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Sample records for reference glasses usgs

  1. A new basaltic glass microanalytical reference material for multiple techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Steve; Koenig, Alan; Lowers, Heather

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been producing reference materials since the 1950s. Over 50 materials have been developed to cover bulk rock, sediment, and soils for the geological community. These materials are used globally in geochemistry, environmental, and analytical laboratories that perform bulk chemistry and/or microanalysis for instrument calibration and quality assurance testing. To answer the growing demand for higher spatial resolution and sensitivity, there is a need to create a new generation of microanalytical reference materials suitable for a variety of techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy/X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). As such, the microanalytical reference material (MRM) needs to be stable under the beam, be homogeneous at scales of better than 10–25 micrometers for the major to ultra-trace element level, and contain all of the analytes (elements or isotopes) of interest. Previous development of basaltic glasses intended for LA-ICP-MS has resulted in a synthetic basaltic matrix series of glasses (USGS GS-series) and a natural basalt series of glasses (BCR-1G, BHVO-2G, and NKT-1G). These materials have been useful for the LA-ICP-MS community but were not originally intended for use by the electron or ion beam community. A material developed from start to finish with intended use in multiple microanalytical instruments would be useful for inter-laboratory and inter-instrument platform comparisons. This article summarizes the experiments undertaken to produce a basalt glass reference material suitable for distribution as a multiple-technique round robin material. The goal of the analytical work presented here is to demonstrate that the elemental homogeneity of the new glass is acceptable for its use as a reference material. Because the round robin exercise is still underway, only

  2. High-precision isotopic characterization of USGS reference materials by TIMS and MC-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weis, Dominique; Kieffer, Bruno; Maerschalk, Claude; Barling, Jane; de Jong, Jeroen; Williams, Gwen A.; Hanano, Diane; Pretorius, Wilma; Mattielli, Nadine; Scoates, James S.; Goolaerts, Arnaud; Friedman, Richard M.; Mahoney, J. Brian

    2006-08-01

    The Pacific Centre for Isotopic and Geochemical Research (PCIGR) at the University of British Columbia has undertaken a systematic analysis of the isotopic (Sr, Nd, and Pb) compositions and concentrations of a broad compositional range of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) reference materials, including basalt (BCR-1, 2; BHVO-1, 2), andesite (AGV-1, 2), rhyolite (RGM-1, 2), syenite (STM-1, 2), granodiorite (GSP-2), and granite (G-2, 3). USGS rock reference materials are geochemically well characterized, but there is neither a systematic methodology nor a database for radiogenic isotopic compositions, even for the widely used BCR-1. This investigation represents the first comprehensive, systematic analysis of the isotopic composition and concentration of USGS reference materials and provides an important database for the isotopic community. In addition, the range of equipment at the PCIGR, including a Nu Instruments Plasma MC-ICP-MS, a Thermo Finnigan Triton TIMS, and a Thermo Finnigan Element2 HR-ICP-MS, permits an assessment and comparison of the precision and accuracy of isotopic analyses determined by both the TIMS and MC-ICP-MS methods (e.g., Nd isotopic compositions). For each of the reference materials, 5 to 10 complete replicate analyses provide coherent isotopic results, all with external precision below 30 ppm (2 SD) for Sr and Nd isotopic compositions (27 and 24 ppm for TIMS and MC-ICP-MS, respectively). Our results also show that the first- and second-generation USGS reference materials have homogeneous Sr and Nd isotopic compositions. Nd isotopic compositions by MC-ICP-MS and TIMS agree to within 15 ppm for all reference materials. Interlaboratory MC-ICP-MS comparisons show excellent agreement for Pb isotopic compositions; however, the reproducibility is not as good as for Sr and Nd. A careful, sequential leaching experiment of three first- and second-generation reference materials (BCR, BHVO, AGV) indicates that the heterogeneity in Pb isotopic compositions

  3. USGS42 and USGS43: human-hair stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic reference materials and analytical methods for forensic science and implications for published measurement results.

    PubMed

    Coplen, Tyler B; Qi, Haiping

    2012-01-10

    Because there are no internationally distributed stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic reference materials of human hair, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has prepared two such materials, USGS42 and USGS43. These reference materials span values commonly encountered in human hair stable isotope analysis and are isotopically homogeneous at sample sizes larger than 0.2 mg. USGS42 and USGS43 human-hair isotopic reference materials are intended for calibration of δ(2)H and δ(18)O measurements of unknown human hair by quantifying (1) drift with time, (2) mass-dependent isotopic fractionation, and (3) isotope-ratio-scale contraction. While they are intended for measurements of the stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen, they also are suitable for measurements of the stable isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur in human and mammalian hair. Preliminary isotopic compositions of the non-exchangeable fractions of these materials are USGS42(Tibetan hair)δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) = -78.5 ± 2.3‰ (n = 62) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) = +8.56 ± 0.10‰ (n = 18) USGS42(Indian hair)δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) = -50.3 ± 2.8‰ (n = 64) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) = +14.11 ± 0.10‰ (n = 18). Using recommended analytical protocols presented herein for δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) measurements, the least squares fit regression of 11 human hair reference materials is δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) = 6.085δ(2)O(VSMOW-SLAP) - 136.0‰ with an R-square value of 0.95. The δ(2)H difference between the calibrated results of human hair in this investigation and a commonly accepted human-hair relationship is a remarkable 34‰. It is critical that readers pay attention to the δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) of isotopic reference materials in publications, and they need to adjust the δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) measurement results of human hair in previous publications, as needed, to ensure all results on are on the same scales. PMID:21852055

  4. USGS42 and USGS43: Human-hair stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic reference materials and analytical methods for forensic science and implications for published measurement results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplen, T.B.; Qi, H.

    2012-01-01

    Because there are no internationally distributed stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic reference materials of human hair, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has prepared two such materials, USGS42 and USGS43. These reference materials span values commonly encountered in human hair stable isotope analysis and are isotopically homogeneous at sample sizes larger than 0.2 mg. USGS42 and USGS43 human-hair isotopic reference materials are intended for calibration of δ(2)H and δ(18)O measurements of unknown human hair by quantifying (1) drift with time, (2) mass-dependent isotopic fractionation, and (3) isotope-ratio-scale contraction. While they are intended for measurements of the stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen, they also are suitable for measurements of the stable isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur in human and mammalian hair. Preliminary isotopic compositions of the non-exchangeable fractions of these materials are USGS42(Tibetan hair)δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) = -78.5 ± 2.3‰ (n = 62) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) = +8.56 ± 0.10‰ (n = 18) USGS42(Indian hair)δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) = -50.3 ± 2.8‰ (n = 64) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) = +14.11 ± 0.10‰ (n = 18). Using recommended analytical protocols presented herein for δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) measurements, the least squares fit regression of 11 human hair reference materials is δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) = 6.085δ(2)O(VSMOW-SLAP) - 136.0‰ with an R-square value of 0.95. The δ(2)H difference between the calibrated results of human hair in this investigation and a commonly accepted human-hair relationship is a remarkable 34‰. It is critical that readers pay attention to the δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) of isotopic reference materials in publications, and they need to adjust the δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) measurement results of human hair in previous publications, as needed, to ensure all results on are on the same scales.

  5. Biscayne aquifer drinking water (USGS45): a new isotopic reference material for δ2H and δ18O measurements of water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenz, Jennifer M.; Tarbox, Lauren V.; Buck, Bryan; Qi, Haiping; Coplen, Tyler B.

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE As a result of the scarcity of isotopic reference waters for daily use, a new secondary isotopic reference material for international distribution has been prepared from drinking water collected from the Biscayne aquifer in Ft. Lauderdale, Florida. METHODS This isotopic reference water was filtered, homogenized, loaded into glass ampoules, sealed with a torch, autoclaved to eliminate biological activity, and measured by dual-inlet isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. This reference material is available by the case of 144 glass ampoules containing either 4 mL or 5 mL of water in each ampoule. RESULTS The δ2H and δ18O values of this reference material are –10.3 ± 0.4 ‰ and –2.238 ± 0.011 ‰, respectively, relative to VSMOW, on scales normalized such that the δ2H and δ18O values of SLAP reference water are, respectively, –428 and –55.5 ‰. Each uncertainty is an estimated expanded uncertainty (U = 2uc) about the reference value that provides an interval that has about a 95 % probability of encompassing the true value. CONCLUSIONS This isotopic reference material, designated as USGS45, is intended as one of two isotopic reference waters for daily normalization of stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic analysis of water with an isotope-ratio mass spectrometer or a laser absorption spectrometer. 

  6. New Organic Stable Isotope Reference Materials for Distribution through the USGS and the IAEA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimmelmann, Arndt; Qi, Haiping

    2014-05-01

    The widespread adoption of relative stable isotope-ratio measurements in organic matter by diverse scientific disciplines is at odds with the dearth of international organic stable isotopic reference materials (RMs). Only two of the few carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) organic RMs, namely L-glutamic acids USGS40 and USGS41 [1], both available from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), provide an isotopically contrasting pair of organic RMs to enable essential 2-point calibrations for δ-scale normalization [2, 3]. The supply of hydrogen (H) organic RMs is even more limited. Numerous stable isotope laboratories have resorted to questionable practices, for example by using 'CO2, N2, and H2 reference gas pulses' for isotopic calibrations, which violates the principle of identical treatment of sample and standard (i.e., organic unknowns should be calibrated directly against chemically similar organic RMs) [4], or by using only 1 anchor instead of 2 for scale calibration. The absence of international organic RMs frequently serves as an excuse for indefensible calibrations. In 2011, the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) funded an initiative of 10 laboratories from 7 countries to jointly develop much needed new organic RMs for future distribution by the USGS and the IAEA. The selection of targeted RMs attempts to cover various common compound classes of broad technical and scientific interest. We had to accept compromises to approach the ideal of high chemical stability, lack of toxicity, and low price of raw materials. Hazardous gases and flammable liquids were avoided in order to facilitate international shipping of future RMs. With the exception of polyethylene and vacuum pump oil, all organic RMs are individual, chemically-pure substances, which can be used for compound-specific isotopic measurements in conjunction with liquid and gas chromatographic interfaces. The compounds listed below are under isotopic calibration by

  7. USGS46 Greenland ice core water – A new isotopic reference material for δ2H and δ18O measurements of water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplen, Tyler B.; Qi, Haiping; Tarbox, Lauren V.; Lorenz, Jennifer M.; Buck, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Ice core from Greenland was melted, filtered, homogenised, loaded into glass ampoules, sealed, autoclaved to eliminate biological activity, and calibrated by dual-inlet isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. This isotopic reference material (RM), USGS46, is intended as one of two secondary isotopic reference waters for daily normalisation of stable hydrogen (δ2H) and stable oxygen (δ18O) isotopic analysis of water with a mass spectrometer or a laser absorption spectrometer. The measured δ2H and δ18O values of this reference water were −235.8 ± 0.7‰ and −29.80 ± 0.03‰, respectively, relative to VSMOW on scales normalised such that the δ2H and δ18O values of SLAP reference water are, respectively, −428 and −55.5‰. Each uncertainty is an estimated expanded uncertainty (U = 2uc) about the reference value that provides an interval that has about a 95-percent probability of encompassing the true value. This reference water is available in cases containing 144 glass ampoules that are filled with either 4 ml or 5 ml of water per ampoule.

  8. Lake Louise Water (USGS47): A new isotopic reference water for stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qi, Haiping; Lorenz, Jennifer M.; Coplen, Tyler B.; Tarbox, Lauren V.; Mayer, Bernhard; Taylor, Steve

    2014-01-01

    RESULTS: The δ2H and δ18O values of this reference water are –150.2 ± 0.5 ‰ and –19.80 ± 0.02 ‰, respectively, relative to VSMOW on scales normalized such that the δ2H and δ18O values of SLAP reference water are, respectively, –428 and –55.5 ‰. Each uncertainty is an estimated expanded uncertainty (U = 2uc) about the reference value that provides an interval that has about a 95-percent probability of encompassing the true value. CONCLUSION: This isotopic reference material, designated as USGS47, is intended as one of two isotopic reference waters for daily normalization of stable hydrogen and stable oxygen isotopic analysis of water with a mass spectrometer or a laser absorption spectrometer. "

  9. GSD-1G and MPI-DING Reference Glasses for In Situ and Bulk Isotopic Determination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jochum, K.P.; Wilson, S.A.; Abouchami, W.; Amini, M.; Chmeleff, J.; Eisenhauer, A.; Hegner, E.; Iaccheri, L.M.; Kieffer, B.; Krause, J.; McDonough, W.F.; Mertz-Kraus, R.; Raczek, I.; Rudnick, R.L.; Scholz, Donna K.; Steinhoefel, G.; Stoll, B.; Stracke, A.; Tonarini, S.; Weis, D.; Weis, U.; Woodhead, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper contains the results of an extensive isotopic study of United States Geological Survey GSD-1G and MPI-DING reference glasses. Thirteen different laboratories were involved using high-precision bulk (TIMS, MC-ICP-MS) and microanalytical (LA-MC-ICP-MS, LA-ICP-MS) techniques. Detailed studies were performed to demonstrate the large-scale and small-scale homogeneity of the reference glasses. Together with previously published isotopic data from ten other laboratories, preliminary reference and information values as well as their uncertainties at the 95% confidence level were determined for H, O, Li, B, Si, Ca, Sr, Nd, Hf, Pb, Th and U isotopes using the recommendations of the International Association of Geoanalysts for certification of reference materials. Our results indicate that GSD-1G and the MPI-DING glasses are suitable reference materials for microanalytical and bulk analytical purposes. Ce document contient les r??sultats d'une importante ??tude isotopique des verres de r??f??rence USGS GSD-1G et MPI-DING. Treize laboratoires diff??rents ont particip?? au travers de techniques analytiques de haute pr??cision travaillant soit sur ??chantillon total (TIMS, MC-ICP-MS) soit par microanalyse ??in situ?? (LA-MC-ICP-MS, LA-ICP-MS). ?? 2010 The Authors. Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research ?? 2010 International Association of Geoanalysts.

  10. A new isotopic reference material for stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope-ratio measurements of water—USGS50 Lake Kyoga Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplen, Tyler B.; Wassenaar, Leonard I; Mukwaya, Christine; Qi, Haiping; Lorenz, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    This isotopic reference material, designated as USGS50, is intended as one of two reference waters for daily normalization of stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic analysis of water with an isotope-ratio mass spectrometer or a laser absorption spectrometer, of use especially for isotope-hydrology laboratories analyzing freshwater samples from equatorial and tropical regions.

  11. Characterization of Analytical Reference Glass-1 (ARG-1)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.L.

    1993-12-01

    High-level radioactive waste may be immobilized in borosilicate glass at the West Valley Demonstration Project, West Valley, New York, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), Aiken, South Carolina, and the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP), Richland, Washington. The vitrified waste form will be stored in stainless steel canisters before its eventual transfer to a geologic repository for long-term disposal. Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) (DOE 1993), Section 1.1.2 requires that the waste form producers must report the measured chemical composition of the vitrified waste in their production records before disposal. Chemical analysis of glass waste forms is receiving increased attention due to qualification requirements of vitrified waste forms. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been supporting the glass producers` analytical laboratories by a continuing program of multilaboratory analytical testing using interlaboratory ``round robin`` methods. At the PNL Materials Characterization Center Analytical Round Robin 4 workshop ``Analysis of Nuclear Waste Glass and Related Materials,`` January 16--17, 1990, Pleasanton, California, the meeting attendees decided that simulated nuclear waste analytical reference glasses were needed for use as analytical standards. Use of common standard analytical reference materials would allow the glass producers` analytical laboratories to calibrate procedures and instrumentation, to control laboratory performance and conduct self-appraisals, and to help qualify their various waste forms.

  12. Determination of the 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratio in USGS silicate reference materials by multi-collector ICP-mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcaen, Lieve; Schrijver, Isabel De; Moens, Luc; Vanhaecke, Frank

    2005-04-01

    Multi-collector ICP-mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) was used for 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratio determination in newly introduced silicate reference materials from the US Geological Survey (USGS): granite G-3, andesite AGV-2, and basalt BCR-2. Next to the SrCO3 isotopic standard NIST SRM 987, also analogous USGS reference materials from the previous generation, and for which reference 87Sr/86Sr data obtained by TIMS are available, were analysed for validation purposes. Sample preparation consisted of acid digestion and subsequent isolation of Sr by means of a dedicated and commercially available crown ether-based resin. The Sr fractions thus obtained were analysed via MC-ICP-MS whereby mass discrimination was corrected for internally, while the isobaric interference at a mass-to-charge ratio of 86 caused by Kr impurities in the Ar gas was mathematically corrected for by using the signal for a Kr isotope free from spectral overlap. Finally, also the effect of the small amount of Rb that may still be present in the Sr fraction was corrected for mathematically on the basis of the signal intensity for 85Rb. The MC-ICP-MS results for G-2, AGV-1 and BCR-1 showed an excellent agreement with the corresponding TIMS values (<0.003% bias in all cases), such that it can be assumed that also the 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratio results obtained for the new reference materials are reliable.

  13. USGS grants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-04-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has announced that it will award up to $5 million in grants for earthquake hazards research in 2015. The USGS Earthquake Hazards program awards research grants to universities, state geological surveys, and private institutions every year for new and innovative proposals. Interested researchers can apply online at http://www.grants.gov under funding opportunity number G14AS00036. Applications are due 22 May 2014.

  14. Silicate glasses and sulfide melts in the ICDP-USGS Eyreville B core, Chesapeake Bay impact structure, Virginia, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belkin, H.E.; Horton, J.W., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Optical and electron-beam petrography of melt-rich suevite and melt-rock clasts from selected samples from the Eyreville B core, Chesapeake Bay impact structure, reveal a variety of silicate glasses and coexisting sulfur-rich melts, now quenched to various sulfi de minerals (??iron). The glasses show a wide variety of textures, fl ow banding, compositions, devitrifi cation, and hydration states. Electron-microprobe analyses yield a compositional range of glasses from high SiO2 (>90 wt%) through a range of lower SiO2 (55-75 wt%) with no relationship to depth of sample. Some samples show spherical globules of different composition with sharp menisci, suggesting immiscibility at the time of quenching. Isotropic globules of higher interfacial tension glass (64 wt% SiO2) are in sharp contact with lower-surface-tension, high-silica glass (95 wt% SiO2). Immiscible glass-pair composition relationships show that the immiscibility is not stable and probably represents incomplete mixing. Devitrifi cation varies and some low-silica, high-iron glasses appear to have formed Fe-rich smectite; other glass compositions have formed rapid quench textures of corundum, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, magnetite, K-feldspar, plagioclase, chrome-spinel, and hercynite. Hydration (H2O by difference) varies from ~10 wt% to essentially anhydrous; high-SiO2 glasses tend to contain less H2O. Petrographic relationships show decomposition of pyrite and melting of pyrrhotite through the transformation series; pyrite? pyrrhotite? troilite??? iron. Spheres (~1 to ~50 ??m) of quenched immiscible sulfi de melt in silicate glass show a range of compositions and include phases such as pentlandite, chalcopyrite, Ni-As, monosulfi de solid solution, troilite, and rare Ni-Fe. Other sulfi de spheres contain small blebs of pure iron and exhibit a continuum with increasing iron content to spheres that consist of pure iron with small, remnant blebs of Fe-sulfi de. The Ni-rich sulfi de phases can be explained by

  15. Reference commercial high-level waste glass and canister definition.

    SciTech Connect

    Slate, S.C.; Ross, W.A.; Partain, W.L.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents technical data and performance characteristics of a high-level waste glass and canister intended for use in the design of a complete waste encapsulation package suitable for disposal in a geologic repository. The borosilicate glass contained in the stainless steel canister represents the probable type of high-level waste product that will be produced in a commercial nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant. Development history is summarized for high-level liquid waste compositions, waste glass composition and characteristics, and canister design. The decay histories of the fission products and actinides (plus daughters) calculated by the ORIGEN-II code are presented.

  16. Reference electrodes with salt bridges contained in nanoporous glass: an underappreciated source of error.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Maral P S; Bühlmann, Philippe

    2013-10-01

    In electroanalytical measurements, nanoporous glass plugs are widely used to contain the electrolyte solution that forms a salt bridge between the sample and the reference electrode. Even though reference electrodes with plugs made of nanoporous glass (such as Vycor or CoralPor glass) are commercially available and are frequently used, the limits of their use have not been explored thoroughly. It is shown here that at ionic strengths lower than 100 mM, the half-cell potentials of reference electrodes with nanoporous glass plugs are not sample independent, as it would be desirable, but they depend on the ionic sample composition. Sample dependent shifts of more than 50 mV in the half cell potential were encountered. Reference potentials were found to be affected in aqueous solutions by HCl, NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2 and in acetonitrile by CF3COOH and the supporting electrolyte tetrabutylammonium perchlorate. These observations cannot be explained by the liquid junction potential between two mutually miscible electrolyte solutions, as commonly described with the Henderson equation. Instead, they result from the surface charge density on the glass surface and the resulting electrostatic screening of ion transfer into the glass pores when the latter have dimensions comparable to or smaller than the Debye length. Users of reference electrodes with nanoporous glass plugs need to be aware of these limitations to avoid substantial measurement errors. PMID:24003827

  17. Lanthanide and actinide doped glasses as reference standards for dye doped systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, E.J.A.; Hentschel, A.

    1996-12-31

    Organic dye molecules are well known to be subject to chemical and optical bleaching damage, temperature instability, and other forms of optical degradation. Currently recognized methods of referencing rely upon fluorescent salt solutions, such as quinine sulfate. In this paper, optically-active lanthanide and actinide doped gel-glasses are compared as reference standards for dye doped polymers. Samples are subjected to continuous illumination by 254 nm UV radiation. While dye-doped polymers exhibited approximately 65 percent decline in fluorescence intensity after 96 hours of irradiation, glass samples and glass powder in resin showed no decline in fluorescence intensities.

  18. Cesium Hydroxide Fusion Dissolution of Analytical Reference Glass-1 in Both Powder and Shard Form

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, C.J.; Spencer, W.A.

    1998-04-01

    CsOH has been shown to be an effective and convenient dissolution reagent for Analytical Reference Glass-1 (ARG-1). This glass standard was prepared from nonradioactive DWPF Start-up Glass. Therefore, its composition is similar to DWPF product glass and many of the glass matrices prepared at SRTC.The principal advantage of the CsOH fusion dissolution is that the reagent does not add the alkali metals Li, Na, and K usually needed by SRS customers. Commercially available CsOH is quite pure so that alkali metals can be measured accurately, often without blank corrections. CsOH fusions provide a single dissolution method for applicable glass to replace multiple dissolution schemes used by most laboratories. For example, SRTC glass samples are most commonly dissolved with a Na{sub 2}O{sub 2}-NaOH fusion (ref.1) and a microwave- assisted acid dissolution with HNO{sub 3}-HF-H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}-HCl (ref.2). Othe laboratories use fusion methods based on KOH, LiBO{sub 2}, and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} CsOH fusion approach reduces by half not only the work in the dissolution laboratory, but also in the spectroscopy laboratories that must analyze each solution.Experiments also revealed that glass shards or pellets are rapidly attacked if the flux temperature is raised considerably above the glass softening point. The softening point of ARG-1 glass is near 650 degrees C. Fusions performed at 750 degrees C provided complete dissolutions and accurate elemental analyses of shards. Successful dissolution of glass shards was demonstrated with CsOH, Na{sub 2}O{sub 2}, NaOH, KOH, and RbOH. Ability to dissolve glass shards is of considerable practical importance. Crushing glass to a fine powder is a slow and tedious task, especially for radioactive glasses dissolved in shielded cells. CsOH fusion of glass powder or shards is a convenient, cost-effective dissolution scheme applicable in SRTC, the DWPF, and the commercial glass industry.

  19. GIO benefits the USGS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDermott, M.P.

    2004-01-01

    The Geographic Information Office (GIO) benefits the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) by providing access to and delivery of USGS information and services, safety and security of USGS data and information, support for USGS science, and coordination of partnerships through Federal interagency data committees.

  20. Product consistency testing of three reference glasses in stainless steel and perfluoroalkoxy resin vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, K.M.; Smith, G.L.; Marschman, S.C.

    1995-03-01

    Because of their chemical durability, silicate glasses have been proposed and researched since the mid-1950s as a medium for incorporating high-level radioactive waste (HLW) generated from processing of nuclear materials. A number of different waste forms were evaluated and ranked in the early 1980s; durability (leach resistance) was the highest weighted factor. Borosilicate glass was rated the best waste form available for incorporation of HLW. Four different types of vessels and three different glasses were used to study the possible effect of vessel composition on durability test results from the Production Consistency Test (PCT). The vessels were 45-m 304 stainless steel vessels, 150-m 304 L stainless steel vessels, and 60-m perfluoroalkoxy (PFA) fluoropolymer resin vessels. The three glasses were the Environmental Assessment glass manufactured by Corning Incorporated and supplied by Westinghouse Savannah River company, and West Valley Nuclear Services reference glasses 5 and 6, manufactured and supplied by Catholic University of America. Within experimental error, no differences were found in durability test results using the 3 different glasses in the 304L stainless steel or PFA fluoropolymer resin vessels over the seven-day test period.

  1. Glass-based fluorescence reference materials used for optical and biophotonic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, A.; Ottermann, C.; Resch-Genger, U.; Hoffmann, K.; Schweizer, S.; Selling, J.; Spaeth, J.-M.; Rupertus, V.

    2006-04-01

    Fluorescence techniques are known for their high sensitivity and are widely used as analytical tools and detection methods for product and process control, material sciences, environmental and biotechnical analysis, molecular genetics, cell biology, medical diagnostics, and drug screening. For routine measurements by fluorescence techniques the existence of an improved quality assurance is one of the basic needs. According to DIN/ISO 17025 certified standards are used for fluorescence diagnostics having the drawback of giving relative values only. Typical requirements onto fluorescence reference materials or standards deal with the verification of the instrument performance as well as the improvement of the data comparability. Especially for biomedical applications fluorescence labels are used for the detection of proteins. In particular these labels consist of nano crystalline materials like CdS and CdSe. The field of Non-Cadmium containing materials is under investigation. In order to evaluate whether glass based materials can be used as standards it is necessary to calculate absolute values like absorption/excitation cross sections or relative quantum yields. This can be done using different quantities of dopands in glass, glass ceramics or crystals. The investigated materials are based on different types of glass, silicate, phosphate and boron glass, which play a dominant role for the absorption and emission mechanism. Additional to the so-called elementary fluorescence properties induced by raw earth elements the formation of defects lead to higher cross sections additionally. The main investigations deal with wavelength accuracy and lifetime of doped glasses, glass ceramics and crystalline samples. Moreover intensity patterns, homogeneity aspects and photo stability will be discussed.

  2. Demonstration of glass transition temperature shift in thin supported polystyrene films by internal reference method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efremov, Mikhail Yu.; Thode, Christopher; Nealey, Paul F.

    2013-02-01

    An internal reference method is used for the first time to clearly demonstrate the glass transition temperature (Tg) depression effect in 5 nm thick polystyrene films spin-cast on silicon wafers. Initially flat films exhibit depressed Tg at approximately 85 °C. Temperature-induced dewetting on hexamethyldisilazane-treated silicon substrates leads to formation of discontinuous films with average effective thickness of 15-30 nm. Dewetted films demonstrate Tg close to the bulk value (≈ 100 °C) and are used as internal references. Data both for continuous and discontinuous films are obtained in the same experimental run for the same sample, which allows direct comparison between datasets. Phase-modulated ellipsometry in vacuum is used to monitor glass transition. Both traditional linear temperature scan method and a novel temperature modulated technique have been employed in the measurements.

  3. Measuring Glass Thickness of a Reference Cell Used in a Polarized 3HE Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Justis, N.; Chen, J.

    2005-01-01

    Studies of the spin structure of the neutron are often conducted using a polarized 3He target due to its close spin resemblance to that of a free neutron. Experiments are conducted by bombarding polarized 3He nuclei with high-energy electrons from a linear accelerator. The polarized 3He gas is contained in a glass tube-like cell called the target cell. In addition to the target cell, a reference cell is also used for calibration purposes. The thickness of each cell must be accurately determined for the analysis of the scattering data of the experiment. The thickness of a reference cell was determined by using a tunable infrared laser to create a thin-film interference pattern by reflecting the laser light off of the glass cell. The intensity of the pattern is known to vary sinusoidally as the wavelength of the laser changes. Such variation was recorded as an array of numbers by a LabView program at 26 different points on the cell. Each of the 26 sets of data were fit to an equation containing the thickness variable to determine the thickness of the glass. The cell side, or wall, thickness ranged from 1.42 mm to 1.65 mm, with an uncertainty of less than 5% in every case. End, or window, thickness measurements were also successfully taken, but have yet to be fitted to the derived equation.

  4. USGS assesses deep undiscovered gas resource

    SciTech Connect

    Dyman, T.S.; Schmoker, J.W.; Root, D.H.

    1998-04-20

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) estimated in 1995 that 1,412 tcf of technically recoverable natural gas remained to be discovered or developed in US onshore areas. A significant part of that resource base, 114 tcf, is undiscovered gas in deep sedimentary basins assessed by the USGS in onshore areas and state waters. This article contains: (1) descriptions of the deep gas plays supplied by USGS province geologists; (2) estimates of undiscovered technically-recoverable gas from these plays; and, (3) comparisons of the USGS estimates with other recent deep gas assessments. For detailed discussions of the deep gas plays and maps illustrating the play outlines, refer to the 1995 USGS National Petroleum Assessment CD-ROM.

  5. DIGITAL LINE GRAPHS - USGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    USGS DLGs are digital representations of program-quadrangle format and sectional maps. All DLG data distributed by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) are DLG-Level 3 (DLG-3), which means the data contain a full range of attribute codes, have full topological structuring, ...

  6. USGS Emergency Response Resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bewley, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    Every day, emergency responders are confronted with worldwide natural and manmade disasters, including earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, landslides, tsunami, volcanoes, wildfires, terrorist attacks, and accidental oil spills.The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is ready to coordinate the provisioning and deployment of USGS staff, equipment, geospatial data, products, and services in support of national emergency response requirements.

  7. Characterization of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Environmental Assessment (EA) glass Standard Reference Material. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Bibler, N.E.; Beam, D.C.; Crawford, C.L.; Pickett, M.A.

