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Sample records for reference flow injection

  1. Flow characteristics and injectivity behavior of water-soluble polymers: Final report. [144 references

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, F.D.

    1987-04-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the key properties of water-soluble polymers that affect injectivity of polymer solutions used in enhanced recovery processes. The project consisted of performing a thorough literature survey on this subject, followed by laboratory tests to assess various properties of polymer solutions. In the literature survey, laboratory and field projects were reviewed. Information from the literature survey on field projects and from experiments performed as part of this study points out that water quality is very important in the injectivity of polymer solutions. Specifically, if iron is introduced as a corrosion byproduct, the polymers can be crosslinked which can lead to severe plugging when the polymer solution is injected. For some polymers, procedures used for mixing solutions can be important. Higher solution viscosities may be obtained if emulsion polymers are inverted in a very fresh water prior to mixing with a brine water. Filterability and injectivity of some emulsion polymers are better when the polymers are dissolved in a fresher water. As expected, injectivity of xanthan gum polymers was better than for polyacrylamide polymers. For polyacrylamides, adsorption was higher on dolomite than on sandstone, but the adsorption on either media was not affected greatly by anionic charge of the polymers. Injectivity of polymer solutions may be improved by pretreatment with certain solvents or chemicals. After a loss of injectivity caused by plugging from a polymer solution, selected chemicals can provide improvement in injectivity. 155 refs., 30 figs., 27 tabs.

  2. Determination of organomercury in biological reference materials by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using flow injection analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Beauchemin, D.; Siu, K.W.; Berman, S.S.

    1988-12-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used for the determination of organomercury in two marine biological standard reference materials for trace metals (dogfish muscle tissue DORM-1 and lobster hepatopancreas TORT-1). In most parts of this study, the organomercury was extracted as the chloride from the material with toluene and back extracted into an aqueous medium of cysteine acetate. Since the final extracts contained more than 4% sodium, isotope dilution and flow injection analysis were used to respectively counter the effect of concomitant elements and avoid clogging the interface. Comparison of results with gas chromatography shows that the only significant organomercury is methyl-mercury. At least 93% of mercury in DORM-1 and 39% of mercury in TORT-1 exist as methylmercury.

  3. Miniaturized flow injection analysis system

    DOEpatents

    Folta, J.A.

    1997-07-01

    A chemical analysis technique known as flow injection analysis is described, wherein small quantities of chemical reagents and sample are intermixed and reacted within a capillary flow system and the reaction products are detected optically, electrochemically, or by other means. A highly miniaturized version of a flow injection analysis system has been fabricated utilizing microfabrication techniques common to the microelectronics industry. The microflow system uses flow capillaries formed by etching microchannels in a silicon or glass wafer followed by bonding to another wafer, commercially available microvalves bonded directly to the microflow channels, and an optical absorption detector cell formed near the capillary outlet, with light being both delivered and collected with fiber optics. The microflow system is designed mainly for analysis of liquids and currently measures 38{times}25{times}3 mm, but can be designed for gas analysis and be substantially smaller in construction. 9 figs.

  4. Miniaturized flow injection analysis system

    DOEpatents

    Folta, James A.

    1997-01-01

    A chemical analysis technique known as flow injection analysis, wherein small quantities of chemical reagents and sample are intermixed and reacted within a capillary flow system and the reaction products are detected optically, electrochemically, or by other means. A highly miniaturized version of a flow injection analysis system has been fabricated utilizing microfabrication techniques common to the microelectronics industry. The microflow system uses flow capillaries formed by etching microchannels in a silicon or glass wafer followed by bonding to another wafer, commercially available microvalves bonded directly to the microflow channels, and an optical absorption detector cell formed near the capillary outlet, with light being both delivered and collected with fiber optics. The microflow system is designed mainly for analysis of liquids and currently measures 38.times.25.times.3 mm, but can be designed for gas analysis and be substantially smaller in construction.

  5. Residual ozone determination by flow injection analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Straka, M.R.; Pacey, G.E.; Gordon, G.

    1984-09-01

    It has been proposed that ozone be used to replace free chlorine for the disinfection of drinking water and waste water. For the use of ozone in this capacity, it would be necessary to have a fast accurate and precise method to analyze for the presence of residuals. An automated method for ozone determination based on the indigo reagent method is presented. This method is based on the advantages of flow injection analysis (FIA) techniques. 19 references, 3 tables, 2 figures.

  6. A volumetric flow sensor for automotive injection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, U.; Krötz, G.; Schmitt-Landsiedel, D.

    2008-04-01

    For further optimization of the automotive power train of diesel engines, advanced combustion processes require a highly flexible injection system, provided e.g. by the common rail (CR) injection technique. In the past, the feasibility to implement injection nozzle volumetric flow sensors based on the thermo-resistive measurement principle has been demonstrated up to injection pressures of 135 MPa (1350 bar). To evaluate the transient behaviour of the system-integrated flow sensors as well as an injection amount indicator used as a reference method, hydraulic simulations on the system level are performed for a CR injection system. Experimentally determined injection timings were found to be in good agreement with calculated values, especially for the novel sensing element which is directly implemented into the hydraulic system. For the first time pressure oscillations occurring after termination of the injection pulse, predicted theoretically, could be verified directly in the nozzle. In addition, the injected amount of fuel is monitored with the highest resolution ever reported in the literature.

  7. Evaluation of the impact of viscosity, injection volume, and injection flow rate on subcutaneous injection tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Berteau, Cecile; Filipe-Santos, Orchidée; Wang, Tao; Rojas, Humberto E; Granger, Corinne; Schwarzenbach, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Aim The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of fluid injection viscosity in combination with different injection volumes and flow rates on subcutaneous (SC) injection pain tolerance. Methods The study was a single-center, comparative, randomized, crossover, Phase I study in 24 healthy adults. Each participant received six injections in the abdomen area of either a 2 or 3 mL placebo solution, with three different fluid viscosities (1, 8–10, and 15–20 cP) combined with two different injection flow rates (0.02 and 0.3 mL/s). All injections were performed with 50 mL syringes and 27G, 6 mm needles. Perceived injection pain was assessed using a 100 mm visual analog scale (VAS) (0 mm/no pain, 100 mm/extreme pain). The location and depth of the injected fluid was assessed through 2D ultrasound echography images. Results Viscosity levels had significant impact on perceived injection pain (P=0.0003). Specifically, less pain was associated with high viscosity (VAS =12.6 mm) than medium (VAS =16.6 mm) or low (VAS =22.1 mm) viscosities, with a significant difference between high and low viscosities (P=0.0002). Target injection volume of 2 or 3 mL was demonstrated to have no significant impact on perceived injection pain (P=0.89). Slow (0.02 mL/s) or fast (0.30 mL/s) injection rates also showed no significant impact on perceived pain during SC injection (P=0.79). In 92% of injections, the injected fluid was located exclusively in SC tissue whereas the remaining injected fluids were found located in SC and/or intradermal layers. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that solutions of up to 3 mL and up to 15–20 cP injected into the abdomen within 10 seconds are well tolerated without pain. High viscosity injections were shown to be the most tolerated, whereas injection volume and flow rates did not impact perceived pain. PMID:26635489

  8. Reversed flow injection spectrophotometric determination of chlorate.

    PubMed

    Chuesaard, Thanyarat; Wonganan, Tharinee; Wongchanapiboon, Teerapol; Liawruangrath, Saisunee

    2009-09-15

    An interfacing has been developed to connect a spectrophotometer with a personal computer and used as a readout system for development of a simple, rapid and sensitive reversed flow injection (rFI) procedure for chlorate determination. The method is based on the oxidation of indigo carmine by chlorate ions in an acidic solution (dil. HCl) leading to the decrease in absorbance at 610 nm. The decrease in absorbance is directly related to the chlorate concentration present in the sample solutions. Optimum conditions for chlorate were examined. A linear calibration graph over the range of 0.1-0.5 mg L(-1) chlorate was established with the regression equation of Y=104.5X+1.0, r(2)=0.9961 (n=6). The detection limit (3 sigma) of 0.03 mg L(-1), the limit of quantitation (10 sigma) of 0.10 mg L(-1) and the RSD of 3.2% for 0.3 mg L(-1) chlorate (n=11) together with a sample throughput of 92 h(-1) were obtained. The recovery of the added chlorate in spiked water samples was 98.5+/-3.1%. Major interferences for chlorate determination were found to be BrO(3)(-), ClO(2)(-), ClO(-) and IO(3)(-) which were overcome by using SO(3)(2-) (as Na(2)SO(3)) as masking agent. The method has been successfully applied for the determination of chlorate in spiked water samples with the minimum reagent consumption of 14.0 mL h(-1). Good agreement between the proposed rFIA and the reference methods was found verified by Student's t-test at 95% confidence level. PMID:19615529

  9. Automated Protein Assay Using Flow Injection Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, Carrie A. C.; Oates, Matthew R.; Hage, David S.

    1998-08-01

    The technique of flow injection analysis (FIA) is a common instrumental method used in detecting a variety of chemical and biological agents. This paper describes an undergraduate laboratory that uses FIA to perform a bicinchoninic acid (BCA) colorimetric assay for quantitating protein samples. The method requires less than 2 min per sample injection and gives a response over a broad range of protein concentrations. This method can be used in instrumental analysis labs to illustrate the principles and use of FIA, or as a means for introducing students to common methods employed in the analysis of biological agents.

  10. Flow injection potentiometric determination of pipazethate hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Ghani, N T; Shoukry, A F; el Nashar, R M

    2001-01-01

    New plastic membrane electrodes for pipazethate hydrochloride based on pipazethatium phosphotungstate, pipazethatium phosphomolybdate and a mixture of the two were prepared. The electrodes were fully characterized in terms of composition, life span, pH and temperature and were then applied to the potentiometric determination of the pipazethate ion in its pure state and pharmaceutical preparations under batch and flow injection conditions. The selectivity of the electrodes towards many inorganic cations, sugars and amino acids was also tested. PMID:11205518

  11. Static Flow Characteristics of a Mass Flow Injecting Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattern, Duane; Paxson, Dan

    1995-01-01

    A sleeve valve is under development for ground-based forced response testing of air compression systems. This valve will be used to inject air and to impart momentum to the flow inside the first stage of a multi-stage compressor. The valve was designed to deliver a maximum mass flow of 0.22 lbm/s (0.1 kg/s) with a maximum valve throat area of 0.12 sq. in (80 sq. mm), a 100 psid (689 KPA) pressure difference across the valve and a 68 F, (20 C) air supply. It was assumed that the valve mass flow rate would be proportional to the valve orifice area. A static flow calibration revealed a nonlinear valve orifice area to mass flow relationship which limits the maximum flow rate that the valve can deliver. This nonlinearity was found to be caused by multiple choking points in the flow path. A simple model was used to explain this nonlinearity and the model was compared to the static flow calibration data. Only steady flow data is presented here. In this report, the static flow characteristics of a proportionally controlled sleeve valve are modelled and validated against experimental data.

  12. Immobilized Bioluminescent Reagents in Flow Injection Analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabi, Abdul

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Bioluminescent reactions exhibits two important characteristics from an analytical viewpoint; they are selective and highly sensitive. Furthermore, bioluminescent emissions are easily measured with a simple flow-through detector based on a photomultiplier tube and the rapid and reproducible mixing of sample and expensive reagent is best achieved by a flow injection manifold. The two most important bioluminescent systems are the enzyme (luciferase)/substrate (luciferin) combinations extracted from fireflies (Photinus pyralis) and marine bacteria (Virio harveyi) which requires ATP and NAD(P)H respectively as cofactors. Reactions that generate or consume these cofactors can also be coupled to the bioluminescent reaction to provide assays for a wide range of clinically important species. A flow injection manifold for the study of bioluminescent reactions is described, as are procedures for the extraction, purification and immobilization of firefly and bacterial luciferase and oxidoreductase. Results are presented for the determination of ATP using firefly system and the determination of other enzymes and substrates participating in ATP-converting reactions e.g. creatine kinase, ATP-sulphurylase, pyruvate kinase, creatine phosphate, pyrophosphate and phophoenolypyruvate. Similarly results are presented for the determination of NAD(P)H, FMN, FMNH_2 and several dehydrogenases which produce NAD(P)H and their substrates, e.g. alcohol, L-lactate, L-malate, L-glutamate, Glucose-6-phosphate and primary bile acid.

  13. Recent advances in flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Trojanowicz, Marek; Kołacińska, Kamila

    2016-04-01

    A dynamic development of methodologies of analytical flow injection measurements during four decades since their invention has reinforced the solid position of flow analysis in the arsenal of techniques and instrumentation of contemporary chemical analysis. With the number of published scientific papers exceeding 20 000, and advanced instrumentation available for environmental, food, and pharmaceutical analysis, flow analysis is well established as an extremely vital field of modern flow chemistry, which is developed simultaneously with methods of chemical synthesis carried out under flow conditions. This review work is based on almost 300 original papers published mostly in the last decade, with special emphasis put on presenting novel achievements from the most recent 2-3 years in order to indicate current development trends of this methodology. Besides the evolution of the design of whole measuring systems, and including especially new applications of various detections methods, several aspects of implications of progress in nanotechnology, and miniaturization of measuring systems for application in different field of modern chemical analysis are also discussed. PMID:26906258

  14. Residual aqueous ozone determination by gas diffusion flow injection analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Straka, M.R.; Gordon, G.; Pacey, G.E.

    1985-08-01

    A method for the determination of residual aqueous ozone utilizing the technique of gas diffusion flow injection analysis and the redox reagents potassium indigo trisulfonate and bis(terpyridine)iron(II) is described. The system uses a commercially available gas diffusion cell fitted with a microporous Teflon membrane to significantly reduce or eliminate potential interferences such as chlorine and oxidized forms of manganese. Detection limits of 0.03 mg/L ozone are possible with sensitivities and linear ranges comparable to the manual method. Selectivity is significantly improved and chlorine interference is reduced to 0.008 mg/L of apparent ozone for each part per million of chlorine present while oxidized manganese interference is completely eliminated. This method provides a sample throughput of 65 samples per hour. 30 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  15. Theoretical and experimental study of flow through turbine cascades with coolant flow injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabakoff, W.; Hamed, A.

    1975-01-01

    An analytical study is presented which deals with the change in the outlet flow conditions from a turbine blade row due to coolant air injection through slots. The analysis applies to small secondary to primary mass flow ratios, taking into consideration the change in boundary layer development resulting from injection. The effects of injection location, injection flow angle and injected air momentum flux are investigated. The results of the present analysis are compared with the values obtained using the mixing theory method and experimental data from cold flow tests in a turbine cascade tunnel.

  16. Numerical study of subcritical flow with fluid injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubramanian, R.

    1990-01-01

    It is suggested that the study of synthetic flows, where controlled experiments can be performed, is useful in understanding turbulent flow structures. The early states of formation of hairpin structures in shear flows and the subsequent evolution of these structures is studied in shear flows and the subsequent evolution of these structures is studied through numerical simulations, by developing full-time dependent three-dimensional flow solution of an initially laminar (subcritical) flow in which injection of fluid through a narrow streamwise slot from the bottom wall of a plate is carried out. Details of the numerical approach and significance of the present findings are reported in this work.

  17. Parametric Studies of Flow Separation using Air Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Wei

    2004-01-01

    Boundary Layer separation causes the airfoil to stall and therefore imposes dramatic performance degradation on the airfoil. In recent years, flow separation control has been one of the active research areas in the field of aerodynamics due to its promising performance improvements on the lifting device. These active flow separation control techniques include steady and unsteady air injection as well as suction on the airfoil surface etc. This paper will be focusing on the steady and unsteady air injection on the airfoil. Although wind tunnel experiments revealed that the performance improvements on the airfoil using injection techniques, the details of how the key variables such as air injection slot geometry and air injection angle etc impact the effectiveness of flow separation control via air injection has not been studied. A parametric study of both steady and unsteady air injection active flow control will be the main objective for this summer. For steady injection, the key variables include the slot geometry, orientation, spacing, air injection velocity as well as the injection angle. For unsteady injection, the injection frequency will also be investigated. Key metrics such as lift coefficient, drag coefficient, total pressure loss and total injection mass will be used to measure the effectiveness of the control technique. A design of experiments using the Box-Behnken Design is set up in order to determine how each of the variables affects each of the key metrics. Design of experiment is used so that the number of experimental runs will be at minimum and still be able to predict which variables are the key contributors to the responses. The experiments will then be conducted in the 1ft by 1ft wind tunnel according to the design of experiment settings. The data obtained from the experiments will be imported into JMP, statistical software, to generate sets of response surface equations which represent the statistical empirical model for each of the metrics as

  18. Downstream influence of swept slot injection in hypersonic turbulent flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hefner, J. N.; Cary, A. M., Jr.; Bushnell, D. B.

    1977-01-01

    Results of an experimental and numerical investigation of tangential swept slot injection into a thick turbulent boundary layer at Mach 6 are presented. Film cooling effectiveness, skin friction, and flow structure downstream of the swept slot injection were investigated. The data were compared with that for unswept slots, and it was found that cooling effectiveness and skin friction reductions are not significantly affected by sweeping the slot.

  19. Flow monitoring and control system for injection wells

    DOEpatents

    Corey, John C.

    1993-01-01

    A system for monitoring and controlling the injection rate of fluid by an injection well of an in-situ remediation system for treating a contaminated groundwater plume. The well is fitted with a gated insert, substantially coaxial with the injection well. A plurality of openings, some or all of which are equipped with fluid flow sensors and gates, are spaced along the insert. The gates and sensors are connected to a surface controller. The insert may extend throughout part of, or substantially the entire length of the injection well. Alternatively, the insert may comprise one or more movable modules which can be positioned wherever desired along the well. The gates are opened part-way at the start of treatment. The sensors monitor and display the flow rate of fluid passing through each opening on a controller. As treatment continues, the gates are opened to increase flow in regions of lesser flow, and closed to decrease flow in regions of greater flow, thereby approximately equalizing the amount of fluid reaching each part of the plume.

  20. Flow monitoring and control system for injection wells

    DOEpatents

    Corey, J.C.

    1993-02-16

    A system for monitoring and controlling the injection rate of fluid by an injection well of an in-situ remediation system for treating a contaminated groundwater plume. The well is fitted with a gated insert, substantially coaxial with the injection well. A plurality of openings, some or all of which are equipped with fluid flow sensors and gates, are spaced along the insert. The gates and sensors are connected to a surface controller. The insert may extend throughout part of, or substantially the entire length of the injection well. Alternatively, the insert may comprise one or more movable modules which can be positioned wherever desired along the well. The gates are opened part-way at the start of treatment. The sensors monitor and display the flow rate of fluid passing through each opening on a controller. As treatment continues, the gates are opened to increase flow in regions of lesser flow, and closed to decrease flow in regions of greater flow, thereby approximately equalizing the amount of fluid reaching each part of the plume.

  1. Axisymmetric flows from fluid injection into a confined porous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Bo; Zheng, Zhong; Celia, Michael A.; Stone, Howard A.

    2016-02-01

    We study the axisymmetric flows generated from fluid injection into a horizontal confined porous medium that is originally saturated with another fluid of different density and viscosity. Neglecting the effects of surface tension and fluid mixing, we use the lubrication approximation to obtain a nonlinear advection-diffusion equation that describes the time evolution of the sharp fluid-fluid interface. The flow behaviors are controlled by two dimensionless groups: M, the viscosity ratio of displaced fluid relative to injected fluid, and Γ, which measures the relative importance of buoyancy and fluid injection. For this axisymmetric geometry, the similarity solution involving R2/T (where R is the dimensionless radial coordinate and T is the dimensionless time) is an exact solution to the nonlinear governing equation for all times. Four analytical expressions are identified as asymptotic approximations (two of which are new solutions): (i) injection-driven flow with the injected fluid being more viscous than the displaced fluid (Γ ≪ 1 and M < 1) where we identify a self-similar solution that indicates a parabolic interface shape; (ii) injection-driven flow with injected and displaced fluids of equal viscosity (Γ ≪ 1 and M = 1), where we find a self-similar solution that predicts a distinct parabolic interface shape; (iii) injection-driven flow with a less viscous injected fluid (Γ ≪ 1 and M > 1) for which there is a rarefaction wave solution, assuming that the Saffman-Taylor instability does not occur at the reservoir scale; and (iv) buoyancy-driven flow (Γ ≫ 1) for which there is a well-known self-similar solution corresponding to gravity currents in an unconfined porous medium [S. Lyle et al. "Axisymmetric gravity currents in a porous medium," J. Fluid Mech. 543, 293-302 (2005)]. The various axisymmetric flows are summarized in a Γ-M regime diagram with five distinct dynamic behaviors including the four asymptotic regimes and an intermediate regime

  2. Flow in a porous nozzle with massive wall injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinney, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    An analytical and experimental investigation has been conducted to determine the effect of massive wall injection on the flow characteristics in a nozzle. The experiments were performed on a water table with a porous-nozzle test section. This had 45 deg and 15 deg half angles of convergence and divergence, respectively, throat radius of 2.5 inches, and throat width of 3 inches. The hydraulic analogy was employed to qualitatively extend the results to a compressible gas flow through the nozzle. An analysis of the water table flow was made using a one-dimensional flow assumption in the continuity and momentum equations. An analysis of a compressible flow in a nozzle was made in a manner analogous to that for the water flow. It is shown that the effect of blowing is to move the sonic position downstream of the geometric throat. Similar results were determined for the incompressible water table flow. Limited photographic results are presented for an injection of air, CO2, and Freon-12 into a main-stream air flow in a convergent-divergent nozzle. Schlieren photographs were used to visualize the flow.

  3. Flow regimes for fluid injection into a confined porous medium

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Zhong; Guo, Bo; Christov, Ivan C.; Celia, Michael A.; Stone, Howard A.

    2015-02-24

    We report theoretical and numerical studies of the flow behaviour when a fluid is injected into a confined porous medium saturated with another fluid of different density and viscosity. For a two-dimensional configuration with point source injection, a nonlinear convection–diffusion equation is derived to describe the time evolution of the fluid–fluid interface. In the early time period, the fluid motion is mainly driven by the buoyancy force and the governing equation is reduced to a nonlinear diffusion equation with a well-known self-similar solution. In the late time period, the fluid flow is mainly driven by the injection, and the governing equation is approximated by a nonlinear hyperbolic equation that determines the global spreading rate; a shock solution is obtained when the injected fluid is more viscous than the displaced fluid, whereas a rarefaction wave solution is found when the injected fluid is less viscous. In the late time period, we also obtain analytical solutions including the diffusive term associated with the buoyancy effects (for an injected fluid with a viscosity higher than or equal to that of the displaced fluid), which provide the structure of the moving front. Numerical simulations of the convection–diffusion equation are performed; the various analytical solutions are verified as appropriate asymptotic limits, and the transition processes between the individual limits are demonstrated.

  4. Flow regimes for fluid injection into a confined porous medium

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zheng, Zhong; Guo, Bo; Christov, Ivan C.; Celia, Michael A.; Stone, Howard A.

    2015-02-24

    We report theoretical and numerical studies of the flow behaviour when a fluid is injected into a confined porous medium saturated with another fluid of different density and viscosity. For a two-dimensional configuration with point source injection, a nonlinear convection–diffusion equation is derived to describe the time evolution of the fluid–fluid interface. In the early time period, the fluid motion is mainly driven by the buoyancy force and the governing equation is reduced to a nonlinear diffusion equation with a well-known self-similar solution. In the late time period, the fluid flow is mainly driven by the injection, and the governingmore » equation is approximated by a nonlinear hyperbolic equation that determines the global spreading rate; a shock solution is obtained when the injected fluid is more viscous than the displaced fluid, whereas a rarefaction wave solution is found when the injected fluid is less viscous. In the late time period, we also obtain analytical solutions including the diffusive term associated with the buoyancy effects (for an injected fluid with a viscosity higher than or equal to that of the displaced fluid), which provide the structure of the moving front. Numerical simulations of the convection–diffusion equation are performed; the various analytical solutions are verified as appropriate asymptotic limits, and the transition processes between the individual limits are demonstrated.« less

  5. Determination of Reaction Stoichiometries by Flow Injection Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rios, Angel; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes a method of flow injection analysis intended for calculation of complex-formation and redox reaction stoichiometries based on a closed-loop configuration. The technique is suitable for use in undergraduate laboratories. Information is provided for equipment, materials, procedures, and sample results. (JM)

  6. Determination of Acidity Constants by Gradient Flow-Injection Titration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conceicao, Antonio C. L.; Minas da Piedade, Manuel E.

    2006-01-01

    A three-hour laboratory experiment, designed for an advanced undergraduate course in instrumental analysis that illustrates the application of the gradient chamber flow-injection titration (GCFIT) method with spectrophotometric detection to determine acidity constants is presented. The procedure involves the use of an acid-base indicator to obtain…

  7. Flow monitoring and control system for injection wells

    DOEpatents

    Corey, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention relates to a system for monitoring and controlling the rate of fluid flow from an injection well used for in-situ remediation of contaminated groundwater. The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC09-89SR18035 between the US Department of Energy and Westinghouse Savannah River Company.

  8. Enhancing resolution of free-flow zone electrophoresis via a simple sheath-flow sample injection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying; Kong, Fan-Zhi; Liu, Ji; Li, Jun-Min; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Li, Guo-Qing; Wang, Ju-Fang; Xiao, Hua; Fan, Liu-Yin; Cao, Cheng-Xi; Li, Shan

    2016-07-01

    In this work, a simple and novel sheath-flow sample injection method (SFSIM) is introduced to reduce the band broadening of free-flow zone electrophoresis separation in newly developed self-balance free-flow electrophoresis instrument. A needle injector was placed in the center of the separation inlet, into which the BGE and sample solution were pumped simultaneously. BGE formed sheath flow outside the sample stream, resulting in less band broadening related to hydrodynamics and electrodynamics. Hemoglobin and C-phycocyanin were successfully separated by the proposed method in contrast to the poor separation of free-flow electrophoresis with the traditional injection method without sheath flow. About 3.75 times resolution enhancement could be achieved by sheath-flow sample injection method. PMID:27121853

  9. Flow-injection chemiluminescence determination of chlorinated isocyanuric acids.

    PubMed

    Safavi, Afsaneh; Karimi, Mohammad Ali

    2003-02-01

    A rapid and sensitive flow-injection chemiluminescence method is described for the determination of dichloro- and trichloroisocyanuric acids based on the chemiluminescence produced during their reaction with luminol in alkaline medium. The effects of analytical and flow-injection variables on these chemiluminescence systems and determination of both oxidants are discussed. The optimized method yielded 3sigma detection limits of 8x10(-8) and 5x10(-8) mol L(-1) for the sodium dichloroisocyanurate and trichloroisocyanuric acid, respectively. The optimum conditions were found to be as follows: NaOH, 1x10(-1) mol L(-1); luminol, 5x10(-3) mol L(-1); KI, 2x10(-3) mol L(-1) and flow rate, 3.5 mL min(-1). PMID:12589508

  10. Adaptive Discrete Equation Method for injection of stochastic cavitating flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraci, Gianluca; Rodio, Maria Giovanna; Iaccarino, Gianluca; Abgrall, Remi; Congedo, Pietro

    2014-11-01

    This work aims at the improvement of the prediction and of the control of biofuel injection for combustion. In fact, common injector should be optimized according to the specific physical/chemical properties of biofuels. In order to attain this scope, an optimized model for reproducing the injection for several biofuel blends will be considered. The originality of this approach is twofold, i) the use of cavitating two-phase compressible models, known as Baer & Nunziato, in order to reproduce the injection, and ii) the design of a global scheme for directly taking into account experimental measurements uncertainties in the simulation. In particular, stochastic intrusive methods display a high efficiency when dealing with discontinuities in unsteady compressible flows. We have recently formulated a new scheme for simulating stochastic multiphase flows relying on the Discrete Equation Method (DEM) for describing multiphase effects. The set-up of the intrusive stochastic method for multiphase unsteady compressible flows in quasi 1D configuration will be presented. The target test-case is a multiphase unsteady nozzle for injection of biofuels, described by complex thermodynamics models, for which experimental data and associated uncertainties are available.

  11. Theory of Gas Injection: Interaction of Phase Behavior and Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dindoruk, B.

    2015-12-01

    The theory of gas injection processes is a central element required to understand how components move and partition in the reservoir as one fluid is displacing another (i.e., gas is displacing oil). There is significant amount of work done in the area of interaction of phase-behavior and flow in multiphase flow conditions. We would like to present how the theory of gas injection is used in the industry to understand/design reservoir processes in various ways. The tools that are developed for the theory of gas injection originates from the fractional flow theory, as the first solution proposed by Buckley-Leveret in 1940's, for water displacing oil in porous media. After 1960's more and more complex/coupled equations were solved using the initial concept(s) developed by Buckley-Leverett, and then Welge et al. and others. However, the systematic use of the fractional flow theory for coupled set of equations that involves phase relationships (EOS) and phase appearance and disappearance was mainly due to the theory developed by Helfferich in early 80's (in petroleum literature) using method of characteristics primarily for gas injection process and later on by the systematic work done by Orr and his co-researchers during the last two decades. In this talk, we will present various cases that use and extend the theory developed by Helfferich and others (Orr et al., Lake et al. etc.). The review of various injection systems reveals that displacement in porous media has commonalities that can be represented with a unified theory for a class of problems originating from the theory of gas injection (which is in a way generalized Buckley-Leverett problem). The outcome of these solutions can be used for (and are not limited to): 1) Benchmark solutions for reservoir simulators (to quantify numerical dispersion, test numerical algorithms) 2) Streamline simulators 3) Design of laboratory experiments and their use (to invert the results) 4) Conceptual learning and to investigate

  12. Flow injection analysis with amperometric detection of naltrexone in pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Abedul, M T; Costa-García, A

    1997-09-01

    Flow injection analysis (FIA) with amperometric detection using a carbon paste electrode is applied to the determination of naltrexone. The sample solution was injected into the carrier stream of 0.1 M perchloric acid, being determined by oxidation at +1.0 V vs. Ag/AgCl/sat. KCl using a flow rate of 4 ml min-1. A relative standard deviation of 1.5% was calculated for a concentration level of 10(-5) M (n = 17) without carrying out a carbon paste electrode pretreatment. Calibration curves were found to be linear between 2 x 10(-8) and 10(-5) M (almost three orders of magnitude) and the method has a detection limit of 2 x 10(-8) M. A simple and reproducible procedure is proposed for the determination of naltrexone in pharmaceuticals. The results compared favourably with those obtained by an HPLC-UV method. PMID:9447547

  13. Injection Induced Mixing in Flows Separating From Smooth Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamczyk, John J. (Technical Monitor); Wundrow, David W.

    2004-01-01

    An analytic model for predicting the effect of unsteady local surface injection on the flow separating from a streamlined body at angle of attack is proposed. The model uses the premise that separation control results from enhanced mixing along the shear layer that develops between the main stream and the fluid in the underlying recirculation zone. High-Reynolds-number asymptotic methods are used to connect the unsteady surface injection to an instability wave propagating on the separating shear layer and then to the large-scale coherent structures that produce the increased mixing. The results is a tool that can guide the choice of fluid-actuator parameters to maximize flow-control effectiveness and may also facilitate computer-based numerical experiments.

  14. Flow Injection as a Teaching Tool for Gravimetric Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartini, Raquel P.; Zagatto, Elias A. G.; Oliveira, Cláudio C.

    2000-06-01

    A flow-injection system to carry out gravimetric analysis is presented. Students are faced with an instrumental approach for gravimetric procedures. Crucibles, muffle furnaces, and desiccators are not required. A flowing suspension is established by simultaneously injecting an aqueous sample and a precipitating reagent into two merging carrier streams. The precipitate is accumulated on a minifilter hanging under the plate of an analytical balance and is weighed inside the main stream. Since Archimedes' principle holds, a drying step is not needed. After measurement, the precipitate is dissolved and disposed of. As an application, the determination of phosphate based on precipitation with ammonium and magnesium ions in slightly alkaline medium is chosen. The proposed system is very stable and well suited for demonstration. When applied to analysis of fertilizer extracts with 0.10-1.00% w/v P, it yields precise results (RSD < 0.042) in agreement with an official spectrophotometric method.

  15. Method and apparatus for continuous flow injection extraction analysis

    DOEpatents

    Hartenstein, Steven D.; Siemer, Darryl D.

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for a continuous flow injection batch extraction aysis system is disclosed employing extraction of a component of a first liquid into a second liquid which is a solvent for a component of the first liquid, and is immiscible with the first liquid, and for separating the first liquid from the second liquid subsequent to extraction of the component of the first liquid.

  16. A Homemade Autosampler/Injector Commutator for Flow Injection Analysis

    PubMed Central

    de Figueiredo, Eduardo Costa; de Souza, Leandro Ruela; de Magalhães, Cristiana Schmidt; Wisniewski, Célio

    2006-01-01

    An autosampler/injector commutator for flow injection analysis (FIA) was constructed with electronic components of used equipments. The apparatus is controlled by commercially available multifunctional interface (PCL711B) connected to a personal computer, and the software was written in Visual Basic language. The system was applied to water analysis and it presented satisfactory results. The low cost and simplicity are the principal characteristics of the autosampler/injector commutator. PMID:17671617

  17. Flow Simulation of Solid Rocket Motors. 1; Injection Induced Water-Flow Tests from Porous Media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, N.; Yeh, Y. P.; Smith, A. W.; Heaman, J. P.

    1999-01-01

    Prior to selecting a proper porous material for use in simulating the internal port flow of a solid rocket motor (SRM), in cold-flow testing, the flow emerging from porous materials is experimentally investigated. The injection-flow emerging from a porous matrix always exhibits a lumpy velocity profile that is spatially stable and affects the development of the longitudinal port flow. This flow instability, termed pseudoturbulence, is an inherent signature of the porous matrix and is found to generally increase with the wall porosity and with the injection flow rate. Visualization studies further show that the flow from porous walls made from shaving-type material (sintered stainless-steel) exhibits strong recirculation zones that are conspicuously absent in walls made from nodular or spherical material (sintered bronze). Detailed flow visualization observations and hot-film measurements are reported from tests of injection-flow and a coupled cross-flow from different porous wall materials. Based on the experimental data, discussion is provided on the choice of suitable material for SRM model testing while addressing the consequences and shortcomings from such a test.

  18. Transverse jet injection into a supersonic turbulent cross-flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Z. A.; Thornber, B.; Drikakis, D.

    2011-04-01

    Jet injection into a supersonic cross-flow is a challenging fluid dynamics problem in the field of aerospace engineering which has applications as part of a rocket thrust vector control system for noise control in cavities and fuel injection in scramjet combustion chambers. Several experimental and theoretical/numerical works have been conducted to explore this flow; however, there is a dearth of literature detailing the instantaneous flow which is vital to improve the efficiency of the mixing of fluids. In this paper, a sonic jet in a Mach 1.6 free-stream is studied using a finite volume Godunov type implicit large eddy simulations technique, which employs fifth-order accurate MUSCL (Monotone Upstream-centered Schemes for Conservation Laws) scheme with modified variable extrapolation and a three-stage second-order strong-stability-preserving Runge-Kutta scheme for temporal advancement. A digital filter based turbulent inflow data generation method is implemented in order to capture the physics of the supersonic turbulent boundary layer. This paper details the averaged and instantaneous flow features including vortex structures downstream of the jet injection, along with the jet penetration, jet mixing, pressure distributions, turbulent kinetic energy, and Reynolds stresses in the downstream flow. It demonstrates that Kelvin-Helmholtz type instabilities in the upper jet shear layer are primarily responsible for mixing of the two fluids. The results are compared to experimental data and recently performed classical large eddy simulations (LES) with the same initial conditions in order to demonstrate the accuracy of the numerical methods and utility of the inflow generation method. Results here show equivalent accuracy for 1/45th of the computational resources used in the classical LES study.

  19. Quantitation of glycerophosphorylcholine by flow injection analysis using immobilized enzymes.

    PubMed

    Mancini, A; Del Rosso, F; Roberti, R; Caligiana, P; Vecchini, A; Binaglia, L

    1996-09-20

    A method for quantitating glycerophosphorylcholine by flow injection analysis is reported in the present paper. Glycerophosphorylcholine phosphodiesterase and choline oxidase, immobilized on controlled porosity glass beads, are packed in a small reactor inserted in a flow injection manifold. When samples containing glycerophosphorylcholine are injected, glycerophosphorylcholine is hydrolyzed into choline and sn-glycerol-3-phosphate. The free choline produced in this reaction is oxidized to betain and hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide is detected amperometrically. Quantitation of glycerophosphorylcholine in samples containing choline and phosphorylcholine is obtained inserting ahead of the reactor a small column packed with a mixed bed ion exchange resin. The time needed for each determination does not exceed one minute. The present method, applied to quantitate glycerophosphorylcholine in samples of seminal plasma, gave results comparable with those obtained using the standard enzymatic-spectrophotometric procedure. An alternative procedure, making use of co-immobilized glycerophosphorylcholine phosphodiesterase and glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase for quantitating glycerophosphorylcholine, glycerophosphorylethanolamine and glycerophosphorylserine is also described. PMID:8905629

  20. Recent Development in Optical Chemical Sensors Coupling with Flow Injection Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ojeda, Catalina Bosch; Rojas, Fuensanta Sánchez

    2006-01-01

    Optical techniques for chemical analysis are well established and sensors based on these techniques are now attracting considerable attention because of their importance in applications such as environmental monitoring, biomedical sensing, and industrial process control. On the other hand, flow injection analysis (FIA) is advisable for the rapid analysis of microliter volume samples and can be interfaced directly to the chemical process. The FIA has become a widespread automatic analytical method for more reasons; mainly due to the simplicity and low cost of the setups, their versatility, and ease of assembling. In this paper, an overview of flow injection determinations by using optical chemical sensors is provided, and instrumentation, sensor design, and applications are discussed. This work summarizes the most relevant manuscripts from 1980 to date referred to analysis using optical chemical sensors in FIA.

  1. Sonic injection through diamond orifices into a hypersonic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Huaiguo

    The objective for the present study was to experimentally characterize the performance of diamond shaped injectors for hypersonic flow applications. First, an extensive literature review was performed. Second, a small scale Mach 5.0 wind tunnel facility was installed. Third, a detailed experimental parametric investigation of sonic injection through a diamond orifice (five incidence angles and three momentum ratios) and a circular injector (three momentum ratios) into the Mach 5.0 freestream was performed. Also, the use of downstream plume vorticity control ramps was investigated. Fourth, a detailed analysis of the experimental data to characterize and model the flow for the present range of conditions was achieved. The experimental techniques include surface oil flow visualization, Mie-Scattering flow visualization, particle image velocimetry (PIV), shadowgraph photograph, and a five-hole mean flow probe. The results show that the diamond injectors have the potential to produce attached shock depending on the incidence angle and jet momentum ratio. For example, the incidence angles less than or equal to 45° at J = 0.43 generated attached interaction shocks. The attached shock produced reduced total pressure loss (drag for scramjet) and eliminated potential hot spots, associated with the upstream flow separation. The jet interaction shock angle increased with jet incidence angle and momentum ratio due to increased penetration and flow disturbances. The plume penetration and cross-sectional area increased with incidence angle and momentum ratio. The increased jet interaction shock angle and strength produced increased total pressure loss, jet interaction force and total normal force. The characteristic kidney bean shaped plume was not discernable from the diamond injectors indicating increased effectiveness for film cooling applications. A vorticity generation ramp increased the penetration of the plume and the plume shape was indicative of higher levels of

  2. Experiment on fuel injection in high-enthalpy flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanno, Hideyuki; Komuro, Tomoyuki; Sato, Kazuo; Itoh, Katsuhiro; Ueda, Shuichi

    2001-04-01

    An experiment of inert gas injection into a high enthalpy hypersonic air flow is described. Gaseous helium at room temperature was injected transversely through four (phi) 1.5 mm circular sonic injectors at a spacing of 20 mm, which was located 28 mm downstream from a backward-facing step of 4 mm height. The experiment was carried out in the high enthalpy shock tunnel HIEST under the free stream test condition at Mach number of 6.5 and at the velocity of 4 km/s. The purpose of the experiment was to examine transient behavior of the helium jet mixing with the test air flow. Sequential Schlieren flow visualization with high-speed CCD camera of 1 (mu) sec exposure time have been used. Pitot pressure profile in the helium jet was measured at three stream-wise location. The measurements showed that the helium jet reached to the steady state in less than 2 msec, which was within HIEST test duration.

  3. Novel flow-through pneumatoamperometric detector for determination of nanogram and subnanogram amounts of nitrite by flow-injection analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Trojanek, A.; Bruckenstein, S.

    1986-04-01

    A gas porous electrode structure that detects volatile electroactive species in a flowing liquid stream is described and evaluated for its utility in flow injection analysis. The electrode is fabricated by depositing a porous gold layer on one side of a porous Teflon membrane. The gold serves as the amperometric electrode which consumes dissolved, volatile species that is transported from the flowing solution through the membrane to the metalized face where it is electrolyzed. Nitrite ion is determined by reaction in the carrier stream to produce nitric oxide and iodine, and both are electroxidized at the gold electrode. The detection limit is 30 pg of nitrite ion. Dissolved, nonvolatile electroactive species do not interfere. 17 references, 3 figures.

  4. Reference Solutions for Benchmark Turbulent Flows in Three Dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diskin, Boris; Thomas, James L.; Pandya, Mohagna J.; Rumsey, Christopher L.

    2016-01-01

    A grid convergence study is performed to establish benchmark solutions for turbulent flows in three dimensions (3D) in support of turbulence-model verification campaign at the Turbulence Modeling Resource (TMR) website. The three benchmark cases are subsonic flows around a 3D bump and a hemisphere-cylinder configuration and a supersonic internal flow through a square duct. Reference solutions are computed for Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes equations with the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model using a linear eddy-viscosity model for the external flows and a nonlinear eddy-viscosity model based on a quadratic constitutive relation for the internal flow. The study involves three widely-used practical computational fluid dynamics codes developed and supported at NASA Langley Research Center: FUN3D, USM3D, and CFL3D. Reference steady-state solutions computed with these three codes on families of consistently refined grids are presented. Grid-to-grid and code-to-code variations are described in detail.

  5. Effect of injection wells with partially perforated completion on CO2/brine flow distribution and injectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guyant, E.; Han, W. S.; Kim, K. Y.; Jung, N. H.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon Capture and Sequestration is a viable technology to reduce the concentration of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere. The success of an injection project requires large amounts of dry supercritical CO2 to be injected into brine saturated aquifers within the subsurface. However, solid salt precipitation causes a reduction of permeability, having adverse effects on well injectivity as well as pressure build-up. This study evaluated the accumulation of precipitated salt, brine flux patterns, and pressure build-up for two well constructions, 1) partially completed with 4 injection intervals and 2) fully completed throughout the thickness of the target formation. This study found that when a partially completed well is implemented, precipitation of solid salt experiences a greater radial extent then a fully completed well. Both well designs showed non-localized salt precipitation in low permeability formations (5 and 50 mD) and localized salt precipitation at high permeability (250 and 500 mD). It was also found that two different brine flux patterns occurred; under low-k conditions the brine flux was primarily outward and parallel to the direction of the CO2 migration and salt precipitation became limited. While under high-k conditions there developed back-flow of the brine to the tail of the plume as the plume experienced greater vertical movement, and the counter-flowing brine sustained the precipitation process amplifying salt precipitation. When this process occurred the permeability reduction factor became orders of magnitude less then when non-localized salt precipitation occurred, and formed an impermeable barrier around the injection well. The formation of this barrier was found to have the effect of increasing the pressure build-up near the well in regions of the reservoir in which it occurred. A sensitivity analysis on the anisotropic/isotropic nature of the reservoir and the value of the critical porosity was also conducted. The

  6. Simple and clean determination of tetracyclines by flow injection analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Michael Pérez; Pezza, Helena Redigolo; Pezza, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    An environmentally reliable analytical methodology was developed for direct quantification of tetracycline (TC) and oxytetracycline (OTC) using continuous flow injection analysis with spectrophotometric detection. The method is based on the diazo coupling reaction between the tetracyclines and diazotized sulfanilic acid in a basic medium, resulting in the formation of an intense orange azo compound that presents maximum absorption at 434 nm. Experimental design was used to optimize the analytical conditions. The proposed technique was validated over the concentration range of 1 to 40 μg mL- 1, and was successfully applied to samples of commercial veterinary pharmaceuticals. The detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) limits were 0.40 and 1.35 μg mL- 1, respectively. The samples were also analyzed by an HPLC method, and the results showed agreement with the proposed technique. The new flow injection method can be immediately used for quality control purposes in the pharmaceutical industry, facilitating monitoring in real time during the production processes of tetracycline formulations for veterinary use.

  7. Sensitive flow-injection spectrophotometric analysis of bromopride.

    PubMed

    Lima, Liliane Spazzapam; Los Weinert, Patrícia; Pezza, Leonardo; Pezza, Helena Redigolo

    2014-12-10

    A flow injection spectrophotometric procedure employing merging zones is proposed for direct bromopride determination in pharmaceutical formulations and biological fluids. The proposed method is based on the reaction between bromopride and p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (p-DAC) in acid medium, in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), resulting in formation of a violet product (λmax=565nm). Experimental design methodologies were used to optimize the experimental conditions. The Beer-Lambert law was obeyed in a bromopride concentration range of 3.63×10(-7) to 2.90×10(-5)molL(-1), with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9999. The limits of detection and quantification were 1.07×10(-7) and 3.57×10(-7)molL(-1), respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of bromopride in pharmaceuticals and human urine, and recoveries of the drug from these media were in the ranges 99.6-101.2% and 98.6-102.1%, respectively. This new flow injection procedure does not require any sample pretreatment steps. PMID:24992919

  8. Sensitive flow-injection spectrophotometric analysis of bromopride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Liliane Spazzapam; Weinert, Patrícia Los; Pezza, Leonardo; Pezza, Helena Redigolo

    2014-12-01

    A flow injection spectrophotometric procedure employing merging zones is proposed for direct bromopride determination in pharmaceutical formulations and biological fluids. The proposed method is based on the reaction between bromopride and p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (p-DAC) in acid medium, in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), resulting in formation of a violet product (λmax = 565 nm). Experimental design methodologies were used to optimize the experimental conditions. The Beer-Lambert law was obeyed in a bromopride concentration range of 3.63 × 10-7 to 2.90 × 10-5 mol L-1, with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9999. The limits of detection and quantification were 1.07 × 10-7 and 3.57 × 10-7 mol L-1, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of bromopride in pharmaceuticals and human urine, and recoveries of the drug from these media were in the ranges 99.6-101.2% and 98.6-102.1%, respectively. This new flow injection procedure does not require any sample pretreatment steps.

  9. Flow characteristics of spray impingement in PFI injection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panão, M. R. O.; Moreira, A. L. N.

    2005-08-01

    The present paper addresses an experimental study of the dynamic exchanges between the impact of an intermittent spray and the liquid film formed over the target, based on detailed phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) measurements of droplet size, velocity and volume flux in the vicinity of the impact. The flow configuration is that of a pulsed injector spraying gasoline onto a flat disc to simulate the port fuel injection (PFI) of an internal combustion engine operating at cold-start conditions. The measurements evidence that the outcome of impact cannot be accurately predicted based on the characteristics of the free spray, but requires precise knowledge of the flow structure, induced by the target. The implications for spray wall interaction modelling are then discussed based on the application of conservation equations to the mass, momentum and energy exchanged between the impinging droplets and the liquid film. The results show that the liquid film starts to form in the vicinity of the stagnation region at early stages of injection and a non-negligible proportion of droplets impinging at outer regions splash after interaction with the film. Film disruption is mainly driven by the intermittent axial momentum of impinging droplets, which enhances the vertical oscillations. The radial momentum imparted to the liquid film at the stagnation region is fed back onto secondary droplets emerging later during the injection cycle at outwards locations, where momentum of impacting droplets is much smaller. As a consequence, although the number of splashed droplets is enhanced by normal momentum, their size and ejection velocity depends more on the radial spread induced onto the liquid film and, hence, on the radial momentum at impact. The analysis further shows that existing spray wall interaction models can be improved if the dynamic exchanges between the impacting spray and the liquid film are accounted.

  10. Holographic interferometry with an injection seeded Nd:YAG laser and two reference beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Arthur J.

    1989-01-01

    The performance of twin injection seeded Nd:YAG lasers is compared with the performance of an argon-ion laser for recording dual-reference-beam holograms in AGFA 8E56 emulsion. Optical heterodyning is used to measure interference, and the results are expressed in terms of heterodyning signal level and intensity signal-to-noise. The Nd:YAG laser system is to be used for optical inspections of structures for cracks, defects, gas leaks, and structural changes.

  11. Flow injection based microfluidic device with carbon nanotube electrode for rapid salbutamol detection.

    PubMed

    Karuwan, Chanpen; Wisitsoraat, Anurat; Maturos, Thitima; Phokharatkul, Disayut; Sappat, Assawapong; Jaruwongrungsee, Kata; Lomas, Tanom; Tuantranont, Adisorn

    2009-09-15

    A microfabicated flow injection device has been developed for in-channel electrochemical detection (ECD) of a beta-agonist, namely salbutamol. The microfluidic system consists of PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) microchannel and electrochemical electrodes formed on glass substrate. The carbon nanotube (CNT) on gold layer as working electrode, silver as reference electrode and platinum as auxiliary electrode were deposited on a glass substrate. Silver, platinum, gold and stainless steel catalyst layers were coated by DC-sputtering. CNTs were then grown on the glass substance by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with gravity effect and water-assisted etching. 100-microm-deep and 500-microm-wide PDMS microchannels fabricated by SU-8 molding and casting were then bonded on glass substrate by oxygen plasma treatment. Flow injection and ECD of salbutamol was performed with the amperometric detection mode for in-channel detection of salbutamol. The influences of flow rate, injection volume, and detection potential on the response of current signal were optimized. Analytical characteristics, such as sensitivity, repeatability and dynamic range have been evaluated. Fast and highly sensitive detection of salbutamol have been achieved. Thus, the proposed combination of the efficient CNT electrode and miniaturized lab-on-a-chip is a powerful platform for beta-agonists detection. PMID:19615498

  12. Three-dimensional computations of cross-flow injection and combustion in a supersonic flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, M. H.

    1989-01-01

    A low-storage version of the SPARK3D code which is based on the temporally second-order accurate MacCormack (1969) explicit scheme is used to solve the governing equations for three-dimensional chemically reacting flows with finite-rate chemistry. The code includes a fourth-order compact spatial scheme capable of providing higher order spatial accuracy, and it is used to study two-dimensional linear advection, two-dimensional Euler flow, and three-dimensional viscous flow. Also considered are the injection, mixing, and combustion of hydrogen in a supersonic cross stream.

  13. From continuous flow analysis to programmable Flow Injection techniques. A history and tutorial of emerging methodologies.

    PubMed

    Ruzicka, Jaromir Jarda

    2016-09-01

    Automation of reagent based assays, also known as Flow Analysis, is based on sample processing, in which a sample flows towards and through a detector for monitoring of its components. The Achilles heel of this methodology is that the majority of FA techniques use constant continuous forward flow to transport the sample - an approach which continually consumes reagents and generates chemical waste. Therefore the purpose of this report is to highlight recent developments of flow programming that not only save reagents, but also lead by means of advanced sample processing to selective and sensitive assays based on stop flow measurement. Flow programming combined with a novel approach to data harvesting yields a novel approach to single standard calibration, and avoids interference caused by refractive index. Finally, flow programming is useful for sample preparation, such as rapid, extensive sample dilution. The principles are illustrated by selected references to an available online tutorial http://www.flowinjectiontutorial,com/. PMID:27343609

  14. Qualitative investigation of cryogenic fluid injection into a supersonic flow field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Boldman, D. R.; Neumann, H. E.; Vlcek, B. L.

    1990-01-01

    The behavior of liquid nitrogen injected into a supersonic nitrogen flow field was investigated using an experimental apparatus in which a Mach 2.7 2D gas nitrogen tunnel is coupled with a high-pressure cryogenic source. Observations were monitored and recorded via a video camera and a motion picture camera. It was found that the penetration of a supersonic flow field by injection of liquid nitrogen is strongly dependent on the flow Mach number, the cryogen injection pressure (Pi/Pc), the injector configuration, and the cryogen temperature. For a 2D gaseous N2, Mach 2.7 tunnel, with cryogen injection Pi/Pc approaching 2, the injected fluid penetration for the 1/8-in. injection port approached one half of the tunnel width at 90-deg injection, and one fourth of the tunnel width at 20-deg injection.

  15. A flow injection flow cytometry system for on-line monitoring of bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, R; Natarajan, A; Srienc, F

    1999-03-01

    For direct and on-line study of the physiological states of cell cultures, a robust flow injection system has been designed and interfaced with flow cytometry (FI-FCM). The core of the flow injection system includes a microchamber designed for sample processing. The design of this microchamber allows not only an accurate on-line dilution but also on-line cell fixation, staining, and washing. The flow injection part of the system was tested by monitoring the optical density of a growing E.coli culture on-line using a spectrophotometer. The entire growth curve, from lag phase to stationary phase, was obtained with frequent sampling. The performance of the entire FI-FCM system is demonstrated in three applications. The first is the monitoring of green fluorescent protein fluorophore formation kinetics in E.coli by visualizing the fluorescence evolution after protein synthesis is inhibited. The data revealed a subpopulation of cells that do not become fluorescent. In addition, the data show that single-cell fluorescence is distributed over a wide range and that the fluorescent population contains cells that are capable of reaching significantly higher expression levels than that indicated by the population average. The second application is the detailed flow cytometric evaluation of the batch growth dynamics of E.coli expressing Gfp. The collected single-cell data visualize the batch growth phases and it is shown that a state of balanced growth is never reached by the culture. The third application is the determination of distribution of DNA content of a S. cerevisiae population by automatically staining cells using a DNA-specific stain. Reproducibility of the on-line staining reaction shows that the system is not restricted to measuring the native properties of cells; rather, a wider range of cellular components could be monitored after appropriate sample processing. The system is thus particularly useful because it operates automatically without direct operator

  16. Effect of injected polymer thread on turbulence in a pipe flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usui, Hiromoto; Sano, Yuji

    The effect of polymer threads injected into a shear pipe flow on the properties of the flow were investigated using an experimental setup similar to that described by Usui et al. (1987). The velocity data on the injected threads were obtained separately from the water-phase velocity in the pipe flow. Results showed that polymer threads moved with higher velocity and that both the radial fluctuation and the Reynolds stress of the flow were significantly suppressed, demonstrating that an injection of highly viscoelastic polymer solution into a turbulent pipe flow is an effective method for controlling turbulence.

  17. Remote calorimetric detection of urea via flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Gaddes, David E; Demirel, Melik C; Reeves, W Brian; Tadigadapa, Srinivas

    2015-12-01

    The design and development of a calorimetric biosensing system enabling relatively high throughput sample analysis are reported. The calorimetric biosensor system consists of a thin (∼20 μm) micromachined Y-cut quartz crystal resonator (QCR) as a temperature sensor placed in close proximity to a fluidic chamber packed with an immobilized enzyme. Layer by layer enzyme immobilization of urease is demonstrated and its activity as a function of the number of layers, pH, and time has been evaluated. This configuration enables a sensing system where a transducer element is physically separated from the analyte solution of interest and is thereby free from fouling effects typically associated with biochemical reactions occuring on the sensor surface. The performance of this biosensing system is demonstrated by detection of 1-200 mM urea in phosphate buffer via a flow injection analysis (FIA) technique. Miniaturized fluidic systems were used to provide continuous flow through a reaction column. Under this configuration the biosensor has an ultimate resolution of less than 1 mM urea and showed a linear response between 0-50 mM. This work demonstrates a sensing modality in which the sensor itself is not fouled or contaminated by the solution of interest and the enzyme immobilized Kapton® fluidic reaction column can be used as a disposable cartridge. Such a system enables reuse and reliability for long term sampling measurements. Based on this concept a biosensing system is envisioned which can perform rapid measurements to detect biomarkers such as glucose, creatinine, cholesterol, urea and lactate in urine and blood continuously over extended periods of time. PMID:26479269

  18. Flow injection kinetic spectrofluorimetric determination of trace amounts of osmium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Bo; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Yan

    2005-07-01

    A flow injection (FI) kinetic spectrofluorimetric method is described for the determination of osmium(IV) and the possible mechanism of catalytic reaction is discussed. The method is based on the fluorescence enhancing reaction of o-vanillin furfuralhydrazone (OVFH) with potassium bromate, which is catalyzed by Os(IV) in water medium at pH 6.10 and 45 °C. OVFH is newly synthesized and its ionization, IR and elemental analysis are established. Under these experimental conditions, the oxidized product of OVFH has excitation and emission maxima at 337 and 490 nm, respectively. The linear range of this method is 0-600 ng ml -1 with the R.S.D. of 1.2%. The detection limit is 1.0 ng ml -1 of Os(IV). A high analysis rate of 24 samples h -1 is obtained by the FI method. The proposed method is applied successfully to determine Os(IV) in synthetic mixture and mineral samples, and the results are well consistent with the standard values.

  19. Exploratory study of the effects of injection configurations and inlet flow conditions on the characteristics of flow in spherical chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B. V.

    1972-01-01

    Flow visualization studies were conducted to evaluate techniques for injecting simulated-fuel and simulated-propellant gases into a spherical cavity for application to open-cycle gaseous-core nuclear rockets. Preliminary studies were conducted with six simulated-fuel injectors and eight simulated-propellant injection configurations. Additional tests were conducted with the best configuration to determine the effect of weight-flow ratio, gas density ratio, injector location, and flow distribution on the simulated-fuel containment characteristics.

  20. Numerical simulation of injection and mixing in supersonic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox-Stouffer, Susan K.

    A numerical investigation of the performance of two candidate designs for injection into supersonic flow, including a comparison of two renormalized group theory (RNG) based K-epsilon turbulence models with a more conventional K-epsilon model. The chosen designs were an unswept ramp injector with four injection ports and a novel nine-hole injector array. The objectives of the investigation were to provide reliable computational solutions to the flowfields in question using both RNG and standard K-epsilon turbulence models and to compare the solutions to experiment, thereby to judge the relative performance of the turbulence models. A second objective of the investigation was to use the computed data to provide design insights for the nine-hole injector array. This investigation made use of GASP(TM) version 2.2, a commercial computational fluid dynamics code that was augmented by the addition of one RNG-based K-epsilon turbulence model derived by Zhou, et al. and one variant of Zhou's model, which was derived by the author. Mesh sequencing studies were performed to measure solution quality, with the fine mesh for the injector array containing roughly one million grid nodes and the fine mesh for the ramp injector containing more than six million grid nodes. Results of these studies indicated that the injector-array solution was significantly under-resolved in the farfield, though the quality was better in the vicinity of the injector itself. The ramp-injector solution, while not perfectly grid-resolved, showed much better grid convergence in both the nearfield and farfield. Accordingly, comparison with experiment was better for the ramp injector than for the injector array. For both injectors, the differences between solutions generated with RNG-base K-epsilon and standard K-epsilon turbulence models was negligibly small. Despite inadequate grid resolution in the farfield, the computational investigation of the nine-hole injector array did yield several important

  1. Investigation of the three-dimensional turbulent flow downstream of swept slot injection in hypersonic flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hefner, J. N.; Cary, A. M., Jr.; Bushnell, D. M.

    1974-01-01

    Results of an experimental and numerical investigation of tangential swept slot injection (sweep angles of 22.5 and 45 deg) into a thick turbulent boundary layer at Mach 6 are presented. Film cooling effectiveness, skin friction, and flow structure downstream of the swept slot injection are investigated. The data are compared to that for unswept slots, and it is found that cooling effectiveness and skin-friction reductions are not significantly affected by sweeping the slot. Predictions of cooling effectiveness and skin friction obtained by a numerical finite-difference technique agree reasonably well with experimental surface variables. As in previous supersonic two-dimensional slot research, reduced mixing was found downstream of the slot lip in the present three-dimensional case.

  2. Injectant mole-fraction imaging in compressible mixing flows using planar laser-induced iodine fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartfield, Roy J., Jr.; Abbitt, John D., III; Mcdaniel, James C.

    1989-01-01

    A technique is described for imaging the injectant mole-fraction distribution in nonreacting compressible mixing flow fields. Planar fluorescence from iodine, seeded into air, is induced by a broadband argon-ion laser and collected using an intensified charge-injection-device array camera. The technique eliminates the thermodynamic dependence of the iodine fluorescence in the compressible flow field by taking the ratio of two images collected with identical thermodynamic flow conditions but different iodine seeding conditions.

  3. Liquid core optical fiber total reflection cell as a colorimetric detector for flow injection analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, K.; Fuwa, K.

    1985-05-01

    A hollow fiber (250 ..mu..m i.d.) was used as a colorimetric cell for detecting iodine absorption. To attain total reflection of source light inside the capillary, carbon disulfide was used as a solvent which constitutes the fiber core. A funnel-shaped glass was used for efficiency condensing the light source emission into an aperture of hollow fiber; a low-power tungsten lamp was usable as the light source. With a 5-m cell, 0.1 ..mu..g of I/mL (10 ng of I) can be detected based on the iodine absorption at 540 nm when the solution was injected into the carbon disulfide flow. An automated detection system of iodide ion was also constructed. 11 references, 8 figures.

  4. Selective determination of chlorine dioxide using gas diffusion flow injection analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hollowell, D.A.; Pacey, G.E.; Gordon, G.

    1985-12-01

    An automated absorbance technique for the determination of aqueous chlorine dioxide has been developed by utilizing gas diffusion flow injection analysis. A gas diffusion membrane is used to separate the donor (sampling) stream from the acceptor (detecting) stream. The absorbance of chlorine dioxide is monitored at 359 nm. The first method uses distilled water as the acceptor stream and gives a detection limit of 0.25 mg/L chlorine dioxide. This system is over 550 times more selective for chlorine dioxide than chlorine. To further minimize chlorine interference, oxalic acid is used in the acceptor stream. The detection limit for this system is 0.45 mg/L chlorine dioxide. This second system is over 5400 times more selective for chlorine dioxide than chlorine. Both methods show excellent selectivity for chlorine dioxide over iron and manganese compounds, as well as other oxychlorinated compounds such as chlorite and perchlorate ions. 18 references, 7 figures, 3 tables.

  5. Flow and transport modeling of liquid radioactive waste injection using data from the Siberian Chemical Plant Injection Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shestakov, V.; Kuvaev, A.; Lekhov, A.; Pozdniakov, S.; Rybalchenko, A.; Zubkov, A.; Davis, P.; Kalinina, E.

    2002-06-01

    The focus of our investigation was simulating pre-injection and post-injection subsurface conditions at the waste disposal site of liquid radioactive wastes at the Siberian Chemical Complex (SCC). The main environmental and human safety concern posed by this site is related to the potential radionuclide discharge into the nearby Tom River and into the existing public-water-supply well fields located 10-13 km away. Even though (within the site) the two lower injection aquifers are isolated from the upper aquifers by a relatively continuous aquitard, in terms of regional flow they represent one hydrogeologic system that is affected by injection as well as by groundwater withdrawal from the upper aquifers and groundwater discharge into the river. Groundwater flow and transport models were developed to simulate regional flow and waste migration. Even after 1,000 years, none of the simulations indicated that there is any serious potential of high-concentration contamination of water supply wells and the discharge zone. In that time frame, simulation indicated a potential for upward movement of some amounts of contaminants through the heterogeneous sandy-clay aquitard. That is why a conceptual model incorporating heterogeneity of the clay aquitard with the possibility of preferential flow via sandy windows needs to be developed. Additional field characterization of the aquitard properties should be performed along the potential contaminant migration pathways that lead to the groundwater discharge zone.

  6. Complex fluid flow revealed by monitoring CO2 injection in a fluvial formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jiemin; Cook, Paul J.; Hosseini, Seyyed A.; Yang, Changbing; Romanak, Katherine D.; Zhang, Tongwei; Freifeld, Barry M.; Smyth, Rebecca C.; Zeng, Hongliu; Hovorka, Susan D.

    2012-03-01

    At Cranfield, Mississippi, United States, a large-scale carbon dioxide (CO2) injection through an injection well (˜3,080 m deep) was continuously monitored using U-tube samplers in two observation wells located 68 and 112 m east of the injector. The Lower Tuscaloosa Formation injection zone, which consists of amalgamated fluvial point-bar and channel-fill deposits, presents an interesting environment for studying fluid flow in heterogeneous formations. Continual fluid sampling was carried out during the first month of CO2 injection. Two subsequent tracer tests using sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and krypton were conducted at different injection rates to measure flow velocity change. The field observations showed significant heterogeneity of fluid flow and for the first time clearly demonstrated that fluid flow evolved with time and injection rate. It was found the wells were connected through numerous, separate flow pathways. CO2 flowed through an increasing fraction of the reservoir and sweep efficiency improved with time. The field study also first documented in situ component exchange between brine and gas phases during CO2 injection. It was found that CH4 degassed from brine and is enriched along the gas-water contact. Multiple injectate flow fronts with high CH4 concentration arrived at different times and led to gas composition fluctuations in the observation wells. The findings provide valuable insights into heterogeneous multiphase flow in rock formations and show that conventional geological models and static fluid flow simulations are unable to fully describe the heterogeneous and dynamic flow during fluid injection.

  7. DETECTING WATER FLOW BEHIND PIPE IN INJECTION WELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency require that an injection well exhibit both internal and external mechanical integrity. The external mechanical integrity consideration is that there is no significant fluid movement into an underground source of drinking water ...

  8. DETECTING WATER FLOW BEHIND PIPE IN INJECTION WELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency require that an injection well exhibit both internal and external mechanical integrity. he external mechanical integrity consideration is that there is no significant fluid movement into an underground source of drinking water th...

  9. Nonreactive viscous solver for hypersonic flows over recessed cone with injection

    SciTech Connect

    Tai, C.H.; Lee, Y.K.

    1995-01-01

    A nonreactive two-species flow in which the gas is injected from the downstream wall of the recess on a hypersonic sharp cone has been investigated by solving the steady full Navier-Stokes equations. The discretization methods have combined Roe`s scheme and multiblock grids for accurate calculations. The species equation has been included in order to simulate the flowfield by injecting different gases. The flow structure and cooling effect has been investigated at M(sub infinity) = 6.0. The flow structure of the recess has been shown by the perfect gas computational results to be significantly affected by injecting cool species gases. An optimal injection rate for the cooling effect has also been shown to exist on the downstream wall of the cone. The cooling effect of injecting helium has been shown to be better than nitrogen and air for both isothermal and adiabatic wall conditions. 18 refs.

  10. A qualitative view of cryogenic fluid injection into high speed flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Schlumberger, J.; Proctor, M.

    1991-01-01

    The injection of supercritical pressure, subcritical temperature fluids, into a 2-D, ambient, static temperature and static pressure supersonic tunnel and free jet supersonic nitrogen flow field was observed. Observed patterns with fluid air were the same as those observed for fluid nitrogen injected into the tunnel at 90 deg to the supersonic flow. The nominal injection pressure was of 6.9 MPa and tunnel Mach number was 2.7. When injected directly into and opposing the tunnel exhaust flow, the observed patterns with fluid air were similar to those observed for fluid nitrogen but appeared more diffusive. Cryogenic injection creates a high density region within the bow shock wake but the standoff distance remains unchanged from the gaseous value. However, as the temperature reaches a critical value, the shock faded and advanced into the supersonic stream. For both fluids, nitrogen and air, the phenomena was completely reversible.

  11. Fundamental Study on the Segmented Flow Injection - Multiphase Flow Formation Towards Microchip-Based Multi-Ion Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisamoto, Hideaki; Horiuchi, Takayuki; Hibara, Akihide; Tokeshi, Manabu; Kitamori, Takehiko

    A new fluid flow inside the microchannel was successfully developed. The flow created here involves segmented flow injection of plural organic phases into a microchannel followed by contact with a single aqueous phase to form stable organic-aqueous two-layer flow inside the microchannel. Fundamental study on the developed flow inside the microchannel was performed by monitoring the dye-doped segmented organic phases by thermal lens microscopy (TLM). Excellent repeatability and very small injection volume in developing segmented flow were realized. The new fluid flow created here is expected to allow us multi-ion sensing, which is not easily demonstrated by conventional ion sensor technology using a solvent polymeric membrane, by combining with neutral ionophore-based ion pair extraction using plural numbers of organic phases containing different ionophore molecules.

  12. Determination of arsenic in a nickel alloy by flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, C. P.; Tyson, J. F.; Offley, S. G.

    1992-08-01

    The development of a method for the direct determination of trace arsenic quantities in nickel alloy digests, by flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry, is described. An optimization study of the manifold and chemical parameters produced system performance, in terms of tolerance of the nickel matrix and sensitivity, such that matrix removal and pre-reduction of As(V) to As (III) prior to arsine generation were eliminated. Full recovery of the As(V) signal from a solution containing 5 ng ml -1 in the presence of 60 μg ml -1 nickel was obtained. Validation of the method was achieved by analyzing a British Chemical Standard (BCS) Certified Reference Material (CRM) #346 IN nickel alloy containing arsenic at a concentration of 50 μg g -1. Following dissolution in nitric and hydrofluoric acids by a microwave assisted procedure, the only subsequent preparation required was dilution by the appropriate factor. Up to 60 injections h -1 may be made, with a detection limit of 0.5 ng ml -1 arsenic (250 pg absolute) as As(V) in a 500 μl sample. The peak height characteristic concentration is 0.46 ng ml -1, with a relative standard deviation of 3.5% for a 10 ng ml -1 As(V) standard ( n = 6).

  13. Differentiating organic and conventional sage by chromatographic and mass spectrometry flow-injection fingerprints

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and flow injection electrospray ionization with ion trap mass spectrometry (FIMS) fingerprints combined with the principal component analysis (PCA) were examined for their potential in differentiating commercial organic and conventional sage samples. The...

  14. FLOW INJECTION ANALYSIS OF TRACE HYDROGEN PEROXIDE USING AN IMMOBILIZED ENZYME REACTOR (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sub-parts per billion (ppb) levels of aqueous hydrogen peroxide have been determined with a flow injection analysis system employing a single bead string reactor composed of horseradish peroxidase covalently bound to an aminated macroporous polymeric absorbent with glutaraldehyde...

  15. On-line flow injection solid sample introduction, leaching and potentiometric determination of fluoride in phosphate rock.

    PubMed

    Sweileh, Jamal A

    2007-01-01

    A flow injection method with on-line solid sample dissolution was developed for the determination of fluoride in phosphate rock. The fluoride was selectively leached (98-102.4 % recovery) from a 50-mg powdered phosphate rock sample with 0.50 M citric acid. Using the zone sampling technique the fluoride in the buffered leachate was determined by injecting 87 muL into the carrier stream using a fluoride ion-selective electrode detector. The sensing element of the electrode was housed in a home-made sleeve-type flow-through cell. On-line solid sample digestion with 0.50 M citric acid at 55 degrees C resulted in minimum dissolution of interfering iron and aluminum ions with improved accuracy and calibration linearity. The incorporation of relatively high level of fluoride in the carrier stream (40 microg mL(-1)) facilitated the determination of high levels of fluoride in phosphate rock (up to 4.1%) with out the need for excessive on-line dilution. The optimized flow system was applied for the determination of fluoride in phosphate rocks samples and a reference material at a rate of nine samples per hour with a relative standard deviation (n=5) of 2.95-4.0 %. Comparison of the proposed flow injection method with the standard method, which involves steam distillation from sulfuric acid solution and manual titration with thorium nitrate, showed no evidence of bias at the 95% confidence level. PMID:17386441

  16. Bubble formation during horizontal gas injection into downward-flowing liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Hua; Thomas, Brian G.

