of 1.5 Tesla, the electrical power output from this generator is estimated to be 54.2 KW with potassium seed (weight fraction 3.74%) and 92 KW with cesium seed (weight fraction 9.66%). The former corresponds to a enthalpy extraction ratio of 2.36% while that for the latter is 4.16%; (2) A conceptual design of the Faraday MHD channel is proposed, based on a maximum operating time of 10 to 15 seconds. This concept utilizes a phenolic back wall for inserting the electrodes and inter-electrode insulators. Copper electrode and aluminum oxide insulator are suggested for this channel; and (3) A testing configuration for the sub-scale rocket based MHD system is proposed. An estimate of performance of an ideal rocket based MHD accelerator is performed. With a current density constraint of 5 Amps/cm(exp 2) and a conductivity of 30 Siemens/m, the push power density can be 250, 431, and 750 MW/m(sup 3) when the induced voltage uB have values of 5, 10, and 15 KV/m, respectively.

  16. Identification of Suitable Reference Genes for gene Expression Studies by qRT-PCR in the Blister Beetle Mylabris cichorii

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Zhong-Kang; Huang, Yi; Liao, Yu-Feng; Yin, You-Ping

    2014-01-01

    The blister beetle Mylabris cichorii L. (Coleoptera: Meloidae) is a traditional medicinal insect recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. It synthesizes cantharidin, which kills cancer cells efficiently. Only males produce large amounts of cantharidin. Reference genes are required as endogenous controls for the analysis of differential gene expression in M. cichorii. Our study chose 10 genes as candidate reference genes. The stability of expression of these genes was analyzed by quantitative PCR and determined with two algorithms, geNorm and Normfinder. We recommend UBE3A and RPL22e as suitable reference genes in females and UBE3A, TAF5, and RPL22e in males. PMID:25368050

  17. Identification of suitable reference genes for gene expression studies by qRT-PCR in the blister beetle Mylabris cichorii.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Zhong-Kang; Huang, Yi; Liao, Yu-Feng; Yin, You-Ping

    2014-01-01

    The blister beetle Mylabris cichorii L. (Coleoptera: Meloidae) is a traditional medicinal insect recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. It synthesizes cantharidin, which kills cancer cells efficiently. Only males produce large amounts of cantharidin. Reference genes are required as endogenous controls for the analysis of differential gene expression in M. cichorii. Our study chose 10 genes as candidate reference genes. The stability of expression of these genes was analyzed by quantitative PCR and determined with two algorithms, geNorm and Normfinder. We recommend UBE3A and RPL22e as suitable reference genes in females and UBE3A, TAF5, and RPL22e in males. PMID:25368050

  18. Review Article: Structural flood-protection measures referring to several European case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryžanowski, A.; Brilly, M.; Rusjan, S.; Schnabl, S.

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a review of structural measures that were taken to cope with floods in some cities along the Danube River, such as Vienna, Bratislava, and Belgrade. These cities were also considered as case studies within the KULTURisk project. The structural measures are reviewed and compared to each other according to the type, duration of application, the return period of the design flood event, how the project measures are integrated into spatial planning and the problems that occur in the flood defences today. Based on this review, some suggestions are given on how to improve the flood risk management in flood-prone areas.

  19. Studying the Effectiveness of Conceptual Design in Secondary Design and Technology in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trebell, Donna

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study reported here was to investigate the effectiveness of a conceptual design unit as part of the Design and Technology curriculum for 14 years old pupils in England. One research question drove this study: What sort of designing do pupils do when they design without having to make what they have designed? Data consisted of…

  20. A Study of Methadone-Poisoned Children Referred to Hamadan’s Besat Hospital/Iran

    PubMed Central

    BAZMAMOUN, Hassan; FAYYAZi, Afshin; KHAJEH, Ali; SABZEHEI, Mohammad Kazem; KHEZRIAN, Fuzieh

    2014-01-01

    Objective Increasing use of methadone in withdrawal programs has increased methadone poisoning in children. This research aimed to study the causes of incidence of poisoning in children and its side-effects. Materials & Methods In this research, The hospital records of all methadone-poisoned children referred to Hamadan’s Be’sat Hospital from June 2007 to March 2013, were studied. Children with a definite history of methadone use or proven existence of methadone in their urine, were studied. Results During 5 years, 62 children with the mean age of 53.24±29.50 months were hospitalized due to methadone use. There was a significant relationship between delayed referral to hospital and increased bradypnea. According to their history, 25.8% and 58.1% of the children had been poisoned by methadone tablet and syrup, respectively. The most common initial complaint expressed by parents, was decreased consciousness (85.5%). During the initial examination, decreased consciousness, meiosis, and respiratory depression were observed in 91.9%, 82.3%, and 69.4% of the cases, respectively. Nine patients required mechanical ventilation. There was a significant relationship between the need for mechanical ventilation and seizure with initial symptom of emesis. There were two cases of death (3.2%), both of which were secondary to prolonged hypoxia and brain death. There was a significant relationship between poor patient prognosis (death) and presence of cyanosis in early symptoms, seizure, hypotension, duration of decreased consciousness, and duration of mechanical ventilation. Conclusion This research indicated that the occurrence of seizure, hypotension, and cyanosis in the early stages of poisoning is associated with an increased risk of side effects and death and are serious warning signs. Early diagnosis and intervention can improve outcomes of methadone-poisoned children. PMID:24949049

  1. Reference study to characterize plasma and magnetic properties of ultracool atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Barrera, M. I.; Helling, Ch.; Stark, C. R.; Rice, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Radio and X-ray emission from brown dwarfs (BDs) suggest that an ionized gas and a magnetic field with a sufficient flux density must be present. We perform a reference study for late M-dwarfs (MD), BDs and giant gas planet to identify which ultracool objects are most susceptible to plasma and magnetic processes. Only thermal ionization is considered. We utilize the DRIFT-PHOENIX model grid where the local atmospheric structure is determined by the global parameters Teff, log (g) and [M/H]. Our results show that it is not unreasonable to expect Hα or radio emission to origin from BD atmospheres as in particular the rarefied upper parts of the atmospheres can be magnetically coupled despite having low degrees of thermal gas ionization. Such ultracool atmospheres could therefore drive auroral emission without the need for a companion's wind or an outgassing moon. The minimum threshold for the magnetic flux density required for electrons and ions to be magnetized is well above typical values of the global magnetic field of a BD and a giant gas planet. Na+, K+ and Ca+ are the dominating electron donors in low-density atmospheres (low log(g), solar metallicity) independent of Teff. Mg+ and Fe+ dominate the thermal ionization in the inner parts of MD atmospheres. Molecules remain unimportant for thermal ionization. Chemical processes (e.g. cloud formation) affecting the most abundant electron donors, Mg and Fe, will have a direct impact on the state of ionization in ultracool atmospheres.

  2. Luminous compact blue galaxies in the local Universe: A key reference for high-redshift studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Gallego, J.; Guzmán, R.; Castander, F. J.; Garland, C. A.; Pisano, D. J.

    2005-05-01

    Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies (LCBGs) are high surface brightness starburst galaxies, bluer than a typical Sbc and brighter than ˜0.25Lstar. LCBGs have evolved more than any other galaxy class in the last ˜8 Gyr, and are a major contributor to the observed enhancement of the UV luminosity density of the Universe at z≤1. Despite the key role LCBGs may play in galaxy evolution, their statistical properties are still largely unknown. We have selected a complete sample of ˜25 LCBGs within 100 Mpc, after investigating over 106 nearby galaxies from the DR1 of the SDSS database. This sample, although small, provides an excellent reference for comparison with current and future surveys of similar galaxies at high redshift, including the population of Lyman-break galaxies. We present preliminary results of this study using 3D spectroscopic observations obtained over a very wide range in wavelength, using WIYN/DENSEPAK in the optical, FISICA in the infrared, and the VLA at cm wavelengths.

  3. A retrospective study of ectoparasitosis in patients referred to Imam Reza Hospital of Mashhad, Iran.

    PubMed

    Berenji, Fariba; Marvi-Moghadam, Narges; Naghibozakerin Meibodi, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was performed on all patients suspected to be suffering from ectoparasites who were referred to the parasitology laboratory of Imam Reza Hospital of Mashhad during 15 years (April 1995 to April 2010). All patients' data were collected from the questionnaires and then analyzed statistically. From 1814 suspected patients to be suffering from ectoparasites, 375 patients had scabies and, 99 suffer from pediculosis. The mean age of patients was 26/18 ± 17/68. The most common age of scabies was 10-19 (27/7%) and pediculosis 0-9(9/6%) (P value = 0.00). The highest incidence of pediculosis was in women (3.6%) and scabies in men (13.7%) (P value = 0.00). Pediculosis is more common in children (9/9%) and scabies in workers (32%)(P value = 0.00). Scabies and pediculosis were more prevalent in patients from Razavi Khorasan Province with 18.7% and 5%, respectively (P value = 0.08). PMID:24860806

  4. Study of superhydrophobic electrosprayed catalyst layers using a localized reference electrode technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaparro, A. M.; Ferreira-Aparicio, P.; Folgado, M. A.; Brightman, E.; Hinds, G.

