Science.gov

Sample records for reference group reviews

  1. Reference Effectiveness: A Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Ronald R.

    1984-01-01

    This research review analyzes output measures that assess the effectiveness of a library's reference services: reference questions, reference staff performance, reference users, combined output measures, and combined input/output measures. The need for research, a definition of reference effectiveness, and input measures are noted. Seventy-three…

  2. Promotional Perspectives of Reference Group Influence: Advertising Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lessig, V. Parker; Park, C. Whan

    1978-01-01

    Examines the role of reference groups and promotional appeals in satisfying consumer motivations. Emphasizes three motivational reference group functions: informational, utilitarian, and value-expressive. (RL)

  3. Group Projects and Peer Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyrud, Marilyn A.

    2001-01-01

    Describes problems the author experienced with disfunctionality in student group projects. Describes how she implemented informal and formal peer reviews throughout the term in these groups, which has helped short-circuit disfunctionality, improve student productivity, and help the instructor form a fairer overall assessment. (SR)

  4. With Reference to Reference Genes: A Systematic Review of Endogenous Controls in Gene Expression Studies

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Joanne R.; Waldenström, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    The choice of reference genes that are stably expressed amongst treatment groups is a crucial step in real-time quantitative PCR gene expression studies. Recent guidelines have specified that a minimum of two validated reference genes should be used for normalisation. However, a quantitative review of the literature showed that the average number of reference genes used across all studies was 1.2. Thus, the vast majority of studies continue to use a single gene, with β-actin (ACTB) and/or glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) being commonly selected in studies of vertebrate gene expression. Few studies (15%) tested a panel of potential reference genes for stability of expression before using them to normalise data. Amongst studies specifically testing reference gene stability, few found ACTB or GAPDH to be optimal, whereby these genes were significantly less likely to be chosen when larger panels of potential reference genes were screened. Fewer reference genes were tested for stability in non-model organisms, presumably owing to a dearth of available primers in less well characterised species. Furthermore, the experimental conditions under which real-time quantitative PCR analyses were conducted had a large influence on the choice of reference genes, whereby different studies of rat brain tissue showed different reference genes to be the most stable. These results highlight the importance of validating the choice of normalising reference genes before conducting gene expression studies. PMID:26555275

  5. Ageing and the group-reference effect in memory.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeon-Nyeon; Rosa, Nicole M; Gutchess, Angela H

    2016-07-01

    The present study examines age differences in the memory benefits from group-referncing. While prior work establishes that the memory performance of younger and older adults similarly benefits from relating information to the self, this study assessed whether those benefits extend to referencing a meaningful group membership. Young and older adult participants encoded trait words by judging whether each word describes themselves, describes their group membership (selected for each age group), or is familiar. After a retention interval, participants completed a surprise recognition memory test. The results indicate that group-referencing increased recognition memory performance compared to the familiarity judgements for both young and older groups. However, the group-reference benefit is limited, emerging as smaller than the benefit from self-referencing. These results challenge previous findings of equivalent benefits for group-referencing and self-referencing, suggesting that such effects may not prevail under all conditions, including for older adults. The findings also highlight the need to examine the mechanisms of group-referencing that can lead to variability in the group-reference effect. PMID:26252870

  6. Male Reference Group Identity Dependence: A Theory of Male Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Jay C.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a theory of male identity developed to address the question of why men vary in their masculinity ideology and in their conformity to standards of masculinity. An overview of relevant masculinity research, theoretical foundations for the construct of reference group identity dependence, theoretical postulates, associated behavioral, and…

  7. REFERENCE GROUP ORIENTATION AND TEACHER ATTITUDE TOWARD SCHOOL DISTRICT REORGANIZATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRUMBAUGH, ROBERT B.

    A STUDY WAS REPORTED OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LOCAL-COSMOPOLITAN ORIENTATION, A CONCEPT FROM REFERENCE GROUP THEORY, AND THE RESISTANCE TO ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE. A QUESTIONNAIRE WAS ADMINISTERED TO 329 PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHERS IN FIVE CONTIGUOUS SCHOOL DISTRICTS IN CENTRAL PENNSYLVANIA WHICH WERE TO LOSE THEIR INDIVIDUAL IDENTITIES UNDER THE…

  8. Relative Deprivation and Health: Which Reference Groups Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangyo, Eiji; Park, Albert

    2011-01-01

    We examine the extent to which self-reported health and psychosocial health are affected by relative economic status in China, for the first time examining the importance of reference groups not defined by geographic location or demographic characteristics. We propose a methodology to address potential bias from subjective reporting biases and…

  9. Detecting Deception within Small Groups: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Vernham, Zarah; Granhag, Pär-Anders; Mac Giolla, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Investigators often have multiple suspects to interview in order to determine whether they are guilty or innocent of a crime. Nevertheless, co-offending has been significantly neglected within the deception detection literature. The current review is the first of its kind to discuss co-offending and the importance of examining the detection of deception within groups. Groups of suspects can be interviewed separately (individual interviewing) or simultaneously (collective interviewing) and these differing interviewing styles are assessed throughout the review. The review emphasizes the differences between lone individuals and groups. It focuses on the theoretical implications of group deceit and the reasons why groups need to be understood in terms of investigative interviewing and deception detection if all types of crime-related incidents are to be recognized and dealt with appropriately. Group strategies, consistency within- and between-statements, joint memory, and group dynamics are referred to throughout the review and the importance of developing interview protocols specifically for groups is discussed. The review concludes by identifying the gaps in the literature and suggesting ideas for future research, highlighting that more research is required if we are to obtain a true understanding of the deception occurring within groups and how best to detect it. PMID:27445957

  10. Development of a Unified Reference System for a Multi-personnel Research Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, D.; Fitzpaynes, J. Y. L.

    1973-01-01

    The establishment of a reference filing system, based on optical coincidence retrieval, for an eight-man research group studying gas reactions is described. The complete system is simple to use and gives rapid, precise reference retrieval. (1 reference) (Author)

  11. The reference group perspective for smoking cessation: an examination of the influence of social norms and social identification with reference groups on smoking cessation self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Phua, Joe J

    2013-03-01

    This study proposed the Reference Group Perspective for smoking cessation, examining smokers' identification with three reference groups: best friends, colleagues, and family members, and hypothesizing that identification with each group would moderate the relationship between injunctive and descriptive norms of the group and smoking cessation self-efficacy. Results of an online questionnaire (N = 208) indicated that injunctive and descriptive norms of all three reference groups significantly affected smoking cessation self-efficacy, and this relationship was moderated by identification. Injunctive norms were stronger in predicting smoking cessation self-efficacy than descriptive norms, with injunctive norms of family members and descriptive norms of best friends having the most significant effect. Positive attitude toward smoking was also significantly associated with smoking cessation self-efficacy. PMID:22732053

  12. Reference manual for the POISSON/SUPERFISH Group of Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The POISSON/SUPERFISH Group codes were set up to solve two separate problems: the design of magnets and the design of rf cavities in a two-dimensional geometry. The first stage of either problem is to describe the layout of the magnet or cavity in a way that can be used as input to solve the generalized Poisson equation for magnets or the Helmholtz equations for cavities. The computer codes require that the problems be discretized by replacing the differentials (dx,dy) by finite differences ({delta}X,{delta}Y). Instead of defining the function everywhere in a plane, the function is defined only at a finite number of points on a mesh in the plane.

  13. 7 CFR 3415.11 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3415.11 Section... Research Grant Applications § 3415.11 Composition of peer review groups. (a) Peer review group members and... need to maintain a balanced composition of peer review groups related to minority and...

  14. 7 CFR 3415.11 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3415.11 Section... Research Grant Applications § 3415.11 Composition of peer review groups. (a) Peer review group members and... need to maintain a balanced composition of peer review groups related to minority and...

  15. 7 CFR 3415.11 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3415.11 Section... Research Grant Applications § 3415.11 Composition of peer review groups. (a) Peer review group members and... need to maintain a balanced composition of peer review groups related to minority and...

  16. Reference Groups for Female Attractiveness Among Black and White College Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Algea O.; Stoner, David M.

    This study is concerned with the comparative reference group used by black and white women when evaluating female attractiveness. The study's examination of this issue is part of a larger report on the relationship between self-concept, attractiveness and reference group for black and white women. The study used the technique proposed by McGuire…

  17. 7 CFR 3411.11 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3411.11 Section... PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Grant Applications § 3411.11 Composition of peer review groups... need to maintain a balanced composition of peer review groups related to minority and...

  18. Group Work for Bulimia: A Review of Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimpfer, David G.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews descriptive and experimental research relating to the eating disorder known as bulimia nervosa. Reviews outcome studies of group treatment of bulimia to examine the effectiveness of group intervention. Provides recommendations for practice and future research. (Author/PVV)

  19. Reference radiochromic film dosimetry: Review of technical aspects.

    PubMed

    Devic, Slobodan; Tomic, Nada; Lewis, David

    2016-04-01

    For decades, film was used as a powerful two-dimensional (2D) dosimetry tool for radiotherapy treatment verification and quality assurance. Unlike the old silver-halide based radiographic films, radiochromic films change its color upon irradiation without the need for chemical development. Radiation dose deposited within a sensitive layer of the radiochromic film initiates polymerization of the active component, the degree of which depends on the amount of energy deposited. Response of the film to radiation is commonly expressed in terms of optical density change, which can be easily measured by any photometric device. However, a number of factors may have an impact on the signal detected by the measuring device. This review summarizes technical aspects associated with the establishment of reference radiochromic film dosimetry and its subsequent use for either clinical or research applications. PMID:27020097

  20. 7 CFR 3400.11 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3400.11 Section 3400.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH... Review of Research Grant Applications § 3400.11 Composition of peer review groups. (a) Peer review...

  1. 7 CFR 3411.11 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3411.11 Section... Research Grant Applications § 3411.11 Composition of peer review groups. (a) Peer review group members and..., private consultant(s)) and geographic locations; and (4) The need to maintain a balanced composition...

  2. 7 CFR 3400.11 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3400.11 Section 3400.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD... § 3400.11 Composition of peer review groups. (a) Peer review group members will be selected based...

  3. 7 CFR 3401.13 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3401.13 Section 3401.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD... Funding § 3401.13 Composition of peer review groups. Peer review group members will be selected based...

  4. 7 CFR 3401.13 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3401.13 Section 3401.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD... Funding § 3401.13 Composition of peer review groups. Peer review group members will be selected based...

  5. 7 CFR 3400.11 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3400.11 Section 3400.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD... § 3400.11 Composition of peer review groups. (a) Peer review group members will be selected based...

  6. 7 CFR 3401.13 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3401.13 Section 3401.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD... Funding § 3401.13 Composition of peer review groups. Peer review group members will be selected based...

  7. 7 CFR 3400.11 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3400.11 Section 3400.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD... § 3400.11 Composition of peer review groups. (a) Peer review group members will be selected based...

  8. 7 CFR 3401.13 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3401.13 Section 3401.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD... Funding § 3401.13 Composition of peer review groups. Peer review group members will be selected based...

  9. 7 CFR 3400.11 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3400.11 Section 3400.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD... § 3400.11 Composition of peer review groups. (a) Peer review group members will be selected based...

  10. Wade's and Gelso's Contribution to the New Psychology of Men: Male Reference Group Dependence Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, James M.

    1998-01-01

    Relates Wade's and Gelso's Male Reference Group Dependence Theory to past and present literature in the new psychology of men. Points out the strengths of the ideas and data; reflects on where the theory needs more clarification and extension. (MKA)

  11. Effects of reference pricing in pharmaceutical markets: a review.

    PubMed

    Galizzi, Matteo Maria; Ghislandi, Simone; Miraldo, Marisa

    2011-01-01

    This work aims to provide a systematic and updated survey of original scientific studies on the effect of the introduction of reference pricing (RP) policies in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. We searched PubMed, EconLit and Web of Knowledge for articles on RP. We reviewed studies that met the inclusion criteria established in the search strategy. From a total of 468 references, we selected the 35 that met all of the inclusion criteria. Some common themes emerged in the literature. The first was that RP was generally associated with a decrease in the prices of the drugs subject to the policy. In particular, price drops seem to have been experienced in virtually every country that implemented a generic RP (GRP) policy. A GRP policy applies only to products with expired patents and generic competition, and clusters drugs according to chemical equivalence (same form and active compound). More significant price decreases were observed in the sub-markets in which drugs were already facing generic competition prior to RP. Price drops varied widely according to the amount of generic competition and industrial strategies: brand-named drugs originally priced above RP values decreased their prices to a greater extent. A second common theme was that both therapeutic RP (TRP) and GRP have been associated with significant and consistent savings in the first years of application. A third general result is that generic market shares significantly increased whenever the firms producing brand-named drugs did not adopt one of the following strategies: lowering prices to RP values; launching new dosages and/or formulations; or marketing substitute drugs still under patent protection. Finally, concerning TRP, although more evidence is needed, studies based on a large number of patient-level observations showed no association between the RP policy and health outcomes. PMID:21142276

  12. Establishing a reference group for distal 18q-: clinical description and molecular basis.

    PubMed

    Cody, Jannine D; Hasi, Minire; Soileau, Bridgette; Heard, Patricia; Carter, Erika; Sebold, Courtney; O'Donnell, Louise; Perry, Brian; Stratton, Robert F; Hale, Daniel E

    2014-02-01

    Although constitutional chromosome abnormalities have been recognized since the 1960s, clinical characterization and development of treatment options have been hampered by their obvious genetic complexity and relative rarity. Additionally, deletions of 18q are particularly heterogeneous, with no two people having the same breakpoints. We identified 16 individuals with deletions that, despite unique breakpoints, encompass the same set of genes within a 17.6-Mb region. This group represents the most genotypically similar group yet identified with distal 18q deletions. As the deletion is of average size when compared with other 18q deletions, this group can serve as a reference point for the clinical and molecular description of this condition. We performed a thorough medical record review as well as a series of clinical evaluations on 14 of the 16 individuals. Common functional findings included developmental delays, hypotonia, growth hormone deficiency, and hearing loss. Structural anomalies included foot anomalies, ear canal atresia/stenosis, and hypospadias. The majority of individuals performed within the low normal range of cognitive ability but had more serious deficits in adaptive abilities. Of interest, the hemizygous region contains 38 known genes, 26 of which are sufficiently understood to tentatively determine dosage sensitivity. Published data suggest that 20 are unlikely to cause an abnormal phenotype in the hemizygous state and five are likely to be dosage sensitive: TNX3, NETO1, ZNF407, TSHZ1, and NFATC. A sixth gene, ATP9B, may be conditionally dosage sensitive. Not all distal 18q- phenotypes can be attributed to these six genes; however, this is an important advance in the molecular characterization of 18q deletions. PMID:24092497

  13. Grounding a Stereotype Theory: Reference Group Variable and the Homosexual Stereotype.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simms, Steven A.

    To ascertain the audience's perception of the homosexual stereotyped character in reference to the social contact variable, two groups were shown a television situational comedy that depicted two homosexual characters. The two groups, one composed of 45 homosexual and the other of 95 heterosexual college students, were then asked to evaluate the…

  14. A retrospective review of cancer treatments and outcomes among Inuit referred from Nunavut, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Asmis, T.R.; Febbraro, M.; Alvarez, G.G.; Spaans, J.N.; Ruta, M.; Lalany, A.; Osborne, G.; Goss, G.D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cancer is a health concern in Inuit populations. Unique cultural, dietary, and genetic factors and geographic isolation influence cancer epidemiology in this group. Inuit-specific data about oncology treatments and survival outcomes in Canadian Inuit referred to urban treatment centres are lacking. Methods A retrospective chart review of Inuit patients referred to The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre (tohcc) from the Baffin region of Nunavut between 2000 and 2010 was conducted. Nunavut cancer registry data were used to establish the percentage of cancer cases referred and their survival outcomes. Results Of 307 cancer patients registered among Baffin-region Inuit, 216 [70% (63 men, 153 women)] were referred to tohcc for chemotherapy (ct) and radiation therapy (rt). Mean age in the referred group was 59.3 years (range: 25–89 years), and current smokers constituted half the group (52%). The cancers most commonly leading to referral in men were lung (55%), colorectal (19%), and nasopharyngeal (11%) cancers; in women, they were lung (46%), colorectal (24%), breast (10%), nasopharyngeal (6%), and cervical (5%) cancers. Of the 216 referred patients, 82 (38%) had already undergone surgery, and 18 (8%) received chemoradiation or rt only, all given with curative intent. Among the surgical patients referred, 33 (40%) and 23 (28%) went on to receive adjuvant ct and adjuvant rt respectively. Among 116 patients referred for palliative care, 64 (55%) received ct, 76 (66%) received rt, 43 (37%) received both ct and rt, and 19 (16%) received neither treatment. Median all-stage overall survival was 10 months for patients with lung cancer [95% confidence interval: 6.1 to 13.9 months] and 37 months for patients with colorectal cancer [95% confidence interval: 14.8 to 59.2 months]. Conclusions High uptake of palliative and adjuvant ct and rt was observed in the Inuit patients referred to tohcc. Lung cancer was the most common cancer in referred Inuit men and women. The

  15. Mentoring Together: A Literature Review of Group Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huizing, Russell L.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have shown the benefits of mentoring in both personal and professional growth. It would seem that group mentoring would only enhance those benefits. This work represents a literature review of peer-reviewed articles and dissertations that contribute to the theory and research of group mentoring. This work reviews the articles that…

  16. 7 CFR 3401.13 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3401.13 Section 3401.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH... Peer Review of Research Applications for Funding § 3401.13 Composition of peer review groups....

  17. Changing Reference Service Environment: A Review of Perspectives from Managers, Librarians, and Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieh, Soo Young

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the literature on academic library reference service, and examines changes in the traditional reference desk model. Based on the review from the perspectives of managers, librarians, and users, new research directions are proposed in which users' information-search processes and librarians' intervention in reference service are integrated.…

  18. A Review of Group Systems Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, Joanie V.; Caple, Richard B.

    2005-01-01

    The ability to see interpersonal and group processes beyond the individual level is an essential skill for group therapists (Crouch, Bloch & Wanlass, 1994; Dies, 1994; Fuhriman & Burlingame, 1994). In addition to interpersonal therapy models (e.g., Sullivan and Yalom), there are a number of systems theory models that offer a broad array of…

  19. [Review of normal spectral emissivity standard reference materials].

    PubMed

    Yu, Kun; Liu, Yu-Fang; Zhao, Yue-Jin

    2012-11-01

    In order to improve the accuracy of spectral emissivity measurement, standard reference materials of spectral emissivity as the dissemination of quantity in spectral emissivity measurement are used for the calibration of spectral emissivity measurement apparatus. In the present paper, firstly the standard reference materials data proposed by the American National Institute of Standards and Technology are introduced, and some underlying standard reference materials suggested by some metering departments in Europe are analyzed in detail For the standard reference material Armco iron and SiC proposed by some researchers, the advantages and disadvantages were explored. Finally, the characteristics of standard reference materials are summarized, and the future development of spectral emissivity measurement standard is prospected. PMID:23387148

  20. 75 FR 55793 - Cooperative Agreement to Support the Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... Burden Epidemiology Reference Group of the World Health Organization (U18) AGENCY: Food and Drug... fiscal year 2010 (FY10) to the World Health Organization (WHO). One of the primary goals of the WHO is to... the estimation of foodborne disease burden where data are lacking; develop cause attribution models...

  1. Factors of Group Psychotherapy for Adult Alcoholics: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Jonathan K.

    Research on therapeutic factors of group psychotherapy for adult alcoholics is reviewed. The research in this area has focused on determining whether or not group psychotherapy is an effective treatment modality for alcoholics. This review examines therapeutic factors in three phases of treatment: (1) preadmission, (2) primary intervention, and…

  2. 42 CFR 52h.4 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 52h.4 Section 52h.4 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS SCIENTIFIC... Composition of peer review groups. (a) To the extent applicable, the selection and appointment of members...

  3. 42 CFR 52h.4 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 52h.4 Section 52h.4 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS SCIENTIFIC... Composition of peer review groups. (a) To the extent applicable, the selection and appointment of members...

  4. 42 CFR 52h.4 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 52h.4 Section 52h.4 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS SCIENTIFIC... Composition of peer review groups. (a) To the extent applicable, the selection and appointment of members...

  5. 42 CFR 52h.4 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 52h.4 Section 52h.4 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS SCIENTIFIC... Composition of peer review groups. (a) To the extent applicable, the selection and appointment of members...

  6. 42 CFR 52h.4 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 52h.4 Section 52h.4 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS SCIENTIFIC... Composition of peer review groups. (a) To the extent applicable, the selection and appointment of members...

  7. Focusing on Content: Discourse in L2 Peer Review Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorobel, Oksana; Kim, Deoksoon

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies on peer review groups in second language classes have focused on various topics, including collaboration (Carr, 2008) and the effect of peer review versus teacher feedback on students' writing (Zhang, 1995). One area that has received little attention is the content of students' speech during peer review. This longitudinal…

  8. The Organic Food Method and Movement: An Interdisciplinary Reference Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Elizabeth E.

    2011-01-01

    From popular movies to New York Times bestsellers, organic food is widely acknowledged to be of growing importance. Many community college students are asking: How is organic food different from everything else in the grocery store? What impact does farming have on the environment? How safe is our food? A survey of reference works introduces…

  9. 7 CFR 3415.11 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3415.11 Section 3415.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE BIOTECHNOLOGY RISK ASSESSMENT RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Grant Applications § 3415.11 Composition...

  10. Genomic Characterization of Group C Orthobunyavirus Reference Strains and Recent South American Clinical Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yu; Solórzano, Víctor Fiestas; Kuschner, Robert A.; Halsey, Eric S.; Jarman, Richard G.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.

    2014-01-01

    Group C orthobunyaviruses (family Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus), discovered in the 1950s, are vector-borne human pathogens in the Americas. Currently there is a gap in genomic information for group C viruses. In this study, we obtained complete coding region sequences of reference strains of Caraparu (CARV), Oriboca (ORIV), Marituba (MTBV) and Madrid (MADV) viruses, and five clinical isolates from Peru and Bolivia, using an unbiased de novo approach consisting of random reverse transcription, random anchored PCR amplification, and high throughput pyrosequencing. The small, medium, and large segments encode for a 235 amino acid nucleocapsid protein, an approximately 1430 amino acid surface glycoprotein polyprotein precursor, and a 2248 amino acid RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, respectively. Additionally, the S segment encodes for an 83 amino acid non-structural protein, although this protein is truncated or silenced in some isolates. Phylogenetically, three clinical isolates clustered with CARV, one clustered with MTBV, and one isolate appeared to be a reassortant or a genetic drift resulted from the high variability of the medium segment which was also seen in a few other orthobunyaviruses. These data represent the first complete coding region sequences for this serocomplex of pathogenic orthobunyaviruses. The genome-wide phylogeny of reference strains is consistent with the antigenic properties of the viruses reported in the original serological studies conducted in the 1960s. Comparative analysis of conserved protein regions across group C virus strains and the other orthobunyavirus groups revealed that these group C viruses contain characteristic domains of potential structural and functional significance. Our results provide the basis for the developments of diagnostics, further genetic analyses, and future epidemiologic studies of group C viruses. PMID:24633174

  11. Filtration and dewatering: review of literature. [117 references

    SciTech Connect

    Gala, H. B.; Chiang, S. H.

    1980-09-01

    Filtration and dewatering are important aspects of any chemical process involved in producing solid product from a slurry. However, these operations are not studied in as much detail as other industrial operations like distillation, absorption, etc. In the past, the design of filtration equipment was considered more of an art than science. Only in the last few years have attempts been made to understand the fundamental mechanism underlying these operations. In this review, the present status of filtration and dewatering is discussed, particularly concerning the models used for predicting the rate of filtration and dewatering. Effects of various parameters, size of particles in the slurry, their shape and method of cake formation, etc., on the characteristics of these operations are analyzed. A separate chapter on the use of these processes in coal cleaning is included. Dewatering of fine coal and refuse has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years. Special problems associated with dewatering of fine coal are discussed. Enhanced methods of dewatering are reviewed and finally areas requiring further research are highlighted.

  12. First Report of the Stable North America Reference Frame (SNARF) Working Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blewitt, G.; Bennett, R. A.; Calais, E.; Herring, T. A.; Larson, K. M.; Miller, M. M.; Sella, G.; Snay, R. A.; Tamisiea, M. E.

    2004-05-01

    We report on the first SNARF Workshop funded by NSF EarthScope, held on Jan 27, 2004. The initial SNARF Working Group membership was approved by the UNAVCO Board and is charged with producing a standard reference frame (for studies in North America) and specifying standard procedures to realize such a frame to meet the needs of EarthScope and the UNAVCO community. SNARF is an official IAG working group under the North America Reference Frame (NAREF) sub-commission. There is also a public service element to these activities in that one objective is for SNARF to become part of the definition of the legal reference frame used in the USA and Canada (NAD83), a natural spin-off demanded by society's increasingly sophisticated needs following on the heels of scientific progress. Through the first workshop, the SNARF WG has already begun to address the pressing needs for a North America-fixed reference frame that is stable at the sub-millimeter level, and what is involved in defining a frame with such stability. Velocity solutions from GPS networks covering the North America-Pacific plate boundary (including the Plate Boundary Observatory under construction) are most naturally expressed with respect to the stable interiors of either the North America or Pacific plates. As well as providing a common frame by which to compare results from different analysis groups, such a system makes it easier to interpret the data in terms of where the total budget of relative plate motion is accomodated, and how deep plate boundary dynamics penetrate into the plate interior. Defining a stable frame at the sub-millimeter level requires adequate characterization of kinematics at that level across a sufficiently broad expanse of what may be termed the "plate interior," which deforms due to GIA and other mantle processes, coupled with lithospheric heterogeneity. A dynamically defined velocity datum (as opposed to a purely kinematic choice) is preferable to add interpretive value to site

  13. Constellation Mission Operation Working Group: ESMO Maneuver Planning Process Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moyer, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The Earth Science Mission Operation (ESMO) Project created an Independent Review Board to review our Conjunction Risk evaluation process and Maneuver Planning Process to identify improvements that safely manages mission conjunction risks, maintains ground track science requirements, and minimizes overall hours expended on High Interest Events (HIE). The Review Board is evaluating the current maneuver process which requires support by multiple groups. In the past year, there have been several changes to the processes although many prior and new concerns exist. This presentation will discuss maneuver process reviews and Board comments, ESMO assessment and path foward, ESMO future plans, recent changes and concerns.

  14. Systematic review to support the development of nutrient reference intake values: challenges and solutions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Workshops sponsored by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and the World Health Organization (WHO) suggested that incorporating systematic reviews into the process of updating nutrient reference values would enhance the transparency of the process. The IOM issues the Dietary Reference Intake values (DR...

  15. Aggression in children with autism spectrum disorders and a clinic-referred comparison group.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Cristan; Butter, Eric; Mazurek, Micah O; Cowan, Charles; Lainhart, Janet; Cook, Edwin H; DeWitt, Mary Beth; Aman, Michael

    2015-04-01

    A gap exists in the literature regarding aggression in autism spectrum disorders and how this behavior compares to other groups. In this multisite study, the Children's Scale for Hostility and Aggression: Reactive/Proactive and the Aggression subscale of the Child Behavior Checklist were rated for 414 children with autism spectrum disorder (autistic disorder, 69%; pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, 24%; Asperger's disorder, 7%) and 243 clinic-referred children without autism spectrum disorder, aged 1-21 years (mean age about 7 years). Participants were not selected for aggressive behavior. Relative to the comparison group, children with autism spectrum disorder were reported to have less aggression and were more likely to be rated as reactive rather than proactive. Among all subjects, sex was not associated with aggression; higher IQ/adaptive behavior and older age were associated with more sophisticated types of aggression, while lower scores on IQ, adaptive behavior, and communication measures were associated with more physical aggression. The interaction between demographic variables and diagnosis was significant only for age: younger but not older children with autism spectrum disorder showed less aggression than clinic-referred controls. PMID:24497627

  16. 42 CFR 61.15 - Moral character or loyalty; reference to Special Review Committee; review and recommendation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Moral character or loyalty; reference to Special Review Committee; review and recommendation. 61.15 Section 61.15 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular...

  17. 42 CFR 61.15 - Moral character or loyalty; reference to Special Review Committee; review and recommendation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Moral character or loyalty; reference to Special Review Committee; review and recommendation. 61.15 Section 61.15 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular...

  18. 42 CFR 61.15 - Moral character or loyalty; reference to Special Review Committee; review and recommendation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Moral character or loyalty; reference to Special Review Committee; review and recommendation. 61.15 Section 61.15 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular...

  19. 42 CFR 61.15 - Moral character or loyalty; reference to Special Review Committee; review and recommendation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Moral character or loyalty; reference to Special Review Committee; review and recommendation. 61.15 Section 61.15 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular...

  20. 42 CFR 61.15 - Moral character or loyalty; reference to Special Review Committee; review and recommendation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Moral character or loyalty; reference to Special Review Committee; review and recommendation. 61.15 Section 61.15 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular...

  1. Strategic groups in health care: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Perryman, Martha M; Rivers, Patrick A

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to review the literature that discusses the relationship between strategic group membership and performance in the nursing home industry. This literature review examines the relationship between organizational structure and performance in the nursing home industry. Results from these studies suggest industry stability of segmentation; limitation of strategic choice due to high mobility barriers (as represented by facility, staffing and location variables); quality is controlled by the existing combinations of industry regulation and market competition; and the existence of performance differences among strategic groups. PMID:21840900

  2. Quantum reference frames associated with noncompact groups: The case of translations and boosts and the role of mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Alexander R. H.; Piani, Marco; Mann, Robert B.

    2016-07-01

    Quantum communication without a shared reference frame or the construction of a relational quantum theory requires the notion of a quantum reference frame. We analyze aspects of quantum reference frames associated with noncompact groups, specifically, the group of spatial translations and Galilean boosts. We begin by demonstrating how the usually employed group average, used to dispense of the notion of an external reference frame, leads to unphysical states when applied to reference frames associated with noncompact groups. However, we show that this average does lead naturally to a reduced state on the relative degrees of freedom of a system, which was previously considered by Angelo et al. [J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 44, 145304 (2011), 10.1088/1751-8113/44/14/145304]. We then study in detail the informational properties of this reduced state for systems of two and three particles in Gaussian states.

  3. 15 CFR 2002.1 - Trade Policy Committee Review Group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Trade Policy Committee Review Group. 2002.1 Section 2002.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements..., December 11, 1971 (15 CFR 2002.1), is abolished and there is hereby established as a subordinate body...

  4. 15 CFR 2002.1 - Trade Policy Committee Review Group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., December 11, 1971 (15 CFR 2002.1), is abolished and there is hereby established as a subordinate body of... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trade Policy Committee Review Group. 2002.1 Section 2002.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade...

  5. Software Development Group. Software Review Center. Microcomputing Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkey, Nadine; Smith, Shirley C.

    Two papers describe the roles of the Software Development Group (SDG) and the Software Review Center (SRC) at Drexel University. The first paper covers the primary role of the SDG, which is designed to assist Drexel faculty with the technical design and programming of courseware for the Apple Macintosh microcomputer; the relationship of the SDG…

  6. 15 CFR 2002.1 - Trade Policy Committee Review Group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., December 11, 1971 (15 CFR 2002.1), is abolished and there is hereby established as a subordinate body of... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Trade Policy Committee Review Group. 2002.1 Section 2002.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade...

  7. 15 CFR 2002.1 - Trade Policy Committee Review Group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., December 11, 1971 (15 CFR 2002.1), is abolished and there is hereby established as a subordinate body of... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Trade Policy Committee Review Group. 2002.1 Section 2002.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade...

  8. Business vs. Cultural Frames of Reference in Group Decision Making: Interactions among Austrian, Finnish, and Swedish Business Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auer-Rizzi, Werner; Berry Michael

    2000-01-01

    Examines ways business and cultural frames of reference affect decision making in multicultural groups. Finds students' reactions to two class activities shows how "groupthink" arose in both exercises; cultural interference paralyzed group decision making in one group; and cultural interference demonstrated the importance of a cultural negotiation…

  9. Evolutionary dynamics of group interactions on structured populations: a review

    PubMed Central

    Perc, Matjaž; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús; Szolnoki, Attila; Floría, Luis M.; Moreno, Yamir

    2013-01-01

    Interactions among living organisms, from bacteria colonies to human societies, are inherently more complex than interactions among particles and non-living matter. Group interactions are a particularly important and widespread class, representative of which is the public goods game. In addition, methods of statistical physics have proved valuable for studying pattern formation, equilibrium selection and self-organization in evolutionary games. Here, we review recent advances in the study of evolutionary dynamics of group interactions on top of structured populations, including lattices, complex networks and coevolutionary models. We also compare these results with those obtained on well-mixed populations. The review particularly highlights that the study of the dynamics of group interactions, like several other important equilibrium and non-equilibrium dynamical processes in biological, economical and social sciences, benefits from the synergy between statistical physics, network science and evolutionary game theory. PMID:23303223

  10. Effects of documentation and grouping on the use of CD-ROM reference sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newmaster, Margaret Ann Lyon

    The effect of elaboration in technical documentation and the use of cooperative learning strategies on the performance and attitude of high school biology students using Science Navigator, a networked CD-ROM reference tool, were investigated. Students were randomly assigned to an individual or paired grouping treatment and to one of three documentation treatments: elaborated documentation, minimal manual, or minimal cards. Students completed two CD-ROM information search exercises. The initial search was performed either with a cooperative partner or independently. All participants performed the second search independently. Performance time was recorded. Students completed a 10-item attitude survey individually after each exercise. Analysis of data revealed a main effect for grouping. Participants in the cooperative treatment completed both exercises in significantly less time than students in the independent treatment. Cooperative treatment participants expressed significantly more positive attitudes about both exercises and the documentation. A main effect was also found for documentation. Participants in both minimal documentation treatments completed the second exercise in significantly less time than participants in the elaborated documentation treatment. Participants in both minimalist documentation treatments expressed significantly more positive attitudes toward both the exercises and the documentation than participants in the elaborated documentation treatment.