    2001-12-01

    Bubble formation during gas injection into turbulent downward-flowing water is studied using high-speed videos and mathematical models. The bubble size is determined during the initial stages of injection and is very important to turbulent multiphase flow in molten-metal processes. The effects of liquid velocity, gas-injection flow rate, injection hole diameter, and gas composition on the initial bubble-formation behavior have been investigated. Specifically, the bubble-shape evolution, contact angles, size, size range, and formation mode are measured. The bubble size is found to increase with increasing gas-injection flow rate and decreasing liquid velocity and is relatively independent of the gas injection hole size and gas composition. Bubble formation occurs in one of four different modes, depending on the liquid velocity and gas flow rate. Uniform-sized spherical bubbles form and detach from the gas injection hole in mode I for a low liquid speed and small gas flow rate. Modes III and IV occur for high-velocity liquid flows, where the injected gas elongates down along the wall and breaks up into uneven-sized bubbles. An analytical two-stage model is developed to predict the average bubble size, based on realistic force balances, and shows good agreement with measurements. Preliminary results of numerical simulations of bubble formation using a volume-of-fluid (VOF) model qualitatively match experimental observations, but more work is needed to reach a quantitative match. The analytical model is then used to estimate the size of the argon bubbles expected in liquid steel in tundish nozzles for conditions typical of continuous casting with a slide gate. The average argon bubble sizes generated in liquid steel are predicted to be larger than air bubbles in water for the same flow conditions. However, the differences lessen with increasing liquid velocity.

  17. Rapid determination of fluoride in potable waters by potentiometric flow injection analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Davey, D.E.; Mulcahy, D.E.; O'Connell, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    A potentiometric flow injection analysis system is described, enabling tap water and other fluoride-bearing matrices of low interferent level to be determined at the rate of 360 samples per hour using an electrode polished with slurried alumina. Important parameters, such as carrier stream composition, sample volume and detector cell design are discussed with respect to their system. Fluoride electrodes regenerated with silver fluoride and silver epoxy are evaluated in flow injection mode, both before and after polishing.

  18. Pulsed-injection method for blood flow velocity measurement in intraarterial digital subtraction angiography.

    PubMed

    Shaw, C G; Plewes, D B

    1986-08-01

    The pulsed-injection method for measuring the velocity of blood flow in intraarterial digital subtraction angiography is described. With this technique, contrast material is injected at a pulsing frequency as high as 15 Hz, so that two or more boluses can be imaged simultaneously. The velocity of flow is determined by measuring the spacing between the boluses and multiplying it by the pulsing frequency. Results of tests with phantoms correlate well with flow measurements obtained with a graduated cylinder for velocities ranging from 8 to 60 cm/sec. The potential of the method for time-dependent velocity measurement has been demonstrated with simulated pulsatile flows. PMID:3523598

  19. Determination of calcium, magnesium and strontium in soils by flow injection flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Z; Tyson, J F

    1999-12-01

    Several procedures for the determination of Ca, Mg and Sr in soils have been compared on the basis of the accuracy of analysis of two NIST reference materials (Montana Soils SRM 2710 and SRM 2711). Samples were dissolved in a mixture of hydrofluoric and nitric acids in sealed vessels in a microwave oven and in teflon beakers on a hot plate. The digests obtained from both dissolution methods were evaporated to dryness in an attempt to remove silicon. Boric acid was added to prevent the precipitation of the lanthanum releasing agent (as lanthanum fluoride) and potassium was added as an ionization buffer. Determinations were made by flame atomic absorption spectrometry with both the nitrous oxide-acetylene flame and the air-acetylene flame, with calibration either by standard additions or against external standards matrix matched with respect to nitric acid, boric acid, lanthanum and potassium. The silicon remaining in the solution was also determined by external calibration. A single-line flow injection manifold was used to overcome any problems due to the presence of high dissolved solids. A volume of 300 mul was injected into a water carrier stream flowing at 8 ml min(-1). To determine Ca in the air-acetylene flame, it was necessary to remove silicon. Magnesium was determined in either flame without complete removal of the silicon, however, for the determination of Sr, it was necessary to remove the silicon and use the nitrous oxide-acetylene flame. The indicative value for Sr in SRM 2710 was too low: the value determined was 360+/-30 mug g(-1). PMID:18967785

  20. A 3-D nonisothermal flow simulation and pulling force model for injection pultrusion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, Ibrahim

    1998-12-01

    Injected Pultrusion (IP) is an efficient way of producing high quality, low cost, high volume and constant cross-section polymeric composites. This process has been developed recently, and the efforts to optimize it are still underway. This work is related to the development of a 3-D non-isothermal flow model for the IP processes. The governing equations for transport of mass, momentum and, energy are formulated by using a local volume averaging approach, and the Finite Element/Control Volume method is used to solve the system of equations numerically. The chemical species balance equation is solved in the Lagrangian frame of reference whereas the energy equation is solved using Galerkin, SU (Streamline Upwind), and SUPG (Streamline Upwind Petrov Galerkin) approaches. By varying degrees of freedom and the flow rates of the resin, it is shown that at high Peclet numbers the SUPG formulation performs better than the SU and the Galerkin methods in all cases. The 3-D model predictions for degree of cure and temperature are compared with a one dimensional analytical solution and the results are found satisfactory. Moreover, by varying the Brinkman Number, it is shown that the effect of viscous dissipation is insignificant. The 3-D flow simulations have been carried out for both thin and thick parts and the results are compared with the 2-D model. It is shown that for thick parts 2-D simulations render erroneous results. The effect of changing permeability on the flow fronts is also addressed. The effect of increasing taper angle on the model prediction is also investigated. A parametric study is conducted to isolate optimum conditions for both isothermal and non-isothermal cases using a straight rectangular die and a die with a tapered inlet. Finally, a simple pulling force model is developed and the pulling force required to pull the carbon-epoxy fiber resin system is estimated for dies of varying tapered inlet.

  1. The aerodynamic effects of wheelspace coolant injection into the mainstream flow of a high pressure gas turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, Christopher Elliot

    Modern gas turbine engines operate with mainstream gas temperatures exceeding 1450°C in the high-pressure turbine stage. Unlike turbine blades, rotor disks and other internal components are not designed to withstand the extreme temperatures found in mainstream flow. In modern gas turbines, cooling air is pumped into the wheelspace cavities to prevent mainstream gas ingestion and then exits through a seal between the rotor and the nozzle guide vane (NGV) thereby mixing with the mainstream flow. The primary purpose for the wheelspace cooling air is the cooling of the turbine wheelspace. However, secondary effects arise from the mixing of the spent cooling air with the mainstream flow. The exiting cooling air is mixed with the hot mainstream flow effecting the aerodynamic and performance characteristics of the turbine stage. The physics underlying this mixing process and its effects on stage performance are not yet fully understood. The relative aerodynamic and performance effects associated with rotor - NGV gap coolant injections were investigated in the Axial Flow Turbine Research Facility (AFTRF) of the Center for Gas Turbines and Power of The Pennsylvania State University. This study quantifies the secondary effects of the coolant injection on the aerodynamic and performance character of the turbines main stream flow for root injection, radial cooling, and impingement cooling. Measurement and analysis of the cooling effects were performed in both stationary and rotational frames of reference. The AFTRF is unique in its ability to perform long duration cooling measurements in the stationary and rotating frames. The effects of wheelspace coolant mixing with the mainstream flow on total-to-total efficiency, energy transport, three dimensional velocity field, and loading coefficient were investigated. Overall, it was found that a small quantity (1%) of cooling air can have significant effects on the performance character and exit conditions of the high pressure stage

  2. Insights into Cold Water Injection Stimulation Effects through Analytical Solutions to Flow and Heat Transport

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Plummer

    2013-09-01

    Wells in traditional hydrothermal reservoirs are used to extract heat and to dispose of cooled water. In the first case, high productivity (the ratio of production flow rate to the pressure differential required to produce that rate) to is preferred in order to maximize power generation, while minimizing the parasitic energy loss of pumping. In the second case, high injectivity (the ratio of injection flow rate to the pressure differential required to produce that rate) is preferred, in order to reduce pumping costs. In order to improve productivity or injectivity, cold water is sometimes injected into the reservoir in an attempt to cool and contract the surrounding rock matrix and thereby induce dilation and/or extension of existing fractures or to generate new fractures. Though the increases in permeability associated with these changes are likely localized, by improving connectivity to more extensive high-permeability fractures they can at least temporarily provide substantially improved productivity or injectivity.

  3. Flow visualization of lateral jet injection into swirling crossflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrell, G. B.; Aoki, K.; Lilley, D. G.

    1985-01-01

    Flow visualization experiments have been conducted to characterize the time-mean flowfield of a deflected turbulent jet in a confining cylindrical crossflow. Jet-to-crossflow velocity ratios of 2, 4, and 6 were investigated, under crossflow inlet swirler vane angles of 0 (swirler removed), 45 and 70 degrees. Smoke, neutrally-buoyant helium-filled soap bubbles, and multi-spark flow visualization were employed to highlight interesting features of the deflected jet, as well as the trajectory and spread pattern of the jet. Gross flowfield characterization was obtained for a range of lateral jet-to-crossflow velocity ratios and a range of inlet swirl strengths in the main flow. The flow visualization results agree well with the measurements obtained elsewhere with the six-orientation single hot-wire method.

  4. Liquid sprays and flow studies in the direct-injection diesel engine under motored conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Hung Lee; Carpenter, Mark H.; Ramos, Juan I.; Schock, Harold J.; Stegeman, James D.

    1988-01-01

    A two dimensional, implicit finite difference method of the control volume variety, a two equation model of turbulence, and a discrete droplet model were used to study the flow field, turbulence levels, fuel penetration, vaporization, and mixing in diesel engine environments. The model was also used to study the effects of engine speed, injection angle, spray cone angle, droplet distribution, and intake swirl angle on the flow field, spray penetration and vaporization, and turbulence in motored two-stroke diesel engines. It is shown that there are optimum conditions for injection, which depend on droplet distribution, swirl, spray cone angle, and injection angle. The optimum conditions result in good spray penetration and vaporization and in good fuel mixing. The calculation presented clearly indicates that internal combustion engine models can be used to assess, at least qualitatively, the effects of injection characteristics and engine operating conditions on the flow field and on the spray penetration and vaporization in diesel engines.

  5. Flow regime analysis for fluid injection into a confined aquifer: implications for CO2 sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, B.; Zheng, Z.; Celia, M. A.; Stone, H.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon dioxide injection into a confined saline aquifer may be modeled as an axisymmetric two-phase flow problem. Assuming the two fluids segregate in the vertical direction due to strong buoyancy, and neglecting capillary pressure and miscibility, the lubrication approximation leads to a nonlinear advection-diffusion equation that describes the evolution of the sharp fluid-fluid interface. The flow behaviors in the system are controlled by two dimensionless groups: M, the viscosity ratio of the displaced fluid relative to injected fluid, and Γ , the gravity number, which represents the relative importance of buoyancy and fluid injection. Four different analytical solutions can be derived as the asymptotic approximations, representing specific values of the parameter pairs. The four solutions correspond to: (1) Γ << 1, M <1; (2) Γ << 1, M =1; (3) Γ << 1, M >1; and (4) Γ >> 1, any M values. The first two of these solutions are new, while the third corresponds to the solution of Nordbotten and Celia (2006) for confined injections and the fourth corresponds to the solution of (Lyle et al., 2005) for gravity currents in an unconfined aquifer. Overall, the various axisymmetric flows can be summarized in a Γ-M regime diagram with five distinct dynamic behaviors including the four asymptotic regimes and an intermediate regime (Fig. 1). Data from a number of CO2 injection sites around the world can be used to compute the two dimensionless groups Γ and M associated with each injection. When plotted on the regime diagram, these values show the flow behavior for each injection and how the values vary from site to site. For all the CO2 injections, M is always larger than 1, while Γ can range from 0.01 up to 100. The pairs of (Γ, M) with lower Γ values correspond to solution (3), while the ones with higher Γ values can move up to the intermediate regime and the flow regime for solution (4). The higher values of Γ correspond to pilot-scale injections with low

  6. Automated enzymatic assays in a renewable fashion using the multisyringe flow injection scheme with soluble enzymes.

    PubMed

    Pizà, Nicolau; Miró, Manuel; Estela, José Manuel; Cerdà, Víctor

    2004-02-01

    In this paper, a novel flowing stream scheme based upon the multisyringe flow injection (MSFI) technique is presented as a powerful tool to perform automated enzymatic assays. The exploitation of enzymes in homogeneous phase circumvents typical drawbacks associated with the commonly used packed-bead or open tubular permanent columns, namely, malfunctions of the reactor, carryover effects, flow resistance, loss of binding sites, large reagent consumption, and use of harmful organic solvents during immobilization procedures. The proposed MSFI system is able to handle minute volumes of soluble enzymes and accommodate reactions with divergent kinetic and pH demands, as demonstrated via the indirect chemiluminescence determination of trace levels of glucose. The procedure is based on the on-line glucose oxidase-catalyzed oxidation of beta-glucose in homogeneous phase to beta-glucono-delta-lactone and hydrogen peroxide. Subsequently, the generated oxidant merges downstream with an alkaline slug of 3-aminopthalhydrazide and a metal-catalyst zone (viz., Co(II)) at a total flow rate as high as 72 mL/min aiming to warrant maximum light collection from the fast CL reaction. Under optimum conditions for both sequentially occurring reactions, a glucose concentration as low as 90 microg/L may be easily detected at a 1000-fold photomultiplier gain. A second-order polynomial regression equation of light emission versus substrate concentration is found over the range 90 microg/L-2.7 mg/L glucose, although a maximum concentration of 180 mg/L may be determined by suitable gain selection without requiring manifold reconfiguration. An injection throughput of 20 h(-1), a repeatability better than 2.5% at the 1 mg/L level, and a 3sigma detection limit of 72 microg/L are the analytical features of the designed analyzer. The proposed approach was applied to the analysis of ultralow glucose content soft drinks as well as fruit juices suitable for diabetic consumers. The accuracy was

  7. An Ion-Selective Electrode/Flow-Injection Analysis Experiment: Determination of Potassium in Serum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyerhoff, Mark E.; Kovach, Paul M.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a low-cost, senior-level, instrumental analysis experiment in which a home-made potassium tubular flow-through electrode is constructed and incorporated into a flow injection analysis system (FIA). Also describes experiments for evaluating the electrode's response properties, examining basic FIA concepts, and determining potassium in…

  8. Flow visualization of film cooling with spanwise injection from a small array of holes and compound-angle injection from a large array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, L. M.

    1978-01-01

    Film injection from discrete holes in a smooth, flat plate was studied for two configurations: (1) spanwise injection through a four hole staggered array; and (2) compound angle injection through a 49 hole staggered array. The ratio of boundary layer thicknesses to hole diameter and the Reynolds number were typical of gas turbine film cooling applications. Streaklines showing the motion of the injected air were obtained by photographing small, neutrally buoyant, helium-filled soap bubbles that followed the flow field.

  9. Flow in a discrete slotted nozzle with massive injection. [water table tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, H. C.

    1974-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been conducted to determine the effect of massive wall injection on the flow characteristics in a slotted nozzle. Some of the experiments were performed on a water table with a slotted-nozzle test section. This has 45 deg and 15 deg half angles of convergence and divergence, respectively, throat radius of 2.5 inches, and throat width of 3 inches. The hydraulic analogy was employed to qualitatively extend the results to a compressible gas flow through the nozzle. Experimental results from the water table include contours of constant Froude and Mach number with and without injection. Photographic results are also presented for the injection through slots of CO2 and Freon-12 into a main-stream air flow in a convergent-divergent nozzle in a wind tunnel. Schlieren photographs were used to visualize the flow, and qualititative agreement between the results from the gas tunnel and water table is good.

  10. Investigation on the Achievable Flow Length in Injection Moulding of Polymeric Materials with Dynamic Mould Tempering

    PubMed Central

    Drummer, Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    A variety of parts in microsystems technology are manufactured by injection moulding of polymeric materials. In Particular the high cooling velocity affects negatively the process and the resulting part properties. The scope of this paper is to investigate the influence on the reachable flow length in injection moulding of different polymeric materials. The results indicate that the mould temperature has less impact on the achievable flow length of the polymer melt as the injection pressure. A higher mould temperature leads only to a slight increase in flow length. In addition, a transcending of the glass or the crystallization temperature of polymeric materials with the mould temperature shows no effect on the achievable flow length of the material. PMID:23970840

  11. Numerical analysis for the multi-phase flow of pulverized coal injection inside blast furnace tuyere

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.W.

    2005-09-01

    The pulverized coal injection (PCI) system was modified from single lance injection into double lance injection at No. 3 Blast Furnace of CSC. It is beneficial to reduce the cost of coke. However, the injected coal was found very close to the inner wall of the tuyere during the operation, such as to cause the possibility of erosion for the tuyere. In this study a three-dimensional mathematical model has been developed based on a computational fluid dynamics software PHOENICS to simulate the fluid flow phenomena inside blast furnace tuyere. The model was capable of handling steady-state, three-dimensional multi-phase flow of pulverized coal injection. The model was applied to simulate the flow patterns of the injection coal inside the tuyere with two kinds of lance design for the PCI system. The distribution of injection coal was simulated such as to estimate the possibility of erosion for the tuyere. The calculated results agreed with the operating experience of CSC plant and the optimum design of double lance was suggested. The model was also applied to simulate the oxygen concentration distribution with these different oxygen enrichments for the coal/oxygen lance system. The calculated results agreed with the experimental measurement. These test results demonstrate that the model is both reasonably reliable and efficient.

  12. Determination of nitrate and nitrite in freshwaters using flow-injection with luminol chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Yaqoob, Mohammad; Folgado Biot, Beatriz; Nabi, Abdul; Worsfold, Paul J

    2012-01-01

    A simple and sensitive flow-injection (FI) method for the determination of nitrate and nitrite in natural waters, based on luminol chemiluminescence (CL) detection, is reported. Nitrate was reduced online to nitrite via a copperized cadmium (Cu-Cd) column and then reacted with acidic hydrogen peroxide to form peroxynitrous acid. CL emission was observed from the oxidation of luminol in an alkaline medium in the presence of the peroxynitrite anion. The limits of detection (S:N = 3) were 0.02 and 0.01 µg N/L, with sample throughputs of 40 and 90 /h for nitrate and nitrite, respectively. Calibration graphs were linear over the range 0.02-50 and 0.01-50 µg N/L [R2  = 0.9984 (n = 8) and R2  = 0.9965 (n = 7)] for nitrate and nitrite, respectively, with relative standard deviations (RSDs; n = 3) in the range 1.8-4.6%. The key chemical and physical variables (reagent concentrations, buffer pH, flow rates, sample volume, Cu-Cd reductor column length) were optimized and potential interferences investigated. The effect of cations [Ca(II), Mg(II), Co(II), Fe(II) and Cu(II)] was masked online with EDTA. Common anions (PO4(3-) , SO4(2-) and HCO3-) did not interfere at their maximum admissible concentrations in freshwaters. The effect of salinity on the luminol CL reaction with and without nitrate and nitrite (2 and 0.5 µg N/L, respectively) was also investigated. The method was successfully applied to freshwaters and the results obtained were in good agreement with those obtained by an automated segmented flow analyser reference method. PMID:23044772

  13. Study of argon flowing afterglow with nitrogen injection

    SciTech Connect

    Mazánková, V.; Krčma, F.; Trunec, D.

    2013-10-28

    In this work, the reaction kinetics in argon flowing afterglow with nitrogen addition was studied by optical emission spectroscopy. The DC flowing post-discharge in pure argon was created in quartz tube at the total gas pressure of 1000 Pa and discharge power of 60 W. The nitrogen was added into the afterglow at the distance of 9 cm behind the active discharge. The optical emission spectra were measured along the flow tube. The argon spectral lines and after nitrogen addition also nitrogen second positive system (SPS) were identified in the spectra. The measurement of spatial dependence of SPS intensity showed a very slow decay of the intensity and the decay rate did not depend on the nitrogen concentration. In order to explain this behavior a kinetic model for reaction in afterglow was developed. This model showed that C {sup 3}Π{sub u} state of molecular nitrogen, which is the upper state of SPS emission, is produced by excitation transfer from argon metastables to nitrogen molecules. However, the argon metastables are also produced at Ar{sub 2}{sup +} ion recombination with electrons and this limits the decay of argon metastable concentration and it results in very slow decay of SPS intensity.

  14. Drag reduction caused by the injection of polymer thread into a turbulent pipe flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usui, Hiromoto; Maeguchi, Katsuhiro; Sano, Yuji

    1988-09-01

    Drag reduction caused by the injection of concentrated polymer solutions into a turbulent pipe flow was studied. Measurements were made of the radial distribution of fluctuating velocities by means of video image analysis. The results showed that a higher velocity was observed for injected polymer threads and both the radial fluctuation and the Reynolds stress were significantly suppressed. It was suggested that the wall turbulence structure might be controlled by suppressing the large scale turbulent motion in the turbulent core region.

  15. New simultaneous catalytic determination of thiocyanate and iodide by flow injection analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, A.; Miyazaki, M.; Deguchi, T.

    1985-01-01

    Flow injection analysis (FIA) with a double injection technique was applied to catalytic determination of thiocyanate and iodide in the redox reaction between cerium(IV) and arsenic(III). Selective inactivation of the catalytic activity of thiocyanate was investigated. Amounts of only iodide and amounts of both thiocyanate and iodide were simultaneously determined by the FIA. Detection limits of the method were 0.2 ppM SCN/sup -/ and 0.1 ppM I/sup -/.

  16. Pre- and post-injection flow characterization in a heavy-duty diesel engine using high-speed PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zegers, R. P. C.; Luijten, C. C. M.; Dam, N. J.; de Goey, L. P. H.

    2012-09-01

    High-speed particle image velocimetry (HS-PIV) using hollow microspheres has been applied to characterize the flow in a heavy-duty diesel engine during and after fuel injection. The injection timings were varied in the range representing those used in premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) regimes, and multiple injections have been applied to investigate their influence on the flow inside the combustion chamber. By injecting into pure nitrogen, combustion is avoided and the flow can be studied long after injection. The results show a sudden change of air motion at the start of injection as a result of the air entrainment at the core of the spray. Furthermore, as expected, spray injection causes a considerable increase in the cycle-to-cycle fluctuations of the flow pattern, the more so for longer injection durations.

  17. Phase Change Effects on Immiscible Flow Displacements in Radial Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadlouydarab, Majid; Azaiez, Jalel; Chen, Zhangxin

    2014-11-01

    We report a systematic simulation of immiscible fluid-fluid displacements in radial injection in the presence of phase change. Due to the presence of two fluid-fluid interfaces in the system, a special treatment has been adopted. To track the leading interface position, two highly accurate methods including Level Set and Immersed Interface Method were used, while for locating the trailing interface an energy equation was adopted assuming the existence of a constant thin condensate layer. Dimensional analysis led to three important dimensionless groups including capillary number (Ca), Jacob number (Ja) and viscosity ratios (M) of the three fluids. Simulation results indicate significant influences of these parameters on the development of the instability and the interfacial morphology of fingers. Increasing Ca or M tends to amplify the interfacial instability, fingertip splitting, and results in longer fingers. In contrast, increasing Ja has stabilizing effects due to an increase of the thickness of the condensate layer. On the other hand at lower viscosity ratios as well as lower Ca, because of compensation effects of the phase change, both leading and trailing interfaces are found to be less unstable. Moreover accumulated condensate and oil saturation depletion curves show increasing and decreasing trends, respectively, when the Ca increases. Although viscosity ratio and Ja have similar effects on the accumulated condensate, they do not show any effect on the oil depletion saturation.

  18. An automatic system for acidity determination based on sequential injection titration and the monosegmented flow approach.

    PubMed

    Kozak, Joanna; Wójtowicz, Marzena; Gawenda, Nadzieja; Kościelniak, Paweł

    2011-06-15

    An automatic sequential injection system, combining monosegmented flow analysis, sequential injection analysis and sequential injection titration is proposed for acidity determination. The system enables controllable sample dilution and generation of standards of required concentration in a monosegmented sequential injection manner, sequential injection titration of the prepared solutions, data collecting, and handling. It has been tested on spectrophotometric determination of acetic, citric and phosphoric acids with sodium hydroxide used as a titrant and phenolphthalein or thymolphthalein (in the case of phosphoric acid determination) as indicators. Accuracy better than |4.4|% (RE) and repeatability better than 2.9% (RSD) have been obtained. It has been applied to the determination of total acidity in vinegars and various soft drinks. The system provides low sample (less than 0.3 mL) consumption. On average, analysis of a sample takes several minutes. PMID:21641455

  19. Magnetized plasma flow injection into tokamak and high-beta compact torus plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Komoriya, Yuuki; Tazawa, Hiroyasu; Asai, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Steinhauer, Loren; Itagaki, Hirotomo; Onchi, Takumi; Hirose, Akira

    2010-11-01

    As an application of a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG), magnetic helicity injection via injection of a highly elongated compact torus (magnetized plasma flow: MPF) has been conducted on both tokamak and field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas. The injected plasmoid has significant amounts of helicity and particle contents and has been proposed as a fueling and a current drive method for various torus systems. In the FRC, MPF is expected to generate partially spherical tokamak like FRC equilibrium by injecting a significant amount of magnetic helicity. As a circumstantial evidence of the modified equilibrium, suppressed rotational instability with toroidal mode number n = 2. MPF injection experiments have also been applied to the STOR-M tokamak as a start-up and current drive method. Differences in the responses of targets especially relation with beta value and the self-organization feature will be studied.

  20. EPA flow reference method testing and analysis: Findings report. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    In the summer of 1997, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a series of week-long field tests at three electric utility sites to evaluate potential improvements to Method 2, EPA`s test method for measuring flue gas volumetric flow in stacks. The findings from that study are presented in document EPA/430-R-99-009a (NTIS Order Number PB99-150286). This document contains 10 appendices for that report.

  1. Numerical Simulation of the Flow Behavior and Breakthrough Phenomenon in Co-Injection Molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilinca, Florin; Hétu, Jean-François

    2007-05-01

    A study of the flow behavior during sequential co-injection molding is shown using a three-dimensional finite element flow analysis code. Solutions of the non-Newtonian, non-isothermal melt flow are obtained by solving the momentum, continuity and energy equations. Two additional transport equations are solved for tracking polymer/air and skin/core polymers interfaces. The co-injection model is integrated into the NRC's 3D injection molding software. Solutions are shown for the filling of a spiral-flow mould for which experimental measurements are available. The numerical approach predicts the core advance stage during which the core flow front catches up on the skin flow front and the core expansion phase when the flow fronts of core and skin materials advance together without breakthrough. The breakthrough phenomenon is also predicted. The predicted flow front behavior is compared to the experimental observations for various skin/core melt temperature and skin/core viscosity ratio. Simulation results are in good agreement with experimental data and indicate correctly the trends in solution change when processing parameters are changing.

  2. Enhancement of critical heat flux in tubes using staged tangential flow injection: (Progress report)

    SciTech Connect

    Dhir, V.K.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental studies of the enhancement in single and two phase heat transfer from tubes subjected to tangential flow injection have been continuing. Investigations using water as the test liquid have been focused on: single phase heat transfer coefficients; two phase heat transfer coefficients under subcooled boiling conditions; subcooled critical heat fluxes; and modeling of the enhancement under swirl flow conditions. With tangential injection up to four fold increase in the average heat transfer coefficient has been observed. During subcooled boiling the enhancement is relatively small. However swirl induced centripetal force increases vapor escape velocity and as a result higher critical heat fluxes can be accommodated. In the range of flow parameters studied up to 40% enhancement in critical heat flux has been observed with single stage injection. This enhancement is slightly less than that obtained with Freon-113. The mechanistic reasons for this observation are currently being investigated.

  3. Enhancement of critical heat flux in tubes using staged tangential flow injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhir, V. K.

    Experimental studies of the enhancement in single and two phase heat transfer from tubes subjected to tangential flow injection have been continuing. Investigations using water as the test liquid have been focused on: single phase heat transfer coefficients; two phase heat transfer coefficients under subcooled boiling conditions; subcooled critical heat fluxes; and modeling of the enhancement under swirl flow conditions. With tangential injection up to four fold increase in the average heat transfer coefficient has been observed. During subcooled boiling the enhancement is relatively small. However swirl induced centripetal force increases vapor escape velocity and as a result higher critical heat fluxes can be accommodated. In the range of flow parameters studied up to 40% enhancement in critical heat flux has been observed with single stage injection. This enhancement is slightly less than that obtained with Freon-113. The mechanistic reasons for this observation are currently being investigated.

  4. High-throughput pesticide residue quantitative analysis achieved by tandem mass spectrometry with automated flow injection.

    PubMed

    Nanita, Sergio C; Pentz, Anne M; Bramble, Frederick Q

    2009-04-15

    The use of automated flow injection with MS/MS detection for fast quantitation of agrochemicals in food and water samples was demonstrated in this study. Active ingredients from the sulfonylurea herbicide and carbamate insecticide classes were selected as model systems. Samples were prepared using typical procedures from residue methods, placed in an autosampler, and injected directly into a triple quadrupole instrument without chromatographic separation. The technique allows data acquisition in 15 s per injection, with samples being injected every 65 s, representing a significant improvement from the 15-30 min needed in typical HPLC/MS/MS methods. The availability of HPLC systems is an advantage since they can be used in flow-injection mode (bypassing the column compartment). Adequate accuracy, linearity, and precision (R(2) > 0.99 and RSD < 20%) were obtained using external standards prepared in each control matrix. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) achieved for all analytes was 0.01 mg/kg in food samples and 0.1 ng/mL in water; while limits of detection (LOD) were estimated to be about 0.003 mg/kg and 0.03 ng/mL in food and water, respectively. The advantages and limitations of flow injection MS/MS for ultratrace-level quantitative analysis in complex matrixes are discussed. PMID:19296591

  5. Study of Injection of Helium into Supersonic Air Flow Using Rayleigh Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seaholtz, Richard G.; Buggele, Alvin E.

    1997-01-01

    A study of the transverse injection of helium into a Mach 3 crossflow is presented. Filtered Rayleigh scattering is used to measure penetration and helium mole fraction in the mixing region. The method is based on planar molecular Rayleigh scattering using an injection-seeded, frequency-doubled ND:YAG pulsed laser and a cooled CCD camera. The scattered light is filtered with an iodine absorption cell to suppress stray laser light. Preliminary data are presented for helium mole fraction and penetration. Flow visualization images obtained with a shadowgraph and wall static pressure data in the vicinity of the injection are also presented.

  6. Characteristics of heat exchange in the region of injection into a supersonic high-temperature flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakirov, F. G.; Shaykhutdinov, Z. G.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the local heat transfer coefficient distribution during gas injection into the supersonic-flow portion of a Laval nozzle is discussed. The controlling dimensionless parameters of the investigated process are presented in terms of a generalized relation for the maximum value of the heat transfer coefficient in the nozzle cross section behind the injection hole. Data on the heat transfer coefficient variation along the nozzle length as a function of gas injection rate are also presented, along with the heat transfer coefficient distribution over a cross section of the nozzle.

  7. The determination of trace lead in Chinese medicinal herbs by flow injection analysis in polyethyleneglycol medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Aiqin; Zhu, Xiashi; Huang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Yaqin

    2008-01-01

    In this work, a new flow injection analysis (FIA) for the determination of Pb 2+ in Chinese medicinal herbs was developed. In the buffer solution of borax-NaOH (pH 10.5), Pb 2+ reacted with 2-[(5-bromo-2-pyridyl)-azo]-5-(diethyl-amino)phenol (5-Br-PADAP) to form a complex. The experimental results showed that the sensitivity was enhanced in the presence of polyethyleneglycol-800 (PG-800). The main factors affecting the determination were investigated in detail. Under the optimum conditions, the linear range and detection limit is 0.0-0.3 μg/mL and 1.5 ng/mL (correlation coefficient r = 0.9996), respectively. The linear regression equation is A = -0.005 + 0.60 c (μg/mL). The sample throughout is 10 h -1. Foreign substrates effects were also investigated. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of lead in reference material, goldthread and lepidium seed.

  8. Flow-injection spectrophotometric determination of novalgin in pharmaceuticals using micellar medium.

    PubMed

    Weinert, Patrícia Los; Fernandes, João Roberto; Pezza, Leonardo; Pezza, Helena Redigolo

    2007-12-01

    A sensitive flow-injection (FI) procedure with spectrophotometric detection in a micellar medium is proposed for the determination of novalgin. The method is based on the instantaneous formation of a red-orange product (lambda(max) = 510 nm) after the reaction between novalgin and p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (p-DAC) in a dilute acid medium. The sensitivity of this reaction was increased by a factor of 5.6 in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Experimental design methodologies were used to optimize the chemical and FI variables. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 1.45 x 10(-6) to 2.90 x 10(-5) mol L(-1) with an excellent correlation coefficient (r = 0.9999). The detection limit was 1.31 x 10(-7) mol L(-1) (n = 20, RSD = 2.0%). No interferences were observed from the common excipients. The results obtained by the proposed method were favorably compared with those given by the iodometric reference method at 95% confidence level. PMID:18071223

  9. Development of a tubular periodate electrode for flow-injection determination of glycerol.

    PubMed

    Conceiçäo, M; Montenegro, B S; Costa Lima, J L; Mattos, I L; Neto, G O; Gomes Neto, J A; Zagatto, E A

    1993-10-01

    Periodate electrodes without inner reference solution based on tetraoctylammonium periodate plus solvent mediator (dibutyl phthalate or 2-nitrophenyl octylether) were constructed. Linear dynamic range, practical detection limit, slope, stability, selectivity coefficients, pH dependence, response time and lifetime were evaluated. A tubular version was further developed and coupled to a flow-injection system for glycerol determination in samples relevant to the industrial production of soaps, detergents and similar. The method involves glycerol oxidation by periodate with potentiometric evaluation of its consumption. The influence of oxidizing agent concentration (10(-5)-10(-2)M NalO(4)), ionic strength (0.0-1.0M Na(2)SO(4)) and mean resident time were investigated and the feasibility of using a single-fine manifold was discussed. The proposed system handles about 40 samples/hr, is very stable and suitable to industrial control. Results within the 1000 and 5000 mg/l range glycerol are precise (r.s.d. <0.005) and in fair agreement with conventional procedures. Baseline drift or noise is not observed and a thermostat water bath is not required. A noteworthy feature is the almost linear relationship between glycerol concentration and recorded peak height which is a consequence of combined effects of reaction kinetics and electrode Nernstian response. PMID:18965821

  10. Single-Channel Flow Injection Spectrophotometric Determination of Nickel Using Furildioxime in Micellar Solution

    PubMed Central

    Memon, Najma; Memon, Saima; Solangi, Amber R.; Soomro, Rubina; Soomro, Rabel

    2012-01-01

    A very simple, selective, and fast flow injection spectrophotometeric method is developed for determination of nickel using furildioxime as complexing agent. Micellar solution of brij-35 is employed to solubilize the sparingly soluble complex of Ni-furildioxime in buffered aqueous system (pH-9.00). Under optimized conditions, absorbance is linear from 0.02 to 10 μg mL−1 using 500 μL sample volume and from 10 to 30 μg mL−1 using 50 μL sample volume of nickel at 480 nm, with R2 = 0.9971 and 0.9916, respectively. The molar absorption coefficient and Sandell's sensitivity were 6.0 × 103 L mol−1 cm−1 and 0.01 ng cm−2, respectively. The sample throughput of the method is 120 samples per hour with RSD of 0.01–0.2% for 0.02 to 10 μg mL−1 nickel (n = 5), indicating that the method is highly precise and reproducible. Interference from cobalt is removed by Nitroso R-salt-modified XAD-16. The developed method is validated by analysing certified reference materials and is applied to assess nickel content of commercially available cigarettes. PMID:22654605

  11. Active Flow Separation Control of a Stator Vane Using Surface Injection in a Multistage Compressor Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culley, Dennis E.; Bright, Michelle M.; Prahst, Patricia S.; Strazisar, Anthony J.

    2003-01-01

    Micro-flow control actuation embedded in a stator vane was used to successfully control separation and improve near stall performance in a multistage compressor rig at NASA Glenn. Using specially designed stator vanes configured with internal actuation to deliver pulsating air through slots along the suction surface, a research study was performed to identify performance benefits using this microflow control approach. Pressure profiles and unsteady pressure measurements along the blade surface and at the shroud provided a dynamic look at the compressor during microflow air injection. These pressure measurements lead to a tracking algorithm to identify the onset of separation. The testing included steady air injection at various slot locations along the vane. The research also examined the benefit of pulsed injection and actively controlled air injection along the stator vane. Two types of actuation schemes were studied, including an embedded actuator for on-blade control. Successful application of an online detection and flow control scheme will be discussed. Testing showed dramatic performance benefit for flow reattachment and subsequent improvement in diffusion through the use of pulsed controlled injection. The paper will discuss the experimental setup, the blade configurations, and preliminary CFD results which guided the slot location along the blade. The paper will also show the pressure profiles and unsteady pressure measurements used to track flow control enhancement, and will conclude with the tracking algorithm for adjusting the control.

  12. Study of nitrogen flowing afterglow with mercury vapor injection

    SciTech Connect

    Mazánková, V. Krčma, F.; Trunec, D.

    2014-10-21

    The reaction kinetics in nitrogen flowing afterglow with mercury vapor addition was studied by optical emission spectroscopy. The DC flowing post-discharge in pure nitrogen was created in a quartz tube at the total gas pressure of 1000 Pa and discharge power of 130 W. The mercury vapors were added into the afterglow at the distance of 30 cm behind the active discharge. The optical emission spectra were measured along the flow tube. Three nitrogen spectral systems – the first positive, the second positive, and the first negative, and after the mercury vapor addition also the mercury resonance line at 254 nm in the spectrum of the second order were identified. The measurement of the spatial dependence of mercury line intensity showed very slow decay of its intensity and the decay rate did not depend on the mercury concentration. In order to explain this behavior, a kinetic model for the reaction in afterglow was developed. This model showed that the state Hg(6 {sup 3}P{sub 1}), which is the upper state of mercury UV resonance line at 254 nm, is produced by the excitation transfer from nitrogen N{sub 2}(A{sup 3}Σ{sup +}{sub u}) metastables to mercury atoms. However, the N{sub 2}(A{sup 3}Σ{sup +}{sub u}) metastables are also produced by the reactions following the N atom recombination, and this limits the decay of N{sub 2}(A{sup 3}Σ{sup +}{sub u}) metastable concentration and results in very slow decay of mercury resonance line intensity. It was found that N atoms are the most important particles in this late nitrogen afterglow, their volume recombination starts a chain of reactions which produce excited states of molecular nitrogen. In order to explain the decrease of N atom concentration, it was also necessary to include the surface recombination of N atoms to the model. The surface recombination was considered as a first order reaction and wall recombination probability γ = (1.35 ± 0.04) × 10{sup −6} was determined from the experimental data. Also

  13. Study of nitrogen flowing afterglow with mercury vapor injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazánková, V.; Trunec, D.; Krčma, F.

    2014-10-01

    The reaction kinetics in nitrogen flowing afterglow with mercury vapor addition was studied by optical emission spectroscopy. The DC flowing post-discharge in pure nitrogen was created in a quartz tube at the total gas pressure of 1000 Pa and discharge power of 130 W. The mercury vapors were added into the afterglow at the distance of 30 cm behind the active discharge. The optical emission spectra were measured along the flow tube. Three nitrogen spectral systems - the first positive, the second positive, and the first negative, and after the mercury vapor addition also the mercury resonance line at 254 nm in the spectrum of the second order were identified. The measurement of the spatial dependence of mercury line intensity showed very slow decay of its intensity and the decay rate did not depend on the mercury concentration. In order to explain this behavior, a kinetic model for the reaction in afterglow was developed. This model showed that the state Hg(6 3P1), which is the upper state of mercury UV resonance line at 254 nm, is produced by the excitation transfer from nitrogen N2(A ^3 Σ ^+_u) metastables to mercury atoms. However, the N2(A ^3 Σ ^+_u) metastables are also produced by the reactions following the N atom recombination, and this limits the decay of N2(A ^3 Σ ^+_u) metastable concentration and results in very slow decay of mercury resonance line intensity. It was found that N atoms are the most important particles in this late nitrogen afterglow, their volume recombination starts a chain of reactions which produce excited states of molecular nitrogen. In order to explain the decrease of N atom concentration, it was also necessary to include the surface recombination of N atoms to the model. The surface recombination was considered as a first order reaction and wall recombination probability γ = (1.35 ± 0.04) × 10-6 was determined from the experimental data. Also sensitivity analysis was applied for the analysis of kinetic model in order to

  14. Analysis of the injection of a heated turbulent jet into a cross flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, J. F.; Schetz, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    The development of a theoretical model is investigated of the incompressible jet injection process. The discharge of a turbulent jet into a cross flow was mathematically modeled by using an integral method which accounts for natural fluid mechanisms such as turbulence, entrainment, buoyancy, and heat transfer. The analytical results are supported by experimental data and demonstrate the usefulness of the theory for estimating the trajectory and flow properties of the jet for a variety of injection conditions. The capability of predicting jet flow properties, as well as two- and three-dimensional jet paths, was enhanced by obtaining the jet cross-sectional area during the solution of the conservation equations. Realistic estimates of temperature in the jet fluid were acquired by accounting for heat losses in the jet flow due to forced convection and to entrainment of free-stream fluid into the jet.

  15. Modeling and flow analysis of pure nylon polymer for injection molding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuruzzaman, D. M.; Kusaseh, N.; Basri, S.; Oumer, A. N.; Hamedon, Z.

    2016-02-01

    In the production of complex plastic parts, injection molding is one of the most popular industrial processes. This paper addresses the modeling and analysis of the flow process of the nylon (polyamide) polymer for injection molding process. To determine the best molding conditions, a series of simulations are carried out using Autodesk Moldflow Insight software and the processing parameters are adjusted. This mold filling commercial software simulates the cavity filling pattern along with temperature and pressure distributions in the mold cavity. In the modeling, during the plastics flow inside the mold cavity, different flow parameters such as fill time, pressure, temperature, shear rate and warp at different locations in the cavity are analyzed. Overall, this Moldflow is able to perform a relatively sophisticated analysis of the flow process of pure nylon. Thus the prediction of the filling of a mold cavity is very important and it becomes useful before a nylon plastic part to be manufactured.

  16. An oil flow study of the reference Shuttle-C configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pokora, Darlene C.; Springer, Anthony M.

    1994-01-01

    An oil flow study of the reference Shuttle-C configuration is presented. The Shuttle-C vehicle was a proposed shuttle derived vehicle where the orbiter was to be replaced by an unmanned cargo carrier element. Oil flows are shown for the range of Mach numbers from Mach 1.10 to 3.48 at various angles-of-attack and roll angles. The major flow field phenomena over the Shuttle-C reference configuration are shown in these oil flows. Using the oil flows, a qualitative understanding of the flow around the vehicle can be determined, aiding the quantitative definition of aerodynamic data from theoretical analyses and test results. The oil flows presented in this study were obtained from configurations tested in the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's 14-Inch Trisonic Wind Tunnel from October 1988 through February 1989.

  17. New once-a-month injectable contraceptives, with particular reference to Cyclofem/Cyclo-Provera.

    PubMed

    Hall, P E

    1998-08-01

    Once-a-month injectable contraceptives containing a progestogen and an estrogen have been developed that disrupt vaginal bleeding patterns less than the widely used progestogen-only preparations. Pharmacokinetic studies were undertaken of dosages and ratios of the progestogens and the respective estrogens. In Phase III clinical trials, annual pregnancy rates were below 0.4% for Mesigyna (norethisterone enanthate/estradiol valerate, Schering AG, Berlin, Germany) and below 0.2% for Cyclofem (MPA/E2C) (medroxyprogesterone acetate/estradiol cypionate, Aplicaciones Farmaceuticas, SA, Mexico and PT Tunggal, Indonesia). More than two-thirds of women had predictable, regular cycles, and discontinuation due to bleeding-related problems occurred less than half as often as with progestogen-only injectables. With MPA/E2C, return to fertility is similar to that observed with other hormonal or intrauterine methods, and both products have little effect on lipids or hemostasis. Introductory trials of MPA/E2C in 12000 women with 100000 woman-months of experience confirmed the high efficacy of the product in routine use. The use of MPA/E2C in a non-reusable injection device, Uniject (Becton Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ) is discussed. Once-a-month hormonal contraceptives have been shown to provide a safe contraceptive option for all women and an alternative for women who wish to use injectable formulations that cause less disruption in vaginal bleeding and minimal side effects. PMID:9806239

  18. Experimental Study of Gas Injection Effect as a Secondary Phase on Flow Induced Rotary Hub

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouri, N. M.; Sarreshtehdari, A.; Maghsoudi, E.

    Rotational velocity changes, via shear stress modification, due to air bubbles injection in a rotary device experimentally investigated. Air bubbles injected to the water flow crosses the neighbor of the hub which can rotate just by water flow shear stresses. Increasing air void fraction lead to decrease of shear stresses exerted on the hub surface until in high void fractions, the hub motion stopped as observed. Amount of skin friction decrease has been estimated by counting central hub rotations. Wall shear stress decreased as bubbles were injected in the all range of Re changing from 60378 to 61238 and also by increasing air void fraction from 1.22 to 3.06%. Skin friction reduction more than 80% achieved in this study as maximum measured volume of air fraction injected to fluid flow. Remarkable obtained skin friction reduction in this special case indicates the possibility of drag reduction by injection of low amount of air on rotary parts in liquid phase (e.g., water) while this effect is unfavorable in cases where shear stress is a useful phenomena (e.g., mixing).

  19. An experimental study on the effect of air bubble injection on the flow induced rotational hub

    SciTech Connect

    Nouri, N.M.; Sarreshtehdari, A.

    2009-01-15

    Modification of shear stress due to air bubbles injection in a rotary device was investigated experimentally. Air bubbles inject to the water flow crosses the neighbor of the hub which can rotate just by water flow shear stresses, in this device. Increasing air void fraction leads to decrease of shear stresses exerted on the hub surface until in high void fractions, the hub motion stopped as observed. Amount of skin friction decrease has been estimated by counting central hub rotations. Wall shear stress was decreased by bubble injection in all range of tested Reynolds number, changing from 50,378 to 71,238, and also by increasing air void fraction from zero to 3.06%. Skin friction reduction more than 85% was achieved in this study as maximum measured volume of air fraction injected to fluid flow while bubbles are distinct and they do not make a gas layer. Significant skin friction reduction obtained in this special case indicate that using small amount of bubble injection causes large amount of skin friction reduction in some rotary parts in the liquid phases like as water. (author)

  20. Benchmark initiative on coupled multiphase flow and geomechanical processes during CO2 injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benisch, K.; Annewandter, R.; Olden, P.; Mackay, E.; Bauer, S.; Geiger, S.

    2012-12-01

    CO2 injection into deep saline aquifers involves multiple strongly interacting processes such as multiphase flow and geomechanical deformation, which threat to the seal integrity of CO2 repositories. Coupled simulation codes are required to establish realistic prognoses of the coupled process during CO2 injection operations. International benchmark initiatives help to evaluate, to compare and to validate coupled simulation results. However, there is no published code comparison study so far focusing on the impact of coupled multiphase flow and geomechanics on the long-term integrity of repositories, which is required to obtain confidence in the predictive capabilities of reservoir simulators. We address this gap by proposing a benchmark study. A wide participation from academic and industrial institutions is sought, as the aim of building confidence in coupled simulators become more plausible with many participants. Most published benchmark studies on coupled multiphase flow and geomechanical processes have been performed within the field of nuclear waste disposal (e.g. the DECOVALEX project), using single-phase formulation only. As regards CO2 injection scenarios, international benchmark studies have been published comparing isothermal and non-isothermal multiphase flow processes such as the code intercomparison by LBNL, the Stuttgart Benchmark study, the CLEAN benchmark approach and other initiatives. Recently, several codes have been developed or extended to simulate the coupling of hydraulic and geomechanical processes (OpenGeoSys, ELIPSE-Visage, GEM, DuMuX and others), which now enables a comprehensive code comparison. We propose four benchmark tests of increasing complexity, addressing the coupling between multiphase flow and geomechanical processes during CO2 injection. In the first case, a horizontal non-faulted 2D model consisting of one reservoir and one cap rock is considered, focusing on stress and strain regime changes in the storage formation and the

  1. DETERMINATION OF PH BY FLOW INJECTION ANALYSIS AND BY FIBER OPTRODE ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two new procedures for measuring pH have been developed. The first measures pH colorimetrically using a proprietary indicator dye mixture in a flow injection analysis (FIA) procedure. The second measures pH using a fiber optic chemical sensor (FOCS) specifically developed for pH ...

  2. Detection of Catechol by Potentiometric-Flow Injection Analysis in the Presence of Interferents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunsford, Suzanne K.; Widera, Justyna; Zhang, Hong

    2007-01-01

    This article describes an undergraduate analytical chemistry experiment developed to teach instrumental lab skills while incorporating common interferents encountered in the real-world analysis of catechol. The lab technique incorporates potentiometric-flow injection analysis on a dibenzo-18-crown-6 dual platinum electrode to detect catechol in…

  3. Differentiating organic from conventional peppermints using chromatographic and flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprints

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprinting techniques were tested for their potential in differentiating organic and conventional peppermint samples. Ten organic and ten conventional peppermint samples were examined using HPLC-UV and FI...

  4. Staged treatment of thoracic and lumbar spinal tuberculosis with flow injection abscess.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hao; Zhang, Yupeng; Shen, Xiongjie; Luo, Chengke; Xu, Zhengquan; Liu, Zheng; Liu, Xiangyang; Wang, Xiyang

    2015-01-01

    The study was to investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of posterior-only approach combining with puncture drainage under CT-guide in staged treatment of thoracic and lumbar spinal tuberculosis with flow injection abscess. We retrospectively analyzed 15 patients (came from 72 cases with thoracic and lumbar spinal tuberculosis) with flow injection abscesses underwent surgery from January 2007 to February 2009, and evaluated the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) scoring system of nerve function, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), abscess absorption time and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), preoperatively and postoperatively. 15 patients were followed up for 13-37 months, no recurrence of tuberculosis, no fixation loosening and neurologic symptoms aggravated. The flow injection abscesses are absorbed within 3-6 months postoperative operation. In final follow-up, ESR went down to 5.2±2.1 mm/h from preoperative 79.6±14.8 mm/h, CRP decreased from preoperative 49.3±7.5 mg/L to 1.8±0.7 mg/L, ODI changed from 75.13±20.15 to 16.72±8.62, all of them changed significantly (P<0.05). In conclusions, one-stage posterior debridement, interbody fusion, pedicle screw fixation and two-stage CT-guided interventional therapy were safe and effective in treatment of the thoracic and lumbar spinal tuberculosis with flow injection abscess. PMID:26770442

  5. Staged treatment of thoracic and lumbar spinal tuberculosis with flow injection abscess

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Hao; Zhang, Yupeng; Shen, Xiongjie; Luo, Chengke; Xu, Zhengquan; Liu, Zheng; Liu, Xiangyang; Wang, Xiyang

    2015-01-01

    The study was to investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of posterior-only approach combining with puncture drainage under CT-guide in staged treatment of thoracic and lumbar spinal tuberculosis with flow injection abscess. We retrospectively analyzed 15 patients (came from 72 cases with thoracic and lumbar spinal tuberculosis) with flow injection abscesses underwent surgery from January 2007 to February 2009, and evaluated the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) scoring system of nerve function, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), abscess absorption time and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), preoperatively and postoperatively. 15 patients were followed up for 13-37 months, no recurrence of tuberculosis, no fixation loosening and neurologic symptoms aggravated. The flow injection abscesses are absorbed within 3-6 months postoperative operation. In final follow-up, ESR went down to 5.2±2.1 mm/h from preoperative 79.6±14.8 mm/h, CRP decreased from preoperative 49.3±7.5 mg/L to 1.8±0.7 mg/L, ODI changed from 75.13±20.15 to 16.72±8.62, all of them changed significantly (P<0.05). In conclusions, one-stage posterior debridement, interbody fusion, pedicle screw fixation and two-stage CT-guided interventional therapy were safe and effective in treatment of the thoracic and lumbar spinal tuberculosis with flow injection abscess. PMID:26770442

  6. Determination of Nitrogen by Flow Injection Analysis in Environmental and Wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Straw, K.A.

    1999-03-01

    In summary, three generations of Lachat FIA systems have been used in the laboratory over a period of 13 yrs, running, in addition to the 4 N methods, Cr{sup +6}, SiO{sub 2}, Fluoride by ISE. Overall flow injection systems have been versatile and reliable and a good choice in the lab for analyzing a wide variety of samples quickly.

  7. FLUOROMETRIC FLOW INJECTION DETERMINATION OF AQUEOUS PEROXIDES AT NANOMOLAR LEVEL USING MEMBRANE REACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A flow injection system based on the p-hydroxphenylacetate-peroxide-peroxidase reaction allows the simultaneous determination of H2O2 and CH3HO2 at 50 samples/h with an LOD of 0.1 microgram/L (3 nM) H2O2. A pressurized porous PTFE membrane reactor introduces the enzyme and the pH...

  8. Assessing cement injection behaviour in cancellous bone: an in vitro study using flow models.

    PubMed

    Bou-Francis, Antony; López, Alejandro; Persson, Cecilia; Hall, Richard M; Kapur, Nikil

    2014-10-01

    Understanding the cement injection behaviour during vertebroplasty and accurately predicting the cement placement within the vertebral body is extremely challenging. As there is no standardized methodology, we propose a novel method using reproducible and pathologically representative flow models to study the influence of cement properties on injection behaviour. The models, confined between an upper glass window and a lower aluminium plate, were filled with bone marrow substitute and then injected (4, 6 and 8 min after cement mixing) with commercially available bone cements (SimplexP, Opacity+, OsteopalV and Parallax) at a constant flow rate (3 mL/min). A load cell was used to measure the force applied on the syringe plunger and calculate the peak pressure. A camera was used to monitor the cement flow during injection and calculate the following parameters when the cement had reached the boundary of the models: the time to reach the boundary, the filled area and the roundness. The peak pressure was comparable to that reported during clinical vertebroplasty and showed a similar increase with injection time. The study highlighted the influence of cement formulations and model structure on the injection behaviour and showed that cements with similar composition/particle size had similar flow behaviour, while the introduction of defects reduced the time to reach the boundary, the filled area and the roundness. The proposed method provides a novel tool for quick, robust differentiation between various cement formulations through the visualization and quantitative analysis of the cement spreading at various time intervals. PMID:24913614

  9. On spurious water flow during numerical simulation of steam injection into water-saturated soil.

    PubMed

    Gudbjerg, J; Trötschler, O; Färber, A; Sonnenborg, T O; Jensen, K H

    2004-12-01

    Numerical simulation of steam injection into a water-saturated porous medium may be hindered by unphysical behavior causing the model to slow down. We show how spurious water flow may arise on the boundary between a steam zone and a saturated zone, giving rise to dramatic pressure drops. This is caused by the discretization of the temperature gradient coupled with the direct relation between pressure and temperature in the steam zone. The problem may be a severe limitation to numerical modeling. A solution is presented where the spurious water flow is blocked and this widely enhances the performance of the model. This new method is applied to a previously reported example exhibiting numerical problems. Furthermore, it is applied to the simulation of 2-D sandbox experiments where LNAPL is remediated from a smearing zone by steam injection. These experiments would have been difficult to analyze numerically without the adjustment to prevent spurious flow. PMID:15610904

  10. Design and fabrication of a low-cost flow-through cell for the determination of acetaminophen in pharmaceutical formulations by flow injection cyclic voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Masawat, Prinya; Liawruangrath, Saisunee; Vaneesorn, Yuthsak; Liawruangrath, Boonsom

    2002-12-01

    A low-cost electrochemical flow-through cell is designed and fabricated to use in conjunction with a flow injection (FI) system. This detector cell used a centrosymmetric radial flow thin-layer geometry with a stainless steel auxiliary electrode and a reference electrode (Ag/AgCl) without a salt bridge. The 5H pencil lead electrode used as a working electrode in the home-made cell is an extremely inexpensive electrode which performs as well as the expensive commercial glassy carbon electrode. Optimum conditions for determining acetaminophen using the proposed FI manifold was investigated. Appropriate volume of sample and/or standard solution containing acetaminophen in pH 2.2 Mcllvaine buffer solution was injected into the proposed FI system and mixed with the flowing stream of supporting electrolyte (pH 2.2 Mcllvaine buffer solution) at an optimum flow rate of 1 mlmin(-1). The cyclic voltammograms were recorded over the potential range from -0.5 to +2.0 V with a scan rate of 40 mVs(-1). Linear calibration curve over the range of 0.1-5 mM acetaminophen was established with the regression equation Y=3.68X+1.0157 (r(2)=0.9964). The recommended method has been applied to the determination of acetaminophen in 8 commercial pharmaceutical preparations. The percentage recoveries of the spiked acetaminophen in four tablet samples were ranging from 103 to 112 with the relative standard deviation in the range of 0.1-1.3%. PMID:18968860

  11. The Co-axial Flow of Injectable Solid Hydrogels with Encapsulated Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Brandon; Pochan, Darrin; Sathaye, Sameer

    2013-03-01

    Hydrogels are quickly becoming an important biomaterial that can be used for the safe, localized injection of cancer drugs, the injection of stem cells into areas of interest or other biological applications. Our peptides can be self-assembled in a syringe where they form a gel, sheared by injection and, once in the body, immediately reform a localized pocket of stiff gel. My project has been designed around looking at the possibility of having a co-axial strand, in which one gel can surround another. This co-axial flow can be used to change the physical properties of our gel during injection, such as stiffening our gel using hyaluronic acid or encapsulating cells in the gel and surrounding the gel with growth medium or other biological factors. Rheology on hyaluron stiffened gels and cells encapsulated in gels was performed for comparison to the results from co-axial flow. Confocal microscopy was used to examine the coaxial gels after flow and to determine how the co-axial nature of the gels is affected by the concentration of peptide.

  12. Flow-induced birefringence: the hidden PSF killer in high performance injection-molded plastic optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chidley, Matthew D.; Tkaczyk, Tomasz; Kester, Robert; Descour, Michael R.

    2006-02-01

    A 7-mm OD, NA = 1 water immersion injection-molded plastic endoscope objective has been fabricated for a laser scanning fiber confocal reflectance microscope (FCRM) system specifically designed for in vivo detection of cervical and oral pre-cancers. Injection-molded optics was selected for the ability to incorporate aspheric surfaces into the optical design and its high volume capabilities. Our goal is high performance disposable endoscope probes. This objective has been built and tested as a stand-alone optical system, a Strehl ratio greater than 0.6 has been obtained. One of the limiting factors of optical performance is believed to be flow-induced birefringence. We have investigated different configurations for birefringence visualization and believe the circular polariscope is most useful for inspection of injection-molded plastic optics. In an effort to decrease birefringence effects, two experiments were conducted. They included: (1) annealing of the optics after fabrication and (2) modifying the injection molding prameters (packing pressures, injection rates, and hold time). While the second technique showed improvement, the annealing process could not improve quality without physically warping the lenses. Therefore, to effectively reduce flow-induced birefringence, molding conditions have to be carefully selected. These parameters are strongly connected to the physical part geometry. Both optical design and fabrication technology have to be considered together to deliver low birefringence while maintaining the required manufacturing tolerances. In this paper we present some of our current results that illustrate how flow-induced birefringence can degrade high performance injection-molded plastic optical systems.

  13. Flow dynamics of multi-lateral jets injection into a round pipe flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thong, Chia X.; Kalt, Peter A. M.; Dally, Bassam B.; Birzer, Cristian H.

    2015-01-01

    Controlling the mixing field of turbulent jets is an important approach in optimizing practical combustion systems. The use of multi-lateral jets upstream from the nozzle exit to control mixing fields is one particular method. Existing studies have investigated jets into a confined cross-flow (JICCF) for dilution mixing, but there is a paucity of data available on the fundamentals for turbulent mixing capabilities of JICCF. The current study investigates the flow structures and Primary Reynolds number mixing characteristics within a round pipe flow modified by four equi-spaced, lateral side injectors. Experiments are conducted in a primary water jet flow that is modified with smaller jets located one central (axial) jet diameter upstream of the nozzle exit. Flow structures and mixing within the nozzle are non-intrusively characterized using simultaneous planar optical techniques. Planar laser-induced fluorescence is used to measure the scalar mixing of the side and axial jet streams, and particle imaging velocimetry is used to measure the planar velocities. Several cases are investigated with variable primary flow to explore the influence of cross-flow velocity on the induced mixing structures within the nozzle. By varying the momentum ratio, three characteristic flow modes are identified within the primary flow, namely streaming mode, impinging mode, and backflow mode. The impact of these modes on the flow and scalar fields is presented and discussed.

  14. The determination of busulphan in dissolution samples by flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Dow, A D; Finlay, G; Bloomfield, M S

    1999-03-01

    A robust colourimetric flow injection analysis (FIA) procedure is described for the determination of busulphan in dissolution samples of a 2 mg tablet formulation. The sample solution is injected directly into a reagent stream containing 4-(4-nitrobenzyl)pyridine/potassium hydrogen phthalate. An on-line heating stage allows the formation of a coloured pyrridinium salt species, which following stabilisation is detected spectrophotometrically at 570 nm. The method has been fully validated and is linear over the concentration range 0.004-0.024 mg of busulphan ml(-1). The method can also been applied to uniformity of content and bulk assay testing. PMID:10704121

  15. Streakline flow visualization of discrete-hole film cooling with normal, slanted, and compound angle injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colladay, R. S.; Russell, L. M.

    1976-01-01

    Film injection from discrete holes in a three-row, staggered array with five-diameter spacing was studied for three hole angles: (1) normal, (2) slanted 30 deg to the surface in the direction of the main stream, and (3) slanted 30 deg to the surface and 45 deg laterally to the main stream. The ratio of the boundary layer thickness-to-hole diameter and Reynolds number were typical of gas-turbine film-cooling applications. Detailed streaklines showing the turbulent motion of the injected air were obtained by photographing very small neutrally buoyant, helium-filled soap bubbles which follow the flow field.

  16. Using regional flow classes as references to analyse flow regime anomalies across a set of regulated Canadian rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, Fraser; Lapointe, Michel; Bourque, Guillaume; Boisclair, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    It is well established that a river's natural flow regime is a key determinant of ecological integrity and that dam regulated-flow releases can be detrimental to biotic communities and even affect river ecosystem structure (e.g. Poff and Zimmerman, 2010). Regional flow classes, groups of rivers that share similar natural flow regimes (called ‘river types' by Poff and Zimmerman (2010)) and to which regional fish communities are ‘adapted', have been proposed as units of analysis to identify significant damming related flow alteration (e.g. Poff, 1996; Poff and Zimmerman, 2010; McManamay et al., 2012a). Specifically, the natural range of flow behaviour within regional classes can be used to identify clearly anomalous flow features in rivers regulated by dams. Through ordination analysis on 70 ecologically important flow indices, we isolated five distinctive regional groupings of natural flow regimes among the 96 unregulated rivers located in study regions of South Eastern and South Western Canada, selected based on watershed characteristics as possible references for the 13 hydro-regulated, NSERC-HydroNet study rivers in British Columbia, Alberta, Ontario, Quebec and New Brunswick. The distinguishing characteristics of natural flow regimes within each flow class are explored through visualization in principal component space. The 16 regulated HydroNet sites were assigned to appropriate regional flow classes through discriminant function analysis based on shared geographic location and watershed characteristics. Anomalous flow features in the regulated rivers are then characterized by type and strength, based on identification of flow indices that are significantly different from observed natural variability in the relevant regional class. The magnitude distributions and the main axes of variability in index anomalies are analysed, across regions and regulation types (storage, peaking and run-of-the-river (RoR)). We also discuss the potential biological

  17. Spike-Nosed Bodies and Forward Injected Jets in Supersonic Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilinsky, M.; Washington, C.; Blankson, I. M.; Shvets, A. I.

    2002-01-01

    The paper contains new numerical simulation and experimental test results of blunt body drag reduction using thin spikes mounted in front of a body and one- or two-phase jets injected against a supersonic flow. Numerical simulations utilizing the NASA CFL3D code were conducted at the Hampton University Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics Laboratory (FM&AL) and experimental tests were conducted using the facilities of the IM/MSU Aeromechanics and Gas Dynamics Laboratory. Previous results were presented at the 37th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference. Those results were based on some experimental and numerical simulation tests for supersonic flow around spike-nosed or shell-nosed bodies, and numerical simulations were conducted only for a single spike-nosed or shell-nosed body at zero attack angle, alpha = 0 degrees. In this paper, experimental test results of gas, liquid and solid particle jet injection against a supersonic flow are presented. In addition, numerical simulation results for supersonic flow around a multiple spike-nosed body with non-zero attack angles and with a gas and solid particle forward jet injection are included. Aerodynamic coefficients: drag, C (sub D), lift, C(sub L), and longitudinal momentum, M(sub z), obtained by numerical simulation and experimental tests are compared and show good agreement.

  18. Spike-Nosed Bodies and Forward Injected Jets in Supersonic Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilinsky, M.; Washington, C.; Blankson, I. M.; Shvets, A. I.

    2002-01-01

    The paper contains new numerical simulation and experimental test results of blunt body drag reduction using thin spikes mounted in front of a body and one- or two-phase jets injected against a supersonic flow. Numerical simulations utilizing the NASA CFL3D code were conducted at the Hampton University Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics Laboratory (FM&AL) and experimental tests were conducted using the facilities of the IM/MSU Aeromechanics and Gas Dynamics Laboratory. Previous results were presented at the 37th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference. Those results were based on some experimental and numerical simulation tests for supersonic flow around spike-nosed or shell-nosed bodies, and numerical simulations were conducted only for a single spike-nosed or shell-nosed body at zero attack angle, alpha=0. In this paper, experimental test results of gas, liquid and solid particle jet injection against a supersonic flow are presented. In addition, numerical simulation results for supersonic flow around a multiple spike-nosed body with non-zero attack angles and with a gas and solid particle forward jet injection are included. Aerodynamic coefficients: drag, C(sub D), lift, C(sub L), and longitudinal momentum, M(sub z), obtained by numerical simulation and experimental tests are compared and show good agreement.

  19. Flow injection catalase activity measurement based on gold nanoparticles/carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    El Nashar, Rasha Mohamed

    2012-07-15

    Amperometric flow injection method of hydrogen peroxide analysis was developed based on catalase enzyme (CAT) immobilization on a glassy carbon electrode (GC) modified with electrochemically deposited gold nanoparticles on a multiwalled carbon nanotubes/chitosan film. The resulting biosensor was applied to detect hydrogen peroxide with a linear response range 1.0×10(-7)-2.5×10(-3)M with a correlation coefficient 0.998 and response time less than 10s. The optimum conditions of film deposition such as potential applied, deposition time and pH were tested and the flow injection conditions were optimized to be: flow rate of 3ml/min, sample volume 75μl and saline phosphate buffer of pH 6.89. Catalase enzyme activity was successfully determined in liver homogenate samples of rats, raised under controlled dietary plan, using a flow injection analysis system involving the developed biosensor simultaneously with spectrophotometric detection, which is the common method of enzymatic assay. PMID:22817944

  20. Numerical prediction of flow induced fibers orientation in injection molded polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oumer, A. N.; Hamidi, N. M.; Mat Sahat, I.

    2015-12-01

    Since the filling stage of injection molding process has important effect on the determination of the orientation state of the fibers, accurate analysis of the flow field for the mold filling stage becomes a necessity. The aim of the paper is to characterize the flow induced orientation state of short fibers in injection molding cavities. A dog-bone shaped model is considered for the simulation and experiment. The numerical model for determination of the fibers orientation during mold-filling stage of injection molding process was solved using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software called MoldFlow. Both the simulation and experimental results showed that two different regions (or three layers of orientation structures) across the thickness of the specimen could be found: a shell region which is near to the mold cavity wall, and a core region at the middle of the cross section. The simulation results support the experimental observations that for thin plates the probability of fiber alignment to the flow direction near the mold cavity walls is high but low at the core region. It is apparent that the results of this study could assist in decisions regarding short fiber reinforced polymer composites.

  1. Flow visualization study of the effect of injection hole geometry on an inclined jet in crossflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, F. F.; Ciancone, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    A flow visualization was studied by using neutrally buoyant, helium-filled soap bubbles, to determine the effect of injection hole geometry on the trajectory of an air jet in a crossflow and to investigate the mechanisms involved in jet deflection. Experimental variables were the blowing rate, and the injection hole geometry cusp facing upstream (CUS), cusp facing downstream (CDS), round, swirl passage, and oblong. It is indicated that jet deflection is governed by both the pressure drag forces and the entrainment of free-stream fluid into the jet flow. For injection hole geometries with similar cross-sectional areas and similar mass flow rates, the jet configuration with the larger aspect ratio experienced a greater deflection. Entrainment arises from lateral shearing forces on the sides of the jet, which set up a dual vortex motion within the jet and thereby cause some of the main-stream fluid momentum to be swept into the jet flow. This additional momentum forces the jet nearer the surface. Of the jet configurations, the oblong, CDS, and CUS configutations exhibited the largest deflections. The results correlate well with film cooling effectiveness data, which suggests a need to determine the jet exit configuration of optimum aspect ratio to provide maximum film cooling effectiveness.

  2. Flow visualization study of the effect of injection hole geometry on an inclined jet in crossflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Frederick F.; Ciancone, Michael L.

    1987-01-01

    A flow visualization was studied by using neutrally buoyant, helium-filled soap bubbles, to determine the effect of injection hole geometry on the trajectory of an air jet in a crossflow and to investigate the mechanisms involved in jet deflection. Experimental variables were the blowing rate, and the injection hole geometry cusp facing upstream (CUS), cusp facing downstream (CDS), round, swirl passage, and oblong. It is indicated that jet deflection is governed by both the pressure drag forces and the entrainment of free-stream fluid into the jet flow. For injection hole geometries with similar cross-sectional areas and similar mass flow rates, the jet configuration with the larger aspect ratio experienced a greater deflection. Entrainment arises from lateral shearing forces on the sides of the jet, which set up a dual vortex motion within the jet and thereby cause some of the main-stream fluid momentum to be swept into the jet flow. This additional momentum forces the jet nearer the surface. Of the jet configurations, the oblong, CDS, and CUS configurations exhibited the largest deflections. The results correlate well with film cooling effectiveness data, which suggests a need to determine the jet exit configuration of optimum aspect ratio to provide maximum film cooling effectiveness.

  3. Development of a flow-injection analysis system with fluorescence detection for gatifloxacin determination in organized medium.