    2016-09-01

    The performance of electrosprayed cathode catalyst layers in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is studied using a localized reference electrode technique. Single cells with an electrosprayed cathode catalyst layer show an increase of >20% in maximum power density under standard testing conditions, compared with identical cells assembled with a conventional, state-of-the-art, gas diffusion cathode. When operated at high current density (1.2 A cm-2) the electrosprayed catalyst layers show more homogeneous distribution of the localized cathode potential, with a standard deviation from inlet to outlet of <50 mV, compared with 79 mV for the conventional gas diffusion cathode. Higher performance and homogeneity of cell response is attributed to the superhydrophobic nature of the macroporous electrosprayed catalyst layer structure, which enhances the rate of expulsion of liquid water from the cathode. On the other hand, at low current densities (<0.5 A cm-2), the electrosprayed layers exhibit more heterogeneous distribution of cathode potential than the conventional cathodes; this behavior is attributed to less favorable kinetics for oxygen reduction in very hydrophobic catalyst layers. The optimum performance may be obtained with electrosprayed catalyst layers employing a high Pt/C catalyst ratio.

  5. Challenges in Collating Spirometry Reference Data for South-Asian Children: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Lum, Sooky; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Quanjer, Philip; Sonnappa, Samatha; Wade, Angela; Beardsmore, Caroline; Chhabra, Sunil K.; Chudasama, Rajesh K.; Cook, Derek G.; Harding, Seeromanie; Kuehni, Claudia E.; Prasad, K. V. V.; Whincup, Peter H.; Lee, Simon; Stocks, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Availability of sophisticated statistical modelling for developing robust reference equations has improved interpretation of lung function results. In 2012, the Global Lung function Initiative(GLI) published the first global all-age, multi-ethnic reference equations for spirometry but these lacked equations for those originating from the Indian subcontinent (South-Asians). The aims of this study were to assess the extent to which existing GLI-ethnic adjustments might fit South-Asian paediatric spirometry data, assess any similarities and discrepancies between South-Asian datasets and explore the feasibility of deriving a suitable South-Asian GLI-adjustment. Methods Spirometry datasets from South-Asian children were collated from four centres in India and five within the UK. Records with transcription errors, missing values for height or spirometry, and implausible values were excluded(n = 110). Results Following exclusions, cross-sectional data were available from 8,124 children (56.3% male; 5–17 years). When compared with GLI-predicted values from White Europeans, forced expired volume in 1s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) in South-Asian children were on average 15% lower, ranging from 4–19% between centres. By contrast, proportional reductions in FEV1 and FVC within all but two datasets meant that the FEV1/FVC ratio remained independent of ethnicity. The ‘GLI-Other’ equation fitted data from North India reasonably well while ‘GLI-Black’ equations provided a better approximation for South-Asian data than the ‘GLI-White’ equation. However, marked discrepancies in the mean lung function z-scores between centres especially when examined according to socio-economic conditions precluded derivation of a single South-Asian GLI-adjustment. Conclusion Until improved and more robust prediction equations can be derived, we recommend the use of ‘GLI-Black’ equations for interpreting most South-Asian data, although ‘GLI-Other’ may be more

  6. A reference interval study for common biochemical analytes in Eastern Turkey: a comparison of a reference population with laboratory data mining

    PubMed Central

    Bakan, Ebubekir; Polat, Harun; Ozarda, Yesim; Ozturk, Nurinnisa; Baygutalp, Nurcan Kilic; Umudum, Fatma Zuhal; Bakan, Nuri

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to define the reference intervals (RIs) in a Turkish population living in Northeast Turkey (Erzurum) for 34 analytes using direct and indirect methods. In the present study, the regional RIs obtained were compared with other RI studies, primarily the nationwide study performed in Turkey. Materials and methods For the direct method, 435 blood samples were collected from a healthy group of females (N = 218) and males (N = 217) aged between 18 and 65 years. The sera were analysed in Ataturk University hospital laboratory using Roche reagents and analysers for 34 analytes. The data from 1,366,948 records were used to calculate the indirect RIs using a modified Bhattacharya method. Results Significant gender-related differences were observed for 17 analytes. There were also some apparent differences between RIs derived from indirect and direct methods particularly in some analytes (e.g. gamma-glutamyltransferase, creatine kinase, LDL-cholesterol and iron). The RIs derived with the direct method for some, but not all, of the analytes were generally comparable with the RIs reported in the nationwide study and other previous studies in Turkey.There were large differences between RIs derived by the direct method and the expected values shown in the kit insert (e.g. aspartate aminotransferase, total-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and vitamin B12). Conclusions These data provide region-specific RIs for 34 analytes determined by the direct and indirect methods. The observed differences in RIs between previous studies could be related to nutritional status and environmental factors. PMID:27346966

  7. Neutronic Design Studies for the National Spallation Neutron Source (NSNS)

    SciTech Connect

    Charlton, LA

    2001-08-01

    Neutronics analyses are now in progress to support initial selection of target system design features, materials, geometry, and component sizes for the proposed Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). Calculations have been performed to determine the neutron, proton, heavy ion, and gamma-ray flux spectra as a function of time, energy, and space for the major components of the target station (target, moderators, reflectors, etc.). These analyses were also performed to establish an initial set of performance characteristics for the neutron source. The methodology, reference performance characteristics, and results of initial optimization studies involving moderator poison plate location, target material performance, reflector performance, moderator position and premoderator performance for the target system are presented in this paper.

  8. Advanced heat receiver conceptual design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kesseli, James; Saunders, Roger; Batchelder, Gary

    1988-01-01

    Solar Dynamic space power systems are candidate electrical power generating systems for future NASA missions. One of the key components of the solar dynamic power system is the solar receiver/thermal energy storage (TES) subsystem. Receiver development was conducted by NASA in the late 1960's and since then a very limited amount of work has been done in this area. Consequently the state of the art (SOA) receivers designed for the IOC space station are large and massive. The objective of the Advanced Heat Receiver Conceptual Design Study is to conceive and analyze advanced high temperature solar dynamic Brayton and Stirling receivers. The goal is to generate innovative receiver concepts that are half of the mass, smaller, and more efficient than the SOA. It is also necessary that these innovative receivers offer ease of manufacturing, less structural complexity and fewer thermal stress problems. Advanced Brayton and Stirling receiver storage units are proposed and analyzed in this study which can potentially meet these goals.

  9. Reference ranges and determinants of total hCG levels during pregnancy: the Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Korevaar, Tim I M; Steegers, Eric A P; de Rijke, Yolanda B; Schalekamp-Timmermans, Sarah; Visser, W Edward; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Tiemeier, Henning; Visser, Theo J; Medici, Marco; Peeters, Robin P

    2015-09-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a pregnancy hormone secreted by the placental synctiotrophoblast cell layer that has been linked to fetal growth and various placental, uterine and fetal functions. In order to investigate the effects of hCG on clinical endpoints, knowledge on reference range (RR) methodology and determinants of gestational hCG levels is crucial. Moreover, a better understanding of gestational hCG physiology can improve current screening programs and future clinical management. Serum total hCG levels were determined in 8195 women participating in the Generation R Study. Gestational age specific RRs using 'ultrasound derived gestational age' (US RRs) were calculated and compared with 'last menstrual period derived gestational age' (LMP RRs) and a model-based RR. We also investigated which pregnancy characteristics were associated with hCG levels. Compared to the US RRs, the LMP RRs were lower, most notably for the median and lower limit levels. No considerable differences were found between RRs calculated in the general population or in uncomplicated pregnancies only. Maternal smoking, BMI, parity, ethnicity, fetal gender, placental weight and hyperemesis gravidarum symptoms were associated with total hCG. We provide gestational RRs for total hCG and show that total hCG values and RR cut-offs during pregnancy vary depending on pregnancy dating methodology. This is likely due to the influence of hCG on embryonic growth, suggesting that ultrasound based pregnancy dating might be less reliable in women with high/low hCG levels. Furthermore, we identify different pregnancy characteristics that influence total hCG levels considerably and should therefore be accounted for in clinical studies. PMID:25963653

  10. Establishment of the first WHO Erythropoietin antibody reference panel: Report of an international collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Wadhwa, Meenu; Mytych, Daniel T; Bird, Chris; Barger, Troy; Dougall, Thomas; Han, Hong; Rigsby, Peter; Kromminga, Arno; Thorpe, Robin