  11. Spiritually and Religiously Integrated Group Psychotherapy: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We systematically reviewed the research literature on spiritually and religiously integrated group psychotherapy to answer the following three questions: first, how are spirituality and religiosity defined; second, how are spiritual and religious factors characterized and integrated into group psychotherapy; and, third, what is the outcome of the group psychotherapies? We searched in two databases: PsycINFO and PubMed. Inclusion and exclusion criteria and checklists from standardized assessment tools were applied to the research literature. Qualitative and quantitative papers were included. In total, 8 articles were considered eligible for the review. Findings from the evaluation suggested that the concepts of spirituality and religiosity were poorly conceptualized and the way in which spiritual and religious factors were integrated into such group psychotherapies, which distinguished it from other types of group psychotherapies, was not fully conceptualized or understood either. However, clear and delimited conceptualization of spiritual and religious factors is crucial in order to be able to conclude the direct influences of spiritual or religious factors on outcomes. Implications for spiritually or religiously integrated group psychotherapy and conducting research in this field are propounded. PMID:24288557

  12. The Group A Streptococcal Carrier State Reviewed: Still an Enigma.

    PubMed

    DeMuri, Gregory P; Wald, Ellen R

    2014-12-01

    Despite the common nature of group A streptococcal (GAS) infections, the carrier state of this organism is not well understood. In this article, we review the historical and recent research on the definition, epidemiology, and pathogenesis of the GAS carrier state. In addition, we outline trials of antimicrobial agents in the eradication of the carrier state and discuss indications for providing treatment to patients in the clinical setting. PMID:26625454

  13. Review of Federal Reference Method for Ozone: Nitric Oxide-Chemiluminescence:Supplemental Material for CASAC AMMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ApproachPer suggestion made by CASAC AMMS members during the April 3, 2014 conference call on the Review of Federal Reference Method for Ozone: Nitric Oxide-Chemiluminescence, ORD has performed additional data analysis activities to explain and mitigate scatter observed in the co...

  14. RNA-seq of human reference RNA samples using a thermostable group II intron reverse transcriptase.

    PubMed

    Nottingham, Ryan M; Wu, Douglas C; Qin, Yidan; Yao, Jun; Hunicke-Smith, Scott; Lambowitz, Alan M

    2016-04-01

    Next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has revolutionized our ability to analyze transcriptomes. Current RNA-seq methods are highly reproducible, but each has biases resulting from different modes of RNA sample preparation, reverse transcription, and adapter addition, leading to variability between methods. Moreover, the transcriptome cannot be profiled comprehensively because highly structured RNAs, such as tRNAs and snoRNAs, are refractory to conventional RNA-seq methods. Recently, we developed a new method for strand-specific RNA-seq using thermostable group II intron reverse transcriptases (TGIRTs). TGIRT enzymes have higher processivity and fidelity than conventional retroviral reverse transcriptases plus a novel template-switching activity that enables RNA-seq adapter addition during cDNA synthesis without using RNA ligase. Here, we obtained TGIRT-seq data sets for well-characterized human RNA reference samples and compared them to previous data sets obtained for these RNAs by the Illumina TruSeq v2 and v3 methods. We find that TGIRT-seq recapitulates the relative abundance of human transcripts and RNA spike-ins in ribo-depleted, fragmented RNA samples comparably to non-strand-specific TruSeq v2 and better than strand-specific TruSeq v3. Moreover, TGIRT-seq is more strand specific than TruSeq v3 and eliminates sampling biases from random hexamer priming, which are inherent to TruSeq. The TGIRT-seq data sets also show more uniform 5' to 3' gene coverage and identify more splice junctions, particularly near the 5' ends of mRNAs, than do the TruSeq data sets. Finally, TGIRT-seq enables the simultaneous profiling of mRNAs and lncRNAs in the same RNA-seq experiment as structured small ncRNAs, including tRNAs, which are essentially absent with TruSeq. PMID:26826130

  15. Prekindergarten Teachers' Verbal References to Print during Classroom-Based, Large-Group Shared Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Tricia A.; Justice, Laura M.; Piasta, Shayne B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The frequency with which adults reference print when reading with preschool-age children is associated with growth in children's print knowledge (e.g., L.M. Justice & H.K. Ezell, 2000, 2002). This study examined whether prekindergarten (pre-K) teachers naturally reference print during classroom shared reading and if verbal print…

  16. Selected Bibliographies and State-of-the-Art Review for Environmental Health. Volume 2: Environmental Health References. International Health Planning Reference Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Renee White; Shani, Hadasa

    Intended as a companion piece to volume 2 in the Method Series, Environmental Health Planning (CE 024 230), this second of six volumes in the International Health Planning Reference Series is a combined literature review and annotated bibliography dealing with environmental factors in health planning for developing countries. The review identifies…

  17. Effect of cow reference group on validation reliability of genomic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Koivula, M; Strandén, I; Aamand, G P; Mäntysaari, E A

    2016-06-01

    We studied the effect of including genomic data for cows in the reference population of single-step evaluations. Deregressed individual cow genetic evaluations (DRP) from milk production evaluations of Nordic Red Dairy cattle were used to estimate the single-step breeding values. Validation reliability and bias of the evaluations were calculated with four data sets including different amount of DRP record information from genotyped cows in the reference population. The gain in reliability was from 2% to 4% units for the production traits, depending on the used DRP data and the amount of genomic data. Moreover, inclusion of genotyped bull dams and their genotyped daughters seemed to create some bias in the single-step evaluation. Still, genotyping cows and their inclusion in the reference population is advantageous and should be encouraged. PMID:27075712

  18. How are personality judgments made? A cognitive model of reference group effects, personality scale responses, and behavioral reactions.

    PubMed

    Wood, Alex M; Brown, Gordon D A; Maltby, John; Watkinson, Pat

    2012-10-01

    This article suggests that personality judgments are wholly relative, being the outcome of a comparison of a given individual to a reference group of others. The underlying comparison processes are the same as those used to judge psychophysical stimuli (as outlined by range frequency theory and decision by sampling accounts). Five experimental studies show that the same person's personality is rated differently depending on how his or her behavior (a) ranks within a reference group and (b) falls within the overall range of behavior shown by other reference group members. Results were invariant across stimulus type and response options (7-point Likert scale, 990-point allocation task, or dichotomous choice). Simulated occupational scenarios led participants to give different-sized bonuses and employ different people as a function of context. Future research should note that personality judgments (as in self-report personality scales) only represent perceived standing relative to others or alternatively should measure personality through behavior or biological reactivity. Personality judgments cannot be used to compare different populations when the population participants have different reference groups (as in cross-cultural research). PMID:22224626

  19. Using Cochran's Z Statistic to Test the Kernel-Smoothed Item Response Function Differences between Focal and Reference Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Yinggan; Gierl, Mark J.; Cui, Ying

    2010-01-01

    This study combined the kernel smoothing procedure and a nonparametric differential item functioning statistic--Cochran's Z--to statistically test the difference between the kernel-smoothed item response functions for reference and focal groups. Simulation studies were conducted to investigate the Type I error and power of the proposed…

  20. An Evaluation of a Group Treatment Program with Youth Referred to the Juvenile Probation Service because of Violent Crime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoury-Kassabri, Mona; Sharvet, Rachel; Braver, Efi; Livneh, Chaim

    2010-01-01

    This study assesses the outcomes of group intervention program with violent juveniles. The intervention is based on the ecological approach of Edleson and Tolman (1992). Forty-eight juveniles referred to the juvenile probation service because of violent crime completed the 16 sessions of the intervention. Participants completed questionnaires…

  1. Review Of The Working Group On Precession And The Ecliptic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton, J. L.

    2006-08-01

    The IAU Working Group on Precession and the Ecliptic was charged with providing a precession model that was both dynamically consistent and compatible with the IAU 2000A nutation model, along with an updated definition and model for the ecliptic. The report of the working group has been accepted for publication in Celestial Mechanics (Hilton et al. 2006, in press) and has resulted in a recommendation to be considered at this General Assembly of the IAU. Specifically, the working group recommends: 1. That the terms lunisolar precession and planetary precession be replaced by precession of the equator and precession of the ecliptic, respectively. 2. That, beginning on 1 January 2009, the precession component of the IAU 2000A precession-nutation model be replaced by the P03 precession theory, of Capitaine et al. (2003, A&A, 412, 567-586) for the precession of the equator (Eqs. 37) and the precession of the ecliptic (Eqs. 38); the same paper provides the polynomial developments for the P03 primary angles and a number of derived quantities for use in both the equinox based and Celestial Intermediate Origin based paradigms. 3. That the choice of precession parameters be left to the user. 4. That the ecliptic pole should be explicitly defined by the mean orbital angular momentum vector of the Earth-Moon barycenter in an inertial reference frame, and this definition should be explicitly stated to avoid confusion with other, older definitions. consistent and compatible with the IAU 2000A nutation model, along consistent and compatible with the IAU 2000A nutation model, along with an updated definition and model for the ecliptic. The report of the working group has been accepted for publication in Celestial Mechanics (Hilton et al. 2006, in press) and has resulted in a recommendation to be considered at this General Assembly of the IAU. Specifically, the working group recommends, * that the terms lunisolar precession and planetary precession be replaced by precession of the

  2. Does whom you work with matter? Effects of referent group gender and age composition on managers' compensation.

    PubMed

    Ostroff, Cheri; Atwater, Leanne E

    2003-08-01

    Much research has examined gender and age effects on compensation, concluding that a wage gap exists favoring men and negative stereotypes against older workers persist. Although the effect of an employee's gender or age has been widely studied, little work has examined the impact of the demographic characteristics of a focal employee's immediate referent groups (e.g., subordinates, peers, or supervisors) on pay. The effect of the gender and age composition of a focal manager's subordinates, peers, and supervisor on the manager's compensation levels was investigated in a sample of 2,178 managers across a wide range of organizations and functional areas. After controlling for a number of human capital variables, results indicated that not only does a wage gap favoring men exist, but also managerial pay is lower when managers' referent groups are largely female, when subordinates are outside the prime age group, and when peers and supervisors are younger. PMID:12940411

  3. Pizza and pop and the student identity: the role of referent group norms in healthy and unhealthy eating.

    PubMed

    Louis, Winnifred; Davies, Sarah; Smith, Joanne; Terry, Deborah

    2007-02-01

    Using the Theory of Planned Behavior (I. Ajzen, 1985, 1991) and referent group (student) norms and identification (D. J. Terry & M. A. Hogg, 1996), the authors longitudinally predicted healthy eating intentions and behavior in a sample of 137 university students. Specifically, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived control predicted intentions at Time 1, which predicted self-reported behavior at Time 2. There was also a link between intentions and observed behavior at Time 2. Beyond the planned behavior variables, referent group norms for university students' eating behavior interacted with participants' identification as students to predict healthy eating intentions. The authors discussed implications for researcher's conceptualization of normative influence and for interventions into this group's eating behavior. PMID:17345922

  4. Report on the technical review workshop on the reference dose for Aroclor 1016. Held in Washington, DC on May 24-25, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-01

    The report includes information and material from a technical review workshop organized by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Risk Assessment Forum for EPA`s Reference Dose/Reference Concentration (RfD/RfC) Work Group. The meeting was held in Washington, DC, at the Barcelo Washington Hotel on May 24-25, 1994. The subject of the technical review was the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) RfD entry for Aroclor 1016, a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB). The expert technical review panel was convened to independently evaluate whether the RfD for Aroclor 1016 is based on a scientifically responsible analysis that represents full consideration of the available data and clean articulation of that analysis in the IRIS RfD entry. EPA also requested panel members to consider four broad options for the Aroclor 1016 RfD as potential recommendations to the RfD/RfC Work Group.

  5. References that anyone can edit: review of Wikipedia citations in peer reviewed health science literature

    PubMed Central

    Hladkowicz, Emily S; Pigford, Ashlee-Ann E; Ufholz, Lee-Anne; Postonogova, Tatyana; Shin, Eunkyung; Boet, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine indexed health science journals to evaluate the prevalence of Wikipedia citations, identify the journals that publish articles with Wikipedia citations, and determine how Wikipedia is being cited. Design Bibliometric analysis. Study selection Publications in the English language that included citations to Wikipedia were retrieved using the online databases Scopus and Web of Science. Data sources To identify health science journals, results were refined using Ulrich’s database, selecting for citations from journals indexed in Medline, PubMed, or Embase. Using Thomson Reuters Journal Citation Reports, 2011 impact factors were collected for all journals included in the search. Data extraction Resulting citations were thematically coded, and descriptive statistics were calculated. Results 1433 full text articles from 1008 journals indexed in Medline, PubMed, or Embase with 2049 Wikipedia citations were accessed. The frequency of Wikipedia citations has increased over time; most citations occurred after December 2010. More than half of the citations were coded as definitions (n=648; 31.6%) or descriptions (n=482; 23.5%). Citations were not limited to journals with a low or no impact factor; the search found Wikipedia citations in many journals with high impact factors. Conclusions Many publications are citing information from a tertiary source that can be edited by anyone, although permanent, evidence based sources are available. We encourage journal editors and reviewers to use caution when publishing articles that cite Wikipedia. PMID:24603564

  6. Standardized low-load repetitive work: evidence of different motor control strategies between experienced workers and a reference group.

    PubMed

    Madeleine, Pascal; Lundager, Birthe; Voigt, Michael; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2003-11-01

    The purpose of this laboratory study was to evaluate the possible differences in motor strategies to a new standardized low-load repetitive work task in between healthy experienced workers and a reference group. Work task event duration, i.e. working rhythm, cutting forces, surface electromyographic (EMG) activity from four shoulder muscles, postural activity, and arm and trunk movements in 3D were recorded during low-load repetitive work simulation. The experienced group showed lower EMG activity and frequency contents (P<0.05), more abducted position of the upper arm and forward flexion of the trunk prior to work simulation (P<0.05), and increased arm and trunk range of motion (P<0.05) compared with the reference group. The results highlight that experienced butchers have a different motor strategy compared with a reference group, i.e. more variable form of coordination pattern. Furthermore, the initial implementation of a possible protective motor strategy by experienced workers might be a very important prognostic factor. PMID:14559412

  7. Use of Expert Panels to Define the Reference Standard in Diagnostic Research: A Systematic Review of Published Methods and Reporting

    PubMed Central

    Bertens, Loes C. M.; Broekhuizen, Berna D. L.; Naaktgeboren, Christiana A.; Rutten, Frans H.; Hoes, Arno W.; van Mourik, Yvonne; Moons, Karel G. M.; Reitsma, Johannes B.

    2013-01-01

    Background In diagnostic studies, a single and error-free test that can be used as the reference (gold) standard often does not exist. One solution is the use of panel diagnosis, i.e., a group of experts who assess the results from multiple tests to reach a final diagnosis in each patient. Although panel diagnosis, also known as consensus or expert diagnosis, is frequently used as the reference standard, guidance on preferred methodology is lacking. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of methods used in panel diagnoses and to provide initial guidance on the use and reporting of panel diagnosis as reference standard. Methods and Findings PubMed was systematically searched for diagnostic studies applying a panel diagnosis as reference standard published up to May 31, 2012. We included diagnostic studies in which the final diagnosis was made by two or more persons based on results from multiple tests. General study characteristics and details of panel methodology were extracted. Eighty-one studies were included, of which most reported on psychiatry (37%) and cardiovascular (21%) diseases. Data extraction was hampered by incomplete reporting; one or more pieces of critical information about panel reference standard methodology was missing in 83% of studies. In most studies (75%), the panel consisted of three or fewer members. Panel members were blinded to the results of the index test results in 31% of studies. Reproducibility of the decision process was assessed in 17 (21%) studies. Reported details on panel constitution, information for diagnosis and methods of decision making varied considerably between studies. Conclusions Methods of panel diagnosis varied substantially across studies and many aspects of the procedure were either unclear or not reported. On the basis of our review, we identified areas for improvement and developed a checklist and flow chart for initial guidance for researchers conducting and reporting of studies involving panel

  8. Patient grouping for dose surveys and establishment of diagnostic reference levels in paediatric computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Vassileva, J; Rehani, M

    2015-07-01

    There has been confusion in literature on whether paediatric patients should be grouped according to age, weight or other parameters when dealing with dose surveys. The present work aims to suggest a pragmatic approach to achieve reasonable accuracy for performing patient dose surveys in countries with limited resources. The analysis is based on a subset of data collected within the IAEA survey of paediatric computed tomography (CT) doses, involving 82 CT facilities from 32 countries in Asia, Europe, Africa and Latin America. Data for 6115 patients were collected, in 34.5 % of which data for weight were available. The present study suggests that using four age groups, <1, >1-5, >5-10 and >10-15 y, is realistic and pragmatic for dose surveys in less resourced countries and for the establishment of DRLs. To ensure relevant accuracy of results, data for >30 patients in a particular age group should be collected if patient weight is not known. If a smaller sample is used, patient weight should be recorded and the median weight in the sample should be within 5-10 % from the median weight of the sample for which the DRLs were established. Comparison of results from different surveys should always be performed with caution, taking into consideration the way of grouping of paediatric patients. Dose results can be corrected for differences in patient weight/age group. PMID:25836695

  9. One library's experience with review and selection of chat software for reference.

    PubMed

    Behm, Leslie M

    2003-01-01

    When Michigan State University (MSU) Libraries decided to make the foray into virtual reference, the first thing that needed to be done was to decide on the software to use. This article discusses the process used including the items considered essential (deal-breakers) for software to make the first cut, what other features needed to be included, and what features would be useful but were not critical. A literature review of some useful current articles on virtual reference is included. The vendor and software ultimately selected was not one of the original vendors; how MSU Libraries was able to evaluate and select Docutek is presented. A matrix for software comparison is included in the appendix. PMID:12723817

  10. Reference datasets for bioequivalence trials in a two-group parallel design.

    PubMed

    Fuglsang, Anders; Schütz, Helmut; Labes, Detlew

    2015-03-01

    In order to help companies qualify and validate the software used to evaluate bioequivalence trials with two parallel treatment groups, this work aims to define datasets with known results. This paper puts a total 11 datasets into the public domain along with proposed consensus obtained via evaluations from six different software packages (R, SAS, WinNonlin, OpenOffice Calc, Kinetica, EquivTest). Insofar as possible, datasets were evaluated with and without the assumption of equal variances for the construction of a 90% confidence interval. Not all software packages provide functionality for the assumption of unequal variances (EquivTest, Kinetica), and not all packages can handle datasets with more than 1000 subjects per group (WinNonlin). Where results could be obtained across all packages, one showed questionable results when datasets contained unequal group sizes (Kinetica). A proposal is made for the results that should be used as validation targets. PMID:25488055

  11. Differential Tendencies To Guess as a Function of Gender and Lingual-Cultural Reference Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafni, Naomi; Estela, Melamed

    The objective of this study was to investigate differential tendencies to avoid guessing as a function of three variables: (1) lingual-cultural-group; (2) gender; and (3) examination year. The Psychometric Entrance Test (PET) for universities in Israel was used, which is administered in Hebrew, Arabic, English, French, Spanish, and Russian. The…

  12. Aggression in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and a Clinic-Referred Comparison Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Cristan; Butter, Eric; Mazurek, Micah O.; Cowan, Charles; Lainhart, Janet; Cook, Edwin H.; DeWitt, Mary Beth; Aman, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A gap exists in the literature regarding aggression in autism spectrum disorders and how this behavior compares to other groups. In this multisite study, the "Children's Scale for Hostility and Aggression: Reactive/Proactive" and the Aggression subscale of the "Child Behavior Checklist" were rated for 414 children with autism…

  13. Effects of group housing on sow welfare: a review.

    PubMed

    Verdon, M; Hansen, C F; Rault, J-L; Jongman, E; Hansen, L U; Plush, K; Hemsworth, P H

    2015-05-01

    Factors that have been shown to impact the welfare of group-housed sows are discussed in this review. Floor space allowance markedly affects sow welfare. In addition to quantity of floor space, the quality of space is important: spatial separation between sows can be provided with visual or physical barriers and stalls. Whereas 1.4 m/sow is insufficient, further research is required to examine space effects in the range of 1.8 to 2.4 m/sow in more detail. The period immediately after mixing has the most pronounced effects on aggression and stress, and therefore, well-designed mixing pens offer the opportunity to reduce aggression, injury, and stress while allowing the social hierarchy to quickly form. Because hunger is likely to lead to competition for feed or access to feeding areas, strategies to reduce hunger between meals through higher feeding levels, dietary fiber, or foraging substrate should be examined. However, feeding systems, such as full-body feeding stalls, can also affect aggression and stress by providing protection at feeding, but deriving conclusions on this topic is difficult because research directly comparing floor feeding, feeding stalls, and electronic sow feeder systems has not been conducted. Familiar sows engage in less aggression, so mixing sows that have been housed together in the previous gestation may reduce aggression. Although there is evidence in other species that early experience may affect social skills later in life, there are few studies on the effects of early "socialization" on aggressive behavior of adult sows. Genetic selection has the potential to reduce aggression, and therefore, continued research on the opportunity to genetically select against aggressiveness and its broader implications is required. Most research to date has examined mixing sows after insemination and knowledge on grouping after weaning is limited. PMID:26020296

  14. Opportunities and challenges in conducting systematic reviews to support the development of nutrient reference values: vitamin A as an example1234

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Robert; Chung, Mei; Balk, Ethan M; Atkinson, Stephanie; Giovannucci, Edward L; Ip, Stanley; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Mayne, Susan Taylor; Raman, Gowri; Ross, A Catharine; Trikalinos, Thomas A; West, Keith P; Lau, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Nutrient reference values have significant public health and policy implications. Given the importance of defining reliable nutrient reference values, there is a need for an explicit, objective, and transparent process to set these values. The Tufts Medical Center Evidence-based Practice Center assembled a group of nutrition experts from academic institutions and federal government agencies, led participants in discussions, conducted exercises in formulating questions and evidence review criteria that would be amenable to systematic reviews of the scientific literature, performed a literature search on the questions to identify potentially relevant publications, and identified challenges and limitations of applying this method to support the development of nutrient reference values using vitamin A as an example. The workgroup concluded that the systematic review approach could be productively used to inform the development of reference values. Challenges identified in this exercise include prioritizing and defining research questions when the volume of literature is large, relying on intermediate (surrogate) outcomes when few or no studies directly linking nutrient intake with clinical outcomes are available, and determining reliable nutrient biomarkers. Ultimately, an objective, unbiased systematic review of a defined question could be useful, not only in helping to set nutrient reference values, but also for increasing the transparency of the decision making process. PMID:19176732

  15. Review and application of group theory to molecular systems biology.

    PubMed

    Rietman, Edward A; Karp, Robert L; Tuszynski, Jack A

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we provide a review of selected mathematical ideas that can help us better understand the boundary between living and non-living systems. We focus on group theory and abstract algebra applied to molecular systems biology. Throughout this paper we briefly describe possible open problems. In connection with the genetic code we propose that it may be possible to use perturbation theory to explore the adjacent possibilities in the 64-dimensional space-time manifold of the evolving genome. With regards to algebraic graph theory, there are several minor open problems we discuss. In relation to network dynamics and groupoid formalism we suggest that the network graph might not be the main focus for understanding the phenotype but rather the phase space of the network dynamics. We show a simple case of a C6 network and its phase space network. We envision that the molecular network of a cell is actually a complex network of hypercycles and feedback circuits that could be better represented in a higher-dimensional space. We conjecture that targeting nodes in the molecular network that have key roles in the phase space, as revealed by analysis of the automorphism decomposition, might be a better way to drug discovery and treatment of cancer. PMID:21696623

  16. Review and application of group theory to molecular systems biology

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we provide a review of selected mathematical ideas that can help us better understand the boundary between living and non-living systems. We focus on group theory and abstract algebra applied to molecular systems biology. Throughout this paper we briefly describe possible open problems. In connection with the genetic code we propose that it may be possible to use perturbation theory to explore the adjacent possibilities in the 64-dimensional space-time manifold of the evolving genome. With regards to algebraic graph theory, there are several minor open problems we discuss. In relation to network dynamics and groupoid formalism we suggest that the network graph might not be the main focus for understanding the phenotype but rather the phase space of the network dynamics. We show a simple case of a C6 network and its phase space network. We envision that the molecular network of a cell is actually a complex network of hypercycles and feedback circuits that could be better represented in a higher-dimensional space. We conjecture that targeting nodes in the molecular network that have key roles in the phase space, as revealed by analysis of the automorphism decomposition, might be a better way to drug discovery and treatment of cancer. PMID:21696623

  17. Complete Genome Assembly of Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 19615, a Group A β-Hemolytic Reference Strain.

    PubMed

    Minogue, T D; Daligault, H A; Davenport, K W; Bishop-Lilly, K A; Broomall, S M; Bruce, D C; Chain, P S; Chertkov, O; Coyne, S R; Freitas, T; Frey, K G; Gibbons, H S; Jaissle, J; Redden, C L; Rosenzweig, C N; Xu, Y; Johnson, S L

    2014-01-01

    We present the complete genome assembly of Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 19615 (Rosenbach) as submitted to GenBank under accession number CP008926. This group A nonmotile β-hemolytic clinical isolate is used for quality control in a variety of commercially available tests. The assembled genome is 1.84 Mb (38.5% G+C content) and contains 1,788 coding regions. PMID:25258274

  18. Complete Genome Assembly of Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 19615, a Group A β-Hemolytic Reference Strain

    PubMed Central

    Minogue, T. D.; Daligault, H. A.; Davenport, K. W.; Bishop-Lilly, K. A.; Broomall, S. M.; Bruce, D. C.; Chain, P. S.; Chertkov, O.; Coyne, S. R.; Freitas, T.; Frey, K. G.; Gibbons, H. S.; Jaissle, J.; Redden, C. L.; Rosenzweig, C. N.; Xu, Y.

    2014-01-01

    We present the complete genome assembly of Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 19615 (Rosenbach) as submitted to GenBank under accession number CP008926. This group A nonmotile β-hemolytic clinical isolate is used for quality control in a variety of commercially available tests. The assembled genome is 1.84 Mb (38.5% G+C content) and contains 1,788 coding regions. PMID:25258274

  19. International geomagnetic reference field 1980: a report by IAGA Division I working group.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peddie, N.W.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the recommendations of the working group, which suggested additions to IGRF because of the cumulative effect of the inevitable uncertainties in the secular variation models which had led to unacceptable inaccuracies in the IGRF by the late 1970's. The recommendations were accepted by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy on August 15, 1981 at the 4th Scientific Assembly, Edinburgh. An extended table sets out spherical harmonic coefficients of the IGRF 1980.-R.House

  20. Who uses sunbeds? A systematic literature review of risk groups in developed countries.

    PubMed

    Schneider, S; Krämer, H

    2010-06-01

    Skin cancer is caused by ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Indoor tanning is a totally avoidable risk behaviour. This review addresses the specific characteristics of sunbed users and the differences in motivation and risk perception compared with non-users. This review is based solely on empirical original articles. Based on literature searches with widely used reference databases ('PubMed', 'OVID', 'Social Citation Index', 'ERIC--Educational Resources Information Center', 'Web of Science' and the 'International Bibliography of the Social Sciences'), we included studies from developed nations with a publication date between 1 January 2000 and 12 August 2008. All studies were selected, classified and coded simultaneously by both authors on a blinded basis. All searches were performed on 13 and 14 August 2008. In accordance with the QUOROM and the MOOSE Statements, we identified 16 original studies. The typical sunbed user is female, between 17 and 30 years old, and tends to live a comparatively unhealthy lifestyle: Users smoke cigarettes and drink alcohol more frequently and eat less healthy food than non-users. Users are characterized by a lack of knowledge about health risks of UVR, and prompted by the frequent use of sunbeds by friends or family members and the experience of positive emotions and relaxation by indoor tanning. This review is the first systematic review on risk groups among sunbed users that has been published in a scientific journal. There is still a lack of information among users, particularly among young people regarding the safety of solariums. PMID:20015180

  1. The International Reference Ionosphere: A review of current activities and plans for the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilitza, Dieter

    2014-05-01

    The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) is at the core of many assimilative models of the global ionosphere that aspire to provide a more accurate representation of the 4-D ionosphere by combining a core ionosphere model with GNSS and other data sets. This presentation will review the status of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) project and model with special emphasis on activities during the last two years. We will discuss the most important IRI improvements and parameter additions that were accomplished during this time period. The scorecard includes significant improvements in the bottomside electron density and ion composition, the inclusion of solar activity variations for the topside electron temperature, and for the first time a model for auroral oval boundaries. In addition we will also review the status of several ongoing collaborative projects that promise significant future improvements for the IRI model including a better representation of the F2-peak height (hmF2), the coupling of IRI to plasmaspheric models, and the development of a real-time IRI (IRI-RT). Work also continues on the accurate IRI representation of ionosphere conditions during the recent highly unusually low and extended solar minimum. Time permitting, we will briefly discuss recent IRI-related meetings and workshops and their outcomes, and present some recent IRI usage statistics.

  2. Multireference electron correlation methods with density matrix renormalisation group reference functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurashige, Yuki

    2014-06-01

    Recent advances in quantum chemical density matrix renormalisation group (DMRG) theory are presented. The DMRG, originally devised as an alternative to the exact diagonalisation in condensed matter physics, has become a powerful quantum chemical method for molecular systems that exhibit a multireference character, e.g., excited states, π-conjugated systems, transition metal complexes, and in particular for large systems by combining it with conventional multireference electron correlation methods. The capability of the current quantum chemical DMRG is demonstrated for an application involving the potential energy curve of the chromium dimer, which is one of the most demanding multireference systems and thus requires the best electronic structure treatment for non-dynamical and dynamical correlation as well as large basis sets.

  3. 7 CFR 3401.12 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups... INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE RANGELAND RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Applications for Funding § 3401.12 Establishment and operation of peer review groups. Subject to § 3401.7,...

  4. 7 CFR 3400.10 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups... INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE SPECIAL RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Grant Applications § 3400.10 Establishment and operation of peer review groups. Subject to § 3400.5,...

  5. 7 CFR 3400.10 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups... INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE SPECIAL RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Grant Applications § 3400.10 Establishment and operation of peer review groups. Subject to § 3400.5, the...

  6. 7 CFR 3401.12 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups... INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE RANGELAND RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Applications for Funding § 3401.12 Establishment and operation of peer review groups. Subject to § 3401.7,...

  7. 7 CFR 3401.12 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups... INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE RANGELAND RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Applications for Funding § 3401.12 Establishment and operation of peer review groups. Subject to § 3401.7,...

  8. 7 CFR 3400.10 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups... INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE SPECIAL RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Grant Applications § 3400.10 Establishment and operation of peer review groups. Subject to § 3400.5, the...

  9. 42 CFR 52h.3 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups... GRANTS SCIENTIFIC PEER REVIEW OF RESEARCH GRANT APPLICATIONS AND RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT PROJECTS § 52h.3 Establishment and operation of peer review groups. (a) To the extent applicable,...

  10. 7 CFR 3401.12 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups... INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE RANGELAND RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Applications for Funding § 3401.12 Establishment and operation of peer review groups. Subject to § 3401.7,...

  11. 7 CFR 3400.10 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups... INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE SPECIAL RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Grant Applications § 3400.10 Establishment and operation of peer review groups. Subject to § 3400.5, the...

  12. SEURAT-1 liver gold reference compounds: a mechanism-based review.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Paul; Schwarz, Michael; Landesmann, Brigitte; Maggioni, Silvia; Goumenou, Marina; Bower, David; Leonard, Martin O; Wiseman, Jeffrey S

    2014-12-01

    There is an urgent need for the development of alternative methods to replace animal testing for the prediction of repeat dose chemical toxicity. To address this need, the European Commission and Cosmetics Europe have jointly funded a research program for 'Safety Evaluation Ultimately Replacing Animal Testing.' The goal of this program was the development of in vitro cellular systems and associated computational capabilities for the prediction of hepatic, cardiac, renal, neuronal, muscle, and skin toxicities. An essential component of this effort is the choice of appropriate reference compounds that can be used in the development and validation of assays. In this review, we focus on the selection of reference compounds for liver pathologies in the broad categories of cytotoxicity and lipid disorders. Mitochondrial impairment, oxidative stress, and apoptosis are considered under the category of cytotoxicity, while steatosis, cholestasis, and phospholipidosis are considered under the category of lipid dysregulation. We focused on four compound classes capable of initiating such events, i.e., chemically reactive compounds, compounds with specific cellular targets, compounds that modulate lipid regulatory networks, and compounds that disrupt the plasma membrane. We describe the molecular mechanisms of these compounds and the cellular response networks which they elicit. This information will be helpful to both improve our understanding of mode of action and help in the selection of appropriate mechanistic biomarkers, allowing us to progress the development of animal-free models with improved predictivity to the human situation. PMID:25395007

  13. Group methods of determining surfactants in water (review)

    SciTech Connect

    Subbotina, E.I.; Dedkov, Yu.M.

    1988-01-01

    In recent years new and promising methods for the determination of industrial surfactant waste migration and concentration in the hydrosphere have been developed. These methods include different forms of chromatography, ion selective electrode analysis, titration, and solvent extraction. This article reviews the application and usefulness of each of these methods in the analysis of various surfactants. The methods of chromatography reviewed include liquid column, thin layer, and ion exchange.