    PubMed

    Lima Vaz, Monica F; de Oliveira, João Vitor F; Cassella, Ricardo J; Pacheco, Wagner F

    2015-05-01

    This work reports the development and optimization of a flow injection analysis system with fluorescence detection (FIA-FLUO) for gatifloxacin (GFX) determination in organized medium. The analytical system was based on the enhanced fluorescence of gatifloxacin in micellar medium containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) at pH 6.0. The influence of physical (carrier flow rate, sample volume and volume of reaction coil) and chemical (pH, concentration of buffer and concentration of SDS) parameters that could affect the performance of the FIA system was evaluated in order to reach optimum conditions in terms of sensitivity and analytical throughput. Under optimized conditions, the FIA-FLUO system allowed the injection of 40 samples per hour with a limit of quantification of 72 µg/L and a RSD of 3.5% at 0.20 mg/L. Real samples of commercial pharmaceutical formulations containing GFX were analyzed, and no statistical difference was observed between the results obtained using the developed system and those obtained using the reference method based on high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. PMID:25060163

  4. Effect of reference conditions on flow rate, modifier fraction and retention in supercritical fluid chromatography.

    PubMed

    De Pauw, Ruben; Shoykhet Choikhet, Konstantin; Desmet, Gert; Broeckhoven, Ken

    2016-08-12

    When using compressible mobile phases such as fluidic CO2, the density, the volumetric flow rates and volumetric fractions are pressure dependent. The pressure and temperature definition of these volumetric parameters (referred to as the reference conditions) may alter between systems, manufacturers and operating conditions. A supercritical fluid chromatography system was modified to operate in two modes with different definition of the eluent delivery parameters, referred to as fixed and variable mode. For the variable mode, the volumetric parameters are defined with reference to the pump operating pressure and actual pump head temperature. These conditions may vary when, e.g. changing the column length, permeability, flow rate, etc. and are thus variable reference conditions. For the fixed mode, the reference conditions were set at 150bar and 30°C, resulting in a mass flow rate and mass fraction of modifier definition which is independent of the operation conditions. For the variable mode, the mass flow rate of carbon dioxide increases with system pump operating pressure, decreasing the fraction of modifier. Comparing the void times and retention factor shows that the deviation between the two modes is almost independent of modifier percentage, but depends on the operating pressure. Recalculating the set volumetric fraction of modifier to the mass fraction results in the same retention behaviour for both modes. This shows that retention in SFC can be best modelled using the mass fraction of modifier. The fixed mode also simplifies method scaling as it only requires matching average column pressure. PMID:27401813

  5. Flow visualization of discrete-hole film cooling with spanwise injection over a cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, L. M.

    1979-01-01

    Insight into the fluid mechanics encountered when film air from a single row of holes is injected over a cylinder in a mainstream at conditions simulating a film cooled, turbulent-vane leading edge was investigated. Smoke was added to the cooling air to visualize its flow path. Film was injected in the spanwise direction at angles of 30 deg and 45 deg to the surface; at angular locations of 15 deg, 30 deg, 45 deg, and 60 deg from the stagnation line; and at various blowing ratios. The observations were related to the measured heat transfer data of others. The results indicate that, in addition to the expected growth in film thickness and the greater penetration of the boundary layer with increasing blowing ration, there was an absence of spanwise spreading and only a small spanwise deflection of the injected film.

  6. Determination of hydrogen peroxide by micro-flow injection-chemiluminescence using a coupled flow cell reactor chemiluminometer.

    PubMed

    Nozaki, O; Kawamoto, H

    2000-01-01

    A novel flow cell reactor was developed for micro-flow injection determination of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) using horseradish peroxide (HRP)-catalysed luminol chemiluminescence. The newly developed flow cell reactor for a chemiluminometer allowed mixing of the chemiluminescent reagents in front of a photomultiplier for maximum detection of the emitted light. The rapid mixing allowed a decrease in the flow rate of the pump to 0.1-0.01 mL/min, resulting in increased sensitivity of detection of light. The flow cell reactor was made by packing HRP-immobilized gels into a flow cell (Teflon tube; 6 cm x 0.98 mm i.d.) located in the cell holder of a chemiluminometer (flow-through type). The HRP-immobilized gels were made by immobilizing HRP onto the Chitopearl gel by the periodate method. H(2)O(2) specimens (50 microL) were injected into a stream of water delivered at a flow rate of 0.1 mL/min and mixed with a luminol solution (0.56 mmol/L in Tricine buffer, pH 9.2) delivered at 0.1 mL/min in the flow cell reactor. Within-run reproducibility of the assay of H(2)O(2) was 2.4% (4.85 micromol/L; flow rate 0.1 mL/min, injection interval 10 min). The reproducibility of the H(2)O(2) assay was influenced by the flow rates and the injection intervals of the H(2)O(2) specimens. As the flow rates decreased, both the light intensity and the light duration increased. Optimal light intensity was obtained at a luminol concentration of 3-8 mmol/L, but 0.56 mmol/L was sufficient for assay of H(2)O(2) in clinical specimens. At a luminol concentration of 0.56 mmol/L, the regression equation of the standard curve for H(2)O(2) (0-9.7 micromol/L) was Y = 27.5 X(2) + 394 X + 58.9 (Y = light intensity; X = concentration of H(2)O(2)) and the detection limit of H(2)O(2) was 0.2 micromol/L. This method was used to assay glucose (2.7-16.7 mmol/L) based on a glucose oxidase (20 U/mL, pH 7.4) reaction. The standard curve for glucose was Y = 167 X(2) - 351 X + 1484 (Y = light intensity; X = glucose

  7. Curing rate and flowing properties of silicone rubber at injection molding

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshino, M.; Nakamura, T. )

    1992-04-01

    Generally, silicone rubbers are mold-cured after mixing the rubber and peroxide curing agent with a two-roll mill or a kneader. Typically this is done at pressures of 5 MPa to 10 MPa and at temperatures between 120 to 200 C. Compression molding, transfer molding and injection molding are common molding ways for silicone rubbers. Recently, injection molding techniques are developing rapidly that have the advantages of molding automatically with high cycle mechanisms. To reduce the molding time and to make a precision part, both the flowing and curing properties of a particular rubber compound will be important. In this article, correlations between the curing and the flowing properties of silicone rubber are investigated by using the Rheovulkameter device.

  8. Piezoelectric detection of ion pairs between sulphonate and catecholamines for flow injection analysis of pharmaceutical preparations.

    PubMed

    Mo, Z; Long, X; Zhang, M

    1999-03-01

    Fundamentals of ion-pair flow injection with piezoelectric detection were investigated experimentally and theoretically for the adsorption of dodecyl phenylsulfonate and interfacial ion-pair formation with epinephrine and l-dopa on silver electrode of quartz crystal microbalance. The influences of sulfonate concentration and operating parameters on the frequency response were demonstrated and provided the possibility for the discriminating determination of mixtures. The selected system of ion-pair flow injection with piezoelectric detection was applied to the determination of epinephrine and l-dopa. Calibration curves were linear in ranges 4.00-850 and 3.50-730 mug ml(-1), with detection limits of 1.22 and 1.05 mug ml(-1) and sampling frequencies of 120 samples h(-1), for epinephrine and l-dopa, respectively. The method has been satisfactorily applied to the determination of catecholamines in pharmaceutical preparations. PMID:18967504

  9. "Reagentless" flow injection determination of ammonia and urea using membrane separation and solid phase basification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akse, J. R.; Thompson, J. O.; Sauer, R. L.; Atwater, J. E.

    1998-01-01

    Flow injection analysis instrumentation and methodology for the determination of ammonia and ammonium ions in an aqueous solution are described. Using in-line solid phase basification beds containing crystalline media. the speciation of ammoniacal nitrogen is shifted toward the un-ionized form. which diffuses in the gas phase across a hydrophobic microporous hollow fiber membrane into a pure-water-containing analytical stream. The two streams flow in a countercurrent configuration on opposite sides of the membrane. The neutral pH of the analytical stream promotes the formation of ammonium cations, which are detected using specific conductance. The methodology provides a lower limit of detection of 10 microgram/L and a dynamic concentration range spanning three orders of magnitude using a 315-microliters sample injection volume. Using immobilized urease to enzymatically promote the hydrolysis of urea to produce ammonia and carbon dioxide, the technique has been extended to the determination of urea.

  10. Preparation, characterization, and application of an enzyme-immobilized magnetic microreactor for flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Akira; Shin, Shigemitsu; Mehdi, Othman Oulad; Kauffmann, Jean-Michel

    2004-09-15

    Enzyme-immobilized magnetic microparticles (EMMP) have been prepared for use as a microreactor in flow injection analysis (FI). The microparticles were directly injected into the FI system. Their retention occurred within the flow line by small permanent magnets located near the detector. The analytical utility of this concept was illustrated by the assay of glucose using glucose oxidase (GOx), immobilized microparticles, and amperometric detection of liberated hydrogen peroxide. The microparticles were derived from silica gel (nominal pore diameter, 15-80 nm) by impregnation with a citric acid/ethanol solution and a ferric nitrate/ethanol solution and then by calcination in a nitrogen atmosphere to produce ferrimagnetic fine particles of spinel-type iron oxide (gamma-Fe(2)O(3)) inside the pore. They were characterized by X-ray diffraction. The calibration curve of the glucose sample (2 microL injected) was linear between 2.5 x 10(-6) and 5 x 10(-4) mol/L (R = 0.9995), and the detection limit was 1.0 x 10(-6) mol/L or 0.36 ng of injected glucose (S/N = 3). The repeatability for a 5 x 10(-4) mol/L glucose solution was RSD = 1.5% (n = 6). Application to the assay of glucose in a fermentation broth is illustrated. The GOx MMP were stable and active for more than eight months when kept at 10 degrees C. PMID:15362912

  11. Determination of total mercury in environmental and biological samples by flow injection cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, James; Jones, Phil; Hill, Steve J.

    1996-12-01

    A simple and accurate method has been developed for the determination of total mercury in environmental and biological samples. The method utilises an off-line microwave digestion stage followed by analysis using a flow injection system with detection by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry. The method has been validated using two certified reference materials (DORM-1 dogfish and MESS-2 estuarine sediment) and the results agreed well with the certified values. A detection limit of 0.2 ng g -1 Hg was obtained and no significant interference was observed. The method was finally applied to the determination of mercury in river sediments and canned tuna fish, and gave results in the range 0.1-3.0 mg kg -1.

  12. Intralesional bleomycin injection in management of low flow vascular malformations in children.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Anita T; Adams, Saleigh; Adams, Kevin; Hudson, Donald A

    2015-04-01

    Low flow vascular malformations are challenging to manage, particularly with their propensity to grow, and can lead to severe disfigurement and dysfunction. Traditional surgical excision is fraught with tedious dissection and complications, particularly in the head and neck region. Trends toward less invasive techniques, such as intralesional sclerotherapy, are proving to be successful independent treatments or adjuncts in management in low flow vascular malformations. This study was a retrospective case note review, over an 8-year period, reporting the outcomes of 32 children (mean = 5.8 years, range = 5 months-11.5 years) with radiologically confirmed low flow vascular malformations, treated with serial intralesional bleomycin injection (IBI) therapy. Patient demographics, lesion characteristics, imaging findings, treatment course, radiological and clinical response to treatment were recorded. An overall 91% (n = 29) response rate was achieved, with 28% obtaining complete resolution for low flow vascular malformations. Lesions were sub-categorized into venous malformation, including mixed venous-capillary (n = 27) or lymphatic malformation (LM) (n = 5). Twenty-seven of 32 children experienced no complications. Local complications included superficial skin infection (n = 2), skin necrosis (n = 1), hyperpigmentation, and minor contour deformity. There was no recurrence and no systemic side-effects to bleomycin. Mean follow-up was 38 months (range = 6-95 months). In conclusion, serial intralesional bleomycin injections can be effective and also safe in a paediatric population for the successful management of symptomatic or disfiguring low flow vascular malformations. PMID:25204206

  13. Non-linear flow transients in fractured rock masses - the 1995 injection experiment in Soultz

    SciTech Connect

    Kohl, T.; Jung, R.; Hopkirk, R.J.; Rybach, L.

    1996-01-24

    In July 1995 in the course of the Hot Dry Rock (HDR) site investigation studies in Soultz s.F. (France) multi rate hydraulic injection tests were conducted in the borehole GPK2. The downhole pressure records obtained from the lowermost depth domain between 3211 m and 3876 m demonstrate non-laminar hydraulic behavior. Such behavior was also observed earlier during a similar set of flow step tests in the GPKl borehole Soultz. Like the analysis of these earlier data sets, it could be shown that the pressure records from July 1995 are corresponding to empirical flow laws established for non-laminar hydraulic regimes. In this study a numerical model is described which is being developed for the analysis of non-laminar flow in fractures. Similar models have already been applied to production and injection tests at GPK1. The results show that the observed transient pressure record is well predicted by such a non-linear flow law. Conventional laminar flow models cannot reproduce these curves. An evaluation of the parameters resulting from both, steady state and transient analysis leads to assumptions on the geometry of the main fracture system. Our calculations show that surface areas above 0.05 km² and apertures in the order of 0.4 mm results in an excellent fit of the data.

  14. Free flow isotachophoresis in an injection moulded miniaturised separation chamber with integrated electrodes.

    PubMed

    Stone, Victoria N; Baldock, Sara J; Croasdell, Laura A; Dillon, Leonard A; Fielden, Peter R; Goddard, Nick J; Thomas, C L Paul; Treves Brown, Bernard J

    2007-07-01

    An injection moulded free flow isotachophoresis (FFITP) microdevice with integrated carbon fibre loaded electrodes with a separation chamber of 36.4mm wide, 28.7 mm long and 100 microm deep is presented. The microdevice was completely fabricated by injection moulding in carbon fibre loaded polystyrene for the electrodes and crystal polystyrene for the remainder of the chip and was bonded together using ultrasonic welding. Two injection moulded electrode designs were compared, one with the electrode surface level with the separation chamber and one with a recessed electrode. Separations of two anionic dyes, 0.2mM each of amaranth and acid green and separations of 0.2mM each of amaranth, bromophenol blue and glutamate were performed on the microdevice. Flow rates of 1.25 ml min(-1) for the leading and terminating electrolytes were used and a flow rate of 0.63 ml min(-1) for the sample. Electric fields of up to 370 V cm(-1) were applied across the separation chamber. Joule heating was not found to be significant although out-gassing was observed at drive currents greater than 3 mA. PMID:17229431

  15. An Optical Flow-Based Full Reference Video Quality Assessment Algorithm.

    PubMed

    K, Manasa; Channappayya, Sumohana S

    2016-06-01

    We present a simple yet effective optical flow-based full-reference video quality assessment (FR-VQA) algorithm for assessing the perceptual quality of natural videos. Our algorithm is based on the premise that local optical flow statistics are affected by distortions and the deviation from pristine flow statistics is proportional to the amount of distortion. We characterize the local flow statistics using the mean, the standard deviation, the coefficient of variation (CV), and the minimum eigenvalue ( λ min ) of the local flow patches. Temporal distortion is estimated as the change in the CV of the distorted flow with respect to the reference flow, and the correlation between λ min of the reference and of the distorted patches. We rely on the robust multi-scale structural similarity index for spatial quality estimation. The computed temporal and spatial distortions, thus, are then pooled using a perceptually motivated heuristic to generate a spatio-temporal quality score. The proposed method is shown to be competitive with the state-of-the-art when evaluated on the LIVE SD database, the EPFL Polimi SD database, and the LIVE Mobile HD database. The distortions considered in these databases include those due to compression, packet-loss, wireless channel errors, and rate-adaptation. Our algorithm is flexible enough to allow for any robust FR spatial distortion metric for spatial distortion estimation. In addition, the proposed method is not only parameter-free but also independent of the choice of the optical flow algorithm. Finally, we show that the replacement of the optical flow vectors in our proposed method with the much coarser block motion vectors also results in an acceptable FR-VQA algorithm. Our algorithm is called the flow similarity index. PMID:27093720

  16. Numerical Modeling of Fuel Injection into an Accelerating, Turning Flow with a Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colcord, Ben James

    Deliberate continuation of the combustion in the turbine passages of a gas turbine engine has the potential to increase the efficiency and the specific thrust or power of current gas-turbine engines. This concept, known as a turbine-burner, must overcome many challenges before becoming a viable product. One major challenge is the injection, mixing, ignition, and burning of fuel within a short residence time in a turbine passage characterized by large three-dimensional accelerations. One method of increasing the residence time is to inject the fuel into a cavity adjacent to the turbine passage, creating a low-speed zone for mixing and combustion. This situation is simulated numerically, with the turbine passage modeled as a turning, converging channel flow of high-temperature, vitiated air adjacent to a cavity. Both two- and three-dimensional, reacting and non-reacting calculations are performed, examining the effects of channel curvature and convergence, fuel and additional air injection configurations, and inlet conditions. Two-dimensional, non-reacting calculations show that higher aspect ratio cavities improve the fluid interaction between the channel flow and the cavity, and that the cavity dimensions are important for enhancing the mixing. Two-dimensional, reacting calculations show that converging channels improve the combustion efficiency. Channel curvature can be either beneficial or detrimental to combustion efficiency, depending on the location of the cavity and the fuel and air injection configuration. Three-dimensional, reacting calculations show that injecting fuel and air so as to disrupt the natural motion of the cavity stimulates three-dimensional instability and improves the combustion efficiency.

  17. MICROSCALE FLOW INJECTION AND MICROBORE HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATORGRAPHY COUPLED WITH INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY VIA A HIGH-EFFICIENCY NEBULIZER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A high-effeciency nebulizer has been used for coupling microscale flow injection and microbore high-performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The microscale flow injection system was configured to minimize band broadening between...

  18. Automated determination of nitrate plus nitrite in aqueous samples with flow injection analysis using vanadium (III) chloride as reductant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu; Lin, Kunning; Chen, Nengwang; Yuan, Dongxing; Ma, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Determination of nitrate in aqueous samples is an important analytical objective for environmental monitoring and assessment. Here we report the first automatic flow injection analysis (FIA) of nitrate (plus nitrite) using VCl3 as reductant instead of the well-known but toxic cadmium column for reducing nitrate to nitrite. The reduced nitrate plus the nitrite originally present in the sample react with the Griess reagent (sulfanilamide and N-1-naphthylethylenediamine dihydrochloride) under acidic condition. The resulting pink azo dye can be detected at 540 nm. The Griess reagent and VCl3 are used as a single mixed reagent solution to simplify the system. The various parameters of the FIA procedure including reagent composition, temperature, volume of the injection loop, and flow rate were carefully investigated and optimized via univariate experimental design. Under the optimized conditions, the linear range and detection limit of this method are 0-100 µM (R(2)=0.9995) and 0.1 µM, respectively. The targeted analytical range can be easily extended to higher concentrations by selecting alternative detection wavelengths or increasing flow rate. The FIA system provides a sample throughput of 20 h(-1), which is much higher than that of previously reported manual methods based on the same chemistry. National reference solutions and different kinds of aqueous samples were analyzed with our method as well as the cadmium column reduction method. The results from our method agree well with both the certified value and the results from the cadmium column reduction method (no significant difference with P=0.95). The spiked recovery varies from 89% to 108% for samples with different matrices, showing insignificant matrix interference in this method. PMID:26695325

  19. Hybrid LES/RANS Simulation of Transverse Sonic Injection into a Mach 2 Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boles, John A.; Edwards, Jack R.; Baurle, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    A computational study of transverse sonic injection of air and helium into a Mach 1.98 cross-flow is presented. A hybrid large-eddy simulation / Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (LES/RANS) turbulence model is used, with the two-equation Menter baseline (Menter-BSL) closure for the RANS part of the flow and a Smagorinsky-type model for the LES part of the flow. A time-dependent blending function, dependent on modeled turbulence variables, is used to shift the closure from RANS to LES. Turbulent structures are initiated and sustained through the use of a recycling / rescaling technique. Two higher-order discretizations, the Piecewise Parabolic Method (PPM) of Colella and Woodward, and the SONIC-A ENO scheme of Suresh and Huyhn are used in the study. The results using the hybrid model show reasonably good agreement with time-averaged Mie scattering data and with experimental surface pressure distributions, even though the penetration of the jet into the cross-flow is slightly over-predicted. The LES/RANS results are used to examine the validity of commonly-used assumptions of constant Schmidt and Prandtl numbers in the intense mixing zone downstream of the injection location.

  20. Effect of Transpiration Injection on Skin Friction in an Internal Supersonic Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castiglone, L. A.; Northam, G. B.; Baker, N. R.; Roe, L. A.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center that included development and evaluation of an operational facility for wall drag measurement of potential scramjet fuel injection or wall cooling configurations. The facility consisted of a supersonic tunnel, with one wall composed of a series of interchangeable aluminum plates attached to an air bearing suspension system. The system was equipped with load cells that measured drag forces of 115 psia (793 kPa). This flow field contained a train of weak, unsteady, reflecting shock waves that were produced in the Mach 2 nozzle flows, the effect of reflecting shocks (which are to be expected in scramjet combustors) in internal flows has not previously been documented.

  1. Approximate solutions for Forchheimer flow during water injection and water production in an unconfined aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathias, Simon A.; Moutsopoulos, Konstantinos N.

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the hydraulics around injection and production wells in unconfined aquifers associated with rainwater and reclaimed water aquifer storage schemes is an issue of increasing importance. Much work has been done previously to understand the mathematics associated with Darcy's law in this context. However, groundwater flow velocities around injection and production wells are likely to be sufficiently large such as to induce significant non-Darcy effects. This article presents a mathematical analysis to look at Forchheimer's equation in the context of water injection and water production in unconfined aquifers. Three different approximate solutions are derived using quasi-steady-state assumptions and the method of matched asymptotic expansion. The resulting approximate solutions are shown to be accurate for a wide range of practical scenarios by comparison with a finite difference solution to the full problem of concern. The approximate solutions have led to an improved understanding of the flow dynamics. They can also be used as verification tools for future numerical models in this context.

  2. Detecting total toxicity in water using a mediated biosensor system with flow injection.

    PubMed

    Yong, Daming; Liu, Changyu; Zhu, Chengzhou; Yu, Dengbin; Liu, Ling; Zhai, Junfeng; Dong, Shaojun

    2015-11-01

    A novel total toxicity detection method based on a mediated biosensor system with flow injection (MB-FI) was developed to rapidly and reliably detect respiration inhibitors (i.e., As2O3, KCN, salicylic acid (SA), 2,4-dintirophenol (DNP)) in water. The mediated biosensor toxicity assessment using microorganisms immobilized in calcium alginate filaments can greatly simplify the testing process and save time. In the MB-FI system, ferricyanide together with a respiration inhibitor was injected into the bioreactor, inhibiting the respiration of the immobilized microorganisms. The degree of inhibition was measured by determining the ferrocyanide generated in the effluent, expressed as the 50% inhibition concentration (IC50). The IC50 values for the four respiration inhibitors obtained using this method were comparable to those obtained using the classic method, confirming that this approach is an alternative alert method. More importantly, this constructed biosensor system with flow injection will facilitate the application and commercialization of this toxicity monitoring technology. PMID:26071865

  3. Evolution of Bubbles through Gas Injection from a Micro-Tube into Liquid Cross-Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaemi, Sina; Rahimi, Payam; Nobes, David

    2008-11-01

    Generation of small-size bubbles is of importance in many processes such as chemical, medical and food industries. The most common method of bubble generation is injection of gas from an orifice into the liquid phase. In spite of simplicity of this method, appropriate conditions should exist to avoid bubble growth and obtain required small-size bubbles. Thorough understanding of the bubble formation and growth can reveal the required conditions and ensure detachment of the bubbles from the orifice with desired timing to control their size. In this work, evolution of bubbles from a micro-size gas injection tube into liquid cross-flow is investigated. Special attention has been devoted to optimize the conditions to generate micro-size bubbles. Specifically, the influence of gas injection tube size and location, gas and liquid Reynolds numbers and the geometry of the mixing chamber on the bubbles evolution is studied. High-speed shadowgraphy technique is applied to investigate bubbles size and shape. A Particle Tracking Velocimetry algorithm is also applied to calculate bubbles velocity. The velocity field of the liquid flow surrounding the bubbles is also characterized using a Mirco-Stereo-Particle Image Velocimetry technique.

  4. Effects of yaw on low angle injection into a supersonic flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. H.; Schetz, J. A.; Fuller, E. J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of transverse gas injection into supersonic/hypersonic streams with low downstream transverse angles in addition to yaw angles varying from zero to approximately 30 deg. The primary data are concentration measurements, with nanoshadowgraphs and oil flow visualization pictures also included. Two sets of experiments were performed. The first set studied the effects of yaw angle, specifically beta = 15 and 28 deg, on a helium injector with a 30-deg transverse angle in a Mach 3 freestream. Axial measurement stations were x/d = 30, 50, and 100. It was found that, as beta was increased, the maximum concentration mixing rate did not vary, but the jet core penetration decreased more at beta = 15 deg than at beta = 28 deg. A shearing effect between the portion of the jet in the boundary layer and the portion in the freestream increased the area of a typical constant concentration contour. The second set of experiments, conducted at NASA Langley, studied the effect of yawed injection at a transverse angle of 15 deg in a Mach 6 flow. Axial stations of x/d = 20, 40, 60, and 80 were used. A yaw angle of beta = 15 deg was found to decrease both the jet core mixing rate and penetration. The primary benefit of yaw was to increase lateral spreading. For similar injection conditions, the results show less near-field mixing at Mach 6 than Mach 3, but a faster mixing rate in the far-field at Mach 6.

  5. Impurity Ion Temperature and Flow Dynamics During Local Helicity Injection on the PEGASUS Toroidal Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, M. G.; Fonck, R. J.

    2013-10-01

    Anomalous energetic thermal and non-thermal minority ion distributions are observed during local helicity injection current startup. Energetic ions in significant numbers can transfer a large amount of power to plasma electrons during helicity injection, which can alter the helicity balance and consequent plasma startup via reduced resistive dissipation. Multi-spatial point spectra from a 1 m F/8.6 Czerny-Turner polychromator are recorded by an intensified high-speed camera with a time resolution of 500 μs. Te remains low during helicity injection, wherein the plasma experiences large magnetic fluctuations and strong reconnection activity near the injection region. Partially ionized low-Z impurities (CIII, NIII, and OIII) exist in the core plasma region, which allows core Ti measurements. Strong impurity ion heating (Ti ~ 1 . 2 keV, Te ~ 0 . 1 keV) correlates with n = 1 MHD activity. High frequency magnetic fluctuations are indicated at frequencies close to the impurity ion cyclotron frequencies and may act as the source of energy for the ions. These observations motivate the deployment of a neutral particle analyzer to measure the working gas ion distributions in these plasmas. In addition, a high-throughput polychromator with 2 μs resolution is being installed to more directly correlate the observed impurity ion heating and flows with MHD and reconnection activity. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  6. Friction Drag Reduction of External Flows with Bubble and Gas Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceccio, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    The lubrication of external liquid flow with a bubbly mixture or gas layer has been the goal of engineers for many years, and this article presents the underlying principles and recent advances of this technology. It reviews the use of partial and supercavities for drag reduction of axisymmetric objects moving within a liquid. Partial cavity flows can also be used to reduce the friction drag on the nominally two-dimensional portions of a horizontal surface, and the basic flow features of two-dimensional cavities are presented. Injection of gas can lead to the creation of a bubbly mixture near the flow surface that can significantly modify the flow within the turbulent boundary layer, and there have been significant advances in the understanding of the underlying physical process of drag reduction. Moreover, with sufficient gas flux, the bubbles flowing beneath a solid surface can coalesce to form a thin drag-reducing air layer. The current applications of these techniques to underwater vehicles and surface ships are discussed.

  7. Flow and dynamo measurements during the coaxial helicity injection on HIST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, K.; Higashi, T.; Nakatsuka, M.; Kikuchi, Y.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.

    2009-11-01

    The current drive by Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI-CD) was performed on HIST in a wide range of configurations from high-q ST to low-q ST and spheromak generated by the utilization of the toroidal field. It is a key issue to investigate the dynamo mechanism required to maintain each configuration. To identify the detail mechanisms, it is needed to manifest a role of plasma flows in the CHI-CD. For this purpose, we have measured the ion flow and the dynamo electric field using an ion Doppler spectrometer (IDS) system, a Mach probe and a dynamo probe. The new dynamo probe consists of 3-axis Mach probes and magnetic pick-up coils. The flow measurements have shown that the intermittent generation of the flow is correlated to the fluctuation seen on the electron density and current signals during the driven phase. At this time, the toroidal direction of the ion flow in the central open flux column is opposite to that of the toroidal current there, i.e. the same direction as electrons. After the plasma enters to the resistive decay phase, the toroidal flow tends to reverse to the same direction as the toroidal current. The results are consistent with the model of the repetitive plasmoid ejection and coalescence proposed for CHI-CD. The plasma jet emanating from the gun source and magnetic field generations through reconnection during the driven phase is well reflected in the 3D MHD simulation.

  8. National Combustion Code Validated Against Lean Direct Injection Flow Field Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iannetti, Anthony C.

    2003-01-01

    Most combustion processes have, in some way or another, a recirculating flow field. This recirculation stabilizes the reaction zone, or flame, but an unnecessarily large recirculation zone can result in high nitrogen oxide (NOx) values for combustion systems. The size of this recirculation zone is crucial to the performance of state-of-the-art, low-emissions hardware. If this is a large-scale combustion process, the flow field will probably be turbulent and, therefore, three-dimensional. This research dealt primarily with flow fields resulting from lean direct injection (LDI) concepts, as described in Research & Technology 2001. LDI is a concept that depends heavily on the design of the swirler. The LDI concept has the potential to reduce NOx values from 50 to 70 percent of current values, with good flame stability characteristics. It is cost effective and (hopefully) beneficial to do most of the design work for an LDI swirler using computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes are CAE tools that can calculate three-dimensional flows in complex geometries. However, CFD codes are only beginning to correctly calculate the flow fields for complex devices, and the related combustion models usually remove a large portion of the flow physics.

  9. Visualization analysis of tiger-striped flow mark generation phenomena in injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owada, Shigeru; Yokoi, Hidetoshi

    2016-03-01

    The generation mechanism of tiger-striped flow marks of polypropylene (PP)/rubber/talc blends in injection molding was investigated by dynamic visualization analysis in a glass-inserted mold. The analysis revealed that the behavior of the melt flow front correlates with the flow mark generation. The cloudy part in the tiger-striped flow marks corresponded to the low transcription rate area of the melt diverging near the cavity wall, while the glossy part corresponded to the high transcription rate area of the melt converging toward the cavity wall side. The melt temperature at the high transcription rate area was slightly lower than that at the low transcription rate area. These phenomena resulted due to the difference in the temperature of the melt front that was caused by the asymmetric fountain flow. These results suggest the followings; At the moment when the melt is broken near the one side of cavity wall due to piling the extensional strains up to a certain level, the melt spurts out near the broken side. It results in generating asymmetric fountain flow temporarily to relax the extensional front surface, which moves toward the opposite side to form the high transcription area.

  10. Determination of Hypochlorite in Bleaching Products with Flower Extracts to Demonstrate the Principles of Flow Injection Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Luiz Antonio; Prieto, Katia Roberta; Carvalheiro, Eder Tadeu Gomes; Carvalheiro, Carla Cristina Schmitt

    2005-01-01

    The use of crude flower extracts to the principle of analytical chemistry automation, with the flow injection analysis (FIA) procedure developed to determine hypochlorite in household bleaching products was performed. The FIA comprises a group of techniques based on injection of a liquid sample into a moving, nonsegmented carrier stream of a…

  11. Experimental study of the swirl motion in direct injection diesel engines under steady state flow conditions (by LDA)

    SciTech Connect

    Snauwaert, P.; Sierens, R.

    1986-01-01

    A detailed three-dimensional study of the mean flow and the turbulence inside the liner of a direct injection diesel engine under steady state flow conditions has been carried out by laser doppler anemometer measurements. The influence of the valve lift, the port orientation (using a cylinder head with variable direction of the inlet channel) and the mass flow on flow characteristics (kinetic energy distributions, momentum flux, swirl parameters) has been analysed. These flow characteristics have been used to analyse the relation between the real flow pattern and swirl parameters as measured by the flow rectifier method and the paddle wheel anemometer.

  12. A biological tool to assess flow connectivity in reference temporary streams from the Mediterranean Basin.

    PubMed

    Cid, N; Verkaik, I; García-Roger, E M; Rieradevall, M; Bonada, N; Sánchez-Montoya, M M; Gómez, R; Suárez, M L; Vidal-Abarca, M R; Demartini, D; Buffagni, A; Erba, S; Karaouzas, I; Skoulikidis, N; Prat, N

    2016-01-01

    Many streams in the Mediterranean Basin have temporary flow regimes. While timing for seasonal drought is predictable, they undergo strong inter-annual variability in flow intensity. This high hydrological variability and associated ecological responses challenge the ecological status assessment of temporary streams, particularly when setting reference conditions. This study examined the effects of flow connectivity in aquatic macroinvertebrates from seven reference temporary streams across the Mediterranean Basin where hydrological variability and flow conditions are well studied. We tested for the effect of flow cessation on two streamflow indices and on community composition, and, by performing random forest and classification tree analyses we identified important biological predictors for classifying the aquatic state either as flowing or disconnected pools. Flow cessation was critical for one of the streamflow indices studied and for community composition. Macroinvertebrate families found to be important for classifying the aquatic state were Hydrophilidae, Simuliidae, Hydropsychidae, Planorbiidae, Heptageniidae and Gerridae. For biological traits, trait categories associated to feeding habits, food, locomotion and substrate relation were the most important and provided more accurate predictions compared to taxonomy. A combination of selected metrics and associated thresholds based on the most important biological predictors (i.e. Bio-AS Tool) were proposed in order to assess the aquatic state in reference temporary streams, especially in the absence of hydrological data. Although further development is needed, the tool can be of particular interest for monitoring, restoration, and conservation purposes, representing an important step towards an adequate management of temporary rivers not only in the Mediterranean Basin but also in other regions vulnerable to the effects of climate change. PMID:26209067

  13. Flow injection chemiluminescence determination of hydrazine by oxidation with chlorinated isocyanurates.

    PubMed

    Safavi, Afsaneh; Karimi, Mohammad Ali

    2002-10-16

    A rapid and sensitive flow injection chemiluminescence (CL) method is described for the determination of hydrazine based on the CL generated during its reaction with either sodium dichloroisocyanurate (SDCC) or trichloroisocyanuric acid (TCCA) in alkaline medium. The emission intensity is greatly enhanced if dichlorofluorescein (DCF) as sensitizer is present in the reaction medium. The presence of citrate prevents the precipitation of some cations in the reaction medium and also causes an enhancement in emission intensity. The effect of analytical and flow injection variables on these CL systems and determination of hydrazine are discussed. The optimum parameters for the determination of hydrazine were studied and were found to be the following: SDCC and TCCA both 1x10(-3) M; NaOH, 2x10(-1) M; DCF, 5x10(-6) M; citrate, 1x10(-3) M and flow rate, 3.8 ml min(-1). The optimized method yielded 3sigma detection limits of 2x10(-7) and 3x10(-7) M for hydrazine with SDCC and TCCA oxidants, respectively. The method is simple, fast, sensitive, and precise and was applied to the determination of hydrazine in water samples. PMID:18968808

  14. The effect of air injection on the parameters of swirling flow in a Turbine-99 draft tube model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skripkin, S. G.; Kuibin, P. A.; Shtork, S. I.

    2015-07-01

    Results of experimental modeling of a swirling flow in a Turbine-99 draft tube prototype are presented. The influence of gas phase injection into the flow has been studied. Experiments were performed on a closed hydrodynamic setup containing a working stage with the Turbine-99 draft tube geometry. It is established that the gas content affects the flow structure. Gas injection leads to a change in the frequency of precession of the vortex core formed in the draft tube cone, which is not related to an increase in the gas-liquid mixture flow rate.

  15. Flow and injection characteristics of pharmaceutical parenteral formulations using a micro-capillary rheometer.

    PubMed

    Allahham, Ayman; Stewart, Peter; Marriott, Jennifer; Mainwaring, David E

    2004-02-11

    A micro-capillary rheometer consisted of a fine needle with an internal diameter of 347 microm attached to a 1 ml removable-needle syringe within an Instron device that operated in compression mode to provide various crosshead speeds ranging from 150 to 950 mm min(-1) covering typical clinical injection rates, and that determined the resulting force on the plunger. The crosshead speed and the resulting force were used to calculate the shear rate and the shear stress respectively. These were used in standard capillary flow expressions together with an independent measurement of the wall frictional force and allowed the viscosity of parenteral Newtonian solutions and non-Newtonian suspensions to be measured quantitatively and their rheological behaviour in needles of clinical dimensions to be established. Commercial pharmaceutical parenteral formulations consisting of three oil-based solutions and three aqueous suspensions were chosen for this study. The net injection forces were also obtained and it was shown that both the oil-based solutions and the aqueous suspensions covered similar ranges. The viscosities for the parenteral solutions were determined from the slope of the linear regression (R(2)>0.97) between shear stress and shear rate and ranged between 0.029 and 0.060 Pas. For the aqueous suspensions examined, viscosities decreased from low shear rate to high shear rate, following a power-law model and indicating a pseudo plastic behaviour. Standardisation of the micro-capillary rheometer with Newtonian silicone oils calibrated with a Rheometrics Fluids Spectrometer showed viscosity values consistent between the rotational flow measurements and capillary flow measurements which were within 5% and showed very high degrees of reproducibility between replicate samples. This degree of reproducibility allowed differences in the contribution of the wall frictional force to the required plunger force for both the oil-based and aqueous parenteral formulations to be

  16. Simple flow injection colorimetric system for determination of paraquat in natural water.

    PubMed

    Chuntib, Prakit; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2015-11-01

    A simple and low cost flow injection colorimetric system has been developed for determination of paraquat in natural water. The developed method is based on the reduction of paraquat by using sodium dithionite as a reducing agent in an alkaline medium to produce a blue free radical ion that can be detected by a simple light emitting diode-light dependent resistor (LED-LDR) colorimeter. The standard or sample solution was injected via a set of 3-way solenoid valves into a water carrier stream and flowed to merge with reagent to generate a colored product which is proportional to the concentration of paraquat ion in the solution. Under the optimum condition of the system, i.e., mixing coil length 30 cm, flow rate 2.0 mL min(-1), sample volume 100 μL, concentrations of dithionite 0.1% (w/v) and sodium hydroxide 0.06 mol L(-1), a linear calibration graph in the range of 0.2-10.0 mg L(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.9996, and a limit of detection of 0.15 mg L(-1) were achieved. Relative standard deviation for 9 replicate injections of 1 mg L(-1) paraquat is 3.7%. A sample throughput of 40 injections h(-1) was achieved. The limit of detection can be improved by off-line preconcentration of paraquat employing a column packed with Dowex 50WX8-100 (H) cation exchange resin and eluted with 10% (w/v) ammonium chloride in ammonium buffer solution pH 10. The eluting solution was then injected into the FI system for paraquat determination. The proposed system did not suffer from interferences of some possible ions in natural water and other herbicides. Recoveries obtained by spiking 0.5 and 5.0 mg L(-1) paraquat standard into water samples were in the range of 104-110% and 101-105%, respectively. The developed system can be conveniently applied for screening of paraquat contaminated in natural water. PMID:26452844

  17. Determination of gallic acid with rhodanine by reverse flow injection analysis using simplex optimization.

    PubMed

    Phakthong, Wilaiwan; Liawruangrath, Boonsom; Liawruangrath, Saisunee

    2014-12-01

    A reversed flow injection (rFI) system was designed and constructed for gallic acid determination. Gallic acid was determined based on the formation of chromogen between gallic acid and rhodanine, resulting in a colored product with a λmax at 520 nm. The optimum conditions for determining gallic acid were also investigated. Optimizations of the experimental conditions were carried out based on the so-call univariate method. The conditions obtained were 0.6% (w/v) rhodanine, 70% (v/v) ethanol, 0.9 mol L(-1) NaOH, 2.0 mL min(-1) flow rate, 75 μL injection loop and 600 cm mixing tubing length, respectively. Comparative optimizations of the experimental conditions were also carried out by multivariate or simplex optimization method. The conditions obtained were 1.2% (w/v) rhodanine, 70% (v/v) ethanol, 1.2 mol L(-1) NaOH, flow rate 2.5 mL min(-1), 75 μL injection loop and 600 cm mixing tubing length, respectively. It was found that the optimum conditions obtained by the former optimization method were mostly similar to those obtained by the latter method. The linear relationship between peak height and the concentration of gallic acid was obtained over the range of 0.1-35.0 mg L(-1) with the detection limit 0.081 mg L(-1). The relative standard deviations were found to be in the ranges 0.46-1.96% for 1, 10, 30 mg L(-1) of gallic acid (n=11). The method has the advantages of simplicity extremely high selectivity and high precision. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of gallic acid in longan samples without interferent effects from other common phenolic compounds that might be present in the longan samples collected in northern Thailand. PMID:25159449

  18. Flow Injection Potentiometric Assay of Hexoprenaline in Its Pure State, Pharmaceutical Preparations, and Biological Samples

    PubMed Central

    El-Nashar, Rasha M.

    2008-01-01

    Different hexoprenaline (Hx2SO4) conventional and coated wire electrodes were constructed and evaluated. Membranes were based on hexoprenalinium phosphotungstate (Hx-PTA) and hexporenalinium phosphomolybdate (Hx-PMA). The electrodes were fully characterized in terms of their composition, response time, life span, pH, and temperature and then were applied to the potentiometric determination of the hexoprenalinium ion in its pure state, pharmaceutical preparations, and biological samples, urine and plasma, under batch and flow injection conditions. The selectivity of the electrodes towards many inorganic cations, sugars, amino acids, and some other brochodilatures of close chemical composition was also tested. PMID:18483573

  19. Large Eddy Simulation of a Cavitating Multiphase Flow for Liquid Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cailloux, M.; Helie, J.; Reveillon, J.; Demoulin, F. X.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a numerical method for modelling a compressible multiphase flow that involves phase transition between liquid and vapour in the context of gasoline injection. A discontinuous compressible two fluid mixture based on the Volume of Fluid (VOF) implementation is employed to represent the phases of liquid, vapour and air. The mass transfer between phases is modelled by standard models such as Kunz or Schnerr-Sauer but including the presence of air in the gas phase. Turbulence is modelled using a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approach to catch instationnarities and coherent structures. Eventually the modelling approach matches favourably experimental data concerning the effect of cavitation on atomisation process.

  20. Effect of Cavity Injection on Wall Drag in a Supersonic Flow with Reflecting Shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castiglone, L. A.; Northam, G. B.; Baker, N. R.; Roer, L. A.

    1996-01-01

    The wall drag test tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center was used to evaluate simulated scramjet fuel injection into a wall cavity. In this tunnel, one wall consists of interchangeable aluminum plates attached to an air bearing suspension system. The plates were equipped with load cells to measure drag forces and static taps to determine pressure distributions. The plates were exposed to a Mach 2 air stream at a total pressure of 115 psia (793 kPa). This flow field contained a train of weak unsteady, reflecting shock waves that were produced in the nozzle assembly located upstream of the test section.

  1. Flow-injection extraction-spectrophotometric determination of bromhexine with orange IV.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ruiz, T; Martínez-Lozano, C; Sanz, A; Mondéjar, S

    1995-08-01

    An automatic flow-injection photometric method for the determination of bromhexine is proposed. The drug was determined by formation of an ion-pair with orange IV, extraction into 1,2-dichloroethane and measurement of the absorbance at 412 nm of the organic phase. A linear calibration graph was obtained at concentrations of 5 x 10(-6)-1.6 x 10(-4) M of bromhexine. Up to 40 samples h-1 can be processed with an RSD of 0.32-0.88%. The method was applied to the determination of bromhexine in blood serum and a pharmaceutical preparation. PMID:8573634

  2. Trace determination of aqueous sulfite, sulfide, and methanethiol by fluorometric flow injection analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dasgupta, P.K.; Yang, H.C.

    1986-11-01

    Preservation of sulfite, sulfide, and methanethiol in buffered formaldehyde and oxaldihydroxamic acid stabilizers has been studied. Flow injection analysis procedures that involve T mixing or membrane-based reagent introduction have been developed for the fast (24 samples/h) analysis of these anions based upon the reaction with N-acridinylmaleimide in a water-N,N-dimethylformamide medium to form a fluorescent product. Detection limits are 0.04, 0.60, and 0.80 ..mu..M, respectively, for the three sulfur species; differential analysis is possible.

  3. Investigation of a chemiluminescent system for the determination of ammonia by flow-injection analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, P.R.; Crouch, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    A novel system for the determination of ammonia based on the chemiluminescent reaction between hypochlorite and luminol is presented. The technique of flow injection analysis was employed to automate the system. Ammonia reacts with hypochlorite to form monochloramine in basic solution which decreases the observed chemiluminescence intensity. Several interferents are identified, and the reasons why they interfere are discussed. The effects of interferents are minimized through the use of a double-tube dialyzer where the ammonia is diffused across the dialyzer membrane into a recipient stream of hydrochloric acid.

  4. Small Volume Flow Probe for Automated Direct-Injection NMR Analysis: Design and Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haner, Ronald L.; Llanos, William; Mueller, Luciano

    2000-03-01

    A detailed characterization of an NMR flow probe for use in direct-injection sample analysis is presented. A 600-MHz, indirect detection NMR flow probe with a 120-μl active volume is evaluated in two configurations: first as a stand-alone small volume probe for the analysis of static, nonflowing solutions, and second as a component in an integrated liquids-handling system used for high-throughput NMR analysis. In the stand-alone mode, 1H lineshape, sensitivity, radiofrequency (RF) homogeneity, and heat transfer characteristics are measured and compared to conventional-format NMR probes of related design. Commonly used descriptive terminology for the hardware, sample regions, and RF coils are reviewed or defined, and test procedures developed for flow probes are described. The flow probe displayed general performance that is competitive with standard probes. Key advantages of the flow probe include high molar sensitivity, ease of use in an automation setup, and superior reproducibility of magnetic field homogeneity which enables the practical implementation of 1D T2-edited analysis of protein-ligand interactions.

  5. Generation of electromagnetic emission during the injection of dense supersonic plasma flows into arched magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansfeld, Dmitry; Golubev, Sergey; Viktorov, Mikhail; Vodopyanov, Alexander; Yushkov, George

    2015-11-01

    Interaction of dense supersonic plasma flows with an inhomogeneous arched magnetic field is one of the key problems in near-Earth and space plasma physics. In this work a new experimental approach is suggested to study interaction of supersonic (ion Mach number up to 2.7) dense (up to 1015cm-3) plasma flows with inhomogeneous magnetic field (an arched magnetic trap with a field strength up to 3.3 T) which opens wide opportunities to model space plasma processes in laboratory conditions. Fully ionized plasma flows with density from 1013cm-3 to 1015cm-3 are created by plasma generator on the basis of pulsed vacuum arc discharge and injected into open magnetic trap across magnetic field lines. The filling of the arched magnetic trap with plasma and further magnetic field lines break by dense plasma flow was accompanied by pulsed electromagnetic emission at electron cyclotron frequency range, which can generated by electrons in the place of intensive deceleration of plasma flow in magnetic field. Grant of Ministry of Education 14.Z50.31.0007.

  6. Flow structures of gaseous jets injected into water for underwater propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jia-Ning; Wang, Ning-Fei; Shyy, Wei

    2011-08-01

    Gaseous jets injected into water are typically found in underwater propulsion, and the flow is essentially unsteady and turbulent. Additionally, the high water-to-gas density ratio can result in complicated flow structures; hence measuring the flow structures numerically and experimentally remains a challenge. To investigate the performance of the underwater propulsion, this paper uses detailed Navier-Stokes flow computations to elucidate the gas-water interactions under the framework of the volume of fluid (VOF) model. Furthermore, these computations take the fluid compressibility, viscosity, and energy transfer into consideration. This paper compares the numerical results and experimental data, showing that phenomena including expansion, bulge, necking/breaking, and back-attack are highlighted in the jet process. The resulting analysis indicates that the pressure difference on the rear and front surfaces of the propulsion system can generate an additional thrust. The strong and oscillatory thrust of the underwater propulsion system is caused by the intermittent pulses of the back pressure and the nozzle exit pressure. As a result, the total thrust in underwater propulsion is not only determined by the nozzle geometry but also by the flow structures and associated pressure distributions.

  7. Flow injection potentiometric system for the simultaneous determination of inositol phosphates and phosphate: phosphorus nutritional evaluation on seeds and grains.

    PubMed

    Parra, Aleix; Ramon, Meritxell; Alonso, Julián; Lemos, Sherlan G; Vieira, Edivan C; Nogueira, Ana R A

    2005-10-01

    A simple flow injection potentiometric (FIP) system, which uses a tubular cobalt electrode, has been developed for phosphorus nutritional evaluation of seeds and grains. Inorganic phosphorus, P(i), is determined using a 1 x 10(-2) mol.L(-1) potassium phthalate buffer solution adjusted at pH 4. A sensitivity of 47 mV/decade and an operating range from 10 to 1000 mg.L(-1) (1 x 10(-4)-1 x 10(-2) M) of dihydrogen phosphate are obtained. The inositol phosphates amount, which is referred to the organic phosphorus, P(org), is directly determined from extracts using a 1 x 10(-2) mol.L(-1) Tris-HCl buffer solution adjusted at pH 8. A sensitivity of 127 mV/decade and an operating range of 10-1000 mg.L(-1) (2.5 x 10(-4)-5 x 10(-3) M) of P(org) (expressed as inositol hexakisphosphoric acid monocalcium) are achieved. Some samples of seed and grain are analyzed by an ICP-OES and a spectrophotometric method to compare results to the developed flow system; no significant differences at the 95% confidence level are observed using a paired t test. Other samples such as animal nursing feed, soybean meal, and corn are also analyzed with the proposed FIP system, showing a good correlation to the ICP-OES values. PMID:16190610

  8. Flow Rates Measurement and Uncertainty Analysis in Multiple-Zone Water-Injection Wells from Fluid Temperature Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Reges, José E. O.; Salazar, A. O.; Maitelli, Carla W. S. P.; Carvalho, Lucas G.; Britto, Ursula J. B.

    2016-01-01

    This work is a contribution to the development of flow sensors in the oil and gas industry. It presents a methodology to measure the flow rates into multiple-zone water-injection wells from fluid temperature profiles and estimate the measurement uncertainty. First, a method to iteratively calculate the zonal flow rates using the Ramey (exponential) model was described. Next, this model was linearized to perform an uncertainty analysis. Then, a computer program to calculate the injected flow rates from experimental temperature profiles was developed. In the experimental part, a fluid temperature profile from a dual-zone water-injection well located in the Northeast Brazilian region was collected. Thus, calculated and measured flow rates were compared. The results proved that linearization error is negligible for practical purposes and the relative uncertainty increases as the flow rate decreases. The calculated values from both the Ramey and linear models were very close to the measured flow rates, presenting a difference of only 4.58 m³/d and 2.38 m³/d, respectively. Finally, the measurement uncertainties from the Ramey and linear models were equal to 1.22% and 1.40% (for injection zone 1); 10.47% and 9.88% (for injection zone 2). Therefore, the methodology was successfully validated and all objectives of this work were achieved. PMID:27420068

  9. Flow Rates Measurement and Uncertainty Analysis in Multiple-Zone Water-Injection Wells from Fluid Temperature Profiles.

    PubMed

    Reges, José E O; Salazar, A O; Maitelli, Carla W S P; Carvalho, Lucas G; Britto, Ursula J B

    2016-01-01

    This work is a contribution to the development of flow sensors in the oil and gas industry. It presents a methodology to measure the flow rates into multiple-zone water-injection wells from fluid temperature profiles and estimate the measurement uncertainty. First, a method to iteratively calculate the zonal flow rates using the Ramey (exponential) model was described. Next, this model was linearized to perform an uncertainty analysis. Then, a computer program to calculate the injected flow rates from experimental temperature profiles was developed. In the experimental part, a fluid temperature profile from a dual-zone water-injection well located in the Northeast Brazilian region was collected. Thus, calculated and measured flow rates were compared. The results proved that linearization error is negligible for practical purposes and the relative uncertainty increases as the flow rate decreases. The calculated values from both the Ramey and linear models were very close to the measured flow rates, presenting a difference of only 4.58 m³/d and 2.38 m³/d, respectively. Finally, the measurement uncertainties from the Ramey and linear models were equal to 1.22% and 1.40% (for injection zone 1); 10.47% and 9.88% (for injection zone 2). Therefore, the methodology was successfully validated and all objectives of this work were achieved. PMID:27420068

  10. Plasma heating, electric fields and plasma flow by electron beam ionospheric injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winckler, J. R.; Erickson, K. N.

    1990-01-01

    The electric fields and the floating potentials of a Plasma Diagnostics Payload (PDP) located near a powerful electron beam injected from a large sounding rocket into the auroral zone ionosphere have been studied. As the PDP drifted away from the beam laterally, it surveyed a region of hot plasma extending nearly to 60 m radius. Large polarization electric fields transverse to B were imbedded in this hot plasma, which displayed large ELF wave variations and also an average pattern which has led to a model of the plasma flow about the negative line potential of the beam resembling a hydrodynamic vortex in a uniform flow field. Most of the present results are derived from the ECHO 6 sounding rocket mission.

  11. Miniaturised free flow isotachophoresis of bacteria using an injection moulded separation device.

    PubMed

    Prest, Jeff E; Baldock, Sara J; Fielden, Peter R; Goddard, Nicholas J; Goodacre, Royston; O'Connor, Richard; Treves Brown, Bernard J

    2012-08-15

    A new design of miniaturised free flow electrophoresis device has been produced. The design contains a separation chamber that is 45 mm long by 31.7 mm wide with a depth of 50 μm and has nine inlet and nine outlet holes to allow for fraction collection. The devices were formed of polystyrene with carbon fibre loaded polystyrene drive electrodes and produced using injection moulding. This means that the devices are low cost and can potentially be mass produced. The devices were used for free flow isotachophoresis (FFITP), a technique that can be used for focussing and concentrating analytes contained within complex sample matrices. The operation of the devices was demonstrated by performing separations of dyes and bacterial samples. Analysis of the output from FFITP separations of samples containing the bacterium Erwinia herbicola, a biological pathogen, by cell culturing and counting showed that fractionation of the output was achieved. PMID:22819202

  12. Flow injection analysis spectrophotometric speciation of iron in rain, fog, dust and soil samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, S. G.

    2003-05-01

    A new attempt for the flow injection analysis (FIA) spectrophotometric speciation of iron in various enviromnental samples is described. The method is based on conventional iron-thiocyanate colour reaction. In this work, oxidation of Fe(II) into Fe(III) is carried out with HNO3 solution in the flowing stream and total iron present in the sample is measured. Whereas, Fe(III) is measured with a mixed solution of HCl+H2SO4. The presence of cationic (CPC) and non-ionic (TX-100) surfactants remarkably enhances the sensitivity (≈3 fold) of the automated conventional method and make the method applicable for the speciation of iron in real samples (rain, fog) containing the metal in lower ppb levels.

  13. Effect of Trailing Edge Flow Injection on Fan Noise and Aerodynamic Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fite, E. Brian; Woodward, Richard P.; Podboy, Gary G.

    2006-01-01

    An experimental investigation using trailing edge blowing for reducing fan rotor/guide vane wake interaction noise was completed in the NASA Glenn 9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel. Data were acquired to measure noise, aerodynamic performance, and flow features for a 22" tip diameter fan representative of modern turbofan technology. The fan was designed to use trailing edge blowing to reduce the fan blade wake momentum deficit. The test objective was to quantify noise reductions, measure impacts on fan aerodynamic performance, and document the flow field using hot-film anemometry. Measurements concentrated on approach, cutback, and takeoff rotational speeds as those are the primary conditions of acoustic interest. Data are presented for a 2% (relative to overall fan flow) trailing edge injection rate and show a 2 dB reduction in Overall Sound Power Level (OAPWL) at all fan test speeds. The reduction in broadband noise is nearly constant and is approximately 1.5 dB up to 20 kHz at all fan speeds. Measurements of tone noise show significant variation, as evidenced by reductions of up to 6 dB in the 2 BPF tone at 6700 rpm.: and increases of nearly 2 dB for the 4 BPF tone at approach speed. Aerodynamic performance measurements show the fan with 2 % injection has an overall efficiency that is comparable to the baseline fan and operates, as intended, with nearly the same pressure ratio and mass flow parameters. Hot-film measurements obtained at the approach operating condition indicate that mean blade wake filling in the tip region was not as significant as expected. This suggests that additional acoustic benefits could be realized if the trailing edge blowing could be modified to provide better filling of the wake momentum deficit. Nevertheless, the hot-film measurements indicate that the trailing edge blowing provided significant reductions in blade wake turbulence. Overall, these results indicate that further work may be required to fully understand the proper

  14. Flow-through enzyme immobilized amperometric detector for the rapid screening of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors by flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Vandeput, Marie; Parsajoo, Cobra; Vanheuverzwijn, Jérôme; Patris, Stéphanie; Yardim, Yavuz; le Jeune, Alexandre; Sarakbi, Ahmad; Mertens, Dominique; Kauffmann, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    A commercially available thin-layer flow-through amperometric detector, with the sensing block customized in an original design, was applied to the screening of drug compounds known as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors. AChE from electric eel was covalently immobilized onto a cysteamine modified gold disk adjacent to a silver disk working electrode. On-line studies were performed by flow injection analysis (FIA) in PBS buffer pH 7.4. Seven commercially available AChE inhibitors used in the medical field, namely neostigmine, eserine, tacrine, donepezil, rivastigmine, pyridostigmine and galantamine as well as two natural compounds, quercetin and berberine, were investigated. The same trend of inhibitory potency as described in the literature was observed. Of particular interest and in addition to the determination of the IC50 values, this flow-through system allowed the study of both, the stability of the enzyme-inhibitor complex and the kinetic of the enzyme activity recovery. PMID:25459923

  15. Re-evaluation of a subsurface injection experiment for testing flow and transport models

    SciTech Connect

    Fayer, M.J.; Lewis, R.E.; Engelman, R.E.; Pearson, A.L.; Murray, C.J.; Smoot, J.L. Lu, A.H.; Randall, P.R.; Wegener, W.H.

    1995-12-01

    The current preferred method for disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) at the Hanford Site is to vitrify the wastes so they can be stored in a near-surface, shallow-land burial facility (Shord 1995). Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) managed the PNL Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to assist Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) in designing and assessing the performance of a disposal facility for the vitrified LLW. Vadose zone flow and transport models are recognized as necessary tools for baseline risk assessments of stored waste forms. The objective of the Controlled Field Testing task of the PVTD Project is to perform and analyze field experiments to demonstrate the appropriateness of conceptual models for the performance assessment. The most convincing way to demonstrate appropriateness is to show that the model can reproduce the movement of water and contaminants in the field. Before expensive new experiments are initiated, an injection experiment conducted at the Hanford Site in 1980 (designated the ``Sisson and the Lu experiment``) should be completely analyzed and understood. Briefly, in that test, a solution containing multiple tracers was injected at a single point into the subsurface sediments. The resulting spread of the water and tracers was monitored in wells surrounding the injection point. Given the advances in knowledge, computational capabilities, and models over the last 15 years, it is important to re-analyze the data before proceeding to other experiments and history-matching exercises.

  16. Development of a fully automated Flow Injection analyzer implementing bioluminescent biosensors for water toxicity assessment.

    PubMed

    Komaitis, Efstratios; Vasiliou, Efstathios; Kremmydas, Gerasimos; Georgakopoulos, Dimitrios G; Georgiou, Constantinos

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an automated Flow Injection analyzer for water toxicity assessment. The analyzer is validated by assessing the toxicity of heavy metal (Pb(2+), Hg(2+) and Cu(2+)) solutions. One hundred μL of a Vibrio fischeri suspension are injected in a carrier solution containing different heavy metal concentrations. Biosensor cells are mixed with the toxic carrier solution in the mixing coil on the way to the detector. Response registered is % inhibition of biosensor bioluminescence due to heavy metal toxicity in comparison to that resulting by injecting the Vibrio fischeri suspension in deionised water. Carrier solutions of mercury showed higher toxicity than the other heavy metals, whereas all metals show concentration related levels of toxicity. The biosensor's response to carrier solutions of different pHs was tested. Vibrio fischeri's bioluminescence is promoted in the pH 5-10 range. Experiments indicate that the whole cell biosensor, as applied in the automated fluidic system, responds to various toxic solutions. PMID:22163592

  17. Implementation and characterization of flow injection in dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsueh-Ying; Hilty, Christian

    2015-08-24

    The use of dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (D-DNP) offers substantially increased signals in liquid-state NMR spectroscopy. A challenge in realizing this potential lies in the transfer of the hyperpolarized sample to the NMR detector without loss of hyperpolarization. Here, the use of a flow injection method using high-pressure liquid leads to improved performance compared to the more common gas-driven injection, by suppressing residual fluid motions during the NMR experiment while still achieving a short injection time. Apparent diffusion coefficients are determined from pulsed field gradient echo measurements, and are shown to fall below 1.5 times the value of a static sample within 0.8 s. Due to the single-scan nature of D-DNP, pulsed field gradients are often the only choice for coherence selection or encoding, but their application requires stationary fluid. Sample delivery driven by a high-pressure liquid will improve the applicability of these types of D-DNP advanced experiments. PMID:26139513

  18. Generation of electromagnetic emission during the injection of dense supersonic plasma flows into arched magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viktorov, Mikhail; Golubev, Sergey; Mansfeld, Dmitry; Vodopyanov, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Interaction of dense supersonic plasma flows with an inhomogeneous arched magnetic field is one of the key problems in near-Earth and space plasma physics. It can influence on the energetic electron population formation in magnetosphere of the Earth, movement of plasma flows in magnetospheres of planets, energy release during magnetic reconnection, generation of electromagnetic radiation and particle precipitation during solar flares eruption. Laboratory study of this interaction is of big interest to determine the physical mechanisms of processes in space plasmas and their detailed investigation under reproducible conditions. In this work a new experimental approach is suggested to study interaction of supersonic (ion Mach number up to 2.7) dense (up to 1015 cm‑3) plasma flows with inhomogeneous magnetic field (an arched magnetic trap with a field strength up to 3.3 T) which opens wide opportunities to model space plasma processes in laboratory conditions. Fully ionized plasma flows with density from 1013 cm‑3 to 1015 cm‑3 are created by plasma generator on the basis of pulsed vacuum arc discharge. Then plasma is injected in an arched open magnetic trap along or across magnetic field lines. The filling of the arched magnetic trap with dense plasma and further magnetic field lines break by dense plasma flow were experimentally demonstrated. The process of plasma deceleration during the injection of plasma flow across the magnetic field lines was experimentally demonstrated. Pulsed plasma microwave emission at the electron cyclotron frequency range was observed. It was shown that frequency spectrum of plasma emission is determined by position of deceleration region in the magnetic field of the magnetic arc, and is affected by plasma density. Frequency spectrum shifts to higher frequencies with increasing of arc current (plasma density) because the deceleration region of plasma flow moves into higher magnetic field. The observed emission can be related to the

  19. Simulation of supercritical flows in rocket-motor engines: application to cooling channel and injection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribert, G.; Taieb, D.; Petit, X.; Lartigue, G.; Domingo, P.

    2013-03-01

    To address physical modeling of supercritical multicomponent fluid flows, ideal-gas law must be changed to real-gas equation of state (EoS), thermodynamic and transport properties have to incorporate dense fluid corrections, and turbulence modeling has to be reconsidered compared to classical approaches. Real-gas thermodynamic is presently investigated with validation by NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) data. Two major issues of Liquid Rocket Engines (LRE) are also presented. The first one is the supercritical fluid flow inside small cooling channels. In a context of LRE, a strong heat flux coming from the combustion chamber (locally Φ ≈ 80 MW/m2) may lead to very steep density gradients close to the wall. These gradients have to be thermodynamically and numerically captured to properly reproduce in the simulation the mechanism of heat transfer from the wall to the fluid. This is done with a shock-capturing weighted essentially nonoscillatory (WENO) numerical discretization scheme. The second issue is a supercritical fluid injection following experimental conditions [1] in which a trans- or supercritical nitrogen is injected into warm nitrogen. The two-dimensional results show vortex structures with high fluid density detaching from the main jet and persisting in the low-speed region with low fluid density.

  20. Flow injection method for the determination of silver concentration in drinking water for spacecrafts.

    PubMed

    Bruzzoniti, Maria Concetta; Kobylinska, Dorota Korte; Franko, Mladen; Sarzanini, Corrado

    2010-04-14

    A flow injection method has been developed for determination of silver. The method is based on a reduction reaction with sodium borohydride which leads to the formation of a colloidal species which is monitored at a wavelength of 390 nm. The reaction variables flow rate, sodium borohydride concentration and pH, which affect sensitivity, were investigated and their effects were established using a two-levels, three-factor experimental design. Further optimization of manifold variables (reaction coil and injection volume) allowed us to determine silver in the range 0.050-5.0 mg L(-1) with a minimum detectable concentration of 0.050 mg L(-1). Silver is added, as biocide, to drinking water for spacecrafts. The chemical species of silver, present in this kind of sample, were characterized by a procedure based on the selective retention of Ag(+) onto a 2.2.2. cryptand based substrate followed by determination of the non-bound and bound (after elution) Ag(+) by the FIA method. The method optimized was applied to a drinking water sample provided for the launch with the Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) module Jule Verne to the International Space Station (March 9, 2008). PMID:20381692

  1. Development of a flow injection capillary chemiluminescent ELISA using an imprinted polymer instead of the antibody.

    PubMed

    Surugiu, L; Svitel, J; Ye, L; Haupt, K; Danielsson, B

    2001-09-01

    A flow injection competitive assay analogous to enzyme immunoassays has been developed using a molecularly imprinted polymer instead of the antibody. A glass capillary was modified by covalently attaching an imprinted polymer to the inner capillary wall. The herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid was used as a model analyte. The analyte was labeled with tobacco peroxidase, and chemiluminescence was used for detection in combination with a photomultiplier tube or a CCD camera. In a competitive mode, the analyte-peroxidase conjugate was passed together with the free analyte through the polymer-coated capillary mounted in a flow system. After a washing step, the chemiluminescent substrate was injected and the bound fraction of the conjugate was quantified by measuring the intensity of the emitted light. Calibration curves corresponding to analyte concentrations ranging from 0.5 ng mL(-1) to 50 microg mL(-1) (2.25 nM-225 microM) were obtained. A lowered detection limit by 2 orders of magnitude was obtained when detection was done in discontinuous mode and the chemiluminescence light was conducted inside the photomultiplier tube by an optical fiber bundle, thus yielding a dynamic range of 5 pg mL(-1)-100 ng mL(-1) (22.5 pM-450 nM). PMID:11569836

  2. Influence of Mold Surface Treatments on Flow of Polymer in Injection Moulding. Application to Weldlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chailly, M.; Charmeau, J.-Y.; Bereaux, Y.; Monasse, B.

    2007-04-01

    Due to increasing expectations from the market, the aspect of molded parts has to be improved constantly. Some of the defects observed on these parts such as weldlines are related to the filling stage. To limit this, we investigated the influence on weldlines using various surface deposits on the mold surface, mainly PVD and PACVD deposits : Chromium nitride (CrN), Titanium nitride (TiN), Diamond like Carbon (DLC), Chromium and polished steel (PG) on an instrumented plate mold. Injection campaign was led on three polymers which differ in terms of nature (amorphous, semi-crystalline, copolymers). We studied the evolution of the dimensions of weldlines appearing on the plate using the same injection parameters for a given polymer, but with various deposits and thicknesses. Another aspect that had been investigated is the morphology of the weldline through the thickness of the part, depending on polymer nature. Adhesion of polymer at the flow front with the mold surface proved to change. The modification of the initial contact in the filling stage and thus the thermal resistance at the mold implied a change in the process, increasing or reducing the pressure loss in the flow and differential shrinkage in the final part. The induced impact on dimensions of the weldlines allowed to distinguish which surface treatments were able to reduce the defect. A complementary study was led on both polymers in molten state and deposits in terms of wetting using a sessile drop method to confirm the adhesion at the polymer/mold interface. This study proved the influence of the use of surface treatments has clearly an impact on the filling stage of the injection molding process, and it is necessary to get a better knowledge of the interactions between physical adhesion, tribology of polymer/mold contact, and thermal properties of the coatings and their impact on solidification of the polymer.

  3. Fast extraction and dilution flow injection mass spectrometry method for quantitative chemical residue screening in food.

    PubMed

    Nanita, Sergio C; Stry, James J; Pentz, Anne M; McClory, Joseph P; May, John H

    2011-07-27

    A prototype multiresidue method based on fast extraction and dilution of samples followed by flow injection mass spectrometric analysis is proposed here for high-throughput chemical screening in complex matrices. The method was tested for sulfonylurea herbicides (triflusulfuron methyl, azimsulfuron, chlorimuron ethyl, sulfometuron methyl, chlorsulfuron, and flupyrsulfuron methyl), carbamate insecticides (oxamyl and methomyl), pyrimidine carboxylic acid herbicides (aminocyclopyrachlor and aminocyclopyrachlor methyl), and anthranilic diamide insecticides (chlorantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole). Lemon and pecan were used as representative high-water and low-water content matrices, respectively, and a sample extraction procedure was designed for each commodity type. Matrix-matched external standards were used for calibration, yielding linear responses with correlation coefficients (r) consistently >0.99. The limits of detection (LOD) were estimated to be between 0.01 and 0.03 mg/kg for all analytes, allowing execution of recovery tests with samples fortified at ≥0.05 mg/kg. Average analyte recoveries obtained during method validation for lemon and pecan ranged from 75 to 118% with standard deviations between 3 and 21%. Representative food processed fractions were also tested, that is, soybean oil and corn meal, yielding individual analyte average recoveries ranging from 62 to 114% with standard deviations between 4 and 18%. An intralaboratory blind test was also performed; the method excelled with 0 false positives and 0 false negatives in 240 residue measurements (20 samples × 12 analytes). The daily throughput of the fast extraction and dilution (FED) procedure is estimated at 72 samples/chemist, whereas the flow injection mass spectrometry (FI-MS) throughput could be as high as 4.3 sample injections/min, making very efficient use of mass spectrometers with negligible instrumental analysis time compared to the sample homogenization, preparation, and data

  4. Seismic monitoring of the June, 1988 Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program flow/injection test

    SciTech Connect

    Jarpe, S.P.; Kasameyer, P.W.; Hutchings, L.J.; Hauk, T.F.

    1988-10-04

    The purpose of the seismic monitoring project was to characterize in detail the micro-seismic activity related to the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program (SSSDP) flow-injection test in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field. Our goal was to determine if any sources of seismic energy related to the test were observable at the surface. We deployed our recording stations so that we could detect and locate both impulsive microearthquakes and continuous seismic noise energy. Our network, which was sensitive enough to be triggered by magnitude 0.0 or larger events, found no impulsive microearthquakes in the vicinity of the flow test in the 8 month period before the test and only one event during the flow test. This event has provided the opportunity to compare the detection and location capabilities of small networks and arrays in a geothermal environment. At present, we are carefully scanning all of the data that we collected during the flow test for evidence of anomalous seismic noise sources and for impulsive events smaller than the network detection threshold (magnitude 0.0). 8 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Study of junction flows in louvered fin round tube heat exchangers using the dye injection technique

    SciTech Connect

    Huisseune, H.; Willockx, A.; De Paepe, M.; T'Joen, C.; De Jaeger, P.