    2016-08-01

    A panel of 9 fully human monoclonal antibodies against human erythropoietin (EPO) with defined characteristics (non-neutralizing, neutralizing, various isotypes, affinities) representative of those evident in antibody-mediated pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) and non-PRCA patients were formulated and lyophilized. The panel was evaluated in a multi-centre international collaborative study comprising eighteen different laboratories using different assay platforms including those in routine use. These included binding assays, some based on use of novel technologies and neutralization assays predominantly employing EPO responsive cell-lines. Results showed that detection and titre varied depending on antibody characteristics and the method used. Only selective assay platforms were capable of detecting the diverse repertoire of EPO antibodies in the panel indicating that some clinically relevant antibodies are likely to be missed in some assays. Importantly, the clinical samples from PRCA patients were distinguished as antibody-positive and the healthy donor serum as antibody negative across all different platforms tested. For neutralization, data was generally consistent across the assays for the different samples regardless of the cell-line and the assay conditions. The heterogeneity in data from the study clearly indicated the need for reference standards for consistency in detecting and measuring EPO antibodies across different assay platforms for monitoring the safety and efficacy of erythropoiesis stimulating agents. Therefore, the WHO ECBS at its meeting in October'15 established the EPO antibody panel, available from NIBSC, to facilitate decision-making on assay selection for testing antibodies against human EPO, for evaluating assay performance of antibody assays for clinical use, for assay validation and for standardization. PMID:27173074

  11. A reference dataset for deformable image registration spatial accuracy evaluation using the COPDgene study archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Richard; Castillo, Edward; Fuentes, David; Ahmad, Moiz; Wood, Abbie M.; Ludwig, Michelle S.; Guerrero, Thomas

    2013-05-01

    Landmark point-pairs provide a strategy to assess deformable image registration (DIR) accuracy in terms of the spatial registration of the underlying anatomy depicted in medical images. In this study, we propose to augment a publicly available database (www.dir-lab.com) of medical images with large sets of manually identified anatomic feature pairs between breath-hold computed tomography (BH-CT) images for DIR spatial accuracy evaluation. Ten BH-CT image pairs were randomly selected from the COPDgene study cases. Each patient had received CT imaging of the entire thorax in the supine position at one-fourth dose normal expiration and maximum effort full dose inspiration. Using dedicated in-house software, an imaging expert manually identified large sets of anatomic feature pairs between images. Estimates of inter- and intra-observer spatial variation in feature localization were determined by repeat measurements of multiple observers over subsets of randomly selected features. 7298 anatomic landmark features were manually paired between the 10 sets of images. Quantity of feature pairs per case ranged from 447 to 1172. Average 3D Euclidean landmark displacements varied substantially among cases, ranging from 12.29 (SD: 6.39) to 30.90 (SD: 14.05) mm. Repeat registration of uniformly sampled subsets of 150 landmarks for each case yielded estimates of observer localization error, which ranged in average from 0.58 (SD: 0.87) to 1.06 (SD: 2.38) mm for each case. The additions to the online web database (www.dir-lab.com) described in this work will broaden the applicability of the reference data, providing a freely available common dataset for targeted critical evaluation of DIR spatial accuracy performance in multiple clinical settings. Estimates of observer variance in feature localization suggest consistent spatial accuracy for all observers across both four-dimensional CT and COPDgene patient cohorts.

  12. Selection and validation of reference genes for transcript normalization in gene expression studies in Catharanthus roseus.

    PubMed

    Pollier, Jacob; Vanden Bossche, Robin; Rischer, Heiko; Goossens, Alain

    2014-10-01

    Quantitative Real-Time PCR (qPCR), a sensitive and commonly used technique for gene expression analysis, requires stably expressed reference genes for normalization of gene expression. Up to now, only one reference gene for qPCR analysis, corresponding to 40S Ribosomal protein S9 (RPS9), was available for the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus, the only source of the commercial anticancer drugs vinblastine and vincristine. Here, we screened for additional reference genes for this plant species by mining C. roseus RNA-Seq data for orthologs of 22 genes known to be stably expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana and qualified as superior reference genes for this model plant species. Based on this, eight candidate C. roseus reference genes were identified and, together with RPS9, evaluated by performing qPCR on a series of different C. roseus explants and tissue cultures. NormFinder, geNorm and BestKeeper analyses of the resulting qPCR data revealed that the orthologs of At2g28390 (SAND family protein, SAND), At2g32170 (N2227-like family protein, N2227) and At4g26410 (Expressed protein, EXP) had the highest expression stability across the different C. roseus samples and are superior as reference genes as compared to the traditionally used RPS9. Analysis of publicly available C. roseus RNA-Seq data confirmed the expression stability of SAND and N2227, underscoring their value as reference genes for C. roseus qPCR analysis. PMID:25058454

  13. Contrasting genetic architectures in different mouse reference populations used for studying complex traits

    PubMed Central

    Buchner, David A.; Nadeau, Joseph H.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) are being used to study genetic networks, protein functions, and systems properties that underlie phenotypic variation and disease risk in humans, model organisms, agricultural species, and natural populations. The challenges are many, beginning with the seemingly simple tasks of mapping QTLs and identifying their underlying genetic determinants. Various specialized resources have been developed to study complex traits in many model organisms. In the mouse, remarkably different pictures of genetic architectures are emerging. Chromosome Substitution Strains (CSSs) reveal many QTLs, large phenotypic effects, pervasive epistasis, and readily identified genetic variants. In contrast, other resources as well as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in humans and other species reveal genetic architectures dominated with a relatively modest number of QTLs that have small individual and combined phenotypic effects. These contrasting architectures are the result of intrinsic differences in the study designs underlying different resources. The CSSs examine context-dependent phenotypic effects independently among individual genotypes, whereas with GWAS and other mouse resources, the average effect of each QTL is assessed among many individuals with heterogeneous genetic backgrounds. We argue that variation of genetic architectures among individuals is as important as population averages. Each of these important resources has particular merits and specific applications for these individual and population perspectives. Collectively, these resources together with high-throughput genotyping, sequencing and genetic engineering technologies, and information repositories highlight the power of the mouse for genetic, functional, and systems studies of complex traits and disease models. PMID:25953951

  14. Advanced EVA system design requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, T. G.

    1988-01-01

    The results are presented of a study to identify specific criteria regarding space station extravehicular activity system (EVAS) hardware requirements. Key EVA design issues include maintainability, technology readiness, LSS volume vs. EVA time available, suit pressure/cabin pressure relationship and productivity effects, crew autonomy, integration of EVA as a program resource, and standardization of task interfaces. A variety of DOD EVA systems issues were taken into consideration. Recommendations include: (1) crew limitations, not hardware limitations; (2) capability to perform all of 15 generic missions; (3) 90 days on-orbit maintainability with 50 percent duty cycle as minimum; and (4) use by payload sponsors of JSC document 10615A plus a Generic Tool Kit and Specialized Tool Kit description. EVA baseline design requirements and criteria, including requirements of various subsystems, are outlined. Space station/EVA system interface requirements and EVA accommodations are discussed in the areas of atmosphere composition and pressure, communications, data management, logistics, safe haven, SS exterior and interior requirements, and SS airlock.

  15. Tubular copper thrust chamber design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, A. I.; Galler, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    The use of copper tubular thrust chambers is particularly important in high performance expander cycle space engines. Tubular chambers have more surface area than flat wall chambers, and this extra surface area provides enhanced heat transfer for additional energy to power the cycle. This paper was divided into two sections: (1) a thermal analysis and sensitivity study; and (2) a preliminary design of a selected thrust chamber configuration. The thermal analysis consisted of a statistical optimization to determine the optimum tube geometry, tube booking, thrust chamber geometry, and cooling routing to achieve the maximum upper limit chamber pressure for a 25,000 pound thrust engine. The preliminary design effort produced a layout drawing of a tubular thrust chamber that is three inches shorter than the Advanced Expander Test Bed (AETB) milled channel chamber but is predicted to provide a five percent increase in heat transfer. Testing this chamber in the AETB would confirm the inherent advantages of tubular chamber construction and heat transfer.

  16. Next Step Spherical Torus Design Studies

    SciTech Connect

    C. Neumeyer; P. Heitzenroeder; C. Kessel; M. Ono; M. Peng; J. Schmidt; R. Woolley; I. Zatz

    2002-11-08

    Studies are underway to identify and characterize a design point for a Next Step Spherical Torus (NSST) experiment. This would be a ''Proof of Performance'' device which would follow and build upon the successes of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) a ''Proof of Principle'' device which has operated at PPPL since 1999. With the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) nearly completed, the TFTR test cell and facility will soon be available for a device such as NSST. By utilizing the TFTR test cell, NSST can be constructed for a relatively low cost on a short time scale. In addition, while furthering spherical torus (ST) research, this device could achieve modest fusion power gain for short-pulse lengths, a significant step toward future large burning plasma devices now under discussion in the fusion community. The selected design point is Q=2 at HH=1.4, P subscript ''fusion''=60 MW, 5 second pulse, with R subscript ''0''=1.5 m, A=1.6, I subscript ''p''=10vMA, B subscript ''t''=2.6 T, CS flux=16 weber. Most of the research would be conducted in D-D, with a limited D-T campaign during the last years of the program.