  14. OMERACT 6 Economics Working Group report: a proposal for a reference case for economic evaluation in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Sherine; Drummond, Michael; Maetzel, Andreas; Boers, Maarten; Coyle, Doug; Welch, Vivian; Tugwell, Peter

    2003-04-01

    Standardization of methods for economic evaluation is essential for defining the methodological research agenda that will advance the discipline. Standardization also greatly facilitates the interpretation and comparison of the results of economic analyses. For these reasons, several jurisdictions now require economic evaluation, conducted according to standardized methodological guidelines, as a key ingredient in decision making for reimbursement of health treatments and technologies. The application of these general guidelines, however, can be difficult in the absence of disease-specific information. In the case of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the recent emergence of innovative, highly effective, but also expensive treatments has created an immediate need to more fully understand the economic implications of RA treatments. With this background, the OMERACT Economics Working Group set out in 1994 to develop an RA-specific reference case for economic evaluation. This report summarizes the OMERACT process leading to specific recommendations on the 12 key elements of a proposed "reference case" for economic evaluation in RA. These elements include: study horizon, duration of therapy, extrapolation beyond trial duration, modeling beyond therapy, synthesis of comparisons where head-to-head trials do not exist, clinical outcome measures, mortality, valuation of health states, resource utilization, discontinuation of therapy, therapeutic sequence, and population risk stratification. Through these efforts, the OMERACT Economics Working Group aims to expedite and enhance the conduct and dissemination of methodological research in economic analyses in the rheumatic diseases. PMID:12672223

  15. Banal no more: an essay on the film Hannah Arendt, with special reference to Eichmann and the Nazi killing groups.

    PubMed

    Roth, Bennett

    2015-04-01

    This movie review and essay about the recent film Hannah Arendt by director Margarethe von Trotta seeks to examine Arendt's controversial term "banality of evil" as well as the nature of Arendt's misperception of Adolph Eichmann as thoughtless, and to situate Eichmann's personality within recent understandings of totalitarian group behavior and organizational killers. What emerges is that Arendt was unable to understand Eichmann's ruthless indifference to others as well as his attraction to being a Nazi and to organized mass killing. This paper examines Mann's (2005) formulation of different levels of functional attraction to totalitarian perpetrators, in which a racial morality is imposed and restrictions to eliminist violence are removed. Under such group conditions, violent "sleeper" needs emerge and are rationalized by political beliefs. In conclusion, the term "banality of evil" has little explanative value, while violent mass murder continues to this day as a totalitarian solution. PMID:25871693

  16. Report of the Event Tag Review and Recommendation Group

    SciTech Connect

    ATLAS Group; Assamagan, K.A.; Barberis, D.; Bentvelsen, S.; Brooijmans, G.; Cranmer, K.; Cranshaw, J.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Farbin, A.; Froidevaux, D.; Gianotti, F.; Hinchliffe, I.; LeCompte, T.; Maeno, T.; Malon, D.; Paige, F.; Polesello, G.; Quarrie, D.; Rousseau, D.; Schaffer, R.D.; Smizanska, M.; Unal, G.; Voss, K.; Wielers, M.

    2006-04-12

    In order to facilitate access to the large volumes of data (multiple petabytes per year) which will be produced during data taking and Monte Carlo production at ATLAS, work has proceeded on building a system of event-level metadata to allow selections of a subset of events to use as input to an analysis. This was included in the ATLAS Computing Model and was first studied and implemented by the Physics Analysis Tools group based on the decisions of the ESD/AOD Task Force. They used tools developed and supported by the CERN IT group and the ATLAS Database group. During 2005 this structure was put through various tests and evaluations. Also, work by physicists on reconstruction and analysis led to an improved understanding of the requirements on the TAG. This report addresses the effect of these new inputs on the previous work with regard to content and the infrastructure needed to support it.

  17. Outcomes of Group Care for Youth: A Review of Comparative Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Bethany R.; Bright, Charlotte L.; Svoboda, Deborah V.; Fakunmoju, Sunday; Barth, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to review empirical evidence of the effects of placement in group care compared to other interventions. Method: Two-group empirical studies were identified and effect sizes for all reported outcomes were calculated. Results: Nineteen two-group studies were found that compared group care with family foster…

  18. The Effectiveness of Nurture Groups: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Naomi Katherine; Schlösser, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Children with emotional difficulties often experience problems at school in terms of academic progress and within peer relationships. They are also more likely to continue to experience emotional problems in their adult lives. Nurture groups (NGs) were developed in the 1960s by the educational psychologist Majorie Boxall and their aim is to…

  19. Perceived food hypersensitivity: a review of 10 years of interdisciplinary research at a reference center.

    PubMed

    Lied, Gülen Arslan; Lillestøl, Kristine; Lind, Ragna; Valeur, Jørgen; Morken, Mette Helvik; Vaali, Kirsi; Gregersen, Kine; Florvaag, Erik; Tangen, Tone; Berstad, Arnold

    2011-10-01

    Perceived food hypersensitivity is a prevalent, but poorly understood condition. In this review article, we summarize narratively recent literature including results of our 10 years' interdisciplinary research program dealing with such patients. The patients (more than 400) included in our studies were all adults referred to a university hospital because of gastrointestinal complaints self-attributed to food hypersensitivity. Despite extensive examinations, food allergy was seldom diagnosed. The majority of the patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for irritable bowel syndrome. In addition, most suffered from several extra-intestinal health complaints and had considerably impaired quality of life. However, psychological factors could explain only approximately 10% of the variance in the patients' symptom severity and 90% of the variance thus remained unexplained. Intolerance to low-digestible carbohydrates was a common problem and abdominal symptoms were replicated by carbohydrate ingestion. A considerable number of patients showed evidence of immune activation by analyses of B-cell activating factor, dendritic cells and "IgE-armed" mast cells. Multiple factors such as immune activation, disturbed intestinal fermentation, enteric dysmotility, post-infectious changes and "local" allergy in the gut as well as psychological disturbances may play a role in the pathophysiology of perceived food hypersensitivity. Hence, our results support the view that management of these patients should be interdisciplinary. PMID:21679125

  20. A review on alum sludge reuse with special reference to agricultural applications and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Dassanayake, K B; Jayasinghe, G Y; Surapaneni, A; Hetherington, C

    2015-04-01

    Alum salts are commonly used in the water industry to promote coagulation in the production of clean drinking water, which results in the generation and accumulation of 'waste' by-product 'alum sludge' in large volumes. Effective and efficient management of alum sludge in an economically and environmentally sustainable manner remains a significant social and environmental concern with ever increasing demand for potable water as a result of rapidly escalating world population and urban expansion. Various intensive practices have been employed to reuse the alum sludge in an attempt to figure out how to fill the gap between successful drinking water treatment process and environmentally friendly alum sludge management for over the years. This paper primarily aimed at comprehensive review of the existing literature on alum sludge characteristics, its environmental concerns and their potential utilization, especially in agricultural and horticultural sectors leading to update our recent state of knowledge and formulate a compendium of present and past developments. Different types of alum sludge utilizations in various fields were recognized and examined. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and potential risks of alum sludge reuse options with particular reference to agriculture were highlighted and knowledge gaps were identified. Research priorities and future challenges that will support in the development of effective alumsludgemanagement practices in agriculture with multi-prong strategies were discussed. PMID:25655353

  1. The epidemiology of infertility: a review with particular reference to sub-Saharan Africa*

    PubMed Central

    Belsey, Mark A.

    1976-01-01

    The problem of infertility, with particular reference to Africa south of the Sahara, is reviewed. In many areas, up to 40% of women are reported to have completed their reproductive years without bearing a child. The condition is widely distributed, but also often localized in pockets corresponding to geographical or tribal units. Most available demographic data provide estimates of childlessness but it is not sufficient to define the problem in terms of primary and secondary infertility, pregnancy wastage, and infant and child mortality. The major underlying cause for the high levels of infertility appears to be the sequelae of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection in both men and women, manifested as obstructive azoospermia and tubal occlusion. Other infections, such as those that may follow abortion or delivery, or systemic infections, may be important in some areas. The available data suggest that different patterns of infertility and pregnancy wastage, and different etiological agents and processes, contribute to the problem of infertility in the different areas. The need for a systematic, standardized research approach in several areas is clearly indicated. PMID:798639

  2. 7 CFR 3415.10 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups... INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE BIOTECHNOLOGY RISK ASSESSMENT RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Grant Applications § 3415.10 Establishment and operation of peer review...

  3. 7 CFR 3415.10 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups... INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE BIOTECHNOLOGY RISK ASSESSMENT RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Grant Applications § 3415.10 Establishment and operation of peer review...

  4. 7 CFR 3411.10 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups... INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE NATIONAL RESEARCH INITIATIVE COMPETITIVE GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Grant Applications § 3411.10 Establishment and operation of peer review...

  5. A Systematic Review of Small-Group Communication in Post-Secondary Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahng, Namsook

    2012-01-01

    This systematic review establishes a comprehensive understanding of research trends and the findings of current studies that focus on small-group communication in post-secondary online courses. The review includes 18 journal articles which are categorised and summarised on the basis of their common themes. This review finds that a majority of the…

  6. What Works in Group Care? – A Structured Review of Treatment Models for Group Homes and Residential Care

    PubMed Central

    James, Sigrid

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a structured review of treatment models that are relevant to group care and residential treatment settings for children involved with the child welfare system. Initiated and guided by The California Evidence-Based Clearinghouse for Child Welfare, five treatment models – Positive Peer Culture, Teaching Family Model, Sanctuary Model, Stop-Gap Model, and Re-ED – were reviewed for effectiveness. In this paper, each model s treatment features are described and relevant outcome studies reviewed in terms of their effectiveness as well as relevance for child welfare practice. Findings indicate that four of the models are either supported or promising in terms of evidence for effectiveness. Implications for group care practice and research are discussed. PMID:22468014

  7. A Quantitative Review of Ethnic Group Differences in Experimental Pain Response: Do Biology, Psychology and Culture Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Joseph L.; Williams, Ameenah K.K.; Fillingim, Roger B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Pain is a subjectively complex and universal experience. We examine research investigating ethnic group differences in experimental pain response, and factors contributing to group differences. Method We conducted a systematic literature review and analysis of studies using experimental pain stimuli to assess pain sensitivity across multiple ethnic groups. Our search covered the period from 1944-2011, and utilized the PUBMED bibliographic database; a reference source containing over 17 million citations. We calculated effect sizes, identified ethnic/racial group categories, pain stimuli and measures, and examined findings regarding biopsychosociocultural factors contributing to ethnic/racial group differences. Results We found 472 studies investigating ethnic group differences and pain. Twenty-six of these met our review inclusion criteria of investigating ethnic group differences in experimental pain. The majority of studies included comparisons between African Americans (AA) and non-Hispanic Whites (NHW). There were consistently moderate to large effect sizes for pain tolerance across multiple stimulus modalities; African Americans demonstrated lower pain tolerance. For pain threshold, findings were generally in the same direction, but effect sizes were small to moderate across ethnic groups. Limited data were available for suprathreshold pain ratings. A subset of studies comparing NHW and other ethnic groups showed a variable range of effect sizes for pain threshold and tolerance. Conclusion There are potentially important ethnic/racial group differences in experimental pain perception. Elucidating ethnic group differences, has translational merit for culturally-competent clinical care and for addressing and reducing pain treatment disparities among ethnically/racially diverse groups. PMID:22390201

  8. Antimicrobials in future caries control? A review with special reference to chlorhexidine treatment.

    PubMed

    Twetman, Svante

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to examine recent evidence for the effect of the antibacterial approach to prevent and control caries with special reference to the use of chlorhexidine (CHX). Existing information from the mid 1990s provided limited evidence for the effectiveness of CHX gels, rinses and toothpaste in preventing caries in permanent teeth of children and adolescents. An updated literature search on CHX intervention in controlled clinical trials from 1995 to May 2003 unveiled 22 studies covering over 4,500 patients with clinical caries as end point. The vast majority (n = 21) were dealing with CHX-containing varnishes. Since the studies exhibited disparities in design, diagnosis and intervention, the findings were subgrouped with respect to caries type and localization. According to the ranking system of the Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care, the evidence for an anticaries effect of CHX varnishes was rated as inconclusive for caries-active schoolchildren and adolescents with regular fluoride exposure. Regarding fissure caries, a preventive effect of CHX varnishes was demonstrated in 4 studies out of 5 when compared to no treatment in children with low fluoride exposure. The evidence for arresting root caries in dry-mouth patients and frail elderly subjects was inconclusive. In conclusion, the evidence from the recent literature was inconclusive for the use of CHX varnishes for caries prevention in risk groups. PMID:15153692

  9. A review of the JR blood group system.

    PubMed

    Castilho, Lilian; Reid, Marion E

    2013-01-01

    The JR blood group system (ISBT 032) consists of one antigen,Jra, which is of high prevalence in all populations. The rare Jr(a-) phenotype has been found mostly in Japanese and other Asian populations, but also in people of northern European ancestry, in Bedouin Arabs, and in one Mexican. Anti-Jra has caused transfusion reactions and is involved in hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. The Jra antigen is located on ABCG2 transporter, a multipass membrane glycoprotein (also known as the breast cancer resistance protein, BCRP), which is encoded by the ABCG2 gene on chromosome 4q22.1. The Jr(a-) phenotype mostly results from recessive inheritance of ABCG2 null alleles caused by frameshift or nonsense changes. PMID:24094238

  10. Reference Reviewed and Re-Envisioned: Revamping Librarian and Desk-Centric Services with LibStARs and LibAnswers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Christy R.

    2013-01-01

    The first section of this article reviews the literature on the changing face of reference, beginning with a discussion of the national decline in reference transactions, its causes, and the likelihood that online reference services might one day halt or reverse the decline. It then analyzes definitions of the term "reference," pointing to a…

  11. The Transcriptome of the Reference Potato Genome Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja Clone DM1-3 516R44

    PubMed Central

    Massa, Alicia N.; Childs, Kevin L.; Lin, Haining; Bryan, Glenn J.; Giuliano, Giovanni; Buell, C. Robin

    2011-01-01

    Advances in molecular breeding in potato have been limited by its complex biological system, which includes vegetative propagation, autotetraploidy, and extreme heterozygosity. The availability of the potato genome and accompanying gene complement with corresponding gene structure, location, and functional annotation are powerful resources for understanding this complex plant and advancing molecular breeding efforts. Here, we report a reference for the potato transcriptome using 32 tissues and growth conditions from the doubled monoploid Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja clone DM1-3 516R44 for which a genome sequence is available. Analysis of greater than 550 million RNA-Seq reads permitted the detection and quantification of expression levels of over 22,000 genes. Hierarchical clustering and principal component analyses captured the biological variability that accounts for gene expression differences among tissues suggesting tissue-specific gene expression, and genes with tissue or condition restricted expression. Using gene co-expression network analysis, we identified 18 gene modules that represent tissue-specific transcriptional networks of major potato organs and developmental stages. This information provides a powerful resource for potato research as well as studies on other members of the Solanaceae family. PMID:22046362

  12. The Implications of Library Anxiety for Academic Reference Services: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlile, Heather

    2007-01-01

    Academic reference librarians continually observe that many students are embarrassed about not knowing how to use the library and are reluctant to approach the reference desk. The theory of library anxiety offers an explanation, proposing that a fear of being in and using libraries serves as a psychological barrier, hindering many university…

  13. Review of the Australian Apprenticeship and Traineeship Literature: References and Their Key Issues. Australian Apprenticeships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, S.

    This volume is a survey of more than 125 Australian apprenticeship and traineeship references from 1985-99. Each item identifies author/editor/organization, date, title, organization and place of publication or development. A "key" provides a descriptive phrase relating to the reference type, such as an industry-body paper on training delivery (to…

  14. Is there evidence that walking groups have health benefits? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Sarah; Jones, Andy

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the health benefits of outdoor walking groups. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of walking group interventions examining differences in commonly used physiological, psychological and well-being outcomes between baseline and intervention end. Data sources Seven electronic databases, clinical trial registers, grey literature and reference lists in English language up to November 2013. Eligibility criteria Adults, group walking outdoors with outcomes directly attributable to the walking intervention. Results Forty-two studies were identified involving 1843 participants. There is evidence that walking groups have wide-ranging health benefits. Meta-analysis showed statistically significant reductions in mean difference for systolic blood pressure −3.72 mm Hg (−5.28 to −2.17) and diastolic blood pressure −3.14 mm Hg (−4.15 to −2.13); resting heart rate −2.88 bpm (−4.13 to −1.64); body fat −1.31% (−2.10 to −0.52), body mass index −0.71 kg/m2 (−1.19 to −0.23), total cholesterol −0.11 mmol/L (−0.22 to −0.01) and statistically significant mean increases in VO2max of 2.66 mL/kg/min (1.67–3.65), the SF-36 (physical functioning) score 6.02 (0.51 to 11.53) and a 6 min walk time of 79.6 m (53.37–105.84). A standardised mean difference showed a reduction in depression scores with an effect size of −0.67 (−0.97 to −0.38). The evidence was less clear for other outcomes such as waist circumference fasting glucose, SF-36 (mental health) and serum lipids such as high-density lipids. There were no notable adverse side effects reported in any of the studies. Conclusions Walking groups are effective and safe with good adherence and wide-ranging health benefits. They could be a promising intervention as an adjunct to other healthcare or as a proactive health-promoting activity. PMID:25601182

  15. Monte Carlo reference data sets for imaging research: Executive summary of the report of AAPM Research Committee Task Group 195.

    PubMed

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis; Ali, Elsayed S M; Badal, Andreu; Badano, Aldo; Boone, John M; Kyprianou, Iacovos S; Mainegra-Hing, Ernesto; McMillan, Kyle L; McNitt-Gray, Michael F; Rogers, D W O; Samei, Ehsan; Turner, Adam C

    2015-10-01

    The use of Monte Carlo simulations in diagnostic medical imaging research is widespread due to its flexibility and ability to estimate quantities that are challenging to measure empirically. However, any new Monte Carlo simulation code needs to be validated before it can be used reliably. The type and degree of validation required depends on the goals of the research project, but, typically, such validation involves either comparison of simulation results to physical measurements or to previously published results obtained with established Monte Carlo codes. The former is complicated due to nuances of experimental conditions and uncertainty, while the latter is challenging due to typical graphical presentation and lack of simulation details in previous publications. In addition, entering the field of Monte Carlo simulations in general involves a steep learning curve. It is not a simple task to learn how to program and interpret a Monte Carlo simulation, even when using one of the publicly available code packages. This Task Group report provides a common reference for benchmarking Monte Carlo simulations across a range of Monte Carlo codes and simulation scenarios. In the report, all simulation conditions are provided for six different Monte Carlo simulation cases that involve common x-ray based imaging research areas. The results obtained for the six cases using four publicly available Monte Carlo software packages are included in tabular form. In addition to a full description of all simulation conditions and results, a discussion and comparison of results among the Monte Carlo packages and the lessons learned during the compilation of these results are included. This abridged version of the report includes only an introductory description of the six cases and a brief example of the results of one of the cases. This work provides an investigator the necessary information to benchmark his/her Monte Carlo simulation software against the reference cases included here

  16. Update of strategies to translate evidence from cochrane musculoskeletal group systematic reviews for use by various audiences.

    PubMed

    Rader, Tamara; Pardo Pardo, Jordi; Stacey, Dawn; Ghogomu, Elizabeth; Maxwell, Lara J; Welch, Vivian A; Singh, Jasvinder A; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Légaré, France; Santesso, Nancy; Toupin April, Karine; O'Connor, Annette M; Wells, George A; Winzenberg, Tania M; Johnston, Renea; Tugwell, Peter

    2014-02-01

    For rheumatology research to have a real influence on health and well-being, evidence must be tailored to inform the decisions of various audiences. The Cochrane Musculoskeletal Group (CMSG), one of 53 groups of the not-for-profit international Cochrane Collaboration, prepares, maintains, and disseminates systematic reviews of treatments for musculoskeletal diseases. While systematic reviews provided by the CMSG fill a major gap in meeting the need for high-quality evidence syntheses, our work does not end at the completion of a review. The term "knowledge translation" (KT) refers to the activities involved in bringing research evidence to various audiences in a useful form so it can be used to support decision making and improve practices. Systematic reviews give careful consideration to research methods and analysis. Because the review is often long and detailed, the clinically relevant results may not be apparent or in the optimal form for use by patients and their healthcare practitioners. This paper describes 10 formats, many of them new, for ways that evidence from Cochrane Reviews can be translated with the intention of meeting the needs of various audiences, including patients and their families, practitioners, policy makers, the press, and members of the public (the "5 Ps"). Current and future knowledge tools include summary of findings tables, patient decision aids, plain language summaries, press releases, clinical scenarios in general medical journals, frequently asked questions (Cochrane Clinical Answers), podcasts, Twitter messages, Journal Club materials, and the use of storytelling and narratives to support continuing medical education. Future plans are outlined to explore ways of improving the influence and usefulness of systematic reviews by providing results in formats suitable to our varied audiences. PMID:24293571

  17. 42 CFR 52h.3 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... listed in 45 CFR 5.31 and may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups... GRANTS SCIENTIFIC PEER REVIEW OF RESEARCH GRANT APPLICATIONS AND RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT...

  18. 42 CFR 52h.3 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... listed in 45 CFR 5.31 and may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups... GRANTS SCIENTIFIC PEER REVIEW OF RESEARCH GRANT APPLICATIONS AND RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT...

  19. 42 CFR 52h.3 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... listed in 45 CFR 5.31 and may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups... GRANTS SCIENTIFIC PEER REVIEW OF RESEARCH GRANT APPLICATIONS AND RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT...

  20. Narrowing the Gap in Outcomes for Vulnerable Groups: A Review of the Research Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Sally; Straw, Suzanne; Jones, Megan; Springate, Iain; Grayson, Hilary

    2008-01-01

    This report presents findings from a review of the best evidence on narrowing the gap in outcomes across the five Every Child Matters (ECM) areas for vulnerable groups in the context of improving outcomes for all. The review was commissioned to prepare the ground for work on "Narrowing the Gap" with participating local authorities (LAs). Although…

  1. 42 CFR 52h.3 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... listed in 45 CFR 5.31 and may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups... GRANTS SCIENTIFIC PEER REVIEW OF RESEARCH GRANT APPLICATIONS AND RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT...

  2. 7 CFR 3401.12 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups. 3401.12 Section 3401.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RANGELAND RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of...

  3. 7 CFR 3400.10 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups. 3400.10 Section 3400.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of...

  4. A Review of the Research on Pinkston's Single-Parent Group Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Harold E.; Cox, Wendell H.; Sharkey, Caroline N.; Briggs, Adam C.; Black, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this review is to chronicle the extent to which the Pinkston and colleagues model is utilized in single-parent training group (SPG) interventions in the home environment for children aged 5 to 12 or preadolescent school-aged children. Methods: Several databases were searched electronically and independent full reviews were…

  5. Review of Global Menace of Road Accidents with Special Reference to Malaysia- A Social Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kareem, Abdul

    2003-01-01

    Road accident is ‘a global tragedy’ with ever-rising trend. The goal of this article includes review of the causes and nature of accidents, statistical data regarding road accidents and the economical impact. 1.17 million deaths occur each year worldwide due to road accidents 70 % of which occur in developing countries. 65% of deaths involve pedestrians, 35 % of which are children. Estimates suggest that 23–34 million people are injured worldwide every year in road crashes - a value almost twice that previously estimated. It is estimated that more than 200 U.S. citizens die each year due to road accidents abroad. Every year in Europe, more than 50,000 peoples are killed in road accidents, and more than 150,000 remain disabled. It is a sad fact that the total number of road accidents in Malaysia exceeded 223,000 in 1999. On the average, 16 persons died from these road accidents, every single day in 1999. Lack of attention, reckless driving, lack of proper protection, speeding, bad personal habits, social and behavioral misconduct and inconsiderate drivers of larger vehicles are some of the problems that cause accidents. In Malaysia, motorcycle fatal accidents (60%) warrant a high degree of concern. Young children and senior citizens are found to be in the vulnerable age group. In Malaysia, in 1999 alone, general insurers paid RM1.67 billion or an average of RM4.6 million a day on motor claims. It is now recognized that road traffic accidents represent a major public health problem, because of the high number of victims involved and because of the seriousness of the consequences for themselves and for their families. PMID:23386795

  6. Review of statistical methods used in enhanced-oil-recovery research and performance prediction. [131 references

    SciTech Connect

    Selvidge, J.E.

    1982-06-01

    Recent literature in the field of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) was surveyed to determine the extent to which researchers in EOR take advantage of statistical techniques in analyzing their data. In addition to determining the current level of reliance on statistical tools, another objective of this study is to promote by example the greater use of these tools. To serve this objective, the discussion of the techniques highlights the observed trend toward the use of increasingly more sophisticated methods and points out the strengths and pitfalls of different approaches. Several examples are also given of opportunities for extending EOR research findings by additional statistical manipulation. The search of the EOR literature, conducted mainly through computerized data bases, yielded nearly 200 articles containing mathematical analysis of the research. Of these, 21 were found to include examples of statistical approaches to data analysis and are discussed in detail in this review. The use of statistical techniques, as might be expected from their general purpose nature, extends across nearly all types of EOR research covering thermal methods of recovery, miscible processes, and micellar polymer floods. Data come from field tests, the laboratory, and computer simulation. The statistical methods range from simple comparisons of mean values to multiple non-linear regression equations and to probabilistic decision functions. The methods are applied to both engineering and economic data. The results of the survey are grouped by statistical technique and include brief descriptions of each of the 21 relevant papers. Complete abstracts of the papers are included in the bibliography. Brief bibliographic information (without abstracts) is also given for the articles identified in the initial search as containing mathematical analyses using other than statistical methods.

  7. Review of the Literature on Tracking and Ability Grouping. Second Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindle, Jane Clark

    This review of the research literature on ability grouping and tracking draws on professional and scholarly research journals and electronic databases. Five assumptions have been used to support the recurring practices of tracking and ability grouping, but none of these assumptions has withstood close examination in 70 years of research. They are:…

  8. Review Article: Structural flood-protection measures referring to several European case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryžanowski, A.; Brilly, M.; Rusjan, S.; Schnabl, S.

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a review of structural measures that were taken to cope with floods in some cities along the Danube River, such as Vienna, Bratislava, and Belgrade. These cities were also considered as case studies within the KULTURisk project. The structural measures are reviewed and compared to each other according to the type, duration of application, the return period of the design flood event, how the project measures are integrated into spatial planning and the problems that occur in the flood defences today. Based on this review, some suggestions are given on how to improve the flood risk management in flood-prone areas.

  9. Education and Training for Computer-Based Reference Services: Review of Training Efforts to Date.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourne, Charles P.; Robinson, Jo

    1980-01-01

    Discusses issues regarding training for computer-based reference services, including who is to be trained and who is responsible for training, and summarizes the training offered to date by search service suppliers, database suppliers, library schools, and extension programs. Available training materials are also considered. (Author/FM)

  10. The prevalence of symptoms associated with sick buildings and polluted industrial environments as compared to unexposed reference groups without expressed dissatisfaction

    SciTech Connect

    Norbaeck, D.; Rand, G.; Michel, I. ); Amcoff, S. )

    1989-01-01

    The prevalence of certain symptoms (eye, skin and upper airway irritation, headache, nausea and fatigue) associated with the sick building syndrome was studied among personnel exposed to sick buildings, among industrial and hospital workers exposed to irritants and among nonexposed reference groups without expressed dissatisfaction. The exposures were quantified by hygienic measurements. Both sick building personnel and industrial and hospital workers exposed to irritants in their work places exhibited a significantly enhanced symptom prevalence in comparison with the reference groups. The enhanced prevalence of many symptoms was more pronounced among personnel in the sick buildings than among the exposed workers, but the exposure levels in comparison with the occupational exposure limit values, were lower in the sick buildings than in the industrial environment. the proportion of females was higher in the sick buildings than in the reference groups, and all sick buildings were found in the public sector. The sick building groups did not differ from the reference groups with regard to other factors such as mean age, smoking habits, atopy frequency, work stress, or work satisfaction. The results indicate that modern indoor environments could be as potent as current industrial environments in inducing irritative symptoms. The enhanced prevalence of symptoms in the sick buildings could not be explained by an accumulation of sensitive individuals in certain buildings.

  11. An iterative evaluation of two shortened systematic review formats for clinicians: a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    Perrier, Laure; Kealey, M Ryan; Straus, Sharon E

    2014-01-01

    Objective To conduct a series of focus groups with primary care physicians to determine the optimal format of a shortened, focused systematic review. Materials and methods Prototypes for two formats of a shortened systematic review were developed and presented to participants during focus group sessions. Focus groups were conducted with primary care physicians who were in full- or part-time practice. An iterative process was used so that the information learned from the first set of focus groups (Round 1) influenced the material presented to the second set of focus groups (Round 2). The focus group discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed. Results Each of the two rounds of testing included three focus groups. A total of 32 physicians participated (Round 1:16 participants; Round 2:16 participants). Analysis of the transcripts from Round 1 identified three themes including ease of use, clarity, and implementation. Changes were made to the prototypes based on the results so that the revised prototypes could be presented and discussed in the second round of focus groups. After analysis of transcripts from Round 2, four themes were identified, including ease of use, clarity, brevity, and implementation. Revisions were made to the prototypes based on the results. Conclusions Primary care physicians provided input on the refinement of two prototypes of a shortened systematic review for clinicians. Their feedback guided changes to the format, presentation, and layout of these prototypes in order to increase usability and uptake for end-users. PMID:24786378

  12. CTSA Consortium Consensus Scientific Review Committee (SRC) Working Group Report on the SRC Processes.

    PubMed

    Selker, Harry P; Buse, John B; Califf, Robert M; Carter, Robert; Cooper, Dan M; Davis, Jonathan; Ford, Daniel E; Galassetti, Pietro; Guay-Woodford, Lisa; Huggins, Gordon S; Kasper, Amanda; Kieburtz, Karl; Kirby, Aaron; Klein, Andreas K; Kline, Joel; O' Neill, Robert T; Rape, Marie; Reichgott, Douglas J; Rojevsky, Svetlana; Rosenthal, Gary E; Rubinstein, Eric P; Shepherd, Amy; Stacy, Mark; Terrin, Norma; Wallace, Mark; Welch, Lisa

    2015-12-01

    Human research projects must have a scientifically valid study design, analytic plan, and be operationally feasible in order to be successfully completed and thus to have translational impact. To ensure this, institutions that conduct clinical research should have a scientific review process prior to submission to the Institutional Review Committee (IRB). This paper reports the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) Consortium Scientific Review Committee (SRC) Consensus Working Group's proposed framework for a SRC process. Recommendations are provided for institutional support and roles of CTSAs, multisite research, criteria for selection of protocols that should be reviewed, roles of committee members, application process, and committee process. Additionally, to support the SCR process effectively, and to ensure efficiency, the Working Group recommends information technology infrastructures and evaluation metrics to determine outcomes are provided. PMID:26184433

  13. Challenges and opportunities of group therapy for adolescent substance abuse: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Kaminer, Yifrah

    2005-10-01

    Group intervention has been the most commonly employed treatment modality for adolescents with substance use disorders (SUD). Evidence has been accumulating in support for the efficacy of diverse forms of group therapy that have been utilized with adolescents. It has been argued however, that aggregation of youths who display problem behavior into group interventions may, under some conditions, produce iatrogenic effects on all participants. This assertion known also as "deviancy training" and its presumed effect on treatment outcomes has created a barrier to progress regardless of the fact that it has not been tested or empirically supported in heterogeneous groups of adolescents treated for SUD. It is imperative to optimize group intervention while considering how to prevent, reduce and control, potentially iatrogenic effects associated with the aggregation of antisocial youths in heterogeneous groups. The main objective of this review is to address the challenges and opportunities regarding group treatment of adolescent SUD. PMID:16051443

  14. Does who you know in the positional hierarchy protect or hurt? Social capital, comparative reference group, and depression in two societies.

    PubMed

    Song, Lijun

    2015-07-01

    Does the socioeconomic status (SES) that one's (ego's) network members (alters) occupy indicate social resources or social comparison standards in the dynamics of health across culture? Using nationally representative data simultaneously collected from the United States and urban China, this study examines two competing theories-social capital and comparative reference group-in the two societies and compares their different application across the two societies using two cultural explanations, relational dependence and self-evaluation motive. Social capital theory expects absolute accessed SES and the size of higher accessed socioeconomic positions to protect health, and the size of lower accessed socioeconomic positions to harm health. But comparative reference group theory predicts the opposite. Additionally, the relational dependence explanation anticipates social capital theory to be more applicable to urban China and comparative reference group theory to be more applicable to the United States. The self-evaluation motive explanation expects the same pattern across the two societies in the examination of the size of lower accessed socioeconomic positions but the opposite pattern in the analysis of absolute accessed SES and the size of higher accessed socioeconomic positions. This study focuses on depressive symptoms and measures accessed occupational status. Results are consistent with the self-evaluation motive explanation. They support both social capital theory and comparative reference group theory in the United States but only the latter theory in urban China. PMID:25993522

  15. Bioaccumulation and toxicity of heavy metals and related trace elements. [Review (96 references)

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.B. Jr.

    1981-06-01

    This article reviews the experimental data on heavy metals in the aquatic environment and their biological effects on aquatic ecosystems. Arsenic, cadmium, copper, chromium, lead, mercury, zinc, selenium, and cobalt were discussed. In addition, the concepts of bioconcentration and detoxification of heavy metals were described. (KRM)

  16. Class Size and Educational Achievement: A Review of Methodology with Particular Reference to Study Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Harvey; Blatchford, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Reviews research into class size effects from a methodological viewpoint, concentrating on various strengths and weaknesses of randomized controlled trials (RCT) and observational studies. Discusses population definitions, causation, and generally sets out criteria for valid inferences from such studies. Illustrates with new findings from data in…

  17. Peer Review of Submissions to the Annual American Evaluation Association Conference by the Graduate Student & New Evaluators Topical Interest Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroter, Daniela C.; Coryn, Chris L. S.; Montrosse, Bianca E.