    1993-06-01

    Liquid high-level nuclear waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will be immobilized by vitrification in borosilicate glass. The glass will be produced and poured into stainless steel canisters in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Other waste form producers, such as West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS) and the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP), will also immobilize high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass. The canistered waste will be stored temporarily at each facility for eventual permanent disposal in a geologic repository. The Department of Energy has defined a set of requirements for the canistered waste forms, the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). The current Waste Acceptance Primary Specification (WAPS) 1.3, the product consistency specification, requires the waste form producers to demonstrate control of the consistency of the final waste form using a crushed glass durability test, the Product Consistency Test (PCI). In order to be acceptable, a waste glass must be more durable during PCT analysis than the waste glass identified in the DWPF Environmental Assessment (EA). In order to supply all the waste form producers with the same standard benchmark glass, 1000 pounds of the EA glass was fabricated. The chemical analyses and characterization of the benchmark EA glass are reported. This material is now available to act as a durability and/or redox Standard Reference Material (SRM) for all waste form producers.

  8. Overview and USGS activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramey, Benjamin S., (Edited By); McEwen, Robert B.; Calkins, Hugh W.

    1983-01-01

    The discipline of cartography is undergoing a number of profound changes that center on the emerging influence of digital manipulation and analysis of data. Perhaps the most fundamental distinction between the digital representation of cartographic data and the conventional printed graphic is the need to explicitly and unambiguously code the attributes and spatial relationships among the various data elements. It is also necessary to follow acceptable practices for automated data processing. These requirements have led to the development by the USGS National Mapping Division of several documents that establish in-house digital cartographic standards. In an effort to fulfill lead agency requirements for promulgation of Federal standards in the earth sciences, the documents have been assembled with explanatory text into a USGS Circular. This Circular describes some of the pertinent issues relative to digital cartographic data standards, documents the digital cartographic data standards currently in use within the USGS, and details the efforts of the USGS related to the definition of national digital cartographic data standards. It consists of several chapters; the first is a general overview, and each succeeding chapter is made up from documents that establish in-house standards for one of the various types of digital cartographic data currently produced.

  9. USGS Tracks Acid Rain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, John D.; Nilles, Mark A.; Schroder, LeRoy J.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been actively studying acid rain for the past 15 years. When scientists learned that acid rain could harm fish, fear of damage to our natural environment from acid rain concerned the American public. Research by USGS scientists and other groups began to show that the processes resulting in acid rain are very complex. Scientists were puzzled by the fact that in some cases it was difficult to demonstrate that the pollution from automobiles and factories was causing streams or lakes to become more acidic. Further experiments showed how the natural ability of many soils to neutralize acids would reduce the effects of acid rain in some locations--at least as long as the neutralizing ability lasted (Young, 1991). The USGS has played a key role in establishing and maintaining the only nationwide network of acid rain monitoring stations. This program is called the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Each week, at approximately 220 NADP/NTN sites across the country, rain and snow samples are collected for analysis. NADP/NTN site in Montana. The USGS supports about 72 of these sites. The information gained from monitoring the chemistry of our nation's rain and snow is important for testing the results of pollution control laws on acid rain.

  10. The crystallization behavior of the West Valley reference borosilicate glass. Progress report, October 1, 1986--September 30, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, I.; Mathur, A.; Capozzi, C.; Sehgal, J.; Butts, D.; McPherson, D.; Pye, L.D.

    1988-04-01

    The crystallization behavior of a fully simulated reference borosilicate glass was studied. This work was required by the Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications. It included preparing and characterizing the base glass in various redox states, and assessing the influence of redox state on crystallization behavior. Characterization tools included optical and electron microscopy, wet chemical analysis, x-ray diffraction, dilatometry, and differential scanning calorimetry. Effect of cooling a melt at a rate and history simulating in-canister cooling used for full-scale vitrification at West Valley also was determined. The fully oxidized glass composition study contains residual crystalline phases (spinel and cerium-thorium oxide) at 0.4--1.6 vol %. Upon isothermal heat treatment above a measured glass transition temperature of 478C, but below the estimated liquidus of 1000C, crystallization would increase to 4--5 vol % for times up to 384 hours. Crystallization products included spine, acmite, cerium-thorium oxide, and alumino silicates. Crystallization rate was maximum at 700--800C. After 12 hours at 800C the glass crystallized to 3.0 vol %. This same glass, when reduced to a redox state where the ratio of Fe{sup ++}/total iron was 10%, showed a lower crystallization maximum, i.e., 600--700C. The glass transition temperature of this partially reduced glass also was lowered from 478C (fully oxidized) to 474C. All of these observations are in accord with the general theories of glass science. A critical cooling rate of 1.48C/min would be sufficient to limit crystallization to less than 2.0 vol %. This predicted value was confirmed by cooling a melt at this temperature and then estimating the volume percent crystallization.

  11. Preliminary characterisation of new glass reference materials (GSA-1G, GSC-1G, GSD-1G and GSE-1G) by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry using 193 nm, 213 nm and 266 nm wavelengths

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guillong, M.; Hametner, K.; Reusser, E.; Wilson, S.A.; Gunther, D.

    2005-01-01

    New glass reference materials GSA-1G, GSC-1G, GSD-1G and GSE-1G have been characterised using a prototype solid state laser ablation system capable of producing wavelengths of 193 nm, 213 nm and 266 nm. This system allowed comparison of the effects of different laser wavelengths under nearly identical ablation and ICP operating conditions. The wavelengths 213 nm and 266 nm were also used at higher energy densities to evaluate the influence of energy density on quantitative analysis. In addition, the glass reference materials were analysed using commercially available 266 nm Nd:YAG and 193 nm ArF excimer lasers. Laser ablation analysis was carried out using both single spot and scanning mode ablation. Using laser ablation ICP-MS, concentrations of fifty-eight elements were determined with external calibration to the NIST SRM 610 glass reference material. Instead of applying the more common internal standardisation procedure, the total concentration of all element oxide concentrations was normalised to 100%. Major element concentrations were compared with those determined by electron microprobe. In addition to NIST SRM 610 for external calibration, USGS BCR-2G was used as a more closely matrix-matched reference material in order to compare the effect of matrix-matched and non matrix-matched calibration on quantitative analysis. The results show that the various laser wavelengths and energy densities applied produced similar results, with the exception of scanning mode ablation at 266 nm without matrix-matched calibration where deviations up to 60% from the average were found. However, results acquired using a scanning mode with a matrix-matched calibration agreed with results obtained by spot analysis. The increased abundance of large particles produced when using a scanning ablation mode with NIST SRM 610, is responsible for elemental fractionation effects caused by incomplete vaporisation of large particles in the ICP.

  12. Potential Mapping of an Indium-Tin-Oxide Glass Box in a GEC Reference Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Rebecca; Carmona-Reyes, Jorge; Hyde, Truell; Matthews, Lorin; Casper Program Team

    The use of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coated boxes, as well as boxes coated with other substances, placed on or floating above the lower electrode in studies using Gaseous Electronics Conference Radio Frequency Reference Cells have increased in interest, as have the use of plain glass boxes. This increase in interest is due to the greater ability to control the confinement forces and in effect create dust chain structures which aid in studies within other areas of physics such as; entropy, kinetic dust temperature, plasma balls and coulomb explosions. Further analysis of the data obtained using these boxes shows what appear to be at least two different regions of confinement inside the boxes as well as some unexpected phenomena related to anomalous values and behavior of the electric field. These areas affect the dust to dust and dust to plasma interactions independently in the separate regions and are therefore of great interest. In this study electric potential and electric field maps created in MatLab with data obtained using two probes mounted on CASPER's S-100 nano-manipulator will be presented, connecting the information obtained from these maps to the behavior of the dust observed for different experimental conditions. All of this has been made possible by the opportunity and funding from the CASPER program and the National Science Foundation Grant Number PHY-1262031.

  13. Retrospective Analysis of NIST Standard Reference Material 1450, Fibrous Glass Board, for Thermal Insulation Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Zarr, Robert R; Heckert, N Alan; Leigh, Stefan D

    2014-01-01

    Thermal conductivity data acquired previously for the establishment of Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1450, Fibrous Glass Board, as well as subsequent renewals 1450a, 1450b, 1450c, and 1450d, are re-analyzed collectively and as individual data sets. Additional data sets for proto-1450 material lots are also included in the analysis. The data cover 36 years of activity by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in developing and providing thermal insulation SRMs, specifically high-density molded fibrous-glass board, to the public. Collectively, the data sets cover two nominal thicknesses of 13 mm and 25 mm, bulk densities from 60 kg·m−3 to 180 kg·m−3, and mean temperatures from 100 K to 340 K. The analysis repetitively fits six models to the individual data sets. The most general form of the nested set of multilinear models used is given in the following equation: λ(ρ,T)=a0+a1ρ+a2T+a3T3+a4e−(T−a5a6)2where λ(ρ,T) is the predicted thermal conductivity (W·m−1·K−1), ρ is the bulk density (kg·m−3), T is the mean temperature (K) and ai (for i = 1, 2, … 6) are the regression coefficients. The least squares fit results for each model across all data sets are analyzed using both graphical and analytic techniques. The prevailing generic model for the majority of data sets is the bilinear model in ρ and T. λ(ρ,T)=a0+a1ρ+a2T One data set supports the inclusion of a cubic temperature term and two data sets with low-temperature data support the inclusion of an exponential term in T to improve the model predictions. Physical interpretations of the model function terms are described. Recommendations for future renewals of SRM 1450 are provided. An Addendum provides historical background on the origin of this SRM and the influence of the SRM on external measurement programs. PMID:26601034

  14. USGS invasive species solutions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpson, Annie

    2011-01-01

    Land managers must meet the invasive species challenge every day, starting with identification of problem species, then the collection of best practices for their control, and finally the implementation of a plan to remove the problem. At each step of the process, the availability of reliable information is essential to success. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a suite of resources for early detection and rapid response, along with data management and sharing.

  15. Evaluation of new geological reference materials for uranium-series measurements: Chinese Geological Standard Glasses (CGSG) and macusanite obsidian.

    PubMed

    Denton, J S; Murrell, M T; Goldstein, S J; Nunn, A J; Amato, R S; Hinrichs, K A

    2013-10-15

    Recent advances in high-resolution, rapid, in situ microanalytical techniques present numerous opportunities for the analytical community, provided accurately characterized reference materials are available. Here, we present multicollector thermal ionization mass spectrometry (MC-TIMS) and multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) uranium and thorium concentration and isotopic data obtained by isotope dilution for a suite of newly available Chinese Geological Standard Glasses (CGSG) designed for microanalysis. These glasses exhibit a range of compositions including basalt, syenite, andesite, and a soil. Uranium concentrations for these glasses range from ∼2 to 14 μg g(-1), Th/U weight ratios range from ∼4 to 6, (234)U/(238)U activity ratios range from 0.93 to 1.02, and (230)Th/(238)U activity ratios range from 0.98 to 1.12. Uranium and thorium concentration and isotopic data are also presented for a rhyolitic obsidian from Macusani, SE Peru (macusanite). This glass can also be used as a rhyolitic reference material, has a very low Th/U weight ratio (around 0.077), and is approximately in (238)U-(234)U-(230)Th secular equilibrium. The U-Th concentration data agree with but are significantly more precise than those previously measured. U-Th concentration and isotopic data agree within estimated errors for the two measurement techniques, providing validation of the two methods. The large (238)U-(234)U-(230)Th disequilibria for some of the glasses, along with the wide range in their chemical compositions and Th/U ratios should provide useful reference points for the U-series analytical community. PMID:24004454

  16. USGS aerial resolution targets.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Salamonowicz, P.H.

    1982-01-01

    It is necessary to measure the achievable resolution of any airborne sensor that is to be used for metric purposes. Laboratory calibration facilities may be inadequate or inappropriate for determining the resolution of non-photographic sensors such as optical-mechanical scanners, television imaging tubes, and linear arrays. However, large target arrays imaged in the field can be used in testing such systems. The USGS has constructed an array of resolution targets in order to permit field testing of a variety of airborne sensing systems. The target array permits any interested organization with an airborne sensing system to accurately determine the operational resolution of its system. -from Author

  17. USGS Arctic science strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shasby, Mark; Smith, Durelle

    2015-01-01

    The United States is one of eight Arctic nations responsible for the stewardship of a polar region undergoing dramatic environmental, social, and economic changes. Although warming and cooling cycles have occurred over millennia in the Arctic region, the current warming trend is unlike anything recorded previously and is affecting the region faster than any other place on Earth, bringing dramatic reductions in sea ice extent, altered weather, and thawing permafrost. Implications of these changes include rapid coastal erosion threatening villages and critical infrastructure, potentially significant effects on subsistence activities and cultural resources, changes to wildlife habitat, increased greenhouse-gas emissions from thawing permafrost, threat of invasive species, and opening of the Arctic Ocean to oil and gas exploration and increased shipping. The Arctic science portfolio of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its response to climate-related changes focuses on landscapescale ecosystem and natural resource issues and provides scientific underpinning for understanding the physical processes that shape the Arctic. The science conducted by the USGS informs the Nation's resource management policies and improves the stewardship of the Arctic Region.

  18. Plutonium leaching from a reference nuclear waste glass in synthetic interstitial claywater

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lian; Van Iseghem, P.

    1993-12-31

    The steady-state concentration of Pu was measured upon leaching Pu doped glass in synthetic interstitial claywater (SIC) and humic acid free interstitial solution (IS). The solubility of PuO{sub 2}{center_dot}xH{sub 2}O (am) was determined in the same chemical condition. The results then were compared with the Pu solubility calculated by using a published solubility product and complex stability constants. The humic acid (HA) influence on the Pu leaching from the glass and the colloid formation were investigated.

  19. Through the Looking Glass: What ESL Teachers Can Find in Russian-Published Reference Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chipouline, Dina

    2001-01-01

    Examined the cultural content of Russian-published English reference literature. The goal of the research is to help Canadian teachers working with English-as-a-Second-Language learners to become more aware of the experiences, expectations, and views their students bring to the classroom. (Author/VWL)

  20. Measurement of the Interaction Force between Dust Particles within a Glass Box in a GEC RF Reference Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mudi; Kong, Jie; Qiao, Ke; Carmona-Reyes, Jorge; Harris, Brandon; Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2013-10-01

    A wide variety of structural states (for example, Coulomb balls, one-dimensional vertically aligned dust particle chains, helical dust structures, etc.) have been observed for dust particles confined within a glass box placed on the lower electrode of a GEC rf reference cell. Both the interparticle interaction force and the confinement force play important roles in the formation of these structures. Unfortunately, since the exact nature of the confinement force produced by the walls of the glass box is yet unclear, it is difficult to differentiate between the effects produced by the interparticle interaction force and the effects created by the confinement force. In this experiment, a free-falling dust particle in the box acts as an in-situ probe, providing information on the structure of the confinement force. It will be shown that the data provided by this mapping procedure allows the interaction force between particles within various dust particle structures to be measured through perturbation of individual particles employing a diode pumped solid state laser (Coherent VERDI).

  1. Aligning USGS senior leadership structure with the USGS science strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is realigning its management and budget structure to further enhance the work of its science programs and their interdisciplinary focus areas related to the USGS Science Strategy as outlined in 'Facing Tomorrow's Challenges-U.S. Geological Survey Science in the Decade 2007-2017' (U.S. Geological Survey, 2007). In 2007, the USGS developed this science strategy outlining major natural-science issues facing the Nation and focusing on areas where natural science can make a substantial contribution to the well being of the Nation and the world. These areas include global climate change, water resources, natural hazards, energy and minerals, ecosystems, and data integration.

  2. USGS 1-min Dst index

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannon, J.L.; Love, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    We produce a 1-min time resolution storm-time disturbance index, the USGS Dst, called Dst8507-4SM. This index is based on minute resolution horizontal magnetic field intensity from low-latitude observatories in Honolulu, Kakioka, San Juan and Hermanus, for the years 1985-2007. The method used to produce the index uses a combination of time- and frequency-domain techniques, which more clearly identifies and excises solar-quiet variation from the horizontal intensity time series of an individual station than the strictly time-domain method used in the Kyoto Dst index. The USGS 1-min Dst is compared against the Kyoto Dst, Kyoto Sym-H, and the USGS 1-h Dst (Dst5807-4SH). In a time series comparison, Sym-H is found to produce more extreme values during both sudden impulses and main phase maximum deviation, possibly due to the latitude of its contributing observatories. Both Kyoto indices are shown to have a peak in their distributions below zero, while the USGS indices have a peak near zero. The USGS 1-min Dst is shown to have the higher time resolution benefits of Sym-H, while using the more typical low-latitude observatories of Kyoto Dst. ?? 2010.

  3. Neutron-activation analysis of several US Geological Survey and National Bureau of Standards reference materials

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, A.T.

    1981-01-01

    In this work, several US Geological Survey (U.S.G.S.) and National Bureau of Standards (N.B.S.) reference samples have been analyzed in an effort to improve the quality of elemental concentration data available on these materials, so they can be used in a program of verification of factor analysis source resolution procedures. The analyses of these samples were performed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The samples analyzed were: U.S.G.S. Green River Shale, N.B.S. 45b Homogeneous River Sediment, U.S.G.S. Analyzed Peridotite N.B.S. 1579 Powdered Lead-based Paint, U.S.G.S. Hawaian Basalt U.S.G.S. Marine Mud, U.S.G.S. Analyzed Cody Shale U.S.G.S. Glass Mountain Rhyolite, N.B.S. Argillaceous Limestone No. 1, and a sample of Spex ultrapure graphite. Neutron activation analysis was employed because of the high sensitivity that can be attained in determining elemental concentrations. Although INAA is a relatively simple method and the reproducibility of the data is good, the method shows some inaccuracies. The basic theory and technique are reviewed in an attempt to show where problems can arise and how they can be dealt with.

  4. USGS West Nile Virus Research Strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Gregory; Brand, Christopher; Saito, Emi

    2003-01-01

    This plan integrates science across multiple USGS disciplines, and provides national and international opportunities for USGS collaboration with state and federal agencies, academic institutions, and non-governmental organizations throughout the Americas.

  5. USGS Science Serves Public Health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buxton, Herbert T.

    2010-01-01

    Human health so often depends on the health of the environment and wildlife around us. The presence of naturally occurring or human environmental contaminants and the emergence of diseases transferred between animals and humans are growing concerns worldwide. The USGS is a source of natural science information vital for understanding the quantity and quality of our earth and living resources. This information improves our understanding not only of how human activities affect environmental and ecological health, but also of how the quality of our environment and wildlife in turn affects human health. USGS is taking a leadership role in providing the natural science information needed by health researchers, policy makers, and the public to safeguard public health

  6. USGS MODERATE RESOLUTION LAND IMAGING

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwyer, J. L.; Willems, J. S.

    2009-12-01

    For the past 37 years, the Landsat series of satellites has provided continuous data of the Earth’s land masses, coastal boundaries, and coral reefs creating an unprecedented comprehensive record of landscape dynamics. Landsat 5 and 7 continue to capture hundreds of images of the Earth’s surface each day. In mid-December 2008, the USGS made the entire Landsat archive available to everyone, anywhere, at anytime via the Internet at no cost to the user. The opening of the Landsat archive, the longest record of the terrestrial environment, is a revolution that will affect the future of moderate resolution Earth observations, enabling scientists to address research questions and develop operational applications that were previously cost prohibitive. In addition, the time-series data richness of the archive allows for the development of essential climate variables used to monitor the causes and consequences of lands cover change as a function of climate variability and anthropogenic influences. Landsat is unique as a single source of systematic, global land observations in terms of the number of spectral bands, global collection capacity, image quality, and the proven fidelity of its calibrated sensors. Through the Land Remote Sensing Policy Act of 1992 and the Presidential Decision Direct/NSTC-3 (1994), as amended on October 16, 2000, the U.S Geological Survey (USGS) is charged to ensure the continuity of Landsat data. To accomplish this, the USGS, in partnership with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), is currently preparing for the launch of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) in December 2012, the eighth satellite in the Landsat Program. The LDCM will ensure the continuation of the Landsat record and will consist of significant improvements in radiometric response and additional spectral bands, from which high quality data products will be generated and accessible to users at no cost.

  7. Conservation genetics in the USGS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobs, Ruth; Haig, Susan; Talbot, Sandy; Winton, James; King, Tim; Kendall, Kate

    2006-01-01

    Conservation genetics is the application of the tools and concepts of genetics to the conservation of biological resources. Once too sophisticated and expensive for routine use, the tools of conservation genetics are now widely used to address many complex management questions. These novel methods of analysis can augment assessments made with traditional methods and can bring new information to light. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is well suited to provide scientific information and expertise using these tools to support the management of biological resources.

  8. USGS Tampa Bay Pilot Study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, K.K.; Cronin, T. M.; Crane, M.; Hansen, M.; Nayeghandi, A.; Swarzenski, P.; Edgar, T.; Brooks, G.R.; Suthard, B.; Hine, A.; Locker, S.; Willard, D.A.; Hastings, D.; Flower, B.; Hollander, D.; Larson, R.A.; Smith, K.

    2007-01-01

    Providing a web-based digital information management system of information for scientists and the public, including a system that supports the work of those officials who must make decisions that affect the state of the bay. The Tampa Bay Study is in its sixth year and will continue through September 2007. This paper presents a non-inclusive summary of key findings associated with the six primary project components listed above. Component 4 (above) is described in detail in the following chapter 13. More information on the Tampa Bay Study is available from our on-line digital information system for the Tampa Bay Study at http://gulfsci.usgs.gov.

  9. USGS Magellan stereomapping of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howington-Kraus, E.; Kirk, R. L.; Galuszka, D.; Redding, B.

    -Magellan topo model) and must be put back in for the images to be matched correctly. The sensor model is designed to work with any combination of unmosaicked (F-BIDR), Mission-mosaicked (F- and C-MIDR), and USGS- mosaicked (FMAP) images. Information about the spacecraft position and velocity can be taken either from the F-BIDR headers or from separate NAIF SPICE kernels, letting us take advantage of post-mission improvements to the spacecraft ephemerides. In addition, the SOCET SET bundle-adjustment software can be used to estimate corrections to the ephemeris of each orbit. The form of the corrections, offsets in three orthogonal directions (along-track, across-track, and radial) suffices to correct the orbits over short arcs and reconcile SAR and altimetry observations. 1 Validation: We rigorously tested and accounted for potential error sources in our mapping process. We first addressed the well-known "cliffs," artifacts in the stereo data caused by discrepancies between the mission ephemeris solutions for successive blocks of orbits. Alex Konopliv of JPL reprocessed the entire set of orbital tracking and navigation data based on the detailed gravity observations from the end of the mission and claimed that errors in the new orbit solutions were decreased 1.5 orders of magnitude (to 50-200 m) in all 3 axes [6]. To produce seamless elevation data, we found it necessary to collect image-to-image tie point measurements and use these to estimate local position/velocity corrections to the orbits. We concluded that both the improved orbit/tracking solution and corrections based on the images themselves are necessary for successful stereomapping. Secondly, because we constrain elevations of control points based on the Magellan altimetry, the question arose of how sensitive our bundle adjustment process is to artifacts in the Magellan altimetry. (Elevations of individual altimeter footprints can be in error by several kilometers at high-contrast boundaries in the surface scattering

  10. Volunteer map data collection at the USGS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eric, B. Wolf; Poore, Barbara S.; Caro, Holly K.; Matthews, Greg D.

    2011-01-01

    Since 1994, citizen volunteers have helped the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) improve its topographic maps. Through the Earth Science Corps program, citizens were able to "adopt a quad" and collect new information and update existing map features. Until its conclusion in 2001, as many as 300 volunteers annotated paper maps which were incorporated into the USGS topographic-map revision process.

  11. The USGS Earthquake Scenario Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wald, D. J.; Petersen, M. D.; Wald, L. A.; Frankel, A. D.; Quitoriano, V. R.; Lin, K.; Luco, N.; Mathias, S.; Bausch, D.

    2009-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Earthquake Hazards Program (EHP) is producing a comprehensive suite of earthquake scenarios for planning, mitigation, loss estimation, and scientific investigations. The Earthquake Scenario Project (ESP), though lacking clairvoyance, is a forward-looking project, estimating earthquake hazard and loss outcomes as they may occur one day. For each scenario event, fundamental input includes i) the magnitude and specified fault mechanism and dimensions, ii) regional Vs30 shear velocity values for site amplification, and iii) event metadata. A grid of standard ShakeMap ground motion parameters (PGA, PGV, and three spectral response periods) is then produced using the well-defined, regionally-specific approach developed by the USGS National Seismic Hazard Mapping Project (NHSMP), including recent advances in empirical ground motion predictions (e.g., the NGA relations). The framework also allows for numerical (3D) ground motion computations for specific, detailed scenario analyses. Unlike NSHMP ground motions, for ESP scenarios, local rock and soil site conditions and commensurate shaking amplifications are applied based on detailed Vs30 maps where available or based on topographic slope as a proxy. The scenario event set is comprised primarily by selection from the NSHMP events, though custom events are also allowed based on coordination of the ESP team with regional coordinators, seismic hazard experts, seismic network operators, and response coordinators. The event set will be harmonized with existing and future scenario earthquake events produced regionally or by other researchers. The event list includes approximate 200 earthquakes in CA, 100 in NV, dozens in each of NM, UT, WY, and a smaller number in other regions. Systematic output will include all standard ShakeMap products, including HAZUS input, GIS, KML, and XML files used for visualization, loss estimation, ShakeCast, PAGER, and for other systems. All products will be

  12. USGS response to an urban earthquake, Northridge '94

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Updike, Randall G.; Brown, William M., III; Johnson, Margo L.; Omdahl, Eleanor M.; Powers, Philip S.; Rhea, Susan; Tarr, Arthur C.

    1996-01-01

    For the past 2 years, the USGS has rigorously pursued over 40 tasks focused on the USGS Northridge Earthquake Mission. This document is a summary report of the USGS findings; additional technical reports on specific USGS tasks are appearing in various scientific journals and USGS publications.

  13. Evaluating Field Spectrometer Performance with Transmission Standards: Examples from the USGS Spectral Library and Research Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoefen, T. M.; Kokaly, R. F.; Swayze, G. A.; Livo, K. E.

    2015-12-01

    Collection of spectroscopic data has expanded with the development of field-portable spectrometers. The most commonly available spectrometers span one or several wavelength ranges: the visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) region from approximately 400 to 1000 nm, and the shortwave infrared (SWIR) region from approximately 1000-2500 nm. Basic characteristics of spectrometer performance are the wavelength position and bandpass of each channel. Bandpass can vary across the wavelength coverage of an instrument, due to spectrometer design and detector materials. Spectrometer specifications can differ from one instrument to the next for a given model and between manufacturers. The USGS Spectroscopy Lab in Denver has developed a simple method to evaluate field spectrometer wavelength accuracy and bandpass values using transmission measurements of materials with intense, narrow absorption features, including Mylar* plastic, praseodymium-doped glass, and National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material 2035. The evaluation procedure has been applied in laboratory and field settings for 19 years and used to detect deviations from cited manufacturer specifications. Tracking of USGS spectrometers with transmission standards has revealed several instances of wavelength shifts due to wear in spectrometer components. Since shifts in channel wavelengths and differences in bandpass between instruments can impact the use of field spectrometer data to calibrate and analyze imaging spectrometer data, field protocols to measure wavelength standards can limit data loss due to spectrometer degradation. In this paper, the evaluation procedure will be described and examples of observed wavelength shifts during a spectrometer field season will be presented. The impact of changing wavelength and bandpass characteristics on spectral measurements will be demonstrated and implications for spectral libraries will be discussed. *Any use of trade, firm, or product names

  14. USGS National Seismic Hazard Maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankel, A.D.; Mueller, C.S.; Barnhard, T.P.; Leyendecker, E.V.; Wesson, R.L.; Harmsen, S.C.; Klein, F.W.; Perkins, D.M.; Dickman, N.C.; Hanson, S.L.; Hopper, M.G.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed new probabilistic seismic hazard maps for the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii. These hazard maps form the basis of the probabilistic component of the design maps used in the 1997 edition of the NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures, prepared by the Building Seismic Safety Council arid published by FEMA. The hazard maps depict peak horizontal ground acceleration and spectral response at 0.2, 0.3, and 1.0 sec periods, with 10%, 5%, and 2% probabilities of exceedance in 50 years, corresponding to return times of about 500, 1000, and 2500 years, respectively. In this paper we outline the methodology used to construct the hazard maps. There are three basic components to the maps. First, we use spatially smoothed historic seismicity as one portion of the hazard calculation. In this model, we apply the general observation that moderate and large earthquakes tend to occur near areas of previous small or moderate events, with some notable exceptions. Second, we consider large background source zones based on broad geologic criteria to quantify hazard in areas with little or no historic seismicity, but with the potential for generating large events. Third, we include the hazard from specific fault sources. We use about 450 faults in the western United States (WUS) and derive recurrence times from either geologic slip rates or the dating of pre-historic earthquakes from trenching of faults or other paleoseismic methods. Recurrence estimates for large earthquakes in New Madrid and Charleston, South Carolina, were taken from recent paleoliquefaction studies. We used logic trees to incorporate different seismicity models, fault recurrence models, Cascadia great earthquake scenarios, and ground-motion attenuation relations. We present disaggregation plots showing the contribution to hazard at four cities from potential earthquakes with various magnitudes and

  15. UZIG USGS research: Advances through interdisciplinary interaction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nimmo, J.R.; Andraski, B.J.; Rafael, M.-C.

    2009-01-01

    Because vadose zone research relates to diverse disciplines, applications, and modes of research, collaboration across traditional operational and topical divisions is especially likely to yield major advances in understanding. The Unsaturated Zone Interest Group (UZIG) is an informal organization sponsored by the USGS to encourage and support interdisciplinary collaboration in vadose or unsaturated zone hydrologic research across organizational boundaries. It includes both USGS and non-USGS scientists. Formed in 1987, the UZIG operates to promote communication, especially through periodic meetings with presentations, discussions, and fi eld trips. The 10th meeting of the UZIG at Los Alamos, NM, in August 2007 was jointly sponsored by the USGS and Los Alamos National Laboratory. Presentations at this meeting served as the initial basis for selecting papers for this special section of Vadose Zone Journal, the purpose of which is to present noteworthy cuting-edge unsaturated zone research promoted by, facilitated by, or presented in connection with the UZIG. ?? Soil Science Society of America.