  17. Evaluation of Reference Genes for RT-qPCR Studies in the Seagrass Zostera muelleri Exposed to Light Limitation

    PubMed Central

    Schliep, M.; Pernice, M.; Sinutok, S.; Bryant, C. V.; York, P. H.; Rasheed, M. A.; Ralph, P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Seagrass meadows are threatened by coastal development and global change. In the face of these pressures, molecular techniques such as reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) have great potential to improve management of these ecosystems by allowing early detection of chronic stress. In RT-qPCR, the expression levels of target genes are estimated on the basis of reference genes, in order to control for RNA variations. Although determination of suitable reference genes is critical for RT-qPCR studies, reports on the evaluation of reference genes are still absent for the major Australian species Zostera muelleri subsp. capricorni (Z. muelleri). Here, we used three different software (geNorm, NormFinder and Bestkeeper) to evaluate ten widely used reference genes according to their expression stability in Z. muelleri exposed to light limitation. We then combined results from different software and used a consensus rank of four best reference genes to validate regulation in Photosystem I reaction center subunit IV B and Heat Stress Transcription factor A- gene expression in Z. muelleri under light limitation. This study provides the first comprehensive list of reference genes in Z. muelleri and demonstrates RT-qPCR as an effective tool to identify early responses to light limitation in seagrass. PMID:26592440

  18. Evaluation of Reference Genes for RT-qPCR Studies in the Seagrass Zostera muelleri Exposed to Light Limitation.

    PubMed

    Schliep, M; Pernice, M; Sinutok, S; Bryant, C V; York, P H; Rasheed, M A; Ralph, P J

    2015-01-01

    Seagrass meadows are threatened by coastal development and global change. In the face of these pressures, molecular techniques such as reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) have great potential to improve management of these ecosystems by allowing early detection of chronic stress. In RT-qPCR, the expression levels of target genes are estimated on the basis of reference genes, in order to control for RNA variations. Although determination of suitable reference genes is critical for RT-qPCR studies, reports on the evaluation of reference genes are still absent for the major Australian species Zostera muelleri subsp. capricorni (Z. muelleri). Here, we used three different software (geNorm, NormFinder and Bestkeeper) to evaluate ten widely used reference genes according to their expression stability in Z. muelleri exposed to light limitation. We then combined results from different software and used a consensus rank of four best reference genes to validate regulation in Photosystem I reaction center subunit IV B and Heat Stress Transcription factor A- gene expression in Z. muelleri under light limitation. This study provides the first comprehensive list of reference genes in Z. muelleri and demonstrates RT-qPCR as an effective tool to identify early responses to light limitation in seagrass. PMID:26592440

  19. The Test of Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childers, Thomas

    1980-01-01

    Reports the results of an unobtrusive study, from a user's viewpoint, of reference services available in the Suffolk Cooperative Library System. The study raises questions of policy centering around user expectations of library reference services. (RAA)

  20. Validation of reference genes for gene expression studies in Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Bansal, Raman; Mamidala, Praveen; Mian, M A Rouf; Mittapalli, Omprakash; Michel, Andy P

    2012-08-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a common and robust tool for accurate quantification of mRNA transcripts. To normalize results, a housekeeping gene ([HKG], reference gene or endogenous control gene) is mandatory. Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a significant soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., pest, yet gene expression and functional genomics studies are hindered by a lack of stable HKGs. We evaluated seven potential HKGs (SDFS, succinate dehydrogenase flavoprotein subunit; EF1a, elongation factor-la; HEL, helicase; GAPDH, glyceraldehyde-3 phosphate dehydrogenase; RPS9, ribosomal protein S9; TBP, TATA-box binding protein; and UBQ, ubiquitin-conjugating protein) to determine the most efficient HKGs that have stable expression among tissues, developmental stages, and aphids fed on susceptible and host plant-resistant soybean. HKG stability was determined using GeNorm and NormFinder. Results from three different experimental conditions revealed high stability of TBP compared with the other HKGs profiled across the samples assayed. RPS9 showed stable expression among aphids on susceptible and resistant plants, whereas EF1a showed stable expression in tissues and developmental stages. Therefore, we recommend the TBP as a suitable HKG for efficient normalization among treatments, tissues, and developmental stages of A. glycines. In addition, RPS9 may be used for host-plant resistance experiments and EF1a could be considered for testing differential expression across tissues or developmental stages. These results will enable a more accurate and reliable normalization of qRT-PCR data in A. glycines. PMID:22928326

  1. A Reference-Dependent Regret Model for Deterministic Trade-off Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kujawski, Edouard

    2005-02-25

    Today's typical multi-criteria decision analysis is based on classical expected utility theory that assumes a mythical ''Rational Individual'' immune to psychological influences such as anticipated regret. It is therefore in conflict with rational individuals who trade-off some benefits and forgo the alternative with the highest total classical utility for a more balanced alternative in order to reduce their levels of anticipated regret. This paper focuses on decision making under certainty. It presents a reference-dependent regret model (RDRM) in which the level of regret that an individual experiences depends on the absolute values rather than the differences of the utilities of the chosen and forgone alternatives. The RDRM best choice may differ from the conventional linear additive utility model, the analytic hierarchy process, and the regret theory of Bell and Loomes and Sugden. Examples are presented that indicate that RDRM is the better predictive descriptor for decision making under certainty. RDRM satisfies transitivity of the alternatives under pairwise comparisons and models rank reversal consistent with observed reasonable choices under dynamic or distinct situations. Like regret theory, the RDRM utilities of all the alternatives under consideration are interrelated. For complex trade-off studies regret is incorporated as an element of a cost-utility-regret analysis that characterizes each alternative in terms of its monetary cost, an aggregate performance utility, and a regret value. This provides decision makers adequate information to compare the alternatives and depending on their values they may trade-off some performance and/or cost to avoid high levels of regret. The result is a well-balanced alternative often preferred by reasonable decision makers to the optimal choice of classical multi-attribute utility analysis. The model can readily be extended to incorporate rejoicing to suit decision makers who seek it. The approach is illustrated using a

  2. Selection of Reliable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies Using Real-Time PCR in Tung Tree during Seed Development

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xiaojiao; Lu, Mengzhu; Chen, Yicun; Zhan, Zhiyong; Cui, Qinqin; Wang, Yangdong

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) has become an accurate and widely used technique to analyze expression levels of selected genes. It is very necessary to select appropriate reference genes for gene expression normalization. In the present study, we assessed the expression stability of 11 reference genes including eight traditional housekeeping genes and three novel genes in different tissues/organs and developing seeds from four cultivars of tung tree. All 11 reference genes showed a wide range of Ct values in all samples, indicating that they differently expressed. Three softwares – geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper – were used to determine the stability of these references except for ALB (2S albumin), which presented a little divergence. The results from the three softwares showed that ACT7 (Actin7a), UBQ (Ubiquitin), GAPDH (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) and EF1α (elongation factor 1-α) were the most stable reference genes across all of the tested tung samples and tung developing seeds, while ALB (2S albumin) was unsuitable as internal controls. ACT7, EF1β (elongation factor1-beta), GAPDH and TEF1 (transcription elongation factor 1) were the top four choices for different tissues/organs whereas LCR69 did not favor normalization of RT-qPCR in these tissues/organs. Meanwhile, the expression profiles of FAD2 and FADX were realized using stable reference genes. The relative quantification of the FAD2 and FADX genes varied according to the internal controls and the number of internal controls. The results further proved the importance of the choice of reference genes in the tung tree. These stable reference genes will be employed in normalization and quantification of transcript levels in future expression studies of tung genes. PMID:22912794

  3. Feasibility study of an Integrated Program for Aerospace vehicle Design (IPAD). Volume 2: The design process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillette, W. B.; Turner, M. J.; Southall, J. W.; Whitener, P. C.; Kowalik, J. S.

    1973-01-01

    The extent to which IPAD is to support the design process is identified. Case studies of representative aerospace products were developed as models to characterize the design process and to provide design requirements for the IPAD computing system.

  4. Accounting for variation in designing greenhouse experiments with special reference to greenhouses containing plants on conveyor systems

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There are a number of unresolved issues in the design of experiments in greenhouses. They include whether statistical designs should be used and, if so, which designs should be used. Also, are there thigmomorphogenic or other effects arising from the movement of plants on conveyor belts within a greenhouse? A two-phase, single-line wheat experiment involving four tactics was conducted in a conventional greenhouse and a fully-automated phenotyping greenhouse (Smarthouse) to investigate these issues. Results and discussion Analyses of our experiment show that there was a small east–west trend in total area of the plants in the Smarthouse. Analyses of the data from three multiline experiments reveal a large north–south trend. In the single-line experiment, there was no evidence of differences between trios of lanes, nor of movement effects. Swapping plant positions during the trial was found to decrease the east–west trend, but at the cost of increased error variance. The movement of plants in a north–south direction, through a shaded area for an equal amount of time, nullified the north–south trend. An investigation of alternative experimental designs for equally-replicated experiments revealed that generally designs with smaller blocks performed best, but that (nearly) trend-free designs can be effective when blocks are larger. Conclusions To account for variation in microclimate in a greenhouse, using statistical design and analysis is better than rearranging the position of plants during the experiment. For the relocation of plants to be successful requires that plants spend an equal amount of time in each microclimate, preferably during comparable growth stages. Even then, there is no evidence that this will be any more precise than statistical design and analysis of the experiment, and the risk is that it will not be successful at all. As for statistical design and analysis, it is best to use either (i) smaller blocks, (ii) (nearly) trend

  5. Design study of prestressed rotor spar concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleich, D.

    1980-01-01

    Studies on the Bell Helicopter 540 Rotor System of the AH-1G helicopter were performed. The stiffness, mass and geometric configurations of the Bell blade were matched to give a dynamically similar prestressed composite blade. A multi-tube, prestressed composite spar blade configuration was designed for superior ballistic survivability at low life cycle cost. The composite spar prestresses, imparted during fabrication, are chosen to maintain compression in the high strength cryogenically stretchformed 304-L stainless steel liner and tension in the overwrapped HTS graphite fibers under operating loads. This prestressing results in greatly improved crack propagation and fatigue resistance as well as enhanced fiber stiffness properties. Advantages projected for the prestressed composite rotor spar concept include increased operational life and improved ballistic survivability at low life cycle cost.