    2008-01-01

    Peer review is an umbrella term that refers to a class of selection and oversight practices, including the familiar mechanisms of the review of proposals submitted for funding, of manuscripts for scholarly publications, and of personnel qualifications and portfolios for selection and promotion. Peer review has long been a cornerstone of modern…

  18. Rate increase disclosure and review: definitions of "individual market" and "small group market." Final rule.

    PubMed

    2011-09-01

    This final rule amends a May 23, 2011, final rule entitled "Rate Increase Disclosure and Review". The final rule provided that, for purposes of rate review only, definitions of "individual market" and "small group market" under State rate filing laws would govern even if those definitions departed from the definitions that otherwise apply under title XXVII of the Public Health Service Act (PHS Act). The preamble to the final rule requested comments on whether this policy should apply in cases in which State rate filing law definitions of "individual market" and "small group market" exclude association insurance policies that would be included in these definitions for other purposes under the PHS Act. In response to comments, this final rule amends the definitions of "individual market" and "small group market" that apply for rate review purposes to include coverage sold to individuals and small groups through associations even if the State does not include such coverage in its definitions of individual and small group market. This final rule also updates standards for health insurance issuers regarding disclosure and review of unreasonable premium increases under section 2794 of the Public Health Service Act. PMID:21894663

  19. Review of effects of water pollution on the breeding success of waterbirds, with particular reference to ardeids in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    De Luca-Abbott, S B; Wong, B S; Peakall, D B; Lam, P K; Young, L; Lam, M H; Richardson, B J

    2001-12-01

    Predatory waterbirds, such as ardeids, are susceptible to bioaccumulation of pollutants through the ingestion of contaminated food sources. High body burdens of contaminants, including PCBs, PAHs, cadmium, mercury, lead, copper, zinc and arsenic have been detected in many bird species worldwide. There is a paucity of literature, however, linking contaminant body burden and effects on reproductive success in waterbirds. This review is a synthesis of pertinent literature on this topic, with specific reference to contaminant residues in various tissue types, relationship between body burden and reproductive success, and the use of biomarkers to predict more serious adverse affects. The impetus for this review was the development of a conservation strategy and management plan (commissioned by the Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR)) for an important wetland in Hong Kong that supports many threatened waterbirds, including ardeids. PMID:11759567

  20. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of Westinghouse Electric Corporation's report on reference conceptual designs for a repository waste package

    SciTech Connect

    Rote, D.M.; Hull, A.B.; Was, G.S.; Macdonald, D.D.; Wilde, B.E.; Russell, J.E.; Kruger, J.; Harrison, W.; Hambley, D.F.

    1985-10-01

    This report documents the findings of the peer panel constituted by Argonne National Laboratory to review Region A of Westinghouse Electric Corporation's report entitled Waste Package Reference Conceptual Designs for a Repository in Salt. The panel determined that the reviewed report does not provide reasonable assurance that US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements for waste packages will be met by the proposed design. It also found that it is premature to call the design a ''reference design,'' or even a ''reference conceptual design.'' This review report provides guidance for the preparation of a more acceptable design document.

  1. 75 FR 19983 - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control Initial Review Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control Initial Review Group In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the following...

  2. Mostly Heterosexual as a Distinct Sexual Orientation Group: A Systematic Review of the Empirical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savin-Williams, Ritch C.; Vrangalova, Zhana

    2013-01-01

    We reviewed empirical evidence regarding whether mostly heterosexual exists as a sexual orientation distinct from two adjacent groups on a sexual continuum--exclusively heterosexual and substantially bisexual. We addressed the question: Do mostly heterosexuals show a unique profile of sexual and romantic characteristics that distinguishes them as…

  3. 7 CFR 3415.10 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups. 3415.10 Section 3415.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE BIOTECHNOLOGY RISK ASSESSMENT RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific...

  4. A Systematic Evidence Review of School-Based Group Contingency Interventions for Students with Challenging Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maggin, Daniel M.; Johnson, Austin H.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Ruberto, Laura M.; Berggren, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to synthesize the research underlying group contingency interventions to determine whether there is sufficient evidence to support their use for managing the classroom behavior of students with behavioral difficulties. An application of the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) procedures for evaluating single-subject…

  5. 7 CFR 3415.10 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups. 3415.10 Section 3415.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BIOTECHNOLOGY RISK ASSESSMENT RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific...

  6. 7 CFR 3411.10 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups. 3411.10 Section 3411.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL RESEARCH INITIATIVE COMPETITIVE GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific...

  7. 7 CFR 3415.10 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups. 3415.10 Section 3415.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE BIOTECHNOLOGY RISK ASSESSMENT RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific...

  8. A Biosocial View of Population: Fertility Behavior in Animal Groups and Early Human Societies. A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Elaine M.

    The paper discusses the relationship between social structure and fertility behavior in man. Focusing upon human fertility within the context of varying social groups, the document reviews recent interdisciplinary population studies. Information and interpretations from biology, ethnology, anthropology, history, and sociology are presented in four…

  9. Review of Social Skills Training Groups for Youth with Asperger Syndrome and High Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappadocia, M. Catherine; Weiss, Jonathan A.

    2011-01-01

    Although social skills deficits represent core symptoms of Asperger Syndrome and High Functioning Autism, there is limited research investigating the empirical validity of social skills interventions currently being used with these populations. This literature review compares three types of social skills training groups: traditional, cognitive…

  10. Family and Group Treatment for Sexually-Abused Children: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silovsky, Jane F.; Hembree-Kigin, Toni L.

    1994-01-01

    Provides a critical discussion of current research on the efficacy of family and group interventions for child sexual abuse victims. Treatment goals and components are described, followed by a review of relevant empirical studies. Suggestions are presented for improving the methodology of future sexual abuse intervention research. (JPS)

  11. Participation, Interaction and Social Presence: An Exploratory Study of Collaboration in Online Peer Review Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Huahui; Sullivan, Kirk P. H.; Mellenius, Ingmarie

    2014-01-01

    A key reason for using asynchronous computer conferencing in instruction is its potential for supporting collaborative learning. However, few studies have examined collaboration in computer conferencing. This study examined collaboration in six peer review groups within an asynchronous computer conferencing. Eighteen tertiary students participated…

  12. Chronic shoulder pain referred from thymic carcinoma: a case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Dee, Shu-Wei; Kao, Mu-Jung; Hong, Chang-Zern; Chou, Li-Wei; Lew, Henry L

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of thymic carcinoma presenting as unilateral shoulder pain for 13 months. Before an accurate diagnosis was made, the patient received conservative treatment, cervical discectomies, and myofascial trigger point injection, none of which relieved his pain. When thymic carcinoma was eventually diagnosed, he received total resection of the tumor and the shoulder pain subsided completely. Thymic carcinoma is a rare carcinoma, and our review of the literature did not show shoulder pain as its initial presentation except for one case report. The purpose of this report is to document our clinical experience so that other physiatrists can include thymic carcinoma in their differential diagnosis of shoulder pain. PMID:22969299

  13. Review on the association of Group B Streptococcus capsular antibody and protection against invasive disease in infants.

    PubMed

    Dangor, Ziyaad; Kwatra, Gaurav; Izu, Alane; Lala, Sanjay G; Madhi, Shabir A

    2015-01-01

    A trivalent Group B streptococcus (GBS) polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine for vaccination of pregnant women is under development to protect their newborns against invasive GBS disease. Establishing sero-correlates of protection against invasive GBS disease in infants could expedite the licensure pathway of polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine. A systematic review of studies reporting on the association of capsular antibodies and invasive GBS disease in infants and colonization in women or newborns was undertaken. Most studies that described maternal and/or infant capsular antibody levels in infants with invasive GBS disease identified an association between low capsular antibody levels in invasive GBS cases compared to controls. Different assay methods and the lack of standardized reference ranges for serotype-specific antibody levels makes it difficult to select an antibody level that may be used as a reliable sero-correlate of protection. Further studies using standardized methods are warranted. PMID:25242617

  14. Review of bioaerosols in indoor environment with special reference to sampling, analysis and control mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Bipasha; Lal, Himanshu; Srivastava, Arun

    2015-12-01

    Several tiny organisms of various size ranges present in air are called airborne particles or bioaerosol which mainly includes live or dead fungi and bacteria, their secondary metabolites, viruses, pollens, etc. which have been related to health issues of human beings and other life stocks. Bio-terror attacks in 2001 as well as pandemic outbreak of flue due to influenza A H1N1 virus in 2009 have alarmed us about the importance of bioaerosol research. Hence characterization i.e. identification and quantification of different airborne microorganisms in various indoor environments is necessary to identify the associated risks and to establish exposure threshold. Along with the bioaerosol sampling and their analytical techniques, various literatures revealing the concentration levels of bioaerosol have been mentioned in this review thereby contributing to the knowledge of identification and quantification of bioaerosols and their different constituents in various indoor environments (both occupational and non-occupational sections). Apart from recognition of bioaerosol, developments of their control mechanisms also play an important role. Hence several control methods have also been briefly reviewed. However, several individual levels of efforts such as periodic cleaning operations, maintenance activities and proper ventilation system also serve in their best way to improve indoor air quality. PMID:26436919

  15. Review of the enzymatic machinery of Halothermothrix orenii with special reference to industrial applications.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Abhishek; Pletschke, Brett I

    2014-02-01

    Over the past few decades the extremes at which life thrives has continued to challenge our understanding of physiology, biochemistry, microbial ecology and evolution. Innovative culturing approaches, environmental genome sequencing, and whole genome sequencing have provided new opportunities for the biotechnological exploration of extremophiles. The whole genome sequencing of H. orenii has provided valuable insights not only into the survival and adaptation strategies of thermohalophiles but has also led to the identification of genes encoding biotechnologically relevant enzymes. The present review focuses on the purified and characterized enzymes from H. orenii including amylases, β-glucosidase, fructokinase, and ribokinase--along with uncharacterized but industrially important enzymes encoded by the genes identified in the genome such as β-galactosidases, mannosidases, pullulanases, chitinases, α-L-arabinofuranosidases and other glycosyl hydrolases of commercial interest. This review highlights the importance of the enzymes and their applications in different sectors and why future research for exploring the enzymatic machinery of H. orenii should focus on the expression, purification, and characterization of the novel proteins in H. orenii and their feasible application to pertinent industrial sectors. H. orenii is an anaerobe; genome sequencing studies have also revealed the presence of enzymes for gluconeogenesis and fermentation to ethanol and acetate, making H. orenii an attractive strain for the conversion of starch into bioethanol. PMID:24411459

  16. Targeted group-based interventions in schools to promote emotional well-being: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cheney, Gemma; Schlösser, Annette; Nash, Poppy; Glover, Lesley

    2014-07-01

    The school environment offers significant opportunities to deliver psychological interventions to groups of young people in the UK. However, the nature and effectiveness of programmes are not consistently documented. This systematic review aimed to identify and examine group-based interventions delivered in UK schools. Sixteen papers describing eight interventions were included. It was found that nurture groups have an immediate positive impact on the social and emotional well-being of young people. Results from follow-up studies are less clear, and limited by a high level of sample attrition. The findings reported in relation to social and emotional aspects of learning, cognitive, behavioural and social skills based interventions were limited as each intervention is only evaluated by one paper. The review highlighted a need to implement well-designed, longitudinal studies with larger samples in order to evaluate which interventions are effective in UK schools. PMID:23737607

  17. The determination of polychlorinated biphenyl residues: a review with special reference to foods.

    PubMed

    Robards, K

    1990-01-01

    The determination of polychlorinated biphenyls presents several unique analytical problems, not least of which is the need to identify and quantify 209 possible analytes. Moreover, congener-specific analysis is essential because of structure-activity effects on toxicity and environmental stability. Although significant advances have been achieved in identification/quantification procedures with the aid of highly efficient, inert open tubular chromatography columns and coupled GC-MS, sampling and extraction procedures have not developed to the same extent. The primary focus of this review is the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in foods. However, the problems of separation and identification overshadow the importance of the sample matrix, and relevant data from other areas of analysis are quoted. PMID:2113010

  18. Environmental impacts of perchlorate with special reference to fireworks--a review.

    PubMed

    Sijimol, M R; Mohan, Mahesh

    2014-11-01

    Perchlorate is an inorganic anion that is used in solid rocket propellants, fireworks, munitions, signal flares, etc. The use of fireworks is identified as one of the main contributors in the increasing environmental perchlorate contamination. Although fireworks are displayed for entertainment, its environmental costs are dire. Perchlorates are also emerging as potent thyroid disruptors, and they have an impact on the ecology too. Many studies have shown that perchlorate contaminates the groundwater and the surface water, especially in the vicinity of fireworks manufacturing sites and fireworks display sites. The health and ecological impacts of perchlorate released in fireworks are yet to be fully assessed. This paper reviews fireworks as a source of perchlorate contamination and its expected adverse impacts. PMID:25004859

  19. Submarine canyons as important habitat for cetaceans, with special reference to the Gully: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moors-Murphy, Hilary B.

    2014-06-01

    There has been much research interest in the use of submarine canyons by cetaceans, particularly beaked whales (family Ziphiidae), which appear to be especially attracted to canyon habitats in some areas. However, not all submarine canyons are associated with large numbers of cetaceans and the mechanisms through which submarine canyons may attract cetaceans are not clearly understood. This paper reviews some of the cetacean associations with submarine canyons that have been anecdotally described or presented in scientific literature and discusses the physical, oceanographic and biological mechanisms that may lead to enhanced cetacean abundance around these canyons. Particular attention is paid to the Gully, a large submarine canyon and Marine Protected Area off eastern Canada for which there exists some of the strongest evidence available for submarine canyons as important cetacean habitat. Studies demonstrating increased cetacean abundance in the Gully and the processes that are likely to attract cetaceans to this relatively well-studied canyon are discussed. This review provides some limited evidence that cetaceans are more likely to associate with larger canyons; however, further studies are needed to fully understand the relationship between the physical characteristics of canyons and enhanced cetacean abundance. In general, toothed whales (especially beaked whales and sperm whales) appear to exhibit the strongest associations with submarine canyons, occurring in these features throughout the year and likely attracted by concentrating and aggregating processes. By contrast, baleen whales tend to occur in canyons seasonally and are most likely attracted to canyons by enrichment and concentrating processes. Existing evidence thus suggests that at least some submarine canyons are important foraging areas for cetaceans, and should be given special consideration for cetacean conservation and protection.

  20. Competitive Team-Based Learning versus Group Investigation with Reference to the Language Proficiency of Iranian EFL Intermediate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad Hassan

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a report on an experimental study which intended to look into the possible effects of Competitive Team-Based Learning (CTBL) vis-à-vis Group Investigation (GI) method of Cooperative Learning (CL) on the language proficiency of Iranian EFL intermediate students. Seventy homogeneous Iranian intermediate students were selected out of a…

  1. Tweeting links to Cochrane Schizophrenia Group reviews: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Adams, C E; Bodart, A Y M; Sampson, S; Zhao, S; Montgomery, A A

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of using health social media on web activity. Design Individually randomised controlled parallel group superiority trial. Setting Twitter and Weibo. Participants 170 Cochrane Schizophrenia Group full reviews with an abstract and plain language summary web page. Interventions Three randomly ordered slightly different 140 character or less messages, each containing a short URL to the freely accessible summary page sent on specific times on one single day. This was compared with no messaging. Outcome The primary outcome was web page visits at 1 week. Secondary outcomes were other metrics of web activity at 1 week. Results 85 reviews were randomised to each of the intervention and control arms. Google Analytics allowed 100% follow-up within 1 week of completion. Intervention and control reviews received a total of 1162 and 449 visits, respectively (IRR 2.7, 95% CI 2.2 to 3.3). Fewer intervention reviews had single page only visits (16% vs 31%, OR 0.41, 0.19 to 0.88) and users spent more time viewing intervention reviews (geometric mean 76 vs 31 s, ratio 2.5, 1.3 to 4.6). Other secondary metrics of web activity all showed strong evidence in favour of the intervention. Conclusions Tweeting in this limited area of healthcare increases ‘product placement’ of evidence with the potential for that to influence care. Trial registration number ISRCTN84658943. PMID:26956164

  2. Cryogenics and its application with reference to spice grinding: a review.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, S; Gupta, Manoj Kumar; Singh, K K

    2012-01-01

    Cryogenics is the study of very low temperature and its application on different materials including biological products. Cryogenics has numerous applications in space science, electronics, automobiles, the manufacturing industry, sports and musical instruments, biological science and agriculture, etc. Cryogenic freezing finds pivotal application in food, that is, spices and condiments. Although there is a wide range of cryogens to produce the desired low temperature, generally liquid nitrogen (LN₂) is used in food grinding. The application of low temperature shows a promising pathway to produce higher quality end product with higher flavor and volatile oil retention. Cryogenic grinders generally consist of precoolers and grinder with the cryogen distribution system. In such grinding systems, cryogens subject the raw material up to or lower than glass transition temperature before it is ground, thus eliminating much of the material and quality hassles of traditional grinding. At present, the capital investment including cryogen and handling costs escalate the final cost of the product. Thus, for large-scale production, a proper design to optimize and make it feasible is the need of the hour and understanding the behavior of different food materials at these low temperature conditions. This article reviews the scenario and application of cryogenics in different sectors, especially to spice grinding. PMID:22698269

  3. Review and evaluation of the effects of xenobiotic chemicals on microorganisms in soil. [139 references

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, R.J.; Van Voris, P.

    1988-02-01

    The primary objective was to review and evaluate the relevance and quality of existing xenobiotic data bases and test methods for evaluating direct and indirect effects (both adverse and beneficial) of xenobiotics on the soil microbial community; direct and indirect effects of the soil microbial community on xenobiotics; and adequacy of test methods used to evaluate these effects and interactions. Xenobiotic chemicals are defined here as those compounds, both organic and inorganic, produced by man and introduced into the environment at concentrations that cause undesirable effects. Because soil serves as the main repository for many of these chemicals, it therefore has a major role in determining their ultimate fate. Once released, the distribution of xenobiotics between environmental compartments depends on the chemodynamic properties of the compounds, the physicochemical properties of the soils, and the transfer between soil-water and soil-air interfaces and across biological membranes. Abiotic and biotic processes can transform the chemical compound, thus altering its chemical state and, subsequently, its toxicity and reactivity. Ideally, the conversion is to carbon dioxide, water, and mineral elements, or at least, to some harmless substance. However, intermediate transformation products, which can become toxic pollutants in their own right, can sometimes be formed. 139 refs., 6 figs., 11 tabs.

  4. Normatology: a review and commentary with reference to abortion and physician-assisted suicide.

    PubMed

    Brodie, H K; Banner, L

    1997-06-01

    This article opens with a review of the concept of "normatology," which was developed by Sabshin and Offer in four books published over a period of 30 years. Normatology seeks to produce an "operational definition of normality and health" over the life cycle. Such a definition can be used as a guideline in the deliver of health care. The importance of this field of study is highlighted when considering issues such as abortion or physician-assisted suicide. Fortunately, the proclivity of Americans to conduct public opinion polls helps researchers determine what is considered "normal" at any given time. Gallup Polls, which have posed the same question about the legality of abortion from 1975 to 1995, indicate that about half of all Americans continuously occupy the middle ground on this issue despite a somewhat liberalizing trend. In general, public opinion holds that it is normal to want to avoid giving birth to a damaged child, to place the mother's health and safety above that of the fetus, and to terminate a pregnancy resulting from rape. It is less normal to abort a healthy fetus on demand. Thus, abortion will likely continue to be a source of controversy and confusion in our society and among psychiatric patients. In comparison, psychiatrists express attitudes about abortion that are more liberal than normal. In the case of physician-assisted suicide, public approval has increased since 1950 as scientific advancements have facilitated the prolongation of unproductive and painful life. If legalized, physician-assisted suicide may depend upon psychiatric assessment of an absence of mental disease. Such an assessment is required in the Northern Territory of Australia, where voluntary euthanasia is legal, but not in the Netherlands, where it is government-regulated. Psychiatrists must understand public opinion in order to influence it or deal with it competently. PMID:9167540

  5. Review of remediation practices regarding cadmium-enriched farmland soil with particular reference to China.

    PubMed

    Tang, X; Li, Q; Wu, M; Lin, L; Scholz, M

    2016-10-01

    Cadmium-enrichment of farmland soil greatly threatens the sustainable use of soil resources and the safe cultivation of grain. This review paper briefly introduces the status of farmland soil as well as grain, which are both often polluted by cadmium (Cd) in China, and illustrates the major sources of Cd contaminants in farmland soil. In order to meet soil environmental quality standards and farmland environmental quality evaluation standards for edible agricultural products, Cd-enriched farmland soil is frequently remediated with the following prevailing techniques: dig and fill, electro-kinetic remediation, chemical elution, stabilisation and solidification, phytoremediation, field management and combined remediation. Most remediation techniques are still at the stage of small-scale trial experiments in China and few techniques are assessed in field trials. After comparing the technical and economical applicability among different Cd-enriched farmland soil remediation techniques, a novel ecological and hydraulic remediation technique has been proposed, which integrated the advantages of chemical elution, solidification and stabilisation, phytoremediation and field management. The ecological and hydraulic remediation concept is based on existing irrigation and drainage facilities, ecological ditches (ponds) and agronomic measures, which mainly detoxify the Cd-enriched soil during the interim period of crop cultivation, and guarantee the grain safety during its growth period. This technique may shift the challenge from soil to water treatment, and thus greatly enhances the remediation efficiency and shortens the remediation duration. Moreover, the proposed ecological and hydraulic remediation method matches well with the practical choice of cultivation while remediation for Cd-enriched soil in China, which has negligible impacts on the normal crop cultivation process, and thus shows great potential for large area applications. PMID:27562701

  6. Plant functional traits with particular reference to tropical deciduous forests: a review.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, R K; Raghubanshi, A S; Singh, J S

    2011-12-01

    Functional traits (FTs) integrate the ecological and evolutionary history of a species, and can potentially be used to predict its response as well as its influence on ecosystem functioning. Study of inter-specific variation in the FTs of plants aids in classifying species into plant functional types (PFTs) and provides insights into fundamental patterns and trade-offs in plant form and functioning and the effect of changing species composition on ecosystem functions. Specifically, this paper focuses on those FTs that make a species successful in the dry tropical environment. Following a brief overview, we discuss plant FTs that may be particularly relevant to tropical deciduous forests (TDFs). We consider the traits under the following categories: leaf traits, stem and root traits, reproductive traits, and traits particularly relevant to water availability. We compile quantitative information on functional traits of dry tropical forest species. We also discuss trait-based grouping of plants into PFTs. We recognize that there is incomplete knowledge about many FTs and their effects on TDFs and point out the need for further research on PFTs of TDF species, which can enable prediction of the dynamics of these forests in the face of disturbance and global climate change. Correlations between structural and ecophysiological traits and ecosystem functioning should also be established which could make it possible to generate predictions of changes in ecosystem services from changes in functional composition. PMID:22116295

  7. The use of ephemera with particular reference to blood and organ donation: a review of sources.

    PubMed

    Rose, G M

    1994-06-01

    Emphasis has been placed upon a study of the use made of ephemera such as leaflets, pamphlets and booklets by non-professional staff working in British statutory organizations such as health authorities, community health councils and family health services authorities as well as voluntary organizations such as charities, citizens' advice bureaux and patient participation groups. Publicity methods and the use made of ephemeral materials by those statutory and voluntary organizations involved in recruiting and retaining blood and organ donors is highlighted. Research findings confirm that patients, carers and others, wish to receive comprehendable and appropriate health information. Ephemera provided in support of this need are not comprehensive in subject coverage and lack any standardization of format. In particular, great care needs to be taken with the design of leaflets, pamphlets and booklets. Ephemeral materials are difficult to locate and obtain, and no bibliographical centre exists to coordinate and support existing activity by identifying, acquiring, storing, advertising and distributing such health care material. Marketing and publicity skills, and much time and effort are required to rectify this deficiency, and thus to satisfy the needs of consumers. PMID:10136650

  8. Reference scenarios for deforestation and forest degradation in support of REDD: a review of data and methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olander, Lydia P.; Gibbs, Holly K.; Steininger, Marc; Swenson, Jennifer J.; Murray, Brian C.

    2008-04-01

    Global climate policy initiatives are now being proposed to compensate tropical forest nations for reducing carbon emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD). These proposals have the potential to include developing countries more actively in international greenhouse gas mitigation and to address a substantial share of the world's emissions which come from tropical deforestation. For such a policy to be viable it must have a credible benchmark against which emissions reduction can be calculated. This benchmark, sometimes termed a baseline or reference emissions scenario, can be based directly on historical emissions or can use historical emissions as input for business as usual projections. Here, we review existing data and methods that could be used to measure historical deforestation and forest degradation reference scenarios including FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations) national statistics and various remote sensing sources. The freely available and corrected global Landsat imagery for 1990, 2000 and soon to come for 2005 may be the best primary data source for most developing countries with other coarser resolution high frequency or radar data as a valuable complement for addressing problems with cloud cover and for distinguishing larger scale degradation. While sampling of imagery has been effectively useful for pan-tropical and continental estimates of deforestation, wall-to-wall (or full coverage) allows more detailed assessments for measuring national-level reference emissions. It is possible to measure historical deforestation with sufficient certainty for determining reference emissions, but there must be continued calls at the international level for making high-resolution imagery available, and for financial and technical assistance to help countries determine credible reference scenarios. The data available for past years may not be sufficient for assessing all forms of forest degradation, but new data sources

  9. Human Ontogeny of Drug Transporters: Review and Recommendations of the Pediatric Transporter Working Group.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, K L R; Aleksunes, L M; Brandys, B; Giacoia, G P; Knipp, G; Lukacova, V; Meibohm, B; Nigam, S K; Rieder, M; de Wildt, S N

    2015-09-01

    The critical importance of membrane-bound transporters in pharmacotherapy is widely recognized, but little is known about drug transporter activity in children. In this white paper, the Pediatric Transporter Working Group presents a systematic review of the ontogeny of clinically relevant membrane transporters (e.g., SLC, ABC superfamilies) in intestine, liver, and kidney. Different developmental patterns for individual transporters emerge, but much remains unknown. Recommendations to increase our understanding of membrane transporters in pediatric pharmacotherapy are presented. PMID:26088472

  10. A comparative study of the diagnostic methods for Group A streptococcal sore throat in two reference hospitals in Yaounde, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Gonsu, Hortense Kamga; Bomki, Cynthia Mbimenyuy; Djomou, François; Toukam, Michel; Ndze, Valantine Ngum; Lyonga, Emilia Enjema; Mbakop, Calixte Didier; Koulla-Shiro, Sinata

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sore throat is a common complaint in general practice which is more frequent in children. The most frequent pathogenic bacteria associated with this infection is Streptococcus pyogenes. Rapid Antigen Diagnostic Test (RADT) facilitates the rapid identification and consequently prompt treatment of patients, prevents complications, and also reduces the risk of spread of Group A Streptococcus (GAS). The main objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of a rapid streptococcal antigen detection test in patients with sore throat. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out from January to April 2011 on patients aged 3 to 72 years consulting for pharyngitis or sore throat at the paediatric and Ear, Nose and Throat units of the University Teaching Hospital Yaounde and the Central Hospital Yaounde. Two throat swabs were collected per patient. One was used for the rapid test and the other for standard bacteriological analysis. Results The prevalence of GAS in the study population was 22.5%. Out of the 71 samples collected, the RADT detected group A streptococcal antigens in 12 of 16 positive cultures giving a sensitivity of 75%. The specificity of the rapid test was 96%, with positive predictive value of 85.7%, and negative predictive value of 93% respectively. Conclusion Rapid test may have an additional value in the management of patients with high risk of having GAS infection. However, tests with a higher sensitivity are needed for accurate and reliable results for early diagnosis of patients with sore throat caused by GAS.

  11. Invited review: Effects of group housing of dairy calves on behavior, cognition, performance, and health.

    PubMed

    Costa, J H C; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Weary, D M

    2016-04-01

    Standard practice in the dairy industry is to separate the calf and dam immediately after birth and raise calves in individual pens during the milk-feeding period. In nature and in extensive beef systems, the young calf lives in a complex social environment. Social isolation during infancy has been associated with negative effects, including abnormal behavior and developmental problems, in a range of species. Here, we review empirical work on the social development of calves and the effects of social isolation in calves and other species; this evidence indicates that calves reared in isolation have deficient social skills, difficulties in coping with novel situations, as well as specific cognitive deficits. We also review the practices associated with group housing of dairy calves, and discuss problems and suggested solutions, especially related to cross-sucking, competition, aggression, and disease. The studies reviewed indicate that social housing improves solid feed intakes and calf weight gains before and after calves are weaned from milk to solid feed. Evidence regarding the effects of social housing on calf health is mixed, with some studies showing increased risk of disease and other studies showing no difference or even improved health outcomes for grouped calves. We conclude that there is strong and consistent evidence of behavioral and developmental harm associated with individual housing in dairy calves, that social housing improves intakes and weight gains, and that health risks associated with grouping can be mitigated with appropriate management. PMID:26874423

  12. A review of sow and piglet behaviour and performance in group housing systems for lactating sows.

    PubMed

    van Nieuwamerongen, S E; Bolhuis, J E; van der Peet-Schwering, C M C; Soede, N M

    2014-03-01

    Commercial use of group housing systems for lactating sows is limited, but the recent transition to group housing during gestation in the EU may result in a renewed interest in such systems. Therefore, this review aims to identify key factors that may contribute to the success or failure of group housing of lactating sows in comparison with individual housing by describing the variety in group housing systems and discussing animal behaviour and performance compared with individual housing. Group housing systems can be divided in multi-suckling (MS) systems, in which sows are grouped with their litters, and get-away (GA) systems, which include a separate communal area accessible to sows only. These systems differ in many aspects regarding management and layout but, compared with individual housing, generally provide more environmental complexity, more freedom of movement for the sows and more freedom to express behaviours related to, for example, maternal care and social interactions. Group housing poses several risks, such as disrupted nursing and an increased level of crushing during the MS phase, and in the GA systems there is a risk for early cessation of nursing. On the other hand, pre-weaning mingling of litters clearly benefits piglet social development and may improve adaptation to the post-weaning situation. In addition, group-housed sows may show lactational ovulation, which provides opportunities for insemination during an extended lactation period, which benefits the piglets. Gradual transitions in social and physical environment around gestation, farrowing, grouping and weaning seem to be key success factors for group housing systems during lactation. In addition, selection of suitable sows and quality of stockmanship seem important. PMID:24534691

  13. Selected Bibliographies and State-of the-Art Review for Socio-cultural Factors in Health. Volume 4: Socio-cultural Factors in Health References. International Health Planning Reference Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Renee White; Shani, Hadasa

    Intended as a companion picce to volume 4 in the Method Series, Sociocultural Factors in Health Planning (CE 024 232), this fourth of six volumes in the International Health Planning Reference Series is a combined literature review and annotated bibliography dealing with social, cultural, and behavioral aspects of delivering, planning, and…

  14. Spectral reference line data relevant to remote sensing applications: a review and outline of the EUMETRISPEC project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werhahn, O.; Brunzendorf, J.; Nwaboh, J.; Serdyukov, A.; Werwein, Viktor; Ebert, V.

    2014-10-01

    Within the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP)1 the EUMETRISPEC joint research project was focused on metrological aspects of spectral reference line data2 as presented earlier3. We review EUMETRISPEC's first funding through the EMRP and the outcome of this metrology effort to support the line data and the atmospheric remote sensing community. We describe current examples from the EMRP project to address present deficiencies of available line data. Key points of this project were the development of an open European hardware infrastructure for traceable spectral reference data and the development of standardized procedures to measure traceable molecular spectral line data. The paper describes the development of a spectroscopy infrastructure based on a Bruker IFS 125 HR high-resolution Fourier- Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, discusses the achieved results on molecular line parameters (e.g. line strengths and pressure broadening coefficients) of the greenhouse gas species CO2 and CO. Here, metrology aims to provide its additional input in terms of improved quality management, detailed uncertainty assessments and ultimately traceable spectral data linked to the SI units wherever tightened data quality objectives and improved data quality are required for certain remote sensing applications. In this paper we show how metrology efforts support this goal by means of spectroscopy infrastructure. An outline of future activities is given promoting the discussion with the remote sensing community and fostering improved links to the metrology community.

  15. Determination of the platinum - Group elements (PGE) and gold (Au) in manganese nodule reference samples by nickel sulfide fire-assay and Te coprecipitation with ICP-MS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balaram, V.; Mathur, R.; Banakar, V.K.; Hein, J.R.; Rao, C.R.M.; Gnaneswara, Rao T.; Dasaram, B.

    2006-01-01

    Platinum group elements (PGE) and Au data in polymetallic oceanic ferromanganese nodule reference samples and crust samples obtained by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), after separation and pre-concentration by nickel sulfide fire-assay and Te coprecipitation, are presented. By optimizing several critical parameters such as flux composition, matrix matching calibration, etc., best experimental conditions were established to develop a method suitable for routine analysis of manganese nodule samples for PGE and Au. Calibrations were performed using international PGE reference materials, WMG-1 and WMS-1. This improved procedure offers extremely low detection limits in the range of 0.004 to 0.016 ng/g. The results obtained in this study for the reference materials compare well with previously published data wherever available. New PGE data arc also provided on some international manganese nodule reference materials. The analytical methodology described here can be used for the routine analysis of manganese nodule and crust samples in marine geochemical studies.

  16. Improved group-specific primers based on the full SILVA 16S rRNA gene reference database.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Stefan; Pastar, Milica; Mitter, Birgit; Lippert, Kathrin; Hackl, Evelyn; Lojan, Paul; Oswald, Andreas; Sessitsch, Angela

    2014-08-01

    Quantitative PCR (qPCR) and community fingerprinting methods, such as the Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis,are well-suited techniques for the examination of microbial community structures. The use of phylum and class-specific primers can provide enhanced sensitivity and phylogenetic resolution as compared with domain-specific primers. To date, several phylum- and class-specific primers targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA gene have been published. However, many of these primers exhibit low discriminatory power against non-target bacteria in PCR. In this study, we evaluated the precision of certain published primers in silico and via specific PCR. We designed new qPCR and T-RFLP primer pairs (for the classes Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria, and the phyla Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria) by combining the sequence information from a public dataset (SILVA SSU Ref 102 NR) with manual primer design. We evaluated the primer pairs via PCR using isolates of the above-mentioned groups and via screening of clone libraries from environmental soil samples and human faecal samples. As observed through theoretical and practical evaluation, the primers developed in this study showed a higher level of precision than previously published primers, thus allowing a deeper insight into microbial community dynamics. PMID:25229098

  17. Thyroiditis: a Clinico-cytomorphological Study with a Reference to the Ethnic Groups of Northeast Regions of India.

    PubMed

    Kalita, Abhijit; Baruah, Ronica

    2015-12-01

    Definite clinico-cytological criterion is outlined for thyroid lesions. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) makes it easier to segregate cases of thyroiditis (Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis/Hashimoto's thyroiditis-CLT/HT, and subacute thyroiditis-SAT) from other benign and malignant lesions of thyroid. The study was done for a period of 5½ years at a diagnostic centre in Guwahati. Patients underwent FNAC and smears were studied for cytomorphology. A correlation with clinical features and thyroid function, including antithyroid antibody estimation, was done, wherever possible. 792 thyroid lesions were encountered during the study, of which 213 (26.89 %) were cases of thyroiditis (70.43 % CLT/HT, 24.9 % SAT and 3.76 % having overlapping features of CLT/HT and SAT); 2 cases (0.9 %) of CLT showed suspicion of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL), which was confirmed on histopathology. 24 cases (11.26 %) belonged to different ethnic tribal groups of Northeast India. CLT/HT presented predominantly with diffuse thyroid enlargement, but 12 cases (8 % of CLT/HT cases) had nodular enlargement. Patients presented with predominantly hypothyroidism; however occasional hyperthyroid cases were also seen. SAT showed signs of inflammation and presented with hyperthyroidism. Overlap cases of CLT/HT and SAT showed combined clinico-cytomorphological features of both lesions. 37.5 % cases with overlapping features belonged to tribal communities. A rise in incidence of thyroiditis, particularly CLT/HT, was seen. Overlap features of CLT/HT and SAT was noticed in significant percentage. No bias was noticed amongst any specific tribal community. FNAC, coupled with clinico-serological study, helps to diagnose thyroiditis at early stage. PMID:26693459

  18. 75 FR 34458 - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG) Correction: This notice was published in the Federal Register on... Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the following meeting of the aforementioned review group: Time...