  16. USGS and NASA Digital Imagery Product Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanoni, Vicki; Smith, Charles; Blonski, Slawomir

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs about a partnership between USGS and NASA who are jointly developing an airborne digital imagery characterization capability. The topics include: 1) USGS-NASA Product Characterization Approach; 2) Stennis Character Range; 3) Stennis Geodetic Targets; 4) Stennis Manhole Covers; 5) Stennis Edge Target; 6) Stennis Characterization Site; 7) Delivered Data; 8) Other Data Considerations; 9) Status; 10) Geopositional Assessment Approach; 11) Spatial Assessment Approach; 12) Edge Response; and 13) Results to Date.

  17. Catalogue of 45 reference Raman spectra of minerals concerning research in art history or archaeology, especially on corroded metals and coloured glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchard, M.; Smith, D. C.

    2003-08-01

    Small catalogues of reference Raman spectra of interest for analysing geomaterials or biomaterials of relevance to art history or archaeology are gradually being published by different research groups. However, except for some older catalogues, they are all concerned primarily with pigments, whether inorganic or organic. Here we present for the first time a catalogue of Raman spectra of minerals that may be found in corroded metal artworks or artefacts. At the same time we include some inorganic pigments that may be found in or on stained glass. Most of the minerals analysed came from the Gallery of Mineralogy at the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle and most were verified by X-ray diffraction in order to augment the confidence in the mineral identity (which is not the case with many other catalogues). A number of problems encountered with mineral terminology are discussed. Comments are made on the spectra where appropriate.

  18. Biodegradation of the french reference nuclear glass SON 68 by Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans : protective effect of the biofilm,U and REE retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachelet, M.; Crovisier, J.; Stille, P.; Boutin, R.; Vuilleumier, S.; Geoffroy, V.

    2008-12-01

    Although underground nuclear waste repositories are not expected to be favourable places for microbial activity, one should not exclude localized action of extremophilic bacteria on some materials involved in the storage concept. Among endogenous or accidentally introduced acidophiles, some are susceptible to lead to a locally drastic decreased in pH with potential consequences on materials corrosion. Experiments were performed with Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans on 100-125 μm french reference nuclear glass SON68 grains in a mineral medium under static conditions during 60 days at 25°C. Growth medium was periodically renewed and analyzed by ICP-AES and ICP-MS spectrometry for both major, traces and ultra-traces elements. Biofilm formation was evidenced by confocal laser microscopy, staining DNA with ethidium bromide and exopolysaccharides with calcofluor white. Biofilm thickness around material grains exceeded 20 μm under the chosen experimental conditions. It can be noticed that while numerous studies on biofilm formation upon interaction between Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and materials can be found in the literature, evidence for biofilm formation is still scarce for the case of the acidophilic bacterium A. thiooxidans. Presence of biofilm is a key parameter for material alteration at the solid/solution interface in biotic systems. Indeed, various constitutive elements of materials trapped in the polyanionic polymer of biofilm may also influence the alteration process. In particular, biofilm may reduce the alteration rate of materials by forming a protective barrier at their surface (Aouad et al., 2008). In this study, glass alteration rates, determined using strontium, molybdenum and caesium as tracers, showed that the biofilm has a protective effect against glass alteration. U and REE are efficiently trapped in the biogenic compartment of the system (exopolysaccharides (EPS) + bacterial cells). Biofilm analysis are in progress to determine whether these

  19. USGS Map-on-Demand Printing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1999-01-01

    Currently, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) uses conventional lithographic printing techniques to produce paper copies of most of its mapping products. This practice is not economical for those products that are in low demand. With the advent of newer technologies, high-speed, large-format printers have been coupled with innovative computer software to turn digital map data into a printed map. It is now possible to store and retrieve data from vast geospatial data bases and print a map on an as-needed basis; that is, print on demand, thereby eliminating the need to warehouse an inventory of paper maps for which there is low demand. Using print-on-demand technology, the USGS is implementing map-on-demand (MOD) printing for certain infrequently requested maps. By providing MOD, the USGS can offer an alternative to traditional, large-volume printing and can improve its responsiveness to customers by giving them greater access to USGS scientific data in a format that otherwise might not be available.

  20. USGS releases comprehensive land surface data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-04-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has released the latest edition of its National Land Cover Database (NLCD 2011), the nation's most comprehensive look at land surface conditions. The database divides the lower 48 states into 9 billion geographic cells, providing consistent information about land conditions on regional and nationwide scales.

  1. Ciencia, Sociedad, Soluciones: Una Introduccion al USGS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2001-01-01

    El USGS sirve a la nacion de los Estados Unidos proveyendo informacion fidedigna para ? Describir y comprender la Tierra; ? Minimizar la perdida de vidas y propiedades por desastres naturales; ? Manejar los recursos hidrologicos, biologicos, energeticos y minerales; y ? Mejorar y proteger nuestra calidad de vida.

  2. Coal resource assessments: Calculating resources by GIS at the USGS

    SciTech Connect

    Gluskoter, H.; Tewalt, S.J.; Levine, M.

    1999-07-01

    Recent projections as to the future of coal are, for the most part, in general agreement that the production will continue to increase at approximately the current rate for the next 16 to 21 years. A very different view of the future resulted from recent analyses done by the EIA for the US House of Representatives Committee on Science. In these analyses the impacts of the Kyoto Protocol on US energy markets were modeled using six scenarios that reduced the carbon emission to varying levels below the reference case (carbon emissions in the reference case are 33% above the 1990 levels in 2020) The six scenarios resulted in projections that coal consumption in the US in 2010 would be reduced by between 18 and 77% with further significant decreases by 2020. This paper discusses national coal resource assessments by the USGS; coal resource data handling and analyses by GIS; coal assessments from resources to reserves; and coal resource information delivery.

  3. Kimball to Be Nominated to Lead USGS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-01-01

    Suzette Kimball, who has served as acting director of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since February 2013, will be nominated to be director of the agency, U.S. president Barack Obama announced on 9 January. If Kimball's nomination is confirmed by the U.S. Senate, she will lead the science agency, which has more than 8000 employees and an annual budget of more than $1.1 billion.

  4. USGS Western Coastal and Marine Geology Team

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Sam; Gibbons, Helen

    2007-01-01

    The Western Coastal and Marine Geology Team of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) studies the coasts of the western United States, including Alaska and Hawai‘i. Team scientists conduct research, monitor processes, and develop information about coastal and marine geologic hazards, environmental conditions, habitats, and energy and mineral resources. This information helps managers at all levels of government and in the private sector make informed decisions about the use and protection of national coastal and marine resources.

  5. Registration of ‘USG 3555’ Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    USG 3555’ (Reg. No. CV-, PI 654454) soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed and released by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station in March 2007. USG 3555 was derived from the cross VA94-52-60 / Pioneer Brand ‘2643’ (PI 583739 PVPO) // ’USG 3209’ (PI 617055 PVPO) and was t...

  6. USGS research on Florida's isolated freshwater wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torres, Arturo E.; Haag, Kim H.; Lee, Terrie M.; Metz, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has studied wetland hydrology and its effects on wetland health and ecology in Florida since the 1990s. USGS wetland studies in Florida and other parts of the Nation provide resource managers with tools to assess current conditions and regional trends in wetland resources. Wetland hydrologists in the USGS Florida Water Science Center (FLWSC) have completed a number of interdisciplinary studies assessing the hydrology, ecology, and water quality of wetlands. These studies have expanded the understanding of wetland hydrology, ecology, and related processes including: (1) the effects of cyclical changes in rainfall and the influence of evapotranspiration; (2) surface-water flow, infiltration, groundwater movement, and groundwater and surfacewater interactions; (3) the effects of water quality and soil type; (4) the unique biogeochemical components of wetlands required to maintain ecosystem functions; (5) the effects of land use and other human activities; (6) the influences of algae, plants, and invertebrates on environmental processes; and (7) the effects of seasonal variations in animal communities that inhabit or visit Florida wetlands and how wetland function responds to changes in the plant community.

  7. Development of Microanaytical Reference Materials for In-situ Anaysis at the U.S. Geological Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, S.

    2006-05-01

    With the increased use of microanalysis in geochemical investigations comes the need for a reliable and diversified supply of reference materials homogenous at the micrometer scale to assist analysts in element quantification. To meet these requirements, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has undertaken a program to develop a series of reference materials which cover a range of sample types currently being investigated in our microanalytical laboratories. Initial efforts have focused on the development of natural basalt glasses (BCR- 2G, BHVO-2G, BIR-1G, TB-1G, NKT-1G) from a variety of geologic settings. In addition to these natural basalt materials a series of synthetic basalt glasses GSA-1G, GSC-1G, GSD-1G, GSE-1G have also been developed with 65 trace elements at 0, 3, 30, and 300, ppm respectively. The homogeneity of these materials and their use in international microanalytical proficiency studies will be presented. Application of this technology to the development of glass reference materials as part of a USGS/NASA collaborative studies on the development of Lunar Soil Simulant material will also be discussed.

  8. USGS Science Data Catalog - Open Data Advances or Declines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frame, M. T.; Hutchison, V.; Zolly, L.; Wheeler, B.; Latysh, N.; Devarakonda, R.; Palanisamy, G.; Shrestha, B.

    2014-12-01

    The recent Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) White House Open Data Policies (2013) have required Federal agencies to establish formal catalogues of their science data holdings and make these data easily available on Web sites, portals, and applications. As an organization, the USGS has historically excelled at making its data holdings freely available on its various Web sites (i.e., National, Scientific Programs, or local Science Center). In response to these requirements, the USGS Core Science Analytics, Synthesis, and Libraries program, in collaboration with DOE's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Mercury Consortium (funded by NASA, USGS, and DOE), and a number of other USGS organizations, established the Science Data Catalog (http://data.usgs.gov) cyberinfrastructure, content management processes/tools, and supporting policies. The USGS Science Data Catalog led the charge at USGS to improve the robustness of existing/future metadata collections; streamline and develop sustainable publishing to external aggregators (i.e., data.gov); and provide leadership to the U.S. Department of Interior in emerging Open Data policies, techniques, and systems. The session will discuss the current successes, challenges, and movement toward meeting these Open Data policies for USGS scientific data holdings. A retrospective look at the last year of implementation of these efforts within USGS will occur to determine whether these Open Data Policies are improving data access or limiting data availability. To learn more about the USGS Science Data Catalog, visit us at http://data.usgs.gov/info/about.html

  9. Metrically preserving the USGS aerial film archive

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moe, Donald; Longhenry, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Since 1972, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, has provided fi lm-based products to the public. EROS is home to an archive of 12 million frames of analog photography ranging from 1937 to the present. The archive contains collections from both aerial and satellite platforms including programs such as the National High Altitude Program (NHAP), National Aerial Photography Program (NAPP), U.S. Antarctic Resource Center (USARC), Declass 1(CORONA, ARGON, and LANYARD), Declass 2 (KH-7 and KH-9), and Landsat (1972 – 1992, Landsat 1–5).

  10. A guide to obtaining information from the USGS 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, Paul F., (compiler); Hodgson, Helen E.; North, Gary W.

    1978-01-01

    For almost 100 years, the USGS (U.S. Geological Survey) has served Federal, State, and local governments and the public by collecting, analyzing, and publishing detailed information about the Nation 's mineral, land, and water resources. This information is released in a variety of map, book, and other formats and is available for free distribution or for sale from sources both within and outside the USGS. This guide has been prepared to assist in obtaining these information products and to aid in locating both general and specific unpublished information within the USGS. (Woodard-USGS)

  11. Major sedimentation issues for the USGS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jobson, Harvey E.; Andrews, Edmund D.

    1990-01-01

    Historically, sediment information has been used primarily in planning for engineering structures that were designed to meet a single or a very limited number of objectives. Today most water-resource systems are fully developed, but society is asking that the existing systems be operated to meet multiple objectives, which often were not considered in the original system design. Sediment related problems that seem to be of highest priority today include: 1. The relation of sediment transport to the transport and fate of attached pollutants, 2. Documentation of the mean sediment concentration and load as well as the natural variability of instantaneous sediment concentrations and loads as related to land use, and 3. Evaluation of the effect of sediment on fish and wildlife habitat. The sediment program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is changing in response to these changing priorities as it attempts to remain relevant and responsive to current problems.

  12. USGS standard quadrangle maps for emergency response

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Laurence R.

    2009-01-01

    The 1:24,000-scale topographic quadrangle was the primary product of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Mapping Program from 1947-1992. This map series includes about 54,000 map sheets for the conterminous United States, and is the only uniform map series ever produced that covers this area at such a large scale. This map series partially was revised under several programs, starting as early as 1968, but these programs were not adequate to keep the series current. Through the 1990s the emphasis of the USGS mapping program shifted away from topographic maps and toward more specialized digital data products. Topographic map revision dropped off rapidly after 1999, and stopped completely by 2004. Since 2001, emergency-response and homeland security requirement have revived the question of whether a standard national topographic series is needed. Emergencies such as Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and California wildfires in 2007-08 demonstrated that familiar maps are important to first responders. Maps that have a standard scale, extent, and grids help reduce confusion and save time in emergencies. Traditional maps are designed to allow the human brain to quickly process large amounts of information, and depend on artistic layout and design that cannot be fully automated. In spite of technical advances, creating a traditional, general-purpose topographic map is still expensive. Although the content and layout of traditional topographic maps probably is still desirable, the preferred packaging and delivery of maps has changed. Digital image files are now desired by most users, but to be useful to the emergency-response community, these files must be easy to view and easy to print without specialized geographic information system expertise or software.

  13. Breaking through the Glass Doors: Men Working in Early Childhood Education and Care with Particular Reference to Research and Experience in Austria and New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Bernhard; Farquhar, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes that there exist "glass doors" impeding men from entering and participating in ECEC work. Across developed countries, men's participation as carers and teachers in early childhood education and care (ECEC) services tends to be viewed as highly desirable and much has been written about the importance of men in ECEC.…

  14. Membrane reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Redey, L.; Bloom, I.D.

    1988-01-21

    A reference electrode utilizes a small thin, flat membrane of a highly conductive glass placed on a small diameter insulator tube having a reference material inside in contact with an internal voltage lead. When the sensor is placed in a non-aqueous ionic electrolytic solution, the concentration difference across the glass membrane generates a low voltage signal in precise relationship to the concentration of the species to be measured, with high spatial resolution. 2 figs.

  15. USGS 1:24,000 TOPOGRAPHIC QUADRANGLE SERIES INDEXES

    EPA Science Inventory

    USGS 1:24,000 Topographic Quadrangle Series Indexes represents the geographic extent of USGS 1:24,000 topographic maps (7.5- by 7.5-minute quadrangles) for the coterminous U.S. forty-eight states and District of Columbia.

  16. DIGITAL LINE GRAPHS - USGS 1:24,000

    EPA Science Inventory

    USGS DLGs are digital representations of program-quadrangle format and sectional maps. All DLG data distributed by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) are DLG-Level 3 (DLG-3), which means the data contain a full range of attribute codes, have full topological structuring, ...

  17. DIGITAL LINE GRAPHS - USGS 1:100,000

    EPA Science Inventory

    USGS DLGs are digital representations of program-quadrangle format and sectional maps. All DLG data distributed by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) are DLG-Level 3 (DLG-3), which means the data contain a full range of attribute codes, have full topological structuring, ...

  18. DIGITAL LINE GRAPHS - USGS 1:2ML

    EPA Science Inventory

    USGS DLGs are digital representations of program-quadrangle format and sectional maps. All DLG data distributed by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) are DLG-Level 3 (DLG-3), which means the data contain a full range of attribute codes, have full topological structuring, ...

  19. Completion summary for boreholes USGS 140 and USGS 141 near the Advanced Test Reactor Complex, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twining, Brian V.; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Hodges, Mary K.V.

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, drilled and constructed boreholes USGS 140 and USGS 141 for stratigraphic framework analyses and long-term groundwater monitoring of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Laboratory in southeast Idaho. Borehole USGS 140 initially was cored to collect continuous geologic data, and then re-drilled to complete construction as a monitor well. Borehole USGS 141 was drilled and constructed as a monitor well without coring. Boreholes USGS 140 and USGS 141 are separated by about 375 feet (ft) and have similar geologic layers and hydrologic characteristics based on geophysical and aquifer test data collected. The final construction for boreholes USGS 140 and USGS 141 required 6-inch (in.) diameter carbon-steel well casing and 5-in. diameter stainless-steel well screen; the screened monitoring interval was completed about 50 ft into the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, between 496 and 546 ft below land surface (BLS) at both sites. Following construction and data collection, dedicated pumps and water-level access lines were placed to allow for aquifer testing, for collecting periodic water samples, and for measuring water levels. Borehole USGS 140 was cored continuously, starting from land surface to a depth of 543 ft BLS. Excluding surface sediment, recovery of basalt and sediment core at borehole USGS 140 was about 98 and 65 percent, respectively. Based on visual inspection of core and geophysical data, about 32 basalt flows and 4 sediment layers were collected from borehole USGS 140 between 34 and 543 ft BLS. Basalt texture for borehole USGS 140 generally was described as aphanitic, phaneritic, and porphyritic; rubble zones and flow mold structure also were described in recovered core material. Sediment layers, starting near 163 ft BLS, generally were composed of fine-grained sand and silt with a lesser amount of clay; however, between 223 and 228 ft BLS, silt

  20. In Congress Budget Update for NOAA, USGS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Among the agenda items facing Congress as it reconvenes this week are the fiscal 1984 budgets for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), which is part of the Department of Commerce, and for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), which is within the Department of the Interior. Fiscal year 1984 begins October 1, 1983. As Congress rolls up its shirtsleeves and gets down to business, Eos presents a status report on the two agency budgets.Both House and Senate appropriations committees have finished their work on the NOAA budget, which had been targeted by President Ronald Reagan for a $799.8 million appropriation request (program level of $843.2 million) in his proposed fiscal 1984 budget (Eos, February 15, 1983, p. 65). The House appropriation for NOAA (H.R. 3134 and H.R. 3222) is $998.5 million, with a program level of $1043.9 million. The Senate Appropriations Committee set its appropriation (S. 1721) at $987.8 million, with a program level of $1041.0 million.

  1. USGS collects ice core through Alpine glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naftz, David L.; Miller, Kirk A.

    1992-01-01

    On August 24, 1991, a U.S. Geological Survey study team from Wyoming completed a core hole to bedrock underlying Upper Fremont Glacier in the Wind River Range of central Wyoming. During the month of core drilling, the team collected a 160-m ice core from the glacier at an elevation of 4000 m above sea level using a solar-powered thermal drill (See photo). The drill was constructed and operated by personnel from the Polar Ice Coring Office (PICO) in Fairbanks, Alaska.The 1991 drilling project is part of ongoing research conducted by the USGS since 1988 on temperate glaciers in the Wind River Range of Wyoming. The objective of the project is to use variations in concentrations of chemical and isotopic constituents in samples of ice cores to reconstruct records of the chemical quality of atmospheric deposition and to extend long-term climatic records. A maximum of 300-500 years of record is estimated to be available in upper accumulation zones of the Wind River Range glaciers. The proximity of the Wind River Range glaciers to atmospheric pollution sources in the western United States makes them unique environmental records. Cooperating in the project were the Shoshone and Arapaho Indian tribes, Wyoming Water Development Commission, PICO, Wyoming State Engineer, and the U.S. Bureau of Land Management.

  2. LA-ICP-MS of magnetite: Methods and reference materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nadoll, P.; Koenig, A.E.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) is a common accessory mineral in many geologic settings. Its variable geochemistry makes it a powerful petrogenetic indicator. Electron microprobe (EMPA) analyses are commonly used to examine major and minor element contents in magnetite. Laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) is applicable to trace element analyses of magnetite but has not been widely employed to examine compositional variations. We tested the applicability of the NIST SRM 610, the USGS GSE-1G, and the NIST SRM 2782 reference materials (RMs) as external standards and developed a reliable method for LA-ICP-MS analysis of magnetite. LA-ICP-MS analyses were carried out on well characterized magnetite samples with a 193 nm, Excimer, ArF LA system. Although matrix-matched RMs are sometimes important for calibration and normalization of LA-ICP-MS data, we demonstrate that glass RMs can produce accurate results for LA-ICP-MS analyses of magnetite. Cross-comparison between the NIST SRM 610 and USGS GSE-1G indicates good agreement for magnetite minor and trace element data calibrated with either of these RMs. Many elements show a sufficiently good match between the LA-ICP-MS and the EMPA data; for example, Ti and V show a close to linear relationship with correlation coefficients, R2 of 0.79 and 0.85 respectively. ?? 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  3. The International Geomagnetic Reference Field, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rukstales, Kenneth S.; Love, Jeffrey J.

    2007-01-01

    This is a set of five world charts showing the declination, inclination, horizontal intensity, vertical component, and total intensity of the Earth's magnetic field at mean sea level at the beginning of 2005. The charts are based on the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) main model for 2005 and secular change model for 2005-2010. The IGRF is referenced to the World Geodetic System 1984 ellipsoid. Additional information about the USGS geomagnetism program is available at: http://geomag.usgs.gov/

  4. A new evaluation of the USGS streamgaging network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1998-01-01

    Since 1889, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has operated a streamgaging network to collect information about the Nation's water resources. It is a multipurpose network funded by the USGS and many other Federal, State and local agencies. Individual streamgaging stations are supported for specific purposes such as water allocation, reservoir operations, or regulating permit requirements, but the data are used by others for many purposes. Collectively, the USGS streamgaging network produces valuable data that are used for current forecasting and operational decisions as well as long-term resource planning, infrastructure design, and flood hazard mitigation. The guiding principles of the network are: Streamgaging stations are funded by the USGS and many agencies to achieve the Federal mission goals of the USGS and the individual goals of the funding agencies. Data are freely available to the public and all partners. USGS operates the network on behalf of all partners, which achieves economies because it eliminates the need for multiple infrastructures for testing equipment, providing training to staff, developing and maintaining the communications and database systems, and conducting quality assurance. USGS brings the capability of its national staff to bear on challenging problems such as responding to catastrophic floods or finding solutions to unique streamgaging conditions. This report has been prepared in response to a request from the U.S. House of Representatives Subcommittee on Interior Appropriations in its report to accompany H.R. 4193.

  5. URBAN STORMWATER-QUALITY INVESTIGATIONS BY THE USGS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jennings, Marshall E.; Miller, Timothy L.

    1986-01-01

    U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) urban stormwater investigations, in cooperation with local and Federal agencies, have produced significant national data bases of information and enhanced understanding of urban hydrologic processes. Studies in progress include statistical regionalization of urban stormwater quality, the effects of stormwater detention on water quality, ways of improving instrumentation for urban hydrology studies, and an evaluation and update of urban gaging networks. Studies performed by USGS since 1968, including 12 studies that were in the Environmental Protection Agency Nationwide Urban Runoff Program, are being summarized in a USGS report.

  6. Archive of digital Chirp subbottom profile data collected during USGS cruise 08CCT01, Mississippi Gulf Islands, July 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forde, Arnell S.; Dadisman, Shawn V.; Flocks, James G.; Worley, Charles R.

    2011-01-01

    In July of 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical surveys to investigate the geologic controls on island framework from Ship Island to Horn Island, Mississippi, for the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) Ecosystem Change and Hazard Susceptibility project. Funding was provided through the Geologic Framework and Holocene Coastal Evolution of the Mississippi-Alabama Region Subtask (http://ngom.er.usgs.gov/task2_2/index.php); this project is also part of a broader USGS study on Coastal Change and Transport (CCT). This report serves as an archive of unprocessed digital Chirp seismic reflection data, trackline maps, navigation files, Geographic Information System (GIS) files, Field Activity Collection System (FACS) logs, observer's logbook, and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata. Gained (a relative increase in signal amplitude) digital images of the seismic profiles are also provided. Refer to the Acronyms page for expansion of acronyms and abbreviations used in this report.

  7. USGS: Science to understand and forecast change in coastal ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, M.

    2007-01-01

    The multidisciplinary approach of the US Geological Survey (USGS), a principal science agency of the US Department of the Interior (DOI), to address the complex and cumulative impacts of human activities and natural events on the US coastal ecosystems has been considered remarkable for understanding and forecasting the changes. The USGS helps explain geologic, hydrologic, and biologic systems and their connectivity across landscapes and seascapes along the coastline. The USGS coastal science programs effectively address science and information to other scientists, managers, policy makers, and the public. The USGS provides scientific expertise, capabilities, and services to collaborative federal, regional, and state-led efforts, which are in line with the goals of Ocean Action Plan (OAP) and Ocean Research Priorities Plan (ORPP). The organization is a leader in understanding terrestrial and marine environmental hazards such as earthquakes, tsunamis, floods, and landslides and assessing and forecasting coastal impacts using various specialized visualization techniques.

  8. Defining a data management strategy for USGS Chesapeake Bay studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ladino, Cassandra

    2013-01-01

    The mission of U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Chesapeake Bay studies is to provide integrated science for improved understanding and management of the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. Collective USGS efforts in the Chesapeake Bay watershed began in the 1980s, and by the mid-1990s the USGS adopted the watershed as one of its national place-based study areas. Great focus and effort by the USGS have been directed toward Chesapeake Bay studies for almost three decades. The USGS plays a key role in using “ecosystem-based adaptive management, which will provide science to improve the efficiency and accountability of Chesapeake Bay Program activities” (Phillips, 2011). Each year USGS Chesapeake Bay studies produce published research, monitoring data, and models addressing aspects of bay restoration such as, but not limited to, fish health, water quality, land-cover change, and habitat loss. The USGS is responsible for collaborating and sharing this information with other Federal agencies and partners as described under the President’s Executive Order 13508—Strategy for Protecting and Restoring the Chesapeake Bay Watershed signed by President Obama in 2009. Historically, the USGS Chesapeake Bay studies have relied on national USGS databases to store only major nationally available sources of data such as streamflow and water-quality data collected through local monitoring programs and projects, leaving a multitude of other important project data out of the data management process. This practice has led to inefficient methods of finding Chesapeake Bay studies data and underutilization of data resources. Data management by definition is “the business functions that develop and execute plans, policies, practices and projects that acquire, control, protect, deliver and enhance the value of data and information.” (Mosley, 2008a). In other words, data management is a way to preserve, integrate, and share data to address the needs of the Chesapeake Bay studies to better

  9. USGS analysis of the Australian UNCLOS submission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Rowland, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    In November 2004, the Government of Australia made a submission to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) for 10 extended continental shelf (ECS) regions, utilizing Article-76 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). With information provided in the Australian Executive Summary, the USGS examined the 10 regions of the submission from geological, morphological, and resource perspectives. By their own request, the Australians asked that CLCS take no action on the Australian-Antarctic Territory. The major limitation in this analysis is that no bathymetric soundings or detailed hydrographic profiles were provided in the Australian Executive Summary that might show why the Foot of the Slope (FOS) was chosen or where the 2,500-m contour is located. This represents a major limitation because more than half of the 4,205 boundary points utilize the bathymetric formula line and more than one-third of them utilize the bathymetric constraint line. CLCS decisions on the components of this submission may set a precedent for how ECSs are treated in future submissions. Some of the key decisions will cover (a) how a 'natural prolongation' of a continental margin is determined, particularly if a bathymetric saddle that appears to determine the prolongation is in deep water and is well outside of the 200-nm limit (Exmouth Plateau), (b) defining to what extent that plateaus, rises, caps, banks and spurs that are formed of oceanic crust and from oceanic processes can be considered to be 'natural prolongations' (Kerguelen Plateau), (c) to what degree UNCLOS recognizes reefs and uninhabited micro-islands (specifically, rocks and/or sand shoals) as islands that can have an EEZ (Middleton and Elizabeth Reefs north of Lord Howe Island), and (d) how the Foot of the Slope (FOS) is chosen (Great Australian Bight). The submission contains situations that are relevant to potential future U.S. submissions and are potentially analogous to certain

  10. Preserving science for the ages--USGS data rescue

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wippich, Carol

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is a steward for over 130 years of rich, diverse natural science and information resources. We document one-of-a-kind observations of natural phenomena and cultural impacts on our changing world. In order for society to deal with national and global trends, the USGS must enable access and use of legacy, inaccessible information by including these data in our digital archives and databases. The USGS has conducted scientific assessments on the quality and quantity of the Nation's water resources, provided access to geospatial and natural resource data, and conducted multi-purpose natural science studies. All of these have generated records that need to be accessible and integrated in order to be examined for new information and interpretations that were never intended by the original collector. The Federal Records Act of 1950 mandates that the USGS preserve Federal records containing evidence of the agency's organization, functions, policies, decisions, procedures, and essential transactions. At the USGS, the goal of Open Government is to improve and increase access to scientific information. Therefore, it is incumbent upon the USGS to preserve, make available, and provide accountability for the data that it creates from our scientific projects.

  11. Glass sealing

    SciTech Connect

    Brow, R.K.; Kovacic, L.; Chambers, R.S.

    1996-04-01

    Hernetic glass sealing technologies developed for weapons component applications can be utilized for the design and manufacture of fuel cells. Design and processing of of a seal are optimized through an integrated approach based on glass composition research, finite element analysis, and sealing process definition. Glass sealing procedures are selected to accommodate the limits imposed by glass composition and predicted calculations.

  12. Operating a global seismic network - perspectives from the USGS GSN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gee, L. S.; Derr, J. S.; Hutt, C. R.; Bolton, H.; Ford, D.; Gyure, G. S.; Storm, T.; Leith, W.

    2007-05-01

    The Global Seismographic Network (GSN) is a permanent digital network of state-of-the-art seismological and geophysical sensors connected by a global telecommunications network, serving as a multi-use scientific facility used for seismic monitoring for response applications, basic and applied research in solid earthquake geophysics, and earth science education. A joint program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Science Foundation, and Incorporated Research Institutions in Seismology (IRIS), the GSN provides near- uniform, worldwide monitoring of the Earth through 144 modern, globally distributed seismic stations. The USGS currently operates 90 GSN or GSN-affiliate stations. As a US government program, the USGS GSN is evaluated on several performance measures including data availability, data latency, and cost effectiveness. The USGS-component of the GSN, like the GSN as a whole, is in transition from a period of rapid growth to steady- state operations. The program faces challenges of aging equipment and increased operating costs at the same time that national and international earthquake and tsunami monitoring agencies place an increased reliance on GSN data. Data acquisition of the USGS GSN is based on the Quanterra Q680 datalogger, a workhorse system that is approaching twenty years in the field, often in harsh environments. An IRIS instrumentation committee recently selected the Quanterra Q330 HR as the "next generation" GSN data acquisition system, and the USGS will begin deploying the new equipment in the middle of 2007. These new systems will address many of the issues associated with the ageing Q680 while providing a platform for interoperability across the GSN.. In order to address the challenge of increasing operational costs, the USGS employs several tools. First, the USGS benefits from the contributions of local host institutions. The station operators are the first line of defense when a station experiences problems, changing boards

  13. Overview of USGS sediment research and monitoring capabilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, J.R.; Williams, S.J.; Finger, S.E.; Jones, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    For more than a century the USGS, as its name implies, has been the leading federal earth science research organization for the Nation. With the recent addition to the USGS of the National Biological Service in October 1996, as the Biological Resources Division, the mission of the USGS has broadened and the Survey's research capabilities are strengthened considerably. The USGS is now in a position to provide objective and credible scientific information across the fields of geology, geophysics, hydrology, geography, and biology and to provide the science information in an integrated and truly multidisciplinary manner. The subject of sediment is one that is critical to nearly every activity in the USGS and is becoming increasingly important to society and protecting, sustaining, and restoring the Nation's natural resources. The purpose of this workshop is to focus on this common denominator, sedimentary research, and bring together investigators to examine areas of expertise and collaboration on existing studies and to explore potential for future scientific interaction across all four of the divisions. A brief summary of sediment research capability for each division follows.