  6. Preliminary systems design study assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1991-10-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. The SDS results are published in eight volumes. Volume I contains an executive summary. The SDS summary and analysis of results are presented in Volume II. Volumes III through VII contain descriptions of twelve system and four subsystem concepts. Volume VIII contains the appendixes.

  7. Photovoltaic module electrical termination design requirement study

    SciTech Connect

    Mosna, F.J. Jr.; Donlinger, J.

    1980-07-01

    Motorola Inc., in conjunction with ITT Cannon, has conducted a study to develop information to facilitate the selection of existing, commercial, electrical termination hardware for photovoltaic modules and arrays. This volume of the report contains the executive summary. Module and array design parameters were investigated and recommendations were developed for use in surveying, evaluating, and comparing electrical termination hardware. Electrical termination selection criteria factors were developed and applied to nine generic termination types in each of the four application sectors: remote, residential, intermediate and industrial. Existing terminations best suited for photovoltaic modules and arrays were identified. Cost information was developed to identify cost drivers and/or requirements which might lead to cost reductions. The general conclusion is that there is no single generic termination that is best suited for photovoltaic application, but that the appropriate termination is strongly dependent upon the module construction and its support structure as well as the specific application sector.

  8. Reference gene alternatives to Gapdh in rodent and human heart failure gene expression studies

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) is a highly sensitive method for mRNA quantification, but requires invariant expression of the chosen reference gene(s). In pathological myocardium, there is limited information on suitable reference genes other than the commonly used Gapdh mRNA and 18S ribosomal RNA. Our aim was to evaluate and identify suitable reference genes in human failing myocardium, in rat and mouse post-myocardial infarction (post-MI) heart failure and across developmental stages in fetal and neonatal rat myocardium. Results The abundance of Arbp, Rpl32, Rpl4, Tbp, Polr2a, Hprt1, Pgk1, Ppia and Gapdh mRNA and 18S ribosomal RNA in myocardial samples was quantified by RT-qPCR. The expression variability of these transcripts was evaluated by the geNorm and Normfinder algorithms and by a variance component analysis method. Biological variability was a greater contributor to sample variability than either repeated reverse transcription or PCR reactions. Conclusions The most stable reference genes were Rpl32, Gapdh and Polr2a in mouse post-infarction heart failure, Polr2a, Rpl32 and Tbp in rat post-infarction heart failure and Rpl32 and Pgk1 in human heart failure (ischemic disease and cardiomyopathy). The overall most stable reference genes across all three species was Rpl32 and Polr2a. In rat myocardium, all reference genes tested showed substantial variation with developmental stage, with Rpl4 as was most stable among the tested genes. PMID:20331858

  9. Space shuttle visual simulation system design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A recommendation and a specification for the visual simulation system design for the space shuttle mission simulator are presented. A recommended visual system is described which most nearly meets the visual design requirements. The cost analysis of the recommended system covering design, development, manufacturing, and installation is reported. Four alternate systems are analyzed.

  10. The microwave radiometer spacecraft: A design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, R. L. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    A large passive microwave radiometer spacecraft with near all weather capability of monitoring soil moisture for global crop forecasting was designed. The design, emphasizing large space structures technology, characterized the mission hardware at the conceptual level in sufficient detail to identify enabling and pacing technologies. Mission and spacecraft requirements, design and structural concepts, electromagnetic concepts, and control concepts are addressed.

  11. Reference design of 100 MW-h lithium/iron sulfide battery system for utility load leveling

    SciTech Connect

    Zivi, S.M.; Kacinskas, H.; Pollack, I.; Chilenskas, A.A.; Barney, D.L.; Grieve, W.; McFarland, B.L.; Sudar, S.; Goldstein, E.; Adler, E.

    1980-03-01

    The first year in a two-year cooperative effort between Argonne National Laboratory and Rockwell International to develop a conceptual design of a lithium alloy/iron sulfide battery for utility load leveling is presented. A conceptual design was developed for a 100 MW-h battery system based upon a parallel-series arrangement of 2.5 kW-h capacity cells. The sales price of such a battery system was estimated to be very high, $80.25/kW-h, exclusive of the cost of the individual cells, the dc-to-ac converters, site preparation, or land acquisition costs. Consequently, the second year's efforts were directed towards developing modified designs with significantly lower potential costs.

  12. Chicago Healthy Aging Study: Objectives and Design

    PubMed Central

    Pirzada, Amber; Reid, Kathryn; Kim, Daniel; Garside, Daniel B.; Lu, Brandon; Vu, Thanh-Huyen T.; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.; Zee, Phyllis; Liu, Kiang; Stamler, Jeremiah; Daviglus, Martha L.

    2013-01-01

    Investigators in the Chicago Healthy Aging Study (CHAS) reexamined 1,395 surviving participants aged 65–84 years (28% women) from the Chicago Heart Association Detection Project in Industry (CHA) 1967–1973 cohort whose cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profiles were originally ascertained at ages 25–44 years. CHAS investigators reexamined 421 participants who were low-risk (LR) at baseline and 974 participants who were non-LR at baseline. LR was defined as having favorable levels of 4 major CVD risk factors: serum total cholesterol level <200 mg/dL and no use of cholesterol-lowering medication; blood pressure 120/≤80 mm Hg and no use of antihypertensive medication; no current smoking; and no history of diabetes or heart attack. While the potential of LR status in overcoming the CVD epidemic is being recognized, the long-term association of LR with objectively measured health in older age has not been examined. It is hypothesized that persons who were LR in 1967–1973 and have survived to older age will have less clinical and subclinical CVD, lower levels of inflammatory markers, and better physical performance/functioning and sleep quality. Here we describe the rationale, objectives, design, and implementation of this longitudinal epidemiologic study, compare baseline and follow-up characteristics of participants and nonparticipants, and highlight the feasibility of reexamining study participants after an extended period postbaseline with minimal interim contact. PMID:23669655

  13. Studying Changes in Organizational Design and Effectiveness: Retrospective Event Histories and Periodic Assessments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, William H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes assumptions, rationale, and trade-offs involved in designing the research methodology used in a longitudinal study of organizational change. Data were obtained from over 100 organizations through 4 interviews spaced 6 months apart with top managers. (53 references) (MLF)

  14. Design and pharmacological evaluation of PF-4840154, a non-electrophilic reference agonist of the TrpA1 channel.

    PubMed

    Ryckmans, Thomas; Aubdool, Aisah A; Bodkin, Jennifer V; Cox, Peter; Brain, Susan D; Dupont, Thomas; Fairman, Emma; Hashizume, Yoshinobu; Ishii, Naoko; Kato, Teruhisa; Kitching, Linda; Newman, Julie; Omoto, Kiyoyuki; Rawson, David; Strover, Jade

    2011-08-15

    TrpA1 is an ion channel involved in nociceptive and inflammatory pain. It is implicated in the detection of chemical irritants through covalent binding to a cysteine-rich intracellular region of the protein. While performing an HTS of the Pfizer chemical collection, a class of pyrimidines emerged as a non-reactive, non-covalently binding family of agonists of the rat and human TrpA1 channel. Given the issues identified with the reference agonist Mustard Oil (MO) in screening, a new, non-covalently binding agonist was optimized and proved to be a superior agent to MO for screening purposes. Compound 16a (PF-4840154) is a potent, selective agonist of the rat and human TrpA1 channel and elicited TrpA1-mediated nocifensive behaviour in mouse. PMID:21741838

  15. Architectural and Functional Design and Evaluation of E-Learning VUIS Based on the Proposed IEEE LTSA Reference Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Droma, Mairtin S.; Ganchev, Ivan; McDonnell, Fergal

    2003-01-01

    Presents a comparative analysis from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Learning Technology Standards Committee's (LTSC) of the architectural and functional design of e-learning delivery platforms and applications, e-learning course authoring tools, and learning management systems (LMSs), with a view of assessing how…

  16. Why Roving Reference: A Case Study in a Small Academic Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Eileen H.

    1996-01-01

    Research at a library at Utica College (New York) revealed that "roving" reference librarians provided more sophisticated and thorough service than "stationary" ones, improving student search strategies and prompting twice as much work with electronic resources as conventional service. Roving also boosted librarian-client interaction by 13.6%.…

  17. Genome wide association study using the ICARDA Lentil Reference set and agronomic data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) is the world’s fifth most important pulse crop. It is self-pollinated diploid (2n=14) and has a relatively large genome size of approximately 4Gb. Next generation sequencing (NGS) technology was used to genotype the ICARDA Lentil Reference set using the two-enzyme (Pst...