    2010-11-15

    Detailed studies of junction flows in heat exchangers with an interrupted fin design are rare. However, understanding these flow structures is important for design and optimization purposes, because the thermal hydraulic performance of heat exchangers is strongly related to the flow behaviour. In this study flow visualization experiments were performed in six scaled-up models of a louvered fin round tube heat exchanger. The models have three tube rows in a staggered layout and differ only in their fin spacing and louver angle. A water tunnel was designed and built and the flow visualizations were carried out using dye injection. At low Reynolds numbers the streakline follows the tube contours, while at higher Reynolds numbers a horseshoe vortex is developed ahead of the tubes. The two resulting streamwise vortex legs are destroyed by the downstream louvers (i.e. downstream the turnaround louver), especially at higher Reynolds numbers, smaller fin pitches and larger louver angles. Increasing the fin spacing results in a larger and stronger horseshoe vortex. This illustrates that a reduction of the fin spacing results in a dissipation of vortical motion by mechanical blockage and skin friction. Furthermore it was observed that the vortex strength and number of vortices in the second tube row is larger than in the first tube row. This is due to the thicker boundary layer in the second tube row, and the flow deflection, which is typical for louvered fin heat exchangers. Visualizations at the tube-louver junction showed that in the transition part between the angled louver and the flat landing a vortex is present underneath the louver surface which propagates towards the angled louver. (author)

  6. Flow injection potentiometric determination of bismuth(III) in anti-acid formulations.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, M F; Fatibello-Filho, O

    2001-06-19

    A flow injection potentiometric procedure is proposed for determining bismuth(III) in anti-acid formulations. In this work, a tubular electrode coated with an ion-pair formed between [Bi(EDTA)](-) and tricaprylylmethylammonium cation (Aliquat 336) in a poly(vinylchloride) (PVC) was constructed and used in a single channel flow injection system. The effect of membrane composition, pH and flow injection parameter over the Bi(III) tubular electrode response (slope (mV/decade)) was initially evaluated in quintuplicate in 0.5 mol l(-1) EDTA solution as carrier. The best response (-59.6+/-0.9 mV/decade) was attained with the 5% m/m ion-pair; 65% m/m o-nitrophenyl octyl ether (o-NPOE) and 30% m/m PVC in pH 6-9. The electrode showed a linear response to E (mV) versus log [Bi(EDTA)](-) in the bismuth(III) concentration range from 2.0x10(-5) to 1.0x10(-2) mol l(-1) and a useful lifetime of at least 5 months (more than 1000 determinations for each polymeric membrane). The detection limit was 1.2x10(-5) mol l(-1) and the R.S.D. was less than 2.0% for a solution containing 5.0x10(-4) mol l(-1) bismuth(III) (n=10). Several species such as Cd(II), Mn(II), Ni(II), Zn(II), Co(II), Cu(II), Mg(II), Cr(III) and Al(III) at 1.0x10(-3) mol l(-1) concentration in 0.5 mol l(-1) EDTA solution did not cause any interference. The frequency rate was 90 determinations per hour and the results obtained for bismuth(III) in anti-acid formulations using this flow procedure and those obtained using a spectrophotometric procedure are in agreement at the 95% confidence level. PMID:11397573

  7. Evaluation of Flow-Injection Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Rapid and High-Throughput Quantitative Determination of B-Vitamins in Nutritional Supplements

    SciTech Connect

    Bhandari, Deepak; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2012-01-01

    The use of flow-injection electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry for rapid and high-throughput mass spectral analysis of selected B-vitamins, viz. B1, B2, B3, B5, and B6, in nutritional formulations was demonstrated. A simple and rapid (~5 min) in-tube sample preparation was performed by adding extraction solvent to a powdered sample aliquot followed by agitation, centrifugation, and filtration to recover an extract for analysis. Automated flow injection introduced 1 L of the extracts directly into the mass spectrometer ion source without chromatographic separation. Sample-to-sample analysis time was 60 s representing significant improvement over conventional liquid chromatography approaches which typically require 25-45 min, and often require more significant sample preparation procedures. Quantitative capabilities of the flow-injection analysis were tested using the method of standard additions and NIST standard reference material (SRM 3280) multivitamin/multielement tablets. The quantity determined for each B-vitamin in SRM 3280 was within the statistical range provided for the respective certified values. The same sample preparation and analysis approach was also applied to two different commercial vitamin supplement tablets and proved to be successful in the quantification of the selected B-vitamins as evidenced by an agreement with the labels values and the results obtained using isotope dilution liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

  8. Rapid Quantitation of Ascorbic and Folic Acids in SRM 3280 Multivitamin/Multielement Tablets using Flow-Injection Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Bhandari, Deepak; Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2013-01-01

    RATIONALE: Ascorbic acid (AA) and folic acid (FA) are water-soluble vitamins and are usually fortified in food and dietary supplements. For the safety of human health, proper intake of these vitamins is recommended. Improvement in the analysis time required for the quantitative determination of these vitamins in food and nutritional formulations is desired. METHODS: A simple and fast (~5 min) in-tube sample preparation was performed, independently for FA and AA, by mixing extraction solvent with a powdered sample aliquot followed by agitation, centrifugation, and filtration to recover an extract for analysis. Quantitative detection was achieved by flow-injection (1 L injection volume) electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) in negative ion mode using the method of standard addition. RESULTS: Method of standard addition was employed for the quantitative estimation of each vitamin in a sample extract. At least 2 spiked and 1 non-spiked sample extract were injected in triplicate for each quantitative analysis. Given an injection-to-injection interval of approximately 2 min, about 18 min was required to complete the quantitative estimation of each vitamin. The concentration values obtained for the respective vitamins in the standard reference material (SRM) 3280 using this approach were within the statistical range of the certified values provided in the NIST Certificate of Analysis. The estimated limit of detections of FA and AA were 13 and 5.9 ng/g, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Flow-injection ESI-MS/MS was successfully applied for the rapid quantitation of FA and AA in SRM 3280 multivitamin/multielement tablets.

  9. Effects of fuel injection on mixing and upstream interactions in supersonic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Qiuya

    Scramjet engine performance has been studied experimentally and computationally almost under steady-state conditions. Transients of the airflow and fueling in the scramjet's isolator or combustor create important fluid-dynamic/ combustion interactions. Spark schlieren photography was employed to study the effects of pressure rise in the combustion chamber on the isolator flow at three conditions with isolator entrance Mach number of 1.6, 1.9 and 2.5, covering the range of dual-mode combustion and transition to full scramjet operation. Heat release through combustion in the model scramjet was simulated by incrementally blocking the flow exit until upstream-interaction was induced and a shock train formed in the isolator. Theoretical predictions of the pressure rise in the isolator under separated flow conditions were calculated, which agreed well with the experimental data. The prediction is sensitive to the accurate modeling of the isolator inlet conditions and the correct selection of wall friction coefficient. Gaseous helium and argon have been transversely injected into a Mach 1.6 airflow simulating a light and a heavy fuel injection behind a thin triangular pylon placed upstream, in the isolator, which has a negligible impact on pressure losses. Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) was used to observe the penetration and mixing in the test section at three cross-sections including the recirculation region and beyond. Results were compared to the no-pylon cases, which showed the presence of the pylon resulted in improving both penetration and spreading of the jet. Simulation for shock wave/ boundary-layer interaction was conducted in Fluent for case of M=1.9 at 60% blockage by using k-ε RNG model with two different near wall treatments. In both cases, the shock ran out of isolator before the computation converged, this is different from experimental results. Proper actual wall friction force may have a very important effect on the computation, which needs

  10. Transverse injection into Mach 2 flow behind a rearward-facing step - A 3-D, compressible flow test case for hypersonic combustor CFD validation

    SciTech Connect

    Mcdaniel, J.C.; Fletcher, D.G.; Hartfield, R.J.; Hollo, S.D. NASA, Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA )

    1991-12-01

    A spatially-complete data set of the important primitive flow variables is presented for the complex, nonreacting, 3D unit combustor flow field employing transverse injection into a Mach 2 flow behind a rearward-facing step. A unique wind tunnel facility providing the capability for iodine seeding was built specifically for these measurements. Two optical techniques based on laser-induced-iodine fluorescence were developed and utilized for nonintrusive, in situ flow field measurements. LDA provided both mean and fluctuating velocity component measurements. A thermographic phosphor wall temperature measurement technique was developed and employed. Data from the 2D flow over a rearward-facing step and the complex 3D mixing flow with injection are reported. 25 refs.

  11. The measurement of skin lymph flow by isotope clearance--reliability, reproducibility, injection dynamics, and the effect of massage

    SciTech Connect

    Mortimer, P.S.; Simmonds, R.; Rezvani, M.; Robbins, M.; Hopewell, J.W.; Ryan, T.J. )

    1990-12-01

    The measurement of skin lymph flow was investigated using an isotope clearance technique (ICT). Multiple lymph flow determinations were undertaken in the skin of anaesthetized large white pigs to test for reproducibility, ascertain the most suitable tracer, study the influence of injection dynamics, and observe the effect of massage as a stimulus to lymph flow. Blood clearance of tracer was also investigated. Results demonstrated that lymphatic clearance is a monoexponential function with good reproducibility under controlled laboratory conditions. 99mTc-colloid (TCK17 Cis) compared favorably with 131I-human serum albumin as a tracer and both performed better than colloid gold (198Au). Lymph flow was significantly faster in one pig than in the other. No difference existed between left and right sides or between caudal and rostral sites on each flank, but clearance was significantly slower in thigh than flank skin. Sub-epidermal injections cleared faster and more consistently than either deep or subcutaneous injections. Neither injection volume nor needle tract backflow of tracer influenced results, but local massage significantly enhanced clearance. Escape of 99mTc-colloid by the blood was negligible. These results indicate that skin lymph flow can be reliably measured when conditions are controlled. Extrinsic factors such as massage strongly influence lymph flow. Greater sensitivity in detecting degrees of lymphatic insufficiency may be achieved if a standardized stimulus to lymph flow is administered during isotope clearance measurement.

  12. Flow injection analysis of cholic acids in pharmaceutical preparations using a polymeric membrane ISE as detector.

    PubMed

    Arias De Fuentes, O; Campanella, L; Crescentini, G; Falcioni, A; Sammartino, M P; Tomassetti, M

    2000-08-01

    The results reported in this paper regard the setting up of a polymeric membrane ISE that is selective for cholic acids (CA) and able to work in a flow system, especially in flow injection analysis (FIA), based on the exchanger (tetrakisdecylammoniumcholate, TDACh), which has proved effective, is of very simple but suitable structure and is above all easy to synthesise starting from commercially available chemicals. A complete analytical characterisation of the sensor was performed working both in batch conditions and in FIA, using in the latter case a 'wall jet' type of flow cell. The response toward different bile acid sodium salts such as the CA, deoxycholic (DCA), chenodeoxycholic (CDCA), ursodeoxycholic (UDCA), taurocholic (TCA) sodium salts was checked. The application to the analysis of different commercial drugs by FIA was also performed to determine the UDCA or CDCA acid content of several pharmaceutical formulations. Lastly, a preliminary study is presented concerning the use of the investigated electrochemical sensor as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) detector. PMID:10898158

  13. Quantitative Flow Cytometry Measurements in Antibodies Bound per Cell Based on a CD4 Reference.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lili; Degheidy, Heba; Abbasi, Fatima; Mostowski, Howard; Marti, Gerald; Bauer, Steven; Hoffman, Robert A; Gaigalas, Adolfas K

    2016-01-01

    Multicolor flow cytometer assays with fluorescently labeled antibodies are routinely used in clinical laboratories to measure the cell number of specific immunophenotypes and to estimate expression levels of specific receptors/antigens either on the cell surface or intracellularly. The cell number and specific receptors/antigens serve as biomarkers for pathological conditions at various stages of a disease. Existing methods and cell reference materials for quantitative expression measurements have not yet produced results that are of wide clinical interest or are instrument-independent across all fluorescence channels. This unit details a procedure for quantifying surface and intracellular biomarkers by calibrating the output of a multicolor flow cytometer in units of antibody bound per cell (ABC). The procedure includes (1) quality control of the flow cytometer, (2) fluorescence intensity calibration using hard dyed microspheres assigned with fluorescence intensity values, (3) compensation for fluorescence spillover between adjacent fluorescence channels, and (4) application of a biological reference calibrator to establish an ABC scale. The unit also points out current efforts for quantifying biomarkers in a manner that is independent of instrument platforms and reagent differences. PMID:26742654

  14. Jet formation in GRBs: a semi-analytic model of MHD flow in Kerr geometry with realistic plasma injection

    SciTech Connect

    Globus, Noemie; Levinson, Amir

    2014-11-20

    We construct a semi-analytic model for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows in Kerr geometry that incorporates energy loading via neutrino annihilation on magnetic field lines threading the horizon. We compute the structure of the double-flow established in the magnetisphere for a wide range of energy injection rates and identify the different operation regimes. At low injection rates, the outflow is powered by the spinning black hole via the Blandford-Znajek mechanism, whereas at high injection rates, it is driven by the pressure of the plasma deposited on magnetic field lines. In the intermediate regime, both processes contribute to the outflow formation. The parameter that quantifies the load is the ratio of the net power injected below the stagnation radius and the maximum power that can be extracted magnetically from the black hole.

  15. Determination of hydrogen peroxide by flow injection analysis with aryl oxalate-sulforhodamine 101 chemiluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Katayama, M.; Takeuchi, H.; Tanigchi, H. )

    1991-06-01

    A flow injection analysis (FIA) method for the determination of hydrogen peroxide by aryl oxalate chemiluminescence detection was studied. The analyte was detected by using sulforhodamine 101 as a new fluorophore and bis (4-nitro-2-(3,6,9-trioxadecyloxycarbonyl)phenyl)oxalate (TDPO) in imidazole buffer (pH 7.0)-acetonitrile. The detection limit was 3.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}9}M. The relative standard deviation (n=6) for 1.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} M hydrogen peroxide was 2.8%. This FIA method was shown to be 20 to 2,500 times more sensitive than the previous FIA method with aryl oxalate chemiluminescence.

  16. A flow injection sampling resonance light scattering system for total protein determination in human serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Lijun; Li, Ying; Zhang, Yaheng; Chen, Xingguo; Hu, Zhide

    2007-04-01

    A novel flow injection method with resonance light scattering detection was developed for the determination of total protein concentrations. This method is based on the enhancement of RLS signals from Methyl Blue (MB) by protein. The enhanced RLS intensities at 333 nm, in a pH 4.1 acidic aqueous solution, were proportional to the protein concentration over the range 2.0-37.3 and 1.0-36.0 μg ml -1 for human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA), respectively. The corresponding limits of detection (3 σ) of 45 ng ml -1 for HSA and 80 ng ml -1 for BSA were attained. The method was successfully applied to the quantification of total proteins in human serum samples, the maximum relative error is less than 1% and the recovery is between 98% and 102%. The sample throughput was 60 h -1.

  17. Bienzymatic Biosensor for Rapid Detection of Aspartame by Flow Injection Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Radulescu, Maria-Cristina; Bucur, Bogdan; Bucur, Madalina-Petruta; Radu, Gabriel Lucian

    2014-01-01

    A rapid, simple and stable biosensor for aspartame detection was developed. Alcohol oxidase (AOX), carboxyl esterase (CaE) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were immobilised with glutaraldehyde (GA) onto screen-printed electrodes modified with cobalt-phthalocyanine (CoPC). The biosensor response was fast. The sample throughput using a flow injection analysis (FIA) system was 40 h−1 with an RSD of 2.7%. The detection limits for both batch and FIA measurements were 0.1 μM for methanol and 0.2 μM for aspartame, respectively. The enzymatic biosensor was successfully applied for aspartame determination in different sample matrices/commercial products (liquid and solid samples) without any pre-treatment step prior to measurement. PMID:24412899

  18. Control of microbial activity by flow injection analysis during high cell density cultivation of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ding, T; Bilitewski, U; Schmid, R D; Korz, D J; Sanders, E A

    1993-01-01

    The application of an automated flow injection analysis (FIA) system for on-line determination of microbial activity, during high cell density cultivations of Escherichia coli is reported. Based on a bioelectrochemical principle, the FIA method used a redox mediator (potassium hexacyanoferrate(III)) to facilitate electron transfer from the microorganisms to an electrochemical detector. Assays were carried out using a new sampling device which provided aseptic operation by use of a valve and chemical sterilisation. No sample dilution or pretreatment was necessary for biomass concentrations up to approx. 40 g l-1. The sample volume was 0.5 ml and the overall analysis time was 5 min. FIA signals were found to correlate well with the oxygen uptake rate (OUR). Changes in metabolic activity due to low substrate levels or high inhibitor concentrations in the cultivation medium became obvious from the FIA signals. PMID:7763463

  19. Chemiluminescence determination of potassium bromate in flour based on flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhengyu; Zhang, Zhengwei; Yu, Yan; Liu, Zhen; Chen, Jianqiu

    2016-01-01

    A novel and highly sensitive flow-injection chemiluminescence method for the determination of potassium bromate (KBrO3) has been developed. This method is based on the luminescence properties of the KBrO3-Na2SO3-quinine sulfate system in acid medium. Optimized experimental conditions and a possible mechanism were investigated. The relative chemiluminescence intensity responded linearly to the concentration of KBrO3 in the range of 7.054 × 10(-6)-1.008 × 10(-4) mol/L with a detection limit of 2.116 × 10(-6) mol/L. The relative standard deviation (RSD) at 5.0 × 10(-5) mol/L KBrO3 (n = 12) was 2.3%. The proposed method was applied successfully to the determination of KBrO3 in flour. PMID:26212936

  20. Flow Injection Analysis of 5-(Hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde in Honey by a Modified Winkler Method.

    PubMed

    Castoldi, Karine; Milani, Maria Izabel; Rossini, Eduardo L; Pezza, Leonardo; Pezza, Helena R

    2016-01-01

    One of the quality indicators for honey is 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde (HMF), which is formed during the heating or aging of honey. The International Honey Commission recommends three methods for the determination of HMF in honey: the Winkler method, the White method, and determination by HPLC. The Winkler method uses the carcinogenic substance p-toluidine, which is not in accordance with the principles of Green Chemistry. The present work describes the determination of HMF in honey by flow injection analysis (FIA) using a modified Winkler method, replacing p-toluidine with p-aminobenzoic acid. The linear range was 1.00 to 40.0 mg L(-1), the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.43 mg L(-1), and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 1.32 mg L(-1). The method is an efficient and environmentally friendly technique for the analysis of HMF in honey. PMID:27063713

  1. Bienzymatic biosensor for rapid detection of aspartame by flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Radulescu, Maria-Cristina; Bucur, Bogdan; Bucur, Madalina-Petruta; Radu, Gabriel Lucian

    2014-01-01

    A rapid, simple and stable biosensor for aspartame detection was developed. Alcohol oxidase (AOX), carboxyl esterase (CaE) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were immobilised with glutaraldehyde (GA) onto screen-printed electrodes modified with cobalt-phthalocyanine (CoPC). The biosensor response was fast. The sample throughput using a flow injection analysis (FIA) system was 40 h⁻¹ with an RSD of 2.7%. The detection limits for both batch and FIA measurements were 0.1 µM for methanol and 0.2 µM for aspartame, respectively. The enzymatic biosensor was successfully applied for aspartame determination in different sample matrices/commercial products (liquid and solid samples) without any pre-treatment step prior to measurement. PMID:24412899

  2. Flow injection-chemiluminescence determination of phenol using potassium permanganate and formaldehyde system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Wei; Mu, Xuemin; Yang, Jinghe; Shi, Wenbo; Zheng, Yongcun

    2007-01-01

    It is found that phenol can react with potassium permanganate in the acidic medium and produce chemiluminescence, which is greatly enhanced by formaldehyde. The optimum conditions for this chemiluminescent reaction are in detail studied using a flow injection system. The experiments indicate that under optimum conditions, the chemiluminescence intensity is linearly related to the concentration of phenol in the range 5.0 × 10 -9 to 1.0 × 10 -6 g mL -1 with a detection limit (3 σ) of 3 × 10 -9 g mL -1. The relative standard deviation is 1.2% for 4.0 × 10 -7 g mL -1 phenol solution in 11 repeated measurements. This method has the advantages of simple operation, fast response and high sensitivity. The method is successfully applied to the determination of phenol in the waste water.

  3. Flow-injection fluorimetric determination of vitamin K(1) based on a photochemical reaction.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ruiz, T; Martínez-Lozano, C; Tomás, V; Martín, J

    1999-08-23

    The sensitizing effect of vitamin K(1) on the photo-oxidation of glucose has been used for the determination of the vitamin. The hydrogen peroxide formed in the photochemical reaction reacts with Fe(II) to yield hydroxylradical and this radical is scavenged by benzoic acid to form the fluorescent hydroxybenzoic acids, which are analysed by fluorescence detection. This analytical scheme was adapted to a flow-injection system, which permits the determination of vitamin K(1) between 1x10(-6) and 1x10(-4) M with a throughput of 20 samples h(-1) and relative standard deviation between 0.2 and 1%. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by determining vitamin K(1) in pharmaceutical preparations and vegetables. PMID:18967693

  4. Automatic microdistillation flow-injection system for the spectrophotometric determination of fluoride.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Katsuhisa; Shimoda, Tetsuro; Kokusen, Hisao; Nakano, Shigenori

    2005-03-31

    An automatic flow-injection (FI) system including on-line separation by microdistillation and spectrophotometric detection has been developed for the determination of trace amounts of fluoride. This ion was separated from sample matrix by distillation in the presence of sulfuric and phosphoric acids, and was subsequently determined with spectrophotometry based on the mixed-ligand complex of lanthanum(III)-fluoride-alizarin complexone. The proposed FI system has high sampling frequency (20 samplesh(-1)), small sample size (600 microl) and the dynamic range of 0.05-15 mgl(-1) with relative standard deviations of below 1.2%. Interfering ions such as aluminum(III) and iron(III) was effectively eliminated. The method was successfully applied to the determination of fluoride in industrial drainage after water treatment. PMID:18969965

  5. A direct numerical simulation of turbulent channel flow with injection and suction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumitani, Yasushi; Kasagi, Nobuhide

    1993-07-01

    A direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the fully developed turbulent channel flow with uniform wall injection and suction was carried out. The Reynolds number, which was based on the channel half width and the friction velocity averaged on the two walls, was set to be 150, while the Prandtl number was 0.71. The isothermal boundary condition was imposed at the walls. With any buoyancy effect neglected, temperature was considered as a passive scalar. The computation was executed on about 1.6 x lO exp 6 grid points by using a spectral method. The statistics obtained include the mean velocity and temperature, Reynolds stresses, and turbulent heat fluxes. Each term in the budget equations of the second-order velocity and temperature correlations and of their destruction rates was also calculated. It is found that the injection decreases the friction coefficient, but tends to stimulate the near-wall turbulence activity so that the Reynolds stresses and turbulent heat fluxes are increased, while the suction influences inversely.

  6. Determination of ammonia in beers by pervaporation flow injection analysis and spectrophotometric detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lijuan; Cardwell, Terence J; Cattrall, Robert W; Luque de Castro, Maria D; Kolev, Spas D

    2003-08-29

    A pervaporation flow injection (PFI) method is described for the determination of ammonia in beers. After injecting the sample into a NaOH donor solution, ammonia and other volatiles are transferred in the pervaporation unit from the donor stream to an acceptor stream containing sodium salicylate and nitroprusside, which subsequently mixes with alkaline sodium dichloroisocyanurate to allow the classical Berthelot reaction to take place. The blue-coloured complex formed is monitored spectrophotometrically at 655 nm. A linear calibration curve with a range of 0.1-40 mg l(-1) was obtained. The method has a detection limit of 0.05 mg l(-1) and is capable of a sampling frequency of 11 h(-1) at 4 mg l(-1) ammonia. It was applied successfully to the determination of ammonia in synthetic samples and unfiltered lager beers. The advantages of the present method over the ammonia ion-selective electrode method and the PFI system based on mixed indicator detection are discussed. PMID:18969154

  7. On the existence of solutions of an equation arising in the theory of laminar flow in a uniformly porous channel with injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, K. G.

    1986-01-01

    The existence of concave solutions of Berman's equation which describes the laminar flow in channels with injection through porous walls is established. It was found that the (unique) concave solutions exist for all injection Reynolds number R < 0.

  8. Design of a flow injection method for chlorophyll determination in in vitro plants.

    PubMed

    López, Juan Manuel; Lucena, Rosa Elena; Marcó P, Lué Merú; Mogollón, Norca; Rivas, Ricardo; Anzalone G, Alvaro

    2004-12-15

    A flow injection (FIA) method was designed for the determination of chlorophylls a and b in small in vitro Dieffenbachia maculata "Sublime" plants. In the first step, the pigments from spinach leaves were separated, purified by solvent extraction and freeze-dried, to obtain standards for the FIA optimization. The sample extraction procedure was optimized. Four solvents were tested: diethyl ether, methanol, acetone and ethanol. The ethanol 96% was the optimal solvent for FIA purposes. It allows to the efficient extraction of the pigments and water can be used as carrier. The best FIA conditions found for the quasi-simultaneous quantification of chlorophylls a and b were a flow rate of 10.84mLmin(-1), a sample injection volume of 1.45mL and a reactor length of 63cm. The detection was performed with the automatic wavelength scanning Cintra 10e spectrometer, at 649 and 665nm. The results obtained by the FIA method were compared to those obtained by the Arnon method. A deviation less than 5% was found between results for both methods. The concentration (mgg(-1)) of chlorophylls a and b during three periods of the plants (in vitro, acclimatization, and adult) was determined to evaluate the whole in vitro procedure. It was found an increment of both pigment concentrations since the in vitro step till the adult stage, while the chlorophylls a to b ratio decreases. The designed method is suitable especially for the determination of the pigments at low concentrations in small samples with appropriate analytical quality. PMID:18969746

  9. Simple in-house flow-injection capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity method for the determination of colistin.

    PubMed

    Chaisuwan, Patcharin; Moonta, Thararat; Sangcakul, Areeporn; Nacapricha, Duangjai; Wilairat, Prapin; Uraisin, Kanchana

    2015-03-01

    An in-house flow-injection capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection method was developed for the direct measurement of colistin in pharmaceutical samples. The flow injection and capillary electrophoresis systems are connected by an acrylic interface. Capillary electrophoresis separation is achieved within 2 min using a background electrolyte solution of 5 mM 2-morpholinoethanesulfonic acid and 5 mM histidine (pH 6). The flow-injection section allows for convenient filling of the capillary and sample introduction without the use of a pressure/vacuum manifold. Capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection is employed since colistin has no chromophore but is cationic at pH 6. Calibration curve is linear from 20 to 150 mg/L, with a correlation coefficient (r(2) ) of 0.997. The limit of quantitation is 20 mg/L. The developed method provides precision, simplicity, and short analysis time. PMID:25641810

  10. [Determination of trace mercury in wastewater by a flow injection analysis composed of immobilized ionic liquid enrichment and colorimetric detection].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Mao, Li-li; Yang, Gui-peng; Gao, Xian-chi; Tang, Xu-li

    2010-07-01

    Amberlite XAD-7 resin was modified by room temperature ionic liquid (1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, [C6 mim]PF6) coating through a maceration method, gaining a new sort of hydrophobic adsorbent for the solid phase extraction mini-column. Trace inorganic mercury in wastewater samples was preconcentrated and determined by flow injection online mini-column sampling coupled with spectrophotometric determination. In acid medium, dithizone was employed as chelator with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMAB) to form a red neutral mercury-dithizone complex, which could be extracted quantificationally by solid phase extraction technique on the mini-column. Under the optimized conditions, the linearity and the detection limit of the proposed method were found to be 0.35 to 50.0 microg x L(-1) Hg2+ and 0.067 microg x L(-1) Hg2+, respectively. The enrichment factor of 25 times could be achieved with a 50 mL sampling volume and the developed procedure was successfully applied for the determination of mercury in the certified reference material (GSBZ50016-90) and the spiked dock wastewater samples with the recovery of 99%-103%. PMID:20828014

  11. Multivariate optimization of mercury determination by flow injection-cold vapor generation-inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Vanessa Cristina Gonçalves; Grassi, Marco Tadeu; de Campos, Mônica Soares; Peralta-Zamora, Patricio Guillermo; Abate, Gilberto

    2012-10-01

    In this work a procedure for mercury determination by Flow Injection-Cold Vapor Generation-Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (FI-CVG-ICP OES) has been developed. The system uses a small homemade glass separator constructed to drive the Hg vapor to the plasma. An evolutionary operation factorial design was used to evaluate the optimal experimental conditions for mercury vapor generation, aiming at the low consumption of reagents, the improvement of the analytical signal and consequently greater sensitivity. The procedure allowed the determination of mercury and showed excellent linearity for the concentration range from 0.50 μg L(-1) to 100.0 μg L(-1), with Limits of Detection (LOD) and Quantification (LOQ) of 0.11 μg L(-1) and 0.36 μg L(-1), respectively, and a sampling rate of 36 analyses per hour. The optimized procedure showed good accuracy and precision, and the method was validated by the analysis of two certified reference materials: Buffalo River Sediment (NIST 2704) and human hair (IAEA 085). A good agreement with the certified values was achieved, with recovery values of 99% and 98% and relative standard deviation close to 2%. PMID:22870503

  12. CFD Validation of Gas Injection in Flowing Mercury over Vertical Smooth and Grooved Wall

    SciTech Connect

    Abdou, Ashraf A; Wendel, Mark W; Felde, David K; Riemer, Bernie

    2009-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is an accelerator-based neutron source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).The nuclear spallation reaction occurs when a proton beam hits liquid mercury. This interaction causes thermal expansion of the liquid mercury which produces high pressure waves. When these pressure waves hit the target vessel wall, cavitation can occur and erode the wall. Research and development efforts at SNS include creation of a vertical protective gas layer between the flowing liquid mercury and target vessel wall to mitigate the cavitation damage erosion and extend the life time of the target. Since mercury is opaque, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can be used as a diagnostic tool to see inside the liquid mercury and guide the experimental efforts. In this study, CFD simulations of three dimensional, unsteady, turbulent, two-phase flow of helium gas injection in flowing liquid mercury over smooth, vertically grooved and horizontally grooved walls are carried out with the commercially available CFD code Fluent-12 from ANSYS. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) model is used to track the helium-mercury interface. V-shaped vertical and horizontal grooves with 0.5 mm pitch and about 0.7 mm depth were machined in the transparent wall of acrylic test sections. Flow visualization data of helium gas coverage through transparent test sections is obtained with a high-speed camera at the ORNL target test facility (TTF). The helium gas mass flow rate is 8 mg/min and introduced through a 0.5 mm diameter port. The local mercury velocity is 0.9 m/s. In this paper, the helium gas flow rate and the local mercury velocity are kept constant for the three cases. Time integration of predicted helium gas volume fraction over time is done to evaluate the gas coverage and calculate the average thickness of the helium gas layer. The predicted time-integrated gas coverage over vertically grooved and horizontally grooved test sections is better than over a smooth wall. The

  13. Performance of 4600-pound-thrust centrifugal-flow-type turbojet engine with water-alcohol injection at inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glasser, Philip W

    1950-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the effects of injecting a water-alcohol mixture of 2:1 at the compressor inlet of a centrifugal-flow type turbojet engine was conducted in an altitude test chamber at static sea-level conditions and at an altitude of 20,000 feet with a flight Mach number of 0.78 with an engine operating at rated speed. The net thrust was augmented by 0.16 for both flight conditions with a ratio of injected liquid to air flow of 0.05. Further increases in the liquid-air ratio did not give comparable increases in thrust.

  14. Magnetohydrodynamic stagnation point flow and heat transfer in a nanofluid towards a stretching sheet with suction/injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaimi, Khairy; Bakar, Nor Ashikin Abu

    2015-05-01

    This paper deals with the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stagnation point flow and heat transfer towards a permeable stretching sheet in a nanofluid. By using a similarity transformation, the governing equations of fluid flow are reduced into ordinary differential equation, which are then solved numerically using a shooting method. The effects of suction/injection parameter on the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles and heat transfer characteristics are obtained and graphically presented. It is found that skin friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number increase with suction, while it acts in opposite manner with injection.

  15. [Research on optimization of mathematical model of flow injection-hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Cui, Jian; Zhao, Xue-Hong; Wang, Yan; Xiao, Ya-Bing; Jiang, Xue-Hui; Dai, Li

    2014-01-01

    Flow injection-hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry was a widely used method in the industries of health, environmental, geological and metallurgical fields for the merit of high sensitivity, wide measurement range and fast analytical speed. However, optimization of this method was too difficult as there exist so many parameters affecting the sensitivity and broadening. Generally, the optimal conditions were sought through several experiments. The present paper proposed a mathematical model between the parameters and sensitivity/broadening coefficients using the law of conservation of mass according to the characteristics of hydride chemical reaction and the composition of the system, which was proved to be accurate as comparing the theoretical simulation and experimental results through the test of arsanilic acid standard solution. Finally, this paper has put a relation map between the parameters and sensitivity/broadening coefficients, and summarized that GLS volume, carrier solution flow rate and sample loop volume were the most factors affecting sensitivity and broadening coefficients. Optimizing these three factors with this relation map, the relative sensitivity was advanced by 2.9 times and relative broadening was reduced by 0.76 times. This model can provide a theoretical guidance for the optimization of the experimental conditions. PMID:24783570

  16. Effects of small scale energy injection on large scales in turbulent reaction flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuan, Yuan

    2014-11-01

    Turbulence causes the generation of eddies of various length scales. In turbulent non-reacting flows, most of the kinetic energy is contained in large scale turbulent structures and dissipated at small scales. This energy cascade process from large scales to small scales provides the foundation of a lot of turbulence models, especially for Large Eddy Simulations. However, in turbulent reacting flows, chemical energy is converted locally to heat and therefore deploys energy at the smallest scales. As such, effects of small scale energy injection due to combustion on large scale turbulent motion may become important. These effects are investigated in the case of auto-ignition under homogeneous isotropic turbulence. Impact of small scale heat release is examined by comparing various turbulent statistics (e.g. energy spectrum, two-point correlation functions, and structure functions) in the reacting case to the non-reacting case. Emphasis is placed on the identification of the most relevant turbulent quantities in reflecting such small-large scale interactions.

  17. Flow-Injection Preconcentration of Chloramphenicol Using Molecularly Imprinted Polymer for HPLC Determination in Environmental Samples

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, Damian; Poboży, Ewa; Trojanowicz, Marek

    2011-01-01

    The residue of antibiotic chloramphenicol (CAP) is important issue for food quality control and also for the environmental monitoring. It is banned for use in food-producing animals and has very limited use in human medicine, because of its severe impact on human health. Determination of trace level of CAP in environmental samples requires a very sensitive analytical method and efficient preconcentration procedure. CAP can be efficiently preconcentrated in flow-injection system using flow-through reactor packed with molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP), but determination of CAP in eluate from MIP requires the application of chromatographic separation, which was made in reversed-phase HPLC system with UV detection. In optimized conditions the limit of detection for 100 mL sample in HPLC with offline preconcentration on MIP was evaluated as 0.66 mg/L. In hyphenated FIA-HPLC system with zone sampling the LOD for developed method was evaluated as 15 ng/L, which indicates the possibility of using it for analysis of environmental samples. PMID:21584273

  18. Simultaneous injection effective mixing flow analysis of urinary albumin using dye-binding reaction.

    PubMed

    Ratanawimarnwong, Nuanlaor; Ponhong, Kraingkrai; Teshima, Norio; Nacapricha, Duangjai; Grudpan, Kate; Sakai, Tadao; Motomizu, Shoji

    2012-07-15

    A new four-channel simultaneous injection effective mixing flow analysis (SIEMA) system has been assembled for the determination of urinary albumin. The SIEMA system consisted of a syringe pump, two 5-way cross connectors, four holding coils, five 3-way solenoid valves, a 50-cm long mixing coil and a spectrophotometer. Tetrabromophenol blue anion (TBPB) in Triton X-100 micelle reacted with albumin at pH 3.2 to form a blue ion complex with a λ(max) 625nm. TBPB, Triton X-100, acetate buffer and albumin standard solutions were aspirated into four individual holding coils by a syringe pump and then the aspirated zones were simultaneously pushed in the reverse direction to the detector flow cell. Baseline drift, due to adsorption of TBPB-albumin complex on the wall of the hydrophobic PTFE tubing, was minimized by aspiration of Triton X-100 and acetate buffer solutions between samples. The calibration graph was linear in the range of 10-50μg/mL and the detection limit for albumin (3σ) was 0.53μg/mL. The RSD (n=11) at 30μg/mL was 1.35%. The sample throughput was 37/h. With a 10-fold dilution, interference from urine matrix was removed. The proposed method has advantages in terms of simple automation operation and short analysis time. PMID:22817927

  19. Flow injection chemiluminescence determination of sudan I in hot chilli sauce.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanhong; Song, Zhenghua; Dong, Faxin; Zhang, Lin

    2007-02-01

    A chemiluminescence method based on the luminol-H2O2 system with flow injection technology was proposed for the determination of sudan I in hot chilli sauce. It was found that sudan I could enhance chemiluminescence intensity generated from the luminol-H2O2 system. The increment of chemiluminescence intensity was proportional to the concentration of sudan I, giving a calibration graph linear over the concentration from 10 pg mL-1 to 7 ng mL-1 (R 2 = 0.9980) with the detection limit of 3 pg mL-1 (3sigma) and the quantification limit of 7.5 pg mL-1. At a flow rate of 2.0 mL min-1, one analysis cycle, including sampling and washing, could be accomplished in 60 s with a relative standard deviation of <5.0%. The method has been applied successfully to the determination of sudan I in Pixian douban, Golden Mark guilin chilli sauce, and Golden Mark satay sauce, and the recovery was 90.6-110.0%. PMID:17263450

  20. Numerical simulation of internal and near-nozzle flow of a gasoline direct injection fuel injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Kaushik; Som, Sibendu; Battistoni, Michele; Li, Yanheng; Quan, Shaoping; Senecal, Peter Kelly

    2015-12-01

    A numerical study of two-phase flow inside the nozzle holes and the issuing spray jets for a multi-hole direct injection gasoline injector has been presented in this work. The injector geometry is representative of the Spray G nozzle, an eight-hole counterbore injector, from, the Engine Combustion Network (ECN). Simulations have been carried out for the fixed needle lift. Effects of turbulence, compressibility and, non-condensable gases have been considered in this work. Standard k—ɛ turbulence model has been used to model the turbulence. Homogeneous Relaxation Model (HRM) coupled with Volume of Fluid (VOF) approach has been utilized to capture the phase change phenomena inside and outside the injector nozzle. Three different boundary conditions for the outlet domain have been imposed to examine non-flashing and evaporative, non-flashing and non-evaporative, and flashing conditions. Inside the nozzle holes mild cavitation-like and in the near-nozzle region flash boiling phenomena have been predicted in this study when liquid fuel is subjected to superheated ambiance. Noticeable hole to hole variation has been also observed in terms of mass flow rates for all the holes under both flashing and non-flashing conditions.

  1. Sensitive and simple flow injection analysis of formaldehyde using an activated barrel plating nickel electrode.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei-Yen; Yangi, Hsueh-Hui; Zen, Jyh-Myng; Shih, Ying

    2011-01-01

    A flow injection analysis coupled with electrochemical detection at an activated barrel plating nickel electrode (Ni-BPE) was developed as a sensitive, simple, and low-cost formaldehyde sensor. The mechanism of Ni-BPE toward the electrocatalytic oxidation of formaldehyde in alkaline medium at ambient temperature was proposed to be based on the electrocatalytic oxidation of formaldehyde by Ni(III)O(OH) species. Under the optimized conditions (flow rate = 1.2 mL/min; detection potential = +0.5 V versus Ag/AgCl), a good linearity in the window of 0.037 to 10 microg/mL formaldehyde was observed, and the LOD of 0.23 microg/L was calculated. The RSDs of intraday (n = 10) and interday (n = 6) replicate measurements of 0.185-5 microg/mL formaldehyde ranged from 1.45 to 3.60%, indicating good reproducibility of the proposed method. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of formaldehyde in commercial nail polish samples and a drinking water sample. PMID:22165025

  2. A microfluidic device with integrated fluorimetric detection for flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Alexandre; Raimundo, Ivo M; Rohwedder, Jarbas J R; Lima, Renato S; Araújo, Mário C Ugulino

    2010-01-01

    This work describes the development of flow analysis microsystems with integrated fluorimetric detection cells. Channels (width of 300-540 microm and depth of 200-590 microm) were manufactured by deep-UV lithography in urethane-acrylate (UA) resin. Plastic optical fibers (diameter of 250 microm) were coupled to a 2.0-mm-long detection channel in order to guide the excitation radiation from an LED (470 nm) and collect the emitted radiation at a right angle towards a photomultiplier. A single-line miniaturized system, with a total internal volume of 10.4 microL, was evaluated by means of standard fluorescein solutions (0.53-2.66 micromol L(-1), pH 8.5). The analytical signals presented a linear relationship in the concentration range studied, with a relative standard deviation of 1.9% (n = 5), providing a detection limit of 0.37 micromol L(-1) and an analytical frequency of 60 samples/h, using a flow rate of 60 microL min(-1). Optical microscopy images and videos acquired in real time for the hydrodynamic injection of 130 and 320 nL of sample solutions indicated the good performance of the proposed sampling strategy. Another microsystem with a total internal volume of 38 microL was developed, incorporating a confluence point for two solutions. This device was applied to the determination of the total concentration of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in commercial mineral waters using the calcein method. Microscopy images and videos demonstrated the mixing efficiency of the solutions in the microchannels. A linear relationship was observed for the analytical signal in the Ca(2+) concentration range from 25 to 125 micromol L(-1), with relative standard deviations of 3.5%. The analysis of mineral waters with the proposed system provided results that did not differ significantly from those obtained by the EDTA titration method at a confidence level of 95%. These results demonstrate the viability of developing micro flow injection systems with an integrated fluorimetric detection cell

  3. Reference values of fetal erythrocytes in maternal blood during pregnancy established using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Harry; Nabbe, Karin C A M; Kooren, Jurgen A; Adriaansen, Henk J; Roelandse-Koop, Elianne A; Schuitemaker, Joost H N; Hoffmann, Johannes J M L

    2011-10-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the fetal RBC count in maternal blood during uncomplicated pregnancies from 26 weeks onward. We used a flow cytometric method specifically designed for use in a routine hematology analyzer. Pregnant women were recruited through midwives. The participating laboratories used the FMH QuikQuant method (Trillium Diagnostics, Brewer, ME) in a CELL-DYN Sapphire hematology analyzer (Abbott Diagnostics, Santa Clara, CA). The method is based on a monoclonal antibody to hemoglobin F. Flow cytometric data were analyzed by 2 independent observers. The 95th percentile reference range was estimated according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. A total of 236 samples were statistically analyzed. Gestational ages ranged from 21.6 to 41 weeks (mean, 32.0 weeks), and the fetal RBC count in maternal blood ranged from 0.00% to 0.50% (median, 0.025%). The fetal RBC count in maternal blood shows no correlation with gestational age. The established reference range during normal pregnancy is less than 0.125%. PMID:21917687

  4. Flow-injection chemiluminescence method to detect a β2 adrenergic agonist.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guangbin; Tang, Yuhai; Shang, Jian; Wang, Zhongcheng; Yu, Hua; Du, Wei; Fu, Qiang

    2015-02-01

    A new method for the detection of β2 adrenergic agonists was developed based on the chemiluminescence (CL) reaction of β2 adrenergic agonist with potassium ferricyanide-luminol CL. The effect of β2 adrenergic agonists including isoprenaline hydrochloride, salbutamol sulfate, terbutaline sulfate and ractopamine on the CL intensity of potassium ferricyanide-luminol was discovered. Detection of the β2 adrenergic agonist was carried out in a flow system. Using uniform design experimentation, the influence factors of CL were optimized. The optimal experimental conditions were 1 mmol/L of potassium ferricyanide, 10 µmol/L of luminol, 1.2 mmol/L of sodium hydroxide, a flow speed of 2.6 mL/min and a distance of 1.2 cm from 'Y2 ' to the flow cell. The linear ranges and limit of detection were 10-100 and 5 ng/mL for isoprenaline hydrochloride, 20-100 and 5 ng/mL for salbutamol sulfate, 8-200 and 1 ng/mL for terbutaline sulfate, 20-100 and 4 ng/mL for ractopamine, respectively. The proposed method allowed 200 injections/h with excellent repeatability and precision. It was successfully applied to the determination of three β2 adrenergic agonists in commercial pharmaceutical formulations with recoveries in the range of 96.8-98.5%. The possible CL reaction mechanism of potassium ferricyanide-luminol-β2 adrenergic agonist was discussed from the UV/vis spectra. PMID:24830367

  5. Automated on-line renewable solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography exploiting multisyringe flow injection-bead injection lab-on-valve analysis.

    PubMed

    Quintana, José Benito; Miró, Manuel; Estela, José Manuel; Cerdà, Víctor

    2006-04-15

    In this paper, the third generation of flow injection analysis, also named the lab-on-valve (LOV) approach, is proposed for the first time as a front end to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) sample processing by exploiting the bead injection (BI) concept. The proposed microanalytical system based on discontinuous programmable flow features automated packing (and withdrawal after single use) of a small amount of sorbent (<5 mg) into the microconduits of the flow network and quantitative elution of sorbed species into a narrow band (150 microL of 95% MeOH). The hyphenation of multisyringe flow injection analysis (MSFIA) with BI-LOV prior to HPLC analysis is utilized for on-line postextraction treatment to ensure chemical compatibility between the eluate medium and the initial HPLC gradient conditions. This circumvents the band-broadening effect commonly observed in conventional on-line SPE-based sample processors due to the low eluting strength of the mobile phase. The potential of the novel MSFI-BI-LOV hyphenation for on-line handling of complex environmental and biological samples prior to reversed-phase chromatographic separations was assessed for the expeditious determination of five acidic pharmaceutical residues (viz., ketoprofen, naproxen, bezafibrate, diclofenac, and ibuprofen) and one metabolite (viz., salicylic acid) in surface water, urban wastewater, and urine. To this end, the copolymeric divinylbenzene-co-n-vinylpyrrolidone beads (Oasis HLB) were utilized as renewable sorptive entities in the micromachined unit. The automated analytical method features relative recovery percentages of >88%, limits of detection within the range 0.02-0.67 ng mL(-1), and coefficients of variation <11% for the column renewable mode and gives rise to a drastic reduction in operation costs ( approximately 25-fold) as compared to on-line column switching systems. PMID:16615800

  6. Flow structure and skin friction in the vicinity of a streamwise-angled injection hole fed by a short pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Sean D.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2007-10-01

    The velocity field and skin friction distribution around a row of five jets issuing into a crossflow from short ( L/ D ≃ 1) pipes inclined by 35° with respect to the streamwise direction, (i.e., “short holes”) are presented for two different jet supply flow directions. Velocity was measured using PIV, while the skin friction was measured with oil-film interferometry. The flow features are compared with previously published data for jets issuing through holes oriented normal to the crossflow and with numerical simulations of similar geometries. The distinguishing features of the flow field include a reduced recirculation region in comparison to the 90° case and markedly different in-hole flow physics. The jetting process caused by in-hole separations force the bulk of the jet fluid to issue from the leading half of the streamwise-angled injection hole, as previously reported by Brundage et al. (Tech Rep ASME 99-GT-35, 1999) and predicted by Walters and Leylek (ASME J Turbomach 122:101-112, 2000). The flow structure impacts the skin friction distribution around the holes, resulting in higher near-hole shear stress for a counter-flow supply plenum (jet fluid supplied by a high speed plenum flowing opposite to the free stream direction). In contrast, the counter-flow supply plenum was previously found to have the lowest near-hole wall shear stress for normal injection holes (Peterson and Plesniak in Exp Fluids 37:497-503, 2004b). Streamwise-angled injection generally reduces the near-hole skin friction due to the reduced jet trajectory resulting from the lower wall-normal jet momentum. Far downstream, the skin friction distributions are similar for the two injection angle cases.

  7. Magnetic Reconnection and Ion Flows During Point-Source DC Helicity Injection on the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, M. G.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Schlossberg, D. J.; Winz, G. R.

    2012-10-01

    A passive ion temperature polychromator has been deployed on Pegasus to study power balance and non-thermal ion distributions that arise during point source helicity injection. Spectra are recorded from a 1 m F/8.6 Czerny-Turner polychromator whose output is recorded by an intensified high-speed camera. During helicity injection, stochastic magnetic fields keep Te low and thus low ionization impurities penetrate to the core. Under these conditions, high core ion temperatures are measured (Ti 1.2 keV, Te 0.1 keV) using spectral lines from CIII, NIII, and BIV. This rapid ion heating is seen to coincide with internal MHD activity. The ion temperature closely follows the injection bias voltage, indicating that power from the guns is strongly coupled to the ions through this MHD activity. Bi-directional toroidal ion flows of ˜60 km/s have been observed on the BIV line during helicity injection when looking near the front of the injectors. The flow is on the order of the Alfv'en velocity, as predicted by Sweet-Parker reconnection, and is indicative of magnetic reconnection occurring near the injectors. When looking away from the helicity injectors, the bi-directional flow appears to be replaced by strong toroidal rotation, suggesting that ion acceleration during helicity injection is asymmetric and 3D in nature.

  8. Numerical Solution for the Effect of Suction or Injection on Flow of Nanofluids Past a Stretching Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd Elazem, Nader Y.

    2016-06-01

    The flow of nanofluids past a stretching sheet has attracted much attention owing to its wide applications in industry and engineering. Numerical solution has been discussed in this article for studying the effect of suction (or injection) on flow of nanofluids past a stretching sheet. The numerical results carried out using Chebyshev collocation method (ChCM). Useful results for temperature profile, concentration profile, reduced Nusselt number, and reduced Sherwood number are discussed in tabular and graphical forms. It was also demonstrated that both temperature and concentration profiles decrease by an increase from injection to suction. Moreover, the numerical results show that the temperature profiles decrease at high values of Prandtl number Pr. Finally, the present results showed that the reduced Nusselt number is a decreasing function, whereas the reduced Sherwood number is an increasing function at fixed values of Prandtl number Pr, Lewis number Le and suction (or injection) parameter s for variation of Brownian motion parameter Nb, and thermophoresis parameter Nt.

  9. Thrust vectoring effects of a transverse gas injection into a supersonic cross flow of an axisymmetric convergent-divergent nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zmijanovic, V.; Lago, V.; Leger, L.; Depussay, E.; Sellam, M.; Chpoun, A.

    2013-03-01

    The transverse gas injection into the main supersonic flow of an axisymmetric convergent-divergent (C-D) propulsive nozzle is investigated for the fluidic thrust vectoring (FTV) possibilities as the segment part of the CNES "Perseus" project. Truncated ideal contour and conical C-D nozzles with different position and angle of the secondary circular injection port are selected as test models in the current numerical and experimental study. Analytical approach revealed parameters which affect the FTV efficiency, these criterions are further numerically explored and results data of the conical nozzle test cases are compared and coupled with the ones from experiments. It is found that upstream inclined injection has positive effect on vectoring capabilities and that with moderate secondary to primary mass-flow ratios, ranging around 5%, pertinent vector side force is possible to be achieved.

  10. Comparison of Flow Injection MS, NMR, and DNA Sequencing: Methods for Identification and Authentication of Black Cohosh (Actaea racemosa)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flow injection mass spectrometry (FIMS) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (1H-NMR), two metabolic fingerprinting methods, and DNA sequencing were used to identify and authenticate Actaea species. Initially, samples of Actaea racemosa L. from a single source were distinguished from ...

  11. On-line dynamic fractionation and automatic determination of inorganic phosphorus in environmental solid substrates exploiting sequential injection microcolumn extraction and flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Buanuam, Janya; Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald; Shiowatana, Juwadee

    2006-06-16

    Sequential injection microcolumn extraction (SI-MCE) based on the implementation of a soil-containing microcartridge as external reactor in a sequential injection network is, for the first time, proposed for dynamic fractionation of macronutrients in environmental solids, as exemplified by the partitioning of inorganic phosphorus in agricultural soils. The on-line fractionation method capitalises on the accurate metering and sequential exposure of the various extractants to the solid sample by application of programmable flow as precisely coordinated by a syringe pump. Three different soil phase associations for phosphorus, that is, exchangeable, Al- and Fe-bound, and Ca-bound fractions, were elucidated by accommodation in the flow manifold of the three steps of the Hieltjes-Lijklema (HL) scheme involving the use of 1.0M NH4Cl, 0.1M NaOH and 0.5M HCl, respectively, as sequential leaching reagents. The precise timing and versatility of SI for tailoring various operational extraction modes were utilized for investigating the extractability and the extent of phosphorus re-distribution for variable partitioning times. Automatic spectrophotometric determination of soluble reactive phosphorus in soil extracts was performed by a flow injection (FI) analyser based on the Molybdenum Blue (MB) chemistry. The 3sigma detection limit was 0.02 mg P L(-1) while the linear dynamic range extended up to 20 mg P L(-1) regardless of the extracting media. Despite the variable chemical composition of the HL extracts, a single FI set-up was assembled with no need for either manifold re-configuration or modification of chemical composition of reagents. The mobilization of trace elements, such as Cd, often present in grazed pastures as a result of the application of phosphate fertilizers, was also explored in the HL fractions by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. PMID:17723403

  12. High-Resolution Quantitative Metabolome Analysis of Urine by Automated Flow Injection NMR

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Metabolism is essential to understand human health. To characterize human metabolism, a high-resolution read-out of the metabolic status under various physiological conditions, either in health or disease, is needed. Metabolomics offers an unprecedented approach for generating system-specific biochemical definitions of a human phenotype through the capture of a variety of metabolites in a single measurement. The emergence of large cohorts in clinical studies increases the demand of technologies able to analyze a large number of measurements, in an automated fashion, in the most robust way. NMR is an established metabolomics tool for obtaining metabolic phenotypes. Here, we describe the analysis of NMR-based urinary profiles for metabolic studies, challenged to a large human study (3007 samples). This method includes the acquisition of nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy one-dimensional and J-resolved two-dimensional (J-Res-2D) 1H NMR spectra obtained on a 600 MHz spectrometer, equipped with a 120 μL flow probe, coupled to a flow-injection analysis system, in full automation under the control of a sampler manager. Samples were acquired at a throughput of ∼20 (or 40 when J-Res-2D is included) min/sample. The associated technical analysis error over the full series of analysis is 12%, which demonstrates the robustness of the method. With the aim to describe an overall metabolomics workflow, the quantification of 36 metabolites, mainly related to central carbon metabolism and gut microbial host cometabolism, was obtained, as well as multivariate data analysis of the full spectral profiles. The metabolic read-outs generated using our analytical workflow can therefore be considered for further pathway modeling and/or biological interpretation. PMID:23718684

  13. Pharmacokinetic of pseudoephedrine in rat serum with luminol-pepsin chemiluminescence system by flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Kai; Li, Yajuan; Zheng, Xiaohui; Song, Zhenghua

    2015-02-01

    Pepsin (Pep) accelerated the electron transferring rate of excited 3-aminophathlate and enhanced luminol-dissolved oxygen chemiluminescence (CL) intensity, and the flow injection (FI) luminol-Pep CL system was first developed. It was found that the CL intensity of luminol-Pep reaction could be remarkably inhibited by pseudoephedrine (PE); the decrement of CL intensity was linear to the logarithm of PE concentration in the range of 0.1∼100.0 nmol L(-1) with a detection limit of 0.03 nmol mL(-1) (3σ). At a flow rate of 2.0 mL min(-1), the complete process including washing and sampling was performed within 40 s, offering a sample throughput of 90 h(-1). This proposed method was successfully applied to determining PE in rat serum for 18 h after intragastric administration with the elimination ratio of 42.34 % and recoveries from 90.3 to 110.6 %. The pharmacokinetic results showed that PE could be rapidly absorbed into serum with peak concentration (C max) of 1.45 ± 0.18 g L(-1) at the time (T max) of 1.49 ± 0.02 h; the absorption half-life (0.35 ± 0.04 h), elimination half-life (1.86 ± 0.24 h), the area under curve (109.81 ± 6.03 mg L(-1) h(-1)), mean residence time (3.82 ± 0.27 h), and elimination rate constant (2.26 ± 0.23 L g(-1) h(-1)) in rats vivo were derived, respectively. The possible CL mechanism of luminol-Pep-PE reaction was discussed by FI-CL, fluorescence, and molecular docking (MD) methods. PMID:25427591

  14. Chromium(III) determination without sample treatment by batch and flow injection potentiometry.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Moreno, Raúl A; Gismera, M A Jesús; Sevilla, M A Teresa; Procopio, Jesús R

    2009-02-16

    A new and easy device for direct detection of chromium(III) in batch and flow analysis without previous oxidation/reduction or preconcentration steps of samples is designed and evaluated. For this purpose a potentiometric sensor with solid state membrane based on carbon paste matrix is developed. The sensor is modified with di(2-hydroxyphenylimino)ethane and the principal analytical parameters of the potentiometric response in batch and flow analysis are optimized and calculated. Optimal detection limits (1.4 x 10(-7)M in static mode and 5.4 x 10(-7)M in on-line analysis) and selectivity to trivalent chromium are obtained in both analysis modes. The use of this device to direct detection of chromium(III) in real samples is tested using a sediment Certified Reference Material. Chromium(III) determination is also carried out with successful results in environmental samples such as extracts from soils used as barriers in landfills and industrial samples such as waste waters from electroplating industries. PMID:19154812

  15. A simple microfluidic integrated with an optical sensor for micro flow injection colorimetric determination of glutathione.

    PubMed

    Supharoek, Sam-ang; Youngvises, Napaporn; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2012-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive method for fabricating a microfluidic platform was developed. A printed circuit board (PCB) was used to make a master mold for replicating a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel. The master mold was fabricated by a simple photolithographic method, employing a photoresist dry film. The process did not use hazardous chemicals, a clean room or any expensive instrument. The PDMS microchannel was clamped with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) plates, where a light emitting diode (LED) as a light source and a light dependent resistor (LDR) as a light sensor were attached to form a simple optical sensor. The system was successfully employed as a micro flow injection analysis for the determination of glutathione in dietary supplement samples. A linear calibration graph in the range of 5.0 - 60.0 mg L(-1) glutathione was obtained with a detection limit of 0.01 mg L(-1). The system provided a sample throughput of 48 h(-1), with microliter consumption of the reagent. PMID:22790365

  16. Flow injection analysis with tubular membrane ion-selective electrode and coated wires for buspirone hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Ghani, Nour; Issa, Yousry; Shoukry, Adel; Ahmed, Howayda

    2007-01-01

    New Plastic membrane ion-selective electrode for buspirone hydrochloride based on buspironium tetraphenylborate was prepared. The electrode exhibited mean slope of calibration graph of 58.4 mV per decade of BusCl concentration at 25 degrees C. The electrode can be used within the concentration range 6.3 x 10(-5) - 10(-2) M BusCl at a pH range of 2.5-7.0. The standard electrode potentials were determined at different temperatures and used to calculate the isothermal temperature coefficient of the electrode, amounting to 0.00056 V degrees C(-1). The electrode showed a very good selectivity for BusCl with respect to a number of inorganic cations, sugars and amino acids. The electrode was applied to the potentiometric determination of the buspirone ion and its pharmaceutical preparation under batch and flow injection conditions. Also, buspirone was determined by conductimetric titrations. Graphite rod, copper and silver coated wire electrodes were prepared and characterized as sensors for the drug under investigation. PMID:17822267

  17. Determination of urinary glucose by a flow injection analysis amperometric biosensor and ion-exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Male, K B; Luong, J H

    1992-12-01

    A practical biosensor system has been developed for the determination of urinary glucose using a flow-injection analysis (FIA) amperometric detector and ion-exchange chromatography. Glucose oxidase was immobilized onto porous aminopropyl glass beads via glutaraldehyde activation to form an immobilized enzyme column. On the basis of its negative charge at pH 5.5, endogenous urate in urine samples was effectively retained by an upstream anion-exchange resin column. The biosensor system possessed a sensitivity of 160 +/- 2.4 RU microM-1 (RU or relative unit is defined as 2.86 microV at the detection output) for glucose with a minimum detection level of 10 microM. When applied for the determination of urinary glucose, the result obtained compared very well with that of the widely accepted hexokinase assay. The immobilized glucose oxidase could be reused for more than 1000 repeated analyses without losing its original activity. The reuse of the acetate anion-exchange column before replacement would be about 25-30 analyses. Acetaminophen and ascorbic acid were also effectively adsorbed by the acetate anion exchanger. The introduction of this type of anion exchanger thus greatly improved the selectivity of the FIA biosensor system and fostered its applicability for the determination of glucose in urine samples. PMID:1303063

  18. Determination of nabumetone in pharmaceutical formulation by flow injection analysis (FIA) with UV-detection.

    PubMed

    Can, N O; Tuncel, M; Aboul-Enein, H Y

    2003-01-01

    A precise and accurate FIA method for the quantification of nabumetone (NAB) in pharmaceuticals is described. The best suitable carrier solvent system consisted of ethanol: water (30:70 v/v). Sample solution (4.7 x 10(-6) M NAB) was prepared in this solvent and injected to the instrumental system at a flow rate of 1.2 ml x min(-1). The signals were detected by a UV detector at 228.8 nm. The calibration curves of NAB was linear in the concentration range of 1.4 x 10(-6) M-2.8 x 10(-5) M. The intra- and inter-assay precision were less than 2.6%. The method exhibited a good linearity with the correlation coefficients. The LOD and LOQ values were found to be 4.4 x 10(-7) and 1.3 x 10(-6) M, respectively. The effects of the tablet excipients were insignificant at the 95% probability level. The calculated tablet content was 99% which is agreement with the ranges stated by pharmacopoeias. PMID:12622247

  19. Spectrophotometric cocaine determination in a biphasic medium employing flow-batch sequential injection analysis.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Maria José; dos Anjos, Edijane V; Honorato, Ricardo S; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; Paim, Ana Paula S

    2008-11-23

    Quantifying cocaine in apprehended samples is important to the Brazilian Federal Police because the concentration can indicate the origin of the drug and consequently the traffic route. In addition to the other risks of using this drug is the variability in cocaine concentration, which makes large doses lethal. Gas Chromatography with a Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) and a Mass Selective Detector (GC-MS) are the techniques usually employed, but these systems are not available in all police laboratories, due to the relatively high cost. In the present work, a flow-system procedure for the spectrophotometric determination of cocaine using cobalt thiocyanate as a complexing reagent was developed. In this reaction, two phases are formed: the superior (pink) contains an excess of cobalt thiocyanate solution and the lower layer (blue) contains the complex cocaine-cobalt thiocyanate. Samples and reagent are inserted through a sequential-injection valve between two air bubbles inside a reaction chamber. An optic fiber sensor connected to the chamber recorded the absorbance at 630 nm signal. The detection and quantification limits were 29.4 mg L(-1) and 98 mg L(-1), respectively. Relative standard deviation was 4.9% for solutions containing 400 mg L(-1) (n=10), with stable baselines. The analytical throughput was 12 determinations per hour. PMID:18940326

  20. Application of Pneumatic Flow Injection-Tandem Spectrometer System for Chromium Speciation

    PubMed Central

    Noroozifar, Meissam; Khorasani-Motlagh, Mozhgan; Akbari, Reza

    2007-01-01

    In this approach, a pneumatic flow injection-tandem spectrometer system, without a delivery pump, has been developed to study chromium speciation. In this system, suction force of pneumatic nebulizer of a flame atomic absorption spectrometer has been used for solution delivery through the manifold. Cr(VI) and total Cr concentrations were determined using UV-Vis and FAAS spectrometers, respectively. The Cr(III) was determined by difference. The calibration curves were linear up to 10 μg mL−1 and 20 μg mL−1 for Cr(VI) and total Cr with detection limit of 0.12 μg mL−1 and 0.07 μg mL−1 for Cr(VI) and Cr(III), respectively. The midrange precision and accuracy are less than 1.98% and ± 2.50% for two species, respectively, at a sampling rate of 100 h−1. This system was applied for the determination of the chromium species in spiked and natural waters as well as industrial waters. PMID:18273388

  1. Ultrasensitive determination of DNA sequences by flow injection chemiluminescence using silver ions as labels.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lichun; Liu, Xiuhui; Zhou, Min; Ma, Yongjun; Wu, Guofan; Lu, Xiaoquan

    2014-10-27

    We presented a new strategy for ultrasensitive detection of DNA sequences based on the novel detection probe which was labeled with Ag(+) using metallothionein (MT) as a bridge. The assay relied on a sandwich-type DNA hybridization in which the DNA targets were first hybridized to the captured oligonucleotide probes immobilized on Fe3O4@Au composite magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), and then the Ag(+)-modified detection probes were used to monitor the presence of the specific DNA targets. After being anchored on the hybrids, Ag(+) was released down through acidic treatment and sensitively determined by a coupling flow injection-chemiluminescent reaction system (Ag(+)-Mn(2+)-K2S2O8-H3PO4-luminol) (FI-CL). The experiment results showed that the CL intensities increased linearly with the concentrations of DNA targets in the range from 10 to 500 pmol L(-1) with a detection limit of 3.3 pmol L(-1). The high sensitivity in this work may be ascribed to the high molar ratio of Ag(+)-MT, the sensitive determination of Ag(+) by the coupling FI-CL reaction system and the perfect magnetic separation based on Fe3O4@Au composite MNPs. Moreover, the proposed strategy exhibited excellent selectivity against the mismatched DNA sequences and could be applied to real samples analysis. PMID:25263118

  2. Determination of thyroxine in pharmaceuticals using flow injection with luminol chemiluminescence inhibition detection.

    PubMed

    Waseem, Amir; Yaqoob, Mohammad; Nabi, Abdul

    2006-01-01

    A simple flow injection method is reported for the determination of thyroxine, based on its inhibition effect on luminol-iron(II) chemiluminescence in alkaline medium in the presence of molecular oxygen. The detection limits (2s) for d- and l-thyroxine are 0.08 and 0.1 mg/L, respectively, with a sample throughput of 100/h. The calibration data for d- and l-thyroxine over the range 0.2-1.0 mg/L gives correlation coefficients (r(2)) of 0.9915 and 0.984 with relative standard deviations (RSD; n = 4) in the range 1.2-2.8%. The effects of some organic compounds was studied on luminol-iron(II) CL system for thyroxine determination. The method was applied to pharmaceutical thyroxine tablets and the results obtained (in the range 50.5 +/- 2.0-51.6 +/- 1.2 microg l-thyroxine/tablet) were in reasonable agreement with the value quoted. PMID:16645953

  3. A spectrophotometric flow injection system for streptomycin determination in veterinary samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frugeri, Pedro Marcos; Lago, Ayla Campos do; Wisniewski, Célio; Luccas, Pedro Orival

    2014-01-01

    In this work a spectrophotometric flow injection analysis system for streptomycin determination in veterinary samples, is being proposed. The method is based on streptomycin alkaline hydrolysis that forms guanidine, followed by the reaction with Fe(II). The colored product has absorption peak at 520 nm. To evaluate and optimize the system parameters, chemometrics tools, such as factorial design, Pareto chart and Doelhert design, were used. The veterinary samples are diluted in water and introduced in the FIA system, therefore no sample preparation is required. The optimized system presented: linear range of 60 up to 1000 mg L-1, limit of detection of 18 mg L-1 and sampling rate of 36 readings per hour. The precision was checked and the CV for veterinary sample readings were always less than 6.5%. The accuracy was studied by comparison with chromatographic method, thus, five samples of pharmaceutical veterinary were determined by HPLC and by the proposed method, and the results are in agreement (t-test, p = 0.05).

  4. Microfluidic Flow Injection Analysis with Thermal Lens Microscopic Detection for Determination of NGAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radovanović, Tatjana; Liu, Mingqiang; Likar, Polona; Klemenc, Matjaž; Franko, Mladen

    2015-06-01

    A combined microfluidic flow injection analysis-thermal lens microscopy (FIA-TLM) system was applied for determination of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL)—a biomarker of acute kidney injury. NGAL was determined following a commercial ELISA assay and transfer of the resulting solution into the FIA-TLM system with a 100 m deep microchannel. At an excitation power of 100 mW, the FIA-TLM provided about seven times lower limits of detection (1.5 pg as compared to a conventional ELISA test, and a sample throughput of six samples per minute, which compares favorably with sample throughput of the microtiter plate reader, which reads 96 wells in about 30 min. Comparison of results for NGAL in plasma samples from healthy individuals and for NGAL dynamics in patients undergoing coronary angiography measured with transmission mode spectrometry on a microtiter plate reader and with FIA-TLM showed good agreement. In addition to improved LOD, the high sensitivity of FIA-TLM offers possibilities of a further reduction of the total reaction time of the NGAL ELISA test by sacrificing some of the sensitivity while reducing the duration of individual incubation steps.

  5. Pneumatic flow injection analysis-tandem spectrometer system for iron speciation.

    PubMed

    Noroozifar, Meissam; Khorasani-Motlagh, Mozhgan; Akbari, Reza

    2006-01-01

    A pneumatic flow injection-tandem spectrometer system, without a delivery pump was used for the speciation of iron. In this system, the suction force of a pneumatic nebulizer of a flame absorption spectrometer was used for solution delivery through the manifold. The Fe(III) and total Fe concentrations were determined using thiocyanate ion in a UV-Vis spectrometer and a FAAS, respectively. The Fe(II) was determined by the difference. The calibration curves were linear up to 18 microg mL(-1) and 25 microg mL(-1) with detection limits of 0.09 microg mL(-1) and 0.07 microg mL(-1) for Fe(III) and Fe(II), respectively. The mid-range precision and accuracy were <2.5% and +/-3% for the two species, respectively, at a sampling rate of 120 h(-1). This system was applied for the determination of Fe(III) and Fe(II) in industrial water, natural water and spiked samples. PMID:16429790

  6. Lactate solid-state biosensor with multilayer of electrodeposited polymers for flow-injection clinical analysis.

    PubMed

    Krawczyñski vel Krawczyk, T; Trojanowicz, M; Lewenstam, M; Moszczynska, A

    1996-01-01

    In the lactate biosensor, electrodeposited poly(o-phenylenediamine) serves as a convenient matrix for the immobilization of lactate oxidase, but does not provide sufficient discrimination from several interfering species present in physiological fluids. Their effect, however, can be eliminated by additional modification of the working Pt electrode with a bilayer of electrodeposited polypyrrole/polyphenol. Despite continued decrease in biosensor sensitivity, the newly developed three-layer solid-state biosensor was successfully applied in flow-injection determination of lactate in both undiluted and diluted human blood serum samples over a 10 day period. For the lactate concentration range 0.2-5.0 mM in several series of measurements the correlation coefficient values for comparison with photometric determination using a DuPont dimension clinical analyzer were between 0.96 and 0.99. The reproducibility measured for 1:10 diluted serum was 0.6%. The detection limit was estimated as 2 microM. PMID:8828166

  7. The electrochemiluminescence of luminol on titania nanotubes functionalised indium tin oxide glass for flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qun; Xiao, Changbin; Tu, Yifeng

    2015-10-01

    The titania nanotubes (TiNTs) had been immobilised onto the indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass to intensify the electrochemiluminescence (ECL) of luminol. The morphology, structure and properties such as specific surface area and transmittance of synthesised TiNTs were characterised. The results indicated that the TiNTs was several hundred nanometres in length with the diameter of 20 nm. In flow injection analysis (FIA) mode, the TiNTs dramatically enhanced the ECL emission of luminol for about 25 multiple, meanwhile decreased the requirement of buffer pH and exciting potential. The ECL emission of luminol on functionalised ITO electrode has sensitive response toward hydrogen peroxide, and extraordinarily responsive toward the antioxidant. Under the optimal conditions, the ECL emission exhibited a linear response within the concentration range from 0.1 mg L(-1) to 30 mg L(-1) and an absolute detection limit of 1.65×10(-10) g of resveratrol. The gross antioxidant activity of blueberry and kiwi were determined with satisfactory recoveries. PMID:26078133

  8. Geochemical consequences of flow differentiation in a multiple injection dike (Trinity ophiolite, N. California)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brouxel, M.