  14. Making USGS information effective in the electronic age

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, Debbie R.; Sanders, Rex; Faust, T.

    2003-01-01

    Executive Summary -- The USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP) held a workshop on 'Making USGS Information Effective in the Electronic Age' in Woods Hole, MA, on 6-8 February 2001. The workshop was designed to address broad issues of knowledge and communication, and to help develop the mission, vision, and goals of the National Knowledge Bank called for in the 1999 NRC review of the CMGP. Presentations led by historians and philosophers yield to a wide-ranging review and discussion of the role of USGS science in society: USGS science is important to government to understand certain complicated public policy issues (such as the environment), but we must participate in two-way public dialogs to increase our relevance and usefulness. Presentations led by USGS communications experts reviewed the principles of audience analysis and effective communications: this focused look at audiences, markets, and products provided an introduction to the behaviors, the tools, and the terminology that might be applied to public discourse. Presentations by several information technology experts showed the potential - and pitfalls - of current schemes for Web-based information access. Finally, several brainstorming sessions developed action items, vision, and characteristics of a knowledge bank. Based on the workshop discussions and results, the authors developed the National Knowledge Bank Mission, Vision, and Goals statements.

  15. USGS: Building on leadership in mapping oceans and coasts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) offers continuously improving technologies for mapping oceans and coasts providing unique opportunity for characterizing the marine environment and to expand the understanding of coastal and ocean processes, resources, and hazards. USGS, which has been designated as a leader for mapping the Exclusive Economic Zone, has made an advanced strategic plan, Facing Tomorrow's Challenges- US Geological Survey Science in the Decade 2007 to 2017. This plan focuses on innovative and transformational themes that serve key clients and customers, expand partnerships, and have long-term national impact. The plan includes several key science directions, including Understanding Ecosystems and Predicting Ecosystem Change, Energy and Minerals for America's Future, and A National Hazards, Risk, and Resilience Assessment Program. USGS has also collaborated with diverse partners to incorporate mapping and monitoring within interdisciplinary research programs, addressing the system-scale response of coastal and marine ecosystems.

  16. Final Report for USGS NEHRP Project 08HQGR0022

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, A. J.

    2015-09-29

    This is the final report for United States Geological Survey (USGS) National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP) Project 08HQGR0022, entitled “Quantifying Uncertainties in Ground Motion Simulations for Scenario Earthquakes on the HaywardRodgers Creek Fault System Using the USGS 3D Seismic Velocity Model and Realistic Pseudodynamics Ruptures”. Work for this project involved three-dimensional (3D) simulations of ground motions for Hayward Fault (HF) earthquakes. We modeled moderate events on the HF and used them to evaluate the USGS 3D model of the San Francisco Bay Area. We also contributed to ground motions modeling effort for a large suite of scenario earthquakes on the HF. Results were presented at conferences (see appendix) and in one peer-reviewed publication (Aagaard et al., 2010).

  17. USGS TOXIC SUBSTANCES FROM COAL COMBUSTION -- FORMS OF OCCURRENCE ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Allan Kolker; Stanley J. Mroczkowski; Curtis A. Palmer; Robert B. Finkelman

    1999-04-01

    Detailed information on trace-element modes of occurrence in coal is essential to understanding and predicting trace-element transformations taking place during coal combustion. The USGS has developed quantitative and semi-quantitative methods for determining the mode of occurrence of trace elements in coal. This information is needed to generate predictive models for trace-element behavior, the ultimate goal of DOE contract DE-AC22-95PC95101 ``Toxic Substances From Coal Combustion--A Comprehensive Assessment'' awarded to PSI, Inc. USGS activities in support of this contract have a direct bearing on the predictive equations being developed as the primary product of the PSI program.

  18. Helping solve Georgia's water problems - the USGS Cooperative Water Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, John S.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) addresses a wide variety of water issues in the State of Georgia through the Cooperative Water Program (CWP). As the primary Federal science agency for water-resource information, the USGS monitors the quantity and quality of water in the Nation's rivers and aquifers, assesses the sources and fate of contaminants in aquatic systems, collects and analyzes data on aquatic ecosystems, develops tools to improve the application of hydrologic information, and ensures that its information and tools are available to all potential users. This broad, diverse mission cannot be accomplished effectively without the contributions of the CWP.

  19. Chalcogenide glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.C.

    1987-08-15

    Although there are some significant exceptions, most important glass-forming systems contain elements from the sixth, or chalcogenide, column of the periodic table (oxygen, sulfur, selenium, or tellurium). The glasses that contain oxygen are typically insulators, while those that contain the heavier chalcogen elements are usually semiconductors. Even though oxygen is technically a chalcogen element, the term chalcogenide glass is commonly used to denote those largely covalent, semiconducting glasses contain sulfur, selenium, or tellurium as one of the constituents.

  20. USGS Imagery Applications During Disaster Response After Recent Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudnut, K. W.; Brooks, B. A.; Glennie, C. L.; Finnegan, D. C.

    2015-12-01

    It is not only important to rapidly characterize surface fault rupture and related ground deformation after an earthquake, but also to repeatedly make observations following an event to forecast fault afterslip. These data may also be used by other agencies to monitor progress on damage repairs and restoration efforts by emergency responders and the public. Related requirements include repeatedly obtaining reference or baseline imagery before a major disaster occurs, as well as maintaining careful geodetic control on all imagery in a time series so that absolute georeferencing may be applied to the image stack through time. In addition, repeated post-event imagery acquisition is required, generally at a higher repetition rate soon after the event, then scaled back to less frequent acquisitions with time, to capture phenomena (such as fault afterslip) that are known to have rates that decrease rapidly with time. For example, lidar observations acquired before and after the South Napa earthquake of 2014, used in our extensive post-processing work that was funded primarily by FEMA, aided in the accurate forecasting of fault afterslip. Lidar was used to independently validate and verify the official USGS afterslip forecast. In order to keep pace with rapidly evolving technology, a development pipeline must be established and maintained to continually test and incorporate new sensors, while adapting these new components to the existing platform and linking them to the existing base software system, and then sequentially testing the system as it evolves. Improvements in system performance by incremental upgrades of system components and software are essential. Improving calibration parameters and thereby progressively eliminating artifacts requires ongoing testing, research and development. To improve the system, we have formed an interdisciplinary team with common interests and diverse sources of support. We share expertise and leverage funding while effectively and

  1. California's BAY-DELTA: USGS Science Supports Decision Making

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nickles, James; Taylor, Kimberly; Fujii, Roger

    2010-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists are in the forefront of the effort to understand what causes changes in the hydrology, the ecology and the water quality of the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta and the San Francisco Bay estuary. Their scientific findings play a crucial role in how agencies manage the Bay-Delta on a daily basis.

  2. NORTHERN IDAHO FLOODING, FEBRUARY 1996. USGS FACT SHEETS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    USGS published 2 Fact Sheets describing the February 1996 floods in northern Idaho (17010304). Fact Sheet FS-222-96, Magnitude of Floods in Northern Idaho, February 1996, by Michael A. Beckwith, Charles Berenbrock, and R.L. Backsen, describes the magnitude of the floods at 8 str...

  3. CURRENT FLOW DATA FOR SELECTED USGS STREAM MONITORING STATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set contains recent and historical stream flow data for USGS stations. Flow data (cubic feet per second) are available for the most recent 5-6 day period and are compared with long-term average values. Flow data were collected approximately hourly. Flood stage and the m...

  4. 1991 USGS DLG HYDROGRAPHY FOR THE CONTERMINOUS UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Digital Line Graph (DLG) H layer in the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Spatial Data Library System (ESDLS) National 1:2,000,000-scale library, provides the stream and canal data, derived from a subset of the 1991 United States Geological Survey (USGS) 1:2,000,000-Scale...

  5. Archiving and Near Real Time Visualization of USGS Instantaneous Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaslavsky, I.; Ryan, D.; Whitenack, T.; Valentine, D. W.; Rodriguez, M.

    2009-12-01

    The CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System project has been developing databases, services and online and desktop software applications supporting standards-based publication and access to large volumes of hydrologic data from US federal agencies and academic partners. In particular, the CUAHSI WaterML 1.x schema specification for exchanging hydrologic time series, earlier published as an OGC Discussion Paper (2007), has been adopted by the United States Geological Survey to provide web service access to USGS daily values and instantaneous data. The latter service, making available raw measurements of discharge, gage height and several other parameters for over 10,000 USGS real time measurement points, was announced by USGS, as an experimental WaterML-compliant service, at the end of July 2009. We demonstrate an online application that leverages the new service for nearly continuous harvesting of USGS real time data, and simultaneous visualization and analysis of the data streams. To make this possible, we integrate service components of the CUAHSI software stack with Open Source Data Turbine (OSDT) system, an NSF-supported software environment for robust and scalable assimilation of multimedia data streams (e.g. from sensors), and interfacing with a variety of viewers, databases, archival systems and client applications. Our application continuously queries USGS Instantaneous water data service (which provides access to 15-min measurements updated at USGS every 4 hours), and maps the results for each station-variable combination to a separate "channel", which is used by OSDT to quickly access and manipulate the time series. About 15,000 channels are used, which makes it by far the largest deployment of OSDT. Using RealTime Data Viewer, users can now select one or more stations of interest (e.g. from upstream or downstream from each other), and observe and annotate simultaneous dynamics in the respective discharge and gage height values, using fast forward or

  6. Reference electrode for electrolytic cell

    DOEpatents

    Kessie, R.W.

    1988-07-28

    A reference electrode device is provided for a high temperature electrolytic cell used to electrolytically recover uranium from spent reactor fuel dissolved in an anode pool, the device having a glass tube to enclose the electrode and electrolyte and serve as a conductive membrane with the cell electrolyte, and an outer metal tube about the glass tube to serve as a shield and basket for any glass sections broken by handling of the tube to prevent their contact with the anode pool, the metal tube having perforations to provide access between the bulk of the cell electrolyte and glass membrane. 4 figs.

  7. Electrolytic cell with reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kessie, Robert W.

    1989-01-01

    A reference electrode device is provided for a high temperature electrolytic cell used to electrolytically recover uranium from spent reactor fuel dissolved in an anode pool, the device having a glass tube to enclose the electrode and electrolyte and serve as a conductive membrane with the cell electrolyte, and an outer metal tube about the glass tube to serve as a shield and basket for any glass sections broken by handling of the tube to prevent their contact with the anode pool, the metal tube having perforations to provide access between the bulk of the cell electrolyte and glass membrane.

  8. USGS Digital Spectral Library splib06a

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Roger N.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Wise, Richard A.; Livo, K. Eric; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Sutley, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    ), one simply needs a diagnostic absorption band. The mapping system uses continuum-removed reference spectral features fitted to features in observed spectra. Spectral features for such algorithms can be obtained from a spectrum of a sample containing large amounts of contaminants, including those that add other spectral features, as long as the shape of the diagnostic feature of interest is not modified. If, however, the data are needed for radiative transfer models to derive mineral abundances from reflectance spectra, then completely uncontaminated spectra are required. This library contains spectra that span a range of quality, with purity indicators to flag spectra for (or against) particular uses. Acquiring spectral measurements and performing sample characterizations for this library has taken about 15 person-years of effort. Software to manage the library and provide scientific analysis capability is provided (Clark, 1980, 1993). A personal computer (PC) reader for the library is also available (Livo and others, 1993). The program reads specpr binary files (Clark, 1980, 1993) and plots spectra. Another program that reads the specpr format is written in IDL (Kokaly, 2005). In our view, an ideal spectral library consists of samples covering a very wide range of materials, has large wavelength range with very high precision, and has enough sample analyses and documentation to establish the quality of the spectra. Time and available resources limit what can be achieved. Ideally, for each mineral, the sample analysis would include X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron microprobe (EM) or X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and petrographic microscopic analyses. For some minerals, such as iron oxides, additional analyses such as Mossbauer would be helpful. We have found that to make the basic spectral measurements, provide XRD, EM or XRF analyses, and microscopic analyses, document the results, and complete an entry of one spectral library sample, all takes about

  9. GeoReM: A new Geochemical Database for Reference Materials and Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochum, K. P.; Nohl, U.; Herwig, K.; Lammel, E.; Stoll, B.; Hofmann, A. W.

    2005-12-01

    We have developed a new geochemical database GeoReM (http://georem.mpch-mainz.gwdg.de) for reference materials and standards. Reference samples include amongst others USGS, GSJ, GIT-IWG rock powders, synthetic and natural NIST, USGS, MPI-DING reference glasses, mineral standards (e.g., 91500 zircon), isotope standards (e.g., LaJolla, E&A, NIST SRM 981), river water and seawater. GeoReM complements the GEOROC, NavDAT and PetDB databases. GeoReM is a relational database, which strongly follows the concept of the three EARTHCHEM databases [1]. It contains published analytical and compilation values (major and trace element concentrations, radiogenic and stable isotope ratios), important metadata about the analytical values, such as uncertainty, uncertainty type, method and laboratory. Sample information and references are also included. Three different queries are possible: (1) Sample names or materials, (2) Chemical criteria, and (3) Bibliography. Querying by sample names the database provides ranges of published data for concentrations and isotope ratios. To get more detailed information, all primary data and metadata can be shown and downloaded. It is also possible to query by material type (powder, glass, solution, mineral, gas, metal) and material (e.g., basalt, komatiite, seawater). To query by chemistry, element concentrations and isotope ratios can be selected. As a result, a list of suitable reference materials fulfilling all selected chemical criteria is shown. Now it is possible to choose one or more samples. The database provides tables with all analytical data for these samples or data only for the selected items. Furthermore, the number of analytical data can be reduced by selecting one or more materials, material types and/or methods. Four bibliographic queries are possible, by author or coauthor(s), journal, keywords, and by GeoReM number. The GeoReM number, which unambiguously assigns to the reference, may be useful for citation purposes. GeoReM now

  10. Validation Framework for USGS Landsat-derived Essential Climate Variables: the Burned Area Product Example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mladinich, C. S.; Brunner, N. M.; Beal, Y. G.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is generating a suite of Essential Climate Variables (ECVs), as defined by the Global Climate Observing System program, from the Landsat data archive. The Landsat archive will provide high spatial resolution (30 m) and long-term (1972 to present) global land products, meeting the needs of climate and ecological studies at global, national, and regional scales. Validation protocols for these products are being established, paralleling the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites (CEOS) Calibration/Validation Working Groups' best practice guidelines, but also being modified to account for the unique characteristics of the Landsat data. The USGS validation plan is unique in that it incorporates protocols that span not only the breadth of ecoregions but the timespan of the ECV products and Landsat satellite sensors (MSS, TM, TM+, and OLI). To achieve these goals, the incorporation of existing data bases is essential. Protocols are being developed to perform a CEOS Working Group on Calibration/Validation Stage 2 validation with plans on performing a full Stage 4 validation ensuring the spatial and temporal consistency of the ECV products. A Stage 2 validation reports product accuracies over a large number of locations and time periods by comparison with in situ or other suitable reference data. The Stage 3 validation reports product uncertainties in a statistically robust way over multiple locations and time periods representing global conditions. Validation at this stage reports on the accuracies and confidence of products for the user communities as well as to the algorithm developers. The Stage 4 validation calls for continual assessments as new product versions of the algorithms are released. This presentation will report on the validation protocols used for the Burned Area ECV product. The burned area ECV product is unique from other ECV products such as land cover or LAI because of the transitory nature of fires. In the United

  11. Stanford-USGS shrimp-RG ion microprobe: A new approach to determining the distribution of trace elements in coal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolker, A.; Wooden, J.L.; Persing, H.M.; Zielinski, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    The distribution of Cr and other trace metals of environmental interest in a range of widely used U.S. coals was investigated using the Stanford-USGS SHRIMP-RG ion microprobe . Using the oxygen ion source, concentrations of Cr (11 to 176 ppm), V (23 to 248 ppm), Mn (2 to 149 ppm), Ni (2 to 30 ppm), and 13 other elements were determined in illite/smectite, a group of clay minerals commonly present in coal. The results confirm previous indirect or semi-quantitative determinations indicating illite/smectite to be an important host of these metals. Calibration was achieved using doped aluminosilicate-glass synthetic standards and glasses prepared from USGS rock standards. Grains for analysis were identified optically, and confirmed by 1) precursory electron microprobe analysis and wavelength-dispersive compositional mapping, and 2) SHRIMP-RG major element data obtained concurrently with trace element results. Follow-up investigations will focus on the distribution of As and other elements that are more effectively ionized with the cesium primary beam currently being tested.

  12. Improving open access to the results of USGS research (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bristol, S.

    2013-12-01

    Since its establishment under the Organic Act of March 3, 1879, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been committed to classifying and characterizing 'the geological structure, mineral resources, and products of the national domain.' Over time, the pursuit of this mission and understanding the products of the national domain has involved a broad scientific pursuit to understand complex Earth system processes and includes topographic, geologic, biogeographic, and other types of mapping; chemical, physical, hydrological, and biological research; and the application of computer and data science. As science and technology have evolved, classification and characterization of the Nation's natural resources has come to be embodied in digital data of various structure and form. Fundamentally, scientific publications and data produced through research and monitoring form the core of the USGS mission. They are an organizational and national treasure held and provided in trust for the American people and for the global scientific community. The recent memo from the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) on 'Increasing Access to the Results of Federally Funded Scientific Research' is part of an overall initiative toward open digital government that dovetails well with the USGS mission. The objectives outlined in the memo correspond directly to goals and objectives of the 2007 USGS Science Strategy ('Facing Tomorrow's Challenges--U.S. Geological Survey Science in the Decade 2007-2017') and the recently released Science Strategy Plans across all USGS Mission Areas. The USGS response to the OSTP memo involves reinforcing aspects of the USGS commitment to open and free access to scholarly publications and data along with improvements to some of the underlying technological systems that facilitate search and discovery. These actions also align with the USGS response to the Executive Order on May 9, 2013, entitled 'Making Open and Machine Readable the New Default for

  13. USGS Emergency Response and the Hazards Data Distribution System (HDDS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, B. K.; Lamb, R.

    2013-12-01

    Remotely sensed datasets such as satellite imagery and aerial photography can be an invaluable resource to support the response and recovery from many types of emergency events such as floods, earthquakes, landslides, wildfires, and other natural or human-induced disasters. When disaster strikes there is often an urgent need and high demand for rapid acquisition and coordinated distribution of pre- and post-event geospatial products and remotely sensed imagery. These products and images are necessary to record change, analyze impacts, and facilitate response to the rapidly changing conditions on the ground. The coordinated and timely provision of relevant imagery and other datasets is one important component of the USGS support for domestic and international emergency response activities. The USGS Hazards Data Distribution System (HDDS) serves as a single, consolidated point-of-access for relevant satellite and aerial image datasets during an emergency event response. The HDDS provides data visibility and immediate download services through a complementary pair of graphical map-based and traditional directory-based interfaces. This system allows emergency response personnel to rapidly select and obtain pre-event ('baseline') and post-event emergency response imagery from many different sources. These datasets will typically include images that are acquired directly by USGS, but may also include many other types of images that are collected and contributed by partner agencies and organizations during the course of an emergency event response. Over the past decade, USGS Emergency Response and HDDS have supported hundreds of domestic and international disaster events by providing critically needed pre- and post-event remotely sensed imagery and other related geospatial products as required by the emergency response community. Some of the larger national events supported by HDDS have included Hurricane Sandy (2012), the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (2010), and Hurricane

  14. Pictorial essay: USG of lumps and bumps of the foot and ankle

    PubMed Central

    Botchu, Rajesh; Khan, Aman; Bhatt, Raj

    2010-01-01

    USG is a cost-effective and dynamic way to interrogate superficial lumps and bumps. We present a pictorial review of the USG findings in various “lumps and bumps” of the foot and ankle. PMID:20607019

  15. USGS investigations of water produced during hydrocarbon reservoir development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engle, Mark A.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Smith, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    Significant quantities of water are present in hydrocarbon reservoirs. When brought to the land surface during oil, gas, and coalbed methane production, the water—either naturally occurring or injected as a method to enhance production—is termed produced water. Produced water is currently managed through processes such as recycling, treatment and discharge, spreading on roads, evaporation or infiltration, and deep well injection. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists conduct research and publish data related to produced water, thus providing information and insight to scientists, decisionmakers, the energy industry, and the public. The information advances scientific knowledge, informs resource management decisions, and facilitates environmental protection. This fact sheet discusses integrated research being conducted by USGS scientists supported by programs in the Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health Mission Areas. The research products help inform decisions pertaining to understanding the nature and management of produced water in the United States.

  16. Ecological Genetics at the USGS National Wetlands Research Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Travis, Steven

    2006-01-01

    The Ecological Genetics Program at the USGS National Wetlands Research Center (NWRC) employs state-of-the-art DNA fingerprinting technologies in characterizing critical management aspects of the population biology of species of concern. The overarching themes of this program have been (1) the critical role that genetic diversity plays in maintaining population viability and (2) how management strategies might incorporate genetic information in preventing the decline of desirable species or in controlling the spread of invasive species.

  17. Technology transfer opportunities: partnership opportunities available at the USGS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1996-01-01

    The following are USGS research projects offering an opportunity for Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) partnerships. A CRADA is an agreement between one or more Federal agencies and one or more non-Federal agencies to work together in research or developmental activities. CRADAs permit both partners to share information in a protected environment and offer incentives to the non-Federal partner(s) to commercialize the resulting product of the effort.

  18. User guide for the USGS aerial camera Report of Calibration.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tayman, W.P.

    1984-01-01

    Calibration and testing of aerial mapping cameras includes the measurement of optical constants and the check for proper functioning of a number of complicated mechanical and electrical parts. For this purpose the US Geological Survey performs an operational type photographic calibration. This paper is not strictly a scientific paper but rather a 'user guide' to the USGS Report of Calibration of an aerial mapping camera for compliance with both Federal and State mapping specifications. -Author

  19. USGS Information Technology Strategic Plan: Fiscal Years 2007-2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The acquisition, management, communication, and long-term stewardship of natural science data, information, and knowledge are fundamental mission responsibilities of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). USGS scientists collect, maintain, and exchange raw scientific data and interpret and analyze it to produce a wide variety of science-based products. Managers throughout the Bureau access, summarize, and analyze administrative or business-related information to budget, plan, evaluate, and report on programs and projects. Information professionals manage the extensive and growing stores of irreplaceable scientific information and knowledge in numerous databases, archives, libraries, and other digital and nondigital holdings. Information is the primary currency of the USGS, and it flows to scientists, managers, partners, and a wide base of customers, including local, State, and Federal agencies, private sector organizations, and individual citizens. Supporting these information flows is an infrastructure of computer systems, telecommunications equipment, software applications, digital and nondigital data stores and archives, technical expertise, and information policies and procedures. This infrastructure has evolved over many years and consists of tools and technologies acquired or built to address the specific requirements of particular projects or programs. Developed independently, the elements of this infrastructure were typically not designed to facilitate the exchange of data and information across programs or disciplines, to allow for sharing of information resources or expertise, or to be combined into a Bureauwide and broader information infrastructure. The challenge to the Bureau is to wisely and effectively use its information resources to create a more Integrated Information Environment that can reduce costs, enhance the discovery and delivery of scientific products, and improve support for science. This Information Technology Strategic Plan

  20. 32 CFR 776.56 - Professional independence of a covered USG attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Professional independence of a covered USG... JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL Rules of Professional Conduct § 776.56 Professional independence of a covered USG attorney. (a) Professional independence of a covered USG attorney. (1) Notwithstanding a judge...

  1. USGS Blind Sample Project: monitoring and evaluating laboratory analytical quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludtke, Amy S.; Woodworth, Mark T.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collects and disseminates information about the Nation's water resources. Surface- and ground-water samples are collected and sent to USGS laboratories for chemical analyses. The laboratories identify and quantify the constituents in the water samples. Random and systematic errors occur during sample handling, chemical analysis, and data processing. Although all errors cannot be eliminated from measurements, the magnitude of their uncertainty can be estimated and tracked over time. Since 1981, the USGS has operated an independent, external, quality-assurance project called the Blind Sample Project (BSP). The purpose of the BSP is to monitor and evaluate the quality of laboratory analytical results through the use of double-blind quality-control (QC) samples. The information provided by the BSP assists the laboratories in detecting and correcting problems in the analytical procedures. The information also can aid laboratory users in estimating the extent that laboratory errors contribute to the overall errors in their environmental data.

  2. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earthquake Web Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fee, J.; Martinez, E.

    2015-12-01

    USGS Earthquake web applications provide access to earthquake information from USGS and other Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) contributors. One of the primary goals of these applications is to provide a consistent experience for accessing both near-real time information as soon as it is available and historic information after it is thoroughly reviewed. Millions of people use these applications every month including people who feel an earthquake, emergency responders looking for the latest information about a recent event, and scientists researching historic earthquakes and their effects. Information from multiple catalogs and contributors is combined by the ANSS Comprehensive Catalog into one composite catalog, identifying the most preferred information from any source for each event. A web service and near-real time feeds provide access to all contributed data, and are used by a number of users and software packages. The Latest Earthquakes application displays summaries of many events, either near-real time feeds or custom searches, and the Event Page application shows detailed information for each event. Because all data is accessed through the web service, it can also be downloaded by users. The applications are maintained as open source projects on github, and use mobile-first and responsive-web-design approaches to work well on both mobile devices and desktop computers. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/map/

  3. USGS remote sensing coordination for the 2010 Haiti earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duda, K.A.; Jones, B.K.

    2011-01-01

    In response to the devastating 12 January 2010, earthquake in Haiti, the US Geological Survey (USGS) provided essential coordinating services for remote sensing activities. Communication was rapidly established between the widely distributed response teams and data providers to define imaging requirements and sensor tasking opportunities. Data acquired from a variety of sources were received and archived by the USGS, and these products were subsequently distributed using the Hazards Data Distribution System (HDDS) and other mechanisms. Within six weeks after the earthquake, over 600,000 files representing 54 terabytes of data were provided to the response community. The USGS directly supported a wide variety of groups in their use of these data to characterize post-earthquake conditions and to make comparisons with pre-event imagery. The rapid and continuing response achieved was enabled by existing imaging and ground systems, and skilled personnel adept in all aspects of satellite data acquisition, processing, distribution and analysis. The information derived from image interpretation assisted senior planners and on-site teams to direct assistance where it was most needed. ?? 2011 American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.

  4. A Coordinated USGS Science Response to Hurricane Sandy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, S.; Buxton, H. T.; Andersen, M.; Dean, T.; Focazio, M. J.; Haines, J.; Hainly, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    In late October 2012, Hurricane Sandy came ashore during a spring high tide on the New Jersey coastline, delivering hurricane-force winds, storm tides exceeding 19 feet, driving rain, and plummeting temperatures. Hurricane Sandy resulted in 72 direct fatalities in the mid-Atlantic and northeastern United States, and widespread and substantial physical, environmental, ecological, social, and economic impacts estimated at near $50 billion. Before the landfall of Hurricane Sandy, the USGS provided forecasts of potential coastal change; collected oblique aerial photography of pre-storm coastal morphology; deployed storm-surge sensors, rapid-deployment streamgages, wave sensors, and barometric pressure sensors; conducted Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) aerial topographic surveys of coastal areas; and issued a landslide alert for landslide prone areas. During the storm, Tidal Telemetry Networks provided real-time water-level information along the coast. Long-term networks and rapid-deployment real-time streamgages and water-quality monitors tracked river levels and changes in water quality. Immediately after the storm, the USGS serviced real-time instrumentation, retrieved data from over 140 storm-surge sensors, and collected other essential environmental data, including more than 830 high-water marks mapping the extent and elevation of the storm surge. Post-storm lidar surveys documented storm impacts to coastal barriers informing response and recovery and providing a new baseline to assess vulnerability of the reconfigured coast. The USGS Hazard Data Distribution System served storm-related information from many agencies on the Internet on a daily basis. Immediately following Hurricane Sandy the USGS developed a science plan, 'Meeting the Science Needs of the Nation in the Wake of Hurricane Sandy-A U.S. Geological Survey Science Plan for Support of Restoration and Recovery'. The plan will ensure continuing coordination of internal USGS activities as well as

  5. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Western Region: Coastal and Ocean Science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinsinger, Anne E.

    2009-01-01

    USGS Western Region Coastal and Ocean Science is interdisciplinary, collaborative, and integrates expertise from all USGS Disciplines, and ten of its major Science Centers, in Alaska, Hawai'i, California, Washington, and Oregon. The scientific talent, laboratories, and research vessels in the Western Region and across the Nation, strategically position the USGS to address broad geographic and oceanographic research topics. USGS information products inform resource managers and policy makers who must balance conservation mandates with increasing demands for resources that sustain the Nation's economy. This fact sheet describes but a few examples of the breadth of USGS science conducted in coastal, nearshore, and ocean environments along our Nation's West Coast and Pacific Islands.

  6. Annotated selected references on natural resources investigations, Collier County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swayze, L.J.