  18. Parents and Peers: Serendipity in a Study of Shifting Reference Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Russell L., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Presents and tests a theory which specifies the conditions under which adolescents shift their valuations between three sets of reference sources--fathers, mothers, and peers; the thesis incorporates components from four interpretations of parent--adolescent cleavage, summarily entitle Push, Pull, Selective Attachment, and Drift. (Author/JM)

  19. Successful Treatment of Olfactory Reference Syndrome with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Pichora, Andrea L.; Antony, Martin M.

    2011-01-01

    Olfactory reference syndrome (ORS) is characterized by a preoccupation with the belief that one's body emits a foul odor. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) was used to treat a woman in her 50s who presented in our outpatient anxiety disorders specialty clinic with ORS, accompanied by embarrassment, shame, distress, avoidance behavior, and social…

  20. Evaluation of Quantitative PCR Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies in Tribolium castaneum After Fungal Challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To investigate gene expression in Tribolium castaneum exposed to Beauveria bassiana, reference genes for qPCR were evaluated. Of these, the widely used genes for ß-actin, a-tubulin, and RPS6 were not stable. The most stable were ribosomal protein genes, RPS3, RPS18, and RPL13a. Syntaxin1, syntaxin6...

  1. Chemical exposures at work in early pregnancy and congenital defect: a case-referent study.

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, J C; Lavoie, J; Côté, R; McDonald, A D

    1987-01-01

    Three hundred and one women who in their most recent pregnancy had given birth to an infant with an important congenital defect were individually matched with 301 women whose children were normal. Both cases and referents were drawn from a comprehensive survey of pregnancies in Montreal, 1982-4, and limited to women employed 30 or more hours a week until at least the 13th week of gestation. Occupational exposure to chemicals was investigated and the results classified without knowledge of case-referent status. In matched pair analysis the overall frequency of chemical exposure was higher in cases than referents (63:47), due to excesses in the cardiac and miscellaneous defect groups (ratios of 10:5 and 15:7 respectively). In analyses by nine chemical categories only exposure to aromatic solvents showed a clear excess (18:8; p approximately equal to 0.04), most evident in the urinary tract group (9:0). A comparison of cases and referents exposed to aromatic solvents showed that most of the excess was associated with toluene; the defects were varied but predominantly renal-urinary or gastrointestinal. PMID:3651351

  2. A Retrospective Chart Study: The Pathway to a Diagnosis for Adults Referred for ASD Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geurts, Hilde M.; Jansen, Marcel D.

    2012-01-01

    Charts of 125 adults (18 to 82 years), referred to an autism expert team for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) assessment, were reviewed to explore the pathway to an adulthood ASD diagnosis. The participants first contacted the mental health care clinic at a median age of 19 years (range 2 to 78 years). Men contacted the clinic slightly earlier than…

  3. Validation studies of Karl Fisher reference method for moisture in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With current international standard oven drying (SOD) techniques lacking precision and accuracy statements, a new standard reference method is needed. Volumetric Karl Fischer Titration (KFT) is a widely used measure of moisture content. The method is used in many ASTM methods, 14 NIST SRMs, and te...

  4. Weeding Is Not Just for Gardeners: A Case Study on Weeding a Reference Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Marta

    2009-01-01

    Weeding a reference collection can be time consuming, a thankless job, and an endless task. It is a dusty job and can add to the librarian's workload. Weeding the collection can add to its currency and usability; plus it removes outdated materials. Periodically weeding allows librarians to remember what is in the collection and what can be removed…

  5. Identification of suitable reference genes for gene expression studies in tendons from patients with rotator cuff tear.

    PubMed

    Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Belangero, Paulo Santoro; Figueiredo, Eduardo Antônio; Cohen, Carina; Loyola, Leonor Casilla; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Smith, Marília Cardoso; de Castro Pochini, Alberto; Ejnisman, Benno; Cohen, Moises

    2015-01-01

    Rotator cuff tear is one of the most common causes of shoulder dysfunction. Gene expression analysis may be a useful tool for understanding tendon tears and the failure of cuff healing, and reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) has become an effective method for such studies. However, this technique requires the use of suitable reference genes for data normalization. Here, we evaluate the suitability of six reference genes (18S, ACTB, B2M, GAPDH, HPRT1 and TBP) using samples from the rotator cuff tendons of 28 individuals with tendon tears (3 tendons regions) and 8 controls (2 tendon regions); for the tear patients, we evaluated ruptured and non-ruptured tendon samples. The stability of the candidate reference genes was determined using the NormFinder, geNorm, BestKeeper and DataAssist software packages. Overall, HPRT1 was the best single reference gene, and HPRT1+TBP composed the best pair and HPRT1+TBP+ACTB composed the best trio of reference genes from the analysis of different groups, including the simultaneous analysis of all tissue samples. To identify the optimal combination of reference genes, we evaluated the expression of COL1A1 and COL3A1, and no obvious differences were observed when using 2, 3 or 4 reference genes for most of the analyses. However, COL3A1 expression differed between ruptured and non-ruptured (posterior superior region) tendons of patients only when normalized by HPRT1+TBP+B2M and HPRT1+TBP. On the other hand, the comparison between these two groups using the best trio of reference genes (HPRT1+TBP+ACTB) and 4 reference genes did not revealed a significant difference in COL3A1 expression. Consequently, the use of suitable reference genes for a reliable gene expression evaluation by RT-qPCR should consider the type of tendon samples investigated. HPRT1+TBP+ACTB seems to be the best combination of reference genes for the analysis of involving different tendon samples of individuals with rotator cuff tears

  6. Design study status of compact containment BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Heki, H.; Nakamaru, M.; Kuroki, M.; Kojima, Y.; Arai, K.; Tahara, M.; Hoshi, T.

    2006-07-01

    The reactor concept considered in this paper has a relatively mid/small power output, a compact containment and a simplified BWR configuration with comprehensive safety features. The Japan Atomic Power Company has been taking initiative in developing the concept of the Compact Containment Boiling Water Reactor (CCR). The CCR., which is being developed with matured BWR technologies together with innovative systems/components, is expected to prove attractive in the world energy markets due to its flexibility in regard to energy demands and site conditions, its high potential for reducing investment risk and its safety features facilitating public acceptance. The flexibility is achieved by CCR's relatively mid/small power output of 400 MWe class and capability of long operating cycle (refueling intervals). CCR is expected to be attractive from view point of investment due to its simplification/innovation in design such as natural circulation core cooling with the bottom located short core, upper entry control rod drives (CRDs) and simplified safety system with high pressure resistible containment concept. The natural circulation core eliminates recirculation pumps and the maintenance of such pumps. The upper entry CRDs enable a simplified safety system followed by in-vessel retention (IVR) capability with the compact primary containment vessel (PCV). The safety features mainly consist of large water inventory above the core without large penetration of RPV below the top of the core height, passive cooling system by isolation condenser (IC). The large inventory increases the system response time in the case of design-base accidents, including loss of coolant accidents. The IC suppresses PCV pressure by steam condensation without any AC power. Cooling the molten core inside the RPV if the core should be damaged by loss of core coolability could attain the IVR. Further core design study has been carried out taking into account compact reactor size and reduction of fuel

  7. Reference genes for quantitative gene expression studies in multiple avian species.

    PubMed

    Olias, Philipp; Adam, Iris; Meyer, Anne; Scharff, Constance; Gruber, Achim D

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) rapidly and reliably quantifies gene expression levels across different experimental conditions. Selection of suitable reference genes is essential for meaningful normalization and thus correct interpretation of data. In recent years, an increasing number of avian species other than the chicken has been investigated molecularly, highlighting the need for an experimentally validated pan-avian primer set for reference genes. Here we report testing a set for 14 candidate reference genes (18S, ABL, GAPDH, GUSB, HMBS, HPRT, PGK1, RPL13, RPL19, RPS7, SDHA, TFRC, VIM, YWHAZ) on different tissues of the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus), common crane (Grus grus), white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo f. domestica), cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus), Humboldt penguin (Sphenicus humboldti), ostrich (Struthio camelus) and zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), spanning a broad range of the phylogenetic tree of birds. Primer pairs for six to 11 genes were successfully established for each of the nine species. As a proof of principle, we analyzed expression levels of 10 candidate reference genes as well as FOXP2 and the immediate early genes, EGR1 and CFOS, known to be rapidly induced by singing in the avian basal ganglia. We extracted RNA from microbiopsies of the striatal song nucleus Area X of adult male zebra finches after they had sang or remained silent. Using three different statistical algorithms, we identified five genes (18S, PGK1, RPS7, TFRC, YWHAZ) that were stably expressed within each group and also between the singing and silent conditions, establishing them as suitable reference genes. In conclusion, the newly developed pan-avian primer set allows accurate normalization and quantification of gene expression levels in multiple avian species. PMID:24926893