    1991-01-01

    A clinopyroxene-rich dike of the Trinity ophiolite sheeted-dike complex shows three different magmatic pulses, probably injected in a short period of time (no well developed chilled margin) and important variations of the clinopyroxene and plagioclase percentages between its core (highly porphyritic) and margins (aphyric). This variation, interpreted as related to a flow differentiation phenomenon (mechanical phenocryst redistribution), has important geochemical consequences. It produces increases in the FeO, MgO, CaO, Cr and Ni contents from the margin to the core, together with increases in the clinopyroxene percentage, and decreases in the SiO2, Zr, Y, Nb and REE contents together with a decrease in the percentage of the fine-grained groundmass toward the core of the dike. This mineralogical redistribution, which also affects the incompatible trace element ratios because of the difference in plagioclase and clinopyroxene mineral/liquid partition coefficients, illustrate the importance of fractionation processes outside of a magma chamber. ?? 1991.

  9. Individual and simultaneous determination of uric acid and ascorbic acid by flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Almuaibed, A M; Townshend, A

    1992-11-01

    Flow injection methods for the individual and simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid and uric acid are proposed. A spectrophotometer and a miniamperometric detector are connected in sequence. The calibration graphs for uric acid obtained by measuring its absorbance at 293 nm and its current at +0.6 V are linear up to at least 80 and 70 mug/ml, respectively, with an rsd (n = 10) of 1 % for both methods at mid-range concentrations. The calibration graph for ascorbic acid with amperometric detection is linear up to 80 mg/l. with an rsd (n = 10) of 0.8% at 30 mg/l. The simultaneous determination of uric acid and ascorbic acid is based on measurement of the absorbance of uric acid at 393 nm and amperometric determination of both analytes at +0.6 V. The average relative errors of the analysis of binary mixtures of uric acid and ascorbic acid are 2.2 and 4.2%, respectively. PMID:18965554

  10. Kinetic flow-injection analysis of boron using 5-fluorosalicylaldehyde and H-acid.

    PubMed

    Sarenqiqige; Kodani, Takamasa; Kajiwara, Mari; Takehara, Kô; Yoshimura, Kazuhisa

    2014-01-01

    Boric acid reacts with 5-fluorosalicylaldehyde (F-SA) and 8-amino-1-naphthol-3,6-disulfonic acid (HA) to form the boric acid-fluoroazomethine H complex (F-AzB) that is now being used for the flow-injection analysis (FIA) of boric acid. At pH 6.5, the F-AzB complexation proceeded fairly fast, whereas the fluoroazomethine H (F-AzH) formation was slow. Thus, highly sensitive measurement of F-AzB was possible if the reaction time was controlled using the FIA method to decrease the background absorbance of F-AzH at the analytical wavelength. The optimum conditions for the color developing reaction were investigated for single and dual channel systems. The former system was simple, applicable to the determination of boron in reversed osmosis (RO) desalination water with a detection limit (LOD) of 4 μg B dm(-3). For the latter system, the calibration range was 0.005 to 10 mg B dm(-3) with an LOD of 1 μg B dm(-3), which can be applicable to natural water analyses of boron. These methods could analyze 15 - 20 samples in one hour. The results of the boron concentration measurement for water samples from an RO desalination plant, industrial wastewater and river water were in fairly good agreement with those obtained by other methods. PMID:25213816

  11. Flow-injection determination of isoniazid using sodium dichloroisocyanurate- and trichloroisocyanuric acid-luminol chemiluminescence systems.

    PubMed

    Safavi, A; Karimi, M A; Hormozi Nezhad, M R

    2004-06-01

    A chemiluminescent (CL) method for the determination of isoniazid is described. The method is based on the CL generated during the oxidation of luminol by sodium dichloroisocyanurate (SDCC) and trichloroisocyanuric acid (TCCA) in alkaline medium. It was found that isoniazid greatly enhances this CL intensity when present in the luminol solution. Based on this observation, a new flow-injection CL method for the determination of isoniazid has been proposed in this paper. The detection limits were 2 and 3 ng ml(-1) isoniazid for the SDCC-luminol and TCCA-luminol CL systems, respectively. The relative CL intensity was linear with the isoniazid concentration in the range of 4-100 and 100-200 ng ml(-1) for the SDCC-luminol CL system, and 6-200 and 200-1000 ng ml(-1) for the TCCA-luminol CL system. The results obtained for the assay of pharmaceutical preparations compared well with those obtained by the official methods and demonstrated good accuracy and precision. PMID:15178311

  12. Flow injection analysis of nitrate and nitrite in commercial baby foods.

    PubMed

    Chetty, Adrian A; Prasad, Surendra

    2016-04-15

    Commercial baby foods are an easy alternative to home-made meals especially for working parents in a nuclear family therefore it is imperative to determine the nitrate and nitrite content in commercially available baby foods varieties marketed in Fiji. A total of 108 baby food samples were analyzed for nitrate and nitrite using our standardized flow injection analysis (FIA) technique with colorimetric detection technique employing sulfanilamide and N-(1-naphthyl)ethylenediamine dihydrochloride as color reagents where the samples throughput was 38 h(-1). The commercial baby food varieties chosen comprised of vegetables, cereals, fruits and milk. The study shows that the nitrate content of the baby foods studied ranges from 2.10 to 220.67 mg kg(-1) whereas the nitrite content ranges from 0.44 to 3.67 mg kg(-1). Typical recoveries of spiked nitrate residues ranged from 92% to 106%. The study shows that the average nitrate content of commercially available baby foods in Fiji descends below the maximum level proposed by the European Union Legislation. PMID:26616981

  13. Selective and Sensitive Chemiluminescence Determination of MCPB: Flow Injection and Liquid Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Meseguer-Lloret, Susana; Torres-Cartas, Sagrario; Catalá-Icardo, Mónica; Gómez-Benito, Carmen

    2016-02-01

    Two new chemiluminescence (CL) methods are described for the determination of the herbicide 4-(4-chloro-o-tolyloxy) butyric acid (MCPB). First, a flow injection chemiluminescence (FI-CL) method is proposed. In this method, MCPB is photodegraded with an ultraviolet (UV) lamp and the photoproducts formed provide a great CL signal when they react with ferricyanide in basic medium. Second, a high-performance liquid chromatography chemiluminescence (HPLC-CL) method is proposed. In this method, before the photodegradation and CL reaction, the MCPB and other phenoxyacid herbicides are separated in a C18 column. The experimental conditions for the FI-CL and HPLC-CL methods are optimized. Both methods present good sensitivity, the detection limits being 0.12 µg L(-1) and 0.1 µg L(-1) (for FI-CL and HPLC-CL, respectively) when solid phase extraction (SPE) is applied. Intra- and interday relative standard deviations are below 9.9%. The methods have been satisfactorily applied to the analysis of natural water samples. FI-CL method can be employed for the determination of MCPB in simple water samples and for the screening of complex water samples in a fast, economic, and simple way. The HPLC-CL method is more selective, and allows samples that have not been resolved with the FI-CL method to be solved. PMID:26903566

  14. Flow injection analysis as a tool for enhancing oceanographic nutrient measurements--a review.

    PubMed

    Worsfold, Paul J; Clough, Robert; Lohan, Maeve C; Monbet, Philippe; Ellis, Peter S; Quétel, Christophe R; Floor, Geerke H; McKelvie, Ian D

    2013-11-25

    Macronutrient elements (C, N and P) and micronutrient elements (Fe, Co, Cu, Zn and Mn) are widely measured in their various physico-chemical forms in open ocean, shelf sea, coastal and estuarine waters. These measurements help to elucidate the biogeochemical cycling of these elements in marine waters and highlight the ecological and socio-economic importance of the oceans. Due to the dynamic nature of marine waters in terms of chemical, biological and physical processes, it is advantageous to make these measurements in situ and in this regard flow injection analysis (FIA) provides a suitable shipboard platform. This review, therefore, discusses the role of FIA in the determination of macro- and micro-nutrient elements, with an emphasis on manifold design and detection strategies for the reliable shipboard determination of specific nutrient species. The application of various FIA manifolds to oceanographic nutrient determinations is discussed, with an emphasis on sensitivity, selectivity, high throughput analysis and suitability for underway analysis and depth profiles. Strategies for enhancing sensitivity and minimizing matrix effects, e.g. refractive index (schlieren) effects and the important role of uncertainty budgets in underpinning method validation and data quality are discussed in some detail. PMID:24216194

  15. Flow injection-chemiluminescence determination of dopamine using potassium permanganate and formaldehyde system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wabaidur, Saikh Mohammad; Alothman, Zeid Abdullah; Alam, Seikh Mafiz; Lee, Sang Hak

    2012-10-01

    A simple and sensitive flow injection-chemiluminescence method for the determination of dopamine has been proposed. The method is based on the enhancing effect of dopamine on the chemiluminescence emission generated by the reaction of potassium permanganate with formaldehyde in an acidic medium. The proposed procedure allows the determination of dopamine over the concentration range of 3.1 × 10-8-1.7 × 10-5 mol/L and with a detection limit of 1.0 × 10-8 mol/L. The linear regression equation was F = 44.4912 + 1.07 × 109 ∗ C (correlation coefficient, r2 = 0.9998). The relative standard deviation is 2.1% for the determination of 1.0 × 10-8 mol/L dopamine (n = 11). The method was successfully applied to the determination of dopamine in pharmaceutical preparation with satisfactory results. The recoveries were found in the range of 96.5-101.3%.

  16. A Detailed Investigation of Staged Normal Injection into a Mach 2 Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eklund, Dean R.; Northam, G. Burton; Hartfield, Roy J., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    A study of the staged injection of two jets of air behind a rearward facing step into a Mach 2 flow was performed using the SPARK 3-D Navier-Stokes code. Calculated mole fraction distributions were compared with an extensive set of planar mole fraction measurements made with a laser induced iodine fluorescence technique. A statistical measure, the standard deviation, was used to help assess agreement between calculation and experiment. Overall, good agreement was found between calculated and measured values. Generally, agreement was better in the far field of the injectors. The effect of grid resolution was investigated by calculating solutions on grids of 60,000, 200,000, and 450,000 points. Differences in the solutions on the two finer grids were small. However, the mole fraction distributions were distinguishable. The effect of turbulence modeling was investigated by employing three different algebraic models for the jet turbulence: the Baldwin-Lomax model, the Prandtl mixing length model, and the Eggers mixing length model. Overall, the Eggers mixing length model was found to be superior for this case. Finally, the effect of the jet exit conditions was examined. A recently proposed Mach number distribution at the jet exit was found to slightly improve agreement between measurement and calculation.

  17. MHD Modelling of Coronal Loops: Injection of High-Speed Chromospheric Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petralia, A.; Reale, F.; Orlando, S.; Klimchuk, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Context. Observations reveal a correspondence between chromospheric type II spicules and bright upward-moving fronts in the corona observed in the extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) band. However, theoretical considerations suggest that these flows are probably not the main source of heating in coronal magnetic loops. Aims. We investigate the propagation of high-speed chromospheric flows into coronal magnetic flux tubes and the possible production of emission in the EUV band. Methods. We simulated the propagation of a dense 104 K chromospheric jet upward along a coronal loop by means of a 2D cylindrical MHD model that includes gravity, radiative losses, thermal conduction, and magnetic induction. The jet propagates in a complete atmosphere including the chromosphere and a tenuous cool (approximately 0.8 MK) corona, linked through a steep transition region. In our reference model, the jet initial speed is 70 km per second, its initial density is 10(exp 11) per cubic centimeter, and the ambient uniform magnetic field is 10 G. We also explored other values of jet speed and density in 1D and different magnetic field values in 2D, as well as the jet propagation in a hotter (approximately 1.5 MK) background loop. Results. While the initial speed of the jet does not allow it to reach the loop apex, a hot shock-front develops ahead of it and travels to the other extreme of the loop. The shock front compresses the coronal plasma and heats it to about 10(exp 6) K. As a result, a bright moving front becomes visible in the 171 Angstrom channel of the SDO/AIA mission. This result generally applies to all the other explored cases, except for the propagation in the hotter loop. Conclusions. For a cool, low-density initial coronal loop, the post-shock plasma ahead of upward chromospheric flows might explain at least part of the observed correspondence between type II spicules and EUV emission excess.

  18. Bubble-size distributions produced by wall injection of air into flowing freshwater, saltwater and surfactant solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkel, Eric S.; Ceccio, Steven L.; Dowling, David R.; Perlin, Marc

    2004-12-01

    As air is injected into a flowing liquid, the resultant bubble characteristics depend on the properties of the injector, near-wall flow, and flowing liquid. Previous research has shown that near-wall bubbles can significantly reduce skin-friction drag. Air was injected into the turbulent boundary layer on a test section wall of a water tunnel containing various concentrations of salt and surfactant (Triton-X-100, Union Carbide). Photographic records show that the mean bubble diameter decreased monotonically with increasing salt and surfactant concentrations. Here, 33 ppt saltwater bubbles had one quarter, and 20 ppm Triton-X-100 bubbles had one half of the mean diameter of freshwater bubbles.

  19. Effects of bulk flow pulsations on film cooling from different length injection holes at different blowing ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, H.J.; Lee, J.S.; Ligrani, P.M.

    1999-07-01

    Bulk flow pulsations in the form of sinusoidal variations of velocity and static pressure at injectant Strouhal numbers from 0.8 to 10.0 are investigated as they affect film cooling from a single row of simple angle holes. Similar flow variations are produced by potential flow interactions and passing shock waves near turbine surfaces in gas turbine engines. Time-averaged temperature distributions, phase-averaged temperature distributions, adiabatic film cooling effectiveness values, and iso-energetic Stranton numbers show that important alterations to film cooling protection occur as pulsation frequency, coolant Strouhal number, blowing ratio, and nondimensional injection hole length are changed. Overall, the pulsations affect film performance and behavior more significantly both as L/D decreases, and as blowing ratio decreases.

  20. Multicentre evaluation of stable reference whole blood for enumeration of lymphocyte subsets by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Cherry; Belgrave, Danielle; Janossy, George; Bradley, Nicholas J; Stebbings, Richard; Gaines-Das, Rose; Thorpe, Robin; Sawle, Alex; Arroz, Maria Jorge; Brando, Bruno; Gratama, Jan Willem; Orfao de Matos, Alberto; Papa, Stephano; Papamichail, Michael; Lenkei, Rodica; Rothe, Gregor; Barnett, David

    2005-06-22

    BACKGROUND: Clinical indications for lymphocyte subset enumeration by flow cytometry include monitoring of disease progression and timing of therapeutic intervention in infection with human immunodeficiency virus. Until recently international standardisation has not been possible due to a lack of suitable stable reference material. METHODS: This study consisted of two trials of a stabilised whole blood preparation. Eleven participants were sent two standard protocols for staining plus gating strategy and asked to report absolute counts for lymphocyte subsets. RESULTS: No significant difference was detected between the two methods when results from the two assays and all partners were pooled. Significant differences in results from the different partners were observed. However, representative mean counts were obtained for geometric means, geometric coefficient of variation, and 95% confidence interval for CD3 910 cells/mul, 9%, and 888 to 933, respectively), CD4 (495 cells/mul, 12%, and 483 to 507), and CD8 (408 cells/mul, 13%, and 393 to 422). CONCLUSION: We have introduced a stabilised blood preparation and a well-characterized biological standard. The availability of this reference material greatly simplifies the validation of new techniques for CD4(+) T-cell enumeration and the expansion of external quality assurance programmes for clinical laboratories, including those that operate in resource-restricted environments. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:15973699

  1. Investigation of Thrust Augmentation of a 1600-pound Thrust Centrifugal-flow-type Turbojet Engine by Injection of Refrigerants at Compressor Inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William L.; Dowman, Harry W.

    1947-01-01

    Investigations were conducted to determine effectiveness of refrigerants in increasing thrust of turbojet engines. Mixtures of water an alcohol were injected for a range of total flows up to 2.2 lb/sec. Kerosene was injected into inlets covering a range of injected flows up to approximately 30% of normal engine fuel flow. Injection of 2.0 lb/sec of water alone produced an increase in thrust of 35.8% of rate engine conditions and kerosene produced a negligible increase in thrust. Carbon dioxide increased thrust 23.5 percent.

  2. Numerical analysis of the non-equilibrium plasma flow in the gaseous electronics conference reference reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijie, Yang; Ning, Zhou; Quanhua, Sun

    2016-01-01

    The capacitively coupled plasma in the gaseous electronics conference reference reactor is numerically investigated for argon flow using a non-equilibrium plasma fluid model. The finite rate chemistry is adopted for the chemical non-equilibrium among species including neutral metastable, whereas a two-temperature model is employed to resolve the thermal non-equilibrium between electrons and heavy species. The predicted plasma density agrees very well with experimental data for the validation case. A strong thermal non-equilibrium is observed between heavy particles and electrons due to its low collision frequency, where the heavy species remains near ambient temperature for low pressure and low voltage conditions (0.1 Torr, 100 V). The effects of the operating parameters on the ion flux are also investigated, including the electrode voltage, chamber pressure, and gas flow rate. It is found that the ion flux can be increased by either elevating the electrode voltage or lowering the gas pressure. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11372325, 11475239).

  3. Online concentration by field-amplified sample injection in acidic buffer for analysis of fangchinoline and tetrandrine in herbal medicine by flow injection-micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lihong; Chen, Xingguo; Hu, Zhide

    2005-12-01

    A novel, rapid, and continuous online concentration approach based on field-amplified sample injection for the analysis of fangchinoline and tetrandrine was developed in this paper by combination of flow injection-MEKC. The BGE used was a solution composed of 75 mM H3PO4-triethylamine-2.5% v/v polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate-20% v/v methanol buffer (pH* 5.0). The analytes prepared in 50% v/v aqueous ethanol were used as the test analytes. Sample was injected electrokinetically between plugs of water. When the cations reached the boundary between the water plug and BGE, they slowed down and became concentrated. Thereafter, MEKC was initiated for the separation. This results in 6.8-8.9-fold improvement in concentration sensitivity relative to conventional CE methods. The separation could be achieved within 10 min and sample throughput rate can reach up to 50/h. The repeatability (defined as RSD) was 4.8, 4.4% with peak height evaluation and 3.6, 0.94% with peak area evaluation for TET and FAN, respectively. PMID:16259014

  4. Combined uncertainty estimation for the determination of the dissolved iron amount content in seawater using flow injection with chemiluminescence detection

    PubMed Central

    Floor, Geerke H.; Clough, Robert; Lohan, Maeve C.; Ussher, Simon J.; Worsfold, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This work assesses the components contributing to the combined uncertainty budget associated with the measurement of the Fe amount content by flow injection chemiluminescence (FI‐CL) in <0.2 μm filtered and acidified seawater samples. Amounts of loaded standard solutions and samples were determined gravimetrically by differential weighing. Up to 5% variations in the loaded masses were observed during measurements, in contradiction to the usual assumptions made when operating under constant loading time conditions. Hence signal intensities (V) were normalised to the loaded mass and plots of average normalised intensities (in V kg−1) vs. values of the Fe amount content (in nmol kg−1) added to a “low level” iron seawater matrix were used to produce the calibration graphs. The measurement procedure implemented and the uncertainty estimation process developed were validated from the agreement obtained with consensus values for three SAFe and GEOTRACES reference materials (D2, GS, and GD). Relative expanded uncertainties for peak height and peak area based results were estimated to be around 12% and 10% (coverage factor k = 2), respectively. The most important contributory factors were the uncertainty on the sensitivity coefficient (i.e., calibration slope) and the within‐sequence‐stability (i.e., the signal stability over several hours of operation; here 32 h). For GD, using peak height measurements, these factors contributed respectively 69.7% and 21.6% while the short‐term repeatability accounted for only 7.9%. Therefore, an uncertainty estimation based on the intensity repeatability alone, as is often done in FI‐CL studies, is not a realistic estimation of the overall uncertainty of the procedure. PMID:27610049

  5. Evaluation of a direct injection nebulizer interface for flow injection analysis and high performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopic detection

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, K.E.

    1986-01-01

    A direct injection nebulizer (DIN) was designed, developed and evaluated to determine its potential utilization as an effective interface for flow injection analysis (FIA) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopic detection. The analytical figures of merit for the DIN when used as an interface for FIA-ICP-AES were found to be comparable to or better than those obtained with conventional pneumatic nebulization in terms of limits of detection (LODs), reproducibility, linearity, and interelement effects. In the HPLC mode, the LODDs were found to be comparable to those obtained by continuous-flow sample introduction into the ICP, or inferior by up to only a factor of four. Stable plasma operation was maintained for the DIN sample introduction of a variety of pure organic solvents, including acetonitrile, methanol, methyl-isobutylketone, and pyridine. The HPLC-DIN-ICP-AES facility was specifically applied for the speciation of inorganic and organo-metallic species contained in synthetic mixtures, vanilla extracts and a variety of energy-related materials, such as shale oil process water, coal extracts, shale oil, crude oil, and an SRC II. Suggestions for future research are also considered.

  6. Determination of As, Hg and Pb in herbs using slurry sampling flow injection chemical vapor generation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tai, Chia-Yi; Jiang, Shiuh-Jen; Sahayam, A C

    2016-02-01

    Analysis of herbs for As, Hg and Pb has been carried out using slurry sampling inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) with flow injection vapor generation. Slurry containing 0.5% m/v herbal powder, 0.1% m/v citric acid and 2% v/v HCl was injected into the VG-ICP-MS system for the determination of As, Hg and Pb that obviate dissolution and mineralization. Standard addition and isotope dilution methods were used for quantifications in selected herbal powders. This method has been validated by the determination of As, Hg and Pb in NIST standard reference materials SRM 1547 Peach Leaves and SRM 1573a Tomato Leaves. The As, Hg and Pb analysis results of the reference materials agreed with the certified values. The precision obtained by the reported procedure was better than 7% for all determinations. The detection limit estimated from standard addition curve was 0.008, 0.003, and 0.007 ng mL(-1) for As, Hg and Pb, respectively. PMID:26304347

  7. Simultaneous determination of tin, germanium and molybdenum by diode array detection-flow injection analysis with partial least squares calibration model.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiaoli; Li, Yuanqian; Li, Menglong; Zheng, Bo; Yang, Jingguo

    2004-03-10

    Simultaneous determination of tin, germanium and molybdenum in food samples has been established by flow injection-charge coupled detector (CCD) diode array detection spectrophotometry with partial least squares (PLS) algorithm. The method was based on the chromogenic reaction of metal ions and salicylflurone in the presence of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide. The overlapping spectra of these complexes are collected by CCD diode array detector and the multi-wavelength absorbance data are processed using partial least squares algorithm. The reaction conditions and analytical parameters of flow injection analysis have been investigated. The method was applied to directly determine Ge, Mo and Sn in several food samples after digestion with satisfactory results. The recoveries of spiked samples were 80.0-102.0% for tin, 86.3-92.0% for germanium and 83.2-95.2% for molybdenum, and the relative standard deviations for samples were 4.4-7.8%. Molybdenum in certified reference material of cattle liver was determined by the proposed method (n=8). The differential values between determined and guarantee values were within the given uncertain value ranges (t=1.687, P>0.05 for t-test). The samples of mung bean, kelp and pork liver were analyzed by the proposed method and inductively couple plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) method. The determination results of the two methods are in good agreement. The sampling rate is 30 samplesh(-1). PMID:18969354

  8. Establish an automated flow injection ESI-MS method for the screening of fragment based libraries: Application to Hsp90.

    PubMed

    Riccardi Sirtori, Federico; Caronni, Dannica; Colombo, Maristella; Dalvit, Claudio; Paolucci, Mauro; Regazzoni, Luca; Visco, Carlo; Fogliatto, Gianpaolo

    2015-08-30

    ESI-MS is a well established technique for the study of biopolymers (nucleic acids, proteins) and their non covalent adducts, due to its capacity to detect ligand-target complexes in the gas phase and allows inference of ligand-target binding in solution. In this article we used this approach to investigate the interaction of ligands to the Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90). This enzyme is a molecular chaperone involved in the folding and maturation of several proteins which has been subjected in the last years to intensive drug discovery efforts due to its key role in cancer. In particular, reference compounds, with a broad range of dissociation constants from 40pM to 100μM, were tested to assess the reliability of ESI-MS for the study of protein-ligand complexes. A good agreement was found between the values measured with a fluorescence polarization displacement assay and those determined by mass spectrometry. After this validation step we describe the setup of a medium throughput screening method, based on ESI-MS, suitable to explore interactions of therapeutic relevance biopolymers with chemical libraries. Our approach is based on an automated flow injection ESI-MS method (AFI-MS) and has been applied to screen the Nerviano Medical Sciences proprietary fragment library of about 2000 fragments against Hsp90. In order to discard false positive hits and to discriminate those of them interacting with the N-terminal ATP binding site, competition experiments were performed using a reference inhibitor. Gratifyingly, this group of hits matches with the ligands previously identified by NMR FAXS techniques and confirmed by X-ray co-crystallization experiments. These results support the use of AFI-MS for the screening of medium size libraries, including libraries of small molecules with low affinity typically used in fragment based drug discovery. AFI-MS is a valid alternative to other techniques with the additional opportunities to identify compounds interacting with

  9. The comparison of flow injection analysis and quartz chemical sensors for the determination of hydrazine

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.J.

    1992-01-01

    Due to the wide variety of its uses, hydrazine is present in many different work environments. Hydrazine is a suspect human carcinogen and poses a potential health risk if a person is exposed to hydrazine. The levels of hydrazine in the work environment must be monitored to avert potential health risks. Two different methods are investigated as possible monitors for hydrazine in a work environment. The primary goal of this research is to compare a flow injection analysis (FIA) method and a quartz chemical sensor for the determination of hydrazine vapor at sub ppm levels. The first study involves a comparison of FIA methods for direct hydrazine determination in the liquid phase. This study demonstrates the optimum conditions for the types of chemistry being investigated. This information is carried forward to a second study involving a comparison of gas diffusion FIA methods for hydrazine analysis. A third study develops and defines important principles in reverse dual phase gas diffusion FIA. A method for determining carbon dioxide is used to demonstrate these principles. A fourth study applies the information about the chemistry of hydrazine from the second study to the reverse dual phase gas diffusion FIA system developed for carbon dioxide. A fifth study demonstrates the applicability of quartz chemical sensors for hydrazine analysis. This study involves both surface acoustic wave devices (SAWs) and quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs). A summary follows these different studies which compares the success of each method. The criteria of evaluation are reviewed. New developments resulting from this research are presented. A final addendum includes work done on the automation of a method for free chlorine determination.

  10. Use of flow injection mass spectrometric fingerprinting and chemometrics for differentiation of three black cohosh species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Huilian; Sun, Jianghao; McCoy, Joe-Ann; Zhong, Haiyan; Fletcher, Edward J.; Harnly, James; Chen, Pei

    2015-03-01

    Flow injection mass spectrometry (FIMS) was used to provide chemical fingerprints of black cohosh (Actaea racemosa L.) in a manner of minutes by omitting the separation step. This method has proven to be a powerful tool for botanical authentication and in this study it was used to distinguish between three Actaea species prior to a more detailed chemical analysis using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS). Black cohosh has become increasingly popular as a dietary supplement in the United States for the treatment of symptoms related to menopause. However, it has been known to be adulterated with the Asian Actaea dahurica (Turcz. ex Fisch. & C.A.Mey.) Franch. species (syn. Cimicifuga dahurica (Turcz.) Maxim). Existing methods for identification of black cohosh and differentiation of Actaea species are usually lengthy, laborious, and lack robustness, often based on the comparison of a few pre-selected components. Chemical fingerprints were obtained for 77 black cohosh samples and their related species using FIMS in the negative ion mode. The analysis time for each sample was less than 2 min. All data were processed using principal component analysis (PCA). FIMS fingerprints could readily differentiate all three species. Representative samples from each of the three species were further examined using UHPLC-MS to provide detailed profiles of the chemical differences between the three species and were compared to the PCA loadings. This study demonstrates a simple, fast, and easy analytical method that can be used to differentiate A. racemosa, Actaea podocarpa, and A. dahurica.

  11. Toward complete miniaturisation of flow injection analysis systems: microfluidic enhancement of chemiluminescent detection.

    PubMed

    Gracioso Martins, Ana M; Glass, Nick R; Harrison, Sally; Rezk, Amgad R; Porter, Nichola A; Carpenter, Peter D; Du Plessis, Johan; Friend, James R; Yeo, Leslie Y

    2014-11-01

    Conventional flow injection systems for aquatic environmental analysis typically comprise large laboratory benchscale equipment, which place considerable constraints for portable field use. Here, we demonstrate the use of an integrated acoustically driven microfluidic mixing scheme to enhance detection of a chemiluminescent species tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)dichlororuthenium(II) hexahydrate-a common chemiluminescent reagent widely used for the analysis of a wide range of compounds such as illicit drugs, pharmaceuticals, and pesticides-such that rapid in-line quantification can be carried out with sufficient on-chip sensitivity. Specifically, we employ surface acoustic waves (SAWs) to drive intense chaotic streaming within a 100 μL chamber cast in polydimethoxylsiloxane (PDMS) atop a microfluidic chip consisting of a single crystal piezoelectric material. By optimizing the power, duration, and orientation of the SAW input, we show that the mixing intensity of the sample and reagent fed into the chamber can be increased by one to two orders of magnitude, leading to a similar enhancement in the detection sensitivity of the chemiluminescent species and thus achieving a theoretical limit of detection of 0.02 ppb (0.2 nM) of l-proline-a decade improvement over the industry gold-standard and two orders of magnitude more sensitive than that achievable with conventional systems-simply using a portable photodetector and without requiring sample preconcentration. This on-chip microfluidic mixing strategy, together with the integrated miniature photodetector and the possibility for chip-scale microfluidic actuation, then alludes to the attractive possibility of a completely miniaturized platform for portable field-use microanalytical systems. PMID:25275830

  12. Flow-injection chemiluminescence analysis for sensitive determination of atenolol using cadmium sulfide quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Khataee, Alireza; Lotfi, Roya; Hasanzadeh, Aliyeh; Iranifam, Mortaza; Joo, Sang Woo

    2016-03-15

    A sensitive, rapid and simple flow-injection chemiluminescence (CL) system based on the light emitted from KMnO4-cadmium sulfide quantum dots (CdS QDs) reaction in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in acidic medium was developed as a CL probe for the sensitive determination of atenolol. Optical and structural features of CdS QDs capped with l-cysteine, which synthesized via hydrothermal approach, were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescence (PL), and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The CL intensity of KMnO4-CdS QDs-CTAB was remarkably enhanced in the presence of trace level of atenolol. Under optimum experimental conditions, there is a linear relationship between the increase in CL intensity of KMnO4-CdS QDs-CTAB system and atenolol concentration in a range of 0.001 to 4.0 mg L(-1) and 4.0 to 18.0 mg L(-1), with a detection limit (3σ) of 0.0010 mg L(-1). A possible mechanism for KMnO4-CdS QDs-CTAB-atenolol CL reaction is proposed. To prove the practical application of the KMnO4-CdS QDs-CTAB CL method, the method was applied for the determination of atenolol in spiked environmental water samples and commercial pharmaceutical formulation. Furthermore, corona discharge ionization ion mobility spectrometry (CD-IMS) technique was utilized for determination of atenolol. PMID:26724494

  13. Flow injection assessment of nitrate contents in fresh and cooked fruits and vegetables grown in Fiji.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Surendra; Chetty, Adrian A

    2011-10-01

    Nitrates form part of the essential chemistry of soils and plants. Thus, plant roots are able to absorb nitrate directly from the soil. It has been discovered that human nitrate intake is mainly from vegetables. Vegetables play an important role in human nutrition since they are an outstanding source for vitamins, minerals, and biologically active compounds. In risk assessment of nitrate contents, this study reports the nitrate levels of 8 commonly consumed fruits and vegetables grown in Fiji, tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), eggplant (Solanum melongena), capsicum (Capsicum annuum var. grossum), breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis), long bean (Vigna sesquipedalis), jackfruit (A. heterophyllus), pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo), and cucumber (Cucumis sativus). The effects of different types of cooking methods, baking, boiling, and frying, have also been studied. The validated flow injection analysis technique has been used to quantify the nitrate-N levels in the chosen products following nitrate extraction using the activated carbon technique. The mean values of nitrate levels in fresh products ranged from 25.83 to 281.02 mg NO(3) (-) kg(-1) . The study shows that boiling reduced nitrate contents by 65.37% to 25.25%. The frying in soy bean oil elevated nitrate contents from 354.79% to 86.69%, but after baking, nitrate contents remained almost constant with slight increasing trend in the case of tomato (19.97%). The nitrate levels published in the literature for the same types of fruits and vegetables studied have also been reviewed and compared. The average nitrate-N values were comparable or lower than overseas data, but did not present unpredictably high values, that is, they were below the risk level. PMID:22417577

  14. Modeling of Transient Flow Mixing of Streams Injected into a Mixing Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voytovych, Dmytro M.; Merkle, Charles L.; Lucht, Robert P.; Hulka, James R.; Jones, Gregg W.

    2006-01-01

    Ignition is recognized as one the critical drivers in the reliability of multiple-start rocket engines. Residual combustion products from previous engine operation can condense on valves and related structures thereby creating difficulties for subsequent starting procedures. Alternative ignition methods that require fewer valves can mitigate the valve reliability problem, but require improved understanding of the spatial and temporal propellant distribution in the pre-ignition chamber. Current design tools based mainly on one-dimensional analysis and empirical models cannot predict local details of the injection and ignition processes. The goal of this work is to evaluate the capability of the modern computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools in predicting the transient flow mixing in pre-ignition environment by comparing the results with the experimental data. This study is a part of a program to improve analytical methods and methodologies to analyze reliability and durability of combustion devices. In the present paper we describe a series of detailed computational simulations of the unsteady mixing events as the cold propellants are first introduced into the chamber as a first step in providing this necessary environmental description. The present computational modeling represents a complement to parallel experimental simulations' and includes comparisons with experimental results from that effort. A large number of rocket engine ignition studies has been previously reported. Here we limit our discussion to the work discussed in Refs. 2, 3 and 4 which is both similar to and different from the present approach. The similarities arise from the fact that both efforts involve detailed experimental/computational simulations of the ignition problem. The differences arise from the underlying philosophy of the two endeavors. The approach in Refs. 2 to 4 is a classical ignition study in which the focus is on the response of a propellant mixture to an ignition source, with

  15. Estimating maximum sustainable injection pressure duringgeological sequestration of CO2 using coupled fluid flow andgeomechanical fault-slip analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, J.; Birkholzer, J.; Cappa, F.; Tsang, C.-F.

    2006-10-17

    This paper demonstrates the use of coupled fluid flow andgeomechanical fault slip (fault reactivation) analysis to estimate themaximum sustainable injection pressure during geological sequestration ofCO2. Two numerical modeling approaches for analyzing faultslip areapplied, one using continuum stress-strain analysis and the other usingdiscrete fault analysis. The results of these two approaches to numericalfault-slip analyses are compared to the results of a more conventionalanalytical fault-slip analysis that assumes simplified reservoirgeometry. It is shown that the simplified analytical fault-slip analysismay lead to either overestimation or underestimation of the maximumsustainable injection pressure because it cannot resolve importantgeometrical factors associated with the injection induced spatialevolution of fluid pressure and stress. We conclude that a fully couplednumerical analysis can more accurately account for the spatial evolutionof both insitu stresses and fluid pressure, and therefore results in amore accurate estimation of the maximum sustainable CO2 injectionpressure.

  16. MHD modelling of coronal loops: injection of high-speed chromospheric flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petralia, A.; Reale, F.; Orlando, S.; Klimchuk, J. A.

    2014-07-01

    Context. Observations reveal a correspondence between chromospheric type II spicules and bright upward-moving fronts in the corona observed in the extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) band. However, theoretical considerations suggest that these flows are probably not the main source of heating in coronal magnetic loops. Aims: We investigate the propagation of high-speed chromospheric flows into coronal magnetic flux tubes and the possible production of emission in the EUV band. Methods: We simulated the propagation of a dense 104 K chromospheric jet upward along a coronal loop by means of a 2D cylindrical MHD model that includes gravity, radiative losses, thermal conduction, and magnetic induction. The jet propagates in a complete atmosphere including the chromosphere and a tenuous cool (~0.8 MK) corona, linked through a steep transition region. In our reference model, the jet initial speed is 70 km s-1, its initial density is 1011 cm-3, and the ambient uniform magnetic field is 10 G. We also explored other values of jet speed and density in 1D and different magnetic field values in 2D, as well as the jet propagation in a hotter (~1.5 MK) background loop. Results: While the initial speed of the jet does not allow it to reach the loop apex, a hot shock-front develops ahead of it and travels to the other extreme of the loop. The shock front compresses the coronal plasma and heats it to about 106 K. As a result, a bright moving front becomes visible in the 171 Å channel of the SDO/AIA mission. This result generally applies to all the other explored cases, except for the propagation in the hotter loop. Conclusions: For a cool, low-density initial coronal loop, the post-shock plasma ahead of upward chromospheric flows might explain at least part of the observed correspondence between type II spicules and EUV emission excess. Movies associated to Figs. 3, 6, 7 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  17. Numerical Simulations of Two-Phase Reacting Flow in a Single-Element Lean Direct Injection (LDI) Combustor Using NCC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Nan-Suey; Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Wey, C. Thomas

    2011-01-01

    A series of numerical simulations of Jet-A spray reacting flow in a single-element lean direct injection (LDI) combustor have been conducted by using the National Combustion Code (NCC). The simulations have been carried out using the time filtered Navier-Stokes (TFNS) approach ranging from the steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS), unsteady RANS (URANS), to the dynamic flow structure simulation (DFS). The sub-grid model employed for turbulent mixing and combustion includes the well-mixed model, the linear eddy mixing (LEM) model, and the filtered mass density function (FDF/PDF) model. The starting condition of the injected liquid spray is specified via empirical droplet size correlation, and a five-species single-step global reduced mechanism is employed for fuel chemistry. All the calculations use the same grid whose resolution is of the RANS type. Comparisons of results from various models are presented.

  18. A simple and rapid flow injection chemiluminescence determination of cysteine with Ru(phen) 32+-Ce(IV) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, B.; Mokhtari, A.

    2007-02-01

    A new chemiluminescence system was developed for the determination of cysteine by flow injection system. This method is based on the reaction of L-cysteine with Ru(phen) 32+ and Ce(IV) to produce chemiluminescence. The calibration curve was linear over the range 8.0 × 10 -7 to 4.0 × 10 -5 and 4.0 × 10 -5 to 1.0 × 10 -3 M with a detection limit of 7.0 × 10 -7 M (S/N = 3). The relative standard deviation of 4.0 × 10 -6 M cysteine was found 3.5% ( n = 10). The influence of potential interfering substances was studied. The proposed method was successfully applied for the flow injection determination of cysteine in the real samples with minimum sampling rate of 90 sample/h.

  19. Determination of total iron in food samples after flow injection preconcentration on polyurethane foam functionalized with N,N-bis(salicylidene)-1,3-propanediamine.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Azeem, S M; Bader, N R; Kuss, H M; El-Shahat, M F

    2013-06-01

    A highly selective flow injection sorption system was developed for the fast determination of total iron in food samples. Iron (III) was reduced to iron (II) by ascorbic acid and preconcentrated on a mini-column packed with polyurethane foam (PUF) functionalized with N,N-bis(salicylidene)-1,3-propanediamine (SPDA). The retained Fe (II) was eluted with hydrochloric acid and subsequently reacted to 2,4,6-tri(2'-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine (TPTZ) then measured at 593 nm. The procedure has resulted preconcentration factor 36, sample frequency 20 h(-1) and detection limit 18 μg L(-1). The precision (RSD) was found to be 5.7% and 3.1% at concentration levels 0.1 and 5.0 μg mL(-1) iron (II), respectively. Finally, the method was successfully applied to determination of total iron in reference material and food samples. PMID:23411293

  20. Visualization Analysis of Melt-Flow Behavior inside Sprue-Shaped Cavity in Ultra-High-Speed Injection Molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Shigeru; Yokoi, Hidetoshi

    In this study, the melt-flow behavior inside the sprue during the ultra-high-speed filling process of PP and GF-LCP was clarified using a modified glass-inserted mold. In particular, with the GF-LCP, melt-flow behavior within 3 ms was observed clearly and models of residual gas trapped in the resin were proposed in detail. The following results were obtained. 1) With the PP, the melt-flow behavior did not change at any injection rate in the range of 24.1 cm3/s to 804 cm3/s. 2) With the GF-LCP, jetting was generated at all injection rates and the jetted resin folded while filling by resin newly flowing in from the nozzle when the injection rate was less than 241 cm3/s. 3) When the injection rate was higher than 482 cm3/s with the GF-LCP, the jetted resin reached the sprue-end while maintaining a wave-form pattern and then filled back to the nozzle side while increasing the contact area with the cavity and glass surface from the sprue-end, without folding phenomenon. 4) At this time, V-notch shape resins were found to generate and disappear intermittently between the jetted resin and resin filling into its periphery. Based on these results, the mechanism of residual gas in the V-notch area trapping resins in was proposed in detail. 5) With the GF-LCP, resin pressure at the nozzle was reduced due to the jetting phenomenon, and temperature of the jetting resin gradually increased.

  1. Numerical simulation of a turbulent flow with droplets injection in annular heated air tube using the Reynolds stress model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merouane, H.; Bounif, A.; Abidat, M.

    2013-12-01

    This work presents computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of single-phase and two-phase flow. The droplets are injected in annular heated air tube. The numerical simulation is performed by using a commercial CFD code witch uses the finite-volume method to discretize the equations of fluid flow. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with Reynolds stress model were used in the computation. The governing equations are solved by using a SIMPLE algorithm to treat the pressure terms in the momentum equations. The results of prediction are compared with the experimental data.

  2. Turbulent Boundary Layer on a Finely Perforated Surface Under Conditions of Air Injection at the Expense of External Flow Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornilov, V. I.; Boiko, A. V.; Kavun, I. N.

    2015-11-01

    The characteristics of an incompressible turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate with air blown in though a finely perforated surface from an external confined flow through an input device, located on the "idle" side of the plate, have been investigated experimentally and numerically. A stable decrease in the local values of the coefficient of surface friction along the plate length that attains 85% at the end of the perforated portion is shown. The experimental and calculated data obtained point to the possibility of modeling, under earth conditions, the process of controlling a turbulent boundary layer with air injection by using the resources of an external confined flow.

  3. Simultaneous determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in tannery wastewater using low pressure ion chromatography combined with flow injection spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shujuan; Zhang, Xinshen; Yu, Lingyun; Wang, Li; Li, Hui

    2012-03-01

    Trivalent and hexavalent chromium have been successfully separated and determined using low pressure ion chromatography combined with flow injection spectrophotometric analysis (LPIC-FIA). A column packed with crosslinking starch microspheres was used for on-line separation of Cr(III) from Cr(VI) in a flow-injection system because of its absorptive effect on Cr(III). To determine the concentration of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in samples, we used 3.0 mmol/L nitric acid to elute adsorbed Cr(III) from the column and then used ceric sulfate-sulfuric acid as oxidant to convert all Cr(III) into Cr(VI). Then, Cr(VI) directly came from the samples and Cr(VI) came from Cr(III) successively formed a amaranthine complex with diphenycarbazide and the complex shows a maximum absorption at 530 nm. Analytical parameters including the concentration of eluent and oxidant solution, oxidizing temperature, length of oxidizing reaction coil, reaction coil and injection coil, interfering effects, etc., were optimized. The limit of detection was 1.25 μg/L for Cr(VI) and 3.76 μg/L for Cr(III). The linear relationship between absorption with the concentration of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) was 0.001-1.000 mg/L and 0.030-1.000 mg/L with correlation coefficients of 0.9995 and 0.9994, respectively. The relative standard deviation of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) was 1.21% and 1.66%, respectively (n = 10). Major cations and anions did not show any interference. We validated this method through certified reference materials and through measuring the recovery in tannery wastewater.

  4. Simultaneous determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in tannery wastewater using low pressure ion chromatography combined with flow injection spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shujuan; Zhang, Xinshen; Yu, Lingyun; Wang, Li; Li, Hui

    2012-03-01

    Trivalent and hexavalent chromium have been successfully separated and determined using low pressure ion chromatography combined with flow injection spectrophotometric analysis (LPIC-FIA). A column packed with crosslinking starch microspheres was used for on-line separation of Cr(III) from Cr(VI) in a flow-injection system because of its absorptive effect on Cr(III). To determine the concentration of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in samples, we used 3.0 mmol/L nitric acid to elute adsorbed Cr(III) from the column and then used ceric sulfate-sulfuric acid as oxidant to convert all Cr(III) into Cr(VI). Then, Cr(VI) directly came from the samples and Cr(VI) came from Cr(III) successively formed a amaranthine complex with diphenycarbazide and the complex shows a maximum absorption at 530 nm. Analytical parameters including the concentration of eluent and oxidant solution, oxidizing temperature, length of oxidizing reaction coil, reaction coil and injection coil, interfering effects, etc., were optimized. The limit of detection was 1.25 μg/L for Cr(VI) and 3.76 μg/L for Cr(III). The linear relationship between absorption with the concentration of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) was 0.001-1.000 mg/L and 0.030-1.000 mg/L with correlation coefficients of 0.9995 and 0.9994, respectively. The relative standard deviation of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) was 1.21% and 1.66%, respectively (n=10). Major cations and anions did not show any interference. We validated this method through certified reference materials and through measuring the recovery in tannery wastewater. PMID:22209249

  5. Amperometric determination of bonded glucose with an MnO(2) and glucose oxidase bulk-modified screen-printed electrode using flow-injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Turkusic, Emir; Kalcher, Josef; Kahrovic, Emira; Beyene, Negussie W; Moderegger, Helmut; Sofic, Emin; Begic, Sabina; Kalcher, Kurt

    2005-01-30

    A screen-printed amperometric biosensor based on carbon ink double bulk-modified with MnO(2) as a mediator and glucose oxidase as a biocomponent was investigated for its ability to serve as a detector for bonded glucose in different compounds, such as cellobiose, saccharose, (-)-4-nitrophenyl-beta-d-glucopyranoside, as well as in beer samples by flow-injection analysis (FIA). The biosensor could be operated under physiological conditions (0.1M phosphate buffer, pH 7.5) and exhibited good reproducibility and stability. Bonded glucose was released with glucosidase in solution, and the free glucose was detected with the modified screen-printed electrode (SPE). The release of glucose by the aid of glucosidase from cellobiose, saccharose and (-)-4-nitrophenyl-beta-d-glucopyranoside in solution showed that stoichiometric quantities of free glucose could be monitored in all three cases. The linear range of the amperometric response of the biosensor in the FIA-mode flow rate 0.2mLmin(-1), injection volume 0.25mL, operation potential 0.48V versus Ag/AgCl) extends from 11 to 13,900mumolL(-1) glucose in free form. The limit of detection (3sigma) is 1mumolL(-1) glucose. A concentration of 100mumolL(-1) yields a relative standard deviation of approximately 7% with five injections. These values correspond to the same concentrations of bonded glucose supposed that it is liberated quantitatively (incubation for 2h with glucosidase). Bonded glucose could be determined in beer samples using the same assay. The results corresponded very well with the reference procedure. PMID:18969835

  6. Comparison of Flow Injection MS, NMR, and DNA Sequencing: Methods for Identification and Authentication of Black Cohosh (Actaea racemosa)

    PubMed Central

    Harnly, James; Chen, Pei; Sun, Jianghao; Huang, Huilian; Colson, Kimberly L.; Yuk, Jimmy; McCoy, Joe-Ann H.; Harbaugh Reynaud, Danica T.; Harrington, Peter B.; Fletcher, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    Flow injection mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, two metabolic fingerprinting methods, and DNA sequencing were used to identify and authenticate Actaea species. Initially, samples of Actaea racemosa from a single source were distinguished from other Actaea species based on principal component analysis and soft independent modeling of class analogies of flow injection mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry metabolic fingerprints. The chemometric results for flow injection mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry agreed well and showed similar agreement throughout the study. DNA sequencing using DNA sequence data from two independent gene regions confirmed the metabolic fingerprinting results. Differences were observed between A. racemosa samples from four different sources, although the variance within species was still significantly less than the variance between species. A model based on the combined A. racemosa samples from the four sources consistently permitted distinction between species. Additionally, the combined A. racemosa samples were distinguishable from commercial root samples and from commercial supplements in tablet, capsule, or liquid form. DNA sequencing verified the lack of authenticity of the commercial roots but was unsuccessful in characterizing many of the supplements due to the lack of available DNA. PMID:26692457

  7. Comparison of Flow Injection MS, NMR, and DNA Sequencing: Methods for Identification and Authentication of Black Cohosh (Actaea racemosa).

    PubMed

    Harnly, James; Chen, Pei; Sun, Jianghao; Huang, Huilian; Colson, Kimberly L; Yuk, Jimmy; McCoy, Joe-Ann H; Reynaud, Danica T Harbaugh; Harrington, Peter B; Fletcher, Edward J

    2016-02-01

    Flow injection mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, two metabolic fingerprinting methods, and DNA sequencing were used to identify and authenticate Actaea species. Initially, samples of Actaea racemosa from a single source were distinguished from other Actaea species based on principal component analysis and soft independent modeling of class analogies of flow injection mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry metabolic fingerprints. The chemometric results for flow injection mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry agreed well and showed similar agreement throughout the study. DNA sequencing using DNA sequence data from two independent gene regions confirmed the metabolic fingerprinting results. Differences were observed between A. racemosa samples from four different sources, although the variance within species was still significantly less than the variance between species. A model based on the combined A. racemosa samples from the four sources consistently permitted distinction between species. Additionally, the combined A. racemosa samples were distinguishable from commercial root samples and from commercial supplements in tablet, capsule, or liquid form. DNA sequencing verified the lack of authenticity of the commercial roots but was unsuccessful in characterizing many of the supplements due to the lack of available DNA. PMID:26692457

  8. Structure of backward facing step flow in low Reynolds number controlled by synthetic jet array with different injection velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Saneyuki

    2013-11-01

    This study presents detailed structure of separated flow downstream of a backward facing step affected by a non-uniform periodic disturbance along spanwise direction induced by synthetic jet array. The Reynolds number based on the step height ranged from 300 to 900. The frequency of the synthetic jet actuation was selected within the acceptance frequency range of separating shear layer. The periodic disturbance generates periodic transverse vortices whose size and shape change corresponding to the strength of the disturbance. The effect of different injection velocities in the synthetic jet array from those of adjacent jets on the transverse vortex structure and resulting reattachment process is discussed based on the wall shear stress measured by the Micro Flow Sensor (MFS) and flow visualization. Near wall behavior of the transverse vortex above the MFS was related to the sensor output. The results show that non-uniform injection velocity manipulated in the jet array induces difference in the distorted vortex structure and reattachment process in spanwise direction, which strongly depend on the Reynolds number and injection velocities of the synthetic jets.

  9. Rapid and Automated Analytical Methods for Redox Species Based on Potentiometric Flow Injection Analysis Using Potential Buffers

    PubMed Central

    Ohura, Hiroki; Imato, Toshihiko

    2011-01-01

    Two analytical methods, which prove the utility of a potentiometric flow injection technique for determining various redox species, based on the use of some redox potential buffers, are reviewed. The first is a potentiometric flow injection method in which a redox couple such as Fe(III)-Fe(II), Fe(CN)6 3−-Fe(CN)(CN)6 4−, and bromide-bromine and a redox electrode or a combined platinum-bromide ion selective electrode are used. The analytical principle and advantages of the method are discussed, and several examples of its application are reported. Another example is a highly sensitive potentiometric flow injection method, in which a large transient potential change due to bromine or chlorine as an intermediate, generated during the reaction of the oxidative species with an Fe(III)-Fe(II) potential buffer containing bromide or chloride, is utilized. The analytical principle and details of the proposed method are described, and examples of several applications are described. The determination of trace amounts of hydrazine, based on the detection of a transient change in potential caused by the reaction with a Ce(IV)-Ce(III) potential buffer, is also described. PMID:21584280

  10. Evaluation of a direct injection nebulizer interface for flow injection analysis and high performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopic detection

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, K.E.

    1986-06-01

    A direct injection nebulizer (DIN) was designed, developed, and evaluated to determine its potential utilization as an effective interface for flow injection analysis (FIA) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopic detection. The analytical figures of merit for the DIN when used as an interface for FIA-ICP-AES were found to be comparable to or better than those obtained with conventional pneumatic nebulization in terms of limits of detection (LODs), reproducibility, linearity, and interelement effects. Stable plasma operation was maintained for the DIN sample introduction of a variety of pure organic solvents, including acetonitrile, methanol, methylisobutylketone, and pyridine. The HPLC-DIN-ICP-AES facility was specifically applied for the speciation of inorganic and organometallic species contained in synthetic mixtures, vanilla extracts, and a variety of energy-related materials, such as shale oil process water, coal extracts, shale oil, crude oil, and an SRC II. Suggestions for future research are also considered. 227 refs., 44 figs., 15 tabs.

  11. Slurry sampling flow injection chemical vapor generation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the determination of As, Cd, and Hg in cereals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng-Yi; Jiang, Shiuh-Jen

    2009-08-12

    A slurry sampling inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method has been developed for the determination of As, Cd, and Hg in cereals using flow injection chemical vapor generation (VG) as the sample introduction system. A slurry containing 6% m/v flour, 0.7% m/v thiourea, 0.4 microg mL(-1) Co(II), and 2.5% v/v HCl was injected into a VG-ICP-MS system for the determination of As, Cd, and Hg without dissolution and mineralization. Because the sensitivities of the elements studied in the slurry and that of aqueous solution were quite different, a standard addition method and an isotope dilution method were used for the determination of As, Cd, and Hg in selected cereal samples. The influences of vapor generation conditions and slurry preparation on the ion signals were reported. The effectiveness of the vapor generation sample introduction technique in alleviating various spectral interferences in ICP-MS analysis has been demonstrated. This method has been applied for the determination of As, Cd, and Hg in NIST SRM 1567a Wheat Flour reference material, NIST SRM 1568a Rice Flour reference material, and cereal samples obtained from local market. The As, Cd, and Hg analysis results of the reference materials agreed with the certified values. The method detection limits estimated from standard addition curves were about 0.10, 0.16, and 0.07 ng g(-1) for As, Cd, and Hg, respectively, in the original cereal samples. PMID:19606866

  12. On-line matrix removal of lead for the determination of trace elements in forensic bullet samples by flow injection inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yourd, Emily R.; Tyson, Julian F.; Koons, Robert D.

    2001-09-01

    The determination of trace elements in lead by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source mass spectrometry (MS) is not possible without the removal of a substantial proportion of the lead matrix. This was achieved by the retention of lead from a 130-μl sample solution (100 mg l -1 lead in 2% v/v nitric acid) injected into a single-line (3% v/v nitric acid) flow injection manifold, on 100 mg of Pb-Spec® packed into a cylindrical column (6 cm×4 mm internal diameter). The analytes, Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Cu, Sb and Sn, passed through the column and were quantified against matrix-matched standards. Only Ag showed significant retention, but could still be measured in an 8-min run. The column was rinsed by flushing with 0.1 M ammonium citrate solution. Lead was monitored by flame atomic absorption spectrometry in preliminary experiments concerning column capacity and breakthrough. Although the capacity of the material in the dynamic, flow-through mode was less than the literature value based on equilibrium studies, the lead from up to 13 successive injections was sufficiently retained to allow accurate determination of the analytes without intermediate rinsing of the column. The precision [percentage relative standard deviation (%R.S.D.), n=5] of the procedure ranged from 1.7% (100 ng ml -1 copper) to 2.8% (5 ng ml -1 cadmium), and detection limits were in the range 0.2-10 ng ml -1. The accuracy of the procedure was assessed by the analysis of three National Institute of Standards and Technology standard reference materials (SRM 2416 bullet lead, SRM 2415 battery lead, and SRM 2417 lead base alloy). For each SRM, duplicate determinations of seven analytes were made. Of the 42 determinations, 36 fell within the confidence interval around the accepted value. Three real bullets were analyzed for seven elements by both the flow injection solid-phase extraction ICP-MS method and by aspiration of the bullet solutions (10 000 mg l -1 lead) directly into an ICP emission spectrometer

  13. Visualization of microvascular blood flow in mouse kidney and spleen by quantum dot injection with "in vivo cryotechnique".

    PubMed

    Terada, Nobuo; Saitoh, Yurika; Saitoh, Sei; Ohno, Nobuhiko; Jin, Takashi; Ohno, Shinichi

    2010-12-01

    The "in vivo cryotechnique" (IVCT) is a powerful tool to instantly capture blood flow, and all plasma components are well kept in tissue samples. In this study, we injected glutathione (GSH)-coated quantum dots (QDs), which emit a 650-nm-fluorescent signal with an ultraviolet excitation, into anesthetized mouse left ventricles, and IVCT was performed for kidneys, spleens and livers at 2, 5, 10, 15, 30s or 24h after the QD injection. The frozen tissues were processed to freeze-substitution fixation (FS). Then, some specimens were embedded in paraffin wax for tissue sectioning, and some were cut with a razor blade and directly mounted on glass slides. They were observed in fluorescence or confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). In the renal cortex, QD distribution was detected mostly in glomerular blood capillaries at 2second, and extended to peritubular blood capillaries at 5s. Distribution of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in renal cortex at 30s after the injection was compared by the simultaneous injection with QDs. HRP was detected by a diaminobenzidin reaction in interstitium in addition to blood vessels, whereas QDs were localized only inside blood vessels. Three-dimensional reconstruction with CLSM demonstrated the capillary networks in the whole renal glomerulus. In the spleens, QDs were detected in splenic cords entering from sheathed capillaries at 10s, and extended to deeper splenic cords and also into splenic sinuses at 15s. Thus, strict time-dependent visualization of blood flow in tissue sections became possible within seconds by the new technical combination of IVCT and injection of QDs into animal organs. PMID:20858507

  14. Analytical model for steady flow through a finite channel with one porous wall with arbitrary variable suction or injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartwig, Jason; Darr, Samuel

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents an exact solution of two-dimensional laminar flow through a finite length channel with one porous wall. It improves upon previous solutions by (1) satisfying the no-slip boundary condition at the channel dead end, (2) adding a turbulent term to the porous wall boundary condition, (3) allowing for arbitrary variable suction or injection across the porous wall, and (4) model validation against new cryogenic liquid hydrogen and oxygen experimental data. Of particular interest in the current work is the modeling of cryogenic propellant flow through a porous liquid acquisition device (LAD) screen and channel inside a propellant tank. First, a detailed review of the literature is presented for previously attempted solutions to channel flow with one porous wall. Next, the governing equations, boundary conditions, and model assumptions are used to derive the analytical flow solution and present general model results for pressure and velocity fields within the channel. Then, the model solution is compared with horizontal LAD channel flow data in liquid oxygen as well as vertical LAD channel flow data in an inverted outflow configuration in liquid hydrogen. Model results are used to update the static cryogenic bubble point pressure model with a dynamic bubble point term which factors in enhanced convection and cooling at the screen during propellant outflow. Convective heat transfer at the LAD screen during outflow is also quantified by comparing model and data. The new analytical flow solution with the dynamic bubble point model is shown to compare well with available cryogenic experimental data.

  15. Modification of far-SOL flow by substantial gas injection in the inboard poloidal field null configuration on QUEST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onchi, T.; Zushi, H.; Oyama, Y.; Mishra, K.; Nagashima, Y.; Hanada, K.; Idei, H.; Hasegawa, M.; Kuzmin, A.; Nakamura, K.; Fujisawa, A.; Nagaoka, K.; Quest Team

    2015-11-01

    Spontaneous plasma flow is generated in the inboard poloidal field null (IPN) configuration on QUEST spherical tokamak. Previous research has found that there is a significant relationship between plasma current and far-SOL flow. Consequently, the SOL flow is influenced by global modification of IPN plasma. For further understanding of the far-SOL flow, a hybrid probe measuring plasma flow, electron density ne, and temperature Te, was installed in the far-SOL. Using the hybrid probe and divertor probe array, two-point observation on an open flux surface was performed to study the SOL-divertor relationship and the particle transport. Substantial gas injection (GI) from private region of the IPN configuration leads to high core density but Ip-drop by 50 %. ne and Te in the far-SOL and divertor region are modified appreciably due to the GI. Poloidal flow reversal occurs and toroidal velocity drops by about 50 % in the far-SOL. We investigate modifications of pressure gradient, electric field and particle transport, and study complex structure of the far-SOL flow. This work is supported by Grants-in-aid for Scientific Research (S24226020, 15K17800) and the Collaborative Research Program of Research Institute for Applied Mechanics.

  16. A submersible battery-powered flow injection (FI) sensor for the determination of nitrate in estuarine and coastal waters.

    PubMed

    David, A R; McCormack, T; Worsfold, P J

    1999-01-01

    The design, construction and performance of a remotely deployed submersible flow injection-based nutrient (total oxidized nitrogen) sensor are described. The sensor featured a custom-built microcomputer and a solid-state, flow-through spectrophotometric detector, and the derivatization chemistry was based on in-line copper-cadmium reduction of nitrate to nitrite, and diazotization with N1NED and sulphanilamide. The limit of detection was 0.0014 mg l(-1) NO3-N and the linear range was 0.0014- 0.77 mg l(-1) with a 260 microl sample volume and a 20 mm path length flow cell. Results from submersed deployments in the Tamar estuary and North Sea are also reported. PMID:18924837

  17. Determination of free and total sulfites in wine using an automatic flow injection analysis system with voltammetric detection.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Luis Moreira; Grosso Pacheco, Joao; Jorge Magalhaes, Paulo; Antonio Rodrigues, Jose; Araujo Barros, Aquiles

    2010-02-01

    An automated flow injection analysis (FIA) system, based on an initial analyte separation by gas-diffusion and subsequent determination by square-wave voltammetry (SWV) in a flow cell, was developed for the determination of total and free sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) in wine. The proposed method was compared with two iodometric methodologies (the Ripper method and a simplified method commonly used by the wine industry). The developed method displayed good repeatability (RSD lower than 6%) and linearity (between 10 and 250 mg l(-1)) as well as a suitable LOD (3 mg l(-1)) and LOQ (9 mg l(-1)). A major advantage of this system is that SO(2) is directly detected by flow SWV. PMID:20013444

  18. Mathematical Model of Two Phase Flow in Natural Draft Wet-Cooling Tower Including Flue Gas Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyhlík, Tomáš

    2016-03-01

    The previously developed model of natural draft wet-cooling tower flow, heat and mass transfer is extended to be able to take into account the flow of supersaturated moist air. The two phase flow model is based on void fraction of gas phase which is included in the governing equations. Homogeneous equilibrium model, where the two phases are well mixed and have the same velocity, is used. The effect of flue gas injection is included into the developed mathematical model by using source terms in governing equations and by using momentum flux coefficient and kinetic energy flux coefficient. Heat and mass transfer in the fill zone is described by the system of ordinary differential equations, where the mass transfer is represented by measured fill Merkel number and heat transfer is calculated using prescribed Lewis factor.

  19. Laminar and turbulent flow solutions with radiation and ablation injection for Jovian entry. [radiative heating rates for the Galileo probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, A.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1980-01-01

    Laminar and turbulent flow-field solutions with coupled carbon-phenolic mass injection are presented for the forebody of a probe entering a nominal Jupiter atmosphere. Solutions are obtained for a 35-degree hyperboloid and for a 45-degree spherically blunted cone using a time-dependent, finite-difference method. The radiative heating rates for the coupled laminar flow are significantly reduced as compared to the corresponding no-blowing case; however, for the coupled turbulent flow, it is found that the surface radiative heating rates are substantially increased and often exceed the corresponding no-blowing values. Turbulence is found to have no effect on the surface radiative heating rates for the no-blowing solutions. The present results are compared with the other available solutions, and some additional solutions are presented.

  20. Design and realization of the high-precision weighing systems as the gravimetric references in PTB's national water flow standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Rainer; Beyer, Karlheinz; Baade, Hans-Joachim

    2012-07-01

    PTB's ‘Hydrodynamic Test Field’, which represents a high-accuracy water flow calibration facility, serves as the national primary standard for liquid flow measurands. As the core reference device of this flow facility, a gravimetric standard has been incorporated, which comprises three special-design weighing systems: 300 kg, 3 tons and 30 tons. These gravimetric references were realized as a combination of a strain-gauge-based and an electromagnetic-force-compensation load-cell-based balance, each. Special emphasis had to be placed upon the dynamics design of the whole weighing system, due to the high measurement resolution and the dynamic behavior of the weighing systems, which are dynamically affected by mechanical vibrations caused by environmental impacts, flow machinery operation, flow noise in the pipework and induced wave motions in the weigh tanks. Taking into account all the above boundary conditions, the design work for the gravimetric reference resulted in a concrete foundation ‘rock’ of some 300 tons that rests on a number of vibration isolators. In addition to these passively operating vibration isolators, the vibration damping effect is enhanced by applying an electronic level regulation device.

  1. Skin friction reduction in supersonic flow by injection through slots, porous sections and combinations of the two

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schetz, J. A.; Vanovereem, J.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental study of skin friction reduction in a Mach 3.0 air steam with gaseous injection through a tangential slot, a porous wall section, and combinations of the two was conducted. The primary data obtained were wall shear values measured directly with a floating element balance and also inferred from Preston Tube measurements. Detailed profiles at several axial stations, wall pressure distributions and schlieren photographs are presented. The data indicate that a slot provides the greatest skin friction reduction in comparison with a reference flat plate experiment. The porous wall section arrangement suffers from an apparent roughness-induced rise in skin friction at low injection rates compared to the flat plate. The combination schemes demonstrated a potential for gain.

  2. Numerical investigation of the nonreacting and reacting flow fields in a transverse gaseous injection channel with different species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Li; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Tian-tian; Li, Hao; Yan, Xiao-ting

    2014-12-01

    The mixing and combustion process has an important impact on the engineering realization of the scramjet engine. The nonreacting and reacting flow fields in a transverse injection channel have been investigated numerically, and the predicted results have been compared with the available experimental data in the open literature, the wall pressure distributions, the separation length, as well as the penetration height. Further, the influences of the molecular weight of the fuel and the jet-to-crossflow pressure ratio on the wall pressure distribution have been studied. The obtained results show that the predicted results show reasonable agreement with the experimental data, and the variable trends of the penetration height and the separation distance are almost the same as those obtained in the experiment. The vapor pressure model is suitable to fit the relationship between the penetration height, the separation distance and the jet-to-crossflow pressure ratio. The combustion process mainly occurs upstream of the injection port, and it makes a great difference to the wall pressure distribution upstream of the injection port, especially when the jet-to-crossflow pressure ratio is large enough, namely 17.72 and 25.15 in the range considered in the current study. For hydrogen, the combustion downstream of the injection port occurs more intensively, and this may be induced by its smaller molecular weight.

  3. Flow injection determination of copper in mussels by flame atomic absorption spectrometry after on-line continuous ultrasound-assisted extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Cid, A.; Yebra, M. C.

    2002-05-01

    Copper was extracted on-line from solid mussel samples by a simple and rapid continuous ultrasound-assisted extraction system (CUES). The CUES is connected to a flow injection manifold, which permits the on-line flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of copper. The manifold is simple and the copper signal was obtained for a volume of 250 μl of acid leachate injected into an ultrapure water carrier stream. An experimental design was used for the optimization of the continuous leaching procedure. Compared to off-line ultrasonic-assisted extraction methods, sonication time is reduced by factors of 6-12, the leaching takes place at room temperature (20 °C), and the analysis time is reduced because centrifugation was not necessary to separate the liquid phase. The method allowed a total sampling frequency of 11 samples h -1, with a relative standard deviation for the complete procedure of 2.7% (for a sample containing 2.0 μg g -1 copper (wet mass, n=11). The limit of detection was 0.06 μg g -1 (wet mass) for 30 mg of sample. The analytical procedure was verified for a reference standard material (TORT-1). The analytical procedure was applied to mussel samples from Galicia (Spain).

  4. Crevice flow and combustion visualization in a direct-injection spark-ignition engine using laser imaging techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, M.C.; Fansler, T.D.; French, D.T.

    1995-12-31

    Crevice flows of hydrocarbon fuel (both liquid and vapor) have been observed directly from fuel-injector mounting and nozzle-exit crevices in an optically-accessible single-cylinder direct-injection two-stroke engine burning commercial gasoline. Fuel trapped in crevices escapes combustion during the high-pressure portions of the engine cycle, exits the crevice as the cylinder pressure decreases, partially reacts when mixed with hot combustion gases in the cylinder, and contributes to unburned hydrocarbon emissions. High-speed laser Mie-scattering imaging reveals substantial liquid crevice flow in a cold engine at light load, decreasing as the engine warms up and as load is increased. Single-shot laser induced fluorescence imaging of fuel (both vapor and liquid) shows that substantial fuel vapor emanates from fuel injector crevices during every engine cycle and for all operating conditions. Early in the crevice-flow process, some of the emerging fuel vapor (imaged by laser-induced fluorescence) burns as a rich diffusion flame (imaged by flame luminosity), but most of the crevice flow fails to burn as the cylinder pressure and temperature fall. Crevice HC`s are a significant (but not the predominant) source of hydrocarbon emissions in this two-stroke engine, since most of the crevice flow hydrocarbons are retained as residual fuel in the combustion chamber. Similar laser-imaging techniques are applicable to four-stroke spark-ignition engines, where crevice flows are believed to be the dominant hydrocarbon-emissions source.

  5. Flow-injection chemiluminescence analysis for sensitive determination of atenolol using cadmium sulfide quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khataee, Alireza; Lotfi, Roya; Hasanzadeh, Aliyeh; Iranifam, Mortaza; Joo, Sang Woo

    2016-03-01

    A sensitive, rapid and simple flow-injection chemiluminescence (CL) system based on the light emitted from KMnO4-cadmium sulfide quantum dots (CdS QDs) reaction in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in acidic medium was developed as a CL probe for the sensitive determination of atenolol. Optical and structural features of CdS QDs capped with L-cysteine, which synthesized via hydrothermal approach, were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescence (PL), and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The CL intensity of KMnO4-CdS QDs-CTAB was remarkably enhanced in the presence of trace level of atenolol. Under optimum experimental conditions, there is a linear relationship between the increase in CL intensity of KMnO4-CdS QDs-CTAB system and atenolol concentration in a range of 0.001 to 4.0 mg L- 1 and 4.0 to 18.0 mg L- 1, with a detection limit (3σ) of 0.0010 mg L- 1. A possible mechanism for KMnO4-CdS QDs-CTAB-atenolol CL reaction is proposed. To prove the practical application of the KMnO4-CdS QDs-CTAB CL method, the method was applied for the determination of atenolol in spiked environmental water samples and commercial pharmaceutical formulation. Furthermore, corona discharge ionization ion mobility spectrometry (CD-IMS) technique was utilized for determination of atenolol. Figure S2. Optimization of the CL reaction conditions: (a) effect of KMnO4 concentration. Conditions: the concentrations of H2SO4, CdS QDs and atenolol were 1 mol L-1, 0.35 mol L-1, and 4.0 mg L-1, respectively; (b) effect of acidic media. Conditions: the concentrations of KMnO4 was 0.04 mmol L-1, other conditions were as in (a); (c) effect of CdS QDs concentration. Conditions: H2SO4 concentration was 1.0 mol L-1, other conditions were as in (b), and (d) effect of CTAB concentration. Conditions: CdS QDs concentration was 0.35 mmol L-1, other conditions were as in (c). Figure S3. UV-Vis absorption spectra of KMnO4-CdS QDs-atenolol CL system

  6. Automated continuous monitoring of inorganic and total mercury in wastewater and other waters by flow-injection analysis and cold-vapour atomic absorption spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Birnie, S. E.