    1981-01-01

    A data base for future natural resources investigations in Collier County, Fla., was initiated by compiling a selected annotated bibliography. This report provides references and annotations for selected reports released between 1950 and 1978. The references are presented by subject material as follows: biologic, ecologic, geologic, geochemical, and hydrologic. (USGS)

  7. The corrosion behavior of DWPF glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, W.L.; Bates, J.K.

    1995-06-01

    The authors analyzed the corroded surfaces of reference glasses developed for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to characterize their corrosion behavior. The corrosion mechanism of nuclear waste glasses must be known in order to provide source terms describing radionuclide release for performance assessment calculations. Different DWPF reference glasses were corroded under conditions that highlighted various aspects of the corrosion process and led to different extents of corrosion. The glasses corroded by similar mechanisms, and a phenomenological description of their corrosion behavior is presented here. The initial leaching of soluble glass components results in the formation of an amorphous gel layer on the glass surface. The gel layer is a transient phase that transforms into a layer of clay crystallites, which equilibrates with the solution as corrosion continues. The clay layer does not act as a barrier to either water penetration or glass dissolution, which continues beneath it, and may eventually separate from the glass. Solubility limits for glass components may be established by the eventual precipitation of secondary phases; thus, corrosion of the glass becomes controlled by the chemical equilibrium between the solution and the assemblage of secondary phases. In effect, the solution is an intermediate phase through which the glass transforms to an energetically more favorable assemblage of phases. Implications regarding the prediction of long-term glass corrosion behavior are discussed.

  8. Glass lasers.

    PubMed

    Snitzer, E

    1966-10-01

    After a general discussion of the merits of glass vs. crystals as host materials for laser ions, a summary is given of the various glass lasers. Because of its importance as an efficient, room temperature laser the properties of neodymium are considered in greater detail. This includes the nonlaser properties of Nd(3+) in glass, the spectral and temporal emission characteristics of Nd(3+) lasers, and Nd(3+) laser configurations. Separate sections deal with the other two room temperature lasers which use Yb(3+) or Er(3+). The problem of thermal stability of laser cavities is also discussed. Finally, a survey is given of the glasses that are useful as Faraday rotators. PMID:20057584

  9. SAFRR Tsunami Scenarios and USGS-NTHMP Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, S.; Wood, N. J.; Cox, D. A.; Jones, L.; Cheung, K. F.; Chock, G.; Gately, K.; Jones, J. L.; Lynett, P. J.; Miller, K.; Nicolsky, D.; Richards, K.; Wein, A. M.; Wilson, R. I.

    2015-12-01

    Hazard scenarios provide emergency managers and others with information to help them prepare for future disasters. The SAFRR Tsunami Scenario, published in 2013, modeled a hypothetical but plausible tsunami, created by an Mw9.1 earthquake occurring offshore from the Alaskan peninsula, and its impacts on the California coast. It presented the modeled inundation areas, current velocities in key ports and harbors, physical damage and repair costs, economic consequences, environmental impacts, social vulnerability, emergency management, and policy implications for California associated with the scenario tsunami. The intended users were those responsible for making mitigation decisions before and those who need to make rapid decisions during future tsunamis. It provided the basis for many exercises involving, among others, NOAA, the State of Washington, several counties in California, and the National Institutes of Health. The scenario led to improvements in the warning protocol for southern California and highlighted issues that led to ongoing work on harbor and marina safety. Building on the lessons learned in the SAFRR Tsunami Scenario, another tsunami scenario is being developed with impacts to Hawaii and to the source region in Alaska, focusing on the evacuation issues of remote communities with primarily shore parallel roads, and also on the effects of port closures. Community exposure studies in Hawaii (Ratliff et al., USGS-SIR, 2015) provided background for selecting these foci. One complicated and important aspect of any hazard scenario is defining the source event. The USGS is building collaborations with the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) to consider issues involved in developing a standardized set of tsunami sources to support hazard mitigation work. Other key USGS-NTHMP collaborations involve population vulnerability and evacuation modeling.

  10. NOAA-USGS Debris-Flow Warning System - Final Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    NOAA-USGS Debris Flow Task Force

    2005-01-01

    Landslides and debris flows cause loss of life and millions of dollars in property damage annually in the United States (National Research Council, 2004). In an effort to reduce loss of life by debris flows, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Weather Service (NWS) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) operated an experimental debris-flow prediction and warning system in the San Francisco Bay area from 1986 to 1995 that relied on forecasts and measurements of precipitation linked to empirical precipitation thresholds to predict the onset of rainfall-triggered debris flows. Since 1995, there have been substantial improvements in quantifying precipitation estimates and forecasts, development of better models for delineating landslide hazards, and advancements in geographic information technology that allow stronger spatial and temporal linkage between precipitation forecasts and hazard models. Unfortunately, there have also been several debris flows that have caused loss of life and property across the United States. Establishment of debris-flow warning systems in areas where linkages between rainfall amounts and debris-flow occurrence have been identified can help mitigate the hazards posed by these types of landslides. Development of a national warning system can help support the NOAA-USGS goal of issuing timely Warnings of potential debris flows to the affected populace and civil authorities on a broader scale. This document presents the findings and recommendations of a joint NOAA-USGS Task Force that assessed the current state-of-the-art in precipitation forecasting and debris-flow hazard-assessment techniques. This report includes an assessment of the science and resources needed to establish a demonstration debris-flow warning project in recently burned areas of southern California and the necessary scientific advancements and resources associated with expanding such a warning system to unburned areas and, possibly, to a

  11. Photochromic glass

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, H.J.

    1990-12-31

    This article deals with the general properties of photochromic inorganic glasses and the darkening and regeneration dynamics as well as the main photochemical and photophysical reactions occurring in the glasses. It concludes with applications of photochromic systems to self-adjusting window panes. This controlled flow of radiant energy could lead to important energy savings by decreasing the cooling and heating loads in buildings and automobiles.

  12. New USGS seismic hazard maps for the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankel, A.; Mueller, C.; Perkins, D.; Barnhard, T.; Leyendecker, E.; Safak, E.; Hanson, S.; Dickman, N.; Hopper, M.

    1996-01-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) is preparing new seismic national maps for release in April 1996. The new maps plot probabilistic ground motions for return times of about 500, 1000, and 2500 years. Deterministic (scenario) ground-motion maps are being prepared for selected faults in the western US. Due to the diversity of tectonic settings in the US, mapping methodologies for different regions had to be modified. A four-model approach is used to eliminate the need for drawing seismic source zones to determine seismic activity levels. A logic tree approach is used to incorporate alternative models of seismic hazard and alternative relations of seismic attenuation.

  13. Snake River Plain FORGE Well Data for USGS-142

    DOE Data Explorer

    Robert Podgorney

    2015-11-23

    Well data for the USGS-142 well located in eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho. This data collection includes lithology reports, borehole logs, and photos of rhyolite core samples. This collection of data has been assembled as part of the site characterization data used to develop the conceptual geologic model for the Snake River Plain site in Idaho, as part of phase 1 of the Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) initiative. They were assembled by the Snake River Geothermal Consortium (SRGC), a team of collaborators that includes members from national laboratories, universities, industry, and federal agencies, lead by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL).

  14. Eaton to be sworn in as USGS Director

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    On the eve of the U.S. Geological Survey's 115th anniversary, Gordon P. Eaton was confirmed as the survey's 12th director by unanimous consent of the U.S. Senate. His swearing-in ceremony is tentatively scheduled for March 14. Eaton, 64, is a distinguished Earth scientist, administrator, and former employee of USGS. His most recent post was director of the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University. He has been an AGU member since 1963. Eaton follows in the footsteps of Dallas Peck, who held the post from 1981 to 1993, and interim director Robert M. Hirsch, who followed Peck.

  15. Does Glass Size and Shape Influence Judgements of the Volume of Wine?

    PubMed Central

    Pechey, Rachel; Attwood, Angela S.; Couturier, Dominique-Laurent; Munafò, Marcus R.; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E.; Woods, Andy; Marteau, Theresa M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Judgements of volume may influence the rate of consumption of alcohol and, in turn, the amount consumed. The aim of the current study was to examine the impact of the size and shape of wine glasses on perceptions of wine volume. Methods Online experiment: Participants (n = 360; recruited via Mechanical Turk) were asked to match the volume of wine in two wine glasses, specifically: 1. the Reference glass holding a fixed reference volume, and 2. the Comparison glass, for which the volume could be altered until participants perceived it matched the reference volume. One of three comparison glasses was shown in each trial: ‘wider’ (20% wider but same capacity); ‘larger’ (same width but 25% greater capacity); or ‘wider-and-larger’ (20% wider and 25% greater capacity). Reference volumes were 125ml, 175ml and 250ml, in a fully factorial within-subjects design: 3 (comparison glass) x 3 (reference volume). Non-zero differences between the volumes with which participants filled comparison glasses and the corresponding reference volumes were identified using sign-rank tests. Results Participants under-filled the wider glass relative to the reference glass for larger reference volumes, and over-filled the larger glass relative to the reference glass for all reference volumes. Results for the wider-and-larger glass showed a mixed pattern across reference volume. For all comparison glasses, in trials with larger reference volumes participants tended to fill the comparison glass less, relative to trials with smaller reference volumes for the same comparison glass. Conclusions These results are broadly consistent with people using the relative fullness of glasses to judge volume, and suggest both the shape and capacity of wine glasses may influence perceived volume. Perceptions that smaller glasses contain more than larger ones (despite containing the same volume), could slow drinking speed and overall consumption by serving standard portions in smaller

  16. Archive of digital chirp subbottom profile data collected during USGS cruise 10BIM04 offshore Cat Island, Mississippi, September 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forde, Arnell S.; Dadisman, Shawn V.; Kindinger, Jack G.; Miselis, Jennifer L.; Wiese, Dana S.; Buster, Noreen A.

    2012-01-01

    In September of 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), conducted a geophysical survey to investigate the geologic controls on barrier island framework of Cat Island, Miss., as part of a broader USGS study on Barrier Island Mapping (BIM). These surveys were funded through the Mississippi Coastal Improvements Program (MsCIP) and the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) Ecosystem Change and Hazard Susceptibility Project as part of the Holocene Coastal Evolution of the Mississippi-Alabama Region Subtask. This report serves as an archive of unprocessed digital chirp subbottom data, trackline maps, navigation files, GIS files, Field Activity Collection System (FACS) logs, and formal FGDC metadata. Gained (showing a relative increase in signal amplitude) digital images of the seismic profiles are also provided. Refer to the Acronyms page for expansions of acronyms and abbreviations used in this report. The USGS Saint Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center (SPCMSC) assigns a unique identifier to each cruise or field activity. For example, 10BIM04 tells us the data were collected in 2010 during the fourth field activity for that project in that calendar year. Refer to http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/infobank/programs/html/definition/activity.html for a detailed description of the method used to assign the field activity identification (ID). All chirp systems use a signal of continuously varying frequency; the EdgeTech SB-512i system used during this survey produces high-resolution, shallow-penetration (typically less than 50 milliseconds (ms)) profile images of sub-seafloor stratigraphy. The towfish contains a transducer that transmits and receives acoustic energy; it was housed within a float system (built at the SPCMSC), which allows the towfish to be towed at a constant depth of 1.07 meters (m) below the sea surface. As transmitted acoustic energy intersects density boundaries, such as the seafloor or sub

  17. Pinhole Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colicchia, Giuseppe; Hopf, Martin; Wiesner, Hartmut; Zollman, Dean

    2008-01-01

    Eye aberrations are commonly corrected by lenses that restore vision by altering rays before they pass through the cornea. Some modern promoters claim that pinhole glasses are better than conventional lenses in correcting all kinds of refractive defects such as myopia (nearsighted), hyperopia (farsighted), astigmatisms, and presbyopia. Do pinhole glasses really give better vision? Some ways to use this question for motivation in teaching optics have been discussed. For this column we include a series of experiments that students can complete using a model of the eye and demonstrate issues related to pinhole vision correction.

  18. Coastal erosion and wetland change in Louisiana: selected USGS products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, S. Jeffress; Reid, Jamey M.; Cross, VeeAnn A.; Polloni, Christopher F.

    2003-01-01

    This Digital Data Series (DDS) report is primarily a selection of USGS science products that were previously published as paper atlases and maps but are no longer available in their original form. We have made an attempt to preserve the paper atlases by having them scanned in an efficient compressed digital format that provides a print-on-demand as well as a programmed viewing capability of the original material. We included additional materials bearing on aspects to enhance the scientific understanding of coastal erosion and wetland loss in Louisiana. In addition, this report contains multimedia-based publications including photographs, a 48-minute video, and map tools to allow the user to experience the many scientifically based research activities that are in progress along the coast of Louisiana.

  19. USGS National Assessment of Oil and Gas Online (NOGA Online)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Biewick, L.H.

    2003-01-01

    The Central Energy Resources Team (CERT) of the U.S. Geological Survey is providing results of the USGS National Assessment of Oil and Gas online (NOGA Online). In addition to providing resource estimates and geologic reports, NOGA Online includes an internet map application that allows interactive viewing and analysis of assessment data and results. CERT is in the process of reassessing domestic oil and natural gas resources in a series of priority basins in the United States using a Total Petroleum System (TPS) approach where the assessment unit is the basic appraisal unit (rather than the oil and gas play used in the 1995 study). Assessments of undiscovered oil and gas resources in five such priority provinces were recently completed to meet the requirements of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 2000 (EPCA 2000). New assessment results are made available at this site on an ongoing basis.

  20. A coastal and marine digital library at USGS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lightsom, Fran

    2003-01-01

    The Marine Realms Information Bank (MRIB) is a distributed geolibrary [NRC, 1999] from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), whose purpose is to classify, integrate, and facilitate access to Earth systems science information about ocean, lake, and coastal environments. Core MRIB services are: (1) the search and display of information holdings by place and subject, and (2) linking of information assets that exist in remote physical locations. The design of the MRIB features a classification system to integrate information from remotely maintained sources. This centralized catalogue organizes information using 12 criteria: locations, geologic time, physiographic features, biota, disciplines, research methods, hot topics, project names, agency names, authors, content type, and file type. For many of these fields, MRIB has developed classification hierarchies.

  1. Reference selenocentric net

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nefedyev, Yura

    2012-08-01

    The catalogues based on mission “Apollo” and reference nets of the west lunar hemisphere made by missions “Zond 5”, ”Zond 8” cover small part of the Moon surface (zone from - 20 to +40 degrees by latitude). Three ALSEP stations were used to transform “Apollo” topographic coordinates. Transformation mean - square errors are less than 80 meters and measurement’s errors are about 60 meters. On this account positions inaccuracy near and between ALSEP stations are less 150 meters. The offset from place of the location ALSEP enlarges the supposed mistake is more than 300 m and this is a major part of the lunar surface. Catalogues of the mission “Apollo” realize quasidynamic coordinate system. Distribution reference nets DMA/A 15, NOS/USGS and DMA/603 mission “Apollo” on visible side of the Moon didn’t bring in appreciable results. Only KSC - 1162 realizes dynamic coordinate system and covers zone from - 70 to +70 degrees by latitude. The reference selenodetic net KSC - 1162 was made in the dynamic coordinate system. Analysis KSC - 1162 catalogue shows it corresponds to an essential requirements. It has enough reference points to cove r main areas of the lunar visible side. Reference points accuracy for plan coordinates is ± 40 meters and it is ± 80 in height. The purposes of investigation are increasing concentration accuracy and expansion of selenodetic control system based on optimal coordinate transformations. At present the best method of the expansion selenodetic reference net wide lunar area is the use of coordinate’s transformation matrix. Constituents of matrix and displacement vectors can be obtained by transform available general points in KSC - 1162 and transformable in its system catalogues. As a result was obtained summary reference net by expansion KSC - 1162 selenodetic system using 12 cosmic and ground selenodesic catalogues. In the future we plan to bind to the KSC - 1162 catalogue reference coordinate system data

  2. Integration of NASA/GSFC and USGS Rock Magnetic Databases.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarova, K. A.; Glen, J. M.

    2004-05-01

    A global Magnetic Petrology Database (MPDB) was developed and continues to be updated at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. The purpose of this database is to provide the geomagnetic community with a comprehensive and user-friendly method of accessing magnetic petrology data via the Internet for a more realistic interpretation of satellite (as well as aeromagnetic and ground) lithospheric magnetic anomalies. The MPDB contains data on rocks from localities around the world (about 19,000 samples) including the Ukranian and Baltic Shields, Kamchatka, Iceland, Urals Mountains, etc. The MPDB is designed, managed and presented on the web as a research oriented database. Several database applications have been specifically developed for data manipulation and analysis of the MPDB. The geophysics unit at the USGS in Menlo Park has over 17,000 rock-property data, largely from sites within the western U.S. This database contains rock-density and rock-magnetic parameters collected for use in gravity and magnetic field modeling, and paleomagnetic studies. Most of these data were taken from surface outcrops and together they span a broad range of rock types. Measurements were made either in-situ at the outcrop, or in the laboratory on hand samples and paleomagnetic cores acquired in the field. The USGS and NASA/GSFC data will be integrated as part of an effort to provide public access to a single, uniformly maintained database. Due to the large number of data and the very large area sampled, the database can yield rock-property statistics on a broad range of rock types; it is thus applicable to study areas beyond the geographic scope of the database. The intent of this effort is to provide incentive for others to further contribute to the database, and a tool with which the geophysical community can entertain studies formerly precluded.

  3. Pinhole Glasses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colicchia, Giuseppe; Hopf, Martin; Wiesner, Hartmut; Zollman, Dean

    2008-01-01

    Eye aberrations are commonly corrected by lenses that restore vision by altering rays before they pass through the cornea. Some modern promoters claim that pinhole glasses are better than conventional lenses in correcting all kinds of refractive defects such as myopia (nearsighted), hyperopia (farsighted), astigmatisms, and presbyopia. Do pinhole…

  4. Myths of Isotopic Reference Materials Busted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coplen, T.

    2007-12-01

    During the past several years, the determination of the isotopic abundances of elements including H, Li, B, C, N, O, Mg, Si, S, Cl, Ca, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Tl, and Se has substantially increased because of expanded use in hydrology, environmental studies, microbiology, forensic investigations, atmospheric investigations, oceanography, etc. Improvements in instrumentation enable increasingly precise isotope-amount-ratio measurements in these fields, but these improvements in precision commonly do not lead to improvements in accuracy because of the lack or improper use of isotopic reference materials. When properly used, these critically important materials enable any laboratory worldwide to measure the same homogeneous sample and report the same isotopic abundance within analytical uncertainty. For example, for stable isotopic analysis of gaseous hydrogen samples, the agreement among 36 laboratories worldwide before normalization to any hydrogen gas reference material was 11.8 per mill. After normalization to anchors (gaseous H isotopic reference materials) at each end of the delta H-2 scale, the agreement was 0.85 per mill, an improvement of more than an order of magnitude. Consistency of delta C-13 measurements often can be improved by nearly 50 percent by anchoring the delta C-13 scale with two isotopic reference materials differing substantially in C-13 mole fraction, namely NBS 19 calcite and L-SVEC lithium carbonate. Agreement of delta C-13 values of four expert laboratories analyzing USGS40 L- glutamic acid by CF-IRMS methods improved from 0.084 to 0.015 per mill with use of the two scale anchors (NBS 19 and L-SVEC). Solid oxygen isotopic reference materials (IAEA-600 caffeine, IAEA-601 and IAEA-602 benzoic acids, IAEA-NO-3, USGS32, USGS34, and USGS35 nitrates, NBS-127, IAEA-SO-5, and IAEA-SO-6 barium sulfates) are poorly calibrated. Calibrating these solids to the VSMOW-SLAP reference water scale has been very difficult because both the solids and reference

  5. Thermodynamic model of natural, medieval and nuclear waste glass durability

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Plodinec, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    A thermodynamic model of glass durability based on hydration of structural units has been applied to natural glass, medieval window glasses, and glasses containing nuclear waste. The relative durability predicted from the calculated thermodynamics correlates directly with the experimentally observed release of structural silicon in the leaching solution in short-term laboratory tests. By choosing natural glasses and ancient glasses whose long-term performance is known, and which bracket the durability of waste glasses, the long-term stability of nuclear waste glasses can be interpolated among these materials. The current Savannah River defense waste glass formulation is as durable as natural basalt from the Hanford Reservation (10/sup 6/ years old). The thermodynamic hydration energy is shown to be related to the bond energetics of the glass. 69 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of Five New F-bearing Basalt Reference Materials (Fba Glasses): Quantifying the Fluorine Content of the Basaltic Glass Standards BCR-2G, BHVO-2G. GSA-1G, GSC-1G, GSD-1G, GSE-1G, ML3B-G, KL2-G, and ALV-519-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guggino, S. N.; Hervig, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    Fluorine is a volatile constituent of magmas and hydrous minerals, and trace amounts have been detected in nominally anhydrous minerals such as olivine and pyroxene. Microanalytical techniques are routinely used to measure trace to minor F with high spatial resolution in glasses and crystals. However, F contents of low-silica, basaltic glass standards routinely used in microanalytical laboratories are not well known. In this study, we synthesized five basalt glasses doped with variable amounts of fluorine (Fba glasses) to serve as new glass standards for the analysis of F in low-silica, iron-rich geological materials, and we used the new Fba glasses to determine the F content of nine commonly used microanalytical glass standards of basaltic composition. A natural tholeiite from the East Pacific Rise was mixed with variable amounts of CaF2 to create five glasses with the following F content (wt.% ± 1σ): Fba-1 (0.13 ± 0.05); Fba-2 (0.53 ± 0.11); Fba-3 (0.87 ± 0.10); Fba-4 (1.41 ± 0.11); Fba-5 (2.24 ± 0.12). The mixtures were heated in a 1 atm furnace to 1470 °C at fO2 = NNO for 30 minutes and quenched in water. Portions of the run products were studied by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). EPMA used Biotite-3 (Bt-3: 3.3 wt.% F) and synthetic fluorphlogopite (F-phlog: 9.02 wt.% F) as F calibration standards. Wavelength scans of the F Kα line on Bt-3 and F-phlog showed asymmetric peaks, necessitating the use of peak-integration analysis of the Kα signal. EPMA was conducted on a Cameca SX100 with a 15 μm diameter defocused electron beam, 15 kV accelerating voltage, 20 nA primary current, TAP crystal for detecting F Kα X-rays, and five iterations in peak-integration mode. Results showed < 6% difference in the F content of the Fba glasses between the Bt-3 and F-phlog standards, implying the peak-integration method is standard-independent. SIMS analysis was conducted on a Cameca ims 6f with a primary beam of 16O

  7. USGS Capabilities to Study the Impacts of Drought and Climate Change in the Southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2009-01-01

    In the Southeast, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists are researching issues through technical studies of water availability and quality, geologic processes (marine, coastal, and terrestrial), geographic complexity, and biological resources. The USGS is prepared to tackle multifaceted questions associated with global climate change and resulting weather patterns such as drought through expert scientific skill, innovative research approaches, and accurate information technology.

  8. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Western Region; Santa Barbara Channel Coastal and Ocean Science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Samuel Y.

    2009-01-01

    USGS coastal and ocean science in the Western United States and the Pacific integrates scientific expertise in geology, water resources, biology, and geography. Operating from 10 major science centers in the Western Region, the USGS is addressing a broad geographic and thematic range of important coastal and marine issues. In California, the Santa Barbara Channel represents one area of focus.

  9. Archive report for most USGS seismic refraction investigations conducted between 1978 and 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, Janice M.

    2000-01-01

    In 1978, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began acquiring seismic refraction data throughout the U.S. and Saudi Arabia. Numerous professional papers have been published in the literature and the technical details and goals for most of these surveys have been described in USGS Open-file reports (Table 1). This report describes the archiving of the data.

  10. 75 FR 3753 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the USGS Mine, Development, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    .... Request for Comments On May 27, 2009, we published a Federal Register notice (74 FR 25273) announcing that..., Development, and Mineral Exploration Supplement AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Interior. ACTION... paperwork requirements for the USGS Mine, Development, and Mineral Exploration Supplement. This...

  11. Data and spatial studies of the USGS Texas Water Science Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burley, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrologists, geographers, geophysicists, and geologists with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Texas Water Science Center (TXWSC) work in the USGS Water Mission Area on a diverse range of projects built on a foundation of spatial data. The TXWSC has developed sophisticated data and spatial-studies-related capabilities that are an integral part of the projects undertaken by the Center.

  12. The USGS 3D Seismic Velocity Model for Northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocher, T. M.; Aagaard, B.; Simpson, R. W.; Jachens, R. C.

    2006-12-01

    We present a new regional 3D seismic velocity model for Northern California for use in strong motion simulations of the 1906 San Francisco and other earthquakes. The model includes compressional-wave velocity (Vp), shear-wave velocity (Vs), density, and intrinsic attenuation (Qp, Qs). These properties were assigned for each rock type in a 3D geologic model derived from surface outcrops, boreholes, gravity and magnetic data, and seismic reflection, refraction, and tomography studies. A detailed description of the model, USGS Bay Area Velocity Model 05.1.0, is available online [http://www.sf06simulation.org/geology/velocitymodel]. For ground motion simulations Vs and Qs are more important parameters than Vp and Qp because the strongest ground motions are generated chiefly by shear and surface wave arrivals. Because Vp data are more common than Vs data, however, we first developed Vp versus depth relations for each rock type and then converted these to Vs versus depth relations. For the most important rock types in Northern California we compiled measurements of Vp versus depth using borehole logs, laboratory measurements on hand samples, seismic refraction profiles, and tomography models. These rock types include Salinian and Sierran granitic rocks, metagraywackes and greenstones of the Franciscan Complex, Tertiary and Mesozoic sedimentary and volcanic rocks, and Quaternary and Holocene deposits (Brocher, USGS OFR 05-1317, 2005). Vp versus depth curves were converted to Vs versus depth curves using new empirical nonlinear relations between Vs and Vp (Brocher, BSSA, 2005). These relations, showing that Poisson's ratio is a nonlinear function of Vp, were similarly based on compilations of diverse Vs and Vp measurements on a large suite of rock types, mainly from California and the Pacific Northwest. The model is distributed in a discretized form with routines to query the model using C++, C, and Fortran 77 programming languages. The geologic model was discretized at

  13. Progress in heavy metal fluoride glasses for infrared fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drexhage, M. G.; El-Bayoumi, O. H.; Moynihan, C. T.

    1982-12-01

    The optical and physical characteristics of heavy metal fluoride glasses are reviewed with reference to recent laboratory experiments. In particular, attention is given to comparative optical studies of fluorozirconate and fluorohafnate glasses, refractive index and material dispersion of fluoride glasses, and preliminary results of optical studies of heavy metal fluoride glasses not containing ZrF4 or HfF4. The latter sometimes exhibit extended transparency in the mid-IR relative to that observed in fluorozirconate and fluorohafnate glasses. The effect of the AlF4 content on the optical properties of BaF2/ThF4 glasses is discussed.

  14. Status report: USGS coal assessment of the Powder River, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luppens, James A.; Rohrbacher, Timothy J.; Haacke, Jon E.; Scott, David C.; Osmonson, Lee M.

    2006-01-01

    Summary: This publication reports on the status of the current coal assessment of the Powder River Basin (PRB) in Wyoming and Montana. This slide program was presented at the Energy Information Agency's 2006 EIA Energy Outlook and Modeling Conference in Washington, DC, on March 27, 2006. The PRB coal assessment will be the first USGS coal assessment to include estimates of both regional coal resources and reserves for an entire coal basin. Extensive CBM and additional oil and gas development, especially in the Gillette coal field, have provided an unprecedented amount of down-hole geological data. Approximately 10,000 new data points have been added to the PRB database since the last assessment (2002) which will provide a more robust evaluation of the single most productive U.S. coal basin. The Gillette coal field assessment, including the mining economic evaluation, is planned for completion by the end of 2006. The geologic portion of the coal assessment work will shift to the northern and northwestern portions of the PRB before the end of 2006 while the Gillette engineering studies are finalized.

  15. Reference Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bivens-Tatum, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    This article presents interesting articles that explore several different areas of reference assessment, including practical case studies and theoretical articles that address a range of issues such as librarian behavior, patron satisfaction, virtual reference, or evaluation design. They include: (1) "Evaluating the Quality of a Chat Service"…

  16. Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunge, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses library reference services. Topics include the historical development of reference services; instruction in library use, particularly in college and university libraries; guidance; information and referral services and how they differ from traditional question-answering service; and future concerns, including user fees and the planning…

  17. Archive of Digital boomer subbottom data collected during USGS cruises 99FGS01 and 99FGS02 offshore southeast and southwest Florida, July and November, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forde, Arnell S.; Dadisman, Shawn V.; Wiese, Dana S.; Phelps, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    In July (19 - 26) and November (17 - 18) of 1999, the USGS, in cooperation with the Florida Geological Survey (FGS), conducted two geophysical surveys in: (1) the Atlantic Ocean offshore of Florida's east coast from Orchid to Jupiter, FL, and (2) the Gulf of Mexico offshore of Venice, FL. This report serves as an archive of unprocessed digital boomer subbottom data, trackline maps, navigation files, GIS files, Field Activity Collection System (FACS) logs, and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata. Filtered and gained (showing a relative increase in signal amplitude) digital images of the subbottom profiles are also provided. The USGS St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center (SPCMSC) assigns a unique identifier to each cruise or field activity. For example, identifiers 99FGS01 and 99FGS02 refer to field data collected in 1999 for cooperative work with the FGS. The numbers 01 and 02 indicate the data were collected during the first and second field activities for that project in that calendar year. Refer to http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/infobank/programs/html/definition/activity.html for a detailed description of the method used to assign the field activity identification (ID).

  18. Reference frames and reference networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosy, Jaroslaw; Krynski, Jan

    2015-12-01

    The summary of research activities concerning reference frames and reference networks performed in Poland in a period of 2011-2014 is presented. It contains the results of research on implementation of IUGG2011 and IAU2012 resolutions on reference systems, implementation of the ETRS89 in Poland, operational work of permanent IGS/ EUREF stations in Poland, operational work of ILRS laser ranging station in Poland, active GNSS station networks in Poland, maintenance of vertical control in Poland, maintenance and modernization of gravity control, and maintenance of magnetic control in Poland. The bibliography of the related works is given in references.

  19. Prediction of glass durability as a function of glass composition and test conditions: Thermodynamics and kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C M

    1988-01-01

    The long-term durability of nuclear waste glasses can be predicted by comparing their performance to natural and ancient glasses. Glass durability is a function of the kinetic and thermodynamic stability of glass in solution. The relationship between the kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of glass durability can be understood when the relative contributions of glass composition and imposed test conditions are delineated. Glass durability has been shown to be a function of the thermodynamic hydration free energy which can be calculated from the glass composition. Hydration thermodynamics also furnishes a quantitative frame of reference to understand how various test parameters affect glass durability. Linear relationships have been determined between the logarithmic extent of hydration and the calculated hydration free energy for several different test geometries. Different test conditions result in different kinetic reactivity parameters such as the exposed glass surface area (SA), the leachant solution volume (V), and the length of time that the glass is in the leachant (t). Leachate concentrations are known to be a function of the kinetic test parameter (SAV)t. The relative durabilities of glasses, including pure silica, obsidians, nuclear waste glasses, medieval window glasses, and frit glasses define a plane in three dimensional ..delta..G/sub hyd/-concentration-(SAV)t space. At constant kinetic conditions, e.g., test geometry and test duration, the three dimensional plane is intersected at constant (SAV)t and the ..delta..G/sub hyd/-concentration plots have similar slopes. The slope represents the natural logarithm of the theoretical slope, (12.303 RT), for the rate of glass dissolution. 53 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Archive of Digital Chirp Sub-bottom Profile Data Collected During USGS Cruises 08CCT02 and 08CCT03, Mississippi Gulf Islands, July and September 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barry, K.M.; Cavers, D.A.; Kneale, C.W.