  19. An International Strategy for Human Exploration of the Moon: The International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) Reference Architecture for Human Lunar Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laurini, Kathleen C.; Hufenbach, Bernhard; Junichiro, Kawaguchi; Piedboeuf, Jean-Claude; Schade, Britta; Lorenzoni, Andrea; Curtis, Jeremy; Hae-Dong, Kim

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) was established in response to The Global Exploration Strategy: The Framework for Coordination developed by fourteen space agencies and released in May 2007. Several ISECG participating space agencies have been studying concepts for human exploration of the moon that allow individual and collective goals and objectives to be met. This 18 month study activity culminated with the development of the ISECG Reference Architecture for Human Lunar Exploration. The reference architecture is a series of elements delivered over time in a flexible and evolvable campaign. This paper will describe the reference architecture and how it will inform near-term and long-term programmatic planning within interested agencies. The reference architecture is intended to serve as a global point of departure conceptual architecture that enables individual agency investments in technology development and demonstration, International Space Station research and technology demonstration, terrestrial analog studies, and robotic precursor missions to contribute towards the eventual implementation of a human lunar exploration scenario which reflects the concepts and priorities established to date. It also serves to create opportunities for partnerships that will support evolution of this concept and its eventual realization. The ISECG Reference Architecture for Human Lunar Exploration (commonly referred to as the lunar gPoD) reflects the agency commitments to finding an effective balance between conducting important scientific investigations of and from the moon, as well as demonstrating and mastering the technologies and capabilities to send humans farther into the Solar System. The lunar gPoD begins with a robust robotic precursor phase that demonstrates technologies and capabilities considered important for the success of the campaign. Robotic missions will inform the human missions and buy down risks. Human exploration will start

  20. [The Goldthorpe Social Class Classification: reference framework for a proposal for the measurement of social class by the Working Group of the Spanish Society of Epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Regidor, E

    2001-01-01

    Two of the most important theory-based social class classifications are that of the neo-Weberian Goldthorpe and that of the neo-Marxist Wright. The social class classification proposal of the SES Working Group employed the Goldthorpe schema as a reference due to the empirical and mainly pragmatic aspects involved. In this article, these aspects are discussed and it is also discussed the problem of the validation of the measurements of social class and the problem of the use of the social class as an independent variable. PMID:11400411

  1. Micturition in Göttingen minipigs: first reference in vivo data for urological research and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Huppertz, N D; Tolba, R H; Grosse, J O

    2015-10-01

    One possible symptom of overactive bladder (OAB) is urinary incontinence, which is generally considered to be an age-associated disease and which is rapidly increasing with demographic changes. Rodent models are commonly used for the investigation of lower urinary tract functions, although the use of these species has limitations in several translational aspects. In biomedical research and preclinical toxicology, Göttingen minipigs are used increasingly. But in urological research, only few data are available for Göttingen minipigs. To the best of our knowledge, this study is one of the first to provide reference data of micturition in female Göttingen minipigs. Micturition frequency and volumes were monitored and analyzed in five female Göttingen minipigs. Voided volume was 520 ± 383 mL (mean ± standard deviation of mean [SD]) and micturition frequency 6.17 ± 3.68 (mean ± SD). We also performed a review of the literature to compare our data with data from different species (humans, pigs, rats and mice). Our findings revealed that micturition volume and frequency of Göttingen minipigs are more comparable with that of humans, leading to the conclusion that Göttingen minipigs may be the better choice for translational research in different research fields, such as urology, neurology and nephrology, etc. The provision of in vivo reference values meets with the 3R concept of 'reduction, refinement and replacement' of laboratory animals, because they allow comprehensive statistical power calculations (reduction), planning of telemetric approaches (refinement), and generation of computer-based modulation for the development of intravesical drug delivery systems (replacement). PMID:25660835

  2. Invited Review: Polycomb group genes in the regeneration of the healthy and pathological skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Marino, S; Di Foggia, V

    2016-08-01

    The polycomb group (PcG) proteins are epigenetic repressors required during key developmental processes, such as maintenance of cell identity and stem cell differentiation. To exert their repressive function, PcG proteins assemble on chromatin into multiprotein complexes, known as polycomb repressive complex 1 and 2. In this review, we will focus on the role and mode of function of PcG proteins in the development and regeneration of the skeletal muscle, both in normal and pathological conditions and we will discuss the emerging concept of modulation of their expression to enhance the muscle-specific regenerative process for patient benefit. PMID:26479276

  3. Paleomagnetism, Geochronology, and Geochemistry of the Type Section of the Stanislaus Group: Reference Parameters from the Stable Sierra Nevada Microplate, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farner, M. J.; Pluhar, C. J.; Asami, R.; Putirka, K. D.; Busby, C.; Renne, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    The Late Miocene Stanislaus Group, of California and Nevada is composed of Table Mountain Formation, Eureka Valley Tuff, and Dardanelles Formation. This ~9.0-~10.2 million year old unit interrupted Miocene andesitic arc volcanism in the Sierra Nevada, providing a regional lithostratigraphic marker that has been used extensively to reconstruct tilt and uplift of the range, Neogene tectonics of the Walker Lane Belt, magmagenetic processes beneath the Sierra Nevada, and lithospheric evolution of the Sierra Nevada and Eastern California. A recent study (Koerner et al, 2009) produced a measured section and geologic map of the Stanislaus Group type section, but until now this locality has never seen comprehensive multidisciplinary study of the geochronology, geochemistry, and magnetostratigraphy of the site and to integrate this into the overall understanding of the Stanislaus Group. Stratigraphy, geochemistry, and paleomagnetism from the type section suggest addition of a basal trachyte lava flow member to the Eureka Valley tuff and adds an additional intermediate-polarity lava flow to Table Mountain Formation magnetostratigraphy. This study dates the youngest member of the Stanislaus Group, the Dardanelles Formation, by 40Ar/39Ar radioisotopic dating for the first time, yielding an age of 9.048 ± 0.017 Ma. Paleomagnetic results verify the previous paleomagnetic reference direction from the Sierra Nevada microplate for the Tollhouse Flat Member of the Eureka Valley Tuff (King et al., 2007). However, our work revises the By-Day Member reference direction to D = 349.6°, I = 51.9° n = 8, α95 = 3.0°, k = 346. This difference is because the prior work analyzed By-Day localities within the tectonically-active Walker Lane Belt. The revised reference direction is critical for measurements of relative vertical-axis rotation studies in the Walker Lane. Our study also demonstrates that little to no vertical-axis rotation of the Sierra Nevada microplate has occurred since

  4. The Cochrane Collaboration: international activity within Cochrane Review Groups in the first decade of the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Allen, Claire; Richmond, Kiley

    2011-02-01

    The Cochrane Collaboration (http://www.cochrane.org) is the world's largest organisation dedicated to preparing, maintaining and promoting the accessibility of systematic reviews of the effects of healthcare interventions. It is an international organisation with participants in more than 100 countries, principally focused around the Cochrane Review Groups that are responsible for the preparation and maintenance of Cochrane reviews. Since 2000, a periodic audit has been done to count the number of active members in the Cochrane Review Groups, subdivided by the countries in which these people are based. At the beginning of 2010, there were almost 28,000 people involved, an increase from about 5500 in 2000. The growth of activity has been dramatic, and especially large for authors of Cochrane reviews and protocols. In the year 2000, 2840 people were listed as authors by the Cochrane Review Groups. At the beginning of 2010, this had risen to over 21,000 people. PMID:21342476

  5. Yusho and its latest findings-A review in studies conducted by the Yusho Group.

    PubMed

    Mitoma, Chikage; Uchi, Hiroshi; Tsukimori, Kiyomi; Yamada, Hideyuki; Akahane, Manabu; Imamura, Tomoaki; Utani, Atsushi; Furue, Masutaka

    2015-09-01

    The Yusho incident is an unprecedented mass food poisoning that occurred in Japan in 1968. It was caused by the ingestion of rice bran oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and various dioxins and dioxin-like compounds, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The victims of Yusho have suffered from characteristic skin manifestations associated with systemic, ophthalmological, and mucosal symptoms for a long period of time. The Study Group of Yusho (the Yusho Group) has been conducting annual medical check-ups on Yusho victims for more than 45years. Since 2002, when concentrations of dioxins in the blood of Yusho patients started to be measured, the pharmacokinetics of dioxins, relationship between blood levels of dioxins and symptoms/signs in patients directly exposed to dioxins, and the adverse effects on the next generation have become dramatically clear. Herein we review recent findings of studies conducted by the Yusho Group to evaluate chronic dioxin-induced toxicity to the next generation as well as Yusho patients in comparison with a similar food mass poisoning, the Yucheng incident. Additionally, we summarized basic studies carried out by the Yusho Group to re-evaluate the mechanisms of dioxin toxicities in experimental models and various functions of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), known as the dioxin receptor, pathway. PMID:26010306

  6. Reference Group Summaries: October 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Information Center on Education.

    This report provides a statistical summary for data included in the October 1987 Comprehensive Assessment Reports and of the results of the spring 1987 administration of the Pupil Evaluation Program (PEP) tests for New York State. The data for the 1986-87 school year in this report will enable school administrators to compare test results for…

  7. Injuries in combat from 1982-2005 with particular reference to those to the head and neck: A review.

    PubMed

    Rustemeyer, Jan; Kranz, Volker; Bremerich, Andreas

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this review was to examine the range of combat injuries with particular reference to those of the head and neck. We evaluated 10 retrospective studies selected from the period 1982-2005 that covered war injuries from Vietnam, Lebanon, Slovenia, Croatia, Iraq, Somalia, and Afghanistan. We found differences in the causes of injuries. Injuries from fragments were more common during the 90s than during the Vietnam War, where shooting injuries predominated. Injuries to the trunk were reduced in conflicts from 1991 onwards as military personal armour systems including protective vests were used. However, the mortality of wounded soldiers in all conflicts was consistently between 10% and 14%. There was a high incidence of injuries to the head and neck (up to 40%) though they affected only 12% of the body surface area. Though the data from the different military conflicts are not totally comparable, there are trends in the type of injuries and mortality, which may lead to changes in existing systems of medical care. PMID:17316932

  8. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB): a scoping review of pharmacology, toxicology, motives for use, and user groups.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Rebekah; Van Hout, Marie Claire

    2014-01-01

    Gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a central nervous system depressant with euphoric and relaxant effects. Documentation of GHB prevalence and the underreporting of abuse remains problematic, given the availability of GHB and its precursors γ-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD) and the ease of synthesis from kits available on the Internet. The continued abuse of and dependence on GHB, and associated fatalities, present an on-going public health problem. As the drug GHB remains an underresearched topic, a scoping review was chosen as a technique to map the available literature into a descriptive summarized account. PRISMA was used to assist in data retrieval, with subsequent data charting into three key themes (pharmacology and toxicology, outcomes, and user groups). Administered orally, GHB is dose-dependent and popular for certain uses (therapeutic, body enhancement, sexual assault) and amongst user sub groups (recreational party drug users, homosexual men). Despite the low prevalence of use in comparison to other club drugs, rising abuse of the drug is associated with dependence, withdrawal, acute toxicity, and fatal overdose. Clinical diagnosis and treatment is complicated by the co-ingestion of alcohol and other drugs. Limitations of the scoping review and potential for further research and harm reduction initiatives are discussed. PMID:25052883

  9. Acute monoblastic leukemia: a unique subtype--a review from the Childrens Cancer Study Group.

    PubMed

    Odom, L F; Lampkin, B C; Tannous, R; Buckley, J D; Hammond, G D

    1990-01-01

    The acute non-lymphocytic leukemias (ANLL) are generally treated as a homogeneous group. However, the literature is replete with articles alluding to distinctive features of acute monoblastic leukemia (AMoL). This review addresses the unique clinical, laboratory, epidemiological, and therapeutic features of AMoL. Leukemic monoblasts are distinguished from other cells in the myelocytic series by physical properties such as greater adhesiveness, deformability, and motility. Patients with AMoL often exhibit hyperleukocytosis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and extramedullary involvement, particularly in the skin, gingiva, and central nervous system (CNS). AMoL occurs predominantly in adults over 40 and children under 10, fifty percent of whom are under 2 years of age at diagnosis. Its relatively common occurrence in infants parallels the high rate of proliferation of monocytes in that age group. Additionally, its occurrence in young children appears to be associated with in utero exposure to marijuana and parental exposure to pesticides and solvents. Therapeutic results are generally poor due to high rates of fatal complications during induction, induction failures, and frequent extramedullary and medullary relapses. This poor outcome is particularly noted in infants. Higher remission induction rates attained with epipodophyllotoxins and incorporation of bone marrow transplantation have not yet resulted in substantial improvement of long-term outcome. Recurrence of disease in the CNS is minimized by the use of intensive CNS presymptomatic treatment, usually incorporating irradiation. Our review suggests that unique and innovative treatment strategies are needed to improve outcome for patients with AMoL. PMID:2406511

  10. Does Quality of Radiotherapy Predict Outcomes of Multicentre Cooperative Group Trials? A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Fairchild, Alysa; Straube, William; Laurie, Fran; Followill, David

    2013-01-01

    Central review of radiotherapy (RT) delivery within multicentre clinical trials was initiated in the early 1970’s in the USA. Early quality assurance (QA) publications often focused on metrics related to process, logistics and timing. Our objective was to review the available evidence supporting correlation of RT quality with clinical outcomes within cooperative group trials. Medline search was performed to identify multicentre studies which described central subjective assessment of RT protocol compliance (quality). Data abstracted included method of central review, definition of deviations, and clinical outcomes. Seventeen multicentre studies (1980–2012) were identified, plus one Patterns of Care Study. Disease sites were hematologic, head and neck, lung, breast and pancreas. Between 0% and 97% of treatment plans received an overall grade of acceptable. In seven trials, failure rates were significantly higher after inadequate versus adequate RT. 5/9 and 2/5 trials reported significantly worse overall and progression-free survival after poor quality RT, respectively. One reported a significant correlation and two reported non-significant trends towards increased toxicity with non-compliant RT. Although more data are required, protocol-compliant RT may decrease failure rates and increase overall survival and likely contributes to the ability of collected data to answer the central trial question. PMID:23683829

  11. Does Quality of Radiation Therapy Predict Outcomes of Multicenter Cooperative Group Trials? A Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Fairchild, Alysa; Straube, William; Laurie, Fran; Followill, David

    2013-10-01

    Central review of radiation therapy (RT) delivery within multicenter clinical trials was initiated in the early 1970s in the United States. Early quality assurance publications often focused on metrics related to process, logistics, and timing. Our objective was to review the available evidence supporting correlation of RT quality with clinical outcomes within cooperative group trials. A MEDLINE search was performed to identify multicenter studies that described central subjective assessment of RT protocol compliance (quality). Data abstracted included method of central review, definition of deviations, and clinical outcomes. Seventeen multicenter studies (1980-2012) were identified, plus one Patterns of Care Study. Disease sites were hematologic, head and neck, lung, breast, and pancreas. Between 0 and 97% of treatment plans received an overall grade of acceptable. In 7 trials, failure rates were significantly higher after inadequate versus adequate RT. Five of 9 and 2 of 5 trials reported significantly worse overall and progression-free survival after poor-quality RT, respectively. One reported a significant correlation, and 2 reported nonsignificant trends toward increased toxicity with noncompliant RT. Although more data are required, protocol-compliant RT may decrease failure rates and increase overall survival and likely contributes to the ability of collected data to answer the central trial question.

  12. Lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin's disease. An immunohistochemical analysis of 208 reviewed Hodgkin's disease cases from the German Hodgkin Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    von Wasielewski, R.; Werner, M.; Fischer, R.; Hansmann, M. L.; Hübner, K.; Hasenclever, D.; Franklin, J.; Sextro, M.; Diehl, V.; Georgii, A.

    1997-01-01

    There is wide consensus that lymphocyte predominance Hodgkin's disease (LPHD) represents a distinct clinicopathological entity of B-cell origin. However, inconsistent results of immunophenotyping studies and low confirmation rates among multi-center trials pose the question of whether LPHD really expresses heterogeneous marker profiles or whether it represents a mixture of morphologically similar entities. Among 2,836 cases reviewed by the German Hodgkin Study Group, immunophenotyping was performed on 1) cases classified or confirmed as LPHD by the reference panel (n = 104) or 2) cases not confirmed as LPHD but classified as classical HD (cHD) within the reference study trial (n = 104). In most cases, immunohistochemistry revealed a phenotype either LPHD-like (CD20+, CD15-, CD30-, CD45+) or cHD-like (CD15+, CD30+, CD20-, CD45-). In 27 cases, the immunophenotype was not fully conclusive. Additional markers for Epstein-Barr virus and CD57 and in situ hybridization for mRNA light chains allowed for a more clear-cut distinction between LPHD and cHD. However, in 25 of 104 cases, immunohistochemistry disproved the morphological diagnosis of LPHD of the panel experts, whereas 13 cases originally not confirmed as LPHD showed a LPHD-like immunopattern. Immunohistochemically confirmed LPHD cases showed a significantly better freedom from treatment failure (P = 0.033) than cHD; this was not observed in the original study classification based only on morphology (P > 0.05). Significantly better survival for LPHD cases improved from P = 0.047 (original study classification) to P = 0.0071 when classified by immunohistochemistry. Our results show that LPHD is a more immunohistochemical rather than a purely morphological diagnosis. Immunophenotyping of HD biopsies suspected of being LPHD is mandatory when a modified therapy protocol, that is, one different from those used in cHD, is discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9060817

  13. Review of geochemical reference sample programs since G-1 and W-1: progress to date and remaining challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    A brief history of programs to develop geochemical reference samples and certified reference samples for use in geochemical analysis is presented. While progress has been made since G-1 and W-1 were issued, many challenges remain. ?? 1991.

  14. Tibialis posterior in health and disease: a review of structure and function with specific reference to electromyographic studies

    PubMed Central

    Semple, Ruth; Murley, George S; Woodburn, James; Turner, Deborah E

    2009-01-01

    Tibialis posterior has a vital role during gait as the primary dynamic stabiliser of the medial longitudinal arch; however, the muscle and tendon are prone to dysfunction with several conditions. We present an overview of tibialis posterior muscle and tendon anatomy with images from cadaveric work on fresh frozen limbs and a review of current evidence that define normal and abnormal tibialis posterior muscle activation during gait. A video is available that demonstrates ultrasound guided intra-muscular insertion techniques for tibialis posterior electromyography. Current electromyography literature indicates tibialis posterior intensity and timing during walking is variable in healthy adults and has a disease-specific activation profile among different pathologies. Flat-arched foot posture and tibialis posterior tendon dysfunction are associated with greater tibialis posterior muscle activity during stance phase, compared to normal or healthy participants, respectively. Cerebral palsy is associated with four potentially abnormal profiles during the entire gait cycle; however it is unclear how these profiles are defined as these studies lack control groups that characterise electromyographic activity from developmentally normal children. Intervention studies show antipronation taping to significantly decrease tibialis posterior muscle activation during walking compared to barefoot, although this research is based on only four participants. However, other interventions such as foot orthoses and footwear do not appear to systematically effect muscle activation during walking or running, respectively. This review highlights deficits in current evidence and provides suggestions for the future research agenda. PMID:19691828

  15. A sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) reference FISH karyotype for chromosome and chromosome-arm identification, integration of genetic linkage groups and analysis of major repeat family distribution.

    PubMed

    Paesold, Susanne; Borchardt, Dietrich; Schmidt, Thomas; Dechyeva, Daryna

    2012-11-01

    We developed a reference karyotype for B. vulgaris which is applicable to all beet cultivars and provides a consistent numbering of chromosomes and genetic linkage groups. Linkage groups of sugar beet were assigned to physical chromosome arms by FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization) using a set of 18 genetically anchored BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) markers. Genetic maps of sugar beet were correlated to chromosome arms, and North-South orientation of linkage groups was established. The FISH karyotype provides a technical platform for genome studies and can be applied for numbering and identification of chromosomes in related wild beet species. The discrimination of all nine chromosomes by BAC probes enabled the study of chromosome-specific distribution of the major repetitive components of sugar beet genome comprising pericentromeric, intercalary and subtelomeric satellites and 18S-5.8S-25S and 5S rRNA gene arrays. We developed a multicolor FISH procedure allowing the identification of all nine sugar beet chromosome pairs in a single hybridization using a pool of satellite DNA probes. Fiber-FISH was applied to analyse five chromosome arms in which the furthermost genetic marker of the linkage group was mapped adjacently to terminal repetitive sequences on pachytene chromosomes. Only on two arms telomere arrays and the markers are physically linked, hence these linkage groups can be considered as terminally closed making the further identification of distal informative markers difficult. The results support genetic mapping by marker localization, the anchoring of contigs and scaffolds for the annotation of the sugar beet genome sequence and the analysis of the chromosomal distribution patterns of major families of repetitive DNA. PMID:22775355

  16. Alteplase for the treatment of acute ischaemic stroke: a NICE single technology appraisal; an evidence review group perspective.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Michael; Davis, Sarah; Simpson, Emma

    2015-03-01

    The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited Boehringer Ingelheim GmbH, the manufacturer of alteplase, to submit evidence for the clinical and cost-effectiveness of alteplase for the prevention of strokes within a 0-4.5 h window. The comparator was standard medical and supportive management that does not include alteplase. This paper provides a description of the company submission, the Evidence Review Group (ERG) review and NICE's subsequent decisions. Clinical effectiveness evidence for alteplase was derived from 5 trials. For the 3-4.5 h treatment window, alteplase did not show a statistically significant treatment effect on death or dependency at three months follow-up. For the 0-4.5 h treatment window data from a meta-analysis of 3 trials indicated that the reduction of death and dependency was statistically significant. In both cases there was a significant increase in symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage. The economic model described in the manufacturer's submission was considered by the ERG to meet the NICE reference case. The model structure was considered to be appropriate and the ERG has no major concerns regarding the selection of data used within the model. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) for all treatment windows were well below accepted willingness to pay thresholds. The ERG had no major concerns regarding the completeness of the submission or the robustness of the evidence presented. For all treatment windows considered, alteplase was found to be cost-effective compared with standard treatment. PMID:25424495

  17. National Drug Formulary review of statin therapeutic group using the multiattribute scoring tool

    PubMed Central

    Ramli, Azuana; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Sulong, Saperi; Md Yusof, Faridah Aryani

    2013-01-01

    Purpose HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are extensively used in treating hypercholesterolemia. The statins available in Malaysia include atorvastatin, lovastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin, simvastatin, and fluvastatin. Over the years, they have accumulated in the National Drug Formulary; hence, the need for review. Effective selection of the best drugs to remain in the formulary can become complex due to the multiple drug attributes involved, and is made worse by the limited time and resources available. The multiattribute scoring tool (MAST) systematizes the evaluation of the drug attributes to facilitate the drug selection process. In this study, a MAST framework was developed to rank the statins based on their utilities or benefits. Methods Published literature on multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) were studied and five sessions of expert group discussions were conducted to build the MAST framework and to review the evidence. The attributes identified and selected for analysis were efficacy (clinical efficacy, clinical endpoints), safety (drug interactions, serious side effects and documentation), drug applicability (drug strength/formulation, indications, dose frequency, side effects, food–drug interactions, and dose adjustments), and cost. The average weights assigned by the members for efficacy, safety, drug applicability and cost were 32.6%, 26.2%, 24.1%, and 17.1%, respectively. The utility values of the attributes were scored based on the published evidence or/and agreements during the group discussions. The attribute scores were added up to provide the total utility score. Results Using the MAST, the six statins under review were successfully scored and ranked. Atorvastatin scored the highest total utility score (TUS) of 84.48, followed by simvastatin (83.11). Atorvastatin and simvastatin scored consistently high, even before drug costs were included. The low scores on the side effects for atorvastatin were compensated for by the higher

  18. TOPICAL REVIEW: An angular momentum approach to quadratic Fourier transform, Hadamard matrices, Gauss sums, mutually unbiased bases, the unitary group and the Pauli group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibler, Maurice R.

    2009-09-01

    The construction of unitary operator bases in a finite-dimensional Hilbert space is reviewed through a nonstandard approach combining angular momentum theory and representation theory of SU(2). A single formula for the bases is obtained from a polar decomposition of SU(2) and is analyzed in terms of cyclic groups, quadratic Fourier transforms, Hadamard matrices and generalized Gauss sums. Weyl pairs, generalized Pauli operators and their application to the unitary group and the Pauli group naturally arise in this approach. Dedicated to the memory of Yurii Fedorovich Smirnov.

  19. Joint Funding Councils' Libraries Review Group (the "Follett") Report: The Contribution of the Information Technology Sub-Committee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brindley, Lynne J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to look into a review of library provision in higher education, which was originally set up in 1992 by The Funding Councils of England, Scotland and Wales, and the Department of Education for Northern Ireland. Design/methodology/approach: The review group was structured into three sub-committees, under the umbrella of…

  20. 75 FR 34459 - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG) Correction: This notice was published in the Federal Register on... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the following meeting of the aforementioned review...

  1. Uterine sarcoma Part I-Uterine leiomyosarcoma: The Topic Advisory Group systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wen, Kuo-Chang; Horng, Huann-Cheng; Wang, Peng-Hui; Chen, Yi-Jen; Yen, Ming-Shyen; Ng, Heung-Tat

    2016-08-01

    Uterine sarcomas account for 3-7% of all uterine cancers. Because of their rarity, unknown etiology, and highly divergent genetic aberration, there is a lack of consensus on risk factors for occurrence and predictive poor outcomes as well as optimal therapeutic choices. Tumor types according to the World Health Organization classification include leiomyosarcoma, endometrial stroma sarcoma, and undifferentiated sarcoma. Staging is done using the 2014 Federation International Gynecology and Obstetrics and 2010 American Joint Committee on Cancer tumor, lymph node, and metastases systems. Tumor grade can be classified based on the French Federation of Cancer Centers Sarcoma Group system or the Broder's system that incorporates tumor differentiation, mitotic count, and tumor necrosis. This review is a series of articles discussing uterine sarcoma, and this is Part I, which focuses on one of the subtypes of uterine sarcomas-uterine leiomyosarcoma. The clinical characteristics, diagnosis, outcome, and recent advances are summarized in this article. PMID:27590365

  2. Appraisal of literature reviews on end-of-life care for minority ethnic groups in the UK and a critical comparison with policy recommendations from the UK end-of-life care strategy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Evidence of low end-of-life (EoL) care service use by minority ethnic groups in the UK has given rise to a body of research and a number of reviews of the literature. This article aims to review and evaluate literature reviews on minority ethnic groups and EoL care in the UK and assess their suitability as an evidence base for policy. Methods Systematic review. Searches were carried out in thirteen electronic databases, eight journals, reference lists, and grey literature. Reviews were included if they concerned minority ethnic groups and EoL care in the UK. Reviews were graded for quality and key themes identified. Results Thirteen reviews (2001-2009) met inclusion criteria. Seven took a systematic approach, of which four scored highly for methodological quality (a mean score of six, median seven). The majority of systematic reviews were therefore of a reasonable methodological quality. Most reviews were restricted by ethnic group, aspect of EoL care, or were broader reviews which reported relevant findings. Six key themes were identified. Conclusions A number of reviews were systematic and scored highly for methodological quality. These reviews provide a good reflection of the primary evidence and could be used to inform policy. The complexity and inter-relatedness of factors leading to low service use was recognised and reflected in reviews' recommendations for service improvement. Recommendations made in the UK End-of-Life Care Strategy were limited in comparison, and the Strategy's evidence base concerning minority ethnic groups was found to be narrow. Future policy should be embedded strongly in the evidence base to reflect the current literature and minimise bias. PMID:21635738

  3. Group social skills interventions for adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Spain, Debbie; Blainey, Sarah H

    2015-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are characterised by impairments in communication and social interaction. Social skills interventions have been found to ameliorate socio-communication deficits in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Little is known about the effectiveness of social skills interventions for adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (hf-ASD) - a clinical population who can present with more subtle core deficits, but comparable levels of impairment and secondary difficulties. A systematic review was undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of social skills interventions for adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. Five studies met the pre-specified review inclusion criteria: two quasi-experimental comparative trials and three single-arm interventions. There was a degree of variation in the structure, duration and content of the social skills interventions delivered, as well as several methodological limitations associated with included studies. Nevertheless, narrative analysis tentatively indicates that group social skills interventions may be effective for enhancing social knowledge and understanding, improving social functioning, reducing loneliness and potentially alleviating co-morbid psychiatric symptoms. PMID:26045543

  4. Mental health of Asian American and Pacific Islander military veterans: brief review of an understudied group.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jack; Kong, Grace

    2012-11-01

    The mental health of American military soldiers and veterans is of widespread concern; yet, there has been no prior review of studies on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) veterans. This article provides a brief, but comprehensive review of the mental health of AAPI veterans. An exhaustive literature search was conducted using the major medical and mental health literature databases. Of 13 identified articles, nine were empirical studies on either post-traumatic stress disorder among AAPI Vietnam veterans or health functioning of AAPI veterans based on national veteran surveys. Findings from these studies showed that some AAPI veterans who served during the Vietnam War encountered racism from fellow soldiers and race-related stressors were associated with more severe post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. As a group, AAPI veterans were found to be physically healthier than other veterans, but reported poorer mental health and were less likely to use mental health services. However, these findings were limited by the paucity of studies on AAPI veterans and suggest a need for more research on this subpopulation. PMID:23198528

  5. Platinum-group element systematics and petrogenetic processing of the continental upper mantle: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorand, Jean-Pierre; Luguet, Ambre; Alard, Olivier

    2013-04-01

    The platinum-group element (PGE) systematics of continental mantle peridotites show large variability, reflecting petrogenetic processing of the upper mantle during partial melting and melt/fluid percolation inside the lithosphere. By removing Pd-Cu-Ni rich sulfides, partial melting events that have stabilized the sub-continental mantle lithosphere fractionated PPGEs (Palladium-group PGE; Pt, Pd) relative to IPGEs (Iridium-group PGE; Os, Ir, Ru, Rh). Residual base-metal sulfides (BMS) survive as enclosed IPGE-enriched Monosulfide Solid Solutions (Mss), which otherwise decompose into Ru-Os-Ir-rich refractory platinum-group minerals (PGMs) once the partial melts become S-undersaturated. The small-scale heterogeneous distribution of these microphases may cause extreme nugget effects, as seen in the huge variations in absolute PGE concentrations documented in cratonic peridotites. Magmas fluxing through the lithospheric mantle may change the initial PGE budgets inherited from the melting events, resulting in the great diversity of PGE systematics seen in peridotites from the sub-continental lithosphere. For instance, melt-rock reactions at increasing melt/rock ratios operate as open-system melting processes removing residual BMS/PGMs. Highly percolated peridotites are characterized by extreme PGE depletion, coupled with PGE patterns and Os-isotope compositions that gradually evolve toward that of the percolating melt. Reactions at decreasing melt-rock ratios (usually referred to as «mantle metasomatism») precipitate PPGE-enriched BMS that yield suprachondritic Pd/Ir and occasionally affect Pt/Ir and Rh/Ir ratios as well. Moreover, volatile-rich, small volume melts fractionate Os relative to Ir and S relative to Se, thereby producing rocks with supra-chondritic Os/Ir and S/Se coupled with supra-chondritic Pd/Ir and Pt/Ir. Major magmatic inputs at the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary may rejuvenate the PGE systematics of the depleted mantle. Integrated studies of

  6. A Systematic Review of Peer-Support Programs for Smoking Cessation in Disadvantaged Groups

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Pauline; Clifford, Anton; Gussy, Kim; Gartner, Coral

    2013-01-01

    The burden of smoking is borne most by those who are socially disadvantaged and the social gradient in smoking contributes substantially to the health gap between the rich and poor. A number of factors contribute to higher tobacco use among socially disadvantaged populations including social (e.g., low social support for quitting), psychological (e.g., low self-efficacy) and physical factors (e.g., greater nicotine dependence). Current evidence for the effectiveness of peer or partner support interventions in enhancing the success of quit attempts in the general population is equivocal, largely due to study design and lack of a theoretical framework in this research. We conducted a systematic review of peer support interventions for smoking cessation in disadvantaged groups. The eight studies which met the inclusion criteria showed that interventions that improve social support for smoking cessation may be of greater importance to disadvantaged groups who experience fewer opportunities to access such support informally. Peer-support programs are emerging as highly effective and empowering ways for people to manage health issues in a socially supportive context. We discuss the potential for peer-support programs to address the high prevalence of smoking in vulnerable populations and also to build capacity in their communities. PMID:24169412

  7. The contributions of the Second Auxiliary Surgical Group to military surgery during World War II with special reference to thoracic surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, L A

    1983-01-01

    The outstanding scientific and surgical accomplishments of the Second Auxiliary Surgical Group in the Mediterranean Theater of Operations and the 7th Army in World War II were not exceeded by any other group in the United States Army Medical Corps. In the final 921-page report to the Surgeon General with 550 tables, 8801 severely wounded casualties out of a total of 22,000 treated were reviewed. In addition, the major portion of three books on war surgery and over 60 scientific articles were written by this group. The contributions in thoracic surgery that focused attention on physiologic principles and limited the indications for thoracotomy have stood the test of time. The author made the original description of the reaction of the lung to severe trauma of the brain, abdomen, and extremities by the development of "the wet lung of trauma" (RDS), while his introduction of a hand-operated, intermittent positive pressure oxygen respirator to treat the advanced form of this syndrome (pulmonary edema) ushered in a new form of treatment. Long-term, follow-up studies by the author confirm the validity of the physiologic approach to the treatment of thoracic trauma. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7A and B. Fig. 8. PMID:6338843

  8. Group Incentives for Teachers and Their Effects on Student Learning: A Systematic Review of Theory and Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirivayi, Nyasha; Maasen van den Brink, Henriette; Groot, Wim

    2014-01-01

    The effects of teachers' group incentives on student achievement are examined by reviewing theoretical arguments and empirical studies published between 1990 and 2011. Studies from developing countries reported positive effects of group incentives on student test scores. However, experimental studies from developed countries reported…

  9. 75 FR 63532 - In the Matter of the Review of the Designation of the Armed Islamic Group and All Associated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE In the Matter of the Review of the Designation of the Armed Islamic Group and All Associated Aliases as Foreign... for the 2003 re-designation of the Armed Islamic Group (GIA) as foreign terrorist organization...