    1988-01-01

    An automated continuous monitoring system for the determination of inorganic and total mercury by flow-injection analysis followed by cold-vapour atomic absorption spectrometry is described. The method uses a typical flow-injection manifold where digestion and reduction of the injected sample takes place. Mercury is removed by aeration from the flowing stream in a specially designed air-liquid separator and swept into a silica cell for absorption measurement at a wavelength of 253.7 nm. A calibration curve up to 10 μg Hg ml-1 using three different path length cells is obtained with a detection limit of 0.02 μg Hg ml-1. The sampling rate of an injection every 3 min produces 20 results per hour from a flowing stream. PMID:18925201

  7. Spatially distributed control netowork for flow proportional chemical injection with center pivot irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The agricultural production practice of injecting a chemical into an operating irrigation system and applying it to the field area with the water is known as chemigation. Chemigation is a widely adopted practice with center pivot irrigation because it is relatively easy and is usually the least exp...

  8. Evanescent-wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy for enhanced detection of surface binding under flow injection analysis conditions.

    PubMed

    van der Sneppen, L; Buijs, J B; Gooijer, C; Ubachs, W; Ariese, F

    2008-06-01

    The feasibility of liquid-phase evanescent-wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy (EW-CRDS) for surface-binding studies under flow-injection analysis (FIA) conditions is demonstrated. The EW-CRDS setup consists of an anti-reflection coated Dove prism inside a linear cavity (with standard or super-polishing of the total internal reflective (TIR) surface). A teflon spacer with an elliptical hole clamped on this surface acts as a 20 muL sized flow cell. The baseline noise of this system is of the order of 10(-4) absorbance units; the baseline remains stable over a prolonged time and the prism surface does not become contaminated during repeated injections of the reversibly adsorbing test dyes Crystal Violet (CV) and Direct Red 10 (DR10). At typical FIA or liquid chromatography (LC) flow rates, the system has sufficient specificity to discriminate between species with different surface affinities. For CV a much stronger decrease in ring-down time is observed than calculated based on its bulk concentration and the effective depth probed by the evanescent wave, indicating binding of this positively charged dye to the negatively charged prism surface. The amount of adsorption can be influenced by adjusting the flow rate or the eluent composition. At a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min, an enrichment factor of 60 was calculated for CV; for the poorly adsorbing dye DR10 it is 5. Super-polishing of the already polished TIR surface works counter-productively. The adsorbing dye Crystal Violet has a detection limit of 3 muM for the standard polished surface; less binding occurs on the super-polished surface and the detection limit is 5 muM. Possible applications of EW-CRDS for studying surface binding or the development of bio-assays are discussed. PMID:18559152

  9. Slurry sampling flow injection chemical vapor generation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the determination of trace Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in cosmetic lotions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Ni; Jiang, Shiuh-Jen; Chen, Yen-Ling; Sahayam, A C

    2015-02-20

    A slurry sampling inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method has been developed for the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in cosmetic lotions using flow injection (FI) vapor generation (VG) as the sample introduction system. A slurry containing 2% m/v lotion, 2% m/v thiourea, 0.05% m/v L-cysteine, 0.5 μg mL(-1) Co(II), 0.1% m/v Triton X-100 and 1.2% v/v HCl was injected into a VG-ICP-MS system for the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi without dissolution and mineralization. Because the sensitivities of the analytes in the slurry and that of aqueous solution were quite different, an isotope dilution method and a standard addition method were used for the determination. This method has been validated by the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in GBW09305 Cosmetic (Cream) reference material. The method was also applied for the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in three cosmetic lotion samples obtained locally. The analysis results of the reference material agreed with the certified value and/or ETV-ICP-MS results. The detection limit estimated from the standard addition curve was 0.025, 0.1, 0.2, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.03 ng g(-1) for Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi, respectively, in original cosmetic lotion sample. PMID:25682241

  10. Two-dimensional analysis of two-phase reacting flow in a firing direct-injection diesel engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, H. Lee

    1989-01-01

    The flow field, spray penetration, and combustion in two-stroke diesel engines are described. Fuel injection begins at 345 degrees after top dead center (ATDC) and n-dodecane is used as the liquid fuel. Arrhenius kinetics is used to calculate the reaction rate term in the quasi-global combustion model. When the temperature, fuel, and oxygen mass fraction are within suitable flammability limits, combustion begins spontaneously. No spark is necessary to ignite a localized high temperature region. Compression is sufficient to increase the gaseous phase temperature to a point where spontaneous chemical reactions occur. Results are described for a swirl angle of 22.5 degrees.

  11. Fluid flows due to earthquakes with reference to Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, J.B.

    1993-05-01

    Yucca Mountain geohydrology is dominated by a deep water table in volcanic tuffa beds which are cut by numerous faults. Certain zones in these tuffas and most of the fault apertures are filled with a fine-grained calcitic cement. Earthquakes have occured in this region with the most recent being of magnitude 5.6 and at a distance of about 20 km. Earthquakes in western U.S.A. have been observed to cause fluid flows through and out of the crust of the Earth. These flows are concentrated along the faults with normal faulting producing the largest flows. An earthquake produces rapid pressure changes at and below the ground surface, thereby forcing flows of gas, water, slurries and dissolved salts. In order to examine the properties of flows produced by earthquakes, we simulate the phenomena using computer-based modeling. We investigate the effects of adults and high permeability zones on the pattern of flows induced by the earthquake. We demonstrate that faults act as conduits to the surface and that the higher the permeability of a zone, the more the flows will concentrate there. Numerical estimates of flow rates from these simulations compare favorably with data from observed flows due to earthquakes. Simple volumetric arguments demonstrate the ease with which fluids from the deep water table can reach the surface along fault conduits.

  12. Application of heat pulse injections for investigating shallow hyporheic flow in a lowland river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angermann, Lisa; Krause, Stefan; Lewandowski, Joerg

    2012-10-01

    Hyporheic zone processes can have significant impact on groundwater and surface water resources. Detailed knowledge of exchange flow patterns is crucial for understanding the ecohydrological and biogeochemical functioning of river corridors. In particular, small-scale hyporheic exchange flow is still poorly understood, partially because of the lack of adequate in situ monitoring technology. This paper investigates the spatial heterogeneity of hyporheic exchange flow in a lowland river at multiple scales. It demonstrates the conjunctive use of active heat pulse tracing at shallow depths (15 cm) and vertical hydraulic gradients (VHG) at 120-150 cm streambed depth for improving the understanding of hyporheic exchange flow processes. Generally positive VHG indicated a regional dominance of groundwater up-welling. High and temporally variable VHG were used to identify confined conditions caused by low conductivity layers in the subsurface (low connectivity), while locations with lower and temporally less variable VHG indicated free groundwater up-welling (high connectivity) in highly conductive sediments. A heat pulse sensor (HPS) was applied for identifying shallow hyporheic flow at three locations representative for high versus low streambed connectivity. Shallow hyporheic flow patterns were found to be spatially heterogeneous. Subsurface flow could only partially be explained by streambed topography. Surface water infiltration and horizontal flow coincided with inhibited groundwater up-welling, whereas locations with high streambed connectivity were characterized by increased up-welling. The combined information of spatiotemporal VHG variability and flow vector frequency distribution by HPS has the potential to improve the understanding of impacts of streambed topography and subsurface stratification on hyporheic flow patterns.

  13. In-line electrochemical reagent generation coupled to a flow injection biamperometric system for the determination of sulfite in beverage samples.

    PubMed

    de Paula, Nattany T G; Barbosa, Elaine M O; da Silva, Paulo A B; de Souza, Gustavo C S; Nascimento, Valberes B; Lavorante, André F

    2016-07-15

    This work reports an in-line electrochemical reagent generation coupled to a flow injection biamperometric procedure for the determination of SO3(2-). The method was based on a redox reaction between the I3(-) and SO3(2-) ions, after the diffusion of SO2 through a gas diffusion chamber. Under optimum experimental conditions, a linear response ranging from 1.0 to 12.0mgL(-1) (R=0.9999 and n=7), a detection and quantification limit estimated at 0.26 and 0.86mgL(-1), respectively, a standard deviation relative of 0.4% (n=10) for a reference solution of 4.0mgL(-1) SO3(2-) and sampling throughput for 40 determinations per hour were achieved. Addition and recovery tests with juice and wine samples were performed resulting in a range between 92% and 110%. There were no significant differences at a 95% confidence level in the analysis of eight samples when comparing the new method with a reference procedure. PMID:26948604

  14. Validation Studies for Numerical Simulations of Flow Phenomena Expected in the Lower Plenum of a Prismatic VHTR Reference Design

    SciTech Connect

    Richard W. Johnson

    2005-09-01

    The final design of the very high temperature reactor (VHTR) of the fourth generation of nuclear power plants (Gen IV) has not yet been established. The VHTR may be either a prismatic (block) or pebble bed type. It may be either gas-cooled or cooled with an as yet unspecified molten salt. However, a conceptual design of a gas-cooled VHTR, based on the General Atomics GT-MHR, does exist and is called the prismatic VHTR reference design, MacDonald et al [2003], General Atomics [1996]. The present validation studies are based on the prismatic VHTR reference design. In the prismatic VHTR reference design, the flow in the lower plenum will be introduced by dozens of turbulent jets issuing into a large crossflow that must negotiate dozens of cylindrical support columns as it flows toward the exit duct of the reactor vessel. The jets will not all be at the same temperature due to the radial variation of power density expected in the core. However, it is important that the coolant be well mixed when it enters the power conversion unit to ensure proper operation and long life of the power conversion machinery. Hence, it is deemed important to be able to accurately model the flow and mixing of the variable temperature coolant in the lower plenum and exit duct. Accurate flow modeling involves determining modeling strategies including the fineness of the grid needed, iterative convergence tolerance, numerical discretization method used, whether the flow is steady or unsteady, and the turbulence model and wall treatment employed. It also involves validation of the computer code and turbulence model against a series of separate and combined flow phenomena and selection of the data used for the validation. The present report describes progress made to date for the task entitled ‘CFD software validation of jets in crossflow’ which was designed to investigate the issues pertaining to the validation process.

  15. 3D-Printed Fluidic Devices for Nanoparticle Preparation and Flow-Injection Amperometry Using Integrated Prussian Blue Nanoparticle-Modified Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Gregory W.; Satterwhite, Jennifer E.; Bhakta, Snehasis; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Gillette, Kelsey M.; Chen, Eric; Rusling, James F.

    2015-01-01

    A consumer-grade fused filament fabrication (FFF) 3D printer was used to construct fluidic devices for nanoparticle preparation and electrochemical sensing. Devices were printed using poly(ethylene terephthalate) and featured threaded ports to connect polyetheretherketone (PEEK) tubing via printed fittings prepared from acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS). These devices included channels designed to have 800 × 800 µm2 square cross sections and were semitransparent to allow visualization of the solution-filled channels. A 3D-printed device with a Y-shaped mixing channel was used to prepare Prussian blue nanoparticles (PBNPs) under flow rates of 100 to 2000 µL min−1. PBNPs were then attached to gold electrodes for hydrogen peroxide sensing. 3D-printed devices used for electrochemical measurements featured threaded access ports into which a fitting equipped with reference, counter, and PBNP-modified working electrodes could be inserted. PBNP-modified electrodes enabled amperometric detection of H2O2 in the 3D-printed channel by flow-injection analysis, exhibiting a detection limit of 100 nM and linear response up to 20 µM. These experiments show that a consumer-grade FFF printer can be used to fabricate low-cost fluidic devices for applications similar to those that have been reported with more expensive 3D-printing methods. PMID:25901660

  16. An automated flow injection system for metal determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry involving on-line fabric disk sorptive extraction technique.

    PubMed

    Anthemidis, A; Kazantzi, V; Samanidou, V; Kabir, A; Furton, K G

    2016-08-15

    A novel flow injection-fabric disk sorptive extraction (FI-FDSE) system was developed for automated determination of trace metals. The platform was based on a minicolumn packed with sol-gel coated fabric media in the form of disks, incorporated into an on-line solid-phase extraction system, coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). This configuration provides minor backpressure, resulting in high loading flow rates and shorter analytical cycles. The potentials of this technique were demonstrated for trace lead and cadmium determination in environmental water samples. The applicability of different sol-gel coated FPSE media was investigated. The on-line formed complex of metal with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) was retained onto the fabric surface and methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) was used to elute the analytes prior to atomization. For 90s preconcentration time, enrichment factors of 140 and 38 and detection limits (3σ) of 1.8 and 0.4μgL(-1) were achieved for lead and cadmium determination, respectively, with a sampling frequency of 30h(-1). The accuracy of the proposed method was estimated by analyzing standard reference materials and spiked water samples. PMID:27260436

  17. 3D-Printed Fluidic Devices for Nanoparticle Preparation and Flow-Injection Amperometry Using Integrated Prussian Blue Nanoparticle-Modified Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Gregory W; Satterwhite, Jennifer E; Bhakta, Snehasis; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Gillette, Kelsey M; Chen, Eric; Rusling, James F

    2015-01-01

    A consumer-grade fused filament fabrication (FFF) 3D printer was used to construct fluidic devices for nanoparticle preparation and electrochemical sensing. Devices were printed using poly(ethylene terephthalate) and featured threaded ports to connect polyetheretherketone (PEEK) tubing via printed fittings prepared from acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS). These devices included channels designed to have 800 μm × 800 μm square cross sections and were semitransparent to allow visualization of the solution-filled channels. A 3D-printed device with a Y-shaped mixing channel was used to prepare Prussian blue nanoparticles (PBNPs) under flow rates of 100 to 2000 μL min(-1). PBNPs were then attached to gold electrodes for hydrogen peroxide sensing. 3D-printed devices used for electrochemical measurements featured threaded access ports into which a fitting equipped with reference, counter, and PBNP-modified working electrodes could be inserted. PBNP-modified electrodes enabled amperometric detection of H2O2 in the 3D-printed channel by flow-injection analysis, exhibiting a detection limit of 100 nM and linear response up to 20 μM. These experiments show that a consumer-grade FFF printer can be used to fabricate low-cost fluidic devices for applications similar to those that have been reported with more expensive 3D-printing methods. PMID:25901660

  18. Injection, flow, and mixing of CO2 in porous media with residual gas.

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, C.M.; Doughty, C.A.

    2010-09-01

    Geologic structures associated with depleted natural gas reservoirs are desirable targets for geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) as evidenced by numerous pilot and industrial-scale GCS projects in these environments world-wide. One feature of these GCS targets that may affect injection is the presence of residual CH{sub 4}. It is well known that CH{sub 4} drastically alters supercritical CO{sub 2} density and viscosity. Furthermore, residual gas of any kind affects the relative permeability of the liquid and gas phases, with relative permeability of the gas phase strongly dependent on the time-history of imbibition or drainage, i.e., dependent on hysteretic relative permeability. In this study, the effects of residual CH{sub 4} on supercritical CO{sub 2} injection were investigated by numerical simulation in an idealized one-dimensional system under three scenarios: (1) with no residual gas; (2) with residual supercritical CO{sub 2}; and (3) with residual CH{sub 4}. We further compare results of simulations that use non-hysteretic and hysteretic relative permeability functions. The primary effect of residual gas is to decrease injectivity by decreasing liquid-phase relative permeability. Secondary effects arise from injected gas effectively incorporating residual gas and thereby extending the mobile gas plume relative to cases with no residual gas. Third-order effects arise from gas mixing and associated compositional effects on density that effectively create a larger plume per unit mass. Non-hysteretic models of relative permeability can be used to approximate some parts of the behavior of the system, but fully hysteretic formulations are needed to accurately model the entire system.

  19. Effects of coil location and injection flow rate in an inductively coupled RF plasma torch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, D.; Apelian, D.; Farouk, B.

    1985-07-01

    A numerical model has been developed to investigate the effects of central carrier gas flow rate and coil location in an inductively coupled RF plasma torch. Solution algorithm is based on the primitive variable formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations and includes a pseudo two-dimensional electromagnetic field model. Computational results have shown that with increasing carrier gas flow rate, the plasma plume is penetrated and the back flow due to the magnetic pumping effects is diminished. This facilitates the delivery of powder particles into the discharge region. However, the plasma plume is also disturbed significantly thus enhancing power loss.

  20. The role of pressure drop and flow redistribution on modeling mercury control using sorbent injection in baghouse filters

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph R.V. Flora; Richard A. Hargis; William J. O'Dowd; Andrew Karash; Henry W. Pennline; Radisav D. Vidic

    2006-03-15

    A mathematical model based on simple cake filtration theory was coupled to a previously developed two-stage mathematical model for mercury (Hg) removal from coal combustion using powdered activated carbon injection upstream of a baghouse filter. Values of the average permeability of the filter cake and the filter resistance extracted from the model were 4.4 x 10{sup -13}m{sup 2} and 2.5 x 10{sup -4}m{sup -1}, respectively. The flow is redistributed during partial cleaning of the filter, with flows higher across the newly cleaned filter section. The calculated average Hg removal efficiency from the baghouse is lower because of the high mass flux of Hg exiting the filter in the newly cleaned section. The model shows that calculated average Hg removal is affected by permeability, filter resistance, fraction of the baghouse cleaned, and cleaning interval. 17 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Lagrangian flow at the foot of a shelfbreak front using a dye tracer injected into the bottom boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houghton, Robert W.

    1997-08-01

    Convergent flow at the foot of the shelfbreak front in the Middle Atlantic Bight has been detected using a dye tracer, Rhodamine-WT, injected into the bottom boundary layer. The observations substantiate model simulations by Chapman and Lentz (1994) of convergent flow in the vicinity of the front which would be very difficult if not impossible to detect with conventional moored current measurements. By following the dispersal of the dye patch over a 4 day period Lagrangian velocities of the order of 0.015 m/s with respect to the front were resolved even as the frontal boundary was displaced ˜12 km onshore. The water-following properties of the dye tracer provides a useful technique for studying the small-scale circulation and mixing at the frontal boundary.

  2. Flow Injection Analysis of Mercury Using 4-(Dimethylamino) Benzaldehyde-4-Ethylthiosemicarbazone as the Ionophore of a Coated Wire Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Tahir, Tara F.; Salhin, Abdussalam; Ghani, Sulaiman Ab

    2012-01-01

    A flow injection analysis (FIA) incorporating a thiosemicarbazone-based coated wire electrode (CWE) was developed method for the determination of mercury(II). A 0.1 M KNO3 carrier stream with pH between 1 and 5 and flow rate of 1 mL·min−1 were used as optimum parameters. A linear plot within the concentration range of 5 × 10−6–0.1 M Hg(II), slope of 27.8 ± 1 mV per decade and correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.984 were obtained. The system was successfully applied for the determination of mercury(II) in dental amalgam solutions and spiked environmental water samples. Highly reproducible measurements with relative standard deviation (RSD < 1% (n = 3)) were obtained, giving a typical throughput of 30 samples·h−1. PMID:23202196

  3. Effect of Moderate Air Flow on the Distribution of Fuel Sprays After Injection Cut-0ff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Spencer, R C

    1935-01-01

    High-speed motion pictures were taken of fuel sprays with the NACA spray-photographic apparatus to study the distribution of the liquid fuel from the instant of injection cut-off until about 0.05 second later. The fuel was injected into a glass-walled chamber in which the air density was varied from 1 to 13 times atmospheric air density (0.0765 to 0.99 pound per cubic foot) and in which the air was at room temperature. The air in the chamber was set in motion by means of a fan, and was directed counter to the spray at velocities up to 27 feet per second. The injection pressure was varied from 2,000 to 6,000 pounds per square inch. A 0.20-inch single-orifice nozzle, an 0.008-inch single-orifice nozzle, a multiorifice nozzle, and an impinging-jets nozzle were used. The best distribution was obtained by the use of air and a high-dispersion nozzle.

  4. Flow Instabilities During Injection of CO2 into SalineAquifers

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Julio E.; Pruess, Karsten

    2003-04-15

    Injection of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) into saline aquifers has been proposed as a means to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (geological carbon sequestration). The injection process can be classified as immiscible displacement of an aqueous phase by a less dense and less viscous gas phase. Under disposal conditions (supercritical CO{sub 2}) the viscosity of carbon dioxide can be less than the viscosity of the aqueous phase by a factor of 15. Because of the lower viscosity, the CO{sub 2} displacement front will have a tendency towards instability so that waves or rounded lobes of saturation may appear and grow into fingers that lead to enhanced dissolution, bypassing, and possibly poor sweep efficiency. This paper presents an analysis, through high-resolution numerical simulations, of the onset of instabilities (viscous fingering) during injection of CO{sub 2} into saline aquifers. We explore the influence of viscosity ratio, relative permeability functions, and capillary pressure on finger growth and spacing. In addition, we address the issues of finger triggering, convergence under grid refinement and boundary condition effects. Simulations were carried out on scalar machines, and on an IBM RS/6000 SP (a distributed-memory parallel computer with 6080 processors) with a parallelized version of TOUGH2.

  5. Microwave-assisted on-line derivatization for sensitive flow injection fluorometric determination of formaldehyde in some foods.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Zhi-Qi

    2009-11-15

    A rapid and sensitive flow injection fluorometry has been developed for the determination of formaldehyde based on the microwave on-line accelerating its Hantzsch reaction with cyclohexane-1,3-dione. Under the optimized conditions, the fluorescent intensity is proportional to formaldehyde content in the range from 0.05 ng/mL to 2.000 microg/mL. The detection limit (S/N=3) is 0.02 ng/mL and the analytical frequency is 28 injections per hour. The relative standard deviations are 2.2% and 3.1% for eleven injections of 0.100 and 0.001 microg/mL of formaldehyde, respectively. With the assistance of microwave irradiation, a best sensitive fluorometry was established for the determination of formaldehyde at a high analytical frequency. This method was successfully applied to food analysis without requiring any sample pretreatment, and the determination results were correlated well with those obtained by the standard method with a sample pretreatment of steam distillation. PMID:19782221

  6. PP-polymer nanocomposites with improved mechanical properties using elongational flow devices at the injection molding compounder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battisti, M. G.; Friesenbichler, W.

    2014-05-01

    Numerous researches have been done in the field of improving PP by adding nanofillers. Consistently good scientific results and positive industrial feedback were reached; however, the industrial interest is still low due to the high technological and financial risks and too less benefit. Our experiments, using the worldwide unique Polymer NanoComposite Injection Molding Compounder (PNC-IMC) which combines the two processing steps of compounding and injection molding, showed an impressive increase of both mechanical and thermal properties, but more or less in the same range than in other publications. Thus we tried to improve the materials by using elongational flow generating devices for better intercalation and exfoliation of nanofillers in the polymer melt. This paper will give an overview on our first investigations, carried out on both a high pressure capillary rheometer (HPCR) and the injection molding machine (IMM) focusing on the mechanical properties. The PNCs were produced at the PNC-IMC with the 3in1 process. After the treatment in the HPCR the material was crushed, plates were prepared using a hydraulic vacuum press and tensile bars were milled, respectively tensile bars were produced with the IMM. The Young's modulus was successfully slightly improved. Thus future research will focus on both, the mechanism of improvement and the implementation of several of these devices into the PNC-IMC.

  7. Study of Immobilizing Cadmium Selenide Quantum Dots in Selected Polymers for Application in Peroxyoxalate Chemiluminescence Flow Injection Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Christopher S.

    Two batches of CdSe QDs with different sizes were synthesized for immobilizing in polyisoprene (PI), polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), and low-density polyethylene (LDPE). The combinations of QDs and polymer substrates were evaluated for their analytical fit-for-use in applicable immunoassays. Hydrogen peroxide standards were injected into the flow injection analyzer (FIA) constructed to simulate enzyme-generated hydrogen peroxide reacting with bis-(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl) oxalate. Linear correlations between hydrogen peroxide and chemiluminescent intensities yielded regression values greater than 0.9750 for hydrogen peroxide concentrations between 1.0 x 10-4 M and 1.0 x 10-1 M. The developed technique's LOD was approximately 10 ppm. Variability of the prepared QD-polymer products was as low as 3.2% throughout all preparations. Stability of the preparations was tested during a 30-day period that displayed up to a four-fold increase in the first 10 days. The preparations were decently robust to the FIA system demonstrating up to a 15.20% intensity loss after twenty repetitive injections.

  8. Determination of uranium in seawater by flow-injection preconcentration on dodecylamidoxime-impregnated resin and spectrophotometric detection.

    PubMed

    Oguma, Koichi; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Saito, Kyoichi

    2011-06-15

    A flow injection method has been developed for the determination of uranium in seawater combining the on-line preconcentration with spectrophotometric detection. An aliquot (10 mL) of the seawater sample adjusted to pH 5.5 was injected into the analytical system and uranium was adsorbed on the column packed with styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer resin (Bio-Beads SM-2) modified with dodecylamidoxime which showed high selectivity to uranium. Uranium was then eluted with 0.01 M hydrochloric acid and detected spectrophotometrically after the reaction with Chlorophosphonazo III. Interference from calcium and strontium was masked with cyclohexanediaminetetraacetic acid added to the chromogenic reagent solution. The sample throughput, the detection limit (3σ), and the preconcentration factor were 23 per hour, 0.13 μg/L, and 20, respectively, when the sample injection volume was kept at 10 mL. The precision at the 2 μg/L level was less than 4% (RSD). The proposed method was applied to the determination of uranium in the seawater samples collected off the Boso peninsula, Japan and the uranium concentration was found to be ca. 3 μg/L, which is close to the literature data. The yield of the recovery test ranged from 95% to 99%. PMID:21641428

  9. The analysis of estrogenic compounds by flow injection analysis with amperometric detection using a boron-doped diamond electrode.

    PubMed

    Brocenschi, Ricardo F; Rocha-Filho, Romeu C; Duran, Boris; Swain, Greg M

    2014-08-01

    We report on the use of flow injection analysis with amperometric detection (FIA-EC) to evaluate the potential of using diamond electrodes for the analysis of three estrogenic compounds: estrone, 17-β-estradiol, and estriol. Amperometric detection was performed using a cathodically pretreated boron-doped diamond electrode that offered low background current, relatively low limits of detection, and good response reproducibility and stability. For all three compounds, response linearity was observed over the concentration range tested, 0.10 to 3.0μmol L(-1), the sensitivity was ca. 10mA L mol(-1), and the minimum concentration detection (S/N≥3) was 0.10μmol L(-1) (~27μg L(-1)). The response variability with multiple injections was ca. 10% (RSD) over 20 injections. For estrone, the oxidation reaction on diamond does not proceed through an adsorbed state like it does on glassy carbon. After an initial current attenuation, the diamond electrode exhibited a stable response (oxidation current) for 3 days of continuous use, indicative of minimal surface contamination or fouling by reaction intermediates and products. The method for estrone was assessed using spiked city tap and local river water. Estrone recoveries in spiked city and river water samples presented standard deviations of less than 10%. In summary, the FIA-EC method with a diamond electrode enables sensitive, reproducible, stable, quick, and inexpensive determination of estrogenic compounds in water samples. PMID:24881529

  10. Flow injection analysis-isotope ratio mass spectrometry for bulk carbon stable isotope analysis of alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Jochmann, Maik A; Steinmann, Dirk; Stephan, Manuel; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2009-11-25

    A new method for bulk carbon isotope ratio determination of water-soluble samples is presented that is based on flow injection analysis-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (FIA-IRMS) using an LC IsoLink interface. Advantages of the method are that (i) only very small amounts of sample are required (2-5 microL of the sample for up to 200 possible injections), (ii) it avoids complex sample preparation procedures such as needed for EA-IRMS analysis (only sample dilution and injection,) and (iii) high throughput due to short analysis times is possible (approximately 15 min for five replicates). The method was first tested and evaluated as a fast screening method with industrially produced ethanol samples, and additionally the applicability was tested by the measurement of 81 alcoholic beverages, for example, whiskey, brandy, vodka, tequila, and others. The minimal sample concentration required for precise and reproducible measurements was around 50 microL L(-1) ethanol/water (1.71 mM carbon). The limit of repeatability was determined to be r=0.49%. FIA-IRMS represents a fast screening method for beverage authenticity control. Due to this, samples can be prescreened as a decisive criterion for more detailed investigations by HPLC-IRMS or multielement GC-IRMS measurements for a verification of adulteration. PMID:19856915

  11. Studies of the analyte-carrier interface in flow injection analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.D.

    1992-01-01

    Chemical analysis in flowing solution is popular for automation of classical methods. However, most of the classical methods are not specific enough for direct multicomponent analysis of simple mixtures. This research project has the goals of study of rapid multicomponent analysis of transient species in flowing media, and investigations of chemical reactions at interfaces and of effects of competition on distribution of products from interfacial reaction. This report summarizes work done over the past 4.5 years; support has been terminated.

  12. Coupled Flow and Deformation Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Migration in the Presence of a Caprock Fracture during Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Siriwardane, Hema J; Gondle, Raj K; Bromhal, Grant S

    2013-08-01

    Understanding the transport of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) during long-term CO{sub 2} injection into a typical geologic reservoir, such as a saline aquifer, could be complicated because of changes in geochemical, hydrogeological, and hydromechanical behavior. While the caprock layer overlying the target aquifer is intended to provide a tight, impermeable seal in securing injected CO{sub 2}, the presence of geologic uncertainties, such as a caprock fracture or fault, may provide a channel for CO{sub 2} leakage. There could also be a possibility of the activation of a new or existing dormant fault or fracture, which could act as a leakage pathway. Such a leakage event during CO{sub 2} injection may lead to a different pressure and ground response over a period of time. In the present study, multiphase fluid flow simulations in porous media coupled with geomechanics were used to investigate the overburden geologic response and plume behavior during CO{sub 2} injection in the presence of a hypothetical permeable fractured zone in a caprock, existing or activated. Both single-phase and multiphase fluid flow simulations were performed. The CO{sub 2} migration through an existing fractured zone leads to changes in the fluid pressure in the overburden geologic layers and could have a significant impact on ground deformation behavior. Results of the study show that pressure signatures and displacement patterns are significantly different in the presence of a fractured zone in the caprock layer. The variation in pressure and displacement signatures because of the presence of a fractured zone in the caprock at different locations may be useful in identifying the presence of a fault/fractured zone in the caprock. The pressure signatures can also serve as a mechanism to identify the activation of leakage pathways through the caprock during CO{sub 2} injection. Pressure response and ground deformation behavior from sequestration modeling could be useful in the development of

  13. Determination of antimony in environment samples by gas phase chemiluminescence detection following flow injection hydride generation and cryotrapping.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yousheng; Sang, Jianchi; Ma, Hongbing; Tao, Guanhong

    2010-06-15

    A novel method for the determination of antimony in environmental samples was developed with gas phase chemiluminescence detection following flow injection hydride generation and cryotrapping. The stibine, generated from samples by borohydride reduction of antimony using flow injection technique, was separated by using a new gas-liquid separator, dried with an ice-salt cryogenic bath and concentrated in a glass U-tube immersed in liquid nitrogen. Re-vaporization of stibine based on its boiling point was achieved by allowing the tube to warm at room temperature. A gas phase chemiluminescence signal was produced during the ozonation of the hydride in a reflective chamber. Under optimal conditions, the proposed method was characterized by a wide linear calibration range from 1.0microgL(-1) to 10.0mgL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.18microgL(-1) (n=11). The relative standard deviation for 10.0microgL(-1) antimony was 3.56% (n=11) and the sampling rate was 15 samples h(-1). Blank signal was reduced by the purification of reagents and the interference from transition metal ions was eliminated by the addition of L-cysteine into samples. The method was applied to the determination of antimony in environmental samples with satisfactory results. PMID:20441930

  14. A multisyringe flow injection Winkler-based spectrophotometric analyzer for in-line monitoring of dissolved oxygen in seawater.

    PubMed

    Horstkotte, Burkhard; Alonso, Juan Carlos; Miró, Manuel; Cerdà, Víctor

    2010-01-15

    An integrated analyzer based on the multisyringe flow injection analysis approach is proposed for the automated determination of dissolved oxygen in seawater. The entire Winkler method including precipitation of manganese(II) hydroxide, fixation of dissolved oxygen, dissolution of the oxidized manganese hydroxide precipitate, and generation of iodine and tri-iodide ion are in-line effected within the flow network. Spectrophotometric quantification of iodine and tri-iodide at the isosbestic wavelength of 466nm renders enhanced method reliability. The calibration function is linear up to 19mgL(-1) dissolved oxygen and an injection frequency of 17 per hour is achieved. The multisyringe system features a highly satisfying signal stability with repeatabilities of 2.2% RSD that make it suitable for continuous determination of dissolved oxygen in seawater. Compared to the manual starch-end-point titrimetric Winkler method and early reported automated systems, concentrations and consumption of reagents and sample are reduced up to hundredfold. The versatility of the multisyringe assembly was exploited in the implementation of an ancillary automatic batch-wise Winkler titrator using a single syringe of the module for accurate titration of the released iodine/tri-iodide with thiosulfate. PMID:20006097

  15. An environmental friendly method for the automatic determination of hypochlorite in commercial products using multisyringe flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Soto, N Ornelas; Horstkotte, B; March, J G; López de Alba, P L; López Martínez, L; Cerdá Martín, V

    2008-03-24

    A multisyringe flow injection analysis system was used for the determination of hypochlorite in cleaning agents, by measurement of the native absorbance of hypochlorite at 292 nm. The methodology was based on the selective decomposition of hypochlorite by a cobalt oxide catalyst giving chloride and oxygen. The difference of the absorbance of the sample before and after its pass through a cobalt oxide column was selected as analytical signal. As no further reagent was required this work can be considered as a contribution to environmental friendly analytical chemistry. The entire analytical procedure, including in-line sample dilution in three steps was automated by first, dilution in a stirred miniature vessel, second by dispersion and third by in-line addition of water using multisyringe flow injection technique. The dynamic concentration range was 0.04-0.78 gL(-1) (relative standard deviation lower than 3%), where the extension of the hypochlorite decomposition was of 90+/-4%. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of commercial cleaning products. The accuracy of the method was established by iodometric titration. PMID:18328319

  16. Flow-Injection Determination of Thiabendazole Fungicide in Water Samples Using a Diperiodatocuprate(III)-Sulfuric Acid-Chemiluminescence System.

    PubMed

    Asghar, Mohammad; Yaqoob, Mohammad; Munawar, Nusrat; Nabi, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Chemiluminescence (CL) with a flow-injection method is reported for the determination of thiabendazole (TBZ) fungicide based on its enhancement effect on diperiodatocuprate(III) (DPC)-sulfuric acid-CL system. The calibration graph was linear in the concentration range of 1 - 2000 μg L(-1) (R(2) = 0.9999, n = 8) with a limit of detection (S/N = 3) of 0.3 μg L(-1). The injection throughput was 160 h(-1) with relative standard deviations (RSD, n = 4) of 1.1 - 2.9% in the concentration range studied. The experimental variables e.g., reagents concentrations, flow rates, sample volume, and PMT voltage were optimized, and the potential interferences were investigated individually. The method was successfully applied to the determination of TBZ in water samples showing good agreement and recovery in the range of 92 ± 2.2 - 108 ± 3% (n = 3) using dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction (DLLME). The possible CL reaction mechanism for DPC-sulfuric acid-TBZ is also discussed. PMID:26960615

  17. Biosensing of glucose in flow injection analysis system based on glucose oxidase-quantum dot modified pencil graphite electrode.

    PubMed

    Sağlam, Özlem; Kızılkaya, Bayram; Uysal, Hüseyin; Dilgin, Yusuf

    2016-01-15

    A novel amperometric glucose biosensor was proposed in flow injection analysis (FIA) system using glucose oxidase (GOD) and Quantum dot (ZnS-CdS) modified Pencil Graphite Electrode (PGE). After ZnS-CdS film was electrochemically deposited onto PGE surface, GOD was immobilized on the surface of ZnS-CdS/PGE through crosslinking with chitosan (CT). A pair of well-defined reversible redox peak of GOD was observed at GOD/CT/ZnS-CdS/PGE based on enzyme electrode by direct electron transfer between the protein and electrode. Further, obtained GOD/CT/ZnS-CdS/PGE offers a disposable, low cost, selective and sensitive electrochemical biosensing of glucose in FIA system based on the decrease of the electrocatalytic response of the reduced form of GOD to dissolved oxygen. Under optimum conditions (flow rate, 1.3mL min(-1); transmission tubing length, 10cm; injection volume, 100μL; and constant applied potential, -500mV vs. Ag/AgCl), the proposed method displayed a linear response to glucose in the range of 0.01-1.0mM with detection limit of 3.0µM. The results obtained from this study would provide the basis for further development of the biosensing using PGE based FIA systems. PMID:26592613

  18. Fabrication of an Amperometric Flow-Injection Microfluidic Biosensor Based on Laccase for In Situ Determination of Phenolic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Rivera, Juan C.; Osma, Johann F.

    2015-01-01

    We aim to develop an in situ microfluidic biosensor based on laccase from Trametes pubescens with flow-injection and amperometry as the transducer method. The enzyme was directly immobilized by potential step chronoamperometry, and the immobilization was studied using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The electrode response by amperometry was probed using ABTS and syringaldazine. A shift of interfacial electron transfer resistance and the electron transfer rate constant from 18.1 kΩ to 3.9 MΩ and 4.6 × 10−2 cm s−1 to 2.1 × 10−4 cm s−1, respectively, evidenced that laccase was immobilized on the electrode by the proposed method. We established the optimum operating conditions of temperature (55°C), pH (4.5), injection flow rate (200 µL min−1), and applied potential (0.4 V). Finally, the microfluidic biosensor showed better lower limit of detection (0.149 µM) and sensitivity (0.2341 nA µM−1) for ABTS than previous laccase-based biosensors and the in situ operation capacity. PMID:26509166

  19. Simultaneous determination of vanadium(IV) and vanadium(V) by flow injection analysis using kinetic spectrophotometry with Xylenol Orange.

    PubMed

    Oguma, Koichi; Yoshioka, Osamu; Noro, Junji; Sakurai, Hiroki

    2012-07-15

    A flow injection method of analysis has been developed for the simultaneous determination of V(IV) and V(V) using the difference in the rate of complex formation between vanadium in two different oxidation states and Xylenol Orange in acidic media. The proposed method used a spectrophotometric detector equipped with two flow cells aligned with the same optical path to yield two successive peaks per each sample injection. V(IV) and V(V) were determined by solving simultaneous equations in two unknowns, the concentrations of V(IV) and V(V), obtained from measurements of the two peak heights. The detection limit calculated as 3σ of noise signals was 0.01μg/mL for both V(IV) and V(V). The relative standard deviations for V(IV) and V(V) at the 1μg/mL level were 1.6 and 2.4%, respectively. The sample throughput was found to be about 19h(-1). The proposed method was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of V(IV) and V(V) in synthetic scrubbing solutions used in desulphurization with reasonable accuracy. PMID:22817926

  20. Electrochemical analysis of acetaminophen using a boron-doped diamond thin film electrode applied to flow injection system.

    PubMed

    Wangfuengkanagul, Nattakarn; Chailapakul, Orawon

    2002-06-01

    The electrochemistry of acetaminophen in phosphate buffer solution (pH 8) was studied at a boron-doped diamond (BDD) thin film electrode using cyclic voltammetry, hydrodynamic voltammetry, and flow injection with amperometric detection. Cyclic voltammetry was used to study the reaction as a function of concentration of analyte. Comparison experiments were performed using a polished glassy carbon (GC) electrode. Acetaminophen undergoes quasi-reversible reaction at both of these two electrodes. The BDD and GC electrodes provided well-resolved cyclic voltammograms but the voltammetric signal-to-background ratios obtained from the diamond electrode were higher than those obtained from the GC electrode. The diamond electrode provided a linear dynamic range from 0.1 to 8 mM and a detection of 10 microM (S/B approximately 3) for voltammetric measurement. The flow injection analysis results at the diamond electrode indicated a linear dynamic range from 0.5 to 50 microM and a detection limit of 10 nM (S/N approximately 4). Acetaminophen in syrup samples has also been investigated. The results obtained in the recovery study (24.68+/-0.26 mg/ml) were comparable to those labeled (24 mg/ml). PMID:12039625

  1. Operando studies of all-vanadium flow batteries: Easy-to-make reference electrode based on silver-silver sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventosa, Edgar; Skoumal, Marcel; Vázquez, Francisco Javier; Flox, Cristina; Morante, Joan Ramon

    2014-12-01

    In-depth evaluation of the electrochemical performance of all-vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) under operando conditions requires the insertion of a reliable reference electrode in the battery cell. In this work, an easy-to-make reference electrode based on silver-silver sulfate is proposed and described for VRFBs. The relevance and feasibility of the information obtained by inserting the reference electrode is illustrated with the study of ammoxidized graphite felts. In this case, we show that the kinetic of the electrochemical reaction VO2+/VO2+ is slower than that of V2+/V3+ at the electrode. While the slow kinetics at the positive electrode limits the voltage efficiency, the operating potential of the negative electrode, which is outside the stability widow of water, reduces the coulombic efficiency due to the hydrogen evolution.

  2. Application of direct-injection detector integrated with the multi-pumping flow system to photometric stop-flow determination of total iron.

    PubMed

    Koronkiewicz, Stanislawa; Kalinowski, Slawomir

    2012-07-15

    A novel direct-injection detector (DID) integrated with multi-pumping flow system (MPFS) for the photometric determination of iron is proposed. Paired emitter-detector diodes have been used as a photometric detection system. The sample and reagent were injected using appropriate solenoid pulse micro-pumps directly into the detection chamber where effective mixing occured. The use of proposed stop-flow detector considerably simplified the analytical procedure. The potassium thiocyanate has been chosen as a chromogenic reagent for photometric Fe(III) detection. The total volume of reagent and sample/standard solutions involved in the detection process was adjusted to the volume of the reaction-detection chamber. Calibration graph was found to be linear in the range up to 10mgL(-1). The detection limit (3s(b)/S) was 0.15mgL(-1). The repeatability (R.S.D.), calculated from 10 analyses of sample containing 5mgL(-1) Fe(III), was 1.5% and the sample throughput 180 determinations per hour. The consumption of sample and reagent was 20μL each with the waste generation at the level of 0.24mL. The applicability of the proposed method to the determination of total iron in groundwater samples has been proved. The analytical parameters are compared to those obtained exploiting the MPFS system with typical configuration containing a confluence point and reaction coil. PMID:22817930

  3. Flow injection analysis-based methodology for automatic on-line monitoring and quality control for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Pinzi, S; Priego Capote, F; Ruiz Jiménez, J; Dorado, M P; Luque de Castro, M D

    2009-01-01

    An automated on-line approach based on determination of free and bound glycerol was here proposed to monitor biodiesel production. The method was based on liquid-liquid extraction of glycerol from the biodiesel to an aqueous ethanolic phase in which glycerol is oxidized to formaldehyde with meta periodate with subsequent reaction with acetylacetone. The reaction product was photometrically measured at 410 nm. Free and bound glycerol were differentiated by glycerides hydrolysis with potassium ethylate. The experimental set-up consisted of a flow-injection manifold for liquid-liquid extraction without phase separation and iterative change of the flow direction that enabled: (a) filling the flow manifold with a meta periodate-acetylacetone acceptor phase; (b) sampling of small amounts (microl) from the reactor; (c) determination of free glycerol by extraction from biodiesel to the aqueous phase with simultaneous oxidation-reaction with acetylacetone in the acceptor phase; (d) continuous monitoring of the aqueous phase by passage through a photometric detector; (e) filling the flow manifold with a potassium ethylate-meta periodate-acetylacetone new acceptor phase; (d) repetition of steps b-to-d to determine total glycerol after saponification of the bound glycerol by potassium ethylate; and (f) determination of bound glycerol by difference between the second and first analyses. The results showed that the proposed automated on-line method is a suitable option in routine analysis during biodiesel production. PMID:18614358

  4. Ionic Strength Effect on the Rate of Reduction of Hexacyanoferrate(III) by Ascorbic Acid: A Flow Injection Kinetic Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobrega, Joanquim A.; Rocha, Fabio R. P.

    1997-05-01

    Flow injection analysis (FIA) is a well recognized tool for solutions management. In spite of the use of this technique mainly for quantitative determination of analytes in solution, FIA systems can also be used for obtaining physical chemistry data. This work describes the use of a flow diagram to perform a kinetic experiment: the effect of ionic strength on the rate of reduction of hexacyanoferrate(III) by ascorbic acid. The rate determining step of this reaction involves the collision between two anionic species. The increase of the ionic strength of the medium alters the ionic atmosphere and changes the charge densities around the anions. Consequently, there is an increment of the rate constants for higher ionic strengths. In the proposed system, the flow is stopped by commutation when the center of the sample zone attained the flow cell and a gradual decrease in signal, related to the redox reaction, is registered as function of time. This allowed the determination of the rate constants as a function of the ionic strength. The product of the charges of the ions involved in the rate determining step was estimated in 3.2 that is close to the expected value considering the proposed mechanism.

  5. In situ permeable flow sensor - OST reference No. 99. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    This summary reports describes the In Situ Permeable Flow Sensor (ISPFS) developed to directly measure the direction and velocity of groundwater flow at a point in saturated soil sediments. The ISPFS provides information for locating, designing, and monitoring waste disposal sites, and for monitoring remediated waste sites. The design and performance are described and compared to alternative methods. Economic, regulatory, and policy issues are discussed. Applicability of the ISPFS to specific situations is also summarized. 8 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Flow Control and Measurement in Electric Propulsion Systems: Towards an AIAA Reference Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, John Steven; Baldwin, Jeff; Frieman, Jason D.; Walker, Mitchell L. R.; Hicks, Nathan S.; Polzin, Kurt A.; Singleton, James T.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate control and measurement of propellant flow to a thruster is one of the most basic and fundamental requirements for operation of electric propulsion systems, whether they be in the laboratory or on flight spacecraft. Hence, it is important for the electric propulsion community to have a common understanding of typical methods for flow control and measurement. This paper addresses the topic of propellant flow primarily for the gaseous propellant systems which have dominated laboratory research and flight application over the last few decades, although other types of systems are also briefly discussed. While most flight systems have employed a type of pressure-fed flow restrictor for flow control, both thermal-based and pressure-based mass flow controllers are routinely used in laboratories. Fundamentals and theory of operation of these types of controllers are presented, along with sources of uncertainty associated with their use. Methods of calibration and recommendations for calibration processes are presented. Finally, details of uncertainty calculations are presented for some common calibration methods and for the linear fits to calibration data that are commonly used.

  7. Flow injection online spectrophotometric determination of uranium after preconcentration on XAD-4 resin impregnated with nalidixic acid.

    PubMed

    Shahida, Shabnam; Ali, Akbar; Khan, Muhammad Haleem; Saeed, Muhammad Mufazzal

    2013-02-01

    In this work, spectrophotometer was used as a detector for the determination of uranium from water, biological, and ore samples with a flow injection system coupled with solid phase extraction. In order to promote the online preconcentration of uranium, a minicolumn packed with XAD-4 resin impregnated with nalidixic acid was utilized. The system operation was based on U(VI) ion retention at pH 6 in the minicolumn at flow rate of 15.2 mL min(-1). The uranium complex was removed from the resin by 0.1 mol dm(-3) HCl at flow rate of 3.2 mL min(-1) and was mixed with arsenazo III solution (0.05 % solution in 0.1 mol dm(-3) HCl, 3.2 mL min(-1)) and driven to flow through cell of spectrophotometer where its absorbance was measured at 651 nm. The influence of chemical (pH and HCl (as eluent and reagent medium) concentration) and flow (sample and eluent flow rate and preconcentration time) parameters that could affect the performance of the system as well as the possible interferents was investigated. At the optimum conditions for 60 s preconcentration time (15.2 mL of sample volume), the method presented a detection limit of 1.1 μg L(-1), a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 0.8 % at 100 μg L(-1), enrichment factor of 30, and a sample throughput of 42 h(-1), whereas for 300 s of the preconcentration time (76 mL of sample volume), a detection limit of 0.22 μg L(-1), a RSD of 1.32 % at 10 μg L(-1), enrichment factor of 150, and a sampling frequency of 11 h(-1) were reported. PMID:22580790

  8. A robust multisyringe system for process flow analysis. Part II. A multi-commuted injection system applied to the photometric determination of free acidity and iron(III) in metallurgical solutions.

    PubMed

    Albertús, F; Cladera, A; Cerda, V

    2000-12-01

    A new software-controlled volume-based system for sample introduction in process flow injection analysis was developed. By using a multi-syringe burette coupled with one or two additional commutation valves, the multi-commuted injection of precise sample volumes was accomplished. Characteristics and performance of the injection system were studied by injecting an indicator in a buffered carrier. Three configurations were implemented in order to achieve two different tasks: the single injection of a sample in a two- or three-channels manifold, and the dual injection into different streams. The two channel flow system using the single injection was applied to the determination of free acidity in diluted samples containing high levels of iron(III), by employing the single point titration methodology. The precipitation of ferric hydroxide was prevented using the ammonium and sodium salts of oxalate and acetate as buffer titrant. Methyl Red was employed as indicator. The procedure allows determination of acid concentration in solutions with a Fe(III)/H+ molar ratio up to 0.2. Samples with higher Fe(III)/H+ molar ratios were spiked with a known strong acid at dilution. The three-channel configuration was applied to the determination of ferric ions, using, as reagent, a merging mixture of sulfuric acid and potassium thiocyanate. The double injection system was implemented in series in a single (three-channel) manifold in such a way that a different injection volume and a changed reagent were used for each analyte. It was applied to the separated or sequential determination of free acidity and ferric ions. In this configuration, iron(III) was determined using 0.5-0.7% (w/v) sodium salicylate solution as reagent. The systems can operate at up to 100, 84 and 78 injections per hour, respectively. Determinations on synthetic and process samples compared well with the reference values and procedures. Recoveries of 95-102% with a maximum RSD value of 5.4% were found for acidity

  9. Effect of Suction/Injection on Unsteady Hydromagnetic Convective Flow of Reactive Viscous Fluid between Vertical Porous Plates with Thermal Diffusion

    PubMed Central

    Uwanta, I. J.; Hamza, M. M.

    2014-01-01

    An investigation is performed to study the effect of suction/injection on unsteady hydromagnetic natural convection flow of viscous reactive fluid between two vertical porous plates in the presence of thermal diffusion. The partial differential equations governing the flow have been solved numerically using semi-implicit finite-difference scheme. For steady case, analytical solutions have been derived using perturbation series method. Suction/injection is used to control the fluid flow in the channel, and an exothermic chemical reaction of Arrhenius kinetic is considered. Numerical results are presented graphically and discussed quantitatively with respect to various parameters embedded in the problem. PMID:27382632

  10. Generalized solution for 1-D non-Newtonian flow in a porous domain due to an instantaneous mass injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Federico, V.; Ciriello, V.

    2011-12-01

    Non-Newtonian fluid flow in porous media is of considerable interest in hydrology, chemical and petroleum engineering, and biofluid mechanics. We consider an infinite porous domain of plane (d=1), cylindrical (d=2) or semi-spherical geometry (d=3), having uniform permeability k and porosity Φ, initially at uniform pressure and saturated by a weakly compressible non-Newtonian fluid, and analyze the dynamics of the pressure variation generated within the domain by an instantaneous mass injection m0 in its origin. The fluid is described by a rheological power-law model of given consistency index H and flow behavior index n; the flow law is a modified Darcy's law depending on H, Φ, n. Coupling flow law and mass balance equations yields the nonlinear partial differential equation governing the pressure field; an analytical solution is derived in space r and time t as a function of a self-similar variable η=r/tβ(n). We revisit and expand the work in previous papers by providing a dimensionless general formulation and solution to the problem for d=1,2,3. When a shear-thinning fluid (n<1) is considered, the analytical solution exhibits traveling wave characteristics, in variance with Newtonian fluids; the front velocity is proportional to t(n-2)/2 in plane geometry, t(2n-3)/(3-n) in cylindrical geometry, and t(3n-4)/(4-2n) in semi-spherical geometry. The front position is a markedly increasing function of n and is inversely dependent on d; the pressure front advances at a slower rate for larger values of compressibility, higher injected mass and lower porosity. When pressure is considered, it is seen that an increase in d from 1 to 3 brings about an order of magnitude reduction. An increase in compressibility implies a significant decrease in pressure, especially at early times. To reflect the uncertainty inherent in values of the problem parameters, we then consider selected properties of fluid (flow behavior index n) and porous domain (permeability k, porosity

  11. Determination of scandium, yttrium and lanthanides in silicate rocks and four new canadian iron-formation reference materials by flame atomic-absorption spectrometry with microsample injection.

    PubMed

    Sen Gupta, J G

    1984-12-01

    Enhancement of sensitivity by factors of up to 1.5 by use of the microsampling technique, coupled with the advantage of using small samples in small solution volumes, permits rapid flame AAS determination of traces of Sc, Y, Nd, Eu, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm and Yb in ultramafic and most other rocks of low rare-earth content, which would be either impossible or very difficult to analyse by direct aspiration because of the need for much larger sample weights and solution volumes. The rare-earths are separated by a modified ion-exchange or a double calcium oxalate and single hydrous ferric oxide co-precipitation procedure, and ultimately determined in an ethanolic perchlorate solution, buffered with 1% lanthanum, by the flame microsample injection technique, with a nitrous oxide-acetylene flame. The results obtained by this technique for six international reference rocks SY-2 (syenite), BCR-1 (basalt), BHVO-1 (Hawaiian basalt), SCo-1 (cody shale), MAG-1 (marine mud) and STM-1 (syenite) are compared with those obtained previously by the direct aspiration method and with other reported data. Results are given for four new Canadian iron formation reference materials FeR-1 to FeR-4. PMID:18963723

  12. Preferential flow characterization in fractured aquifer by injecting dissolved oxygen in boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vurro, Michele; Donnaloia, Mietta; Masciopinto, Costantino; Pennetta, Luigi; Robbins, Gary; Vitale, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    A new approach to identify contributing fractures and wellbore flow in fractured and karst aquifers is presented. It is time efficient, low cost and based on a benign tracer: the dissolved oxygen (DO). The method was already applied by other scientists to test fractured crystalline rock wells. The DO method consists in elevating water DO concentration in a borehole by bubbling air at assigned water depths using a porous polypropylene tube (bubbler) connected to a compressed air tank with tubing. After the aeration, the resulting profile should be a linear increase in DO with depth due to the effects of water pressure on oxygen solubility. Any changes in the DO profile will be then observed when water flows into and through the well. DO dilution can be used to locate inflowing fractures and to define active flow zones in wells. If there is no change in the DO profile, a "dead zones" in the well is present, that is to say no flow is taking place or can be identified. The DO tests in this work have been carried out in the industrial area of Bari, at the experimental station, constituted by five wells drilled at the CNR-IRSA. The wells penetrate karstic limestone. Results show enhanced flow through at depths between 32 and 37 meters below the water level: DO concentrations decrease until they reach values close to 0 mg/l. DO curves show also the presence of inflowing fractures, as testified by the decrease in the DO concentrations due to the effects of water dilution, at depths of 4 and 9 meters (below the water table) in the north well, at 4 and 10 meters in the central well, and at 30 meters in the south well. The benefits of utilizing DO as a tracer include ease of accessibility, low cost and time-efficiency as well as non-toxic nature of the tracer and no impact on flow conditions.

  13. Simultaneous flow injection preconcentration of lead and cadmium using cloud point extraction and determination by atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Silva, Edson Luiz; Roldan, Paulo Dos Santos

    2009-01-15

    A flow injection (FI) micelle-mediated separation/preconcentration procedure for the determination of lead and cadmium by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) has been proposed. The analytes reacted with 1-(2-thiazolylazo)-2-naphthol (TAN) to form hydrophobic chelates, which were extracted into the micelles of 0.05% (w/v) Triton X-114 in a solution buffered at pH 8.4. In the preconcentration stage, the micellar solution was continuously injected into a flow system with four mini-columns packed with cotton, glass wool, or TNT compresses for phase separation. The analytes-containing micelles were eluted from the mini-columns by a stream of 3molL(-1) HCl solution and the analytes were determined by FAAS. Chemical and flow variables affecting the preconcentration of the analytes were studied. For 15mL of preconcentrated solution, the enhancement factors varied between 15.1 and 20.3, the limits of detection were approximately 4.5 and 0.75microgL(-1) for lead and cadmium, respectively. For a solution containing 100 and 10microgL(-1) of lead and cadmium, respectively, the R.S.D. values varied from 1.6 to 3.2% (n=7). The accuracy of the preconcentration system was evaluated by recovery measurements on spiked water samples. The method was susceptible to matrix effects, but these interferences were minimized by adding barium ions as masking agent in the sample solutions, and recoveries from spiked sample varied in the range of 95.1-107.3%. PMID:18456398

  14. Flow reference method testing and analysis: Field test plan, Texas Utilities Decordova Steam Electric Station

    SciTech Connect

    Lieberman, E.; Werner, A.S.

    1997-05-30

    This report describes the experimental design and test plan for the first of three field tests that the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted in 1997 as part of a major study to evaluate potential improvements to Method 2, EPA`s test method for measuring flue gas volumetric flow in stacks. The experimental design involved four test teams taking concurrent in-stack measurements with velocity sensing probes. Seven types of probes were included in the study. Three test matrices were used to gather data for inter-probe and inter-team comparisons and to assess the impact of velocity decline near the stack wall on volumetric flow measurements.

  15. Detection of nitrite by flow injection analysis using a novel paired emitter-detector diode (PEDD) as a photometric detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Toole, Martina; Shepherd, Roderick; Lau, King-Tong; Diamond, Dermot

    2007-09-01

    An inexpensive flow injection analysis system for determining low concentration levels of nitrite employing the Griess reagent spectrophotometric method is reported. The novel photometric detector applied within this manifold is a highly sensitive, low cost, miniaturized light emitting diode (LED) based flow detector. This colorimetric detector employs two LEDs, operating one as a light source and the other as a light detector. The emitter LED is forward biased and the detector reverse biased. The emitter and detector LED had a λmax of 530 nm and 623 nm respectively. The emission spectrum of the emitter LED efficiently overlapped with the absorbance spectrum of 9 µM NO2 and Griess reagent complex. A simple timer circuit measures the time taken for the photocurrent generated by the emitter LED to discharge the detector LED from 5 V (logic 1) to 1.7 V (logic 0). The Griess reagent method employed for nitrite determination is based on the formation of an azo dye, the intensity of which is directly related to nitrite concentration. The linear range, reproducibility and limit of detection were investigated. Detection limits in the nanomolar range were achieved using the Paired Emitter-Detector Diode (PEDD) flow analysis device. For a comparative study the linear range and limit of detection were also investigated using a platewell reader. Higher sensitivity and improved precision were obtained from the PEDD compared to the commercially available plate well reader.

  16. Wavelength selection in injection-driven Hele-Shaw flows: A maximum amplitude criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Eduardo; Miranda, Jose

    2013-11-01

    As in most interfacial flow problems, the standard theoretical procedure to establish wavelength selection in the viscous fingering instability is to maximize the linear growth rate. However, there are important discrepancies between previous theoretical predictions and existing experimental data. In this work we perform a linear stability analysis of the radial Hele-Shaw flow system that takes into account the combined action of viscous normal stresses and wetting effects. Most importantly, we introduce an alternative selection criterion for which the selected wavelength is determined by the maximum of the interfacial perturbation amplitude. The effectiveness of such a criterion is substantiated by the significantly improved agreement between theory and experiments. We thank CNPq (Brazilian Sponsor) for financial support.

  17. Flow and temperature fields following injection of a jet normal to a cross stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, R. J.; Ramsey, J. W.; Eriksen, V. L.

    1978-01-01

    The interaction of a jet entering into a freestream normal to the main flow direction has been studied with particular attention directed to visualization of the large-scale flow interactions and to measurement of the film-cooling performance. Large eddies are apparent downstream of the entering jet even at moderate blowing rate (defined as the ratio of the mass velocity of the jet to the mass velocity of the freestream). At higher blowing rate, there is only intermittent contact between the mass from the jet and the downstream wall. The film cooling downstream from a single normal jet yields a lower centerline effectiveness compared to an inclined jet through a greater lateral spreading. The greater spreading provides a more uniform effectiveness across the span of the downstream wall, in particular at large blowing rate.

  18. Cadmium determination in natural water samples with an automatic multisyringe flow injection system coupled to a flow-through screen printed electrode.

    PubMed

    Henríquez, C; Laglera, L M; Alpizar, M J; Calvo, J; Arduini, F; Cerdà, V

    2012-07-15

    Heavy metals, as cadmium, attract a rising attention in environmental studies due to their increasing release by human activities and acute toxicity. In situ analytical methods are needed to minimize current uncertainties caused by the transport and conservation of samples. Here, we present the completely automatic determination of Cd in natural waters using a newly developed screen printed electrode sensor (SPE), inserted in a homemade purpose-built flow cell coupled to a Multi-Syringe Flow Injection Analysis system (MSFIA). The working electrode of SPEs was constituted by a carbon film modified with Nafion. Cd was plated on an in situ bismuth film and determined using Square Wave Anodic Stripping Voltammetry. Different chemical conditions of deposition and stripping were studied. A sample/acetic buffer mixture was found to be a well suited medium to form the Bi film and perform the analysis. Cd was quantified via calibration by on line standard additions. The limit of detection was found to be 0.79μgL(-1), well below the limit stipulated by the European directive (5μgL(-1)). Good sample throughput (14h(-1)) and low consumption of reagent and sample (1.3mL) were also obtained in line with previous works in Cd flow analysis. PMID:22817941

  19. Voltammetric and reference microelectrodes with integrated microchannels for flow through microvoltammetry. 1. The microcell

    PubMed

    Keller; Buffle

    2000-03-01

    This paper describes the construction of 2 microsensor units for on-line voltammetric detection inside a cylindrical microcell (a working microsensor unit and a reference and auxiliary microsensor unit), for application to heavy-metal analysis in complex media such as natural waters. Both microsensor units include a channel for the solution renewal in the microcell after analysis. The working microsensor, a Hg-plated Ir microelectrode, is protected against fouling with an agarose gel including a hydrophobic chromatographic phase (C18). The fabrication steps and the quality tests related to long-term use and reliability, as well as to precision, are described. The application of the protective gel layer against fouling by hydrophobic or surface active small molecules is of general application, reliable, and very efficient. The reference and auxiliary unit is composed by an iridium oxide based mini reference electrode, an auxiliary Pt electrode, and a circulation channel. It is built to enable its use inside a 700-microm-diameter tubing connected to a hollow fiber supported liquid membrane lumen (volume, 5-10 microL) for heavy-metal analysis. However, it can be used in any other microanalytical system. The reference electrode is sufficiently stable for voltammetric applications (1-2 mV drift/day), and its lifetime is more than one year. The Ti/IrO2 core is immersed in a pH-buffered agarose gel, to guarantee potential stability even when the electrode is immersed in variable pH solutions. PMID:10739195

  20. Evaluating long-term trends in mean- and high- river flows using a network of reference stations in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilby, R. L.; Murphy, C.; Harrigan, S.; Hall, J.

    2012-12-01

    This paper describes the development of a reference hydrometric network for Ireland established primarily for the detection of climate driven trends in mean and high river flows. Thirty-five stations were identified for inclusion in the network plus a further 8 from the UK Benchmark Network. Their average record length is 40 years with a minimum of 28 and maximum of 63 years. Time series were derived for eight river flow indices: annual and seasonal mean flows and the annual maximum 1-, 10- and 30-day flows. Mann Kendall and Theil Sen statistics were applied to all indices using fixed and variable start/end dates. Trends in the winter mean are found to be highly dependent on the chosen period of analysis with the longest records showing increased flows. Contrary to expectations (of regional climate change scenarios), increases are also evident for long-term summer mean flows. High flow metrics exhibit positive and persistent trends that are less affected by inter-annual variability and period of record. Overall, there is strong spatial coherence in these patterns of change, linked to temporal variations in precipitation. Our results highlight the dangers of using conventional fixed periods such as 1961-1990 for trend detection, recognising that there is always a trade-off between record length, density of the network, and geographic coverage. Furthermore, outliers at the beginning of the record can be an artefact of the original motivation for installing the gauging station(s). In this case, water resource concerns during a markedly dry period in the mid-1970s favour positive trends over subsequent decades. Future work will focus on detection times for climate change signals and the identification of sentinel sites for discerning early signs of anthropogenic climate change across Ireland. Broader lessons for monitoring and detection of anthropogenic climate change signals will also be distilled.

  1. Automatic determination of phylloquinone in vegetables and fruits using on-line photochemical reduction and fluorescence detection via solid phase extraction and flow injection.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ruiz, Tomás; Martínez-Lozano, Carmen; Martín, Jesús; García, Maria Dolores

    2006-01-01

    A very simple, rapid and highly sensitive flow injection fluorimetric method was developed for the determination of phylloquinone. The assay was based on the on-line reduction of phylloquinone in dodecylsulfate micelles after irradiation with UV light. The micellar medium enhanced the fluorescence and stability of the reduced phylloquinone. Under optimum experimental conditions, the range of application of the technique was between 0.09 and 45.0 microg mL(-1) and the detection limit was 0.05 microg mL(-1). The sample throughput was 90 injections per hour. The reliability of the method for the routine analysis of phylloquinone in vegetables and fruits is demonstrated. Extractions were made with hexane, and an automated solid phase extraction system was used to purify the sample extracts prior to injection into the flow injection manifold. PMID:16292548

  2. Intravitreal injection

    MedlinePlus

    Retinal vein occlusion-intravitreal injection; Triamcinolone-intravitreal injection; Dexamethasone-intravitreal injection; Lucentis-intravitreal injection; Avastin-intravitreal injection; Bevacizumab-intravitreal injection; Ranibizumab- ...

  3. Flow-injection determination of thyroxine using immobilized enzyme with tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(III) chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Waseem, Amir; Yaqoob, Mohammad; Nabi, Abdul

    2006-08-01

    A flow-injection method is reported for the determination of thyroxine based on its enhancement effect on the tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(III) chemiluminescence reaction in the presence of NADH using immobilized alcohol dehydrogenase purified from baker yeast. The limit of detection (3 sigma blank) was 5.0 x 10(-8) M with a sample throughput of 80 h(-1). The calibration graph was linear over the range 0.5 - 10 x 10(-7) M (r2= 0.9988) with the relative standard deviation in the range 1.4 - 3.5% (n = 4). The effect of common excipients used in pharmaceutical preparations, some organic compounds and metal ions was studied. The method was applied to pharmaceutical thyroxine tablets, and the obtained results were not significantly different from the amount quoted. PMID:16896249

  4. Extractable sulphate-sulphur, total sulphur and trace-element determinations in plant material by flow injection analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Heanes, D.L. )

    1990-01-01

    A rapid, accurate and reproducible procedure for determining total sulphur(S) and trace elements (copper, zinc, manganese and iron) in plant material is described. Plant material is digested in culture tubes with a mixture of nitric and perchloric acids containing ammonium metavanadate and calcium chloride. In the acid digest, concentrations of total-S as sulphate are determined by turbidimetry and trace-elements by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry using flow injection analysis. The results for a range of plant materials compare well with those obtained by conventional procedures for the same elements. The microprocessor controlled digestion and multielement assay procedure described here offers improved laboratory efficiencies in materials, time and cost effectiveness. The techniques should be particularly useful when plant tissues are in limited supply.

  5. [Determination of antioxidation of the extract from Chinese medicine Morinda officinalis How by flow injection chemiluminescence and spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yong-Jun; Shi, Jie; Qu, Ling-Bo; Li, Fei-Fei; Li, Xiao-Jing; Wu, Yi-Ming

    2006-09-01

    Flow injection chemiluminescence analysis was used to determine the antioxidation activity of extract from Morinda officinalis How. The determination was based on the inhibition effect of Morinda officinalis How extraction in the chemiluminescence reaction of luminol - H2O2-CuSO4 system, and vitamin C was used as positive control. It was showed that Morinda officinalis How original liquid has obvious anti-radical activity. Spectroscopy was applied to determine the inhibition ratio of Morinda officinalis How extraction for the superoxide anion and hydroxy radicals in the special system. It was shown that the extraction from Morinda officinalis How could obviously scavenge superoxide anion and hydroxy radicals. It is suggested that the Chinese Medicine Morinda Officinalis How is a potential antioxidation activity medicine. PMID:17112048

  6. On the MHD squeeze flow between two parallel disks with suction or injection via HAM and HPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganji, D. D.; Abbasi, M.; Rahimi, J.; Gholami, M.; Rahimipetroudi, I.

    2014-09-01

    An analysis has been performed to study the problem of magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) squeeze flow of an electrically conducting fluid between two infinite, parallel disks. The analytical methods called Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM) and Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM) have been used to solve nonlinear differential equations. It has been attempted to show the capabilities and wide-range applications of the proposed methods in comparison with a type of numerical analysis as Boundary Value Problem (BVP) in solving this problem. Also, the velocity fields have been computed and shown graphically for various values of physical parameters. The objective of the present work is to investigate the effect of squeeze Reynolds number, Hartmann number and the suction/injection parameter on the velocity field. Furthermore, the results reveal that HAM and HPM are very effective and convenient.

  7. Method for the simultaneous determination of total polyphenol and anthocyan indexes in red wines using a flow injection approach.

    PubMed

    González-Rodríguez, J; Pérez-Juan, P; Luque de Castro, M D

    2002-01-01

    A simultaneous and fast method for the determination of total polyphenol index (t.p.i.) and total anthocyan index (t.a.i.) has been developed by a flow injection approach and a diode array spectrophotometer for monitoring at 280 and 520 nm, respectively. Linear ranges were obtained from 20 to 70 index units and from 20 to 500 mg l(-1) for the t.p.i. and t.a.i., respectively. The results provided by the proposed method agree with those obtained using the polyphenol index at 280 nm and the Ribereau-Gayon method for the determination of total anthocyans. The sample throughout was 25-30 samples per hour. Analytical features such as repeatability, reproducibility and detection and quantification limits as well as the results of a robustness study based on the Steiner-Younden procedure are also given. PMID:18968479

  8. Determination of thiram in natural waters using flow-injection with cerium(IV)-quinine chemiluminescence system.

    PubMed

    Waseem, Amir; Yaqoob, Mohammad; Nabi, Abdul

    2010-01-01

    A simple and rapid flow-injection chemiluminescence method has been developed for the determination of dithiocarbamate fungicide thiram based on the chemiluminescence reaction of thiram with ceric sulfate and quinine in aqueous sulfuric acid. The present method allowed the determination of thiram in the concentration range of 7.5-2500 ng/mL and the detection limit (signal-to-noise ratio = 3) was 7.5 ng/mL with sample throughput of 120/h. The relative standard deviation was 2.5% for 10 replicate analyses of 500 ng/mL thiram. The effects of foreign species including various anions and cations present in water at environmentally relevant concentrations and some pesticides were also investigated. The proposed method was applied to determine thiram in spiked natural waters using octadecyl bonded phase silica (C(18)) cartridges for solid-phase extraction. The recoveries were in the range 99 +/- 1 to 104 +/- 1%. PMID:19630089

  9. Flow-injection chemiluminescent determination of cefprozil using Tris (2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium (II)-permanganate system.