    2011-01-01

    In July and September of 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical surveys to investigate the geologic controls on island framework from Ship Island to Horn Island, MS, for the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) Ecosystem Change and Hazard Susceptibility project. This project is also part of a broader USGS study on Coastal Change and Transport (CCT). This report serves as an archive of unprocessed digital Chirp sub-bottom profile data, trackline maps, navigation files, Geographic Information System (GIS) files, Field Activity Collection System (FACS) logs, observer's logbook, and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata. Gained (a relative increase in signal amplitude) digital images of the sub-bottom profiles are also provided. Refer to the Acronyms page for expansion of acronyms and abbreviations used in this report.

  1. Effects of ionization on silicate glasses. [Silicate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Primak, W.

    1982-02-01

    This evaluation of radiation effects in silicate glasses caused by ionization is based on our own investigations, on material collected in our files (reports, articles, and notes), and on a computer literature search through recent issues of Physics Abstracts and Chemical Abstracts (and the apparently pertinent references which appeared). Some of our recent results, available heretofore only in internal correspondence, are presented in some detail. It is concluded that research into the behavior of silicate glasses generally will be required before the specific effects in the radioactive waste storage glasses can be properly understood and evaluated. Two particular neglected areas of investigation are targeted for immediate concern: a kinetic analysis of annealing data and the acquisition of data on effects of irradiation at controlled elevated temperatures.

  2. IRIS/USGS Plans for Upgrading the Global Seismograph Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Jon; Hutt, Charles R.

    1989-01-01

    PREFACE This report has been prepared to provide information to organizations that may be asked to participate in a program to upgrade the global seismographic network. In most cases, the organizations that will be offered new instrumentation by the U.S. Geological Survey currently operate stations in the World-Wide Standardized Seismograph Network (WWSSN) or the Global Digital Seismograph Network (GDSN). The deployment of the WWSSN in the 1960's and the subsequent equipping of some WWSSN stations with digital equipment and borehole seismometers during the 1970's has been a remarkably successful program that generated the high- quality data needed to fuel an unprecedented period of progress in earthquake and tectonic research. The success of the WWSSN can be attributed to the importance of the data, to the strong commitment by participating organizations to international scientific cooperation, to the dedication and skill of the station operators, and to the resourcefulness of the staff supporting the network. Benefits have been widespread. The community of scientists world-wide has benefited from unrestricted access to a standardized base of calibrated data, and the participating stations have benefited from the donation of modern observatory instruments that have been useful for local earthquake studies and for the training of scientists and engineers. Now, an exciting opportunity has arisen to deploy a new generation of seismograph systems to replace the outdated equipment at many of the WWSSN and GDSN stations. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is cooperating with the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) in a program to upgrade the global seismograph network. The equipment development phase is nearly complete with a prototype of the new broadband seismograph system currently undergoing final testing at the USGS Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory. Deployment of the new equipment is expected to begin in early 1990. As this report will

  3. Modernization of the Caltech/USGS Southern California Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhadha, R.; Devora, A.; Hauksson, E.; Johnson, D.; Thomas, V.; Watkins, M.; Yip, R.; Yu, E.; Given, D.; Cone, G.; Koesterer, C.

    2009-12-01

    The USGS/ANSS/ARRA program is providing Government Furnished Equipment (GFE), and two year funding for upgrading the Caltech/USGS Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN). The SCSN is the modern digital ground motion seismic network in southern California that monitors seismicity and provides real-time earthquake information products such as rapid notifications, moment tensors, and ShakeMap. The SCSN has evolved through the years and now consists of several well-integrated components such as Short-Period analog, TERRAscope, digital stations, and real-time strong motion stations, or about 300 stations. In addition, the SCSN records data from about 100 stations provided by partner networks. To strengthen the ability of SCSN to meet the ANSS performance standards, we will install GFE and carry out the following upgrades and improvements of the various components of the SCSN: 1) Upgrade of dataloggers at seven TERRAscope stations; 2) Upgrade of dataloggers at 131 digital stations and upgrade broadband sensors at 25 stations; 3) Upgrade of SCSN metadata capabilities; 4) Upgrade of telemetry capabilities for both seismic and GPS data; and 5) Upgrade balers at stations with existing Q330 dataloggers. These upgrades will enable the SCSN to meet the ANSS Performance Standards more consistently than before. The new equipment will improve station uptimes and reduce maintenance costs. The new equipment will also provide improved waveform data quality and consequently superior data products. The data gaps due to various outages will be minimized, and ‘late’ data will be readily available through retrieval from on-site storage. Compared to the outdated equipment, the new equipment will speed up data delivery by about 10 sec, which is fast enough for earthquake early warning applications. The new equipment also has about a factor of ten lower consumption of power. We will also upgrade the SCSN data acquisition and data center facilities, which will improve the SCSN

  4. Ready Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koltay, Emery

    1999-01-01

    Includes the following ready reference information: "Publishers' Toll-Free Telephone Numbers"; "How to Obtain an ISBN (International Standard Book Number)"; "How to Obtain an ISSN (International Standard Serial Number)"; and "How to Obtain an SAN (Standard Address Number)". (AEF)

  5. 2015 USGS Seismic Hazard Model for Induced Seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, M. D.; Mueller, C. S.; Moschetti, M. P.; Hoover, S. M.; Ellsworth, W. L.; Llenos, A. L.; Michael, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past several years, the seismicity rate has increased markedly in multiple areas of the central U.S. Studies have tied the majority of this increased activity to wastewater injection in deep wells and hydrocarbon production. These earthquakes are induced by human activities that change rapidly based on economic and policy decisions, making them difficult to forecast. Our 2014 USGS National Seismic Hazard Model and previous models are intended to provide the long-term hazard (2% probability of exceedance in 50 years) and are based on seismicity rates and patterns observed mostly from tectonic earthquakes. However, potentially induced earthquakes were identified in 14 regions that were not included in the earthquake catalog used for constructing the 2014 model. We recognized the importance of considering these induced earthquakes in a separate hazard analysis, and as a result in April 2015 we released preliminary models that explored the impact of this induced seismicity on the hazard. Several factors are important in determining the hazard from induced seismicity: period of the catalog that optimally forecasts the next year's activity, earthquake magnitude-rate distribution, earthquake location statistics, maximum magnitude, ground motion models, and industrial drivers such as injection rates. The industrial drivers are not currently available in a form that we can implement in a 1-year model. Hazard model inputs have been evaluated by a broad group of scientists and engineers to assess the range of acceptable models. Results indicate that next year's hazard is significantly higher by more than a factor of three in Oklahoma, Texas, and Colorado compared to the long-term 2014 hazard model. These results have raised concern about the impacts of induced earthquakes on the built environment and have led to many engineering and policy discussions about how to mitigate these effects for the more than 7 million people that live near areas of induced seismicity.

  6. USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Survey Data in Google Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, C.; Steele, C.; Ma, A.; Chin, J.

    2006-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology (CMG) program has a rich data catalog of geologic field activities and metadata called InfoBank, which has been a standard tool for researchers within and outside of the agency. Along with traditional web maps, the data are now accessible in Google Earth, which greatly expands the possible user audience. The Google Earth interface provides geographic orientation and panning/zooming capabilities to locate data relative to topography, bathymetry, and coastal areas. Viewing navigation with Google Earth's background imagery allows queries such as, why areas were not surveyed (answer presence of islands, shorelines, cliffs, etc.). Detailed box core subsample photos from selected sampling activities, published geotechnical data, and sample descriptions are now viewable on Google Earth, (for example, M-1-95-MB, P-2-95-MB, and P-1-97- MB box core samples). One example of the use of Google Earth is CMG's surveys of San Francisco's Ocean Beach since 2004. The surveys are conducted with an all-terrain vehicle (ATV) and shallow-water personal watercraft (PWC) equipped with Global Positioning System (GPS), and elevation and echo sounder data collectors. 3D topographic models with centimeter accuracy have been produced from these surveys to monitor beach and nearshore processes, including sand transport, sedimentation patterns, and seasonal trends. Using Google Earth, multiple track line data (examples: OB-1-05-CA and OB-2-05-CA) can be overlaid on beach imagery. The images also help explain the shape of track lines as objects are encountered.

  7. Identification of spectrally similar materials using the USGS Tetracorder algorithm: The calcite-epidote-chlorite problem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalton, J.B.; Bove, D.J.; Mladinich, C.S.; Rockwell, B.W.

    2004-01-01

    A scheme to discriminate and identify materials having overlapping spectral absorption features has been developed and tested based on the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Tetracorder system. The scheme has been applied to remotely sensed imaging spectroscopy data acquired by the Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) instrument. This approach was used to identify the minerals calcite, epidote, and chlorite in the upper Animas River watershed, Colorado. The study was motivated by the need to characterize the distribution of calcite in the watershed and assess its acid-neutralizing potential with regard to acidic mine drainage. Identification of these three minerals is difficult because their diagnostic spectral features are all centered at 2.3 ??m, and have similar shapes and widths. Previous studies overestimated calcite abundance as a result of these spectral overlaps. The use of a reference library containing synthetic mixtures of the three minerals in varying proportions was found to simplify the task of identifying these minerals when used in conjunction with a rule-based expert system. Some inaccuracies in the mineral distribution maps remain, however, due to the influence of a fourth spectral component, sericite, which exhibits spectral absorption features at 2.2 and 2.4 ??m that overlap the 2.3-??m absorption features of the other three minerals. Whereas the endmember minerals calcite, epidote, chlorite, and sericite can be identified by the method presented here, discrepancies occur in areas where all four occur together as intimate mixtures. It is expected that future work will be able to reduce these discrepancies by including reference mixtures containing sericite. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Strength of inorganic glass

    SciTech Connect

    Kurkjian, C.R.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: a look at the history of glass strength; atomistic theory of fracture; surface chemistry in relation to the strength and fracture of silicate glasses; high-speed photographic investigations of the dynamic localized loading of some oxide glasses; a correction for measurements of contact area using Newton's rings; envionmentally enhanced crack growth; fatigue in glass; behavior of flaws in fused silica fibers; fracture toughness of chalcogenide glasses and glass-ceramics; fracture analysis of glass surfaces; and fracture mechanics parameters for glasses - a compilation and correlation.

  9. CRYSTALLIZATION IN MULTICOMPONENT GLASSES

    SciTech Connect

    KRUGER AA; HRMA PR

    2009-10-08

    In glass processing situations involving glass crystallization, various crystalline forms nucleate, grow, and dissolve, typically in a nonuniform temperature field of molten glass subjected to convection. Nuclear waste glasses are remarkable examples of multicomponent vitrified mixtures involving partial crystallization. In the glass melter, crystals form and dissolve during batch-to-glass conversion, melter processing, and product cooling. Crystals often agglomerate and sink, and they may settle at the melter bottom. Within the body of cooling glass, multiple phases crystallize in a non-uniform time-dependent temperature field. Self-organizing periodic distribution (the Liesegnang effect) is common. Various crystallization phenomena that occur in glass making are reviewed.

  10. IMPACT STRENGTH OF GLASS AND GLASS CERAMIC

    SciTech Connect

    Bless, S.; Tolman, J.

    2009-12-28

    Strength of glass and glass ceramic was measured with a bar impact technique. High-speed movies show regions of tensile and compressive failure. The borosilicate glass had a compressive strength of at least 2.2 GPa, and the glass ceramic at least 4 GPa. However, the BSG was much stronger in tension than GC. In ballistic tests, the BSG was the superior armor.

  11. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Western Region: Alaska Coastal and Ocean Science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland-Bartels, Leslie

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), a bureau of the Department of the Interior (DOI), is the Nation's largest water, earth, and biological science and mapping agency. The bureau's science strategy 'Facing Tomorrow's Challenges - U.S. Geological Survey Science in the Decade 2007-2017' describes the USGS vision for its science in six integrated areas of societal concern: Understanding Ecosystems and Predicting Ecosystem Change; Climate Variability and Change; Energy and Minerals; Hazards, Risk, and Resilience; Environment and Wildlife in Human Health; and Water Census of the United States. USGS has three Regions that encompass nine geographic Areas. This fact sheet describes examples of USGS science conducted in coastal, nearshore terrestrial, and ocean environments in the Alaska Area.

  12. Systems approach to nuclear waste glass development

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C M

    1986-01-01

    Development of a host solid for the immobilization of nuclear waste has focused on various vitreous wasteforms. The systems approach requires that parameters affecting product performance and processing be considered simultaneously. Application of the systems approach indicates that borosilicate glasses are, overall, the most suitable glasses for the immobilization of nuclear waste. Phosphate glasses are highly durable; but the glass melts are highly corrosive and the glasses have poor thermal stability and low solubility for many waste components. High-silica glasses have good chemical durability, thermal stability, and mechanical stability, but the associated high melting temperatures increase volatilization of hazardous species in the waste. Borosilicate glasses are chemically durable and are stable both thermally and mechanically. The borosilicate melts are generally less corrosive than commercial glasses, and the melt temperature miimizes excessive volatility of hazardous species. Optimization of borosilicate waste glass formulations has led to their acceptance as the reference nuclear wasteform in the United States, United Kingdom, Belgium, Germany, France, Sweden, Switzerland, and Japan.

  13. OpenSHA and the USGS National Seismic Hazard Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, P.

    2011-12-01

    The USGS is currently preparing for the next release of the National Seismic Hazard Maps (NSHM), due out in 2014. With each 6-year release cycle, the logic trees behind the maps that balance the best available science and expert opinion have become increasingly complex. This complexity is reflected in the source code used to generate the maps. I am therefore investigating the viability of OpenSHA as an alternate platform for generating the national maps. OpenSHA is an open-source, Java-based platform for performing seismic hazard analysis (http://www.opensha.org). It is under active development and has a broad user base that spans both academia and industry. The Global Earthquake Model (GEM) has adopted OpenSHA as the hazard engine of choice, and the 2014 NSHM will be developed in parallel using OpenSHA and updated versions of the 2008 Fortran codes. To demonstrate the viability of OpenSHA and verify the national maps in the process, I generate versions of the 2008 NSHM (at return periods of 2% and 10% in 50 years and for several common spectral periods: PGA, 0.2 sec, 1.0 sec, and 3.0 sec). In the worst cases, the OpenSHA maps agree to within 5% of the values determined using the 2008 Fortran codes; generally the discrepancy is much lower. There are two primary contributors to the observed discrepancies. The first arises from how each codebase handles fault geometry: given a fault source and an associated magnitude frequency distribution, there is no established best practice for representing floating events on a fault surface. The second arises from optimizations in the Fortran code. Whereas OpenSHA is currently not optimized, the Fortran codes make use of numerous precalculated lookup arrays for ground motions, distance approximations, hanging-wall effects and the like. While speeding up the code significantly, the mean hazard at a point can be slightly different than it would be in the absence of such approximations. Regardless of what platform is used in the

  14. USGS GNSS Applications to Earthquake Disaster Response and Hazard Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudnut, K. W.; Murray, J. R.; Minson, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    standardization and adaptation to the existing framework of the ShakeAlert earthquake early warning system have been met, such that real-time GNSS processing and input to ShakeAlert is now routine and in use. Ongoing adaptation and testing of algorithms remain the last step towards fully operational incorporation of GNSS into ShakeAlert by USGS and its partners.

  15. USGS TOXIC SUBSTANCES FROM COAL COMBUSTION -- FORMS OF OCCURRENCE ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Allan Kolker; Stanley J. Mroczkowski; Curtis A. Palmer; Robert B. Finkelman

    1999-10-01

    Leaching procedures have been completed for the three Phase 2 coals. Chemical analyses have been returned for the whole coals, allowing leaching results to be determined as data on the leachates and solid residues become available. Problems with the nitric acid leaching step twice necessitated repeating the entire procedure for the Ohio and North Dakota samples. Similarly, leaching of the Wyodak sample was repeated once. Analytical results have been returned for all but the last complete round of leaching, which was conducted after modification of the procedure for the nitric acid step. Re-leaching of solid residues prepared under the old procedure confirms that pyrite recovery using the new method is complete. Development of an improved analytical method for Hg continues, but emphasis has shifted from the atomic fluorescence method to an automated direct analysis method that offers similar or better sensitivity. The cold vapor atomic absorption (CVAA) method has been used in the interim for whole coals. During the reporting period Dr. Kolker traveled to Stanford University to evaluate the Stanford/USGS SHRIMP-RG ion microprobe for project purposes and generate trace-element results for illite/smectite in project coals. Initial SHRIMP results for Cr in these samples confirm the Phase 1 conclusion that its concentration in clays is just below the detection limit ({approximately} 100--200 ppm) for electron microprobe analysis. The SHRIMP-RG offers promise for other project priorities, including determination of Hg in sulfides and of As in fly-ash. Use of the SEM and electron microprobe continued during the last half-year, and has been especially useful in support of the ion probe effort. Among other procedures conducted, low temperature ashing has been completed and XRD determinations are underway. Splits of leached residues have been taken for XAFS analysis. The authors expect the first of these to be determined shortly by their Univ. of Kentucky colleagues. These

  16. USGS Zebra Mussel Monitoring Program for north Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Churchill, Christopher J.; Baldys, Stanley

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Zebra Mussel Monitoring Program for north Texas provides early detection and monitoring of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) by using a holistic suite of detection methods. The program is designed to assess zebra mussel occurrence, distribution, and densities in north Texas waters by using four approaches: (1) SCUBA diving, (2) water-sample collection with plankton tow nets (followed by laboratory analyses), (3) artificial substrates, and (4) water-quality sampling. Data collected during this type of monitoring can assist rapid response efforts and can be used to quantify the economic and ecological effects of zebra mussels in the north Texas area. Monitoring under this program began in April 2010. The presence of large zebra mussel populations often causes undesirable economic and ecological effects, including damage to water-processing infrastructure and hydroelectric powerplants (with an estimated 10-year cost of $3.1 billion), displacement of native mussels, increases in concentrations of certain species of cyanobacteria, and increases in concentrations of geosmin (an organic compound that results in taste and odor issues in water). Since no large-scale, environmentally safe eradication method has been developed for zebra mussels, it is difficult to remove established populations. Broad physicochemical adaptability, prolific reproductive capacity, and rapid dispersal methods have enabled zebra mussels, within a period of about 20 years, to establish populations under differing environmental conditions across much of the eastern part of the United States. In Texas, the presence of zebra mussels was first confirmed in April 2009 in Lake Texoma in the Red River Basin along the Texas-Oklahoma border. They were most likely introduced into Lake Texoma through overland transport from an infested water body. Since then, the presence of zebra mussels has been reported in both the Red River and Washita River arms of Lake Texoma, in

  17. USGS-NPS Servicewide Benthic Mapping Program (SBMP) workshop report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moses, Christopher S.; Nayagandhi, Amar; Brock, John; Beavers, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) Inventory and Monitoring (I&M) Program recently allocated funds to initiate a benthic mapping program in ocean and Great Lakes parks in alignment with the NPS Ocean Park Stewardship 2007-2008 Action Plan. Seventy-four (ocean and Great Lakes) parks, spanning more than 5,000 miles of coastline, many affected by increasing coastal storms and other natural and anthropogenic processes, make the development of a Servicewide Benthic Mapping Program (SBMP) timely. The resulting maps and associated reports will be provided to NPS managers in a consistent servicewide format to help park managers protect and manage the 3 million acres of submerged National Park System natural and cultural resources. Of the 74 ocean and Great Lakes park units, the 40 parks with submerged acreage will be the focus in the early years of the SBMP. The NPS and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) convened a workshop (June 3-5, 2008) in Lakewood, CO. The assembly of experts from the NPS and other Federal and non-Federal agencies clarified the needs and goals of the NPS SBMP and was one of the key first steps in designing the benthic mapping program. The central needs for individual parks, park networks, and regions identified by workshop participants were maps including bathymetry, bottom type, geology, and biology. This workshop, although not an exhaustive survey of data-acquisition technologies, highlighted the more promising technologies being used, existing sources of data, and the need for partnerships to leverage resources. Workshop products include recommended classification schemes and management approaches for consistent application and products similar to other long-term NPS benthic mapping efforts. As part of the SBMP, recommendations from this workshop, including application of an improved version of the Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS), will be tested in several pilot parks. In 2008, in conjunction with the findings of this workshop

  18. Quantifying and Qualifying USGS ShakeMap Uncertainty

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wald, David J.; Lin, Kuo-Wan; Quitoriano, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    We describe algorithms for quantifying and qualifying uncertainties associated with USGS ShakeMap ground motions. The uncertainty values computed consist of latitude/longitude grid-based multiplicative factors that scale the standard deviation associated with the ground motion prediction equation (GMPE) used within the ShakeMap algorithm for estimating ground motions. The resulting grid-based 'uncertainty map' is essential for evaluation of losses derived using ShakeMaps as the hazard input. For ShakeMap, ground motion uncertainty at any point is dominated by two main factors: (i) the influence of any proximal ground motion observations, and (ii) the uncertainty of estimating ground motions from the GMPE, most notably, elevated uncertainty due to initial, unconstrained source rupture geometry. The uncertainty is highest for larger magnitude earthquakes when source finiteness is not yet constrained and, hence, the distance to rupture is also uncertain. In addition to a spatially-dependant, quantitative assessment, many users may prefer a simple, qualitative grading for the entire ShakeMap. We developed a grading scale that allows one to quickly gauge the appropriate level of confidence when using rapidly produced ShakeMaps as part of the post-earthquake decision-making process or for qualitative assessments of archived or historical earthquake ShakeMaps. We describe an uncertainty letter grading ('A' through 'F', for high to poor quality, respectively) based on the uncertainty map. A middle-range ('C') grade corresponds to a ShakeMap for a moderate-magnitude earthquake suitably represented with a point-source location. Lower grades 'D' and 'F' are assigned for larger events (M>6) where finite-source dimensions are not yet constrained. The addition of ground motion observations (or observed macroseismic intensities) reduces uncertainties over data-constrained portions of the map. Higher grades ('A' and 'B') correspond to ShakeMaps with constrained fault dimensions

  19. Digital Object Identifiers (DOI's) usage and adoption in U.S Geological Survey (USGS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frame, M. T.; Palanisamy, G.

    2013-12-01

    Addressing grand environmental science challenges requires unprecedented access to easily understood data that cross the breadth of temporal, spatial, and thematic scales. From a scientist's perspective, the big challenges lie in discovering the relevant data, dealing with extreme data heterogeneity, large data volumes, and converting data to information and knowledge. Historical linkages between derived products, i.e. Publications, and associated datasets has not existed in the earth science community. The USGS Core Science Analytics and Synthesis, in collaboration with DOE's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Mercury Consortium (funded by NASA, USGS and DOE), established a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) service for USGS data, metadata, and other media. This service is offered in partnership through the University of California Digital Library EZID service. USGS scientists, data managers, and other professionals can generate globally unique, persistent and resolvable identifiers for any kind of digital objects. Additional efforts to assign DOIs to historical data and publications have also been underway. These DOI identifiers are being used to cite data in journal articles, web-accessible datasets, and other media for distribution, integration, and in support of improved data management practices. The session will discuss the current DOI efforts within USGS, including a discussion on adoption, challenges, and future efforts necessary to improve access, reuse, sharing, and discoverability of USGS data and information.

  20. Compilation of references on geology and hydrology of the Snake River drainage basin above Weiser, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bassick, M.D.

    1986-01-01

    More than 1,100 references concerning geology and hydrology of the Snake River drainage basin above Weiser, Idaho, are compiled as part of the U.S. Geological Survey 's RASA (Regional Aquifer-System Analysis) study of the Snake River Plain. The list of references is intended as a primary source of information for investigators concerned with previous studies in the basin. Reference numbers correlate with a key-word index to help the user select and locate desired references. (USGS)

  1. Poroelastic references

    SciTech Connect

    Morency, Christina

    2014-12-12

    This file contains a list of relevant references on the Biot theory (forward and inverse approaches), the double-porosity and dual-permeability theory, and seismic wave propagation in fracture porous media, in RIS format, to approach seismic monitoring in a complex fractured porous medium such as Brady?s Geothermal Field.

  2. Ready Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koltay, Emery

    2001-01-01

    Includes four articles that relate to ready reference, including a list of publishers' toll-free telephone numbers and Web sites; how to obtain an ISBN (International Standard Book Number) and an ISSN (International Standard Serial Number); and how to obtain an SAN (Standard Address Number), for organizations that are involved in the book…

  3. Chemical Principles Revisited: The Chemistry of Glass.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Doris; Kolb, Kenneth E.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a detailed discussion on the chemistry of glass. Topics discussed include: natural glass, early history, modern glass composition, raw materials for glass melting, chemically modified glasses, modern glass forming, glass ceramics, and new developments in glass research. (BT)

  4. Archive of digital Chirp subbottom profile data collected during USGS cruises 09CCT03 and 09CCT04, Mississippi and Alabama Gulf Islands, June and July 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forde, Arnell S.; Dadisman, Shawn V.; Flocks, James G.; Wiese, Dana S.

    2011-01-01

    In June and July of 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical surveys to investigate the geologic controls on island framework from Cat Island, Mississippi, to Dauphin Island, Alabama, as part of a broader USGS study on Coastal Change and Transport (CCT). The surveys were funded through the Northern Gulf of Mexico Ecosystem Change and Hazard Susceptibility Project as part of the Holocene Evolution of the Mississippi-Alabama Region Subtask (http://ngom.er.usgs.gov/task2_2/index.php). This report serves as an archive of unprocessed digital Chirp seismic profile data, trackline maps, navigation files, Geographic Information System (GIS) files, Field Activity Collection System (FACS) logs, and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata. Single-beam and Swath bathymetry data were also collected during these cruises and will be published as a separate archive. Gained (a relative increase in signal amplitude) digital images of the seismic profiles are also provided. Refer to the Acronyms page for expansion of acronyms and abbreviations used in this report.

  5. Repairing cracked glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helman, D. D.; Holt, J. W.; Smiser, L. V.

    1979-01-01

    Filing procedure consisting of machined lightweight fused-silica tiles coated with thin-layer of borosilicate glass produces homogeneous seal in thin glass. Procedure is useful in repairing glass envelopes, X-ray tub windows, Dewar flasks, and similar thin glass objects.

  6. Inverted glass harp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Daniel B.; Rosenberg, Brian J.

    2015-08-01

    We present an analytical treatment of the acoustics of liquid-filled wine glasses, or "glass harps." The solution is generalized such that under certain assumptions it reduces to previous glass harp models, but also leads to a proposed musical instrument, the "inverted glass harp," in which an empty glass is submerged in a liquid-filled basin. The versatility of the solution demonstrates that all glass harps are governed by a family of solutions to Laplace's equation around a vibrating disk. Tonal analyses of recordings for a sample glass are offered as confirmation of the scaling predictions.

  7. Inverted glass harp.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Daniel B; Rosenberg, Brian J

    2015-08-01

    We present an analytical treatment of the acoustics of liquid-filled wine glasses, or "glass harps." The solution is generalized such that under certain assumptions it reduces to previous glass harp models, but also leads to a proposed musical instrument, the "inverted glass harp," in which an empty glass is submerged in a liquid-filled basin. The versatility of the solution demonstrates that all glass harps are governed by a family of solutions to Laplace's equation around a vibrating disk. Tonal analyses of recordings for a sample glass are offered as confirmation of the scaling predictions. PMID:26382336

  8. Glass-silicon column

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Conrad M.

    2003-12-30

    A glass-silicon column that can operate in temperature variations between room temperature and about 450.degree. C. The glass-silicon column includes large area glass, such as a thin Corning 7740 boron-silicate glass bonded to a silicon wafer, with an electrode embedded in or mounted on glass of the column, and with a self alignment silicon post/glass hole structure. The glass/silicon components are bonded, for example be anodic bonding. In one embodiment, the column includes two outer layers of silicon each bonded to an inner layer of glass, with an electrode imbedded between the layers of glass, and with at least one self alignment hole and post arrangement. The electrode functions as a column heater, and one glass/silicon component is provided with a number of flow channels adjacent the bonded surfaces.

  9. Caltech/USGS Southern California Seismic Network: Recent Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhadha, R.; Chen, S.; Crummey, J.; Hauksson, E.; Solanki, K.; Thomas, V. I.; Watkins, M.; Yip, R.; Yu, E.; Given, D.; Peats, R.; Schwarz, S.

    2010-12-01

    The SCSN is the modern digital ground motion seismic network in Southern California and performs the following tasks: 1) Operates remote seismic stations and the central data processing systems in Pasadena; 2) Generates and reports real-time products including location, magnitude, ShakeMap, and others; 3) Responds to FEMA, CalEMA, media, and public inquiries about earthquakes; 4) Manages the production, archival, and distribution of waveforms, phase picks, and other data at the SCEDC; 5) Contributes to development and maintenance of the ANSS Quake Monitoring System (AQMS) software to add new features and improve robustness; 6) Supports the deployment of AQMS to other ANSS member regional seismic networks. The public regularly accesses the CISN, SCSN, and SCEDC web pages for up-to-date quake info and more than 230,000 users subscribe to the Electronic Notification System (ENS) which sends rapid notifications via email and cell phones. We distribute our products via Internet (EIDS), email, and paging, to USGS in Reston and Golden, FEMA, CalEMA, local governments, partner members, and other subscribers. We have developed CISN Display and provide ShakeCast for customers who require real-time earthquake information. The SCSN also exchanges waveform, phase pick, and amplitude data in real-time with several other partner networks, including Menlo Park, UCB, UNR, Anza network, the Tsunami Warning Centers, IRIS, and the NEIC. We operate a number of 24/7 on-call rotations to provide quick response to verify seismic events as well as addressing systems and telemetry issues. As part of our goals to improve quality, robustness, and coverage, some of our recent efforts include: 1) Converting the digital stations in the network to Q330 dataloggers; 2) Developing command and control capabilities such as automated mass re-centering; 3) Migration from serial to Ethernet communications; 4) Clustering of data acquisition servers for fail-over to improve data availability; 5) Use of

  10. Borosilicate glass alteration driven by magnesium carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debure, M.; Frugier, P.; De Windt, L.; Gin, S.