  10. WWC Quick Review of the Article "Culture and the Interaction of Student Ethnicity with Reward Structure in Group Learning" Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an updated WWC (What Works Clearinghouse) Review of the Article "Culture and the Interaction of Student Ethnicity with Reward Structure in Group Learning". The study examined the effects of different reward systems used in group learning situations on the math skills of African-American and White students. The research…

  11. Systematic Review on Internet Support Groups (ISGs) and Depression (1): Do ISGs Reduce Depressive Symptoms?

    PubMed Central

    Calear, Alison L; Banfield, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Background Internet support groups (ISGs) enable individuals with specific health problems to readily communicate online. Peer support has been postulated to improve mental health, including depression, through the provision of social support. Given the growing role of ISGs for both users with depression and those with a physical disorder, there is a need to evaluate the evidence concerning the efficacy of ISGs in reducing depressive symptoms. Objective The objective was to systematically review the available evidence concerning the effect of ISGs on depressive symptoms. Method Three databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, Cochrane) were searched using over 150 search terms extracted from relevant papers, abstracts, and a thesaurus. Papers were included if they (1) employed an online peer-to-peer support group, (2) incorporated a depression outcome, and (3) reported quantitative data. Studies included both stand-alone ISGs and those used in the context of a complex multi-component intervention. All trials were coded for quality. Results Thirty-one papers (involving 28 trials) satisfied the inclusion criteria from an initial pool of 12,692 abstracts. Sixteen trials used either a single-component intervention, a design in which non-ISG components were controlled, or a cross-sectional analysis, of which 10 (62.5%) reported a positive effect of the ISG on depressive symptoms. However, only two (20%) of these studies employed a control group. Only two studies investigated the efficacy of a depression ISG and neither employed a control group. Studies with lower design quality tended to be associated with more positive outcomes (P = .07). Overall, studies of breast cancer ISGs were more likely to report a reduction in depressive symptoms than studies of other ISG types (Fisher P = .02), but it is possible that this finding was due to confounding design factors rather than the nature of the ISG. Conclusions There is a paucity of high-quality evidence concerning the efficacy or

  12. Systematic Review on Internet Support Groups (ISGs) and Depression (2): What Is Known About Depression ISGs?

    PubMed Central

    Calear, Alison L; Banfield, Michelle; Tam, Ada

    2009-01-01

    Background Internet support groups (ISGs) are a popular means by which consumers with depression communicate online. A number of studies have evaluated the nature and impact of depression-specific ISGs. However, to date there have been no published systematic reviews of this evidence. Objective The aim was to systematically identify and summarize the available evidence concerning the scope and findings of studies of depression ISGs. Methods Three databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, Cochrane) were searched using over 150 search terms extracted from relevant papers, abstracts, and a thesaurus. Papers were included if they employed an online peer-to-peer depression-specific support group and reported either quantitative or qualitative empirical data. The objective of each study was coded according to a 20-category classification system, which included the effect on depression and other outcomes, including help seeking; user characteristics, activity, satisfaction, perceived benefits, perceived disadvantages; the reason for using the ISG; the nature of ISG posts; characteristics of depression ISGs compared to other ISG types, face-to-face groups, and face-to-face counseling; ISG structure and longitudinal changes; and predictors of ISG adherence. Results Thirteen papers satisfied the inclusion criteria from an initial pool of 12,692 abstracts. Of these, three collected data using survey questionnaires, nine analyzed samples of posts, and one both collected survey data and analyzed a sample of posts. The quality of most studies was not high, and little data were collected on most key aspects of depression ISGs. The most common objective of the studies was to analyze the nature of the posts (eight studies) and to describe site usage (six studies) and user characteristics (five studies). The most prevalent types of social support were emotional, informational, and social companionship. Conclusions Given the popularity of depression ISGs and the paucity of available evidence

  13. Opportunities and challenges in conducting systematic reviews to support development of nutrient reference values: vitamin A as an example

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrient reference values have significant public health and policy implications. Given the importance of defining reliable nutrient reference values, there is a need for an explicit, objective, and transparent process to set these values. The Tufts Medical Center Evidence-based Practice Center asse...

  14. Taxonomic review of the major larval pests of bolete fungi (Boletaceae) in Europe: The Pegomya fulgens, furva and tabida species groups (Diptera: Anthomyiidae).

    PubMed

    Michelsen, Verner

    2015-01-01

    A taxonomic review of the European species of the Pegomya fulgens, furva and tabida species groups is given with emphasis on characters of importance for the identification of males and females. These Pegomya species groups are represented in Europe by two, two and nine species, respectively. Their mycophagous larvae may all feed exclusively on bolete sporocarps of Leccinum and Boletus aff. edulis. Their relationships and biology are summarized. Each species is given a selective list of references and synonymy, richly illustrated descriptions of males and females, a list or summary of the examined material, and a synopsis of the known distribution and biology. Pegomya ringdahli sp. nov., previously confused with P. scapularis (Zetterstedt, 1846), is described from Fennoscandia. Lectotypes are designated for Anthomyia fulgens Meigen, 1826 and Pegomyia (Pegomyia) furva Ringdahl, 1938. An identification key is given to all 17 species (males and females) of Pegomya that supposedly feed as larvae on sporocarps of Boletaceae and Suillaceae in Europe. PMID:26624089

  15. A review of the sarawakensis species group of the ground beetle genus Orthogonius MacLeay, 1825 (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Orthogoniini)

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Mingyi; Deuve, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The sarawakensis species group of the termitophilous carabid genus Orthogonius MacLeay, 1825 is defined and reviewed. Members of this species group are distributed in Southeast Asia and represented by four species, including two new species: Orthogonius sabahicus sp. n. (Sabah, northern Borneo, Malaysia) and Orthogonius morvanianus sp. n. (southern Thailand). A key to all species of the species group is also provided. PMID:27408560

  16. Associations between food and beverage groups and major diet-related chronic diseases: an exhaustive review of pooled/meta-analyses and systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Fardet, Anthony; Boirie, Yves

    2014-12-01

    Associations between food and beverage groups and the risk of diet-related chronic disease (DRCD) have been the subject of intensive research in preventive nutrition. Pooled/meta-analyses and systematic reviews (PMASRs) aim to better characterize these associations. To date, however, there has been no attempt to synthesize all PMASRs that have assessed the relationship between food and beverage groups and DRCDs. The objectives of this review were to aggregate PMASRs to obtain an overview of the associations between food and beverage groups (n = 17) and DRCDs (n = 10) and to establish new directions for future research needs. The present review of 304 PMASRs published between 1950 and 2013 confirmed that plant food groups are more protective than animal food groups against DRCDs. Within plant food groups, grain products are more protective than fruits and vegetables. Among animal food groups, dairy/milk products have a neutral effect on the risk of DRCDs, while red/processed meats tend to increase the risk. Among beverages, tea was the most protective and soft drinks the least protective against DRCDs. For two of the DRCDs examined, sarcopenia and kidney disease, no PMASR was found. Overweight/obesity, type 2 diabetes, and various types of cardiovascular disease and cancer accounted for 289 of the PMASRs. There is a crucial need to further study the associations between food and beverage groups and mental health, skeletal health, digestive diseases, liver diseases, kidney diseases, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. PMID:25406801

  17. Airborne particulate matter, platinum group elements and human health: a review of recent evidence.

    PubMed

    Wiseman, Clare L S; Zereini, Fathi

    2009-04-01

    Environmental concentrations of the platinum group elements (PGE) platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd) and rhodium (Rh) have been on the rise, due largely to the use of automobile catalytic converters which employ these metals as exhaust catalysts. It has generally been assumed that the health risks associated with environmental exposures to PGE are minimal. More recent studies on PGE toxicity, environmental bioavailability and concentrations in biologically relevant media indicate however that environmental exposures to these metals may indeed pose a health risk, especially at a chronic, subclinical level. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent evidence and provide an up-to-date assessment of the risks related to environmental exposures of PGE, particularly in airborne particulate matter (PM). This review concludes that these metals may pose a greater health risk than once thought for several reasons. First, emitted PGE may be easily mobilised and solubilised by various compounds commonly present in the environment, thereby enhancing their bioavailability. Second, PGE may be transformed into more toxic species upon uptake by organisms. The presence of chloride in lung fluids, for instance, may lead to the formation of halogenated PGE complexes that have a greater potential to induce cellular damage. Third, a significant proportion of PGE found in airborne PM is present in the fine fraction that been found to be associated with increases in morbidity and mortality. PGE are also a concern to the extent that they contribute to the suite of metals found in fine PM suspected of eliciting a variety of health effects, especially in vulnerable populations. All these factors highlight the need to monitor environmental levels of PGE and continue research on their bioavailability, behaviour, speciation and associated toxicity to enable us to better assess their potential to elicit health effects in humans. PMID:19181366

  18. Renormalization group invariance and optimal QCD renormalization scale-setting: a key issues review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xing-Gang; Ma, Yang; Wang, Sheng-Quan; Fu, Hai-Bing; Ma, Hong-Hao; Brodsky, Stanley J.; Mojaza, Matin

    2015-12-01

    A valid prediction for a physical observable from quantum field theory should be independent of the choice of renormalization scheme—this is the primary requirement of renormalization group invariance (RGI). Satisfying scheme invariance is a challenging problem for perturbative QCD (pQCD), since a truncated perturbation series does not automatically satisfy the requirements of the renormalization group. In a previous review, we provided a general introduction to the various scale setting approaches suggested in the literature. As a step forward, in the present review, we present a discussion in depth of two well-established scale-setting methods based on RGI. One is the ‘principle of maximum conformality’ (PMC) in which the terms associated with the β-function are absorbed into the scale of the running coupling at each perturbative order; its predictions are scheme and scale independent at every finite order. The other approach is the ‘principle of minimum sensitivity’ (PMS), which is based on local RGI; the PMS approach determines the optimal renormalization scale by requiring the slope of the approximant of an observable to vanish. In this paper, we present a detailed comparison of the PMC and PMS procedures by analyzing two physical observables R e+e- and Γ(H\\to b\\bar{b}) up to four-loop order in pQCD. At the four-loop level, the PMC and PMS predictions for both observables agree within small errors with those of conventional scale setting assuming a physically-motivated scale, and each prediction shows small scale dependences. However, the convergence of the pQCD series at high orders, behaves quite differently: the PMC displays the best pQCD convergence since it eliminates divergent renormalon terms; in contrast, the convergence of the PMS prediction is questionable, often even worse than the conventional prediction based on an arbitrary guess for the renormalization scale. PMC predictions also have the property that any residual dependence on

  19. Postmortem Body and Organ Measurements in Neonates and Infants: A Review of Reference Resources Used by Ontario Pathologists (Part 1).

    PubMed

    Evetts, Audrey-Ann Marie; Shkrum, Michael J; Tugaleva, Elena

    2016-09-01

    It is common practice in pediatric autopsies to compare the body and organ measurements of the deceased child against the existing reference data. Although a number of resources are available, many are outdated and have significant limitations. The goal of this study was to assess the reference sources currently used by the Ontario pathologists in pediatric autopsies. A survey of 14 Ontario pathologists, who do coroners' pediatric autopsies, identified 20 publications commonly referenced for body and organ measurements. Of all the cited sources, only a few had all the features regarded by the pathologists as ideal for a reference source. These features included accessibility to the source, large sample size, defined control populations, statistical analyses, and sex distinctions. The results of this study will be used to guide the development of a new reference, based on Ontario data, that will enhance measurement standards in pediatric autopsy practice. PMID:27438787

  20. Can Research Assessments Themselves Cause Bias in Behaviour Change Trials? A Systematic Review of Evidence from Solomon 4-Group Studies

    PubMed Central

    McCambridge, Jim; Butor-Bhavsar, Kaanan; Witton, John; Elbourne, Diana

    2011-01-01

    Background The possible effects of research assessments on participant behaviour have attracted research interest, especially in studies with behavioural interventions and/or outcomes. Assessments may introduce bias in randomised controlled trials by altering receptivity to intervention in experimental groups and differentially impacting on the behaviour of control groups. In a Solomon 4-group design, participants are randomly allocated to one of four arms: (1) assessed experimental group; (2) unassessed experimental group (3) assessed control group; or (4) unassessed control group. This design provides a test of the internal validity of effect sizes obtained in conventional two-group trials by controlling for the effects of baseline assessment, and assessing interactions between the intervention and baseline assessment. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate evidence from Solomon 4-group studies with behavioural outcomes that baseline research assessments themselves can introduce bias into trials. Methodology/Principal Findings Electronic databases were searched, supplemented by citation searching. Studies were eligible if they reported appropriately analysed results in peer-reviewed journals and used Solomon 4-group designs in non-laboratory settings with behavioural outcome measures and sample sizes of 20 per group or greater. Ten studies from a range of applied areas were included. There was inconsistent evidence of main effects of assessment, sparse evidence of interactions with behavioural interventions, and a lack of convincing data in relation to the research question for this review. Conclusions/Significance There were too few high quality completed studies to infer conclusively that biases stemming from baseline research assessments do or do not exist. There is, therefore a need for new rigorous Solomon 4-group studies that are purposively designed to evaluate the potential for research assessments to cause bias in behaviour change trials. PMID

  1. A review of US anthropometric reference data (1971 2000) with comparisons to both stylized and tomographic anatomic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, C.; Bolch, W. E.

    2003-10-01

    Two classes of anatomic models currently exist for use in both radiation protection and radiation dose reconstruction: stylized mathematical models and tomographic voxel models. The former utilize 3D surface equations to represent internal organ structure and external body shape, while the latter are based on segmented CT or MR images of a single individual. While tomographic models are clearly more anthropomorphic than stylized models, a given model's characterization as being anthropometric is dependent upon the reference human to which the model is compared. In the present study, data on total body mass, standing/sitting heights and body mass index are collected and reviewed for the US population covering the time interval from 1971 to 2000. These same anthropometric parameters are then assembled for the ORNL series of stylized models, the GSF series of tomographic models (Golem, Helga, Donna, etc), the adult male Zubal tomographic model and the UF newborn tomographic model. The stylized ORNL models of the adult male and female are found to be fairly representative of present-day average US males and females, respectively, in terms of both standing and sitting heights for ages between 20 and 60-80 years. While the ORNL adult male model provides a reasonably close match to the total body mass of the average US 21-year-old male (within ~5%), present-day 40-year-old males have an average total body mass that is ~16% higher. For radiation protection purposes, the use of the larger 73.7 kg adult ORNL stylized hermaphrodite model provides a much closer representation of average present-day US females at ages ranging from 20 to 70 years. In terms of the adult tomographic models from the GSF series, only Donna (40-year-old F) closely matches her age-matched US counterpart in terms of average body mass. Regarding standing heights, the better matches to US age-correlated averages belong to Irene (32-year-old F) for the females and Golem (38-year-old M) for the males. Both

  2. Perceived barriers to smoking cessation in selected vulnerable groups: a systematic review of the qualitative and quantitative literature

    PubMed Central

    Twyman, Laura; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine; Bryant, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To identify barriers that are common and unique to six selected vulnerable groups: low socioeconomic status; Indigenous; mental illness and substance abuse; homeless; prisoners; and at-risk youth. Design A systematic review was carried out to identify the perceived barriers to smoking cessation within six vulnerable groups. Data sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycInfo were searched using keywords and MeSH terms from each database's inception published prior to March 2014. Study selection Studies that provided either qualitative or quantitative (ie, longitudinal, cross-sectional or cohort surveys) descriptions of self-reported perceived barriers to quitting smoking in one of the six aforementioned vulnerable groups were included. Data extraction Two authors independently assessed studies for inclusion and extracted data. Results 65 eligible papers were identified: 24 with low socioeconomic groups, 16 with Indigenous groups, 18 involving people with a mental illness, 3 with homeless groups, 2 involving prisoners and 1 involving at-risk youth. One study identified was carried out with participants who were homeless and addicted to alcohol and/or other drugs. Barriers common to all vulnerable groups included: smoking for stress management, lack of support from health and other service providers, and the high prevalence and acceptability of smoking in vulnerable communities. Unique barriers were identified for people with a mental illness (eg, maintenance of mental health), Indigenous groups (eg, cultural and historical norms), prisoners (eg, living conditions), people who are homeless (eg, competing priorities) and at-risk youth (eg, high accessibility of tobacco). Conclusions Vulnerable groups experience common barriers to smoking cessation, in addition to barriers that are unique to specific vulnerable groups. Individual-level, community-level and social network-level interventions are priority areas for future smoking cessation interventions within

  3. Anti-choice group seeks Supreme Court review of federal clinic access law; Congress holds hearings.

    PubMed

    1995-05-19

    The Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act (FACE) is a federal statute which was signed into law May 1994 prohibiting the use of force, threat of force, or physical obstruction to intentionally injure, intimidate, or interfere with anyone providing reproductive health services. Since FACE was enacted, seven federal district courts and one federal appellate court have found the measure constitutional, although one federal district court in Wisconsin did rule against FACE. Anti-choice activists have argued that neither the Commerce Clause nor the Fourteenth Amendment to the US Constitution empower Congress to enact FACE. Congress relied upon both constitutional provisions when it enacted the statute, recognizing that illegal, violent acts against abortion providers and their patients threaten to disrupt medical care nationwide and eliminate the right to choose abortion. The US Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit on February 13, 1995, however, unanimously upheld a lower court's dismissal of the case, finding that FACE does not violate the US Constitution. Relying upon an April 26 Supreme Court decision in United States vs. Lopez, which held that Congress did not have the power under the Commerce Clause to enact a federal statute prohibiting the possession of a firearm within 100 feet of a school zone, an anti-choice group and several individuals petitioned the US Supreme Court in a May 12 filing to review the appellate court ruling in American Life League vs. Reno. The petitioners also challenge the broad powers of Congress under the Fourteenth Amendment to remedy infringements upon constitutional rights and assert FACE violates the First Amendment and the Religious Freedom Restoration Act. PMID:12346170

  4. Environmental routes for platinum group elements to biological materials--a review.

    PubMed

    Ek, Kristine H; Morrison, Gregory M; Rauch, Sebastien

    2004-12-01

    The increased use of platinum group elements (PGE) in automobile catalysts has led to concern over potential environmental and biological accumulation. Platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd) and rhodium (Rh) concentrations have increased in the environment since the introduction of automobile catalysts. This review summarises current knowledge concerning the environmental mobility, speciation and bioavailability of Pt, Pd and Rh. The greater proportion of PGE emissions is from automobile catalysts, in the form of nanometer-sized catalyst particles, which deposit on roadside surfaces, as evidenced in samples of road dust, grass and soil. In soil, PGE can be transformed into more mobile species through complexation with organic matter and can be solubilised in low pH rainwater. There are indications that environmentally formed Pd species are more soluble and hence more mobile in the environment than Rh and Pt. PGE can reach waterbodies through stormwater transport and deposition in sediments. Besides external contamination of grass close to roads, internal PGE uptake has been observed for plants growing on soil contaminated with automobile catalyst PGE. Fine particles of PGE were also detected on the surface of feathers sampled from passerines and raptors in their natural habitat, and internal organs of these birds also contained PGE. Uptake has been observed in sediment-dwelling invertebrates, and laboratory studies have shown an uptake of PGE in eel and fish exposed to water containing road dust. The available evidence indicates that the PGE, especially Pd, are transported to biological materials through deposition in roots by binding to sulphur-rich low molecular weight species in plants. PGE uptake to exposed animals have uptake rates in the following order: Pd>Pt>Rh. The liver and kidney accumulate the highest levels of PGE, especially Pd. Urinary Pd and Rh, but not Pt, levels are correlated with traffic intensity. Dental alloys may lead to elevated urinary Pt levels

  5. Weight change in control group participants in behavioural weight loss interventions: a systematic review and meta-regression study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Unanticipated control group improvements have been observed in intervention trials targeting various health behaviours. This phenomenon has not been studied in the context of behavioural weight loss intervention trials. The purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-regression of behavioural weight loss interventions to quantify control group weight change, and relate the size of this effect to specific trial and sample characteristics. Methods Database searches identified reports of intervention trials meeting the inclusion criteria. Data on control group weight change and possible explanatory factors were abstracted and analysed descriptively and quantitatively. Results 85 trials were reviewed and 72 were included in the meta-regression. While there was no change in control group weight, control groups receiving usual care lost 1 kg more than control groups that received no intervention, beyond measurement. Conclusions There are several possible explanations why control group changes occur in intervention trials targeting other behaviours, but not for weight loss. Control group participation may prevent weight gain, although more research is needed to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:22873682

  6. 75 FR 7281 - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces...

  7. 75 FR 5089 - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces...

  8. 75 FR 7284 - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces...

  9. 75 FR 34458 - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG) Correction: This notice was published in the Federal Register on... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the following meeting of the...

  10. 75 FR 34459 - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG) Correction: This notice was published in the Federal Register on February 18, 2010, Volume 75, Number 32,...

  11. Selected Reference Books of 1991-92.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIlvaine, Eileen

    1992-01-01

    Reviews 20 selected reference works published in 1991 and 1992 with purchasing recommendations for academic libraries. Titles are grouped under the following headings: National Bibliographies, Abbreviations, Librarianship, Religion, Mythology, Literature, Music, Art and Architecture, Popular Culture, Women's Studies, Area Studies, and Health…

  12. A review of Rheocricotopus (Psilocricotopus) chalybeatus species group from China, with the description of three new species (Diptera, Chironomidae)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenbin; Lin, Xiaolong; Wang, Xinhua

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Rheocricotopus (Psilocricotopus) chalybeatus species group from China is reviewed. Three new species, R. (P.) brochus sp. n., R. (P.) rotundus sp. n. and R. (P.) serratus sp. n. are described as adult males. R. (P.) imperfectus Makarchenko & Makarchenko, 2005, R. (P.) robacki (Beck & Beck, 1964) and R. (P.) valgus Chaudhuri & Sinharay, 1983 are recorded from China for the first time and annotated. The diagnosis for the species group is emended and a key to adult males of the species group in China is presented. PMID:24715767

  13. Postmortem Brain and Blood Reference Concentrations of Alprazolam, Bromazepam, Chlordiazepoxide, Diazepam, and their Metabolites and a Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Skov, Louise; Holm, Karen Marie Dollerup; Johansen, Sys Stybe; Linnet, Kristian

    2016-09-01

    To interpret postmortem toxicology results, reference concentrations for non-toxic and toxic levels are needed. Usually, measurements are performed in blood, but because of postmortem redistribution phenomena this may not be optimal. Rather, measurement in the target organ of psychoactive drugs, the brain, might be considered. Here we present reference concentrations of femoral blood and brain tissue of selected benzodiazepines (BZDs). Using LC-MS/MS, we quantified alprazolam, bromazepam, chlordiazepoxide, diazepam, and the metabolites desmethyldiazepam, oxazepam and temazepam in postmortem femoral blood and brain tissue in 104 cases. BZDs were judged to be unrelated to the cause of death in 88 cases and contributing to death in 16 cases. No cases were found with cause of death solely attributed to BZD poisoning. All BZDs investigated tended to have higher concentrations in brain than in blood with median brain-blood ratios ranging from 1.1 to 2.3. A positive correlation between brain and blood concentrations was found with R(2) values from 0.51 to 0.95. Our reported femoral blood concentrations concur with literature values, but sparse information on brain concentration was available. Drug-metabolite ratios were similar in brain and blood for most compounds. Duplicate measurements of brain samples showed that the pre-analytical variation in brain (5.9%) was relatively low, supporting the notion that brain tissue is a suitable postmortem specimen. The reported concentrations in both brain and blood can be used as reference values when evaluating postmortem cases. PMID:27416838

  14. The impact of Cochrane Systematic Reviews: a mixed method evaluation of outputs from Cochrane Review Groups supported by the UK National Institute for Health Research

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There has been a growing emphasis on evidence-informed decision-making in health care. Systematic reviews, such as those produced by the Cochrane Collaboration, have been a key component of this movement. The UK National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Systematic Review Programme currently supports 20 Cochrane Review Groups (CRGs). The aim of this study was to identify the impacts of Cochrane reviews published by NIHR-funded CRGs during the years 2007–2011. Methods We sent questionnaires to CRGs and review authors, interviewed guideline developers and used bibliometrics and documentary review to get an overview of CRG impact and to evaluate the impact of a sample of 60 Cochrane reviews. We used a framework with four categories (knowledge production, research targeting, informing policy development and impact on practice/services). Results A total of 1,502 new and updated reviews were produced by the 20 NIHR-funded CRGs between 2007 and 2011. The clearest impacts were on policy with a total of 483 systematic reviews cited in 247 sets of guidance: 62 were international, 175 national (87 from the UK) and 10 local. Review authors and CRGs provided some examples of impact on practice or services, for example, safer use of medication, the identification of new effective drugs or treatments and potential economic benefits through the reduction in the use of unproven or unnecessary procedures. However, such impacts are difficult to objectively document, and the majority of reviewers were unsure if their review had produced specific impacts. Qualitative data suggested that Cochrane reviews often play an instrumental role in informing guidance, although a poor fit with guideline scope or methods, reviews being out of date and a lack of communication between CRGs and guideline developers were barriers to their use. Conclusions Health and economic impacts of research are generally difficult to measure. We found that to be the case with this evaluation

  15. Institutional Computing Executive Group Review of Multi-programmatic & Institutional Computing, Fiscal Year 2005 and 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Langer, S; Rotman, D; Schwegler, E; Folta, P; Gee, R; White, D

    2006-12-18

    The Institutional Computing Executive Group (ICEG) review of FY05-06 Multiprogrammatic and Institutional Computing (M and IC) activities is presented in the attached report. In summary, we find that the M and IC staff does an outstanding job of acquiring and supporting a wide range of institutional computing resources to meet the programmatic and scientific goals of LLNL. The responsiveness and high quality of support given to users and the programs investing in M and IC reflects the dedication and skill of the M and IC staff. M and IC has successfully managed serial capacity, parallel capacity, and capability computing resources. Serial capacity computing supports a wide range of scientific projects which require access to a few high performance processors within a shared memory computer. Parallel capacity computing supports scientific projects that require a moderate number of processors (up to roughly 1000) on a parallel computer. Capability computing supports parallel jobs that push the limits of simulation science. M and IC has worked closely with Stockpile Stewardship, and together they have made LLNL a premier institution for computational and simulation science. Such a standing is vital to the continued success of laboratory science programs and to the recruitment and retention of top scientists. This report provides recommendations to build on M and IC's accomplishments and improve simulation capabilities at LLNL. We recommend that institution fully fund (1) operation of the atlas cluster purchased in FY06 to support a few large projects; (2) operation of the thunder and zeus clusters to enable 'mid-range' parallel capacity simulations during normal operation and a limited number of large simulations during dedicated application time; (3) operation of the new yana cluster to support a wide range of serial capacity simulations; (4) improvements to the reliability and performance of the Lustre parallel file system; (5) support for the new GDO petabyte

  16. Review of Recent Applied Linguistics Research in Finland and Sweden, with Specific Reference to Foreign Language Learning and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringbom, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    This review covers recent applied linguistic research in Finland and Sweden during the years 2006-2011, with particular emphasis on foreign language learning and teaching. Its primary aim is to inform the international research community on the type of research that is going on in these countries. Special attention is given to topics which have…

  17. Formulation and implementation of a unitary group adapted state universal multi-reference coupled cluster (UGA-SUMRCC) theory: Excited and ionized state energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Sangita; Shee, Avijit; Mukherjee, Debashis

    2012-08-01

    The traditional state universal multi-reference coupled cluster (SUMRCC) theory uses the Jeziorski-Monkhorst (JM) based Ansatz of the wave operator: Ω = ∑μΩμ|ϕμ⟩⟨ϕμ|, where Ωμ = exp (Tμ) is the cluster representation of the component of Ω inducing virtual excitations from the model function ϕμ. In the first formulations, ϕμs were chosen to be single determinants and Tμs were defined in terms of spinorbitals. This leads to spin-contamination for the non-singlet cases. In this paper, we propose and implement an explicitly spin-free realization of the SUMRCC theory. This method uses spin-free unitary generators in defining the cluster operators, {Tμ}, which even at singles-doubles truncation, generates non-commuting cluster operators. We propose the use of normal-ordered exponential parameterization for Ω:∑μ{exp (Tμ)}|ϕμ⟩⟨ϕμ|, where {} denotes the normal ordering with respect to a common closed shell vacuum which makes the "direct term" of the SUMRCC equations terminate at the quartic power. We choose our model functions {ϕμ} as unitary group adapted (UGA) Gel'fand states which is why we call our theory UGA-SUMRCC. In the spirit of the original SUMRCC, we choose exactly the right number of linearly independent cluster operators in {Tμ} such that no redundancies in the virtual functions lbrace χ _μ ^lrbrace are involved. Using example applications for electron detached/attached and h-p excited states relative to a closed shell ground state we discuss how to choose the most compact and non-redundant cluster operators. Although there exists a more elaborate spin-adapted JM-like ansatz of Datta and Mukherjee (known as combinatoric open-shell CC (COS-CC), its working equations are more complex. Results are compared with those from COS-CC, equation of motion coupled cluster methods, restricted open-shell Hartree-Fock coupled cluster, and full configuration interaction. We observe that our results are more accurate with respect to

  18. Development and applications of a unitary group adapted state specific multi-reference coupled cluster theory with internally contracted treatment of inactive double excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Debalina; Maitra, Rahul; Mukherjee, Debashis

    2012-09-01

    Any multi-reference coupled cluster (MRCC) development based on the Jeziorski-Monkhorst (JM) multi-exponential ansatz for the wave-operator Ω suffers from spin-contamination problem for non-singlet states. We have very recently proposed a spin-free unitary group adapted (UGA) analogue of the JM ansatz, where the cluster operators are defined in terms of spin-free unitary generators and a normal ordered, rather than ordinary, exponential parametrization of Ω is used. A consequence of the latter choice is the emergence of the "direct term" of the MRCC equations that terminates at exactly the quartic power of the cluster amplitudes. Our UGA-MRCC ansatz has been utilized to generate both the spin-free state specific (SS) and the state universal MRCC formalisms. It is well-known that the SSMRCC theory requires suitable sufficiency conditions to resolve the redundancy of the cluster amplitudes. In this paper, we propose an alternative variant of the UGA-SSMRCC theory, where the sufficiency conditions are used for all cluster operators containing active orbitals and the single excitations with inactive orbitals, while the inactive double excitations are assumed to be independent of the model functions they act upon. The working equations for the inactive double excitations are thus derived in an internally contracted (IC) manner in the sense that the matrix elements entering the MRCC equations involve excitations from an entire combination of the model functions. We call this theory as UGA-ICID-MRCC, where ICID is the acronym for "Internally Contracted treatment of Inactive Double excitations." Since the number of such excitations are the most numerous, choosing them to be independent of the model functions will lead to very significant reduction in the number of cluster amplitudes for large active spaces, and is worth exploring. Moreover, unlike for the excitations involving active orbitals, where there is inadequate coupling between the model and the virtual functions

  19. Some Electrophysiological Methods for Studying the Action of Narcotic Agents in Animals, with special reference to Industrial Solvents: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mikisková, Hana; Mikiska, Aloš

    1968-01-01

    Four electrophysiological methods, two based on stimulation (measurement of spinal reflex excitability and of direct excitability of the cerebral motor cortex) and two based on bioelectric recording (electro-encephalography and electrocardiography), were used in intact guinea-pigs and rabbits for studying the action of narcotic and anaesthetic agents, especially of industrial solvents. The authors' results have been reviewed and compared with those of other investigators in an attempt to work out experimental procedures for routine toxicity testing. PMID:4296739

  20. Long-term survivability of riprap for armoring uranium-mill tailings and covers: a literature review. [203 references

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey, C.G.; Long, L.W.; Begej, C.W.

    1982-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is investigating the use of a rock armoring blanket (riprap) to mitigate wind and water erosion of an earthen radon suppression cover applied to uranium mill tailings. Because the radon suppression cover and the tailings must remain intact for up to 1000 years or longer, the riprap must withstand natural weathering forces. This report is a review of information on rock weathering and riprap durability. Chemical and physical weathering processes, rock characteristics related to durability, climatic conditions affecting the degree and rate of weathering, and testing procedures used to measure weathering susceptibilities have been reviewed. Sampling and testing techniques, as well as analyses of physical and chemical weathering susceptibilities, are necessary to evaluate rock durability. Many potential riprap materials may not be able to survive 1000 years of weathering. Available techniques for durability testing cannot adequately predict rock durability for the 1000-year period because they do not consider the issue of time (i.e., how long must riprap remain stable). This report includes an Appendix, which discusses rock weathering, written by Dr. Richard Jahns of Stanford University.