    PubMed

    Alarfaj, Nawal A; Abd El-Razeq, Sawsan A

    2006-06-16

    A rapid and sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) method using flow-injection (FI) has been developed for the determination of a second generation cephalosporin, cefprozil. The method is based on the CL reaction of cefprozil with acidic potassium permanganate and tris (2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium (II), Ru (bipy)3(2+). The CL intensity is greatly enhanced when quinine sulfate is used as a sensitizer. After optimization of the different experimental parameters, a calibration graph was obtained over a concentration range of 0.1-3.0 microg ml(-1) with minimum detectability of 0.005 microgml(-1) (S/N=3). The correlation coefficient was 0.9998 (n=6) with a relative standard deviation (%R.S.D.) of 1.63% for 2.0 microgml(-1). The proposed method was successfully applied to commercial tablets. The average percentage recovery (n=6) was 99.9+/-1.40. PMID:16682164

  10. Determination of arsenic in gold by flow injection inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with matrix removal by reductive precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becotte-Haigh, Paul; Tyson, Julian F.; Denoyer, Eric; Hinds, Michael W.

    1996-12-01

    Arsenic was determined in gold by flow injection hydride generation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry following a batch mode reductive precipitation removal of the interfering gold matrix. A solution of potassium iodide, L-ascorbic acid, and hydrochloric acid was used as the reluctant. The recovery of gold by precipitation and filtration was 99 ± 3%. The detection limit for arsenic in gold was 55 ng g -1 in the solid. The concentration of arsenic that was determined in the Royal Canadian Mint gold sample FAU-10 was 29.7 μg g -1 in the solid; this value was indistinguishable, with 95% confidence, from values determined at the Royal Canadian Mint by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The standard deviation for four replicate determinations of the arsenic in FAU-10 was 0.972 μg g -1 in the solid.

  11. Flow injection analysis of phenolic compounds with carbon paste electrodes modified with tyrosinase purchased from different companies

    SciTech Connect

    Lindgren, A.; Emneus, J.; Csoeregi, E.; Gorton, L.; Marko-Varga, G.; Ruzgas, T.

    1996-05-01

    Tyrosinase-modified carbon paste electrodes were prepared using lyophilised powder of the enzyme purchased from different companies. The selectivity of these electrodes for nine phenolic compounds, including six substituted catechols, has been studied. The signals obtained for catechol were always higher than those found for other phenolic compounds. Cyclic voltammetry and flow injection measurements indicated that the response of the tyrosinase-modified carbon paste electrodes was limited by the rate of the enzymatic oxidation of catechols. Different approaches of past electrode preparation have been studied and compared. Direct mixing of enzyme into the graphite powder doped with the osmium based mediator, resulted in the highest sensitivity for the studied substrates. However, substrate selectivity was found to be dependent on the source of enzyme used for electrode preparation.

  12. Rapid flow injection method for the determination of sulfite in wine using the permanganate-luminol luminescence system.

    PubMed

    Navarrro, Mercedes Villar; Payán, María Ramos; López, Miguel Angel Bello; Fernández-Torres, Rut; Mochón, Manuel Callejón

    2010-10-15

    A simple, rapid and sensitive chemiluminescence method for the determination of sulfite has been developed by combining flow-injection analysis and its sensitizing effect on the known chemiluminescence emission produced by the oxidation of luminol in alkaline medium; in this work permanganate has been proposed as oxidizing reactive. The optimum conditions for the chemiluminescence emission were established. The chemiluminescence was proportional to the sulfite concentration over the range 1.6 × 10(-5) and 4.0 × 10(-4)mol L(-1). The detection limit was 4.7 × 10(-6)mol L(-1) of sulfite. The method has been satisfactorily used for the determination of free and bound sulfite in wines. PMID:20875609

  13. Determination of free (pH 2.2) sulfite in wines by flow injection analysis: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, J J; Hollingworth, T A; Wekell, M M; Meo, V A; Etemad-Moghadam, A; Phillips, J G; Gump, B H

    1990-01-01

    A method for the determination of free sulfite in wine by flow injection analysis (FIA) is described. The method involves liberation of sulfur dioxide from the wine at pH 2.2, with detection by decolorization of a malachite green solution. The method was collaboratively studied, and the results indicated an average reproducibility of 12% for white wine samples (average level 12.1 ppm SO2) and 26% for red wine samples (average level 3.1 ppm). When the FIA method was compared to an aeration/oxidation method, the results indicated a high degree of correlation between the 2 methods. The FIA method has been adopted by AOAC official first action. PMID:2324033

  14. Flow injection spectrophotometric determination of isoproterenol using an avocado (Persea americana) crude extract immobilized on controlled-pore silica reactor.

    PubMed

    Lupetti, Karina Omuro; Vieira, Iolanda Cruz; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando

    2002-04-22

    An enzymatic reactor was constructed by the immobilization of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) from avocado (Persea americana) crude extract in an inorganic support of controlled pore silica (CPS), after a previous step of silanization. This inorganic support has been used as an excellent carrier to immobilize this enzyme and the enzymatic reactor was used in a flow injection system for the determination of isoproterenol in pharmaceutical products. The procedure is based on the oxidation reaction of this drug with immobilized PPO and the product obtained was monitored at 492 nm. This system presented an analytical curve from 1.23x10(-4) to 7.38x10(-4) mol l(-1) isoproterenol with a detection limit of 6.25x10(-5) mol l(-1). Recoveries of isoproterenol between 98.5 and 103.1%, a relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) less than 1% (n=10) and 36 determinations per h were obtained. PMID:18968613

  15. Flow reference method testing and analysis: Wind tunnel experimental results. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    This report describes the results of wind tunnel tests that the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted in 1997 as part of a major study to evaluate potential improvements to Method 2, EPA`s test method for measuring flue gas volumetric flow in stacks. Conducted in the Merrill Subsonic Wind Tunnel at North Carolina State University in Raleigh, the wind tunnel tests were designed to evaluate how accurately various probes can measure angles and velocity of flow under prescribed conditions and, additionally, to calibrate the probes for use in planned field experiments. To provide a basis for selecting probes for subsequent field tests, the wind tunnel testing was performed over a range of velocity, pitch, and yaw angle settings approximating the conditions encountered at actual utility sites.

  16. Flow injection chemiluminescence determination of lercanidipine based on N-chlorosuccinimide-eosin Y post-chemiluminescence reaction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guowei; Zhao, Fang; Gao, Ying

    2014-12-01

    A novel post-chemiluminescence (PCL) reaction was discovered when lercanidipine was injected into the CL reaction mixture of N-chlorosuccinimide with alkaline eosin Y in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), where eosin Y was used as the CL reagent and CTAB as the surfactant. Based on this observation, a simple and highly sensitive PCL method combined with a flow injection (FI) technique was developed for the assay of lercanidipine. Under optimum conditions, the CL signal was linearly related to the concentration of lercanidipine in the range 7.0 × 10(-10) to 3.0 × 10(-6)  g/mL with a detection limit of 2.3 × 10(-10) g/mL (3σ). The relative standard deviation (RSD) was 2.1% for 1.0 × 10(-8) g/mL lercanidipine (n = 13). The proposed method had been applied to the estimation of lercanidipine in tablets and human serum samples with satisfactory results. The possible CL mechanism is also discussed briefly. PMID:24615899

  17. Flow injection with in-line reduction column and conductometric detection for determination of total inorganic nitrogen in soil.

    PubMed

    Yanu, Pattama; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2015-11-01

    A cost effective flow injection (FI) conductometric system has been developed for determination of total inorganic nitrogen (TIN). The system is aimed for evaluation of nitrogen nutrient in soil for agricultural application. Inorganic nitrogen compounds were extracted from soil according to the standard method by using potassium chloride solution as an extractant, and the extracted solution was then injected into the FI system. Nitrate and nitrite are converted to ammonium ion by an in-line reduction column packed with a Devarda's alloy. A gas diffusion unit was incorporated into the FI system to separate ammonium ion from other ions in a donor stream by forming ammonia gas that can diffuse through a PTFE membrane to re-dissolve in an acceptor stream. Conductance of the acceptor stream was directly proportional to ammonium ion concentration. Various parameters affecting reduction efficiency of the column, e.g., column diameter, column packing procedure, and column length was investigated and optimized. A linear calibration graph in the range of 2.00-60.00 mg L(-1) N-NH4(+) (y=0.123x+0.039, R(2) =0.997) was obtained with a limit of detection of 0.47 mg L(-1). Sample throughput of 20 samples h(-1) was achieved. The result of developed method was correlated with total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) obtained from the Kjeldahl digestion method. The proposed method could be used as an alternative method to the Kjeldahl method for determination of TIN in soil. PMID:26452820

  18. Hyphenating multisyringe flow injection lab-on-valve analysis with atomic fluorescence spectrometry for on-line bead injection preconcentration and determination of trace levels of hydride-forming elements in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Long, Xiangbao; Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald; Estela, José Manuel; Cerdà, Víctor

    2006-12-15

    In this work the third generation of flow injection analysis, that is, the so-called micro-lab-on-valve (microLOV) approach, is proposed for the first time for the separation, preconcentration, and monitoring of metalloids as hyphenated with atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). This was made feasible by interfacing the micromachined LOV-module with AFS by a multisyringe flowing stream network for on-line postcolumn derivatization of the eluate aimed at generation of hydride species. The potential of this new hyphenated technique for environmental assays was ascertained via determination of ultratrace level concentrations of total inorganic arsenic in freshwater. Employing quantitative preoxidation of As(III) to As(V) in the samples by means of permanganate, the method involves preconcentration of arsenate at pH 10 on a renewable anion exchanger, namely, Q-Sepharose, packed in a LOV microcolumn. The analyte species is afterward stripped out and concurrently prereduced by a 300 microL eluent plug containing 6 mol L(-)1 HCl and 10% KI. The eluate is downstream merged with a metered volume of sodium tetrahydroborate (0.3% w/v) for generation of arsine, which is subsequently quantified by AFS. The flow system facilitates on-column reduction of the retained arsenic with no need for application of programmable stopped flow. Yet, the high concentration of reductant and extreme pH conditions for elution hinder the sorbent to be reused due to gradual deactivation of the functional moieties, so that maximum benefit can be taken from the application of the bead renewable strategy. The proposed procedure is characterized by a high tolerance to metal species and interfering hydride-forming elements. In fact, ratios of Se(IV) to As < or = 5000 and Sb(V) to As < or = 500 are tolerated at the 10% interference level. Under the optimized experimental conditions, a detection limit (3sigma) of 0.02 ng mL(-1) As, a dynamic linear range of 0.05-2.0 ng mL(-1) As (by tailoring the AFS

  19. Evaluation of flow injection analysis for determination of cholinesterase activities in biological material.

    PubMed

    Cabal, Jiri; Bajgar, Jiri; Kassa, Jiri

    2010-09-01

    The method for automatic continual monitoring of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in biological material is described. It is based on flexible system of plastic pipes mixing samples of biological material with reagents for enzyme determination; reaction product penetrates through the semipermeable membrane and it is spectrophotometrically determined (Ellman's method). It consists of sampling (either in vitro or in vivo), adding the substrate and flowing to dialyzer; reaction product (thiocholine) is dialyzed and mixed with 5,5'-dithio-bis-2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB) transported to flow spectrophotometer. Flowing of all materials is realised using peristaltic pump. The method was validated: time for optimal hydratation of the cellophane membrane; type of the membrane; type of dialyzer; conditions for optimal permeation of reaction components; optimization of substrate and DTNB concentrations (linear dependence); efficacy of peristaltic pump; calibration of analytes after permeation through the membrane; excluding of the blood permeation through the membrane. Some examples of the evaluation of the effects of AChE inhibitors are described. It was demonstrated very good uniformity of peaks representing the enzyme activity (good reproducibility); time dependence of AChE inhibition caused by VX in vitro in the rat blood allowing to determine the half life of inhibition and thus, bimolecular rate constants of inhibition; reactivation of inhibited AChE by some reactivators, and continual monitoring of the activity in the whole blood in vivo in intact and VX-intoxicated rats. The method is simple and not expensive, allowing automatic determination of AChE activity in discrete or continual samples in vitro or in vivo. It will be evaluated for further research of cholinesterase inhibitors. PMID:20188079

  20. Rapid detection of pesticides not amenable to multi-residue methods by flow injection-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mol, Hans G J; van Dam, Ruud C J

    2014-11-01

    Flow injection combined with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was investigated for the rapid detection of highly polar pesticides that are not amenable to multi-residue methods because they do not partition into organic solvents and require dedicated chromatographic conditions. The pesticides included in this study were amitrole, chlormequat, cyromazine, daminozide, diquat, ethephon, fosetyl-Al, glufosinate, glyphosate and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid, maleic hydrazide, mepiquat and paraquat. The composition of the flow-injection solvent was optimized to achieve maximum MS/MS sensitivity. Instrumental limits of detection varied between <0.05 and 1 pg. Fruit, vegetable, cereal, milk and kidney samples were extracted with water (1% formic acid in case of paraquat/diquat) and ten times diluted in either methanol/0.1% formic acid, methanol/0.1% ammonia or acetonitrile/0.1% ammonia, depending on the pesticide. The ion suppression observed depended strongly on both the matrix and the pesticide. This could be largely compensated for by matrix-matched calibration, but more accurate quantification was obtained by using isotopically labelled standards (commercially available for most of the pesticides studied). The method detection limits ranged from 0.02 mg/kg for chlormequat and mepiquat to 2 mg/kg for maleic hydrazide and were 0.05-0.2 mg/kg for most other pesticide/matrix combinations. This was sufficiently low to test compliance with EU maximum residue limits for many relevant pesticide/commodity combinations. The method substantially reduces the liquid chromatography-MS/MS capacity demand which for many laboratories is prohibitive for inclusion of these pesticides in their monitoring and surveillance programmes. PMID:24518902

  1. Flying over uneven moving terrain based on optic-flow cues without any need for reference frames or accelerometers.

    PubMed

    Expert, Fabien; Ruffier, Franck

    2015-04-01

    Two bio-inspired guidance principles involving no reference frame are presented here and were implemented in a rotorcraft, which was equipped with panoramic optic flow (OF) sensors but (as in flying insects) no accelerometer. To test these two guidance principles, we built a tethered tandem rotorcraft called BeeRotor (80 grams), which was tested flying along a high-roofed tunnel. The aerial robot adjusts its pitch and hence its speed, hugs the ground and lands safely without any need for an inertial reference frame. The rotorcraft's altitude and forward speed are adjusted via two OF regulators piloting the lift and the pitch angle on the basis of the common-mode and differential rotor speeds, respectively. The robot equipped with two wide-field OF sensors was tested in order to assess the performances of the following two systems of guidance involving no inertial reference frame: (i) a system with a fixed eye orientation based on the curved artificial compound eye (CurvACE) sensor, and (ii) an active system of reorientation based on a quasi-panoramic eye which constantly realigns its gaze, keeping it parallel to the nearest surface followed. Safe automatic terrain following and landing were obtained with CurvACE under dim light to daylight conditions and the active eye-reorientation system over rugged, changing terrain, without any need for an inertial reference frame. PMID:25717052

  2. Velocity field of a round jet in a cross flow for various jet injection angles and velocity ratios. [Langley V/STOL tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fearn, R. L.; Weston, R. P.

    1979-01-01

    A subsonic round jet injected from a flat plate into a subsonic crosswind of the same temperature was investigated. Velocity and pressure measurements in planes perpendicular to the path of the jet were made for nominal jet injection angles of 45 deg, 60 deg, 75 deg, 90 deg, and 105 deg and for jet/cross flow velocity ratios of four and eight. The velocity measurements were obtained to infer the properties of the vortex pair associated with a jet in a cross flow. Jet centerline and vortex trajectories were determined and fit with an empirical equation that includes the effects of jet injection angle, jet core length, and jet/cross flow velocity ratios.

  3. Electrochemical flow injection analysis of hydrazine in an excess of an active pharmaceutical ingredient: achieving pharmaceutical detection limits electrochemically.

    PubMed

    Channon, Robert B; Joseph, Maxim B; Bitziou, Eleni; Bristow, Anthony W T; Ray, Andrew D; Macpherson, Julie V

    2015-10-01

    The quantification of genotoxic impurities (GIs) such as hydrazine (HZ) is of critical importance in the pharmaceutical industry in order to uphold drug safety. HZ is a particularly intractable GI and its detection represents a significant technical challenge. Here, we present, for the first time, the use of electrochemical analysis to achieve the required detection limits by the pharmaceutical industry for the detection of HZ in the presence of a large excess of a common active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), acetaminophen (ACM) which itself is redox active, typical of many APIs. A flow injection analysis approach with electrochemical detection (FIA-EC) is utilized, in conjunction with a coplanar boron doped diamond (BDD) microband electrode, insulated in an insulating diamond platform for durability and integrated into a two piece flow cell. In order to separate the electrochemical signature for HZ such that it is not obscured by that of the ACM (present in excess), the BDD electrode is functionalized with Pt nanoparticles (NPs) to significantly shift the half wave potential for HZ oxidation to less positive potentials. Microstereolithography was used to fabricate flow cells with defined hydrodynamics which minimize dispersion of the analyte and optimize detection sensitivity. Importantly, the Pt NPs were shown to be stable under flow, and a limit of detection of 64.5 nM or 0.274 ppm for HZ with respect to the ACM, present in excess, was achieved. This represents the first electrochemical approach which surpasses the required detection limits set by the pharmaceutical industry for HZ detection in the presence of an API and paves the wave for online analysis and application to other GI and API systems. PMID:26302058

  4. Numerical Analysis of Flow Evolution in a Helium Jet Injected into Ambient Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Satti, Rajani P.; Agrawal, Ajay K.

    2005-01-01

    A computational model to study the stability characteristics of an evolving buoyant helium gas jet in ambient air environment is presented. Numerical formulation incorporates a segregated approach to solve for the transport equations of helium mass fraction coupled with the conservation equations of mixture mass and momentum using a staggered grid method. The operating parameters correspond to the Reynolds number varying from 30 to 300 to demarcate the flow dynamics in oscillating and non-oscillating regimes. Computed velocity and concentration fields were used to analyze the flow structure in the evolving jet. For Re=300 case, results showed that an instability mode that sets in during the evolution process in Earth gravity is absent in zero gravity, signifying the importance of buoyancy. Though buoyancy initiates the instability, below a certain jet exit velocity, diffusion dominates the entrainment process to make the jet non-oscillatory as observed for the Re=30 case. Initiation of the instability was found to be dependent on the interaction of buoyancy and momentum forces along the jet shear layer.

  5. Pretreatment of oily samples for analysis by flow injection-spectrometric methods.

    PubMed

    Burguera, José Luis; Burguera, Marcela

    2011-01-15

    This review presents a critical discussion of selected reports dealing with the pretreatment methods of oily samples and the determination of their organic and inorganic constituents using flow systems and spectrometric methods. Special emphasis is given to the on-line couplings with detection systems based on UV-visible spectrophotometry and spectrofluorimetry, atomic absorption spectrometry either with flame or electrothermal atomization as well as inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry or inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Simple dilution with organic solvents, digestion with concentrated acids under thermal heating, microwave or ultrasound radiation and emulsification procedures are mostly used. The empirical preparation of certain organized assemblies like micelles, emulsions and specially microemulsions added to the confusion of some of the terms, demand a brief description of their characteristics, the correct formulation and some of their applications to the manipulation and treatment of oily samples. The analytical capabilities of combining flow manifolds with spectrometric methods for the determination of specific parameters in oily samples apparently have not been sufficiently exploited yet. PMID:21147308

  6. Flow injection analysis with bioluminescence-based fiber-optic biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, Loic J.; Gautier, Sabine; Coulet, Pierre R.

    1991-09-01

    Fiber optic biosensors based on the firefly and the bacterial bioluminescence reactions have been constructed and incorporated in a specially designed flow-cell for the sensitive determination of ATP and NADH, respectively. The bioluminescence enzymes were immobilized on preactivated polyamide membranes which were placed in close contact with the surface on one end of a glass-fiber bundle, the other end being connected to the photomultiplier tube of a luminometer. When using the continuous-flow device with the firefly luciferase or the bacterial system immobilized separately on different membranes, the detection limit for ATP and NADH were 0.25 and 2 pmol, respectively. The versatility of the fiber optic probe has been improved by co-immobilizing the bacterial bioluminescent system and the firefly luciferase on the same support enabling the use of a single sensor for the selective, specific, and alternate determination of these two analytes. Compatible reaction conditions preserving the activity of each co-immobilized enzyme without impairing its stability were found. The selection of the appropriate reaction medium was done using a four port valve. Alternate quantification of ATP and NADH could then be performed in the linear ranges 0.25 pmol - 3 nmol and 5 pmol - 1 nmol, respectively with a RSD of 4.0 - 4.5%.

  7. Masking Agents Evaluation for Lead Determination by Flow Injection-Hydride Generation-Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry Technique: Effect of KI, L-Cysteine, and 1,10-Phenanthroline

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán, Blanca G.; Ferrer, Laura; Cerdà, Víctor

    2016-01-01

    Hydride generation (HG) of lead technique presents interferences from foreign ions of complex matrix samples. In order to minimize these interferences, the effect of masking agents such as KI, L-cysteine, and 1,10-phenanthroline was studied in the absence and in the presence of selected interfering species (As, Cr, Cu, and Fe). Different modes of addition of masking agents were accomplished, that is, to either sample or KBH4 reducing solution. The lead determinations were performed using a flow injection analysis (FIA) system coupled to HG and atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). The linearity of calibration curves (1–10 μg Pb L−1) was not affected by the addition of the masking agents. The use of KI in the reducing solution diminished interferences from concentrations of As and Cu, while 1,10-phenanthroline showed a positive effect on the interference by As. Moreover, Cr and Cu appeared to be the most serious interfering ions for plumbane (PbH4), because they drastically reduced the analytical signal of lead. Fe did not present any interference under the employed experimental conditions, even at high levels. The accuracy was established through the analysis of certified reference material (i.e., BCR-610, groundwater) using KI as masking agent. The detection limit reached by FIA-HG-AFS proposed methodology was 0.03 μg Pb L−1. PMID:27148365

  8. Masking Agents Evaluation for Lead Determination by Flow Injection-Hydride Generation-Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry Technique: Effect of KI, L-Cysteine, and 1,10-Phenanthroline.

    PubMed

    Beltrán, Blanca G; Leal, Luz O; Ferrer, Laura; Cerdà, Víctor

    2016-01-01

    Hydride generation (HG) of lead technique presents interferences from foreign ions of complex matrix samples. In order to minimize these interferences, the effect of masking agents such as KI, L-cysteine, and 1,10-phenanthroline was studied in the absence and in the presence of selected interfering species (As, Cr, Cu, and Fe). Different modes of addition of masking agents were accomplished, that is, to either sample or KBH4 reducing solution. The lead determinations were performed using a flow injection analysis (FIA) system coupled to HG and atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). The linearity of calibration curves (1-10 μg Pb L(-1)) was not affected by the addition of the masking agents. The use of KI in the reducing solution diminished interferences from concentrations of As and Cu, while 1,10-phenanthroline showed a positive effect on the interference by As. Moreover, Cr and Cu appeared to be the most serious interfering ions for plumbane (PbH4), because they drastically reduced the analytical signal of lead. Fe did not present any interference under the employed experimental conditions, even at high levels. The accuracy was established through the analysis of certified reference material (i.e., BCR-610, groundwater) using KI as masking agent. The detection limit reached by FIA-HG-AFS proposed methodology was 0.03 μg Pb L(-1). PMID:27148365

  9. Iodine speciation in coastal and inland bathing waters and seaweeds extracts using a sequential injection standard addition flow-batch method.

    PubMed

    Santos, Inês C; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Bordalo, Adriano A; Rangel, António O S S

    2015-02-01

    The present work describes the development of a sequential injection standard addition method for iodine speciation in bathing waters and seaweeds extracts without prior sample treatment. Iodine speciation was obtained by assessing the iodide and iodate content, the two inorganic forms of iodine in waters. For the determination of iodide, an iodide ion selective electrode (ISE) was used. The indirect determination of iodate was based on the spectrophotometric determination of nitrite (Griess reaction). For the iodate measurement, a mixing chamber was employed (flow batch approach) to explore the inherent efficient mixing, essential for the indirect determination of iodate. The application of the standard addition method enabled detection limits of 0.14 µM for iodide and 0.02 µM for iodate, together with the direct introduction of the target water samples, coastal and inland bathing waters. The results obtained were in agreement with those obtained by ICP-MS and a colorimetric reference procedure. Recovery tests also confirmed the accuracy of the developed method which was effectively applied to bathing waters and seaweed extracts. PMID:25435219

  10. Ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction of tetracycline drugs from egg supplements before flow injection analysis coupled to a liquid waveguide capillary cell.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Michael Pérez; Pezza, Helena Redigolo; Pezza, Leonardo

    2016-09-01

    A simple, rapid, and efficient ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (US-DLLME) method was developed for extraction of tetracycline residues from egg supplement samples, with subsequent determination by flow injection analysis (FIA) coupled to a liquid waveguide capillary cell (LWCC) and a controlled temperature heating bath. Tetracyclines react with diazotized p-sulfanilic acid, in a slightly alkaline medium, to form azo compounds that can be measured at 435 nm. The reaction sensitivity improved substantially (5.12-fold) using an in-line heating temperature of 45 °C. Multivariate methodology was used to optimize the factors affecting the extraction efficiency, considering the volumes of extraction and disperser solvents, sonication time, extraction time, and centrifugation time. Good linearity in the range 30-600 μg L(-1) was obtained for all the tetracyclines, with regression coefficients (r) higher than 0.9974. The limits of detection ranged from 6.4 to 11.1 μg L(-1), and the recoveries were in the range 85.7-96.4 %, with relative standard deviation lower than 9.8 %. Analyte recovery was improved by approximately 6 % when the microextraction was assisted by ultrasound. The results obtained with the proposed US-DLLME-FIA method were confirmed by a reference HPLC method and showed that the egg supplement samples analyzed were suitable for human consumption. PMID:27379391

  11. Experimental Study of Instantaneous Evolution of A Scalar Gradient With Small-scale Anisotropic Injection In A 2d, Periodic Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godard, G.; Paranthoen, P.; Gonzalez, M.

    Anisotropic small-scale injection of a scalar (e.g. heat) in a turbulent medium can be performed by means of a small-diameter line source as already done in a turbulent plane jet and a turbulent boundary layer (Rosset et al., Phys. Fluids 13, 3729, 2001). In such conditions, however, experiment is revealed delicate especially, as regard to temperature gradient measurements in the near-field of the source. In the present study, we get rid of previous difficulties by setting up the heated line source in a simpler flow namely, a Bénard-von Kármán street. Under this situation, owing to a phase reference, the history of the instantaneous temperature gradient can be scrutinized from the vicinity of the source. Gradient statistics (second-order mo- ments, skewness, kurtosis ...) is derived which allows us to follow the evolution of anisotropy downstream of the line source. Alignment of temperature gradient with respect to strain principal axes is also analyzed. This experiment provides a precise knowledge of the way in which a scalar gradient evolves under the combined actions of strain, vorticity and molecular diffusion.

  12. Evaluation of chelation preconcentration for the determination of actinide elements by flow injection ICP-MS

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, E.H.; Truscott, J.B.; Bromley, L.; Jones, P.; Turner, J.; Fairman, B.E.

    1998-12-31

    A chelation column preconcentration method has been developed for the determination of uranium and thorium in waters by ICP-MS. Detection limits of 24 pg and 60 pg respectively were obtained, but these were blank limited. Uranium and Thorium were determined in certified reference materials. Results for uranium were 121 {+-} 21 and 15 {+-} 3 ng/g in NIST 1566a and NIST 1575 compared with certified values of 132 {+-} 12 and 20 {+-} 4 ng/g respectively. Results for thorium were 29 {+-} 8 and 28 {+-} 5 ng/g in NIST 1566a and NIST 1575 compared with indicative and certified values of 40 and 37 {+-} 3 ng/g respectively. The on-line separation of actinide radionuclides was achieved by selective elution of U, Th, Pu, Np, and Am.

  13. Cyclone-driven deep sea injection of freshwater and heat by hyperpycnal flow in the subtropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, S. J.; Dai, M.; Selvaraj, K.; Zhai, W.; Cai, P.; Chen, S. N.; Yang, J. Y. T.; Liu, J. T.; Liu, C. C.; Syvitski, J. P. M.

    2010-11-01

    The western tropical Pacific gives birth to 23 tropical cyclones annually, bringing torrential rainfall to mountainous islands across Oceania resulting in a global sediment production hotspot, in which many rivers have great hyperpycnal potential. By using a temperature (T) and salinity (S) profiler, we observed anomalously warm, low salinity turbid water at 3000-3700 m depths in seas ˜180 km off southwestern Taiwan immediately after Typhoon Morakot in 2009. This 250m-thick bottom-hugging water occupies ˜2400 km2, and contains 0.15% freshwater, suggesting a remarkably high fraction (6-10%) of event rainfall from southwestern Taiwan. These characteristics indicate the turbid water originated from shallow coastal waters via hyperpycnal flow. Apparently, sediment produced from the land during tropical cyclones open an “express gate” to convey heat and freshwater vertically to the deep ocean basin subsequently warming the deep water from the bottom up.

  14. Plasma heating, plasma flow and wave production around an electron beam injected into the ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winckler, J. R.; Erickson, K. N.

    1986-01-01

    A brief historical summary of the Minnesota ECHO series and other relevant electron beam experiments is given. The primary purpose of the ECHO experiments is the use of conjugate echoes as probes of the magnetosphere, but beam-plasma and wave studies were also made. The measurement of quasi-dc electric fields and ion streaming during the ECHO 6 experiment has given a pattern for the plasma flow in the hot plasma region extending to 60m radius about the ECHO 6 electron beam. The sheath and potential well caused by ion orbits is discussed with the aid of a model which fits the observations. ELF wave production in the plasma sheath around the beam is briefly discussed. The new ECHO 7 mission to be launched from the Poker Flat range in November 1987 is described.

  15. Observational Study On Thermal Flow And Condensation Of Injecting Steam From Various Submerged Orifices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamei, Shuya; Hirata, Masaru

    1983-03-01

    It has been recognized that the steam accumulator plays an important role as one of thermal energy storage system and was used at hospitals, hotels and food factories in recent years. Experiments have been carried out to investigate direct contact condensation of saturated steam into a quiescent subcooled water environment. They were performed for subcooling from 20 - 70°C, for atmospheric pressure, and for various type of orifice ( single-orifice, multi-orifice and porous-disc-orifice ). The phenomena were observed by means of high speed shadowgraphy using a rotating prism camera. The phenomena were also visualized by techniques of liquid crystal using a still camera. The effect of bulk temperature in a water tank and the difference among a single-orifice, a multi-orifice and porous-disc-orifice were discussed and good predictive results for the visualization of thermal flow in a quiescent subcooled water environment were obtained.

  16. Facilitating entry into drug treatment among injection drug users referred from a needle exchange program: Results from a community-based behavioral intervention trial

    PubMed Central

    Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Ricketts, Erin P.; Huettner, Steven; Cornelius, Lee; Bishai, David; Havens, Jennifer R.; Beilenson, Peter; Rapp, Charles; Lloyd, Jacqueline J.; Latkin, Carl A.

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated a case management intervention to increase treatment entry among injecting drug users referred from a needle exchange program (NEP). A randomized trial of a strengths based case management (intervention) versus passive referral (control) was conducted among NEP attenders requesting and receiving referrals to subsidized, publicly funded opiate agonist treatment programs in Baltimore, MD. Logistic regression identified predictors of treatment entry within 7 days, confirmed through treatment program records. Of 247 potential subjects, 245 (99%) participated. HIV prevalence was 19%. Overall, 34% entered treatment within 7 days (intervention: 40% versus control: 26%, p = 0.03). In a multivariate “intention to treat’ model (i.e., ignoring the amount of case management actually received), those randomized to case management were more likely to enter treatment within 7 days. Additional ‘as treated’ analyses revealed that participants who received 30 min or more of case management within 7 days were 33% more likely to enter treatment and the active ingredient of case management activities was provision of transportation. These findings demonstrate the combined value of offering dedicated treatment referrals from NEP, case management and transportation in facilitating entry into drug abuse treatment. Such initiatives could be implemented at more than 140 needle exchange programs currently operating in the United States. These data also support the need for more accessible programs such as mobile or office-based drug abuse treatment. PMID:16364566

  17. Dithiocarbamate functionalized or surface sorbed Merrifield resin beads as column materials for on line flow injection-flame atomic absorption spectrometry determination of lead.

    PubMed

    Praveen, R S; Naidu, G R K; Prasada Rao, T

    2007-09-26

    This article describes the preparation of dithiocarbamate immobilized/functionalized and diethylammonium dithiocarbamate (DDTC) sorbed Merrifield Chloromethylated Resin (MCR) beads and comparison of these materials for on-line flow injection (FI)-flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) determination of lead. The above two materials enrich lead quantitatively over an identical optimal pH range (8.0-9.0), a preconcentration/loading time (up to 4 min) and elution with acidified methanol (a minimum of 0.01 molL(-1) HNO(3) in methanol). However, the detection limit for lead using dithiocarbamate functionalized MCR beads is 1.3 microgL(-1) compared to 3 microgL(-1) for DDTC sorbed MCR beads. Again, the sensitivity enhancement over direct FAAS signal is 48- and 27-fold, respectively. In addition, dithiocarbamate functionalized MCR beads offers better precision compared to DDTC sorbed MCR beads as the corresponding relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) values for five successive determinations of 0.20 microgmL(-1) are 1.44 and 4.36%, respectively. The accuracy of the developed on-line FI-FAAS procedure employing dithiocarbamate functionalized MCR beads as column material was tested by analyzing Certified Reference Material (CRM) of soil (IAEA soil-7) and marine sediment reference material (MESS-3) supplied by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna and National Research Council (NRC), Canada, respectively. Furthermore, the developed procedure has been successfully tested for the analysis of surface, pond, ground and effluent water and soil samples collected from the vicinity of lead acid battery industry in India. PMID:17903486

  18. Paper-based enzyme immobilization for flow injection electrochemical biosensor integrated with reagent-loaded cartridge toward portable modular device.

    PubMed

    Tan, Swee Ngin; Ge, Liya; Tan, Hsih Yin; Loke, Weng Keong; Gao, Jinrong; Wang, Wei

    2012-11-20

    Paper-based enzyme immobilization for a flow injection electrochemical biosensor integrated with a reagent-loaded cartridge toward a portable device was developed. A paper disk was immobilized with enzyme, then it was integrated in a flow cell as an electrochemical biosensor. A silicon tube reagent-loaded cartridge was integrated into the system, a complicated procedure was simplified as a one-click operation toward development for point-of-care applications. In this research, glucose oxidase (GOx) was employed as a model enzyme, silver ion as an inhibition reagent for GOx, and EDTA as a regeneration reagent. When GOx was inhibited by silver ions, glucose was introduced for electrochemical measurements before and after inhibited enzyme regeneration and the difference was caused by silver inhibition. The modular device has great potential for other applications, e.g., detection of enzyme activity and substrate. The platform based on double-test mode provided accurate results due to elimination of an average or control value in comparison with classical routine approaches. PMID:23116304

  19. Hyphenation of sequential- and flow injection analysis with FTIR-spectroscopy for chemical analysis in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lendl, B.; Schindler, R.; Kellner, R.

    1998-06-01

    A survey of the principles of sequential (SIA)-and flow injection analysis (FIA) systems with FTIR spectroscopic detection is presented to introduce these hyphenations as powerful techniques for performing chemical analysis in aqueous solution. The strength of FIA/SIA-FTIR systems lies in the possibility to perform highly reproducible and automated sample manipulations such as sample clean-up and/or chemical reactions prior to spectrum acquisition. It is shown that the hyphenation of FIA/SIA systems with an FTIR spectrometer enhances the problem solving capabilities of the FTIR spectrometer as also parameters which can not be measured directly (e.g. enzyme activities) can be determined. On the other hand application of FTIR spectroscopic detection in FIA or SIA is also of advantage as it allows to shorten conventional analysis procedures (e.g. sucrose or phosphate analysis) or to establish and apply a multivariate calibration model for simultaneous determinations (e.g. glucose, fructose and sucrose analysis). In addition to these examples two recent instrumental developments in miniaturized FIA/SIA-FTIR systems, a μ-Flow through cell based on IR fiber optics and a micromachined SI-enzyme reactor are presented in this paper.

  20. Photoamperometric flow injection analysis of glucose based on dehydrogenase modified quantum dots-carbon nanotube nanocomposite electrode.

    PubMed

    Ertek, Bensu; Dilgin, Yusuf

    2016-12-01

    In this work, a core-shell quantum dot (QD, ZnS-CdS) was electrodeposited onto multiwalled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode (ZnS-CdS/MWCNT/GCE) and following glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) was immobilized onto QD modified electrode. The proposed electrode (GDH/ZnS-CdS/MWCNT/GCE) was effectively used for the photoelectrochemical biosensing of glucose in flow injection analysis (FIA) system using a home-made flow cell. Results from cyclic voltammetric and FI amperometric measurements have revealed that GDH/ZnS-CdS/MWCNT/GCE is capable of signaling photoelectrocatalytic activity toward NADH when the surface of enzyme modified electrode was irradiated with a light source (250W Halogen lamp). Thus, photoelectrochemical biosensing of glucose was monitored by recording current-time curve of enzymatically produced NADH at optimized conditions. The biosensor response was found linear over the range 0.010-2.0mM glucose with detection limits of 6.0 and 4.0μM for amperometric and photoamperometric methods, respectively. The relative standard deviations (n=5) for 0.5mM glucose were 5.8% and 3.8% for photoamperometric and amperometric results, respectively. The photoelectrochemical biosensor was successfully applied to the real samples. The results with this biosensor showed good selectivity, repeatability and sensitivity for monitoring glucose in amperometric and photoamperometric FIA studies. PMID:26944347

  1. Determination of total sulfite in shrimp, potatoes, dried pineapple, and white wine by flow injection analysis: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, J J; Hollingworth, T A; Wekell, M M; Meo, V A; Saba, H H; Etemad-Moghadam, A; Eklund, C; Phillips, J G; Gump, B H

    1990-01-01

    A method for the determination of total sulfite in shrimp, potatoes, dried pineapple, and white wine by flow injection analysis (FIA) was collaboratively studied by 8 laboratories. In the method, the sample solution is reacted with sodium hydroxide to liberate aldehyde-bound sulfite. The sample stream is acidified to produce SO2 gas, which diffuses across a Teflon membrane in the gas diffusion cell into a flowing stream of malachite green. The degree of discoloration of the malachite green is proportional to the amount of sulfite in the sample solution. Red wine was included in the study but interlaboratory precision for these samples was not satisfactory and correlation with Monier-Williams results was poor. The present method is not recommended for use with these samples. For shrimp, potatoes, dried pineapple, and white wine, average reproducibility (RSDR) of results was 25% for samples at 10 ppm SO2 and 10% for samples at greater than 50 ppm. Overall average reproducibility was 14%. Recoveries of sulfite added to samples averaged 80%. Comparison of FIA with the Monier-Williams method indicated comparable results by the 2 methods. The FIA method has been adopted official first action for determination of greater than or equal to 5 ppm total sulfite in shrimp, potatoes, dried pineapple, and white wine. PMID:2312511

  2. Modeling of heavy nitrate corrosion in anaerobe aquifer injection water biofilm: a case study in a flow rig.

    PubMed

    Drønen, Karine; Roalkvam, Irene; Beeder, Janiche; Torsvik, Terje; Steen, Ida H; Skauge, Arne; Liengen, Turid

    2014-01-01

    Heavy carbon steel corrosion developed during nitrate mitigation of a flow rig connected to a water injection pipeline flowing anaerobe saline aquifer water. Genera-specific QPCR primers quantified 74% of the microbial biofilm community, and further 87% of the community of the nonamended parallel rig. The nonamended biofilm hosted 6.3 × 10(6) SRB cells/cm(2) and the S(35)-sulfate-reduction rate was 1.1 μmol SO4(2-)/cm(2)/day, being congruent with the estimated SRB biomass formation and the sulfate areal flux. Nitrate amendment caused an 18-fold smaller SRB population, but up to 44 times higher sulfate reduction rates. This H2S formation was insufficient to form the observed Fe3S4 layer. Additional H2S was provided by microbial disproportionation of sulfur, also explaining the increased accessibility of sulfate. The reduced nitrate specie nitrite inhibited the dominating H2-scavenging Desulfovibrio population, and sustained the formation of polysulfide and Fe3S4, herby also dissolved sulfur. This terminated the availability of acetate in the inner biofilm and caused cell starvation that initiated growth upon metallic electrons, probably by the sulfur-reducing Desulfuromonas population. On the basis of these observations we propose a model of heavy nitrate corrosion where three microbiological processes of nitrate reduction, disproportionation of sulfur, and metallic electron growth are nicely woven into each other. PMID:25020005

  3. Investigation of corrosion behavior of biodegradable magnesium alloys using an online-micro-flow capillary flow injection inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry setup with electrochemical control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, A.; Ott, N.; Tournier-Fillon, A.; Homazava, N.; Schmutz, P.

    2011-07-01

    The development of biodegradable metallic materials designed for implants or medical stents is new and is one of the most interesting new fields in material science. Besides biocompatibility, a detailed understanding of corrosion mechanisms and dissolution processes is required to develop materials with tailored degradation behavior. The materials need to be sufficiently stable as long as they have to fulfill their medical task. However, subsequently they should dissolve completely in a controlled manner in terms of maximum body burden. This study focuses on the elemental and time resolved dissolution processes of a magnesium rare earth elements alloy which has been compared to pure magnesium with different impurity level. The here described investigations were performed using a novel analytical setup based on a micro-flow capillary online-coupled via a flow injection system to a plasma mass spectrometer. Differences in element-specific and time-dependent dissolution were monitored for various magnesium alloys in contact with sodium chloride or mixtures of sodium and calcium chloride as corrosive media. The dissolution behavior strongly depends on bulk matrix elements, secondary alloying elements and impurities, which are usually present even in pure magnesium.

  4. Viscoelastic modeling of the diffusion of polymeric pollutants injected into a pipe flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinyoka, T.; Makinde, O. D.

    2013-04-01

    This study focuses on the transient analysis of nonlinear dispersion of a polymeric pollutant ejected by an external source into a laminar pipe flow of a Newtonian liquid under axi-symmetric conditions. The influence of density variation with pollutant concentration is approximated according to the Boussinesq approximation and the nonlinear governing equations of momentum, pollutant concentration are obtained together with and Oldroyd-B constitutive model for the polymer stress. The problem is solved numerically using a semi-implicit finite difference method. Solutions are presented in graphical form for various parameter values and given in terms of fluid velocity, pollutant concentration, polymer stress components, skin friction and wall mass transfer rate. The model can be a useful tool in understanding the dynamics of industrial pollution situations arising from improper discharge of hydrocarbon pollutants into, say, water bodies. The model can also be quite useful for available necessary early warning methods for detecting or predicting the scale of pollution and hence help mitigate related damage downstream by earlier instituting relevant decontamination measures.

  5. Flow injection spectrophotometric determination of nitrate in electrolyte of lead-acid batteries.

    PubMed

    Rocha, F R; Nóbrega, J A

    1997-12-19

    Electrolytes of lead-acid batteries can contain several impurities that reduce battery performance and lifetime. Nitrate ions are among these species because they can be reduced to ammonium in the lead electrode. In this work, an analytical method was developed to determine this anion in electrolytes of batteries used in telephone systems, in which nitrate concentration must be lower than 10 mg l(-1). The procedure consists in the reduction to nitrite in a copperized cadmium column followed by Griess's modified reaction. Due to the high sensitivity of this methodology, a large dispersion flow diagram (dispersion coefficient = 27.8) was projected. Thus, it was possible to eliminate the Schlieren effect and to obtain a NH (3)NH (+)(4) buffer in the sample zone in a suitable pH for reduction reaction (pH congruent with 8). Negative interference due to iron(III) was overcome by addition of excess iron (200 mg l(-1)). A relocatable filter was used to remove iron(III) hydroxide precipitate. This avoided adsorption on the surface of the filings and increase of back pressure. The analytical frequency is 80 measurements/h and the detection limit was estimated as 0.3 mg l(-1) in a 99.7% confidence level. A 2.2% relative standard deviation was obtained in a repeatability study (n = 10) by using a 25 mg l(-1) nitrate solution in a 3.6 mol l(-1) sulfuric acid medium. Recoveries from 95.5 to 104% were obtained by spiking 5.00 or 10.0 mg l(-1) of nitrate in samples of battery electrolyte. PMID:18967001

  6. Effects of exogenous amines on mammalian cells, with particular reference to membrane flow.

    PubMed Central

    Dean, R T; Jessup, W; Roberts, C R

    1984-01-01

    We have reviewed the evidence that amines accumulate in intracellular vesicles of low pH, such as lysosomes and endosomes. There is consequent elevation of intravesicular pH, and inhibition of receptor-ligand dissociation often results from this pH change. We have argued that the capacity for fusion of such vesicles is also reduced by the high pH. We suggest that the variety of effects of amines on membrane flow and macromolecular transport we describe are at least partly due to such reduced fusion (Figs. 1 and 2). We propose that an internal low pH may facilitate heterologous vesicle-vesicle and vesicle-plasma membrane fusion. There is some evidence that clathrin can accelerate phospholipid vesicle fusion in vitro at low pH (Blumenthal et al., 1983) but no direct evidence on the role of intravesicular pH. This idea is consistent not only with the preceding discussion, but also with the fact that the intracellular membrane-bound compartments least involved in fusion events (e.g. mitochondria) are of neutral or alkaline internal pH. Membrane fusion is certainly required for the formation of vesicles at the periphery of the Golgi apparatus, and possibly earlier in the transport and processing of biosynthetic products in the Golgi (Bergeron et al., 1982). Thus the accumulation of amines in the Golgi may be responsible for several effects on the flow of macromolecules along their translocation pathways. The status of the plasma membrane in this view is complex. It might be argued that the pH dictating the fusion step in endocytosis is that of the extracellular fluid, in which case the inhibitory effects of amines on this process are not explained. However, the rapidity of acidification of the newly formed endocytic vesicles allows the possibility that plasma membrane invaginations might temporarily sequester areas which are of lower pH than that of the bulk extracellular fluid even before fusion, since the proton pumping enzyme(s) are probably present on the plasma

  7. Analysis of 10B antitumoral compounds by means of flow-injection into ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Basilico, F; Sauerwein, W; Pozzi, F; Wittig, A; Moss, R; Mauri, P L

    2005-12-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a promising binary treatment for cancer. BNCT is based on the ability of the nonradioactive isotope (10)B to capture, with a very high probability, thermal neutrons. This nuclear reaction results in two particles (an alpha and a lithium nucleus). The particles have a high biological effectiveness, which is limited in tissue to approximately the diameter of one cell. If the reaction can be limited to a tumor cell, the physical characteristic opens up the possibility to selectively destroy cancer cells, while sparing the surrounding healthy tissue. Quality control of (10)B-containing compounds and their distribution at present are very important, and different analytical methods have been developed, such as time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), electron energy loss spectrometry (EELS), prompt gamma analysis and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). These methods allow the analyses of (10)B, but it is not possible to characterize the specific molecular compounds containing (10)B. For this reason, we propose a fast and quantitative method that permits the determination of closo-undecahydro-1-mercaptododecaborate (BSH) and (10)boron-phenylalanine (BPA) and their eventual metabolites. In particular, (10)B-containing compounds are detected by means of flow-injection electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (FI/ESI-MS/MS). This approach allows the identification of Boron compounds, BSH and BPA, using tandem mass spectrometry, and quantitative analysis is also possible (c.v. +/-4.7%; n = 5; linear range 10-10,000 ng/ml). Furthermore, (10)B-containing compounds were detected in actual biological sample (urine and plasma, diluted 10,000- and 1,000-fold, respectively) injecting a small volume (1 microl) of diluted samples. PMID:16320299

  8. Thermodynamic study of β-cyclodextrin-dye inclusion complexes using gradient flow injection technique and molecular modeling.

    PubMed

    Izadmanesh, Y; Ghasemi, Jahan B

    2016-08-01

    Gradient flow injection technique-diode array spectrophotometry was applied for β-cyclodextrin (β-CD)-dye inclusion complex studies. A single injection of a small amount of mixed β-CD-dye solution (100μl) into the carrier solution of the dye and recording the spectra gave the titration data. The mole ratio data were calculated by calibrating the dispersion pattern using a calibrator dye (rose bengal). Model-based multivariate methods were used to analyze the spectral-mole ratio data and, as a result, estimate stability constants and concentration-spectral profiles. Reliability was tested by applying this method to study the β-CD host-guest complexes with several dyes as guest molecules. Singular value decomposition (SVD) was used to select the chemical model and reduce noise. Molecular modeling provided the ability to predict the guest conformation-orientation (posing) within the cavity of β-CD and the nature of the involved interactions. Among those dyes showing observable spectral variation, the stoichiometric ratio of β-CD: dye (and log Kf) of methyl orange, fluorescein, phenol red, 4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol (PAR), and crystal violet were calculated to be 1:1 (4.26±0.01), 1:1 (1.53±0.08), 1:1 (3.11±0.04), 1:1 (1.06±0.12), and 2:1 (5.27±0.03), respectively. Compared with the classical method of titration, this method is simple and fast and has the advantage of needing reduced human interference. Molecular modeling facilitates a better understanding of the type of interactions and conformation of guest molecules in the β-CD cavity. The details of the proposed method are discussed in this paper. PMID:27111153

  9. Thermodynamic study of β-cyclodextrin-dye inclusion complexes using gradient flow injection technique and molecular modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izadmanesh, Y.; Ghasemi, Jahan B.

    2016-08-01

    Gradient flow injection technique-diode array spectrophotometry was applied for β-cyclodextrin (β-CD)-dye inclusion complex studies. A single injection of a small amount of mixed β-CD-dye solution (100 μl) into the carrier solution of the dye and recording the spectra gave the titration data. The mole ratio data were calculated by calibrating the dispersion pattern using a calibrator dye (rose bengal). Model-based multivariate methods were used to analyze the spectral-mole ratio data and, as a result, estimate stability constants and concentration-spectral profiles. Reliability was tested by applying this method to study the β-CD host-guest complexes with several dyes as guest molecules. Singular value decomposition (SVD) was used to select the chemical model and reduce noise. Molecular modeling provided the ability to predict the guest conformation-orientation (posing) within the cavity of β-CD and the nature of the involved interactions. Among those dyes showing observable spectral variation, the stoichiometric ratio of β-CD: dye (and log Kf) of methyl orange, fluorescein, phenol red, 4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol (PAR), and crystal violet were calculated to be 1:1 (4.26 ± 0.01), 1:1 (1.53 ± 0.08), 1:1 (3.11 ± 0.04), 1:1 (1.06 ± 0.12), and 2:1 (5.27 ± 0.03), respectively. Compared with the classical method of titration, this method is simple and fast and has the advantage of needing reduced human interference. Molecular modeling facilitates a better understanding of the type of interactions and conformation of guest molecules in the β-CD cavity. The details of the proposed method are discussed in this paper.

  10. Determination of Hg and Pb in fuels by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using flow injection chemical vapor generation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng-yi; Jiang, Shiuh-Jen

    2009-12-01

    An isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method has been developed for the determination of Hg and Pb in fuels using flow injection vapor generation (VG) as the sample introduction system. A simple and inexpensive in-situ nebulizer/vapor generator was employed in this study. An emulsion containing 10% v/v fuel, 2% m/v Triton X-100 and 1.0% m/v tartaric acid was injected into VG-ICP-MS system for the determination of Hg and Pb. Sodium borohydride was used for vapor generation. Since the sensitivities of Hg and Pb in emulsion and those in aqueous solution are quite different, isotope dilution and standard addition methods were used for the determination of Hg and Pb in selected fuel samples. The influences of vapor generation conditions and emulsion preparation on the ion signals are reported. This method has been applied for the determination of Hg and Pb in various fuel samples such as diesel, gasoline and engine oil obtained locally. The analytical results obtained by isotope dilution and standard addition methods were in good agreement with each other and also with those of digested samples analyzed by pneumatic nebulization ICP-MS. Under the optimum operating conditions, the detection limits obtained were 0.02 and 0.03 ng mL(-1) for Hg and Pb, respectively, in prepared emulsified solutions, corresponding to 0.2 and 0.3 ng mL(-1) of Hg and Pb, respectively, in the original fuel samples. PMID:20009337

  11. Differentiation of the two major species of Echinacea (E. augustifolia and E. purpurea) using a flow injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprinting method and chemometric analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A rapid, simple, and reliable flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) method was developed to discriminate two major Echinacea species (E. purpurea and E. angustifolia) samples. Fifty-eight Echinacea samples collected from United States were analyzed using FIMS. Principle component analysis (PCA) a...

  12. Differentiation of the four major types (C. Burmannii, C. Verum, C. cassia, And C. Loureiroi) of cinnamons using a flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprinting method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple and efficient flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) method was developed to differentiate cinnamon (Cinnamomum) bark (CB) samples of the four major species (C. burmannii, C. verum, C. aromaticum, and C. loureiroi) of cinnamon. Fifty cinnamon samples collected from China, Vietnam, Indon...

  13. Novel miniaturized sensors for potentiometric batch and flow-injection analysis (FIA) of perchlorate in fireworks and propellants.

    PubMed

    Almeer, Saeed H M A; Zogby, Ibrahim A; Hassan, Saad S M

    2014-11-01

    Three planar miniaturized perchlorate membrane sensors (3×5 mm(2)) are prepared using a flexible Kaptan substrate coated with nitron-perchlorate (NT-ClO4) [sensor 1], methylene blue-perchlorate (MB-ClO4) [sensor II] and indium-porphyrin (In-Por) [sensor III] as electroactive materials in PVC membranes plasticized with 2-NPPE. Sensors I, II and III display near-Nernstian response for 1.0×10(-5)-1.0×10(-2), 3.1×10(-5)-1.0×10(-2) and 3.1×10(-6)-1.0×10(-2) mol L(-1) ClO4(-) with lower detection limits of 6.1×10(-6), 6.9×10(-6) and 1.2×10(-6) mol L(-1), and anionic calibration slopes of 50.9±0.4, 48.4±0.4 and 57.7±0.3 mV decade(-1), respectively. Methods for determining perchlorate using these sensors offer many attractive advantages including simplicity, flexibility, cost effectiveness, wide linear dynamic response range (0.1-1000 ppm), low detection limit (<1.2×10(-6) mol L(-1)≡0.1 ppm), small sample test volume (100 μL), safety, short response time (<20 s), long life span (~8 weeks), and extended wide working pH range (4.5-8.0). The sensors show high selectivity in the presence of some inorganic ions (e.g., PO4(3-), SO4(2-), S2O3(2-), NO2(-), NO3(-), N3(-), CN(-), Cl(-), Br(-), I(-)) and automation feasibility. Indium-porphyrin based membrane sensor (sensor III) is used as a detector in a wall-jet flow injection set-up to enable accurate flow injection analysis (FIA) of perchlorate in some fireworks without interferences from the associated reducing agents (sulfur and charcoal), binders (dextrin, lactose), coloring agents (calcium, strontium, copper, iron, sodium), color brighten (linseed oil) and regulators (aluminum flakes) which are commonly used in the formulations. The sensor is also used for perchlorate assessment in some propellant powders. The results fairly agree with data obtained by ion-chromatography. PMID:25127583

  14. Preserving drinking water quality in geotechnical operations: predicting the feedback between fluid injection, fluid flow, and contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, Frank R.

    2014-05-01

    Not only in densely populated areas the preservation of drinking water quality is of vital interest. On the other side, our modern economies request for a sustained energy supply and a secure storage of waste materials. As energy sources with a high security of supply, oil, natural gas, and geothermal energy cover ca. 60% of Europe's energy demand; together with coal more than 75% (IEA 2011). Besides geothermal energy, all of the resources have a high greenhouse gas footprint. All these production activities are related to fluid injection and/or fluid production. The same holds true for gas storage operations in porous reservoirs, to store natural gases, oil, or greenhouse gases. Different concerns are discussed in the public and geoscientific community to influence the drinking water quality: - wastewater discharges from field exploration, drilling, production, well treatment and completion - wastewater sequestration - gas storage - tight gas and tight oil production (including hydraulic fracturing) - Shale gas production (including hydraulic fracturing) - mine drainage This overview contribution focusses on strategies to systematically reduce the risk of water pollution in geotechnical operations of deep reservoirs. The principals will be exemplarily revealed for different geotechnical operations. - How to control hydraulic fracturing operations to reduce the risk of enhanced seismic activity and avoiding the connection of originally separated aquifers. The presented approach to quantitatively predict the impact of stimulation activities is based on petrophysical models taking the feedback of geomechanical processes and fluid flow in porous media, fissures and faults into account. The specific flow patterns in various rock types lead to distinguished differences in operational risk. - How can a proper planning of geotechnical operations reduce the involved risks. A systematic risk reduction strategy will be discussed. On selected samples the role of exploration

  15. A comparative study on vaccination pain in the methods of massage therapy and mothers’ breast feeding during injection of infants referring to Navabsafavi Health Care Center in Isfahan

    PubMed Central

    Esfahani, Mitra Savabi; Sheykhi, Sanaz; Abdeyazdan, Zahra; Jodakee, Mohamadreza; Boroumandfar, Khadijeh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Vaccination is one of the most common painful procedures in infants. The irreversible consequences due to pain experiences in infants are enormous. Breast feeding and massage therapy methods are the non-drug methods of pain relief. Therefore, this research aimed to compare the vaccination-related pain in infants who underwent massage therapy or breast feeding during injection. Materials and Methods: This study is a randomized clinical trial. Ninety-six infants were allocated randomly and systematically to three groups (breast feeding, massage, and control groups). The study population comprised all infants, accompanied by their mothers, referring to one of the health centers in Isfahan for vaccination of hepatitis B and DPT at 6 months of age and for MMR at 12 months of age. Data gathering was done using questionnaire and checklist [neonatal infant pain scale (NIPS)]. Data analysis was done using descriptive and inferential statistical methods with SPSS software. Results: Findings of the study showed that the three groups had no statistically significant difference in terms of demographic characteristics (P > 0/05). The mean pain scores in the breast feeding group, massage therapy, and control group were 3.4, 3.9, and 4.8, respectively (P < 0.05). Then the least significant difference (LSD) post hoc test was performed. Differences between the groups, i.e. massage therapy and breast feeding (P = 0.041), breast feeding group and control (P < 0.001), and massage therapy and control groups (P = 0.002) were statistically significant. Conclusion: Considering the results of the study, it seems that breast feeding during vaccination has more analgesic effect than massage therapy. Therefore, it is suggested as a noninvasive, safe, and accessible method without any side effects for reducing vaccination-related pain. PMID:24554949

  16. Flow-injection determination of total organic fluorine with off-line defluorination reaction on a solid sorbent bed.

    PubMed

    Musijowski, Jacek; Trojanowicz, Marek; Szostek, Bogdan; da Costa Lima, José Luis Fontes; Lapa, Rui; Yamashita, Hiroki; Takayanagi, Toshio; Motomizu, Shoji

    2007-09-26

    Considering recent reports on widespread occurrence and concerns about perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in environmental and biological systems, analysis of these compounds have gained much attention in recent years. Majority of analyte-specific methods are based on a LC/MS/MS or a GC/MS detection, however many environmental or biological studies would benefit from a total organic fluorine (TOF) determination. Presented work was aimed at developing a method for TOF determination. TOF is determined as an amount of inorganic fluoride obtained after defluorination reaction conducted off-line using sodium biphenyl reagent directly on the sorbent without elution of retained analytes. Recovered fluoride was analyzed using flow-injection system with either fluorimetric or potentiometric detection. The TOF method was tested using perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCA), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), as model compounds. Considering low concentrations of PFAS in natural samples, solid-phase extraction as a preconcentration procedure was evaluated. Several carbon-based sorbents were tested, namely multi-wall carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibres and activated carbon. Good sorption of all analytes was achieved and defluorination reaction was possible to carry out directly on a sorbent bed. Recoveries obtained for PFCAs, adsorbed on an activated carbon sorbent, and measured as TOF, were 99.5+/-1.7, 110+/-9.4, 95+/-26, 120+/-32, 110+/-12 for C4, C6, C8, C10 and C12-PFCA, respectively. Two flow systems that would enable the defluorination reaction and fluoride determination in a single system were designed and tested. PMID:17903477

  17. Large-eddy simulations of turbulent reacting flows in a chamber with gaseous ethylene injecting through the porous wall

    SciTech Connect

    Liou, T.M.; Lien, W.Y.; Hwang, P.W. . Dept of Power Mechanical Engineering)

    1994-12-01

    Large-eddy simulations were performed to study the turbulent reacting flows in a simulated solid-fuel combustion chamber. The time-dependent axisymmetric compressible conservation equations were solved directly without using subgrid-scale turbulence models. The combustion process considered was a one-step, irreversible, and infinitely fast chemical reaction and the pyrolizing solid fuel was simulated by gaseous ethylene injected through a porous wall for a practical range of fuel blowing velocity encountered in solid-fuel combustion chambers for the first time. The numerical code used the finite-volume technique which involved alternating in time the second-order, explicit MacCormack's and Godunov's methods. Characteristic-based boundary conditions were applied on inflow and outflow boundaries, which allow outlet boundary conditions to be nonzero gradients, and in turn, a practical length of computational domain to be realized. The effects of combustion on the large-scale unsteady flow structure and the mean flameholder recirculation zone were documented in terms of the density contours, vorticity dynamics, streamlines, mean-velocity vector fields, temperature profiles, flame position, and fuel blowing velocity. A comparison of the distributions of instantaneous and mean mass fractions of reactants shows that the present method appropriately reveals the effects of large-scale turbulent motions on combustion. Furthermore, the present large-eddy simulations have achieved a significant improvement in predicting the mean effective reattachment length over the previous calculations incorporating with turbulence models. The physical insight regarding the decrease of the mean effective reattachment length with combustion was also addressed.

  18. A novel flow injection chemiluminescence determination of Cr(VI) with Dichlorotris(1,10-phenanthroline)ruthenium(II).

    PubMed

    Luaces, M D; Martínez, N C; Granda, M; Valdés, A C; Pérez-Conde, C; Gutiérrez, A M

    2011-09-30

    A selective novel reverse flow injection system with chemiluminescence detection (rFI-CL) for the determination of Cr(VI) in presence of Cr(III) with Dichlorotris (1,10-phenanthroline)ruthenium(II), (Ru(phen)(3)Cl(2)), is described in this work. This new method is based on the oxidation capacity of Cr(VI) in H(2)SO(4) media. First, the Ruthenium(II) complex is oxidized to Ruthenium(III) complex by Cr(VI) and afterwards it is reduced to the excited state of the Ruthenium(II) complex by a sodium oxalate solution, emitting light inside the detector. The intensity of chemiluminescence (CL) is proportional to the concentration of Cr(VI) and, under optimum conditions, it can be determined over the range of 3-300 μg L(-1) with a detection limit of 0.9 μg L(-1). The RSD was 8.4% and 1.5% at 5 and 50 μg L(-1), respectively. For the rFI-CL method various analytical parameters were optimized: flow rate (1 mL min(-1)), H(2)SO(4) carrier concentration (20% w/V), Ru(phen)(3)Cl(2) concentration (5mM) and sodium oxalate concentration (0.1M). The effect of Cr(III), Fe(III), Al(III), Cd(II), Zn(II), Hg(II), Pb(II), Ca(II) and Mg(II), was studied. The method is highly sensitive and selective, allowing a fast, on-line determination of Cr(VI) in the presence of Cr(III). Finally, the method was tested in four different water samples (tap, reservoir, well and mineral), with good recovery percentage. PMID:21872036

  19. Analysis of Ground-Water Flow in the Madison Aquifer using Fluorescent Dyes Injected in Spring Creek and Rapid Creek near Rapid City, South Dakota, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Putnam, Larry D.; Long, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    The Madison aquifer, which contains fractures and solution openings in the Madison Limestone, is used extensively for water supplies for the city of Rapid City and other suburban communities in the Rapid City, S. Dak., area. The 48 square-mile study area includes the west-central and southwest parts of Rapid City and the outcrops of the Madison Limestone extending from south of Spring Creek to north of Rapid Creek. Recharge to the Madison Limestone occurs when streams lose flow as they cross the outcrop. The maximum net loss rate for Spring and Rapid Creek loss zones are 21 and 10 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), respectively. During 2003 and 2004, fluorescent dyes were injected in the Spring and Rapid Creek loss zones to estimate approximate locations of preferential flow paths in the Madison aquifer and to measure the response and transit times at wells and springs. Four injections of about 2 kilograms of fluorescein dye were made in the Spring Creek loss zone during 2003 (sites S1, S2, and S3) and 2004 (site S4). Injection at site S1 was made in streamflow just upstream from the loss zone over a 12-hour period when streamflow was about equal to the maximum loss rate. Injections at sites S2, S3, and S4 were made in specific swallow holes located in the Spring Creek loss zone. Injection at site R1 in 2004 of 3.5 kilograms of Rhodamine WT dye was made in streamflow just upstream from the Rapid Creek loss zone over about a 28-hour period. Selected combinations of 27 wells, 6 springs, and 3 stream sites were monitored with discrete samples following the injections. For injections at sites S1-S3, when Spring Creek streamflow was greater than or equal to 20 ft3/s, fluorescein was detected in samples from five wells that were located as much as about 2 miles from the loss zone. Time to first arrival (injection at site S1) ranged from less than 1 to less than 10 days. The maximum fluorescein concentration (injection at site S1) of 120 micrograms per liter (ug/L) at well CO

  20. Transient Fluid Flow Along Basement Faults and Rupture Mechanics: Can We Expect Injection-Induced Earthquake Behavior to Correspond Directly With Injection Operations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norbeck, J. H.; Horne, R. N.

    2015-12-01

    We explored injection-induced earthquake behavior in geologic settings where basement faults are connected hydraulically to overlying saline aquifers targeted for wastewater disposal. Understanding how the interaction between natural geology and injection well operations affects the behavior of injection-induced earthquake sequences has important implications for characterizing seismic hazard risk. Numerical experiments were performed to investigate the extent to which seismicity is influenced by the migration of pressure perturbations along fault zones. Two distinct behaviors were observed: a) earthquake ruptures that were confined to the pressurized region of the fault and b) sustained earthquake ruptures that propagated far beyond the pressure front. These two faulting mechanisms have important implications for assessing the manner in which seismicity can be expected respond to injection well operations.Based upon observations from the numerical experiments, we developed a criterion that can be used to classify the expected faulting behavior near wastewater disposal sites. The faulting criterion depends on the state of stress, the initial fluid pressure, the orientation of the fault, and the dynamic friction coefficient of the fault. If the initial ratio of shear to effective normal stress resolved on the fault (the prestress ratio) is less than the fault's dynamic friction coefficient, then earthquake ruptures will tend to be limited by the distance of the pressure front. In this case, parameters that affect seismic hazard assessment, like the maximum earthquake magnitude or earthquake recurrence interval, could correlate with injection well operational parameters. For example, the maximum earthquake magnitude might be expected to grow over time in a systematic manner as larger patches of the fault are exposed to significant pressure changes. In contrast, if the prestress ratio is greater than dynamic friction, a stress drop can occur outside of the pressurized

  1. New conventional coated-wire ion-selective electrodes for flow-injection potentiometric determination of chlordiazepoxide.

    PubMed

    Issa, Y M; Abdel-Ghani, N T; Shoukry, A F; Ahmed, Howayda M

    2005-09-01

    New chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride (Ch-Cl) ion-selective electrodes (conventional type) based on ion associates, chlordiazepoxidium-phosphomolybdate (I) and chlordiazepoxidium-phosphotungstate (II), were prepared. The electrodes exhibited mean slopes of calibration graphs of 59.4 mV and 60.8 mV per decade of (Ch-Cl) concentration at 25 degrees C for electrodes (I) and (II), respectively. Both electrodes could be used within the concentration range 3.16 x 10(-6)-1 x 10(-2) M (Ch-Cl) within the pH range 2.0-4.5. The standard electrode potentials were determined at different temperatures and used to calculate the isothermal coefficients of the electrodes, which were 0.00139 and 0.00093 V degrees C(-1) for electrodes (I) and (II), respectively. The electrodes showed a very good selectivity for Ch-Cl with respect to the number of inorganic cations, amino acids and sugars. The electrodes were applied to the potentiometric determination of the chlordiazepoxide ion and its pharmaceutical preparation under batch and flow injection conditions. Also, chlordiazepoxide was determined by conductimetric titrations. Graphite, copper and silver coated wires were prepared and characterized as sensors for the drug under investigation. PMID:16363470

  2. Quantification of Phenolic Antioxidant Moieties in Dissolved Organic Matter by Flow-Injection Analysis with Electrochemical Detection.

    PubMed

    Walpen, Nicolas; Schroth, Martin H; Sander, Michael

    2016-06-21

    Phenolic moieties in dissolved organic matter (DOM) play important roles as antioxidants in oxidation processes in natural and engineered systems. This work presents an automated and highly sensitive flow injection analysis (FIA) system coupled to both spectrophotometric and electrochemical detection to quantify electron-donating phenolic moieties in DOM by determining the number of electrons that these moieties transfer to an added chemical oxidant, the radical cation of 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS(•+)). The FIA system was successfully validated using Trolox as a redox standard. Highest method sensitivity was attained when combining the FIA with chronoamperometric detection, resulting in limits of quantification of picomolar amounts of Trolox and nanogram amounts of DOM (corresponding to solutions with <1 mg carbon per liter). The analysis of DOM isolates showed a strong linear correlation between the number of electrons donated and their titrated phenol contents, supporting oxidation of phenols by ABTS(•+). The broad application spectrum of the FIA system to dilute natural DOM samples was illustrated by analyzing water samples collected from northern peatlands and by monitoring the oxidation of phenols in one peat sample upon incubation with a phenol oxidase. The superior analytical capability of the FIA system allows quantifying phenols and monitoring phenol dynamics in dilute DOM samples. PMID:27227422

  3. Online spectrophotometric determination of Fe(II) and Fe(III) by flow injection combined with low pressure ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shujuan; Li, Nan; Zhang, Xinshen; Yang, Dongjing; Jiang, Heimei

    2015-03-01

    A simple and new low pressure ion chromatography combined with flow injection spectrophotometric procedure for determining Fe(II) and Fe(III) was established. It is based on the selective adsorption of low pressure ion chromatography column to Fe(II) and Fe(III), the online reduction reaction of Fe(III) and the reaction of Fe(II) in sodium acetate with phenanthroline, resulting in an intense orange complex with a suitable absorption at 515nm. Various chemical (such as the concentration of colour reagent, eluant and reductive agent) and instrumental parameters (reaction coil length, reductive coil length and wavelength) were studied and were optimized. Under the optimum conditions calibration graph of Fe(II)/Fe(III) was linear in the Fe(II)/Fe(III) range of 0.040-1.0mg/L. The detection limit of Fe(III) and Fe(II) was respectively 3.09 and 1.55μg/L, the relative standard deviation (n=10) of Fe(II) and Fe(III) 1.89% and 1.90% for 0.5mg/L of Fe(II) and Fe(III) respectively. About 2.5 samples in 1h can be analyzed. The interfering effects of various chemical species were studied. The method was successfully applied in the determination of water samples. PMID:25523043

  4. Replacing immunoassays for mephedrone, ketamines and six amphetamine-type stimulants with flow injection analysis tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lua, Ingrid A; Lin, Shiou-Ling; Lin, Huei R; Lua, Ahai C

    2012-10-01

    A screening procedure was developed for the simultaneous detection of mephedrone, six amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS), ketamine and its two metabolites with electrospray ionization flow injection analysis tandem mass spectrometry (FIA-MS-MS). Urine samples were fortified with deuterated analogues as internal standards, extracted with ethyl acetate and analyzed with FIA-MS-MS. The mass analyzer was operated in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Two product ions were monitored for each drug and internal standards. For each analyte, the limit of detection was less than 4 µg/L, within-day and between-day precisions (percent coefficient of variation) at three different concentrations were less than 7.3% and bias was between -17.3 and 11.8%. Total analysis time with FIA-MS-MS is 1.8 min per sample. A group of 215 urine samples were screened with immunoassay for ATS and analyzed with FIA-MS-MS and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for ketamines and ATS. The analysis of ATS by immunoassay and GC-MS was 96.7% concordant. The analysis of three ketamines and seven ATS by FIA-MS-MS and GC-MS was 97.2% concordant. The FIA-MS-MS procedure is efficient, accurate, flexible and capable of detecting analytes of different chemical groups. It can replace immunoassays for the screening of new designer drugs when commercial immunoassays are unavailable. PMID:22933658

  5. Flow injection spectrophotometric method for chloride determination in natural waters using Hg(SCN)(2) immobilized in epoxy resin.