    2012-01-01

    The alteration of simplified synthetic glass, representative of the French reference nuclear glass R7T7, in presence of hydromagnesite has been experimentally investigated and modeled. Magnesium in solution is known to potentially enhance glass alteration; nuclear glass clayed host rocks contain magnesium and can dissolve to maintain the concentration of magnesium in solution. For modeling purposes, it was suitable to study a simple system. Hydromagnesite was therefore chosen as a simple model mineral in order to check the influence of an Mg-rich mineral on glass alteration. Since the models use thermodynamic and kinetic parameters measured in pure water and pH-buffered solutions, changing the solution composition or adding minerals is a key step towards the validation of the modeling assumptions before using the model for predictive purposes. Experiments revealed that glass alteration is enhanced in presence of hydromagnesite. Modeling was performed using the GRAAL model implemented within the CHESS/HYTEC reactive transport code. Modeling proved useful both for explaining the mechanisms involved and quantifying the impact on glass alteration: Mg coming from hydromagnesite dissolution reacts with Si provided by the glass in order to form magnesium silicates. This reaction decreases the pH down to neutral conditions where magnesium silicates are more soluble than at the natural alkali pH imposed by glass or hydromagnesite dissolution. The driving force of the magnesium silicate precipitation is eventually the interdiffusion of alkali within the altered amorphous glass layer as this mechanism consumes protons. The model's ability to describe the concentrations of elements in solution and formed solids whatever the glass/hydromagnesite ratio strongly supports the basic modeling hypothesis.

  11. State of Texas - Highlighting Low-Lying Areas Derived from USGS Digital Elevation Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kosovich, John J.

    2008-01-01

    In support of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) disaster preparedness efforts, this map depicts a color shaded relief representation of Texas and a grayscale relief of the surrounding areas. The first 30 feet of relief above mean sea level are displayed as brightly colored 5-foot elevation bands, which highlight low-elevation areas at a coarse spatial resolution. Standard USGS National Elevation Dataset (NED) 1 arc-second (nominally 30-meter) digital elevation model (DEM) data are the basis for the map, which is designed to be used at a broad scale and for informational purposes only. The NED data were derived from the original 1:24,000-scale USGS topographic map bare-earth contours, which were converted into gridded quadrangle-based DEM tiles at a constant post spacing (grid cell size) of either 30 meters (data before the mid-1990s) or 10 meters (mid-1990s and later data). These individual-quadrangle DEMs were then converted to spherical coordinates (latitude/longitude decimal degrees) and edge-matched to ensure seamlessness. The NED source data for this map consists of a mixture of 30-meter- and 10-meter-resolution DEMs. State and county boundary, hydrography, city, and road layers were modified from USGS National Atlas data downloaded in 2003. The NED data were downloaded in 2002. Shaded relief over Mexico was obtained from the USGS National Atlas.

  12. Picture Wall (Glass Structures)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Photo shows a subway station in Toronto, Ontario, which is entirely glass-enclosed. The all-glass structure was made possible by a unique glazing concept developed by PPG Industries, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, one of the largest U.S. manufacturers of flat glass. In the TVS glazing system, transparent glass "fins" replace conventional vertical support members used to provide support for wind load resistance. For stiffening, silicone sealant bonds the fins to adjacent glass panels. At its glass research center near Pittsburgh, PPG Industries uses the NASTRAN computer program to analyze the stability of enclosures made entirely of glass. The company also uses NASTRAN to simulate stresses on large containers of molten glass and to analyze stress effects of solar heating on flat glass.

  13. Is the Glass Half Full or Half Empty? How to Reverse the Effect of Glass Elongation on the Volume Poured

    PubMed Central

    Caljouw, Simone R.; van Wijck, Ruud

    2014-01-01

    To reduce the volume of drinks and the risk of overconsumption, health professionals recommend the use of tall skinny instead of short wide glasses. Yet the results of the present study contradict this health advice. Participants who generously filled up a glass with lemonade served 9% more in tall narrow compared with short wide glasses (p<0.05). In addition, when pouring a small amount (i.e., a shot), participants poured 3% more in a short wide than in a tall narrow glass (p<0.05). Elongation may bias the perceived volume that is poured but also the perceived volume of the free space in the glass. We hypothesised that shifting attention from the bottom to the brim of the glass when filling it close to capacity might reverse the glass elongation effect on the quantity poured. This hypothesis was tested, by investigating two pouring tasks that differed in the required focus of attention. When the instruction was to match a reference volume, participants poured more liquid in the short wide compared with the tall narrow glass (p<0.05). The effect of glass elongation on poured volume was the opposite when the instruction was to leave space in the glasses for the reference volume. It seems likely that task and individual factors affect the pourer's viewing strategy and thus may determine the direction of the glass elongation effect on the volume poured. PMID:25343252

  14. Is the glass half full or half empty? How to reverse the effect of glass elongation on the volume poured.

    PubMed

    Caljouw, Simone R; van Wijck, Ruud

    2014-01-01

    To reduce the volume of drinks and the risk of overconsumption, health professionals recommend the use of tall skinny instead of short wide glasses. Yet the results of the present study contradict this health advice. Participants who generously filled up a glass with lemonade served 9% more in tall narrow compared with short wide glasses (p<0.05). In addition, when pouring a small amount (i.e., a shot), participants poured 3% more in a short wide than in a tall narrow glass (p<0.05). Elongation may bias the perceived volume that is poured but also the perceived volume of the free space in the glass. We hypothesised that shifting attention from the bottom to the brim of the glass when filling it close to capacity might reverse the glass elongation effect on the quantity poured. This hypothesis was tested, by investigating two pouring tasks that differed in the required focus of attention. When the instruction was to match a reference volume, participants poured more liquid in the short wide compared with the tall narrow glass (p<0.05). The effect of glass elongation on poured volume was the opposite when the instruction was to leave space in the glasses for the reference volume. It seems likely that task and individual factors affect the pourer's viewing strategy and thus may determine the direction of the glass elongation effect on the volume poured. PMID:25343252

  15. Reaction cured glass and glass coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, H. E.; Leiser, D. B.; Katvala, V. W. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    The invention relates to reaction cured glass and glass coatings prepared by reacting a compound selected from the group consisting of silicon tetraboride, silicon hexaboride, other boron silicides, boron and mixtures with a reactive glass frit composed of a porous high silica borosilicate glass and boron oxide. The glassy composites of the present invention are useful as coatings on low density fibrous porous silica insulations used as heat shields and for articles such as reaction vessels that are subjected to high temperatures with rapid heating and cooling and that require resistance to temperature and repeated thermal shock at temperatures up to about 1482C (2700PF).

  16. GlassForm

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2011-09-16

    GlassForm is a software tool for generating preliminary waste glass formulas for a given waste stream. The software is useful because it reduces the number of verification melts required to develop a suitable additive composition. The software includes property models that calculate glass properties of interest from the chemical composition of the waste glass. The software includes property models for glass viscosity, electrical conductivity, glass transition temperature, and leach resistance as measured by the 7-daymore » product consistency test (PCT).« less

  17. Archive of side scan sonar and swath bathymetry data collected during USGS cruise 10CCT01 offshore of Cat Island, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Mississippi, March 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWitt, Nancy T.; Flocks, James G.; Pfeiffer, William R.; Wiese, Dana S.

    2010-01-01

    In March of 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical surveys east of Cat Island, Mississippi (fig. 1). The efforts were part of the USGS Gulf of Mexico Science Coordination partnership with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to assist the Mississippi Coastal Improvements Program (MsCIP) and the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) Ecosystem Change and Hazards Susceptibility Project by mapping the shallow geological stratigraphic framework of the Mississippi Barrier Island Complex. These geophysical surveys will provide the data necessary for scientists to define, interpret, and provide baseline bathymetry and seafloor habitat for this area and to aid scientists in predicting future geomorpholocial changes of the islands with respect to climate change, storm impact, and sea-level rise. Furthermore, these data will provide information for barrier island restoration, particularly in Camille Cut, and provide protection for the historical Fort Massachusetts. For more information refer to http://ngom.usgs.gov/gomsc/mscip/index.html. This report serves as an archive of the processed swath bathymetry and side scan sonar data (SSS). Data products herein include gridded and interpolated surfaces, surface images, and x,y,z data products for both swath bathymetry and side scan sonar imagery. Additional files include trackline maps, navigation files, GIS files, Field Activity Collection System (FACS) logs, and formal FGDC metadata. Scanned images of the handwritten FACS logs and digital FACS logs are also provided as PDF files. Refer to the Acronyms page for expansion of acronyms and abbreviations used in this report or hold the cursor over an acronym for a pop-up explanation. The USGS St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center assigns a unique identifier to each cruise or field activity. For example, 10CCT01 tells us the data were collected in 2010 for the Coastal Change and Transport (CCT) study and the data were collected during the first field

  18. USGS Environmental health science strategy: providing environmental health science for a changing world: public review release

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bright, Patricia R.; Buxton, Herbert T.; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Barber, Larry B.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Cross, Paul C.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Toccalino, Patricia L.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    America has an abundance of natural resources. We have bountiful clean water, fertile soil, and unrivaled national parks, wildlife refuges, and public lands. These resources enrich our lives and preserve our health and wellbeing. These resources have been maintained because of our history of respect for their value and an enduring commitment to their vigilant protection. Awareness of the social, economic, and personal value of the health of our environment is increasing. The emergence of environmentally driven diseases caused by environmental exposure to contaminants and pathogens is a growing concern worldwide. New health threats and patterns of established threats are affected by both natural and anthropogenic changes to the environment. Human activities are key drivers of emerging (new and re-emerging) health threats. Societal demands for land and natural resources, a better quality of life, improved economic prosperity, and the environmental impacts associated with these demands will continue to increase. Natural earth processes, climate trends, and related climatic events will add to the environmental impact of human activities. These environmental drivers will influence exposure to disease agents, including viral, bacterial, prion, and fungal pathogens, parasites, natural earth materials, toxins and other biogenic compounds, and synthetic chemicals and substances. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) defines environmental health science broadly as the interdisciplinary study of relations among the quality of the physical environment, the health of the living environment, and human health. The interactions among these three spheres are driven by human activities, ecological processes, and natural earth processes; the interactions affect exposure to contaminants and pathogens and the severity of environmentally driven diseases in animals and people. This definition provides USGS with a framework for synthesizing natural science information from across the Bureau

  19. USGS lidar science strategy—Mapping the technology to the science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoker, Jason M.; Brock, John C.; Soulard, Christopher E.; Ries, Kernell G.; Sugarbaker, Larry J.; Newton, Wesley E.; Haggerty, Patricia K.; Lee, Kathy E.; Young, John A.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) utilizes light detection and ranging (lidar) and enabling technologies to support many science research activities. Lidar-derived metrics and products have become a fundamental input to complex hydrologic and hydraulic models, flood inundation models, fault detection and geologic mapping, topographic and land-surface mapping, landslide and volcano hazards mapping and monitoring, forest canopy and habitat characterization, coastal and fluvial erosion mapping, and a host of other research and operational activities. This report documents the types of lidar being used by the USGS, discusses how lidar technology facilitates the achievement of individual mission area goals within the USGS, and offers recommendations and suggested changes in direction in terms of how a mission area could direct work using lidar as it relates to the mission area goals that have already been established.

  20. 6. Looking glass aircraft in the project looking glass historic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Looking glass aircraft in the project looking glass historic district. View to north. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Avenue between Comstat Drive & Nightwatch Avenue, Offutt Air Force Base, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  1. Oxynitride glass fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Parimal J.; Messier, Donald R.; Rich, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    Research at the Army Materials Technology Laboratory (AMTL) and elsewhere has shown that many glass properties including elastic modulus, hardness, and corrosion resistance are improved markedly by the substitution of nitrogen for oxygen in the glass structure. Oxynitride glasses, therefore, offer exciting opportunities for making high modulus, high strength fibers. Processes for making oxynitride glasses and fibers of glass compositions similar to commercial oxide glasses, but with considerable enhanced properties, are discussed. We have made glasses with elastic moduli as high as 140 GPa and fibers with moduli of 120 GPa and tensile strengths up to 2900 MPa. AMTL holds a U.S. patent on oxynitride glass fibers, and this presentation discusses a unique process for drawing small diameter oxynitride glass fibers at high drawing rates. Fibers are drawn through a nozzle from molten glass in a molybdenum crucible at 1550 C. The crucible is situated in a furnace chamber in flowing nitrogen, and the fiber is wound in air outside of the chamber, making the process straightforward and commercially feasible. Strengths were considerably improved by improving glass quality to minimize internal defects. Though the fiber strengths were comparable with oxide fibers, work is currently in progress to further improve the elastic modulus and strength of fibers. The high elastic modulus of oxynitride glasses indicate their potential for making fibers with tensile strengths surpassing any oxide glass fibers, and we hope to realize that potential in the near future.

  2. Results from USGS Geodesy Projects Funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, N. E.; Hudnut, K.; Leith, W. S.; Lisowski, M.; Murray-Moraleda, J. R.; Prentice, C. S.; Roeloffs, E. A.

    2011-12-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) provided money to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for many projects, including improvements to earthquake and volcano monitoring. The USGS Earthquake Hazards Program's geodetic projects included station upgrades, a few new stations in special cases where new recurring costs would be minimal, new equipment and software tools, and improvements to geodetic infrastructure. USGS awarded $2.7 million for six cooperative agreements to the University of California, Berkeley (UCB); Central Washington University (CWU), University of California, San Diego (UCSD), and UNAVCO, Inc., with UCSD and UNAVCO each receiving two different grants. The cooperative agreements provided funding and government-furnished GNSS receivers and antennas to upgrade telemetry and replace obsolete equipment at GPS stations in California and the Pacific Northwest. The USGS Earthquake and Volcano Hazards Programs is upgrading USGS-operated GPS networks with ARRA-funded GNSS equipment. ARRA emphasized upgrades at existing stations. However, in cases where new stations eliminated existing costs or partners assumed costs, a few stations were built to install a demonstration fault slip sensor along the southern San Andreas fault and to enhance the USGS mission in the San Francisco Bay Area. GNSS equipment was added to existing seismic stations in northern California. The cooperative agreements also provided funding for replacement of borehole strainmeters in central California, and long-delayed infrastructure maintenance at UCSD's Piñon Flat and Durmid Hill observatories. Finally, the Earthquake Hazards Program used ARRA funding to acquire high-resolution LiDAR data in the eastern San Francisco Bay Area, the central California Coast Ranges, and the New Madrid Seismic Zone, and, in cooperation with the Volcano Hazards Program, to develop software for data visualization, editing and statistics.

  3. USGS Geodesy Projects Funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, N. E.; Hudnut, K. W.; Leith, W. S.; Lisowski, M.; Murray-Moraleda, J. R.; Prentice, C. S.; Roeloffs, E. A.

    2010-12-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) provided money to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for many projects, including improvements to earthquake and volcano monitoring. The USGS Earthquake Hazards Program's geodetic projects include station upgrades, new equipment and software tools, and improvements to geodetic infrastructure. USGS awarded $2.7 million for six cooperative agreements to the University of California, Berkeley (UCB); Central Washington University (CWU), University of California, San Diego (UCSD), and UNAVCO, Inc., with UCSD and UNAVCO each receiving two different grants. The cooperative agreements provide funding and government-furnished GNSS receivers and antennas to upgrade telemetry and replace obsolete equipment at GPS stations in California and the Pacific Northwest. The USGS Earthquake and Volcano Hazards Programs will also upgrade USGS-operated GPS networks with ARRA-funded GNSS equipment. Although ARRA emphasized upgrades at existing stations, a few stations are being installed to enhance the USGS mission in the San Francisco Bay Area, add GNSS equipment to existing seismic stations in northern California, and install a demonstration fault slip sensor system ("zipper array") across the San Andreas fault in southern California. The cooperative agreements also provide funding for replacement of borehole strainmeters in central California, and long-delayed infrastructure maintenance at UCSD's Piñon Flat and Durmid Hill observatories. Finally, the Earthquake Hazards Program is using ARRA funding to acquire high-resolution LiDAR data in the eastern San Francisco Bay Area, the central California Coast Ranges, and the New Madrid Seismic Zone, and, in cooperation with the Volcano Hazards Program, to develop software for data visualization, editing and statistics.

  4. PLUTONIUM SOLUBILITY IN HIGH-LEVEL WASTE ALKALI BOROSILICATE GLASS

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J.; Crawford, C.; Fox, K.; Bibler, N.

    2011-01-04

    The solubility of plutonium in a Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) reference glass and the effect of incorporation of Pu in the glass on specific glass properties were evaluated. A Pu loading of 1 wt % in glass was studied. Prior to actual plutonium glass testing, surrogate testing (using Hf as a surrogate for Pu) was conducted to evaluate the homogeneity of significant quantities of Hf (Pu) in the glass, determine the most appropriate methods to evaluate homogeneity for Pu glass testing, and to evaluate the impact of Hf loading in the glass on select glass properties. Surrogate testing was conducted using Hf to represent between 0 and 1 wt % Pu in glass on an equivalent molar basis. A Pu loading of 1 wt % in glass translated to {approx}18 kg Pu per Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister, or about 10X the current allowed limit per the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (2500 g/m{sup 3} of glass or about 1700 g/canister) and about 30X the current allowable concentration based on the fissile material concentration limit referenced in the Yucca Mountain Project License Application (897 g/m{sup 3}3 of glass or about 600 g Pu/canister). Based on historical process throughput data, this level was considered to represent a reasonable upper bound for Pu loading based on the ability to provide Pu containing feed to the DWPF. The task elements included evaluating the distribution of Pu in the glass (e.g. homogeneity), evaluating crystallization within the glass, evaluating select glass properties (with surrogates), and evaluating durability using the Product Consistency Test -- Method A (PCT-A). The behavior of Pu in the melter was evaluated using paper studies and corresponding analyses of DWPF melter pour samples.The results of the testing indicated that at 1 wt % Pu in the glass, the Pu was homogeneously distributed and did not result in any formation of plutonium-containing crystalline phases as long as the glass was prepared under 'well-mixed' conditions. The

  5. Advances in Quantitative Analyses and Reference Materials Related to Laser Ablation ICP-MS: A Look at Methods and New Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, A. E.; Ridley, W. I.

    2009-12-01

    The role of laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) continues to expand both in geological sciences and other fields. As the technique continues to gain popularity, so too does the need for good reference materials and methods development and validation. Matrix matched reference materials (RMs) are required for calibration and quality control of LA-ICP-MS analyses. New advances in technology such as <200nm lasers and femtosecond lasers have reduced the dependence on matrix matching to some degree, but general matrix matching is still preferred. Much work has revolved around the available RMs such as the NIST 61x silicate glasses and several series of basaltic composition glasses such as the USGS natural basaltic glasses BCR-2g and synthetic basaltic glasses, the GS series (e.g. GSD-1g). While many quantitative hurdles have been recognized by analogous techniques such as EPMA and SIMS, some of these hurdles have not been fully addressed or validated for some cases of LA-ICP-MS. Trace element mapping by LA-ICP-MS is rapidly becoming more widespread for samples. Here relative differences in raw signal can be easily and rapidly obtained. However as too often is the case the magnitude of the relative differences in raw intensity are a function of different ablation yields, sample density or other factors. Methods of quantification for trace element mapping will be presented. The USGS has been developing microanalytical RMs intended for LA-ICP-MS for several years. The widely popular basaltic rock powders BCR-2, BIR-1 and BHVO-2 have all been successfully converted to homogeneous glasses suitable for LA-ICP-MS and have been in use by many workers. The newer synthetic basaltic glass GS series consists of 4 glasses of basaltic composition artificially doped at nominal concentrations of almost of trace elements at 400, 40, 4 and < 1 ppm. Additional developments in non-silcate or basaltic materials include the previously released MASS-1 Cu, Fe, Zn sulfide calibration RM (Wilson et

  6. Glass dissolution rate measurement and calculation revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, Maxime; Ull, Aurélien; Nicoleau, Elodie; Inagaki, Yaohiro; Odorico, Michaël; Frugier, Pierre; Gin, Stéphane

    2016-08-01

    Aqueous dissolution rate measurements of nuclear glasses are a key step in the long-term behavior study of such waste forms. These rates are routinely normalized to the glass surface area in contact with solution, and experiments are very often carried out using crushed materials. Various methods have been implemented to determine the surface area of such glass powders, leading to differing values, with the notion of the reactive surface area of crushed glass remaining vague. In this study, around forty initial dissolution rate measurements were conducted following static and flow rate (SPFT, MCFT) measurement protocols at 90 °C, pH 10. The international reference glass (ISG), in the forms of powders with different particle sizes and polished monoliths, and soda-lime glass beads were examined. Although crushed glass grains clearly cannot be assimilated with spheres, it is when using the samples geometric surface (Sgeo) that the rates measured on powders are closest to those found for monoliths. Overestimation of the reactive surface when using the BET model (SBET) may be due to small physical features at the atomic scale-contributing to BET surface area but not to AFM surface area. Such features are very small compared with the thickness of water ingress in glass (a few hundred nanometers) and should not be considered in rate calculations. With a SBET/Sgeo ratio of 2.5 ± 0.2 for ISG powders, it is shown here that rates measured on powders and normalized to Sgeo should be divided by 1.3 and rates normalized to SBET should be multiplied by 1.9 in order to be compared with rates measured on a monolith. The use of glass beads indicates that the geometric surface gives a good estimation of glass reactive surface if sample geometry can be precisely described. Although data clearly shows the repeatability of measurements, results must be given with a high uncertainty of approximately ±25%.

  7. Providing public standardized data access function: Lessons learned from accessing USGS Landsat archive

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, X.; Bai, Y.; Di, L.; Nebert, D.

    2009-01-01

    The geospatial community is experiencing a shift from having data locally to sharing them over the Web. However, not all the data accessing systems are built in compliance with open geospatial standards and thus are weak in terms of interoperability. The USGS Landsat data are now available through free electronic access though not yet through standard Web service interfaces. This paper intends to discuss the experience and lessons learned from integrating a public data access function to the USGS Landsat data archive into a geospatial workflow environment. Currently available systems and their problems, proposed solutions and application scenarios are discussed.

  8. Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2010-01-01

    In 1990, the U.S. Congress enacted the Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act (CWPPRA) in response to growing awareness of a land loss crisis in Louisiana. Projects funded by CWPPRA require monitoring and evaluation of project effectiveness, and there is also a need to assess the cumulative effects of all projects to achieve a sustainable coastal environment. In 2003, the Louisiana Office of Coastal Protection and Restoration (OCPR) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received approval from the CWPPRA Task Force to implement the Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) as a mechanism to monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of CWPPRA projects at the project, region, and coastwide levels. The CRMS design implements a multiple reference approach by using aspects of hydrogeomorphic functional assessments and probabilistic sampling. The CRMS program is as dynamic as the coastal habitats it monitors. The program is currently funded through CWPPRA and provides data for a variety of user groups, including resource managers, academics, landowners, and researchers.

  9. FOAM GLASS INSULATION FROM WASTE GLASS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Waste glass has proven to be effective for the production of foam glass insulation both in the bulk or rigid board form and pellet form. Problems inherent with the use of water, carbon black and calcium carbonate as the foaming agents, have been identified and many have been solv...

  10. U.S. Geological Survey Standard Reference Sample Project: Performance Evaluation of Analytical Laboratories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, H. Keith; Daddow, Richard L.; Farrar, Jerry W.

    1998-01-01

    Since 1962, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has operated the Standard Reference Sample Project to evaluate the performance of USGS, cooperator, and contractor analytical laboratories that analyze chemical constituents of environmental samples. The laboratories are evaluated by using performance evaluation samples, called Standard Reference Samples (SRSs). SRSs are submitted to laboratories semi-annually for round-robin laboratory performance comparison purposes. Currently, approximately 100 laboratories are evaluated for their analytical performance on six SRSs for inorganic and nutrient constituents. As part of the SRS Project, a surplus of homogeneous, stable SRSs is maintained for purchase by USGS offices and participating laboratories for use in continuing quality-assurance and quality-control activities. Statistical evaluation of the laboratories results provides information to compare the analytical performance of the laboratories and to determine possible analytical deficiences and problems. SRS results also provide information on the bias and variability of different analytical methods used in the SRS analyses.

  11. Weakly supervised glasses removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhicheng; Zhou, Yisu; Wen, Lijie

    2015-03-01

    Glasses removal is an important task on face recognition, in this paper, we provide a weakly supervised method to remove eyeglasses from an input face image automatically. We choose sparse coding as face reconstruction method, and optical flow to find exact shape of glasses. We combine the two processes iteratively to remove glasses more accurately. The experimental results reveal that our method works much better than these algorithms alone, and it can remove various glasses to obtain natural looking glassless facial images.

  12. Progress of the NASA/USGS Lunar Regolith Simulant Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Doug; MLemore, Carole; Wilson, Steve; Stoeser, Doug; Schrader, Christian; Fikes, John; Street, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Beginning in 2004 personnel at MSFC began serious efforts to develop a new generation of lunar simulants. The first two products were a replication of the previous JSC-1 simulant under a contract to Orbitec and a major workshop in 2005 on future simulant development. Beginning in 2006 the project refocused its efforts and approached simulant development in a new and more comprehensive manner, examining new approaches in simulant development and ways to more accurately compare simulants to actual lunar materials. This led to a multi-year effort with five major tasks running in parallel. The five tasks are Requirements, Lunar Analysis, Process Development, Feed Stocks, and Standards. Major progress has been made in all five areas. A substantial draft of a formal requirements document now exists and has been largely stable since 2007. It does evolve as specific details of the standards and Lunar Analysis efforts proceed. Lunar Analysis has turned out to be vastly more difficult than anticipated. After great effort to mine existing published and gray literature, the team has realized the necessity of making new measurements of the Apollo samples, an effort that is currently in progress. Process development is substantially ahead of expectations in 2006. It is now practical to synthesize glasses of appropriate composition and purity. It is also possible to make agglutinate particles in significant quantities. A series of minerals commonly found on the Moon has been synthesized. Separation of mineral constituents from starting rock material is also proceeding. Customized grinding and mixing processes have been developed and tested are now being documented. Identification and development of appropriate feedstocks has been both easier and more difficult than anticipated. The Stillwater Mining Company, operating in the Stillwater layered mafic intrusive complex of Montana, has been an amazing resource for the project, but finding adequate sources for some of the components

  13. App-lifying USGS Earth Science Data: Engaging the public through Challenge.gov

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frame, M. T.

    2013-12-01

    With the goal of promoting innovative use and applications of USGS data, USGS Core Science Analytics and Synthesis (CSAS) launched the first USGS Challenge: App-lifying USGS Earth Science Data. While initiated before the recent Office of Science and Technology Policy's memorandum 'Increasing Access to the Results of Federally Funded Scientific Research', our challenge focused on one of the core tenets of the memorandum- expanding discoverability, accessibility and usability of CSAS data. From January 9 to April 1, 2013, we invited developers, information scientists, biologists/ecologists, and scientific data visualization specialists to create applications for selected USGS datasets. Identifying new, innovative ways to represent, apply, and make these data available is a high priority for our leadership. To help boost innovation, our only constraint on the challengers stated they must incorporate at least one of the identified datasets in their application. Winners were selected based on the relevance to the USGS and CSAS missions, innovation in design, and overall ease of use of the application. The winner for Best Overall App was TaxaViewer by the rOpenSci group. TaxaViewer is a Web interface to a mashup of data from the USGS-sponsored interagency Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) and other data from the Phylotastic taxonomic Name service, the Global Invasive Species Database, Phylomatic, and the Global Biodiversity Information Facility. The Popular Choice App award, selected through a public vote on the submissions, went to the Species Comparison Tool by Kimberly Sparks of Raleigh, N.C., which allows users to explore the USGS Gap Analysis Program habitat distribution and/or range of two species concurrently. The application also incorporates ITIS data and provides external links to NatureServe species information. Our results indicated that running a challenge was an effective method for promoting our data products and therefore improving

  14. Diversity, culture and the glass ceiling.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Eleanor

    2014-01-01

    A reference to the term, the glass ceiling, has come to embody more than gender equality among women and men. Today the term embraces the quest of all minorities and their journey towards equality in the workplace. The purpose of this article is to bring attention to the subject of diversity, culture, and the glass ceiling. The article will discuss the history of the glass ceiling and how its broadened meaning is relevant in today's workplace. It will also provide statistics showing how diversity and culture are lacking among the top echelon of today's executives, the barriers faced by minorities as they journey towards executive leadership, and how to overcome these barriers to truly shatter the glass ceiling. PMID:25306838

  15. Glass in Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greaves, Neville

    2005-01-01

    Glass is reviewed from fabrication to application, laying emphasis on the wide-ranging physics involved. This begins with liquids and solids and the way in which glasses are defined and can be demonstrated in the classroom. At the atomic level the regular structure of crystals and their irregular counterparts in glasses are explained through…

  16. Technique for Machining Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, S. H.

    1982-01-01

    Process for machining glass with conventional carbide tools requires a small quantity of a lubricant for aluminum applied to area of glass to be machined. A carbide tool is then placed against workpiece with light pressure. Tool is raised periodically to clear work of glass dust and particles. Additional lubricant is applied as it is displaced.

  17. Archive of Digital Boomer Seismic Reflection Data Collected During USGS Field Activity 96LCA04 in Lakes Mabel and Starr, Central Florida, August 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrison, Arnell S.; Dadisman, Shawn V.; Swancar, Amy; Tihansky, Ann B.; Flocks, James G.; Wiese, Dana S.