  1. Prevalence of group A streptococcal disease in North and Sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Dylan D; Mayosi, Bongani M; Jabar, Ardil; Engel, Mark E

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The true burden of group A streptococcal (GAS) disease in Africa is not known. GAS is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity on the global scale and in developing countries. According to Carapetis et al, the prevalence of severe GAS disease is at least 18.1 million cases with an incidence of at least 1.78 million cases per year. Methods and analyses We aim to provide a systematic review of studies measuring the prevalence of GAS infection among people in North and Sub-Saharan African countries. A comprehensive literature search of a number of databases will be undertaken, using an African search filter, to identify GAS prevalence studies that have been published. Full copies of articles will be identified by a defined search strategy and will be considered for inclusion against predefined criteria. Statistical analysis will include two steps: (1) identification of data sources and documenting of estimates, and (2) the application of the random-effects and fixed-effects meta-analysis model to aggregate prevalence estimates, and to account for between study variability in calculating the overall pooled estimates and 95% CI for GAS prevalence. Heterogeneity will be evaluated using the I2 statistic to determine the extent of variation in effect estimates that is due to heterogeneity rather than chance. This systematic review protocol was prepared according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015 Statement. This review will provide updated evidence of a review published in 2009. Our data will have implications for the development of a GAS vaccine. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval is not required for this study given that this is a protocol for a systematic review of published studies. The results of this study will be disseminated through a peer-reviewed publication and conference presentation. Systematic review registration number PROSPERO CRD4201401290 0. (http://www.crd

  2. Treatment of Childhood and Adolescent Obesity: An Integrative Review of Recent Recommendations from Five Expert Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschenbaum, Daniel S.; Gierut, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare and contrast 5 sets of expert recommendations about the treatment of childhood and adolescent obesity. Method: We reviewed 5 sets of recent expert recommendations: 2007 health care organizations' four stage model, 2007 Canadian clinical practice guidelines, 2008 Endocrine Society recommendations, 2009 seven step model, and…

  3. Group Peer Review as an Active Learning Strategy in a Research Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, Sue; Glenn, Betty; Sanner, Susan; Cannella, Kathleen A. S.

    2009-01-01

    The faculty of an undergraduate research course with a diverse student body recognized that many students struggled with the concept of how to critique a research article. The traditional assignment method used to teach the critique process did not maximize student learning outcomes. The active learning strategy of peer review was used to enhance…

  4. Dyads versus Groups: Using Different Social Structures in Peer Review to Enhance Online Collaborative Learning Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pozzi, Francesca; Ceregini, Andrea; Ferlino, Lucia; Persico, Donatella

    2016-01-01

    The Peer Review (PR) is a very popular technique to support socio-constructivist and connectivist learning processes, online or face-to-face, at all educational levels, in both formal and informal contexts. The idea behind this technique is that sharing views and opinions with others by discussing with peers and receiving and providing formative…

  5. 76 FR 33029 - Agency Information Collection (Disability Benefits Questionnaires-Group 1) Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ...In compliance with the Paperwork Reduction Act (PRA) of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3501-3521), this notice announces that the Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA), Department of Veterans Affairs, will submit the collection of information abstracted below to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and comment. The PRA submission describes the nature of the information collection and its......

  6. Review of ride quality technology needs of industry and user groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenzie, J. R.; Brumaghim, S. H.

    1975-01-01

    A broad survey of ride quality technology state-of-the-art and a review of user evaluation of this technology were conducted. During the study 17 users of ride quality technology in 10 organizations representing land, marine and air passenger transportation modes were interviewed. Interim results and conclusions of this effort are reported.

  7. 76 FR 35950 - Agency Information Collection (Disability Benefits Questionnaires-Group 3) Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ...In compliance with the Paperwork Reduction Act (PRA) of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3501-3521), this notice announces that the Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA), Department of Veterans Affairs, will submit the collection of information abstracted below to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and comment. The PRA submission describes the nature of the information collection and its......

  8. Taxonomic review of the Dichotomius (Luederwaldtinia) assifer (Eschscholtz) species-group (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    PubMed

    Nunes, Rafael V; Carvalho, Marcela S G; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z

    2016-01-01

    The Dichotomius assifer species-group, a component of Dichotomius (Luederwaldtinia) is taxonomically revised. The group now contains five species: D. angeloi sp. nov. (Holotype male deposited in CEMT: BRAZIL, Minas Gerais State, Vargem Bonita, Parque Nacional Serra da Canastra. Mata de Galeria, 28º18'39"S, 46º31'30"W. 865 m a.s.l., 02.XI.2011, MF Souza leg.), and D. louzadai sp. nov. (Holotype male deposited in CEMT: BRAZIL, Minas Gerais State, Lima Duarte, Parque Estadual Ibitipoca, VI.2001, FZ Vaz-de-Mello leg.) are described; D. assifer and D. affinis are redescribed and lectotypes are designated. D. machadoi is diagnosed. Illustrations, distributional records, diagnosis and a key for identification of the species in the group are provided. Some aspects of the natural history and biogeography of species in the assifer group are also discussed. PMID:27395977

  9. Marketing Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, O. Gene

    1995-01-01

    Relates the marketing concept to library reference services. Highlights include a review of the literature and an overview of marketing, including research, the marketing mix, strategic plan, marketing plan, and marketing audit. Marketing principles are applied to reference services through the marketing mix elements of product, price, place, and…

  10. Automated Periodical Reference Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellefsen, David

    1985-01-01

    Describes public library reference service which allows patrons to type out search instructions on a computer terminal, review and select references, and receive, by high-speed printer, facsimile copy of selected periodical articles. Development of periodicals center at main county library and use of self-coaching SEARCH HELPER system are…

  11. Effects of Coaching on Educators' and Preschoolers' Use of References to Print and Phonological Awareness during a Small-Group Craft/Writing Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milburn, Trelani F.; Hipfner-Boucher, Kathleen; Weitzman, Elaine; Greenberg, Janice; Pelletier, Janette; Girolametto, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The current study investigated the effects of coaching as part of an emergent literacy professional development program to increase early childhood educators' use of verbal references to print and phonological awareness during interactions with children. Method: Thirty-one educators and 4 children from each of their classrooms (N = 121)…

  12. Minority ethnic groups in dementia care: a review of service needs, service provision and models of good practice.

    PubMed

    Daker-White, G; Beattie, A M; Gilliard, J; Means, R

    2002-05-01

    Sixty-seven English language articles were obtained for the review, the majority of which (44, 65.7%) had US origins. Broadly, the main issues covered in the literature were the under-utilization of services by minority ethnic groups; the prevalence of dementia in different ethnic groups; the experience of care giving in different racial groups and language as a factor in cognitive assessment. Although it has been argued that the instruments used to assess cognitive function are culturally biased, the available published evidence would seem to suggest that the fundamental issue is language ability, rather than minority group membership per se. Studies into the care giving experience amongst different ethnic or racial groups suffer from theoretical and methodological weaknesses. Studies of help-seeking among various ethnic groups in the US have found that many do not prioritize dementia as a health problem in the face of more pressing concerns. There was little consensus amongst the articles about whether services should be provided specifically for different ethnic groups, reflecting a lack of evidence concerning the efficacy of different models of service provision. PMID:12028878

  13. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in human and pet tumours with special reference to breast cancer: a comparative review.

    PubMed

    Ranieri, Girolamo; Pantaleo, Marianna; Piccinno, Mariagrazia; Roncetti, Maria; Mutinati, Maddalena; Marech, Ilaria; Patruno, Rosa; Rizzo, Annalisa; Sciorsci, Raffaele Luigi

    2013-11-01

    Tyrosine kinase receptors (TKRs) play a key role in tumour cell proliferation and survival since they are involved in endothelial cell activation leading to tumour neoangiogenesis. In particular, vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), stem cell factor receptor (c-KitR), and colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) are overexpressed or constitutively activated in human and pet malignancies. A variety of small molecule inhibitors targeting specific tyrosine kinases (known as tyrosine kinase inhibitors or TKIs) have recently been approved, or are under investigation, for the treatment of human cancer. TKI application in animal cancer is however relatively recent. This review aims to illustrate the major aspects of tyrosine kinase dysfunctions, with special regard to human and animal cancer of the mammary gland, providing an update on the background of the anti-angiogenic and anti-neoplastic properties of TKIs in human and veterinary cancer. PMID:23768779

  14. Inclusion of Underserved Racial and Ethnic Groups in Cancer Intervention Research Using New Media: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background An increasing number of behavioral and psychosocial cancer interventions incorporate new media elements that are digital, networked, and interactive. However, it is unclear to what extent new media is being leveraged to benefit underserved racial and ethnic groups who disproportionately bear the burden of cancer. This inquiry is timely in light of growing evidence that these groups are receptive to new media. A systematic literature review was conducted to assess the inclusion of these groups in research on cancer-related new media interventions and use of new media to reduce racial and ethnic cancer disparities. Methods A systematic search of three databases was conducted for articles published between January 2000 and March 2012 that presented studies of user experience with a behavioral or psychosocial cancer-related intervention with at least one new media component. Results Thirty-six articles were included in the final review. In about one-quarter of the studies, less than 20% of participants were African American, Latino, Asian American, or American Indian. In less than 10% of the studies, 80% or more of the samples were members of the aforementioned groups. Almost one-third of the studies reviewed were categorized as disparity focused but limited data were available on racial and ethnic differences in responses to new media interventions. Conclusions Findings suggest that the promise and potential of new media cancer interventions are largely unrealized among the underserved. Additional research is needed to investigate a wide range of issues related to the development and delivery of such interventions in diverse racial and ethnic groups. PMID:24395995

  15. A review of Ireland's waterbirds, with emphasis on wintering migrants and reference to H5N1 avian influenza

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Ireland is characterised by its diversity and large abundance of wetlands, making it attractive to a wide variety of waterbirds throughout the year. This paper presents an overview of Ireland's waterbirds, including ecological factors relevant to the potential introduction, maintenance, transmission and spread of infectious agents, including the H5N1 avian influenza virus, in Ireland. Particular emphasis is placed on five groups of wintering migrants (dabbling and sieving wildfowl, grazing wildfowl, diving wildfowl, waders and gulls), noting that the H5N1 avian influenza virus has mainly been isolated from this subset of waterbirds. Ireland's wetlands are visited during the spring and summer months by hundreds of thousands of waterbirds which come to breed, predominantly from southern latitudes, and during the autumn and winter by waterbirds which come from a variety of origins (predominantly northern latitudes), and which are widely distributed and often congregate in mixed-species flocks. The distribution, feeding habits and social interactions of the five groups of wintering migrants are considered in detail. Throughout Ireland, there is interaction between different waterbird populations (breeding migrants, the wintering migrants and resident waterbird populations). There is also a regular and complex pattern of movement between feeding and roosting areas, and between wetlands and farmland. These interactions are likely to facilitate the rapid transmission and spread of the H5N1 avian influenza virus, if it were present in Ireland. PMID:21851727

  16. A review of the NATO special group of experts on Naval hydromechanics and related problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlesworth, John; Leggat, L. John

    1987-06-01

    The Special Group of Experts on Naval Hydromechanics and Related Problems (SGE-HYDRO) was formed following an exploratory meeting on 3 to 4 November 1982. Its formation was spurred to a large degree by the need within NATO for a forum to promote multinational cooperation in the general area of Naval hydromechanics testing and research for problems not adequately covered by other NATO international exchange groups and the International Towing Tank Conference. The Group's mandate allows it to address current aspects of interest to Naval hydromechanics including test and research facilities, test techniques and instrumentation, prediction methods, model to full scale correlations, full scale trials, model tests, math modeling and simulation, and implications of instrumentation development in other fields.

  17. A mini review of the high mobility group proteins of insects.

    PubMed

    Aleporou-Marinou, Vassiliki; Marinou, Haroula; Patargias, Theocharis

    2003-10-01

    High mobility group (HMG) proteins are an abundant class of chromosomal proteins facilitate assembly of higher order structures. The mammalian HMG proteins have been grouped into three distinct families on the basis of their characteristic functional sequence: the HMGB, the HMGN, and the HMGA family. The HMG proteins of Drosophila melanogaster and Chironomus tentans are the best characterized dipteran insect HMG proteins. Three abundant members of this group of nonhistone proteins were detected in those insects. Two of them belong to the HMGB family and one to the HMGA family. The possible relatedness of these proteins to the formation of higher order nucleoprotein structures and their possible role in the regulation of transcription is discussed. PMID:14974679

  18. A review of the activities of the IAG working group on geomorphosites over the last ten years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynard, Emmanuel; Coratza, Paola

    2013-04-01

    During the last two decades a renewed interest emerged in the scientific community for geoheritage, geoconservation and geotourism research. This was the reason for the International Association of Geomorphologists (IAG) for creating a specific working group on geomorphosites in 2001, with the aim to improve knowledge and scientific research on the definition, assessment, cartography, promotion and conservation of geomorphological heritage. The working group is chaired by the two authors, experiences were shared during several workshops and international conferences, and results were collected in several special publications (http://www.geomorph.org/wg/wggs.html). Several intensive courses for Master and PhD students were also organized and a book was published, dedicated particularly to Master and PhD students working on geomorphosite issues (Reynard et al., 2009). This contribution proposes a review of the working group activities since 2001 that focused on four main domains: (1) Definition and conceptualization. Geomorphosites are a type of geosite that is portions of the geosphere that present a particular importance for the comprehension of the Earth's history. Geomorphosites have to be considered as the result of human valuation. Conceptualization related to the value of geomorphosites is still in course. Nevertheless, three groups of values can be demonstrated: the scientific value (that is the interest of sites for Earth history and for the history and epistemology of geomorphology), several additional values (aesthetic, ecological, and cultural in a broad sense), and use and management values, that can be divided in three groups (educational value, economic value, including the tourist value, and protection). The scientific and additional value can be considered as intrinsic values, whereas the management and use value are to be related to extrinsic or societal values. (2) Assessment. Several methods, based on the measurement of specific features of

  19. Impact of centralized diagnostic review on quality of initial staging in Hodgkin lymphoma: experience of the German Hodgkin Study Group.

    PubMed

    Bröckelmann, Paul J; Goergen, Helen; Fuchs, Michael; Kriz, Jan; Semrau, Robert; Baues, Christian; Kobe, Carsten; Behringer, Karolin; Eichenauer, Dennis A; von Tresckow, Bastian; Klimm, Beate; Halbsguth, Teresa; Wongso, Diana; Plütschow, Annette; Haverkamp, Heinz; Dietlein, Markus; Eich, Hans T; Stein, Harald; Diehl, Volker; Borchmann, Peter; Engert, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    Accurate clinical staging is crucial for adequate risk-adapted treatment in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) to prevent patients from under- or over-treatment. Within the latest German Hodgkin Study Group trial generation, diagnostic findings such as histopathology, computerized tomography imaging and clinical risk factors were re-evaluated by expert panels. Here, we retrospectively analysed 5965 patients and identified 399 in who major discordant findings changed their first-line treatment allocation. Histopathology review did not confirm the initial diagnosis of HL in 87 patients. Treatment allocation was revised in 312 of the remaining 5878 patients: 176 were assigned to a higher and 128 to a lower risk group, respectively; the correct treatment group remained unclear in 8 patients. Cases of revised treatment allocation accounted for 9·8%, 6·0%, 0·8%, and 14·8% of patients initially assigned to the HD13, HD14, HD15 trials and stage IA lymphocyte-predominant HL project, respectively. Most revisions were due to wrong application of clinical stage (20·5% of 312 patients with revised treatment group), histological subtype (9·0%) or the risk factors ≥3 involved areas (46·8%) or large mediastinal mass (9·3%). In conclusion, centralized review by experienced experts changed risk-adapted first-line treatment in a relevant proportion of HL patients. Quality control measures clearly improve the accuracy of treatment and should be implemented in clinical practice. PMID:26310520

  20. A critical review of environmental impact statements in Sri Lanka with particular reference to ecological impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Samarakoon, Miriya; Rowan, John S

    2008-03-01

    This article critically reviews environmental assessment (EA) practices in Sri Lanka, with a particular focus on ecology. An overview is provided of the domestic and international influences which have shaped the administrative process which is currently a two-tiered scheme. An Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) provides a preliminary screening tool, prior to the requirement for a full Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). A comprehensive survey of Sri Lankan national archives showed that 463 EAs were completed in the period 1981-2005, with the bulk of these in the more populated Western and North Western Provinces. Two-thirds were IEE surveys, while the remaining third advanced to full EIA. A representative sample of 130 EAs (both IEEs and full EIAs) spanning a broad range of project types, scales, and environmental settings was selected to evaluate the quality of the ecological investigations within the published environmental impact statements (EISs). These were assigned into five classes of "explanatory power", on the basis of their scientific content in relation to survey, analysis, and reporting of ecological interests. Within most EISs, the ecological impact assessment (EcIA) was restricted to the lowest two categories of ecological assessment, i.e., tokenistic presentation of reconnaissance-level species lists without further analysis of the development implications for individual organisms or communities. None of the assessments reviewed provided statistically rigorous analysis, which would be required if ecological impact studies are to include quantitative and testable predictions of impact, which could then be followed up by appropriate post-impact monitoring programs. Attention to key local issues such as biodiversity or ecosystem services, which also have strong social dimensions in the developing world, was also notably underrepresented. It was thus concluded that despite the existence of a sound legislative framework in Sri Lanka, the analysis

  1. A Critical Review of Environmental Impact Statements in Sri Lanka with Particular Reference to Ecological Impact Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samarakoon, Miriya; Rowan, John S.

    2008-03-01

    This article critically reviews environmental assessment (EA) practices in Sri Lanka, with a particular focus on ecology. An overview is provided of the domestic and international influences which have shaped the administrative process which is currently a two-tiered scheme. An Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) provides a preliminary screening tool, prior to the requirement for a full Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). A comprehensive survey of Sri Lankan national archives showed that 463 EAs were completed in the period 1981 2005, with the bulk of these in the more populated Western and North Western Provinces. Two-thirds were IEE surveys, while the remaining third advanced to full EIA. A representative sample of 130 EAs (both IEEs and full EIAs) spanning a broad range of project types, scales, and environmental settings was selected to evaluate the quality of the ecological investigations within the published environmental impact statements (EISs). These were assigned into five classes of “explanatory power”, on the basis of their scientific content in relation to survey, analysis, and reporting of ecological interests. Within most EISs, the ecological impact assessment (EcIA) was restricted to the lowest two categories of ecological assessment, i.e., tokenistic presentation of reconnaissance-level species lists without further analysis of the development implications for individual organisms or communities. None of the assessments reviewed provided statistically rigorous analysis, which would be required if ecological impact studies are to include quantitative and testable predictions of impact, which could then be followed up by appropriate post-impact monitoring programs. Attention to key local issues such as biodiversity or ecosystem services, which also have strong social dimensions in the developing world, was also notably underrepresented. It was thus concluded that despite the existence of a sound legislative framework in Sri Lanka, the

  2. ABO blood group system and the coronary artery disease: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhuo; Yang, Sheng-Hua; Xu, Hao; Li, Jian-Jun

    2016-01-01

    ABO blood group system, a well-known genetic risk factor, has clinically been demonstrated to be linked with thrombotic vascular diseases. However, the relationship between ABO blood group and coronary artery disease (CAD) is still controversial. We here performed an updated meta-analysis of the related studies and tried to elucidate the potential role of ABO blood group as a risk factor for CAD. All detectable case-control and cohort studies comparing the risk of CAD in different ABO blood groups were collected for this analysis through searching PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Ultimately, 17 studies covering 225,810 participants were included. The combined results showed that the risk of CAD was significantly higher in blood group A (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.26, p = 0.01) and lower in blood group O (OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.78 to 0.94, p = 0.0008). Even when studies merely about myocardial infarction (MI) were removed, the risk of CAD was still significantly higher in blood group A (OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.10, p = 0.03) and lower in blood group O (OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.85 to 0.93, p < 0.00001). This updated systematic review and meta-analysis indicated that both blood group A and non-O were the risk factors of CAD. PMID:26988722

  3. Vaccine-induced immunity in children after orthotopic liver transplantation: a 12-yr review of the Swiss national reference center.

    PubMed

    Diana, Alessandro; Posfay-Barbe, Klara M; Belli, Dominique C; Siegrist, Claire-Anne

    2007-02-01

    Infections represent a significant threat in solid-organ recipients. However, a certain number of infections can be prevented by immunizing patients before their transplantation. The aim of this study is to determine the level of immunity of children undergoing liver transplantation and to assess their capacity to maintain protective levels after surgery. Charts of 44 children transplanted with deceased donation livers between 1990 and 2002 at the Children's Hospital of Geneva were reviewed. Vaccine antibody responses were established pre- and post-transplantation. Only 43% of patients were up to date for diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, and polio vaccines at the pretransplantation visit, while 44% of children older than 12 months had received their required measles-mumps-rubella vaccines. Six of 44 children had received at least one dose of hepatitis B vaccine, while only two patients had received at least one dose of hepatitis A vaccine. After immunization, and one yr after transplantation, only 14 of 44 patients had detectable anti-HBs antibodies and seven of 18 had anti-HAV antibodies. Varicella antibodies were undetectable in 15 of 19 patients immunized prior to transplantation. This study highlights the need to enforce vaccination before transplantation, follow-up on vaccine- induced immunity, and adapt vaccination schedules after liver transplantation in children, especially for non-live vaccines, which are universally recommended in this population. PMID:17239121

  4. Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma with anaplastic features: A rare case report and review of literature with reference to current management

    PubMed Central

    Patibandla, M. R.; Nayak, Madhukar; Purohit, A. K.; Thotakura, Amit Kumar; Uppin, Megha; Challa, Sundaram

    2016-01-01

    Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is an uncommon tumor constitutes less than 1% of all astrocytic glial neoplasms was first reported in 1979. PXA commonly occurs in young patients and manifests itself first as seizures followed by focal neurological deficits. The role of radiotherapy or chemotherapy has not yet been established because of the relative infrequency of this disease. PXA is classified as grade II tumor in the WHO classification of tumors of the CNS. In literature 9 to 20 % PXA may undergo malignant change at recurrence or may display at the time of initial presentation. Malignant transformation is mainly associated with high mitotic activity and necrosis. The criteria for PXA with anaplastic features was five or more mitotic activity per 10 high power fields, necrosis, microvascular proliferation, marked cellular anaplasia, and high Ki-67 labeling indices. PXA with anaplastic features management is highly controversial as very sparse literature is available. We are reporting a case of PXA with anaplastic features with atypical radiology and tried to review the up to date literature regarding this rare tumor. PMID:27366280

  5. A Review On Accuracy and Uncertainty of Spatial Data and Analyses with special reference to Urban and Hydrological Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devendran, A. A.; Lakshmanan, G.

    2014-11-01

    Data quality for GIS processing and analysis is becoming an increased concern due to the accelerated application of GIS technology for problem solving and decision making roles. Uncertainty in the geographic representation of the real world arises as these representations are incomplete. Identification of the sources of these uncertainties and the ways in which they operate in GIS based representations become crucial in any spatial data representation and geospatial analysis applied to any field of application. This paper reviews the articles on the various components of spatial data quality and various uncertainties inherent in them and special focus is paid to two fields of application such as Urban Simulation and Hydrological Modelling. Urban growth is a complicated process involving the spatio-temporal changes of all socio-economic and physical components at different scales. Cellular Automata (CA) model is one of the simulation models, which randomly selects potential cells for urbanisation and the transition rules evaluate the properties of the cell and its neighbour. Uncertainty arising from CA modelling is assessed mainly using sensitivity analysis including Monte Carlo simulation method. Likewise, the importance of hydrological uncertainty analysis has been emphasized in recent years and there is an urgent need to incorporate uncertainty estimation into water resources assessment procedures. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a continuous time watershed model to evaluate various impacts of land use management and climate on hydrology and water quality. Hydrological model uncertainties using SWAT model are dealt primarily by Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) method.

  6. Mobility control in oil recovery by chemical flooding: State-of-the-art review: Topical report. [177 references

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, H.W.

    1987-01-01

    Mobility control in oil recovery by chemical flooding (polymer, micellar-polymer, and alkaline-polymer) can be achieved through the use of low-concentration water-soluble polymers in water or in chemical slugs. Since the late 1950's, water-soluble polymers have been studied extensively in laboratories by many researchers and widely used in many chemical flooding projects to improve sweep efficiency and increase ultimate oil recovery. Effective use of polymers as mobility control agents requires the understanding of the stability of polymers and their rheological behavior in reservoirs. An overview of the scientific literature on the application of water-soluble polymers in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is presented. The processes, factors, and mechanisms that influence the stability of polymers and those that cause a reduction in water mobility are discussed. Existing knowledge of polymer flow behavior in porous media, and of surfactant-polymer interactions is reviewed. Also discussed are the case histories of 23 chemical flooding field projects. 177 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. A review of trend models applied to sea level data with reference to the "acceleration-deceleration debate"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, Hans; Dangendorf, Sönke; Petersen, Arthur C.

    2015-06-01

    Global sea levels have been rising through the past century and are projected to rise at an accelerated rate throughout the 21st century. This has motivated a number of authors to search for already existing accelerations in observations, which would be, if present, vital for coastal protection planning purposes. No scientific consensus has been reached yet as to how a possible acceleration could be separated from intrinsic climate variability in sea level records. This has led to an intensive debate on its existence and, if absent, also on the general validity of current future projections. Here we shed light on the controversial discussion from a methodological point of view. To do so, we provide a comprehensive review of trend methods used in the community so far. This resulted in an overview of 30 methods, each having its individual mathematical formulation, flexibilities, and characteristics. We illustrate that varying trend approaches may lead to contradictory acceleration-deceleration inferences. As for statistics-oriented trend methods, we argue that checks on model assumptions and model selection techniques yield a way out. However, since these selection methods all have implicit assumptions, we show that good modeling practices are of importance too. We conclude at this point that (i) several differently characterized methods should be applied and discussed simultaneously, (ii) uncertainties should be taken into account to prevent biased or wrong conclusions, and (iii) removing internally generated climate variability by incorporating atmospheric or oceanographic information helps to uncover externally forced climate change signals.

  8. Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma with anaplastic features: A rare case report and review of literature with reference to current management.

    PubMed

    Patibandla, M R; Nayak, Madhukar; Purohit, A K; Thotakura, Amit Kumar; Uppin, Megha; Challa, Sundaram

    2016-01-01

    Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is an uncommon tumor constitutes less than 1% of all astrocytic glial neoplasms was first reported in 1979. PXA commonly occurs in young patients and manifests itself first as seizures followed by focal neurological deficits. The role of radiotherapy or chemotherapy has not yet been established because of the relative infrequency of this disease. PXA is classified as grade II tumor in the WHO classification of tumors of the CNS. In literature 9 to 20 % PXA may undergo malignant change at recurrence or may display at the time of initial presentation. Malignant transformation is mainly associated with high mitotic activity and necrosis. The criteria for PXA with anaplastic features was five or more mitotic activity per 10 high power fields, necrosis, microvascular proliferation, marked cellular anaplasia, and high Ki-67 labeling indices. PXA with anaplastic features management is highly controversial as very sparse literature is available. We are reporting a case of PXA with anaplastic features with atypical radiology and tried to review the up to date literature regarding this rare tumor. PMID:27366280

  9. Nonusers of Academic Libraries: Academic Lifestyles and Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    Suggests that nonusers of academic libraries should be identified and studied because they are part of the same three groups they expect to attract: faculty, staff, and students. The results of the application of lifestyles research to public library user groups are reviewed, and their implications for academic library reference services are…

  10. One Year Term Review as a Participating Guest in the Detonator and Detonation Physics Group

    SciTech Connect

    Lefrancois, A; Roeske, F; Tran, T; Lee, R S

    2006-02-06

    The one year stay was possible after a long administrative process, because of the fact that this was the first participating guest of B division as a foreign national in HEAF (High Explosives Application Facility) with the Detonator/Detonation Physics Group.

  11. Group Formation in Mobile Computer Supported Collaborative Learning Contexts: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amara, Sofiane; Macedo, Joaquim; Bendella, Fatima; Santos, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Learners are becoming increasingly divers. They may have much personal, social, cultural, psychological, and cognitive diversity. Forming suitable learning groups represents, therefore, a hard and time-consuming task. In Mobile Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (MCSCL) environments, this task is more difficult. Instructors need to consider…

  12. Lao People's Democratic Republic--Skills Development for Disadvantaged Groups: Review, Issues and Prospects. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In order to achieve the EFA (Education For All) goal agreed by participating nations at the Dakar World Education Forum 2000, The Lao government has undertaken various studies for its "National Plan of Action for Education for All." Lao is an inland mountainous nation with 49 ethnic groups. Such diversity makes the provision of social services and…

  13. "Chemistry Is in the News": Assessing Intra-Group Peer Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Kathleen M.; Glaser, Rainer E.

    2010-01-01

    Interdisciplinarity is rapidly becoming a norm within both the professional and academic worlds, and the ability to collaborate is becoming an essential skill for all graduates. "Chemistry Is in the News" ("CIITN") is a curriculum that aims to teach students this skill by engaging student collaborative groups in a project that ties real world…

  14. A review of the evidence to inform pneumococcal vaccine recommendations for risk groups aged 2 years and older.

    PubMed

    Steens, A; Vestrheim, D F; Aaberge, I S; Wiklund, B S; Storsaeter, J; Riise Bergsaker, M A; Rønning, K; Furuseth, E

    2014-12-01

    For decades, vaccination with the 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPV23) has been available for risk groups aged ⩾2 years to prevent invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). Recently, a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (PCV13) has been licensed for use in all age groups. PCV13 may induce better protection than PPV23 because of different immunogenic properties. This called for a revision of vaccine recommendations for risk groups. We therefore reviewed literature on risk groups for IPD, and effectiveness and safety of pneumococcal vaccines and supplemented that with information from public health institutes, expert consultations and data on IPD epidemiology. We included 187 articles. We discuss the implications of the heterogenic vulnerability for IPD within and between risk groups, large indirect effects of childhood immunization, and limited knowledge on additional clinical benefits of PCV13 in combination with PPV23 for the Norwegian recommendations. These are now step-wise and consider the need for vaccination, choice of pneumococcal vaccines, and re-vaccination interval by risk group. PMID:24932959

  15. [Influenza virus epidemiology and ecology, with special reference to bird species associated with water. Literature review and observations].

    PubMed

    van Tongeren, H A; Voous, K H

    1987-12-01

    Only a limited number of A-subtypes of influenza virus so far caused disease in human subjects, pigs and horses; this occurred in more or less defined areas which occasionally showed epidemic aggravations, becoming apparent as rapidly spreading epidemics or otherwise in even the form of pandemics. However this number of antigenic subtypes was found to be fairly constant and host-specific. Earlier studies were done in domesticated fowl and birds, though particularly in water birds in recent years, and numerous subtypes were detected, only a small number of these subtypes also being found to occur in man, pigs and horses. It became increasingly apparent that particularly mallards, but also other water birds play an extremely important role in the maintenance as well as in the distribution and circulation of these orthomyxoviruses in nature. These infections in water birds were not merely caused by a single subtype but occasionally by two or more antigenically different subtypes. This could be conducive to the appearance of recombinants as a result of genetic rearrangement in the cells lining the alimentary tracts of birds. Occasionally, subtypes observed in man were also found to occur in birds, which gave rise to the question of the extent to which birds are the origin or sources of infections of human epidemics caused by these subtypes. This also holds good for the subtypes in pigs. In addition to a number of oecological and ornithological considerations, reference was also made to systematic facts and routes along which further investigations on the presence of influenza viruses in the world of birds could be taken up, particular attention being paid to migratory birds. As birds of passage pass over and find their way into isolated areas as well as human population centres, these birds play a role which is yet unknown both in the distribution and in the overwintering of influenza viruses. Conditions in which wild and domesticated (water) birds, pigs, horses and

  16. Ecological restoration of mineland with particular reference to the metalliferous mine wasteland in China: A review of research and practice.

    PubMed

    Li, M S

    2006-03-15

    Despite a principal contributor to the rapid economic growth, the mining industry in China produced a large amount of wasteland and caused water pollution and soil erosion as well as other environmental damages. In 2002, this industry generated 265.4 Mt tailings, 130.4 Mt gangue and 107.8 Mt smelting slags. The degraded land associated with mining is estimated to be 3.2 Mha by the end of 2004, deteriorating the land shortage of China. Restoration of mine wasteland began in late 1970s but the restoration process was sluggish. The overall restoration rate (the ratio of reclaimed land area to the total degraded land area) of mine wasteland was some 10-12% with a higher rate for coal mine spoils but a lower rate for metal-mined derelict land. From 1994 to 2004, 149 research papers were published about the restoration of China's mining wasteland, of which 70 were on metal-mined land and 61 on the non-metal-mined land. Although 37 institutions in China were involved in the restoration research, only a few remained active and productive. Metal-mined derelict land is often more metal toxic and deficient of macronutrients and is tougher for revegetation. Many substrate amelioration techniques were proposed and tolerant plant species were tested for use of reclamation of the metal-mined tailings. Five hyperaccumulator species have been reported in China for the potential use in phytoremediation. However, these accomplishments were all at laboratory or small-scale field demonstration stage and still far from the practical use in reality. To accelerate the restoration and utilization of mine wasteland, several recommendations are put forward in this review. Above these suggestions, the commitment and efficiency of the government at all levels are vital. PMID:15992864

  17. A taxonomic review of the Neoserica (sensu lato) septemlamellata group (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Sericini)

    PubMed Central

    Ahrens, Dirk; Liu, Wan-Gang; Fabrizi, Silvia; Bai, Ming; Yang, Xing-Ke

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In the present paper the species belonging to the Neoserica (sensu lato) septemlamellata group, that included so far only four known species, are revised. Here we describe eleven new species originating mainly from Indochina and Southern China: N. daweishanica sp. n., N. gaoligongshanica sp. n., N. guangpingensis sp. n., N. igori sp. n., N. jiulongensis sp. n., N. plurilamellata sp. n., N. weishanica sp. n., N. yanzigouensis sp. n. (China) N. sapaensis sp. n. (China, Vietnam), N. bansongchana sp. n., N. takakuwai sp. n. (Laos). The lectotypes of Neoserica septemlamellata Brenske, 1898 and N. septemfoliata Moser, 1915 are designated. Keys to the species and species groups are given, the genitalia of all species and their habitus are illustrated and distribution maps are included. PMID:24843263

  18. Sources, fate, and effects of PAHs in shallow water environments: a review with special reference to small watercraft

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.