  8. Reference Genes for Quantitative Gene Expression Studies in Multiple Avian Species

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Anne; Scharff, Constance; Gruber, Achim D.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) rapidly and reliably quantifies gene expression levels across different experimental conditions. Selection of suitable reference genes is essential for meaningful normalization and thus correct interpretation of data. In recent years, an increasing number of avian species other than the chicken has been investigated molecularly, highlighting the need for an experimentally validated pan-avian primer set for reference genes. Here we report testing a set for 14 candidate reference genes (18S, ABL, GAPDH, GUSB, HMBS, HPRT, PGK1, RPL13, RPL19, RPS7, SDHA, TFRC, VIM, YWHAZ) on different tissues of the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus), common crane (Grus grus), white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo f. domestica), cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus), Humboldt penguin (Sphenicus humboldti), ostrich (Struthio camelus) and zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), spanning a broad range of the phylogenetic tree of birds. Primer pairs for six to 11 genes were successfully established for each of the nine species. As a proof of principle, we analyzed expression levels of 10 candidate reference genes as well as FOXP2 and the immediate early genes, EGR1 and CFOS, known to be rapidly induced by singing in the avian basal ganglia. We extracted RNA from microbiopsies of the striatal song nucleus Area X of adult male zebra finches after they had sang or remained silent. Using three different statistical algorithms, we identified five genes (18S, PGK1, RPS7, TFRC, YWHAZ) that were stably expressed within each group and also between the singing and silent conditions, establishing them as suitable reference genes. In conclusion, the newly developed pan-avian primer set allows accurate normalization and quantification of gene expression levels in multiple avian species. PMID:24926893

  9. HEALTHY study rationale, design and methods

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The HEALTHY primary prevention trial was designed and implemented in response to the growing numbers of children and adolescents being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. The objective was to moderate risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Modifiable risk factors measured were indicators of adiposity and glycemic dysregulation: body mass index ≥85th percentile, fasting glucose ≥5.55 mmol l-1 (100 mg per 100 ml) and fasting insulin ≥180 pmol l-1 (30 μU ml-1). A series of pilot studies established the feasibility of performing data collection procedures and tested the development of an intervention consisting of four integrated components: (1) changes in the quantity and nutritional quality of food and beverage offerings throughout the total school food environment; (2) physical education class lesson plans and accompanying equipment to increase both participation and number of minutes spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; (3) brief classroom activities and family outreach vehicles to increase knowledge, enhance decision-making skills and support and reinforce youth in accomplishing goals; and (4) communications and social marketing strategies to enhance and promote changes through messages, images, events and activities. Expert study staff provided training, assistance, materials and guidance for school faculty and staff to implement the intervention components. A cohort of students were enrolled in sixth grade and followed to end of eighth grade. They attended a health screening data collection at baseline and end of study that involved measurement of height, weight, blood pressure, waist circumference and a fasting blood draw. Height and weight were also collected at the end of the seventh grade. The study was conducted in 42 middle schools, six at each of seven locations across the country, with 21 schools randomized to receive the intervention and 21 to act as controls (data collection activities only). Middle school was the unit of sample size and

  10. Management of Madhumeha Janya Upadrava with special reference to diabetic nephropathy - A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Akarshini, A.M.; Aruna

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus. As the disease DN manifests secondary to Madhumeha, the disease is termed as Madhumeha Janya Upadrava. The diagnosis of DN is microalbuminuria is a powerful screening tool in screening DN earlier stages. A diabetic can develop nondiabetic renal disease like anyone, but the finding of diabetic retinopathy strongly suggests that any proteinuria is due to diabetic glomerulosclerosis. In this dissertation, all diabetic patients who showed positive diabetic retinopathy changes; were screened for 24 h microalbuminuria, at its earlier asymptomatic period itself. This research work is specially intended to instigate effective therapies at earlier stage itself, thereby prevent further progression. Aim: To evaluate the combined effect of Shilajitvadi Vataka, Punarnavadi Mandura, Triphala Guggulu and Pippalimooladi Paneeya added with Amrita and Bringaraja in DN. Materials and Methods: Single blind clinical study with pre-test and post-test was designed. The study conducted on 15 patients of both sex aged between 20 and 80 years, having DN changes through assays for microalbuminuria and other biochemical assays; along with prior confirmation of diabetic retinopathy changes. The duration of the study was 48 days and patients were assessed on every 15 days. Results: After 48 days of treatment, statistically significant improvement in levels of microalbuminuria with mean difference 83.76 μg/24 h, highly significant improvement in status of Agni and statistically no significant improvement in glomerular filtration rate by 2.381 mL/min/1.73m2. No significant side-effects were observed. Conclusion: Overall the study showed encouraging results in treating the malady DN. PMID:26195899

  11. Identification and Validation of Reference Genes and Their Impact on Normalized Gene Expression Studies across Cultivated and Wild Cicer Species.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Dumbala Srinivas; Bhatnagar-Mathur, Pooja; Reddy, Palakolanu Sudhakar; Sri Cindhuri, Katamreddy; Sivaji Ganesh, Adusumalli; Sharma, Kiran Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative Real-Time PCR (qPCR) is a preferred and reliable method for accurate quantification of gene expression to understand precise gene functions. A total of 25 candidate reference genes including traditional and new generation reference genes were selected and evaluated in a diverse set of chickpea samples. The samples used in this study included nine chickpea genotypes (Cicer spp.) comprising of cultivated and wild species, six abiotic stress treatments (drought, salinity, high vapor pressure deficit, abscisic acid, cold and heat shock), and five diverse tissues (leaf, root, flower, seedlings and seed). The geNorm, NormFinder and RefFinder algorithms used to identify stably expressed genes in four sample sets revealed stable expression of UCP and G6PD genes across genotypes, while TIP41 and CAC were highly stable under abiotic stress conditions. While PP2A and ABCT genes were ranked as best for different tissues, ABCT, UCP and CAC were most stable across all samples. This study demonstrated the usefulness of new generation reference genes for more accurate qPCR based gene expression quantification in cultivated as well as wild chickpea species. Validation of the best reference genes was carried out by studying their impact on normalization of aquaporin genes PIP1;4 and TIP3;1, in three contrasting chickpea genotypes under high vapor pressure deficit (VPD) treatment. The chickpea TIP3;1 gene got significantly up regulated under high VPD conditions with higher relative expression in the drought susceptible genotype, confirming the suitability of the selected reference genes for expression analysis. This is the first comprehensive study on the stability of the new generation reference genes for qPCR studies in chickpea across species, different tissues and abiotic stresses. PMID:26863232

  12. Identification and Validation of Reference Genes and Their Impact on Normalized Gene Expression Studies across Cultivated and Wild Cicer Species

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Palakolanu Sudhakar; Sri Cindhuri, Katamreddy; Sivaji Ganesh, Adusumalli; Sharma, Kiran Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative Real-Time PCR (qPCR) is a preferred and reliable method for accurate quantification of gene expression to understand precise gene functions. A total of 25 candidate reference genes including traditional and new generation reference genes were selected and evaluated in a diverse set of chickpea samples. The samples used in this study included nine chickpea genotypes (Cicer spp.) comprising of cultivated and wild species, six abiotic stress treatments (drought, salinity, high vapor pressure deficit, abscisic acid, cold and heat shock), and five diverse tissues (leaf, root, flower, seedlings and seed). The geNorm, NormFinder and RefFinder algorithms used to identify stably expressed genes in four sample sets revealed stable expression of UCP and G6PD genes across genotypes, while TIP41 and CAC were highly stable under abiotic stress conditions. While PP2A and ABCT genes were ranked as best for different tissues, ABCT, UCP and CAC were most stable across all samples. This study demonstrated the usefulness of new generation reference genes for more accurate qPCR based gene expression quantification in cultivated as well as wild chickpea species. Validation of the best reference genes was carried out by studying their impact on normalization of aquaporin genes PIP1;4 and TIP3;1, in three contrasting chickpea genotypes under high vapor pressure deficit (VPD) treatment. The chickpea TIP3;1 gene got significantly up regulated under high VPD conditions with higher relative expression in the drought susceptible genotype, confirming the suitability of the selected reference genes for expression analysis. This is the first comprehensive study on the stability of the new generation reference genes for qPCR studies in chickpea across species, different tissues and abiotic stresses. PMID:26863232

  13. Case studies in alternative landfill design

    SciTech Connect

    Barbagallo, J.C.; Druback, G.W.

    1995-12-31

    In the past, landfills or {open_quotes}dumps{close_quotes} were not highly regulated and typically did not require a detailed engineering design. However, landfills are no longer just holes in the ground, and landfill closures entail more than just spreading some dirt on top of piles of garbage. Today landfill design is a highly regulated, complex design effort that integrates soils and geosynthetics into systems aimed at providing long-term protection for the environment and surrounding communities. Integrating these complex design systems into the available landscape and exising landfill configuration often requires the designer go beyond the {open_quotes}typical{close_quotes} landfill and landfill closure design to satisfy regulations and provide cost-effective solutions.