    PubMed

    Silva, Claudineia R; Vieira, Heberth J; Canaes, Larissa S; Nóbrega, Joaquim A; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando

    2005-02-28

    A flow injection (FI) spectrophotometric method was proposed for the determination of chloride ion in natural waters. The determination of chloride was carried out by reaction with Hg(SCN)(2) immobilized in an epoxy resin bead in a solid-phase reactor (SPR) and the thiocyanate ions released were determined spectrophotometrically at 480nm after complexing reaction with Fe(III). The analytical curve for chloride was linear in the concentration range from 5.6 x 10(-5) to 2.2 x 10(-4)moll(-1) with a detection limit of 1.4 x 10(-5)moll(-1). The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) was 2.2% for a solution containing 2.2 x 10(-4)moll(-1) (n = 10). The simple manifold allows a routine analytical frequency of 100 determinations per hour. The main advantage of the developed method is the 400% reduction of the Hg waste solution generated when compared to conventional methods for chloride determination based on the same spectrophotometric reaction. PMID:18969896

  6. Flow-injection technique for determination of uranium and thorium isotopes in urine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Benkhedda, Karima; Epov, Vladimir N; Evans, R Douglas

    2005-04-01

    A sensitive and efficient flow-injection (FI) preconcentration and matrix-separation technique coupled to sector field ICP-mass spectrometry (SF-ICP-MS) has been developed and validated for simultaneous determination of ultra-low levels of uranium (U) and thorium (Th) in human urine. The method is based on selective retention of U and Th from a urine matrix, after microwave digestion, on an extraction chromatographic TRU resin, as an alternative to U/TEVA resin, and their subsequent elution with ammonium oxalate. Using a 10 mL sample, the limits of detection achieved for 238U and 232Th were 0.02 and 0.03 ng L(-1), respectively. The accuracy of the method was checked by spike-recovery measurements. Levels of U and Th in human urine were found to be in the ranges 1.86-5.50 and 0.176-2.35 ng L(-1), respectively, well in agreement with levels considered normal for non-occupationally exposed persons. The precision obtained for five replicate measurements of a urine sample was 2 and 3% for U and Th, respectively. The method also enables on-line measurements of the 235U/238U isotope ratios in urine. Precision of 0.82-1.04% (RSD) was obtained for 235U/238U at low ng L(-1) levels, using the FI transient signal approach. PMID:15827719

  7. Online spectrophotometric determination of Fe(II) and Fe(III) by flow injection combined with low pressure ion chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shujuan; Li, Nan; Zhang, Xinshen; Yang, Dongjing; Jiang, Heimei

    2015-03-01

    A simple and new low pressure ion chromatography combined with flow injection spectrophotometric procedure for determining Fe(II) and Fe(III) was established. It is based on the selective adsorption of low pressure ion chromatography column to Fe(II) and Fe(III), the online reduction reaction of Fe(III) and the reaction of Fe(II) in sodium acetate with phenanthroline, resulting in an intense orange complex with a suitable absorption at 515 nm. Various chemical (such as the concentration of colour reagent, eluant and reductive agent) and instrumental parameters (reaction coil length, reductive coil length and wavelength) were studied and were optimized. Under the optimum conditions calibration graph of Fe(II)/Fe(III) was linear in the Fe(II)/Fe(III) range of 0.040-1.0 mg/L. The detection limit of Fe(III) and Fe(II) was respectively 3.09 and 1.55 μg/L, the relative standard deviation (n = 10) of Fe(II) and Fe(III) 1.89% and 1.90% for 0.5 mg/L of Fe(II) and Fe(III) respectively. About 2.5 samples in 1 h can be analyzed. The interfering effects of various chemical species were studied. The method was successfully applied in the determination of water samples.

  8. Flow Injection Photosensitized Chemiluminescence of Luminol with Cu(II)-Rose Bengal: Mechanistic Approach and Vitamin A and C Determination

    PubMed Central

    Asgher, Muhammad; Yaqoob, Mohammad; Nabi, Abdul; Siddiqi, Abdul Rauf

    2014-01-01

    Rose Bengal photosensitized flow injection chemiluminescence method is reported using luminol-Cu(II) for the determination of vitamins A and C in pharmaceutical formulations. The reaction is based on the enhancement effect of analyte in the production of anion radicals of Rose Bengal (RB•−) which rapidly interact with dissolved oxygen and generate superoxide anions radicals (O2•−) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Highly reactive hydroxyl radicals (•OH) were produced via dismutation of H2O2 by catalyst (Cu2+). The generated superoxide anions radicals and hydroxyl radicals thus oxidize luminol in alkaline medium to generate strong chemiluminescence. The limit of detection (3s of the blank, n = 6) of vitamins A and C and RB was found to be 0.008, 0.005, and 0.05 μg mL−1, respectively. The sample throughput of 70 h−1 for vitamins A and C and 30 h−1 for RB was found. Calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.05–15, 0.01–20, and 0.1–50 μg mL−1 for vitamins A and C and RB, respectively, with relative standard deviations (RSDs; n = 3) in the range 1.6–3.6%. The method was successfully applied to pharmaceutical formulations and the results obtained were in good agreement with the labeled values. PMID:25614739

  9. Evaluation of flow injection analysis method with spectrophotometric detection for the determination of atrazine in soil extracts.

    PubMed

    Martins, Elisandra C; Melo, Vander De F; Abate, Gilberto

    2016-09-01

    A method for determining atrazine in soil extracts was evaluated by flow injection analysis with spectrophotometric detection. The method is based on the reaction of atrazine with pyridine in an acid medium followed by the reaction with NaOH and sulfanilic acid. Several analytical conditions were previously studied and optimized. Under the best conditions of analysis, the limits of detection and quantification were 0.15 and 0.45 mg L(-1), respectively, for a linear response between 0.50 and 2.50 mg L(-1), and a sampling throughput of 21 determinations per hour. Using the standard addition method, the maximum relative standard deviation of 17% and recovery values between 80 and 100% were observed for three extracts from soil samples with different composition. The proposed method is simple, low-cost and easy to use, and can be employed for studies involving atrazine in soil samples or for screening of atrazine in soils. PMID:27192103

  10. Microemulsion-enhanced electrochemiluminescence of luminol-H2O2 for sensitive flow injection analysis of antioxidant compounds.

    PubMed

    Xiuhua, Wei; Chao, Liu; Yifeng, Tu

    2012-05-30

    A microemulsion enhanced electrochemiluminescence (ECL) of luminol-H(2)O(2) was studied with the flow-injection (FI) technique. The results revealed that the microemulsion composed with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), n-butanol, n-heptane and water greatly enhanced the ECL especially in acidic medium. The ECL emission increased for 20 to 2 times in this microemulsion medium over the pH range of 5.0-8.0 compared to that in aqueous solution. The mechanism of enhancement of surfactant and microemulsion for luminol-H(2)O(2) ECL was discussed. It is mainly based on the electrostatic interaction between luminol anion and the head group of surfactant, which causes the adsorption and promotes the dissociation of luminol on the surfaces of the microemulsion droplets, favors the oxidation of luminol by the yielded reactive oxygen species (ROSs) during electrolysis. This research is very significant for ECL applications because of the extended practicable pH range which was suitable for environmental and biological systems. As an example, this FI-ECL technique can be applied for determination of oligo proanthocyanidin (OPC) because of its antioxidant property and to evaluate the total antioxidant activity of the grape skin using OPC as an index. PMID:22608450

  11. WETTABILITY ALTERATION OF POROUS MEDIA TO GAS-WETTING FOR IMPROVING PRODUCTIVITY AND INJECTIVITY IN GAS-LIQUID FLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas Firoozabadi

    2003-12-01

    Wettability alteration to intermediate gas-wetting in porous media by treatment with FC-759, a fluoropolymer polymer, has been studied experimentally. Berea sandstone was used as the main rock sample in our work and its wettability before and after chemical treatment was studied at various temperatures from 25 to 93 C. We also studied recovery performance for both gas/oil and oil/water systems for Berea sandstone before and after wettability alteration by chemical treatment. Our experimental study shows that chemical treatment with FC-759 can result in: (1) wettability alteration from strong liquid-wetting to stable intermediate gas-wetting at room temperature and at elevated temperatures; (2) neutral wetting for gas, oil, and water phases in two-phase flow; (3) significant increase in oil mobility for gas/oil system; and (4) improved recovery behavior for both gas/oil and oil/water systems. This work reveals a potential for field application for improved gas-well deliverability and well injectivity by altering the rock wettability around wellbore in gas condensate reservoirs from strong liquid-wetting to intermediate gas-wetting.

  12. Flow injection chemiluminescence immunoassay based on resin beads, enzymatic amplification and a novel monoclonal antibody for determination of Hg(2+).

    PubMed

    Xu, Mingxia; Chen, Mengting; Dong, Tiantian; Zhao, Kang; Deng, Anping; Li, Jianguo

    2015-09-21

    In the present work, a simple and sensitive flow injection chemiluminescent competitive immunoassay was developed for the determination of mercury(II) ion (Hg(2+)) based on carboxylic resin beads, a novel specific monoclonal antibody (McAb) and HRP enzyme-amplification. Resin beads with carboxyl groups were creatively employed as supports for immobilizing more coating antigen through acylamide bonds. With a competitive-type assay mode, the Hg(2+) in solution competed with the immobilized coating antigen for the limited McAb. Then, the second antibody labeled with HRP was introduced, and an effectively increased CL was obtained, which was ascribed to the catalytic activity of HRP for the luminol-PIP-H2O2 reaction. With increasing concentration of Hg(2+), the CL of this system decreases because less HRP is present in the CL reaction. At optimal conditions, the CL signal displayed a good linear relation toward Hg(2+) in the range of 0.05-200 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit (3σ) of 0.015 ng mL(-1). The immunosensor possessed high specificity, acceptable accuracy and reproducibility, and was examined in real samples with favorable results. This immunoassay will have intriguing application prospects for the determination of other heavy metal ions and environmental contaminants. PMID:26244170

  13. Smart Application of Direct Gas Injection using a new conceptual model on Coherent and Incoherent Flow: From Bench Scale to Field Scale.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geistlinger, H.; Samani, S.; Pohlert, M.; Martienssen, M.; Engelmann, F.; Hüttmann, S.

    2008-12-01

    Within the framework of the OXYWALL field experiment we developed the direct gas injection (DGI) of oxygen as a remediation technology, which allows the cost-efficient and large-scale cleaning of groundwater contaminated with organic contaminants. That technology can be used as wide-banded, unselective remediation method for complex contaminant mixtures. Particularly, it could be proofed in field experiments that mineral oil hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons (BTEX), the rather persistent gasoline component Methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), and chlorinated aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, like Trichloroethene and Monochlorobenzene, can be aerobically metabolized by autochthon microorganisms. Over the last 8 years the field site was investigated and a dense monitoring network was installed using Geoprobe direct- push technology and standard hydrogeological investigations were conducted, like EC-Logs, Injections-Logs, Gamma-Logs, TDR-probes, oxygen measurements with in-situ optodes, and tracer test with test gases SF6, Ar, and Oxygen. The key parameter for controling and regulating the DGI is the spatial and temporal distribution of the gas phase. High-resolution optical bench scale experiments were conducted in order to investigate local gas flow pattern and integral flow properties caused by point-like gas injection into water-saturated glass beads and natural sands. We observed a grain-size (dk)- and flow-rate (Q) dependent transition from incoherent to coherent flow. Conceptualizing the stationary tortuous gas flow as core-annulus flow and applying Hagen- Poiseuille flow for a straight capillary, we propose a flow-rate- and grain-size dependent stability criterion that could describe our experimental results and was used for classifying the experiments in a dk-Q-diagram (flow chart). Since DGI simulations are mainly based on continuum models, we also test the validity of the continuum approach for two-fluid flow in macroscopic homogeneous media by

  14. The effect of pore throat size and injection flowrate on the determination and sensitivity of different capillary number values at high-capillary-number flow in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadali Jamaloei, Benyamin; Ahmadloo, Farid; Kharrat, Riyaz

    2010-10-01

    This study examines the effect of pore throat size and injection flowrate on the values of the pore-scale capillary number, the Newtonian-fluid capillary number and the apparent capillary number (Nc1, Nc2 and Nc3, respectively) and their sensitivity to change in high-capillary-number flow through porous media, which occurs in polymer-assisted dilute surfactant flooding (PADSF). Additionally, the influence of pore throat size and injection flowrate on oil recovery at breakthrough and at the end of displacement (ultimate) and the relationship between the effective shear rate γeff and the porous medium-dependent shift factor α are discussed. The results indicated that Nc2 was the smallest and Nc3 was the largest value. The difference between Nc2 and Nc3 is due to the increase in apparent viscosity of the polymer-contained surfactant solution during the flow through porous media and the change in Nc3 should be utilized to characterize the macroscopic behavior of the PADSF. Generally, the decrease in pore throat size and the increase in injection flowrate caused an increase in the ultimate oil recovery and Nc3. Moreover, the oil recovery at breakthrough decreased with an increase in pore throat size and injection flowrate. Finally, the rate of change of γeff, with change in α, increased almost uniformly with a decrease in pore throat size and an increase in injection flowrate.

  15. Transient formation characteristics of temperature stratified flow in a horizontal water pipe with an injection of hot water from a hole of a pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Okinotani, Takeshi; Ozoe, Hiroyuki

    1999-07-01

    Temperature stratified flow was numerically analyzed in a horizontal pipe. Initially cold water is running and developed in a pipe. From a part of a pipe wall, hot water is injected. Subsequent transient velocity and temperature stratification process was numerically analyzed. This process is a model for such transfer phenomena as follows, i.e., blowing of fresh air into a long tunnel, replacing process of hazardous fluids from a pipeline of an industrial plant with safer fluids, ventilation of a large construction house or ducts, transient combustion process in a tunnel or huge duct, transient flow and temperature characteristics in a canal or river with multiple sub channels. These various cases become more complicated and more serious for the larger scale systems. Temperature stratified flow is everywhere established which makes the prediction difficult. This paper presents transient three-dimensional numerical analyses for a horizontal pipe in which laminar cold water runs steadily. Hot water is injected from a lower side corner of a pipe. Model equations consist of fully three-dimensional balance equations in a cylindrical coordinate. Total tube length computed is 10 times of a pipe diameter d{sub 0}. Hot water inlet hole is 0.4d{sub 0} long in an axial direction and {pi}d{sub 0}/8 in a circumferential direction near the entrance of the system. Reynolds number in a pipe is 1000. Reynolds number of the hot water at the injection hole is 447. Grashof number based on the temperature difference is 5 x 10{sup 7} and Pr = 5.41. Transient three-dimensional velocity profiles and isotherms are presented. The instantaneous water temperature represents oscillatory fluctuation depending on the level in a pipe and on the axial distance from the injection hole. For the tube diameter 0.1m, an average temperature arrived a quasi-steady state after 5 minutes with strong temperature stratification even at 1m from an injection hole. Near the injection hole, hot water makes

  16. Non-chromatographic speciation analysis of mercury by flow injection on-line preconcentration in combination with chemical vapor generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hong; Jin, Yan; Han, Weiying; Miao, Qiang; Bi, Shuping

    2006-07-01

    A novel non-chromatographic approach for direct speciation of mercury, based on the selective retention inorganic mercury and methylmercury on the inner wall of a knotted reactor by using ammonium diethyl dithiophosphate and dithizone as complexing agents respectively, was developed for flow injection on-line sorption preconcentration coupled with chemical vapor generation non-dispersive atomic fluorescence spectrometry. With the sample pH kept at 2.0, the preconcentration of inorganic mercury on the inner walls of the knotted reactor was carried out based on the exclusive retention of Hg-DDP complex in the presence of methylmercury via on-line merging the sample solution with ammonium diethyl dithiophosphate solution, and selective preconcentration methylmercury was achieved with dithizone instead of ammonium diethyl dithiophosphate. A 15% (v/v) HCl was introduced to elute the retained mercury species and merge with KBH 4 solution for atomic fluorescence spectrometry detection. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the sample throughputs of inorganic mercury and methylmercury were 30 and 20 h - 1 with the enhancement factors of 13 and 24. The detection limits were found to be 3.6 ng l - 1 for Hg 2+ and 2.0 ng l - 1 for CH 3Hg +. The precisions (RSD) for the 11 replicate measurements of each 0.2 μg l - 1 of Hg 2+ and CH 3Hg + were 2.2% and 2.8%, respectively. The developed method was validated by the analysis of certified reference materials (simulated natural water, rice flour and pork) and by recovery measurements on spiked samples, and was applied to the determination of inorganic mercury and methylmercury in biological and environmental water samples.

  17. A flow injection analyser conductometric coupled system for the field analysis of free dissolved CO2 and total dissolved inorganic carbon in natural waters.

    PubMed

    Martinotti, Valter; Balordi, Marcella; Ciceri, Giovanni

    2012-05-01

    A flow injection analyser coupled with a gas diffusion membrane and a conductometric microdetector was adapted for the field analysis of natural concentrations of free dissolved CO2 and dissolved inorganic carbon in natural waters and used in a number of field campaigns for marine water monitoring. The dissolved gaseous CO2 presents naturally, or that generated by acidification of the sample, is separated by diffusion using a hydrophobic semipermeable gas porous membrane, and the permeating gas is incorporated into a stream of deionised water and measured by means of an electrical conductometric microdetector. In order to make the system suitable and easy to use for in-field measurements aboard oceanographic ships, the single components of the analyser were compacted into a robust and easy to use system. The calibration of the system is carried out by using standard solutions of potassium bicarbonate at two concentration ranges. Calibration and sample measurements are carried out inside a temperature-constant chamber at 25 °C and in an inert atmosphere (N2). The detection and quantification limits of the method, evaluated as 3 and 10 times the standard deviation of a series of measurements of the matrix solution were 2.9 and 9.6 μmol/kg of CO2, respectively. Data quality for dissolved inorganic carbon was checked with replicate measurements of a certified reference material (A. Dickson, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego), both accuracy and repeatability were -3.3% and 10%, respectively. Optimization, performance qualification of the system and its application in various natural water samples are reported and discussed. In the future, the calibration step will be operated automatically in order to improve the analytical performance and the applicability will be increased in the course of experimental surveys carried out both in marine and freshwater ecosystems. Considering the present stage of development of the method, it

  18. Determination of {sup 230}Th, {sup 234}U, {sup 239}Pu, and {sup 240}Pu in soils by ICP-MS using flow-injection preconcentration

    SciTech Connect

    Hollenbach, M.; Grohs, J.; Mamich, S.; Kroft, M.

    1995-12-31

    The US Department of Energy needs improved analytical methods for alpha-emitting radionuclides to support environmental restoration and waste management projects. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been used successfully to measure radionuclides with relatively long half-lives; however, ICP-MS used with conventional sample introduction techniques lacks the sensitivity or selectivity to measure shorter-lived radionuclides at levels important for environmental monitoring. New methods were developed for measuring {sup 230}Th, {sup 234}U, {sup 239}Pu, and {sup 240}Pu in soils. Samples are dried, ground, and dissolved by fusion. A flow injection (FI) analysis system is used to separate and concentrate the analytes by solid-phase extraction. The FI eluent is pumped directly into the nebulizer of the ICP-MS. The use of FI resulted in greater sensitivity and freedom from interferences when compared with direct aspiration. Detection limits are improved by approximately a factor of 20. The detection limits are approximately 3 Bq/kg (4 ng/kg) for {sup 230}Th, 0.6 Bq/kg (3 ng/kg) for {sup 234}U, 0.4 Bq/kg (0.2 ng/kg) for {sup 239}Pu, and 2 Bq/kg (0.3 ng/kg) for {sup 240}Pu. The FI-ICP-MS methods are faster, less labor intensive, and generate less laboratory waste than traditional radiochemical methods. The FI-ICP-MS gives individual results for {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu which cannot be resolved by the usual radiochemical method. The accuracy of the methods was verified by analyzing reference soils.

  19. Perturbation solutions for a micropolar fluid flow in a semi-infinite expanding or contracting pipe with large injection or suction through porous wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Xinhui; Yuan, Lili; Cao, Limei; Zheng, Liancun; Shen, Yanan; Li, Lin

    2016-07-01

    We investigate an unsteady incompressible laminar micropolar flow in a semi-infinite porous pipe with large injection or suction through a deforming pipe wall. Using suitable similarity transformations, the governing partial differential are transformed into a coupled nonlinear singular boundary value problem. For large injection, the asymptotic solutions are constructed using the Lighthill method, which eliminates singularity of solution in the high order derivative. For large suction, a series expansion matching method is used. Analytical solutions are validated against the numerical solutions obtained by Bvp4c.

  20. Flow-injection in-line complexation for ion-pair reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography of some metal-4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol chelates.

    PubMed

    Srijaranai, Supalax; Chanpaka, Saiphon; Kukusamude, Chutima; Grudpan, Kate

    2006-02-28

    Flow injection (FI) was coupled to ion-pair reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (IP-RPHPLC) for the simultaneous analysis of some metal-4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol (PAR) chelates. A simple reverse flow injection (rFI) set-up was used for in-line complexation of metal-PAR chelates prior to their separation by IP-RPHPLC. The rFI conditions were: injection volume of PAR 85muL, flow rate of metal stream 4.5mLmin(-1), concentration of PAR 1.8x10(-4)molL(-1) and the mixing coil length of 150cm. IP-RPHPLC was carried out using a C(18)muBondapak column with the mobile phase containing 37% acetonitrile, 3.0mmolL(-1) acetate buffer pH 6.0 and 6.2mmolL(-1) tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBABr) at a flow rate of 1.0mLmin(-1) and visible detection at 530 and 440nm. The analysis cycle including in-line complexation and separation by IP-RPHPLC was 16min, which able to separate Cr(VI) and the PAR chelates of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II). PMID:18970520

  1. Determination of inorganic arsenic species by flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry with variable sodium tetrahydroborate concentrations*1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigrist, Mirna E.; Beldoménico, Horacio R.

    2004-07-01

    This work describes a study on the determination of inorganic arsenic species in ground water and synthetic experimental matrices, using a flow injection system with on-line hydride generation device coupled to an atomic absorption spectrometer with flame-heated quartz atomizer (FI HG AAS). Specific trivalent arsenic determination is based on the slow kinetics of As(V) on the hydride generation reaction using sufficiently low concentrations of sodium tetrahydroborate (NaBH 4) as reductant in highly acidic conditions (pH<0). Under these conditions, the efficiency of hydride generation from As(V) is much lower than that from As(III). The pentavalent form is determined by the difference between total inorganic arsenic and As(III). As(V) interferences were studied using As(III) solutions ranging from 0% to 50% of total inorganic As. The optimized NaBH 4 concentration was 0.035% (w/v). The detection limit was 1.4 μg l -1 As(III). As(V) interferences were 6% in the case of water samples with 6 μg l -1 As(III) in the presence of 54 μg l -1 As(V) (i.e. 10% As(III)). Interferences of methylated arsenic species (MMA and DMA) were evaluated. Speciation method was satisfactorily applied to 20 field arsenical water samples from Santa Fe, Argentina, with values ranging from 30 to 308 μg l -1 total As. We found from 0% to 36% As(III) in the 20 field samples. The developed methodology constitutes an economic, simple and reliable way to evaluate inorganic arsenic distribution in underground waters or similar systems with negligible or no content of organoarsenicals.

  2. Upregulation and induction of surface antigens with special reference to MHC class II expression in microglia in postnatal rat brain following intravenous or intraperitoneal injections of lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, J; Ling, E A

    1994-01-01

    The effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the expression of surface antigens including major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and complement type 3 (CR3) receptors on microglial cells in the corpus callosum in postnatal rat brain were investigated. When LPS was injected intravenously (i.v.) in 1-d-old rats, the immunostaining of callosal amoeboid microglial cells with OX-18 directed against MHC class I antigen was enhanced 24 h after the injection in comparison with the controls. The expression of MHC class II (Ia) antigen on the same cell type as shown by its immunoreactivity with OX-6 was also elicited especially after 2 intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of LPS. Thus 7 d after a single i.p. injection of LPS into 1-d-old rats, only a few OX-6 positive cells showing a moderate staining reaction were observed in the corpus callosum. The immunoreactivity diminished 14 d after the injection. However, in rats receiving 2 successive i.p. injections of LPS at 1 and 4 d of age and killed 7 d after the 1st injection, a significant number of intensely stained OX-6 positive amoeboid microglial cells were observed in the corpus callosum. The expression of MHC class II antigens induced by 2 injections of LPS was sustained at least until d 14 when the callosal ramified microglial cells, known to be derived from gradual metamorphic transformation of amoeboid microglia, still exhibited intense immunoreactivity with OX-6. The effect of LPS on the expression of CR3 on amoeboid microglial cells was not obvious after a single injection, but the immunoreactivity with OX-42 was also augmented in rats given 2 i.p. administration of LPS into rats at 1 an 4 d of age. It is concluded from this study that the expression of MHC class I and class II antigens on amoeboid microglial cells in corpus callosum was upregulated and induced respectively after i.v. or i.p. injection of LPS into early postnatal rats. Although relatively fewer in number when compared with OX-18 and OX-42

  3. A simple and rapid flow injection chemiluminescence determination of cysteine with Ru(phen)3(2+)-Ce(IV) system.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, B; Mokhtari, A

    2007-02-01

    A new chemiluminescence system was developed for the determination of cysteine by flow injection system. This method is based on the reaction of L-cysteine with Ru(phen)3(2+) and Ce(IV) to produce chemiluminescence. The calibration curve was linear over the range 8.0x10(-7) to 4.0x10(-5) and 4.0x10(-5) to 1.0x10(-3) M with a detection limit of 7.0x10(-7) M (S/N=3). The relative standard deviation of 4.0x10(-6) M cysteine was found 3.5% (n=10). The influence of potential interfering substances was studied. The proposed method was successfully applied for the flow injection determination of cysteine in the real samples with minimum sampling rate of 90 sample/h. PMID:16843051

  4. Differentiation of Aurantii Fructus Immaturus from Poniciri Trifoliatae Fructus Immaturus using Flow- injection Mass spectrometric (FIMS) Metabolic Fingerprinting Method Combined with Chemometrics

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yang; Chang, Yuan-Shiun; Chen, Pei

    2015-01-01

    A flow-injection mass spectrometric metabolic fingerprinting method in combination with chemometrics was used to differentiate Aurantii Fructus Immaturus from its counterfeit Poniciri Trifoliatae Fructus Immaturus. Flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprints of 9 Aurantii Fructus Immaturus samples and 12 Poniciri Trifoliatae Fructus Immaturus samples were acquired and analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA). The authentic herbs were differentiated from their counterfeits easily. Eight characteristic components which were responsible for the difference between the samples were tentatively identified. Furthermore, three out of the eight components, naringin, hesperidin, and neohesperidin, were quantified. The results are useful to help identify the authenticity of Aurantii Fructus Immaturus. PMID:25622204

  5. E × B flow velocity deduced from the poloidal motion of fluctuation patterns in neutral beam injected L-mode plasmas on KSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, W.; Leem, J.; Yun, G. S.; Park, H. K.; Ko, S. H.; Choi, M. J.; Wang, W. X.; Budny, R. V.; Ethier, S.; Park, Y. S.; Luhmann, N. C.; Domier, C. W.; Lee, K. D.; Ko, W. H.; Kim, K. W.

    2016-05-01

    A method for direct assessment of the equilibrium E × B flow velocity ( E ×B flow shear is responsible for the turbulence suppression and transport reduction in tokamak plasmas) is investigated based on two facts. The first one is that the apparent poloidal rotation speed of density fluctuation patterns is close to the turbulence rotation speed in the direction perpendicular to the local magnetic field line within the flux surface. And the second "well-known" fact is that the turbulence rotation velocity consists of the equilibrium E × B flow velocity and intrinsic phase velocity of turbulence in the E × B flow frame. In the core region of the low confinement (L-mode) discharges where a strong toroidal rotation is induced by neutral beam injection, the apparent poloidal velocities (and turbulence rotation velocities) are good approximations of the E ×B flow velocities since linear gyrokinetic simulations suggest that the intrinsic phase velocity of the dominant turbulence is significantly lower than the apparent poloidal velocity. In the neutral beam injected L-mode plasmas, temporal and spatial scales of the measured turbulence are studied by comparing with the local equilibrium parameters relevant to the ion-scale turbulence.

  6. Hollow fiber-based liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction followed by flow injection analysis using column-less HPLC for the determination of phenazopyridine in plasma and urine.

    PubMed

    Saraji, Mohammad; Bidgoli, Ali Akbar Hajialiakbari; Farajmand, Bahman

    2011-07-01

    Hollow fiber-based liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction (HF-LLLME) followed by flow injection analysis and diode array detection (FIA-DAD) was applied as a simple and sensitive quantitative method for the determination of phenazopyridine in urine and plasma samples. Flow injection system included a conventional HPLC system (without a chromatographic column) and a diode array detector. The extraction of phenazopyridine was carried out using diphenyl ether as the organic phase for filling the pores of the hollow fiber wall, and 0.1 M H(2)SO(4) solution as acceptor phase in the lumen of the fiber. The factors affecting the HF-LLLME and flow injection analysis including type of organic solvent, pH of donor phase, extraction temperature, extraction time, stirring rate, and pH of mobile phase were investigated and the optimal extraction conditions were established. With the consumption of 5 mL of sample solution, the enrichment factor was about 230. The limit of detection was 0.5 μg/L with inter- and intra-day precision being (RSD%) 6.9 and 4.9, respectively. Excellent linearity was found between 5 and 200 μg/L. PMID:21681956

  7. Circulatory kinetics of intravenously injected {sup 238}Pu(IV) citrate and {sup 14}C-CaNa{sub 3}-DTPA in mice: Comparison with rat, dog, and Reference Man

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, P.W.; Kullgren, B.; Schmidt, C.T.

    1997-02-01

    New ligands for in vivo chelation of Pu(IV) are being synthesized and evaluated in mice for efficacy and toxicity. Biokinetic studies of the new ligands, CaNa{sub 3}-DTPA, and Pu(IV) are major components of those investigations. Young adult female mice were injected intravenously (iv) with {sup 3}H-inulin, {sup 14}C-CaNa{sub 3}-DTPA, or {sup 238}Pu(IV) citrate to provide base- line data for plasma clearance, tissue uptake, and excretion rates and to determine the dilution volume (VOD) and renal clearance rate (RC) of filterable substances. Published plasma clearance data in Reference Man, dog, and rat were collected. Based on combined data for {sup 3}H-inulin and {sup 14}C-CaNa{sub 3}-DTPA, VOD = 17% of body weight and RC = 18 mL kg{sup -1} min{sup -1} for mice. Retention of {sup 14}C-CaNa{sub 3}-DTPA in the four species is proportional to body weight and inversely proportional to RC: Integrals of the retention of {sup 14}C-CaNa{sub 3}-DTPA from R(t) = 1.0 to R(t) = 0.05 are 108, 43, 28, and 10 DF min, respectively, for Reference Man, dog, rat, and mouse. Clearances of iv-injected Pu(IV) citrate from plasma are in the same order: The plasma curve integrals from injection to 1440 min are 840, 640, 280, and 67 DF min, respectively, for Reference Man, dog, rat, and mouse. In mice, a large fraction of newly injected Pu(IV) is rapidly transferred to the interstitial water of bulk soft tissue (excluding liver and kidneys), from which it is cleared at the same rate as from the plasma. Rapid plasma clearance, escape into interstitial water (22%ID at 20 min), significant early urinary excretion (8%ID in 12 h), and prompt deposition in liver and skeleton (complete in 12 h) are evidence of inefficient binding to plasma protein of newly injected Pu(IV) in mice. Slow plasma clearance, little early urinary excretion, and delayed deposition in liver and skeleton reflect more efficient binding of newly injected Pu(IV) in Reference Man and dog. 39 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Flow injection on-line dilution for zinc determination in human saliva with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry detection.

    PubMed

    Burguera-Pascu, Margarita; Rodríguez-Archilla, Alberto; Burguera, José Luis; Burguera, Marcela; Rondón, Carlos; Carrero, Pablo

    2007-09-26

    An automated method is described for the determination of zinc in human saliva by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET AAS) after on-line dilution of samples with a significant reduction of sample consumption per analysis (<0.4 mL including the dead volume of the system). In order to fulfill this aim without changing the sample transport conduits during the experiments, a flow injection (FI) dilution system was constructed. Its principal parts are: one propulsion device (peristaltic pump, PP) for either samples, standards or washing solution all located in an autosampler tray and for the surfactant solution (Triton X-100) used as diluent, and a two-position time based solenoid injector (TBSI(1)) which allowed the introduction of 10 microL of either solution in the diluent stream. To avoid unnecessary waste of samples, the TBSI(1) also permitted the recirculation of the solutions to their respective autosampler cups. The downstream diluted solution fills a home made sampling arm assembly. The sequential deposition of 20 microL aliquots of samples or standards on the graphite tube platform was carried out by air displacement with a similar time based solenoid injector (TBSI(2)). The dilution procedure and the injection of solutions into the atomizer are computer controlled and synchronized with the operation of the temperature program. Samples or standards solutions were submitted to two drying steps (at 90 and 130 degrees C), followed by pyrolysis and atomization at 700 and 1700 degrees C, respectively. The aqueous calibration was linear up to 120.0 microgL(-1) for diluted standard solutions/samples and its slope was similar (p>0.05) to the standard addition curve, indicating lack of matrix effect. The precision tested by repeated analysis of real saliva samples was less than 3% and the detection limit (3sigma) was of 0.35 microgL(-1). To test the accuracy of the proposed procedure, recovery tests were performed, obtaining mean recovery of added zinc of

  9. Coupling of STOMP and ABAQUS for Hydro-Geomechanical Modeling of Fluid Flow and Rock Deformation Associated with Subsurface CO2 Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, K. C.; Nguyen, B. N.; Fang, Y.; Richmond, M. C.; Murray, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    Geomechanical alteration of porous media is generally ignored for most shallow subsurface applications, whereas CO2 injection, migration, and trapping in deep saline aquifers will be controlled by coupled multifluid flow, energy transfer, geomechanical, and geochemical processes. The accurate assessment of the risks associated with potential leakage of injected CO2 and the design of effective injection systems requires that we represent these coupled processes within numerical simulators. The objective of this study was to examine the coupling of hydraulic and geomechanical processes for simulation of CO2 injection into the subsurface for carbon sequestration. The impact of nonisothermal multifluid flow and porous media deformation mechanics on CO2 migration and storage was evaluated. We present a sequentially coupled approach for multifluid and geomechanical simulation using STOMP and ABAQUS that has been developed and validated through comparison to the solutions for benchmark problems that were solved with a coupled TOUGH-FLAC simulator. The poroelastic model was implemented with user-subroutines in ABAQUS. We also compare the STOMP-ABAQUS simulator to a new version of STOMP that includes the fully coupled poroelastic simulation within the multifluid flow and transport simulator. The poroelastic model computes stiffness, stresses, and strains using aqueous and gas pressures as well as saturations from STOMP output, and provides STOMP with the updated permeability, porosity, and capillary pressure over time during the simulation. The hydraulic only (uncoupled from mechanics) simulation and the hydrogeomechanical (coupled) simulation results using STOMP-ABAQUS were comparable to the previous results of a TOUGH-FLAC simulator. Results from the STOMP-ABAQUS coupled simulator were essentially identical to the fully coupled STOMP hydrogeomechanical simulator when the sequential coupling occurred at small time steps, and deviations between results increased with

  10. Hybrid sequential injection-flow injection manifold for the spectrophotometric determination of total sulfite in wines using o-phthalaldehyde and gas-diffusion.

    PubMed

    Tzanavaras, Paraskevas D; Thiakouli, Eleni; Themelis, Demetrius G

    2009-03-15

    A new automated spectrophotometric method for the determination of total sulfite in white and red wines is reported. The assay is based on the reaction of o-phthalaldehyde (OPA) and ammonium chloride with the analyte in basic medium under SI conditions. Upon on-line alkalization with NaOH, a blue product is formed having an absorption maximum at 630 nm. The parameters affecting the reaction - temperature, pH, ionic strength, amount concentration and volume of OPA, amount concentration of ammonium chloride, flow rate and reaction coil length - and the gas-diffusion process - sample and HCl volumes, length of mixing coil, donor flow rate - were studied. The proposed method was validated in terms of linearity (1-40 mgL(-1), r=0.9997), limit of detection (c(L)=0.3 mgL(-1)) and quantitation (c(Q)=1.0 mgL(-1)), precision (s(r)=2.2% at 20 mgL(-1) sulfite, n=12) and selectivity. The applicability of the analytical procedure was evaluated by analyzing white and red wine samples, while the accuracy as expressed by recovery experiments ranged between 96% and 106%. PMID:19159773

  11. Wall-slip of highly filled powder injection molding compounds: Effect of flow channel geometry and roughness

    SciTech Connect

    Hausnerova, Berenika; Sanetrnik, Daniel; Paravanova, Gordana

    2014-05-15

    The paper deals with the rheological behavior of highly filled compounds proceeded via powder injection molding (PIM) and applied in many sectors of industry (automotive, medicine, electronic or military). Online rheometer equipped with slit dies varying in surface roughness and dimensions was applied to investigate the wall-slip as a rheological phenomenon, which can be considered as a parameter indicating the separation of compound components (polymer binder and metallic powder) during high shear rates when injection molded.

  12. Wall-slip of highly filled powder injection molding compounds: Effect of flow channel geometry and roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausnerova, Berenika; Sanetrnik, Daniel; Paravanova, Gordana

    2014-05-01

    The paper deals with the rheological behavior of highly filled compounds proceeded via powder injection molding (PIM) and applied in many sectors of industry (automotive, medicine, electronic or military). Online rheometer equipped with slit dies varying in surface roughness and dimensions was applied to investigate the wall-slip as a rheological phenomenon, which can be considered as a parameter indicating the separation of compound components (polymer binder and metallic powder) during high shear rates when injection molded.

  13. Simultaneous determination of some food additives in soft drinks and other liquid foods by flow injection on-line dialysis coupled to high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kritsunankul, Orawan; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2011-06-15

    Flow injection on-line dialysis was developed for sample pretreatment prior to the simultaneous determination of some food additives by high performance liquid chromatography (FID-HPLC). A liquid sample or mixed standard solution (900 μL) was injected into a donor stream (5%, w/v, sucrose) of FID system and was pushed further through a dialysis cell, while an acceptor solution (0.025 mol L(-1) phosphate buffer, pH 3.75) was held in the opposite side of the dialysis membrane. The dialysate was then flowed to an injection loop of the HPLC valve, where it was further injected into the HPLC system and analyzed under isocratic reverse-phase HPLC conditions and UV detection (230 nm). The order of elution of five food additives was acesulfame-K, saccharin, caffeine, benzoic acid and sorbic acid, respectively, with the analysis time of 14 min. On-line dialysis and HPLC analysis could be performed in parallel, providing sample throughput of 4.3h(-1). Dialysis efficiencies of five food additives were in ranges of 5-11%. Linear calibration graphs were in ranges of 10-100 mg L(-1) for acesulfame-K and saccharin, 10-250 mg L(-1) for benzoic acid and 10-500 mg L(-1) for caffeine and sorbic acid. Good precisions (RSD<5%) for all the additives were obtained. The proposed system was applied to soft drink and other liquid food samples. Acceptable percentage recoveries could be obtained by appropriate dilution of the sample before injecting into the system. The developed system has advantages of high degrees of automation for sample pretreatment, i.e., on-line sample separation and dilution and low consumption of chemicals and materials. PMID:21641449

  14. Laboratory experiments and numerical modelling of CO2-rich brine injection through sandstone samples: Role of flow rate, brine composition, mixing and spreading effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luquot, L.; Gouze, P.; soler Sagarra, J.; Saaltink, M.; Martinez-Perez, L.; Carrera, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Heletz structure has been selected as a test site for a prospective CO2 reservoir and for the MUSTANG European project injection experiment based on the analysis of the available geological, geophysical and borehole data from various areas of Israel. The Heletz area is located in the Southern part of the Mediterranean Coastal Plain, about 7 km from the sea shore. The target layer is composed of sandstone, has a thickness of around 20 meters and is located at a depth of 1500 m. Flow-through laboratory experiments of CO2-rich brine were realized to evaluate the chemical processes occurring in the Heletz site.
The Heletz sandstone rock is poorly consolidated and has a high porosity (around 23%) and connectivity. We performed four flow-through experiments at in situ storage conditions (T = 60ºC, P = 15 MPa, PCO2 =1.8 MPa). The flow rates injection were 0.05 and 0.30 mL.min-1. Two different brine solutions were used, both representative of the Heletz reservoir native water. The first one was a synthetic brine of the Heletz reservoir (closed to seawater). The second one was the first one equilibrated with gypsum. The results show an increase in permeability for all the percolation experiment whatever the flow rate and the brine solution. This is explained by the dissolution of ankerite, dolomite and feldspar. We observed that the permeability increase is higher and faster for high flow rate injection than for low flow rate. Precipitation of secondary phases is characterized such as gypsum during equilibrated-gypsum brine injection. Secondary clay minerals precipitation is also observed near feldspar dissolution. Modeling these experiments is a non-trivial task, as some chemical processes are local in space. Reactive transport models have been performed in order to understand and reproduce the observed processes. We have used a water mixing approach which uses the mass mixing fraction between mobile and/or immobile zones. The approach relies in the fact of not

  15. Combined effects of suction/injection and wall surface curvature on natural convection flow in a vertical micro-porous annulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, B. K.; Aina, B.; Muhammad, S. A.

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates analytically the hydrodynamic and thermal behaviour of a fully developed natural convection flow in a vertical micro-porous-annulus (MPA) taking into account the velocity slip and temperature jump at the outer surface of inner porous cylinder and inner surface of outer porous cylinder. A closed — form solution is presented for velocity, temperature, volume flow rate, skin friction and rate of heat transfer expressed as a Nusselt number. The influence of each governing parameter on hydrodynamic and thermal behaviour is discussed with the aid of graphs. During the course of investigation, it is found that as suction/injection on the cylinder walls increases, the fluid velocity and temperature is enhanced. In addition, it is observed that wall surface curvature has a significant effect on flow and thermal characteristics.

  16. On-line separation for the speciation of mercury in natural waters by flow injection-cold vapour-atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Jon; Raposo, Juan Carlos; Larreta, Joana; Martinez-Arkarazo, Irantzu; de Diego, Alberto; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2004-10-01

    Inorganic mercury and methylmercury are determined in natural waters by injecting the filtered samples onto a low cost commercial flow injection system in which an anion exchange microcolumn is inserted after the injection loop (FIA-IE). If hydrochloric acid is used as the carrier solution, the HgCl4(2-) species (inorganic mercury) will be retained by the anion exchanger while the CH3HgCI species (methylmercury) will flow through the resin with negligible retention. Four anion exchangers and seven elution agents were checked, in a batch mode, to search for the best conditions for optimal separation and elution of both species. Dowex M-41 and L-cysteine were finally selected. Mercury detection was performed by cold vapour-electrothermal atomic adsorption spectrometry (HG-ETAAS). Both systems were coupled to perform the continuous on-line separation/detection of both inorganic mercury and methylmercury species. Separation and detection conditions were optimized by two chemometric approaches: full factorial design and central composite design. A limit of detection of 0.4 microg L(-1) was obtained for both mercury species (RSD < 3.0% for 20 microg L(-1) inorganic and methylmercury solutions). The method was applied to mercury speciation in natural waters of the Nerbioi-lbaizabal estuary (Bilbao, North of Spain) and recoveries of more than 95% were obtained. PMID:15537077

  17. Experimental study about estimating the permeability and storativity properties of CO2 in low permeable rocks under the CO2 injection by flow-pump method.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, H.; Mitani, Y.; Ikemi, H.; Kitamura, K.

    2014-12-01

    Recently, it is generally believed that the increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) emission has become a major contributing factor of a global warming. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is an emerging technology and considered as the promising method to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere. Generally, CCS is intended to apply in oil or natural gas reservoir layers with overlying cap rock. However, in Japan, few proper sites are available for CCS. Therefore, low-permeable rock mass without cap rock is suggested as alternative option. It is required to clarify behavior of CO2 in rock for longitudinal and stable storage of CO2. In order to clarify the properties of permeability and storativity of low permeable rocks, Ainoura sandstone, saturated with water injected with a constant and appropriate flow rate of supercritical CO2, flow pump permeability test under the condition of temperature and pressure of in-situ CO2 reservoir has been conducted. In this experiment, the differential pressure between both ends of specimen changed in 4 stages and finally in stable condition. Furthermore, relative permeability of water and CO2, and specific storage of specimen during CO2 injection has been calculated with theoretical analysis of flow pump permeability test for two phase flow. Using the results of the experiment, 3D core-scale flow-simulation by using TOUGH2 (ECO2N module) has been conducted due to confirm the flow of fluid and CO2 distribution in the specimen. To compare the results of simulation and experimental results, the permeability and storativity properties of carbon dioxide in low permeable rock has been estimated. As a result, low permeable rocks could become an effective storage of supercritical CO2.

  18. The effects of engine speed and injection characteristics on the flow field and fuel/air mixing in motored two-stroke diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, H. L.; Carpenter, M. H.; Ramos, J. I.

    1987-01-01

    A numerical analysis is presented on the effects of the engine speed, injection angle, droplet distribution function, and spray cone angle on the flow field, spray penetration and vaporization, and turbulence in a turbocharged motored two-stroke diesel engine. The results indicate that the spray penetration and vaporization, velocity, and turbulence kinetic energy increase with the intake swirl angle. Good spray penetration, vaporization, and mixing can be achieved by injecting droplets of diameters between 50 and 100 microns along a 120-deg cone at about 315 deg before top-dead-center for an intake swirl angle of 30 deg. The spray penetration and vaporization were found to be insensitive to the turbulence levels within the cylinder. The results have also indicated that squish is necessary in order to increase the fuel vaporization rate and mixing.

  19. 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane chemiluminescence sensitized by Rhodamine B on surfactant bilayer membrane assemblies for determination of sulphide by a flow-injection method.

    PubMed

    Xue-Xin, Q; Yue-Ying, G; Yamada, M; Kobayashi, E; Suzuki, S

    1989-04-01

    A new chemiluminescence system is described for selective determination of sulphide by a flow-injection method. The weak light emitted from the reaction between 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane and sulphide is efficiently sensitized by Rhodamine B in alkaline solution containing dioctadecyldimethylammonium chloride bilayer membrane aggregates and acetonitrile. The limit of determination is 0.05 ng (injection of 30 mul of 5 x 10(-8)M sulphide), the linear range is two orders of magnitude, the sampling rate is 240/hr, and the relative standard deviation is 3.0% for 0.3 ng of sulphide. Manganese(II), the strongest enhancing species after sulphide ion, provides a signal 1.1% of that for sulphide ion. Manganese(II), iron(II), and species forming precipitates with sulphide ion interfere, but other sulphur anions such as sulphite, sulphate, thiosulphate, and thiocyanate do not. PMID:18964747

  20. Towards a comprehensive atlas of cortical connections in a primate brain: Mapping tracer injection studies of the common marmoset into a reference digital template.

    PubMed

    Majka, Piotr; Chaplin, Tristan A; Yu, Hsin-Hao; Tolpygo, Alexander; Mitra, Partha P; Wójcik, Daniel K; Rosa, Marcello G P

    2016-08-01

    The marmoset is an emerging animal model for large-scale attempts to understand primate brain connectivity, but achieving this aim requires the development and validation of procedures for normalization and integration of results from many neuroanatomical experiments. Here we describe a computational pipeline for coregistration of retrograde tracing data on connections of cortical areas into a 3D marmoset brain template, generated from Nissl-stained sections. The procedure results in a series of spatial transformations that are applied to the coordinates of labeled neurons in the different cases, bringing them into common stereotaxic space. We applied this procedure to 17 injections, placed in the frontal lobe of nine marmosets as part of earlier studies. Visualizations of cortical patterns of connections revealed by these injections are supplied as Supplementary Materials. Comparison between the results of the automated and human-based processing of these cases reveals that the centers of injection sites can be reconstructed, on average, to within 0.6 mm of coordinates estimated by an experienced neuroanatomist. Moreover, cell counts obtained in different areas by the automated approach are highly correlated (r = 0.83) with those obtained by an expert, who examined in detail histological sections for each individual. The present procedure enables comparison and visualization of large datasets, which in turn opens the way for integration and analysis of results from many animals. Its versatility, including applicability to archival materials, may reduce the number of additional experiments required to produce the first detailed cortical connectome of a primate brain. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2161-2181, 2016. © 2016 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27099164

  1. Effects of Mean Flow Profiles on Instability of a Low-Density Gas Jet Injected into a High-Density Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vedantam, Nanda Kishore

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the mean flow profiles on the instability characteristics in the near-injector region of low-density gas jets injected into high-density ambient gas mediums. To achieve this, a linear temporal stability analysis and a spatio-temporal stability analysis of a low-density round gas jet injected vertically upwards into a high-density ambient gas were performed by assuming three different sets of mean velocity and density profiles. The flow was assumed to be isothermal and locally parallel. Viscous and diffusive effects were ignored. The mean flow parameters were represented as the sum of the mean value and a small normal-mode fluctuation. A second order differential equation governing the pressure disturbance amplitude was derived from the basic conservation equations. The first set of mean velocity and density profiles assumed were those used by Monkewitz and Sohn for investigating absolute instability in hot jets. The second set of velocity and density profiles assumed for this study were the ones used by Lawson. And the third set of mean profiles included a parabolic velocity profile and a hyperbolic tangent density profile. The effects of the inhomogeneous shear layer and the Froude number (signifying the effects of gravity) on the temporal and spatio-temporal results for each set of mean profiles were delineated. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  2. Flow injection method for the rapid determination of chemical oxygen demand based on microwave digestion and chromium speciation in flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuesta, A.; Todoli, J. L.; Canals, A.

    1996-12-01

    The present paper describes a new flow injection method for the determination of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). This method consists of a first digestion step, where the sample is heated by microwave radiation, a second one where an anionic exchange resin retains the Cr(VI) that has not been reduced by the organic matter of the sample and a third one where Cr(VI), after being eluted, is determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The microwave power applied, the sulphuric acid concentration, the liquid flow in the digestion step and the sample volume were the variables studied. The recovery and precision obtained with this method are similar to those obtained using a standard semi-micro method, whereas the throughput is much higher (up to 50 determinations per hour). As regards sensitivity, by changing the sample loop volume and the concentration of dichromate, one can analyze samples with Chemical Oxygen Demand values between 25 and 5000 mg/l. The limit of detection is about 7 mg/l COD. An interesting feature of the new method, which is not shared by most other flow injection methods of Chemical Oxygen Demand determination, is that there is no matrix effect in the determination step.

  3. Application of direct-injection detector integrated with the multi-pumping flow system to chemiluminescence determination of the total polyphenol index.

    PubMed

    Nalewajko-Sieliwoniuk, Edyta; Iwanowicz, Magdalena; Kalinowski, Sławomir; Kojło, Anatol

    2016-03-10

    In this work, we present a novel chemiluminescence (CL) method based on direct-injection detector (DID) integrated with the multi-pumping flow system (MPFS) to chemiluminescence determination of the total polyphenol index. In this flow system, the sample and the reagents are injected directly into the cone-shaped detection cell placed in front of the photomultiplier window. Such construction of the detection chamber allows for fast measurement of the CL signal in stopped-flow conditions immediately after mixing the reagents. The proposed DID-CL-MPFS method is based on the chemiluminescence of nanocolloidal manganese(IV)-hexametaphosphate-ethanol system. The application of ethanol as a sensitizer, eliminated the use of carcinogenic formaldehyde. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the chemiluminescence intensities are proportional to the concentration of gallic acid in the range from 5 to 350 ng mL(-1). The DID-CL-MPFS method offers a number of advantages, including low limit of detection (0.80 ng mL(-1)), high precision (RSD = 3.3%) and high sample throughput (144 samples h(-1)) as well as low consumption of reagents, energy and low waste generation. The proposed method has been successfully applied to determine the total polyphenol index (expressed as gallic acid equivalent) in a variety of plant-derived food samples (wine, tea, coffee, fruit and vegetable juices, herbs, spices). PMID:26893089

  4. On-line monitoring of bioreactions of Bacillus polymyxa and Klebsiella oxytoca by membrane introduction tandem mass spectrometry with flow injection analysis sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Hayward, M.J.; Kotiaho, Tapio; Lister, A.K.; Cooks, R.G.; Austin, G.D.; Narayan, Ramani; Tsao, G.T. )

    1990-09-01

    Membrane introduction mass spectrometry with flow injection analysis sampling has been utilized for on-line monitoring of the major products and the volatile metabolites of fermentation of the Bacillus polymyxa and Klebsiella oxytoca organisms. A flow injection sampling system was used to rapidly deliver fermentation broth or an external standard to the mass spectrometer. Analyte introduction occurred via a direct insertion membrane probe in which the aqueous solutions flowed past a membrane located within the ion source of the mass spectrometer. For both organisms, concentrations of the liquid-phase products acetic acid, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, and ethanol, were monitored as a function of time after permeation through the membrane and ionization by chemical ionization. Tandem mass spectrometry confirmed that these measurements were made without interference. Off-line gas chromatography was utilized to test the accuracy of these measurements, and excellent agreement was found. The use of tandem mass spectrometry has allowed the detection of additional compounds that were previously not known to be present in measurable amounts.

  5. Nonlinear control of rotating stall and surge with axisymmetric bleed and air injection on axial flow compressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeung, Chung-Hei (Simon)

    The study of compressor instabilities in gas turbine engines has received much attention in recent years. In particular, rotating stall and surge are major causes of problems ranging from component stress and lifespan reduction to engine explosion. In this thesis, modeling and control of rotating stall and surge using bleed valve and air injection is studied and validated on a low speed, single stage, axial compressor at Caltech. Bleed valve control of stall is achieved only when the compressor characteristic is actuated, due to the fast growth rate of the stall cell compared to the rate limit of the valve. Furthermore, experimental results show that the actuator rate requirement for stall control is reduced by a factor of fourteen via compressor characteristic actuation. Analytical expressions based on low order models (2--3 states) and a high fidelity simulation (37 states) tool are developed to estimate the minimum rate requirement of a bleed valve for control of stall. A comparison of the tools to experiments show a good qualitative agreement, with increasing quantitative accuracy as the complexity of the underlying model increases. Air injection control of stall and surge is also investigated. Simultaneous control of stall and surge is achieved using axisymmetric air injection. Three cases with different injector back pressure are studied. Surge control via binary air injection is achieved in all three cases. Simultaneous stall and surge control is achieved for two of the cases, but is not achieved for the lowest authority case. This is consistent with previous results for control of stall with axisymmetric air injection without a plenum attached. Non-axisymmetric air injection control of stall and surge is also studied. Three existing control algorithms found in literature are modeled and analyzed. A three-state model is obtained for each algorithm. For two cases, conditions for linear stability and bifurcation criticality on control of rotating stall are

  6. Evaluation of the 34S/32S ratio of Soufre de Lacq elemental sulfur isotopic reference material by continuous flow isotope-ratio mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qi, H.P.; Coplen, T.B.

    2003-01-01

    Soufre de Lacq elemental sulfur reference material (IAEA-S-4) isotopically is homogeneous in amounts as small as 41 ??g as determined by continuous flow isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. The ??34S value for this reference material is +16.90 ?? 0.12??? (1??) on a scale (Vienna Can??on Diablo troilite, VCDT) where IAEA-S-1 Ag2S is -0.3??? and IAEA-S-2 Ag2S is +22.67???. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  7. Golimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... it.Golimumab injection comes in prefilled syringes and auto-injection devices for subcutaneous injection. Use each syringe ... method.Do not remove the cap from the auto-injection device or the cover from the prefilled ...

  8. Speciation of arsenic (III) and arsenic (V) based on quenching of CdS quantum dots fluorescence using hybrid sequential injection-stopped flow injection gas-diffusion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butwong, Nutthaya; Srijaranai, Supalax; Ngeontae, Wittaya; Burakham, Rodjana

    2012-11-01

    A hybrid sequential injection-stopped flow injection system was developed for the speciation of arsenic based on the quenching of mercaptoacetic acid capped cadmium sulfide quantum dots (CdS-MAA QDs) fluorescence intensity. The analytical procedure involves the generation of arsine from As(III) by sodium borohydride in acetate buffer medium pH 6.0. The generated arsine (donor stream) diffuses across the PTFE membrane of the gas-diffusion unit into an acceptor stream and then interacts with CdS-MAA QDs. Total arsenic was determined after pre-reduction of As(V) to As(III) with 1% (m/v) mercaptoacetic acid. Concentration of As(V) in the sample solutions can be deduced from the difference of total arsenic and As(III). Optimization of the experimental conditions and instrumental parameters were investigated. Under optimal conditions, limits of detection were 20 μg L-1 for As(III) and 40 μg L-1 for As(V). Recoveries in the range 84-103% were obtained from sediment sample.

  9. Analysis and design of three dimensional supersonic nozzles. Volume 1: Nozzle-exhaust flow field analysis by a reference plane characteristics technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dash, S.; Delguidice, P.

    1972-01-01

    A second order numerical method employing reference plane characteristics has been developed for the calculation of geometrically complex three dimensional nozzle-exhaust flow fields, heretofore uncalculable by existing methods. The nozzles may have irregular cross sections with swept throats and may be stacked in modules using the vehicle undersurface for additional expansion. The nozzles may have highly nonuniform entrance conditions, the medium considered being an equilibrium hydrogen-air mixture. The program calculates and carries along the underexpansion shock and contact as discrete discontinuity surfaces, for a nonuniform vehicle external flow.

  10. Analysis of atmospheric flow over a surface protrusion using the turbulence kinetic energy equation with reference to aeronautical operating systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, W.; Harper, W. L.

    1975-01-01

    Flow over surface obstructions can produce significantly large wind shears such that adverse flying conditions can occur for aeronautical systems (helicopters, STOL vehicles, etc.). Atmospheric flow fields resulting from a semi-elliptical surface obstruction in an otherwise horizontally homogeneous statistically stationary flow are modelled with the boundary-layer/Boussinesq-approximation of the governing equation of fluid mechanics. The turbulence kinetic energy equation is used to determine the dissipative effects of turbulent shear on the mean flow. Iso-lines of turbulence kinetic energy and turbulence intensity are plotted in the plane of the flow and highlight regions of high turbulence intensity in the stagnation zone and sharp gradients in intensity along the transition from adverse to favourable pressure gradient. Discussion of the effects of the disturbed wind field in CTOL and STOL aircraft flight path and obstruction clearance standards is given. The results indicate that closer inspection of these presently recommended standards as influenced by wind over irregular terrains is required.

  11. Heat Transfer Analysis for Stationary Boundary Layer Slip Flow of a Power-Law Fluid in a Darcy Porous Medium with Plate Suction/Injection.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Asim; Ali, Yasir; Aziz, Taha; Siddique, J I

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the slip effects on the boundary layer flow and heat transfer characteristics of a power-law fluid past a porous flat plate embedded in the Darcy type porous medium. The nonlinear coupled system of partial differential equations governing the flow and heat transfer of a power-law fluid is transformed into a system of nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations by applying a suitable similarity transformation. The resulting system of ordinary differential equations is solved numerically using Matlab bvp4c solver. Numerical results are presented in the form of graphs and the effects of the power-law index, velocity and thermal slip parameters, permeability parameter, suction/injection parameter on the velocity and temperature profiles are examined. PMID:26407162

  12. Heat Transfer Analysis for Stationary Boundary Layer Slip Flow of a Power-Law Fluid in a Darcy Porous Medium with Plate Suction/Injection

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Asim; Ali, Yasir; Aziz, Taha; Siddique, J. I.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the slip effects on the boundary layer flow and heat transfer characteristics of a power-law fluid past a porous flat plate embedded in the Darcy type porous medium. The nonlinear coupled system of partial differential equations governing the flow and heat transfer of a power-law fluid is transformed into a system of nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations by applying a suitable similarity transformation. The resulting system of ordinary differential equations is solved numerically using Matlab bvp4c solver. Numerical results are presented in the form of graphs and the effects of the power-law index, velocity and thermal slip parameters, permeability parameter, suction/injection parameter on the velocity and temperature profiles are examined. PMID:26407162

  13. Preparation of Fe(3)O(4)@C@CNC multifunctional magnetic core/shell nanoparticles and their application in a signal-type flow-injection photoluminescence immunosensor.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chengchao; Li, Meng; Li, Long; Ge, Shenguang; Ge, Lei; Yu, Jinghua; Yan, Mei; Song, Xianrang

    2013-11-01

    We describe here the preparation of carbon-coated Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles that were further fabricated into multifunctional core/shell nanoparticles (Fe3O4@C@CNCs) through a layer-by-layer self-assembly process of carbon nanocrystals (CNCs). The nanoparticles were applied in a photoluminescence (PL) immunosensor to detect the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and CEA primary antibody was immobilized onto the surface of the nanoparticles. In addition, CEA secondary antibody and glucose oxidase were covalently bonded to silica nanoparticles. After stepwise immunoreactions, the immunoreagent was injected into the PL cell using a flow-injection PL system. When glucose was injected, hydrogen peroxide was obtained because of glucose oxidase catalysis and quenched the PL of the Fe3O4@C@CNC nanoparticles. The here proposed PL immunosensor allowed us to determine CEA concentrations in the 0.005–50 ng·mL-1 concentration range, with a detection limit of 1.8 pg·mL-1. PMID:24121430

  14. A novel flow-injection analysis system for evaluation of antioxidants by using sodium dichloroisocyanurate as a source of hypochlorite anion.

    PubMed

    Ichiba, H; Hanami, K; Yagasaki, K; Tanaka, M; Ito, H; Fukushima, T

    2012-02-01

    A flow injection analysis (FIA) system for evaluation of the antioxidant activity of a compound capable of scavenging a hypochlorite anion (OCl⁻), one of the reactive oxygen species (ROS), was developed. Aminophenyl fluorescein (APF), a fluorescence indicator of ROS, was mixed manually with the test compounds and the mixed solution was injected into the FIA system. The injected solution was reacted in-line with OCl⁻, that was produced by using sodium dichloroisocyanurate in the presence of 0.1 M CH3CO2Na in H2O. The fluorescence intensity of fluorescein generated from non-fluorescent APF was significantly attenuated in compounds that had a scavenging effect on OCl⁻. The precision obtained by the FIA system was satisfactory (relative standard deviation < 5.0%) and a rapid assay within 0.5 min per sample was achieved. The proposed FIA system was used to demonstrate that reduced glutathione, dithiothreitol, and 3-methyl-1-phenyl-5-pyrazolone (edaravone) showed a significant scavenging effect on OCl⁻. Therefore, the proposed FIA system can be used as a screening assay for OCl⁻-scavenging compounds. PMID:22460428

  15. Method for the quantification of vanadyl porphyrins in fractions of crude oils by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Flow Injection-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wandekoken, Flávia G.; Duyck, Christiane B.; Fonseca, Teresa C. O.; Saint'Pierre, Tatiana D.

    2016-05-01

    High performance liquid chromatography hyphenated by flow injection to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-FI-ICP-MS) was used to investigate V linked to porphyrins present in fractions of crude oil. First, the crude oil sample was submitted to fractionation by preparative liquid chromatography with UV detection, at the porphyrin Soret band wavelength (400 nm). The obtained porphyrin fractions were then separated in a 250 mm single column, in the HPLC, and eluted with different mobile phases (methanol or methanol:toluene (80:20; v:v)). The quantification of V-porphyrins in the fractions eluted from HPLC was carried out by online measuring the 51V isotope in the ICP-MS, against vanadyl octaethylporphine standard solutions (VO-OEP), prepared in the same solvent as the mobile phase, and injected post-column directly into the plasma. A 20 μg L- 1 Ge in methanol was used as internal standard for minimizing non-spectral interference, such as short-term variations due to injection. The mathematical treatment of the signal based on Fast Fourier Transform smoothing algorithm was employed to improve the precision. The concentrations of V as V-porphyrins were between 2.7 and 11 mg kg- 1 in the fractions, which were close to the total concentration of V in the porphyrin fractions of the studied crude oil.

  16. Studies of the analyte-carrier interface in flow injection analysis. Final report, June 1, 1987--January 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.D.

    1992-12-31

    Chemical analysis in flowing solution is popular for automation of classical methods. However, most of the classical methods are not specific enough for direct multicomponent analysis of simple mixtures. This research project has the goals of study of rapid multicomponent analysis of transient species in flowing media, and investigations of chemical reactions at interfaces and of effects of competition on distribution of products from interfacial reaction. This report summarizes work done over the past 4.5 years; support has been terminated.

  17. Can the Dupuit-Thiem equation accurately describe the flow pattern induced by injection in a laboratory scale aquifer-well system?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonilla, Jose; Kalwa, Fritz; Händel, Falk; Binder, Martin; Stefan, Catalin

    2016-04-01

    The Dupuit-Thiem equation is normally used to assess flow towards a pumping well in unconfined aquifers under steady-state conditions. For the formulation of the equation it is assumed that flow is laminar, radial and horizontal towards the well. It is well known that these assumptions are not met in the vicinity of the well; some authors restrict the application of the equation only to a radius larger than 1.5-fold the aquifer thickness. In this study, the equation accuracy to predict the pressure head is evaluated as a simple and quick analytical method to describe the flow pattern for different injection rates in the LSAW. A laboratory scale aquifer-well system (LSAW) was implemented to study the aquifer recharge through wells. The LSAW consists of a 1.0 m-diameter tank with a height of 1.1 meters, filled with sand and a screened well in the center with a diameter of 0.025 m. A regulated outflow system establishes a controlled water level at the tank wall to simulate various aquifer thicknesses. The pressure head at the bottom of the tank along one axis can be measured to assess the flow profile every 0.1 m between the well and the tank wall. In order to evaluate the accuracy of the Dupuit-Thiem equation, a combination of different injection rates and aquifer thicknesses were simulated in the LSAW. Contrary to what was expected (significant differences between the measured and calculated pressure heads in the well), the absolute difference between the calculated and measured pressure head is less than 10%. Beside this, the highest differences are not observed in the well itself, but in the near proximity of it, at a radius of 0.1 m. The results further show that the difference between the calculated and measured pressure heads tends to decrease with higher flow rates. Despite its limitations (assumption of laminar and horizontal flow throughout the whole aquifer), the Dupuit-Thiem equation is considered to accurately represent the flow system in the LSAW.

  18. Aero-thermal performances of leakage flows injection from the endwall slot in linear cascade of high-pressure turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghopa, Wan Aizon W.; Harun, Zambri; Funazaki, Ken-ichi; Miura, Takemitsu

    2015-02-01

    The existence of a gap between combustor and turbine endwall in the real gas turbine induces to the leakages phenomenon. However, the leakages could be used as a coolant to protect the endwall surfaces from the hot gas since it could not be completely prevented. Thus, present study investigated the potential of leakage flows as a function of film cooling. In present study, the flow field at the downstream of high-pressure turbine blade has been investigated by 5-holes pitot tube. This is to reveal the aerodynamic performances under the influenced of leakage flows while the temperature measurement was conducted by thermochromic liquid crystal (TLC). Experimental has significantly captured theaerodynamics effect of leakage flows near the blade downstream. Furthermore, TLC measurement illustrated that the film cooling effectiveness contours were strongly influenced by the secondary flows behavior on the endwall region. Aero-thermal results were validated by the numerical simulation adopted by commercial software, ANSYS CFX 13. Both experimental and numerical simulation indicated almost similar trendinaero and also thermal behavior as the amount of leakage flows increases.

  19. Comparison of two methods for selegiline determination: A flow-injection chemiluminescence method using cadmium sulfide quantum dots and corona discharge ion mobility spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khataee, Alireza; Lotfi, Roya; Hasanzadeh, Aliyeh; Iranifam, Mortaza; Zarei, Mahmoud; Joo, Sang Woo

    2016-01-01

    Two analytical approaches including chemiluminescence (CL) and corona discharge ionization ion mobility spectrometry (CD-IMS) were developed for sensitive determination of selegiline (SG). We found that the CL intensity of the KMnO4-Na2S2O3 CL system was significantly enhanced in the presence of L-cysteine capped CdS quantum dots (QDs). A possible CL mechanism for this CL reaction is proposed. In the presence of SG, the enhanced CL system was inhibited. Based on this inhibition, a simple and sensitive flow-injection CL method was proposed for the determination of SG. Under optimum experimental conditions, the decreased CL intensity was proportional to SG concentration in the range of 0.01 to 30.0 mg L- 1. The detection limit (3σ) was 0.004 mg L- 1. Also, SG was determined using CD-IMS, and under optimum conditions of CD-IMS, calibration curves were linear in the range of 0.15 to 42.0 mg L- 1, with a detection limit (3σ) of 0.03 mg L- 1. The precision of the two methods was calculated by analyzing samples containing 5.0 mg L- 1 of SG (n = 11). The relative standard deviations (RSDs%) of the flow-injection CL and CD-IMS methods are 2.17% and 3.83%, respectively. The proposed CL system exhibits a higher sensitivity and precision than the CD-IMS method for the determination of SG.

  20. Quantitative analysis of piroxicam using temperature-controlled ionic liquid dispersive liquid phase microextraction followed by stopped-flow injection spectrofluorimetry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Piroxicam (PXM) belongs to the wide class of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). PXM has been widely applied in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, gonarthrosis, osteoarthritis, backaches, neuralgia, mialgia. In the presented work, a green and benign sample pretreatment method called temperature-controlled ionic liquid dispersive liquid phase microextraction (TCIL-DLPME) was followed with stopped-flow injection spectrofluorimetry (SFIS) for quantitation of PXM in pharmaceutical formulations and biological samples. Methods Temperature-controlled ionic liquid dispersive liquid phase microextraction (TCIL-DLPME) was applied as an environmentally friendly sample enrichment method to extract and isolate PXM prior to quantitation. Dispersion of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([Hmim][PF6]) ionic liquid (IL) through the sample aqueous solution was performed by applying a relatively high temperature. PXM was extracted into the extractor, and after phase separation, PXM in the final solution was determined by stopped-flow injection spectrofluorimetry (SFIS). Results and Major Conclusion Different factors affecting the designed method such as IL amount, diluting agent, pH and temperature were investigated in details and optimized. The method provided a linear dynamic range of 0.2-150 μg l-1, a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.046 μg l-1 and a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 3.1%. Furthermore, in order to demonstrate the analytical applicability of the recommended method, it was applied for quantitation of PXM in real samples. PMID:23895461