    2008-01-01

    In August of 1996, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted geophysical surveys of Lakes Mabel and Starr, central Florida, as part of the Central Highlands Lakes project, which is part of a larger USGS Lakes and Coastal Aquifers (LCA) study. This report serves as an archive of unprocessed digital boomer seismic reflection data, trackline maps, navigation files, Geographic Information System (GIS) files, observer's logbook; and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata. Filtered and gained (a relative increase in signal amplitude) digital images of the seismic profiles are also provided. Refer to the Acronyms page for expansions of acronyms and abbreviations used in this report. For detailed information about the hydrologic setting of Lake Starr and the interpretation of some of these seismic reflection data, see Swancar and others (2000) at http://fl.water.usgs.gov/publications/Abstracts/wri00_4030_swancar.html. The archived trace data are in standard Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) SEG-Y format (Barry and others, 1975) and may be downloaded and processed with commercial or public domain software such as Seismic Unix (SU). Example SU processing scripts and USGS software for viewing the SEG-Y files (Zihlman, 1992) are also provided. The USGS Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC) - St. Petersburg assigns a unique identifier to each cruise or field activity. For example, 96LCA04 tells us the data were collected in 1996 for the Lakes and Coastal Aquifers (LCA) study and the data were collected during the fourth field activity for that project in that calendar year. Refer to http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/infobank/programs/html/definition/activity.html for a detailed description of the method used to assign the field activity ID. The boomer plate is an acoustic energy source that consists of capacitors charged to a high voltage and discharged through a transducer in the water. The transducer is towed on a sled floating on the water surface and when

  18. Oxynitride glass production procedure

    DOEpatents

    Weidner, Jerry R.; Schuetz, Stanley T.; O'Brien, Michael H.

    1991-01-01

    The invention is a process for the preparation of high quality oxynitride glasses without resorting to high pressures. Nitrogen-containing compounds such as Si.sub.3 N.sub.4 are first encapsulated in a low melting temperature glass. Particles of the encapsulated nitrogen-containing compound are mixed with other oxide glass-formers and melted in an atmosphere of flowing nitrogen and in the presence of buffering gas to form the oxynitride glass. Glasses containing up to 15 at % nitrogen have been prepared by this method.

  19. Radiation coloration resistant glass

    DOEpatents

    Tomozawa, Minoru; Watson, E. Bruce; Acocella, John

    1986-01-01

    A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10.sup.7 rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency.

  20. Radiation coloration resistant glass

    DOEpatents

    Tomozawa, M.; Watson, E.B.; Acocella, J.

    1986-11-04

    A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10[sup 7] rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency. 3 figs.

  1. Reference Inflow Characterization for River Resource Reference Model (RM2)

    SciTech Connect

    Neary, Vincent S

    2011-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) is leading an effort to develop reference models for marine and hydrokinetic technologies and wave and current energy resources. This effort will allow the refinement of technology design tools, accurate estimates of a baseline levelized cost of energy (LCoE), and the identification of the main cost drivers that need to be addressed to achieve a competitive LCoE. As part of this effort, Oak Ridge National Laboratory was charged with examining and reporting reference river inflow characteristics for reference model 2 (RM2). Published turbulent flow data from large rivers, a water supply canal and laboratory flumes, are reviewed to determine the range of velocities, turbulence intensities and turbulent stresses acting on hydrokinetic technologies, and also to evaluate the validity of classical models that describe the depth variation of the time-mean velocity and turbulent normal Reynolds stresses. The classical models are found to generally perform well in describing river inflow characteristics. A potential challenge in river inflow characterization, however, is the high variability of depth and flow over the design life of a hydrokinetic device. This variation can have significant effects on the inflow mean velocity and turbulence intensity experienced by stationary and bottom mounted hydrokinetic energy conversion devices, which requires further investigation, but are expected to have minimal effects on surface mounted devices like the vertical axis turbine device designed for RM2. A simple methodology for obtaining an approximate inflow characterization for surface deployed devices is developed using the relation umax=(7/6)V where V is the bulk velocity and umax is assumed to be the near-surface velocity. The application of this expression is recommended for deriving the local inflow velocity acting on the energy extraction planes of the RM2 vertical axis rotors, where V=Q/A can be calculated given a USGS gage flow time

  2. Predicting Ecosystem Services in Northeastern Lakes From Monitoring Data and USGS SPARROW Nutrient Load Estimates

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reduction of nitrogen inputs to estuaries can be achieved by the control of agricultural, atmospheric, and urban sources. We use the USGS MRB1 SPARROW model to estimate reductions necessary to decrease nitrogen loads to estuaries by 10%. As a first approximation we looked at s...

  3. CURRENT FLOW DATA FOR SELECTED USGS STREAM MONITORING STATIONS IN WASHINGTON STATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set contains recent stream flow data for USGS stations in Washington State. Flow data (cubic feet per second) are available for the most recent 5-6 day period and are compared with long-term average values. Flow data were collected approximately hourly. Flood stage and ...

  4. 1991 USGS DLG INTERSTATE AND PRIMARY STATE HIGHWAYS FOR THE CONTERMINOUS UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Digital Line Graph (DLG) A layer in the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Spatial Data Library System (ESDLS) National 1:2,000,000 scale library, provides the interstate and primary state highway data, derived from a subset of the 1991 United States Geological Survey (USG...

  5. Geochemistry and geophysics field maps used during the USGS 2011 field season in southwest Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) has been studying a variety of geochemical and geophyscial assessment techniques for concealed mineral deposits. The 2011 field season for this project took place in southwest Alaska, northeast of Bristol Bay between Dillingham and Iliamna Lake. Four maps were created for the geochemistry and geophysics teams to use during field activities.

  6. Registration of USG 3209/Jaypee Wheat Recombinant Inbred Line Mapping Population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    USG 3209’/‘Jaypee’ (Reg. No. MP-3, NSL 465777 MAP), is a soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) recombinant inbred line (RIL) population developed by Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University and submitted to the USDA–ARS National Small Grains Germplasm Research Facility in Aberdeen...

  7. Species occurrence data for the Nation--USGS Biodiversity Information Serving Our Nation (BISON)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2015-01-01

    USGS Biodiversity Information Serving Our Nation (BISON) is a unique, Web-based Federal mapping resource for species occurrence data in the United States and its Territories. BISON’s size is unprecedented, including records for most living species found in the United States and encompassing the efforts of more than a million professionals.

  8. USGS Scientists in the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: Making a Difference (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, M. K.

    2010-12-01

    From the very first call to action after the discovery of the underwater oil discharge, the USGS has been at the forefront addressing the research and information needs for this disaster of national importance and ecological significance. USGS geospatial experts were the first to mobilize before the oil hit the shoreline, tracking its location using advanced imagery and data integration. Biologists on the ground took lessons from Exxon-Valdez to heart, documenting the state of the ecosystem prior to impact. Geologists have been enlisted to examine the rocks thrown up onto nearby ships during the explosion on the Deepwater Horizon to help decipher the cause of the tragedy that took 11 lives. Perhaps least visible to the outside world were the USGS geophysicists, working away inside BP headquarters in Houston to develop new methods to ascertain and demonstrate the integrity of the Macondo well. It was thanks to their efforts that the well remained shut in after July 15th and spilled not another drop of oil, even though many had cast doubt on the ability of the well to hold pressure. USGS coastal and marine geologists continue to work on the oil budget, refining models for the sinks of oil in the environment and the time scales over which oil remains an environmental hazard.

  9. A MOLA-controlled RAND-USGS Control Network for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Archinal, B. A.; Colvin, T. R.; Davies, M. E.; Kirk, R. L.; Duxbury, T. C.; Lee, E. M.; Cook, D.; Gitlin, A. R.

    2002-01-01

    We are undertaking, in support of the Mars Digital Image Mosaic (MDIM) 2.1, many improvements in the RAND-USGS photogrammetric control network for Mars, primarily involving the use of Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA)-derived radii and DIMs to improve control point absolute radii and horizontal positions. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  10. USGS Geospatial Fabric and Geo Data Portal for Continental Scale Hydrology Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampson, K. M.; Newman, A. J.; Blodgett, D. L.; Viger, R.; Hay, L.; Clark, M. P.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation describes use of United States Geological Survey (USGS) data products and server-based resources for continental-scale hydrologic simulations. The USGS Modeling of Watershed Systems (MoWS) group provides a consistent national geospatial fabric built on NHDPlus. They have defined more than 100,000 hydrologic response units (HRUs) over the continental United States based on points of interest (POIs) and split into left and right bank based on the corresponding stream segment. Geophysical attributes are calculated for each HRU that can be used to define parameters in hydrologic and land-surface models. The Geo Data Portal (GDP) project at the USGS Center for Integrated Data Analytics (CIDA) provides access to downscaled climate datasets and processing services via web-interface and python modules for creating forcing datasets for any polygon (such as an HRU). These resources greatly reduce the labor required for creating model-ready data in-house, contributing to efficient and effective modeling applications. We will present an application of this USGS cyber-infrastructure for assessments of impacts of climate change on hydrology over the continental United States.

  11. USGS'S NATIONAL SURFACE WATER RETRIEVAL SYSTEM-REAL TIME STAGE HEIGHT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) stream-gaging program provides streamflow data for a variety of purposes that range from current needs, such as flood forecasting, to future or long-term needs, such as detection of changes in streamflow due to human activities or global warming....

  12. Glass Ceiling for Women in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schedler, Petra; Glastra, Folke; Hake, Barry

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the place of women in higher education in the Netherlands. Suggests that it is not a question of numbers but of orientation, field, and the glass ceiling. Asserts that despite some improvement, higher education may be one of the last bastions against the recognition of women's worth. (Contains 42 references.) (JOW)

  13. Partnering for science: proceedings of the USGS Workshop on Citizen Science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hines, Megan; Benson, Abigail; Govoni, David; Masaki, Derek; Poore, Barbara; Simpson, Annie; Tessler, Steven

    2013-01-01

    What U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) programs use citizen science? How can projects be best designed while meeting policy requirements? What are the most effective volunteer recruitment methods? What data should be collected to ensure validation and how should data be stored? What standard protocols are most easily used by volunteers? Can data from multiple projects be integrated to support new research or existing science questions? To help answer these and other questions, the USGS Community of Data Integration (CDI) supported the development of the Citizen Science Working Group (CSWG) in August 2011 and funded the working group’s proposal to hold a USGS Citizen Science Workshop in fiscal year 2012. The stated goals for our workshop were: raise awareness of programs and projects in the USGS that incorporate citizen science, create a community of practice for the sharing of knowledge and experiences, provide a forum to discuss the challenges of—and opportunities for—incorporating citizen science into USGS projects, and educate and support scientists and managers whose projects may benefit from public participation in science.To meet these goals, the workshop brought together 50 attendees (see appendix A for participant details) representing the USGS, partners, and external citizen science practitioners from diverse backgrounds (including scientists, managers, project coordinators, and technical developers, for example) to discuss these topics at the Denver Federal Center in Colorado on September 11–12, 2012. Over two and a half days, attendees participated in four major plenary sessions (Citizen Science Policy and Challenges, Engaging the Public in Scientific Research, Data Collection and Management, and Technology and Tools) comprised of 25 invited presentations and followed by structured discussions for each session designed to address both prepared and ad hoc "big questions." A number of important community support and infrastructure needs were identified

  14. Completion summary for borehole USGS 136 near the Advanced Test Reactor Complex, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twining, Brian V.; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Hodges, Mary K.V.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, cored and completed borehole USGS 136 for stratigraphic framework analyses and long-term groundwater monitoring of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Laboratory. The borehole was initially cored to a depth of 1,048 feet (ft) below land surface (BLS) to collect core, open-borehole water samples, and geophysical data. After these data were collected, borehole USGS 136 was cemented and backfilled between 560 and 1,048 ft BLS. The final construction of borehole USGS 136 required that the borehole be reamed to allow for installation of 6-inch (in.) diameter carbon-steel casing and 5-in. diameter stainless-steel screen; the screened monitoring interval was completed between 500 and 551 ft BLS. A dedicated pump and water-level access line were placed to allow for aquifer testing, for collecting periodic water samples, and for measuring water levels. Geophysical and borehole video logs were collected after coring and after the completion of the monitor well. Geophysical logs were examined in conjunction with the borehole core to describe borehole lithology and to identify primary flow paths for groundwater, which occur in intervals of fractured and vesicular basalt. A single-well aquifer test was used to define hydraulic characteristics for borehole USGS 136 in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. Specific-capacity, transmissivity, and hydraulic conductivity from the aquifer test were at least 975 gallons per minute per foot, 1.4 × 105 feet squared per day (ft2/d), and 254 feet per day, respectively. The amount of measureable drawdown during the aquifer test was about 0.02 ft. The transmissivity for borehole USGS 136 was in the range of values determined from previous aquifer tests conducted in other wells near the Advanced Test Reactor Complex: 9.5 × 103 to 1.9 × 105 ft2/d. Water samples were analyzed for cations, anions, metals, nutrients, total organic

  15. Seismic Station Installation Orientation Errors at ANSS and IRIS/USGS Stations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ringler, Adam T.; Hutt, Charles R.; Persfield, K.; Gee, Lind S.

    2013-01-01

    Many seismological studies depend on the published orientations of sensitive axes of seismic instruments relative to north (e.g., Li et al., 2011). For example, studies of the anisotropic structure of the Earth’s mantle through SKS‐splitting measurements (Long et al., 2009), constraints on core–mantle electromagnetic coupling from torsional normal‐mode measurements (Dumberry and Mound, 2008), and models of three‐dimensional (3D) velocity variations from surface waves (Ekström et al., 1997) rely on accurate sensor orientation. Unfortunately, numerous results indicate that this critical parameter is often subject to significant error (Laske, 1995; Laske and Masters, 1996; Yoshizawa et al., 1999; Schulte‐Pelkum et al., 2001; Larson and Ekström, 2002). For the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS; ANSS Technical Integration Committee, 2002), the Global Seismographic Network (GSN; Butler et al., 2004), and many other networks, sensor orientation is typically determined by a field engineer during installation. Successful emplacement of a seismic instrument requires identifying true north, transferring a reference line, and measuring the orientation of the instrument relative to the reference line. Such an exercise is simple in theory, but there are many complications in practice. There are four commonly used methods for determining true north at the ANSS and GSN stations operated by the USGS Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory (ASL), including gyroscopic, astronomical, Global Positioning System (GPS), and magnetic field techniques. A particular method is selected based on site conditions (above ground, below ground, availability of astronomical observations, and so on) and in the case of gyroscopic methods, export restrictions. Once a north line has been determined, it must be translated to the sensor location. For installations in mines or deep vaults, this step can include tracking angles through the one or more turns in the access tunnel leading to

  16. Acoustics of glass harmonicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossing, Thomas D.

    2001-05-01

    Glass musical instruments are probably as old as glassmaking. At least as early as the 17th century it was discovered that wine glasses, when rubbed with a wet finger, produced a musical tone. A collection of glasses played in this manner is called a glass harp. Another type of glass harmonica, called the armonica by its inventor Benjamin Franklin, employs glass bowls or cups turned by a horizontal axle, so the performer need only touch the rim of the bowls as they rotate to set them into vibration. We discuss the modes of vibration of both types of glass harmonica, and describe the different sounds that are emitted by rubbing, tapping, or bowing them. Rubbing with a wet finger tends to excite only the (2,0) mode and its harmonics through a ``stick-slip'' process, while tapping excites the other modes as well.

  17. USGS River Ecosystem Modeling: Where Are We, How Did We Get Here, and Where Are We Going?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, Leanne; Schrock, Robin; Waddle, Terry; Duda, Jeffrey J.; Lellis, Bill

    2009-01-01

    This report developed as an outcome of the USGS River Ecosystem Modeling Work Group, convened on February 11, 2008 as a preconference session to the second USGS Modeling Conference in Orange Beach, Ala. Work Group participants gained an understanding of the types of models currently being applied to river ecosystem studies within the USGS, learned how model outputs are being used by a Federal land management agency, and developed recommendations for advancing the state of the art in river ecosystem modeling within the USGS. During a break-out session, participants restated many of the recommendations developed at the first USGS Modeling Conference in 2006 and in previous USGS needs assessments. All Work Group recommendations require organization and coordination across USGS disciplines and regions, and include (1) enhancing communications, (2) increasing efficiency through better use of current human and technologic resources, and (3) providing a national infrastructure for river ecosystem modeling resources, making it easier to integrate modeling efforts. By implementing these recommendations, the USGS will benefit from enhanced multi-disciplinary, integrated models for river ecosystems that provide valuable risk assessment and decision support tools for adaptive management of natural and managed riverine ecosystems. These tools generate key information that resource managers need and can use in making decisions about river ecosystem resources.

  18. Glass Ceiling in Academic Administration in Turkey: 1990s versus 2000s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunluk-Senesen, Gulay

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses the glass ceiling for academics in the Turkish universities with reference to top administration positions: rectors and deans. Glass ceiling indicators show that the glass ceiling thickened from the 1990s to late 2000s. The findings are discussed against the background of the transformation in the Turkish universities in the…

  19. Optimization of glass composition for the vitrification of nuclear waste at the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Soper, P D; Roberts, G J; Lightner, L F; Walker, D D; Plodinec, M J

    1982-01-01

    Waste glasses of different compositions were compared in terms of leachability, viscosity, liquidus temperature, and coefficient of expansion. The compositions of the glasses were determined by statistical optimization. Waste glass of the optimized composition is more durable than the current reference composition but can still be processed at low temperature.

  20. Radiopaque Strontium Fluoroapatite Glass-Ceramics.

    PubMed

    Höland, Wolfram; Schweiger, Marcel; Dittmer, Marc; Ritzberger, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The controlled precipitation of strontium fluoroapatite crystals was studied in four base glass compositions derived from the SiO2-Al2O3-Y2O3-SrO-Na2O-K2O/Rb2O/Cs2O-P2O5-F system. The crystal phase formation of these glasses and the main properties of the glass-ceramics, such as thermal and optical properties and radiopacity were compared with a fifth, a reference glass-ceramic. The reference glass-ceramic was characterized as Ca-fluoroapatite glass-ceramic. The four strontium fluoroapatite glass-ceramics showed the following crystal phases: (a) Sr5(PO4)3F - leucite, KAlSi2O6, (b) Sr5(PO4)3F - leucite, KAlSi2O6, and nano-sized NaSrPO4, (c) Sr5(PO4)3F - pollucite, CsAlSi2O6, and nano-sized NaSrPO4, and (d) Sr5(PO4)3F - Rb-leucite, RbAlSi2O6, and nano-sized NaSrPO4. The proof of crystal phase formation was possible by X-ray diffraction. The microstructures, which were studied using scanning electron microscopy, demonstrated a uniform distribution of the crystals in the glass matrix. The Sr-fluoroapatites were precipitated based on an internal crystallization process, and the crystals demonstrated a needle-like morphology. The study of the crystal growth of needle-like Sr-fluoroapatites gave a clear evidence of an Ostwald ripening mechanism. The formation of leucite, pollucite, and Rb-leucite was based on a surface crystallization mechanism. Therefore, a twofold crystallization mechanism was successfully applied to develop these types of glass-ceramics. The main focus of this study was the controlled development of glass-ceramics exhibiting high radiopacity in comparison to the reference glass-ceramic. This goal could be achieved with all four glass-ceramics with the preferred development of the Sr-fluoroapatite - pollucite-type glass-ceramic. In addition to this main development, it was possible to control the thermal properties. Especially the Rb-leucite containing glass-ceramic showed the highest coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). These

  1. Radiopaque Strontium Fluoroapatite Glass-Ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Höland, Wolfram; Schweiger, Marcel; Dittmer, Marc; Ritzberger, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The controlled precipitation of strontium fluoroapatite crystals was studied in four base glass compositions derived from the SiO2–Al2O3–Y2O3–SrO–Na2O–K2O/Rb2O/Cs2O–P2O5–F system. The crystal phase formation of these glasses and the main properties of the glass-ceramics, such as thermal and optical properties and radiopacity were compared with a fifth, a reference glass-ceramic. The reference glass-ceramic was characterized as Ca-fluoroapatite glass-ceramic. The four strontium fluoroapatite glass-ceramics showed the following crystal phases: (a) Sr5(PO4)3F – leucite, KAlSi2O6, (b) Sr5(PO4)3F – leucite, KAlSi2O6, and nano-sized NaSrPO4, (c) Sr5(PO4)3F – pollucite, CsAlSi2O6, and nano-sized NaSrPO4, and (d) Sr5(PO4)3F – Rb-leucite, RbAlSi2O6, and nano-sized NaSrPO4. The proof of crystal phase formation was possible by X-ray diffraction. The microstructures, which were studied using scanning electron microscopy, demonstrated a uniform distribution of the crystals in the glass matrix. The Sr-fluoroapatites were precipitated based on an internal crystallization process, and the crystals demonstrated a needle-like morphology. The study of the crystal growth of needle-like Sr-fluoroapatites gave a clear evidence of an Ostwald ripening mechanism. The formation of leucite, pollucite, and Rb-leucite was based on a surface crystallization mechanism. Therefore, a twofold crystallization mechanism was successfully applied to develop these types of glass-ceramics. The main focus of this study was the controlled development of glass-ceramics exhibiting high radiopacity in comparison to the reference glass-ceramic. This goal could be achieved with all four glass-ceramics with the preferred development of the Sr-fluoroapatite – pollucite-type glass-ceramic. In addition to this main development, it was possible to control the thermal properties. Especially the Rb-leucite containing glass-ceramic showed the highest coefficient of thermal

  2. Site Report for USGS Test Holes Drilled at Cape Charles, Northampton County, Virginia, in 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gohn, Gregory S.; Sanford, Ward E.; Powars, David S.; Horton, J. Wright, Jr.; Edwards, Lucy E.; Morin, Roger H.; Self-Trail, Jean M.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey drilled two test holes near Cape Charles, Virginia, during May and June 2004, as part of an investigation of the buried, late Eocene Chesapeake Bay impact structure. The first hole is designated as the USGS-Sustainable Technology Park test hole #1 (USGS-STP1). This test hole was abandoned at a depth of 300 ft; cuttings samples were collected, but no cores or geophysical logs were acquired. The second hole is designated as the USGS-Sustainable Technology Park test hole #2 (USGS-STP2). This test hole was drilled to a depth of 2,699 ft. Cores were collected between depths of 1,401.7 ft and 1,420.7 ft and between 2,440.0 ft and 2,699.0 ft. Cuttings samples were collected from the uncored intervals below 280-ft depth. Interim sets of geophysical logs were acquired during the drilling operation, and one final set was acquired at the end of drilling. Two wells were installed in the USGS-STP2 test hole. The deep well (designated 62G-24) was screened between 2,260 ft and 2,280 ft, and the shallow well (designated 62G-25) was screened between 1,360 ft and 1,380 ft. Ground-water salinities stabilized at 40 parts per thousand for the deep well and 20 parts per thousand for the shallow well. The geologic section encountered in the test holes consists of three main units: (1) Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene sands and clays are present between land surface and a depth of 1,163 ft; (2) sediment-clast breccias of the impact structure are present between depths of 1,163 ft and 2,150 ft; and (3) crystalline-clast breccias and cataclastic gneiss of the impact structure are present between depths of 2,150 ft and 2,699 ft.

  3. Status of Gr/glass composites technology at UTOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayor, Ramon A.

    1988-01-01

    The TSC (Thermally Stable Composite) refers to a family of graphite reinforced glass matrix composite materials developed by UTOS. This fiber matrix combination exhibits low coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE), exceptional dimensional stability, high specific strength and stiffness, adequate fracture toughness, and space environment compatibility. The dimensional stability of a TSC mirror structure was experimentally characterized at the Steward Observatory. Preliminary results indicate that TSC is significantly more thermally stable than most current structural composite materials. In addition, the use of lower CTE glass matrix materials, such as 96 percent silica glass, have the potential for producing graphite/glass panels with expansion rates and stability comparable to that of fused silica.

  4. Constructing a reference tephrochronology for Augustine Volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallace, Kristi; Coombs, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    Augustine Volcano is the most historically active volcano in Alaska's populous Cook Inlet region. Past on-island work on pre-historic tephra deposits mainly focused on using tephra layers as markers to help distinguish among prevalent debris-avalanche deposits on the island (Waitt and Beget, 2009, USGS Prof Paper 1762), or as source material for petrogenetic studies. No comprehensive reference study of tephra fall from Augustine Volcano previously existed. Numerous workers have identified Holocene-age tephra layers in the region surrounding Augustine Island, but without well-characterized reference deposits, correlation back to the source volcano is difficult. The purpose of this detailed tephra study is to provide a record of eruption frequency and magnitude, as well as to elucidate physical and chemical characteristics for use as reference standards for comparison with regionally distributed Augustine tephra layers. Whole rock major- and trace-element geochemistry, deposit componentry, and field context are used to correlate tephra units on the island where deposits are coarse grained. Major-element glass geochemistry was collected for use in correlating to unknown regional tephra. Due to the small size of the volcanic island (9 by 11 km in diameter) and frequent eruptive activity, on-island exposures of tephra deposits older than a couple thousand years are sparse, and the lettered Tephras B, M, C, H, I, and G of Waitt and Beget (2009) range in age from 370-2200 yrs B.P. There are, however, a few exposures on the south side of the volcano, within about 2 km of the vent, where stratigraphic sections that extend back to the late Pleistocene glaciation include coarse pumice-fall deposits. We have linked the letter-named tephras from the coast to these higher exposures on the south side using physical and chemical characteristics of the deposits. In addition, these exposures preserve at least 5 older major post-glacial eruptions of Augustine. These ultra

  5. Constructing a reference tephrochronology for Augustine Volcano, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, K.; Coombs, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    Augustine Volcano is the most historically active volcano in Alaska's populous Cook Inlet region. Past on-island work on pre-historic tephra deposits mainly focused on using tephra layers as markers to help distinguish among prevalent debris-avalanche deposits on the island (Waitt and Beget, 2009, USGS Prof Paper 1762), or as source material for petrogenetic studies. No comprehensive reference study of tephra fall from Augustine Volcano previously existed. Numerous workers have identified Holocene-age tephra layers in the region surrounding Augustine Island, but without well-characterized reference deposits, correlation back to the source volcano is difficult. The purpose of this detailed tephra study is to provide a record of eruption frequency and magnitude, as well as to elucidate physical and chemical characteristics for use as reference standards for comparison with regionally distributed Augustine tephra layers. Whole rock major- and trace-element geochemistry, deposit componentry, and field context are used to correlate tephra units on the island where deposits are coarse grained. Major-element glass geochemistry was collected for use in correlating to unknown regional tephra. Due to the small size of the volcanic island (9 by 11 km in diameter) and frequent eruptive activity, on-island exposures of tephra deposits older than a couple thousand years are sparse, and the lettered Tephras B, M, C, H, I, and G of Waitt and Beget (2009) range in age from 370-2200 yrs B.P. There are, however, a few exposures on the south side of the volcano, within about 2 km of the vent, where stratigraphic sections that extend back to the late Pleistocene glaciation include coarse pumice-fall deposits. We have linked the letter-named tephras from the coast to these higher exposures on the south side using physical and chemical characteristics of the deposits. In addition, these exposures preserve at least 5 older major post-glacial eruptions of Augustine. These ultra

  6. High-temperature glass and glass coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, H. E.; Katvala, V. E.; Leiser, D. B.

    1977-01-01

    Reaction-cured glasses resist thermal shock and maintain properties over range of -100 degrees Centrigrade to +1,480 degrees Centigrade. Stability makes these excellent materials for high-temperature glassware and tubing or as coatings for porous materials.

  7. ASTER and USGS EROS emergency imaging for hurricane disasters: Chapter 4D in Science and the storms-the USGS response to the hurricanes of 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duda, Kenneth A.; Abrams, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Satellite images have been extremely useful in a variety of emergency response activities, including hurricane disasters. This article discusses the collaborative efforts of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Joint United States-Japan Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Science Team, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in responding to crisis situations by tasking the ASTER instrument and rapidly providing information to initial responders. Insight is provided on the characteristics of the ASTER systems, and specific details are presented regarding Hurricane Katrina support.

  8. Archive of Digital Chirp Subbottom Profile Data Collected During USGS Cruise 14BIM05 Offshore of Breton Island, Louisiana, August 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forde, Arnell S.; Flocks, James G.; Wiese, Dana S.; Fredericks, Jake J.

    2016-01-01

    The archived trace data are in standard SEG Y rev. 0 format (Barry and others, 1975); the first 3,200 bytes of the card image header are in American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) format instead of Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (EBCDIC) format. The SEG Y files are available on the DVD version of this report or online, downloadable via the USGS Coastal and Marine Geoscience Data System (http://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov). The data are also available for viewing using GeoMapApp (http://www.geomapapp.org) and Virtual Ocean (http://www.virtualocean.org) multi-platform open source software. The Web version of this archive does not contain the SEG Y trace files. To obtain the complete DVD archive, contact USGS Information Services at 1-888-ASK-USGS or infoservices@usgs.gov. The SEG Y files may be downloaded and processed with commercial or public domain software such as Seismic Unix (SU) (Cohen and Stockwell, 2010). See the How To Download SEG Y Data page for download instructions. The printable profiles are provided as Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) images processed and gained using SU software and can be viewed from theProfiles page or by using the links located on the trackline maps; refer to the Software page for links to example SU processing scripts.

  9. Optical glass: standards - present state and outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Peter

    2015-10-01

    In 1996, the international organization for standardization ISO started the standards series ISO 10110 specifying indications in drawings of optical elements. Three parts cover material properties: part 2 (stress birefringence), 3 (bubbles and inclusions), and 4 (inhomogeneity and striae). Customers used to just send optical element drawings to glass manufacturers often leading to uncertainty, overspecification, and delivery problems. The raw glass standard ISO 12123 of 2010 allows direct addressing of raw glass specifications. Harmonizing ISO 10110 with ISO 12123 and progress in inspection methods require updating of the material specifying parts. A new part 18 containing all properties is under preparation and is meant to replace parts 2-4. ISO 12123 will be amended by introducing definitions for relative partial dispersions and reference normal lines and grade denominations for tolerance ranges. The working draft ISO/WD 10110 part 18 extends indication possibilities to allow relating to ISO 12123 while ensuring backward compatibility. Default optical glass quality and direct specification of raw glass simplify tolerancing considerably. Annexes support selection of appropriate quality classes referring to optical element size categories. Test and inspection standards on chemical resistances, hardness, stress birefringence, and optical homogeneity will be maintained. Standards for water resistance, refractive index, and striae inspection are being prepared.

  10. Liquid Glass: A Facile Soft Replication Method for Structuring Glass.

    PubMed

    Kotz, Frederik; Plewa, Klaus; Bauer, Werner; Schneider, Norbert; Keller, Nico; Nargang, Tobias; Helmer, Dorothea; Sachsenheimer, Kai; Schäfer, Michael; Worgull, Matthias; Greiner, Christian; Richter, Christiane; Rapp, Bastian E

    2016-06-01

    Liquid glass is a photocurable amorphous silica nanocomposite that can be structured using soft replication molds and turned into glass via thermal debinding and sintering. Simple polymer bonding techniques allow the fabrication of complex microsystems in glass like microfluidic chips. Liquid glass is a step toward prototyping of glass microstructures at low cost without requiring cleanroom facilities or hazardous chemicals. PMID:27060964