  14. The human brain in 1700 pieces: design and development of a three-dimensional, interactive and reference atlas.

    PubMed

    Nowinski, W L; Chua, B C; Qian, G Y; Nowinska, N G

    2012-02-15

    As the human brain is the most complex living organ, constructing its detailed model with exploration capabilities in a form of an atlas is a challenge. Our overall goal is to construct an advanced, detailed, parcellated, labeled, accurate, interactive, three-dimensional (3D), and scalable whole human brain atlas of structure, vasculature, tracts and systems. The objectives of this work are three-fold; to present: (1) method of atlas design and development including design principles, accuracy requirements, atlas content, architecture, functionality, user interface, and customized tools; (2) creation of an atlas of structure and systems including its modeling method and validation; and (3) integration of this atlas with the cerebrovasculature and tracts created earlier. The atlas is created from multiple in vivo 3/7 T scans. Its design based on "pyramidal principle" enables scalability while preserving design principles and exploits interaction paradigm "from blocks to brain". The atlas contains (1) navigator with modules for system/object/object state management, interaction, user interfacing, and rendering; and (2) brain model with cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem, spinal cord, white matter, deep structures, systems, ventricles, arteries, veins, sinuses, and tracts. The brain model is parcellated, labeled, consistent, realistic, of high resolution, polygonal/volumetric, dissectible, extendable, and deformable. It has over 1700 3D components. The atlas has sub-voxel accuracy of 0.1mm and the smallest vessels of 80 μm. Brain exploration includes dynamic scene composition, manipulation-independent 3D labeling, interaction combined with animation, meta-labeling, and quantification. This atlas is useful in education, research, and clinical applications. It can potentially be foundation for a multi-level molecular-cellular-anatomical-physiological-behavioral platform. PMID:22062451

  15. Human Exploration of Mars: The Reference Mission of the NASA Mars Exploration Study Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, John

    1998-01-01

    The Reference Mission was developed over a period of several years and was published in NASA Special Publication 6107 in July 1997. The purpose of the Reference Mission was to provide a workable model for the human exploration of Mars, which is described in enough detail that alternative strategies and implementations can be compared and evaluated. NASA is continuing to develop the Reference Mission and expects to update this report in the near future. It was the purpose of the Reference Mission to develop scenarios based on the needs of scientists and explorers who want to conduct research on Mars; however, more work on the surface-mission aspects of the Reference Mission is required and is getting under way. Some aspects of the Reference Mission that are important for the consideration of the surface mission definition include: (1) a split mission strategy, which arrives at the surface two years before the arrival of the first crew; (2) three missions to the outpost site over a 6-year period; (3) a plant capable of producing rocket propellant for lifting off Mars and caches of water, O, and inert gases for the life-support system; (4) a hybrid physico-chemical/bioregenerative life-support system, which emphasizes the bioregenerative system more in later parts of the scenario; (5) a nuclear reactor power supply, which provides enough power for all operations, including the operation of a bioregenerative life-support system as well as the propellant and consumable plant; (6) capability for at least two people to be outside the habitat each day of the surface stay; (7) telerobotic and human-operated transportation vehicles, including a pressurized rover capable of supporting trips of several days' duration from the habitat; (7) crew stay times of 500 days on the surface, with six-person crews; and (8) multiple functional redundancies to reduce risks to the crews on the surface. New concepts are being sought that would reduce the overall cost for this exploration

  16. Design study of the storage ring EUTERPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Boling; Botman, J. I. M.; Timmermans, C. J.; Hagedoorn, H. L.

    1992-05-01

    At present the 400 MeV electron storage ring EUTERPE is being constructed at the Eindhoven University of Technology. It is a university project set up for studies of charged particle beam dynamics and applications of synchroton radiation, and for the education of students in these fields. The design of the ring is described in this paper. Considering the requirements of users in different fields, a lattice based on a so-called triple bend achromat structure with a high flexibility has been chosen. With this lattice, different optical options, including the HBSB (high brightness, small beam), the SBL (short bunch length) and the HLF (high light flux) modes can be realized. A small emittance of 7 nm rad and a short bunch length of the order of several mm can be achieved. In the first phase the synchrotron radiation in the UV and XUV region (the critical wavelength is 8.3 nm) will be provided from the regular dipole magnets. Later on, a 10 T wiggler magnet and other special inserters will be added, and other applications and beam dynamics studies will be feasible. Bending magnets are of the parallel faced C configuration. The effective aperture of the vacuum chamber is 2.3 cm (vertical) in the bending magnets and 4.7 cm elsewhere with a working vacuum condition of 10-9 Torr. Collective effects have been studied initially. First calculations indicate that a lifetime of several hours, influenced by the Touschek effect and residual gas scattering will be achievable for a 200 mA beam in the HLF mode for the standard rf parameters. A 70 MeV racetrack microtron will serve as injector for the ring.

  17. Validation of reference genes for real-time quantitative PCR studies in gene expression levels of Lactobacillus casei Zhang.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenjing; Li, Yan; Gao, Pengfei; Sun, Zhihong; Sun, Tiansong; Zhang, Heping

    2011-09-01

    Lactobacillus casei Zhang, a potential probiotic strain isolated from homemade koumiss in Inner Mongolia of China, has been sequenced and deposited in GenBank. Real-time quantitative PCR is one of the most widely used methods to study related gene expression levels of Lactobacillus casei Zhang. For accurate and reliable gene expression analysis, normalization of gene expression data using one or more appropriate reference genes is essential. We used three statistical methods (geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper) to evaluate the expression levels of five candidate reference genes (GAPD, gyrB, LDH, 16s rRNA, and recA) under different culture conditions and different growth phases to find a suitable housekeeping gene which can be used as internal standard. The results showed that the best reference gene was GAPD, and a set of two genes, GAPD and gyrB (which were the most stable reference genes), is recommended for normalization of real-time quantitative PCR experiments under all the different experimental conditions tested. The systematic validation of candidate reference genes is important for obtaining reliable analysis results of real-time quantitative PCR studies in gene expression levels of Lactobacillus casei Zhang. PMID:21104423

  18. Two-dimensional NMR studies of size fractionated Suwannee River fulvic and humic acid reference.

    PubMed

    Haiber, S; Herzog, H; Burba, P; Gosciniak, B; Lambert, J

    2001-11-01

    Two-dimensional phase sensitive 13C,1H correlation spectra were applied to the investigation of substructures in size fractions obtained by tangential flow multistage ultrafiltration (MST-UF) of humic substances (HS) Suwannee River Fulvic Acid Reference (HS SR FA) and Suwannee River Humic Acid Reference (HS SR HA), purchased from the International Humic Substances Society (IHSS). After size fractionation with MST-UF the HS samples give well resolved two-dimensional 13C,1H-correlated NMR spectra which offer a great potential for substructure elucidation and even quantification. It is shown that low molecular size lignin moieties undergo demethylation of the methoxy groups, accompanied by removal of the phenylpropane side chains and subsequent reaggregation of the aromatic rings. These findings provide insight into the processes of lignin degradation. Only the fraction >100 kDa contains macromolecules that have spin-spin relaxation times too short for investigations employing NMR multipulse sequences. PMID:11718344

  19. A Study on Rotation and Its Application for Attitude Reference System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Ritsuo

    It is well known as the coning effect that even the motion around an axis with no angular rate results in the residual rotation when it resumes the original orientation. However, there has been little investigation concerning the residual rotation when the motion is not closed and does not resume the original orientation. A definition of rotation angle is newly proposed in this paper, and the calculation method of the rotation angle is shown. The new attitude reference system with a one-degree-of-freedom platform was developed using the rotation angle defined in this paper and two parameters showing the rotational axis orientation. The attitude reference system was actually onboard the M-rocket, and it worked well.

  20. Compositional analysis of biomass reference materials: Results from an interlaboratory study

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Templeton, David W.; Wolfrum, Edward J.; Yen, James H.; Sharpless, Katherine E.

    2015-10-29

    Biomass compositional methods are used to compare different lignocellulosic feedstocks, to measure component balances around unit operations and to determine process yields and therefore the economic viability of biomass-to-biofuel processes. Four biomass reference materials (RMs NIST 8491–8494) were prepared and characterized, via an interlaboratory comparison exercise in the early 1990s to evaluate biomass summative compositional methods, analysts, and laboratories. Having common, uniform, and stable biomass reference materials gives the opportunity to assess compositional data compared to other analysts, to other labs, and to a known compositional value. The expiration date for the original characterization of these RMs was reached andmore » an effort to assess their stability and recharacterize the reference values for the remaining material using more current methods of analysis was initiated. We sent samples of the four biomass RMs to 11 academic, industrial, and government laboratories, familiar with sulfuric acid compositional methods, for recharacterization of the component reference values. In this work, we have used an expanded suite of analytical methods that are more appropriate for herbaceous feedstocks, to recharacterize the RMs’ compositions. We report the median values and the expanded uncertainty values for the four RMs on a dry-mass, whole-biomass basis. The original characterization data has been recalculated using median statistics to facilitate comparisons with this data. We found improved total component closures for three out of the four RMs compared to the original characterization, and the total component closures were near 100 %, which suggests that most components were accurately measured and little double counting occurred. Here, the major components were not statistically different in the recharacterization which suggests that the biomass materials are stable during storage and that additional components, not seen in the original