    2002-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are aromatic hydrocarbons with two to seven fused carbon (benzene) rings that can have substituted groups attached. Shallow coastal, estuarine, lake, and river environments receive PAHs from treated wastewater, stormwater runoff, petroleum spills and natural seeps, recreational and commercial boats, natural fires, volcanoes, and atmospheric deposition of combustion products. Abiotic degradation of PAHs is caused by photooxidation, photolysis in water, and chemical oxidation. Many aquatic microbes, plants, and animals can metabolize and excrete ingested PAHs; accumulation is associated with poor metabolic capabilities, high lipid content, and activity patterns or distributions that coincide with high concentrations of PAHs. Resistance to biological transformation increases with increasing number of carbon rings. Four- to seven-ring PAHs are the most difficult to metabolize and the most likely to accumulate in sediments. Disturbance by boating activity of sediments, shorelines, and the surface microlayer of water causes water column re-entry of recently deposited or concentrated PAHs. Residence time for PAHs in undisturbed sediment exceeds several decades. Toxicity of PAHs causes lethal and sublethal effects in plants and animals, whereas some substituted PAHs and metabolites of some PAHs cause mutations, developmental malformations, tumors, and cancer. Environmental concentrations of PAHs in water are usually several orders of magnitude below levels that are acutely toxic, but concentrations can be much higher in sediment. The best evidence for a link between environmental PAHs and induction of cancerous neoplasms is for demersal fish in areas with high concentrations of PAHs in the sediment.

  19. Posterior scleritis in pediatric age group: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Radha; Suryawanshi, Milind; Isaac, Roshini; Philip, Santhosh K.

    2016-01-01

    Posterior scleritis is rare in both the adult and pediatric age groups. Increased awareness and availability of advanced diagnostic facilities aid in early diagnosis and management. Visual recovery is possible with systemic steroids and immunosuppression. We report the case of a 12-year-old male child who presented with poor vision in his right eye and was found to have retinal striae and disc edema due to posterior scleritis. PMID:27013832

  20. Review of nonlinear dynamics of the unstable fluid interface: conservation laws and group theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abarzhi, Snezhana I.

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we briefly overview some theoretical approaches and empirical modeling approaches of the nonlinear Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities, which have been developed over recent decades, summarize the results of the group theory analysis of the nonlinear coherent dynamics in Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov flows, consider the issues of validation and verification of the theories and models, and outline some criteria for the estimate of the fidelity and information capacity of the experimental and numerical data sets.

  1. Group Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahler, Clarence A.

    1971-01-01

    This article reviews the major concerns of group counseling and differentiates among group guidance, group counseling, and group therapy. It also evaluates the research status of group counseling and presents implications for the future of this approach. Comment by Carl E. Thoresen follows. (Author)

  2. [The health status of workers in the production of compounds of nitrogen group (literature review)].

    PubMed

    Pomytkina, T E

    2014-01-01

    In the literature there are reported data about working conditions, health status of workers in the production of nitrogen group compounds (ammonia, nitric acid, urea, ammonium nitrate), as well as research of the impact of harmful factors of the production on the body in the experiment. Unsatisfactory working conditions are associated with an occupational hazard for health of workers and can lead to professional and work-related diseases. Despite a significant number of published studies, the mechanism of the toxic effect of the compounds of nitrogen group on the gastrointestinal tract of workers is not fully studied. There is a lack of data on the degree of the relationship of digestive disorders, including peptic ulcer and duodenal ulcer with the work on the such production. There is little scientific evidence about the clinical uniqueness of ulcer disease in workers exposed to compounds of nitrogen group, as well as information on the dietary prevention of the occurrence and development of the disease. PMID:25306699

  3. A taxonomic review of the Neoserica (sensu lato) abnormis group (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Sericini).

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Dirk; Liu, Wan-Gang; Fabrizi, Silvia; Bai, Ming; Yang, Xing-Ke

    2014-01-01

    The present paper revises the species belonging to the Neoserica (sensu lato) abnormis group, so far known only with two nominal species. Twenty new species are herein described from Indochina and southern China: N. abnormoides sp. n. (Vietnam, China), N. allolaotica sp. n., N. namthaensis sp. n., N. simplicissima sp. n. (Laos), N. thailandensis sp. n. (Thailand), N. alloputaoana sp. n., N. kanphantensis sp. n., N. natmatoungensis sp. n., N. putaoana sp. n., N. taunggyiana sp. n. (Myanmar), N. lamellosa sp. n., N. tonkinea sp. n. (Vietnam), N. bairailingshanica sp. n., N. euyunnanica sp. n., N. huangi sp. n., N. jiangxiensis sp. n., N. trifida sp. n., N. yaoi sp. n., N. yingjiangensis sp. n. (China), N. cardamomensis sp. n. (Indochina and southern China). One new combination is established: Neoserica ponderosa Arrow, 1946, comb. n. The lectotypes of Neoserica abnormis Moser, 1908 and the taxonomically uncertain N. inclinata Brenske, 1898, which very likely also belongs to this species group, are designated herein. A key to the species and to species groups is given, the genitalia of all species including their habitus are illustrated. Maps of species distribution are included. PMID:25317056

  4. A taxonomic review of the Neoserica (sensu lato) abnormis group (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Sericini)

    PubMed Central

    Ahrens, Dirk; Liu, Wan-Gang; Fabrizi, Silvia; Bai, Ming; Yang, Xing-Ke

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The present paper revises the species belonging to the Neoserica (sensu lato) abnormis group, so far known only with two nominal species. Twenty new species are herein described from Indochina and southern China: N. abnormoides sp. n. (Vietnam, China), N. allolaotica sp. n., N. namthaensis sp. n., N. simplicissima sp. n. (Laos), N. thailandensis sp. n. (Thailand), N. alloputaoana sp. n., N. kanphantensis sp. n., N. natmatoungensis sp. n., N. putaoana sp. n., N. taunggyiana sp. n. (Myanmar), N. lamellosa sp. n., N. tonkinea sp. n. (Vietnam), N. bairailingshanica sp. n., N. euyunnanica sp. n., N. huangi sp. n., N. jiangxiensis sp. n., N. trifida sp. n., N. yaoi sp. n., N. yingjiangensis sp. n. (China), N. cardamomensis sp. n. (Indochina and southern China). One new combination is established: Neoserica ponderosa Arrow, 1946, comb. n. The lectotypes of Neoserica abnormis Moser, 1908 and the taxonomically uncertain N. inclinata Brenske, 1898, which very likely also belongs to this species group, are designated herein. A key to the species and to species groups is given, the genitalia of all species including their habitus are illustrated. Maps of species distribution are included. PMID:25317056

  5. Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup (GCIG) consensus review for mucinous ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ledermann, Jonathan A; Luvero, Daniela; Shafer, Aaron; O'Connor, Dennis; Mangili, Giorgia; Friedlander, Michael; Pfisterer, Jacobus; Mirza, Mansoor R; Kim, Jae-Weon; Alexandre, Jerome; Oza, Amit; Brown, Jubilee

    2014-11-01

    Mucinous carcinomas of the ovary can be primary or metastatic in origin. Improvements in the pathological diagnosis have increased the ability to distinguish between primary and metastatic ovarian cancers and shown that primary mucinous carcinomas are a rare subtype of ovarian cancer. Most tumors are diagnosed at an early stage, and the prognosis after surgery is good. Advanced or recurrent mucinous carcinoma of the ovary responds poorly to current cytotoxic treatments, and the prognosis is poor. Here, we review the guidelines for surgery and the results of treatment of advanced and recurrent disease. Chemotherapy with platinum and paclitaxel is currently used to treat advanced disease, but the effect of these drugs is modest, and new treatments are needed. PMID:25341574

  6. Review and phylogeny of the geniculata group, genus Chinavia (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), with notes on biogeography and morphological evolution.

    PubMed

    Genevcius, Bruno C; Schwertner, Cristiano F

    2014-01-01

    Chinavia is one of the most diverse genera of Pentatomidae, comprising 80 species distributed in the Afrotropical, Neartic and Neotropical regions. Some groups of species have been proposed in the literature based on morphological similarities or phylogenetic analyses. The geniculata group was proposed to include C. geniculata, C. gravis and C. nigritarsis. However, eleven other species of Chinavia share somatic and genital characteristics with C. geniculata, C. gravis and C. nigritarsis, which allows hypothesizing the monophyly among these 14 species. In spite of the recent contributions to aspects of biology, immature stages and species catalogs in Chinavia, the definition of monophyletic groups within the genus and the establishment of boundaries among its species are essential to understand its diversity and to test hypotheses on biogeography and evolutionary biology. In this study we review the taxonomy of the geniculata group, test its monophyly and propose a phylogenetic hypothesis for the group. We discuss the phylogenetic relationships from a geographical perspective, and provide insights about morphological evolution.  PMID:25112324

  7. Reference Readiness for AV Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drolet, Leon L., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews 50 reference tools which librarians can use to answer almost any audiovisual question including queries on trivia, equipment selection, biographical information, and motion picture ratings. (LLS)

  8. A review of the orientalis group of the Otostigmus subgenus Otostigmus Porat, 1876 (Chilopoda: Scolopendromorpha: Scolopendridae).

    PubMed

    Lewis, John G E

    2014-01-01

    The Otostigmus subgenus Otostigmus, which currently comprises 58 species, was subdivided by Lewis (2010a) into nine species groups based on Attems' (1930a) monograph. The orientalis group comprising 19 species and two subspecies is the subject of this paper. In most cases, the type material is redescribed and variation discussed. The following species are valid: O. ateles Chamberlin, 1920, O. australianus Attems, 1930, O. brevidentatus Verhoeff, 1937, O. foveolatus Verhoeff, 1937, O. kashmiranus Lewis, 1992, O. metallicus Haase, 1887, O. multidens multidens Haase, 1887, O. oatesi Kraepelin, 1903, O. orientalis Porat, 1876, O. ruficeps Pocock, 1890, and O. striolatus Verhoeff, 1937. O. seychellarum Attems, 1900, is reinstated as a valid species and O. niasensis Silvestri, 1895, and O. sucki Krae-pelin, 1903 which may be O. metallicus are regarded as valid pro tem. O. greggi Chamberlin, 1944, is a junior subjective synonym of O. astenus (Kohlrausch, 1881), and O. loriae Silvestri, 1895, and O. multidens carens Attems, 1938, junior subjective synonyms of O. multidens. O. loriae nordicus Schileyko, 1995, becomes O. multidens nordicus comb. nov. O. nemorensis Silvestri, 1895, O. poonamae Khanna & Tripathi, 1986, and O. telus Chamberlin, 1939, are nomina dubia. A key to the species is provided. PMID:25544275

  9. The International Celestial Reference System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomalont, E.

    2016-05-01

    The International Celestial Reference System (ICRS) is a set of prescriptions, conventions, observational techniques and modeling required to define an celestial inertial frame. The origin of the frame is the solar-system barycenter. The ICRS was adopted by the International Astronomical Union in 1997 as the replacement of the FK5 system. The frame is called the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF), and is realized (defined) by the accurate position of 295 radio sources, distributed over the sky, and the accuracy of the frame orientation is about 10 microarcsec. This review will cover: the history of the development of the ICRS; the basics of the major observational technique of Very Long Baseline Interferometry; the use of the fundamental observable, the group delay; experimental strategies to optimize the accuracy; the computational methods for analyzing the large data base; the two major error limitations; and the possible of ICRS/Gaia interactions.

  10. {A Review of Working Group 2 (Advanced Terrestrial Systems) of the COST 296 Action}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warrington, E. M.; Tulunay, E.

    2009-04-01

    E.M. Warrington, E. Tulunay, N.M. Abbasi, J. Azevedo, L. Bertel, A. Bourdillon, E. Benito, C. Bianchi, A. Casimiro, L. Economou, Y. Erhel, S.M. Feeney, S.D. Gunashekar, H. Haralambous, D. Lemur, F. Marie, J.P. Monilie, M. Muriuki, M. Oger M. Pietrella, V. Rannou, H. Rothkaehl, S. Saillant, S. Salous, O. Sari, A.J. Stocker, H.J. Strangeways, Y. Tulunay and N.Y. Zaalov This paper deals with the research undertaken during the COST 296 Action in Working Group 2 on Advanced Terrestrial Systems. The Working Group comprised three work packages covering various topics: Radar and Radiolocation, HF/MF Communications, and Spectrum Management. Results from this Working Group are presented in this paper, and may be summarised as follows. Aspects of HF propagation The propagation characteristics of radio signals are important parameters to consider when designing and operating radio systems. From the point of view Working Group 2 of the COST-296 Action, interest lies with effects associated with propagation via the ionosphere of signals within the HF band. Several aspects were covered: The directions of arrival and times of flight of signals received over a path oriented along the trough have been examined and several types of propagation effects identified. Of particular note, combining the HF observations with satellite measurements has identified the presence of irregularities within the floor of the trough that result in propagation displaced from the great circle direction. An understanding of the propagation effects that result in deviations of the signal path from the great circle direction are of particular relevance to the operation of HF radiolocation systems. Inclusion of the results from the above mentioned measurements into a propagation model of the northerly ionosphere (i.e. those regions of the ionosphere located poleward of, and including, the mid-latitude trough) and the use of this model to predict the coverage expected from transmitters where the signals

  11. Review of the longipalpus-Group of Chrysotus Meigen (Diptera: Dolichopodidae), with Description of Four New Species.

    PubMed

    Capellari, R S

    2015-02-01

    The longipalpus-group of Chrysotus Meigen is reviewed and comprises eight species: Chrysotus coquitos n. sp. (Mexico), Chrysotus crosbyi Van Duzee (Eastern US, Bermuda, Cuba, Puerto Rico and Brazil; introduced in Australasian Region), Chrysotus longipalpus Aldrich (=Chrysotus sagittarius Van Duzee, n. syn.; Eastern US, Saint Vincent, Grenadas and Brazil; introduced in the Afrotropical, Australasian, Oriental and Palaearctic regions), Chrysotus miripalpus Parent (Costa Rica and Brazil), Chrysotus neopedionomus n. sp. (Brazil), Chrysotus pachystoma n. sp. (Belize), Chrysotus xiphostoma Robinson (Dominica and Saint Lucia), and Chrysotus zumbadoi n. sp. (Costa Rica). Lectotype and paralectotypes are designated for Chrysotus pallidipalpus Van Duzee, and a neotype for C. miripalpus. Illustrations of the hypopygium and ovipositor, photos of the male palpus and a key to species of the group are provided. PMID:26013012

  12. A Review of the Urban Development and Transport Impacts on Public Health with Particular Reference to Australia: Trans-Disciplinary Research Teams and Some Research Gaps

    PubMed Central

    Black, Deborah; Black, John

    2009-01-01

    Urbanization and transport have a direct effect on public health. A transdisciplinary approach is proposed and illustrated to tackle the general problem of these environmental stressors and public health. Processes driving urban development and environmental stressors are identified. Urbanization, transport and public health literature is reviewed and environmental stressors are classified into their impacts and which group is affected, the geographical scale and potential inventions. Climate change and health impacts are identified as a research theme. From an Australian perspective, further areas for research are identified. PMID:19543407

  13. Outcomes of hepatitis C screening programs targeted at risk groups hidden in the general population: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Effective screening programs are urgently needed to provide undiagnosed hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected individuals with therapy. This systematic review of characteristics and outcomes of screening programs for HCV focuses on strategies to identify HCV risk groups hidden in the general population. Methods We conducted a comprehensive search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for articles published between 1991–2010, including studies that screened the general population using either a newly developed (nonintegrated) screening program or one integrated in existing health care facilities. Look-back studies, prevalence studies, and programs targeting high-risk groups in care (e.g., current drug users) were excluded. Results After reviewing 7052 studies, we identified 67 screening programs: 24 nonintegrated; 41 programs integrated in a variety of health care facilities (e.g., general practitioner); and 2 programs with both integrated and nonintegrated strategies. Together, these programs identified approximately 25,700 HCV-infected individuals. In general, higher HCV prevalence was found in programs in countries with intermediate to high HCV prevalence, in psychiatric clinics, and in programs that used a prescreening selection based on HCV risk factors. Only 6 programs used a comparison group for evaluation purposes, and 1 program used theory about effective promotion for screening. Comparison of the programs and their effectiveness was hampered by lack of reported data on program characteristics, clinical follow-up, and type of diagnostic test. Conclusions A prescreening selection based on risk factors can increase the efficiency of screening in low-prevalence populations, and we need programs with comparison groups to evaluate effectiveness. Also, program characteristics such as type of diagnostic test, screening uptake, and clinical outcomes should be reported systematically. PMID:24450797

  14. Reference Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bivens-Tatum, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    This article presents interesting articles that explore several different areas of reference assessment, including practical case studies and theoretical articles that address a range of issues such as librarian behavior, patron satisfaction, virtual reference, or evaluation design. They include: (1) "Evaluating the Quality of a Chat Service"…

  15. Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunge, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses library reference services. Topics include the historical development of reference services; instruction in library use, particularly in college and university libraries; guidance; information and referral services and how they differ from traditional question-answering service; and future concerns, including user fees and the planning…

  16. {A Review of Working Group 2 (Advanced Terrestrial Systems) of the COST 296 Action}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warrington, E. M.; Tulunay, E.

    2009-04-01

    E.M. Warrington, E. Tulunay, N.M. Abbasi, J. Azevedo, L. Bertel, A. Bourdillon, E. Benito, C. Bianchi, A. Casimiro, L. Economou, Y. Erhel, S.M. Feeney, S.D. Gunashekar, H. Haralambous, D. Lemur, F. Marie, J.P. Monilie, M. Muriuki, M. Oger M. Pietrella, V. Rannou, H. Rothkaehl, S. Saillant, S. Salous, O. Sari, A.J. Stocker, H.J. Strangeways, Y. Tulunay and N.Y. Zaalov This paper deals with the research undertaken during the COST 296 Action in Working Group 2 on Advanced Terrestrial Systems. The Working Group comprised three work packages covering various topics: Radar and Radiolocation, HF/MF Communications, and Spectrum Management. Results from this Working Group are presented in this paper, and may be summarised as follows. Aspects of HF propagation The propagation characteristics of radio signals are important parameters to consider when designing and operating radio systems. From the point of view Working Group 2 of the COST-296 Action, interest lies with effects associated with propagation via the ionosphere of signals within the HF band. Several aspects were covered: The directions of arrival and times of flight of signals received over a path oriented along the trough have been examined and several types of propagation effects identified. Of particular note, combining the HF observations with satellite measurements has identified the presence of irregularities within the floor of the trough that result in propagation displaced from the great circle direction. An understanding of the propagation effects that result in deviations of the signal path from the great circle direction are of particular relevance to the operation of HF radiolocation systems. Inclusion of the results from the above mentioned measurements into a propagation model of the northerly ionosphere (i.e. those regions of the ionosphere located poleward of, and including, the mid-latitude trough) and the use of this model to predict the coverage expected from transmitters where the signals

  17. The lanthanides and yttrium in minerals of the apatite group; a review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleischer, Michael; Altschuler, Z.S.

    1982-01-01

    More than 1000 analyses have been tabulated of the distribution of the lanthanides and yttrium in minerals of the apatite group, recalculated to atomic percentages. Average compositions have been calculated for apatites from 14 types of rocks. These show a progressive change of composition from apatites of granitic pegmatites, highest in the heavy lanthanides and yttrium, to those from alkalic pegmatites, highest in the light lanthanides and lowest in yttrium. This progression is clearly shown in plots of S (= at % La+Ce+Pr) vs the ratio La/Nd and of S vs the ratio 100Y/(Y+Ln), where Ln is the sum of the lanthanides. Apatites of sedimentary phosphorites occupy a special position, being relatively depleted in Ce and relatively enriched in yttrium and the heavy lanthanides, consequences of deposition from sea water. Apatites associated with iron ores are close in composition to apatites of carbonatites, alkalic ultramafic, and ultramafic rocks, being enriched in the light lanthanides and depleted in the heavy lanthanides. Their compositions do not support the hypothesis of Parak that the Kiruna-type ores are of sedimentary origin. Table 9 and Figures 1-3 show the dependence of lanthanide distribution on the nature of the host rock. Although a given analysis of the lanthanides does not unequivocally permit certain identification of the host rock, it can indicate a choice of highly probable host rocks.

  18. Reference frames and reference networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosy, Jaroslaw; Krynski, Jan

    2015-12-01

    The summary of research activities concerning reference frames and reference networks performed in Poland in a period of 2011-2014 is presented. It contains the results of research on implementation of IUGG2011 and IAU2012 resolutions on reference systems, implementation of the ETRS89 in Poland, operational work of permanent IGS/ EUREF stations in Poland, operational work of ILRS laser ranging station in Poland, active GNSS station networks in Poland, maintenance of vertical control in Poland, maintenance and modernization of gravity control, and maintenance of magnetic control in Poland. The bibliography of the related works is given in references.

  19. [Migration and transformation of anthropogenic platinum group elements in environment: a review].

    PubMed

    Li, Pei-Miao; Gao, Xue-Lu

    2012-12-01

    Anthropogenic platinum group elements (PGEs) are widely applied in vehicle exhaust catalytic converters (VECs), industrial catalysts, and pharmaceutics, making the PGEs, especially Pt, Pd, and Rh, become the newly environmental pollutants in some fields. Given the positive correlations between the Pt/Pd and Pt/Rh ratios in various environmental samples and the active components of VECs, the VECs containing PGEs as catalysts are regarded as the primary source of PGEs pollution. Sufficient reports indicated that in the past three decades, there was a significant increase of PGEs concentrations in diverse environmental matrices like airborne particulate matters, aquatic ecosystem components (e.g., river water, rain water, groundwater, seawater, and sediments), soils, road dusts, and organisms. It was generally assumed that anthropogenic PGEs behave in inert manner, and the health risks associated with the environmental exposures to PGEs are minimal. However, the recent studies on PGEs toxicity and environmental bioavailability indicated that once entering environment, anthropogenic PGEs might easily be mobilized and transformed into more toxic forms under the actions of various biogeochemical processes, and thereby, enhanced their bioavailability and posed potential health risks to human beings through food chain. This paper summarized the research results about the sources, distribution, and biogeochemical behaviors of PGEs in various environmental media, and it was considered that to establish the standards of PGEs for human health risks, to develop standard substances of PGEs for environmental measurements, to study the PGEs in the sediments of marginal seas, and to assess the toxicity of PGEs to marine mollusks, the present contamination status of PGEs in foods, and the risks of PGEs to human health would be the hot research topics in the future. PMID:23479898

  20. Review of secondary metabolites and mycotoxins from the Aspergillus niger group.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard; Johansen, Maria; Larsen, Thomas O; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2009-11-01

    Filamentous fungi in the Aspergillus section Nigri (the black aspergilli) represent some of the most widespread food and feed contaminants known but they are also some of the most important workhorses used by the biotechnological industry. The Nigri section consists of six commonly found species (excluding A. aculeatus and its close relatives) from which currently 145 different secondary metabolites have been isolated and/or detected. From a human and animal safety point of view, the mycotoxins ochratoxin A (from A. carbonarius and less frequently A. niger) and fumonisin B(2) (from A. niger) are currently the most problematic compounds. Especially in foods and feeds such as coffee, nuts, dried fruits, and grape-based products where fumonisin-producing fusaria are not a problem, fumonisins pose a risk. Moreover, compounds such as malformins, naptho-gamma-pyrones, and bicoumarins (kotanins) call for monitoring in food, feed, and biotechnology products as well as for a better toxicological evaluation, since they are often produced in large amounts by the black aspergilli. For chemical differentiation/identification of the less toxic species the diketopiperazine asperazine can be used as a positive marker since it is consistently produced by A. tubingensis (177 of 177 strains tested) and A. acidus (47 of 47 strains tested) but never by A. niger (140 strains tested). Naptho-gamma-pyrones are the compounds produced in the highest quantities and are produced by all six common species in the group (A. niger 134 of 140; A. tubingensis 169 of 177; A. acidus 44 of 47; A. carbonarius 40 of 40, A. brasiliensis 18 of 18; and A. ibericus three of three). PMID:19756540

  1. International Myeloma Working Group molecular classification of multiple myeloma: spotlight review

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, R; Bergsagel, PL; Drach, J; Shaughnessy, J.; Gutierrez, N; Stewart, AK; Morgan, G; Van Ness, B; Chesi, M; Minvielle, S; Neri, A; Barlogie, B; Kuehl, WM; Liebisch, P; Davies, F; Chen-Kiang, S; Durie, BGM; Carrasco, R; Sezer, Orhan; Reiman, Tony; Pilarski, Linda; Avet-Loiseau, H

    2010-01-01

    Myeloma is a malignant proliferation of monoclonal plasma cells. Although morphologically similar, several subtypes of the disease have been identified at the genetic and molecular level. These genetic subtypes are associated with unique clinico-pathological features and dissimilar outcome. At the top hierarchical level, myeloma can be divided into hyperdiploid and non-hyperdiploid subtypes. The latter is mainly composed of cases harboring IgH translocations, generally associated with more aggressive clinical features and shorter survival. The three main IgH translocations in myeloma are the t(11;14)(q13;q32), t(4;14)(p16;q32) and t(14;16)(q32;q23). Trisomies and a more indolent form of the disease characterize hyperdiploid myeloma. A number of genetic progression factors have been identified including deletions of chromosomes 13 and 17 and abnormalities of chromosome 1 (1p deletion and 1q amplification). Other key drivers of cell survival and proliferation have also been identified such as nuclear factor- B-activating mutations and other deregulation factors for the cyclin-dependent pathways regulators. Further understanding of the biological subtypes of the disease has come from the application of novel techniques such as gene expression profiling and array-based comparative genomic hybridization. The combination of data arising from these studies and that previously elucidated through other mechanisms allows for most myeloma cases to be classified under one of several genetic subtypes. This paper proposes a framework for the classification of myeloma subtypes and provides recommendations for genetic testing. This group proposes that genetic testing needs to be incorporated into daily clinical practice and also as an essential component of all ongoing and future clinical trials. PMID:19798094

  2. Reach for Reference: Elementary-Middle School Science Reference Collections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safford, Barbara Ripp

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a brief review of some new school science reference works. Two of the sources are traditional, while one is considered experimental. The two traditional reference works reviewed are "The American Heritage Children's Science Dictionary" for upper elementary grades, and "The American Heritage Student Science Dictionary" for…

  3. The outcome of control groups in clinical trials of conservative treatments for chronic mechanical neck pain: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Vernon, Howard; Humphreys, B Kim; Hagino, Carol

    2006-01-01

    Background Chronic neck pain is highly prevalent in Western societies, with about 15% of females and 10% of males suffering with it at any time. The course of untreated chronic neck pain patients in clinical trials has not been well-defined and the placebo effect has not been clarified. Methods A systematic review of RCT's of conservative treatments for chronic mechanical neck pain was conducted. Studies were excluded if they did not include a control group, if they involved subjects with whiplash injuries, a predominance of headache or arm pain associated with chronic neck pain and if only one treatment was reported. Only studies scoring 3–5 out of 5 on the Jadad Scale for quality were included in the final analysis. Data on change in pain scores of subjects in both placebo (PL) as well as no-treatment (NT) control groups were analyzed. Mean changes in pain scores as well as effect sizes were calculated, summarized and compared between these groups. Results Twenty (20) studies, 5 in the NT group and 15 in the PL group, with outcome intervals ranging from 1–52 weeks were included in the final analysis. The mean [95% CI] effect size of change in pain ratings in the no-treatment control studies at outcome points up to 10 weeks was 0.18 [-0.05, 0.41] and for outcomes from 12–52 weeks it was 0.4 [0.12, 0.68]. In the placebo control groups it was 0.50 [0.10, 0.90] at up to 10 weeks and 0.33. [-1.97, 2.66] at 12–24 weeks. None of the comparisons between the no-treatment and placebo groups were statistically significant. Conclusion It appears that the changes in pain scores in subjects with chronic neck pain not due to whiplash who are enrolled in no-treatment and placebo control groups were similarly small and not significantly different. As well, they do not appear to increase over longer-term follow-up. PMID:16848905

  4. Impact of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Administration in Pediatric Older Age Groups in Low and Middle Income Countries: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, Kimberly; Welch, Emily; Elder, Kate; Cohn, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) is included in the World Health Organization’s routine immunization schedule and is recommended by WHO for vaccination in high-risk children up to 60 months. However, many countries do not recommend vaccination in older age groups, nor have donors committed to supporting extended age group vaccination. To better inform decision-making, this systematic review examines the direct impact of extended age group vaccination in children over 12 months in low and middle income countries. Methods An a priori protocol was used. Using pre-specified terms, a search was conducted using PubMed, LILACS, Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CAB Abstracts, clinicaltrials.gov and the International Symposium on Pneumococci and Pneumococcal Diseases abstracts. The primary outcome was disease incidence, with antibody titers and nasopharyngeal carriage included as secondary outcomes. Results Eighteen studies reported on disease incidence, immune response, and nasopharyngeal carriage. PCV administered after 12 months of age led to significant declines in invasive pneumococcal disease. Immune response to vaccine type serotypes was significantly higher for those vaccinated at older ages than the unimmunized at the established 0.2ug/ml and 0.35ug/ml thresholds. Vaccination administered after one year of age significantly reduced VT carriage with odds ratios ranging from 0.213 to 0.69 over four years. A GRADE analysis indicated that the studies were of high quality. Discussion PCV administration in children over 12 months leads to significant protection. The direct impact of PCV administration, coupled with the large cohort of children missed in first year vaccination, indicates that countries should initiate or expand PCV immunization for extended age group vaccinations. Donors should support implementation of PCV as part of delayed or interrupted immunization for older

  5. Compared with what? An analysis of control-group types in Cochrane and Campbell reviews of psychosocial treatment efficacy with substance use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Patrik; Bergmark, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background and Aims A crucial, but under-appreciated, aspect in experimental research on psychosocial treatments of substance use disorders concerns what kinds of control groups are used. This paper examines how the distinction between different control-group designs have been handled by the Cochrane and the Campbell Collaborations in their systematic reviews of psychosocial treatments of substance abuse disorders. Methods We assessed Cochrane and Campbell reviews (n = 8) that were devoted to psychosocial treatments of substance use disorders. We noted what control groups were considered and analysed the extent to which the reviews provided a rationale for chosen comparison conditions. We also analysed whether type of control group in the primary studies influenced how the reviews framed the effects discussed and whether this was related to conclusions drawn. Results The reviews covered studies involving widely different control conditions. Overall, little attention was paid to the use of different control groups (e.g. head-to-head comparisons versus untreated controls) and what this implies when interpreting effect sizes. Seven of eight reviews did not provide a rationale for the choice of comparison conditions. Conclusions Cochrane and Campbell reviews of the efficacy of psychosocial interventions with substance use disorders seem to underappreciate that the use of different control-group types yields different effect estimates. Most reviews have not distinguished between different control-group designs and therefore have provided a confused picture regarding absolute and relative treatment efficacy. A systematic approach to treating different control-group designs in research reviews is necessary for meaningful estimates of treatment efficacy. PMID:25393504

  6. Creating social spaces to tackle AIDS-related stigma: reviewing the role of church groups in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Campbell, C; Skovdal, M; Gibbs, A

    2011-08-01

    An expanding body of literature explores the role of African church groups in facilitating or hindering the support of people living with AIDS and challenging or contributing to HIV/AIDS-related stigma. Treating church groups as social spaces in which HIV/AIDS-related stigma may potentially be challenged, we systematically review this literature, identifying five themes that highlight the complex and contradictory role of the church as a potential agent of health-enhancing social change. In many ways the church perpetuates HIV/AIDS-related stigma through (i) moralistic attitudes and (ii) its reinforcement of conservative gender ideologies. However some churches have managed move towards action that makes a more positive contribution to HIV/AIDS management through (iii) promoting various forms of social control for HIV prevention, (iv) contributing to the care and support of the AIDS-affected and (v) providing social spaces for challenging stigmatising ideas and practices. We conclude that church groups, including church leadership, can play a key role in facilitating or hindering the creation of supportive social spaces to challenge stigma. Much work remains to be done in developing deeper understandings of the multi-layered factors that enable some churches, but not others, to respond effectively to HIV/AIDS. PMID:20668927

  7. Creating Social Spaces to Tackle AIDS-Related Stigma: Reviewing the Role of Church Groups in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Skovdal, M.; Gibbs, A.

    2012-01-01

    An expanding body of literature explores the role of African church groups in facilitating or hindering the support of people living with AIDS and challenging or contributing to HIV/AIDS-related stigma. Treating church groups as social spaces in which HIV/AIDS-related stigma may potentially be challenged, we systematically review this literature, identifying five themes that highlight the complex and contradictory role of the church as a potential agent of health-enhancing social change. In many ways the church perpetuates HIV/AIDS-related stigma through (i) moralistic attitudes and (ii) its reinforcement of conservative gender ideologies. However some churches have managed move towards action that makes a more positive contribution to HIV/AIDS management through (iii) promoting various forms of social control for HIV prevention, (iv) contributing to the care and support of the AIDS-affected and (v) providing social spaces for challenging stigmatising ideas and practices. We conclude that church groups, including church leadership, can play a key role in facilitating or hindering the creation of supportive social spaces to challenge stigma. Much work remains to be done in developing deeper understandings of the multi-layered factors that enable some churches, but not others, to respond effectively to HIV/AIDS. PMID:20668927

  8. Ready Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koltay, Emery

    1999-01-01

    Includes the following ready reference information: "Publishers' Toll-Free Telephone Numbers"; "How to Obtain an ISBN (International Standard Book Number)"; "How to Obtain an ISSN (International Standard Serial Number)"; and "How to Obtain an SAN (Standard Address Number)". (AEF)

  9. Knowledge Management and Reference Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandhi, Smiti

    2004-01-01

    Many corporations are embracing knowledge management (KM) to capture the intellectual capital of their employees. This article focuses on KM applications for reference work in libraries. It defines key concepts of KM, establishes a need for KM for reference services, and reviews various KM initiatives for reference services.

  10. Disparities in type 2 diabetes prevalence among ethnic minority groups resident in Europe: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Meeks, Karlijn A C; Freitas-Da-Silva, Deivisson; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Beune, Erik J A J; Modesti, Pietro A; Stronks, Karien; Zafarmand, Mohammad H; Agyemang, Charles

    2016-04-01

    Many ethnic minorities in Europe have a higher type 2 diabetes (T2D) prevalence than their host European populations. The risk size differs between ethnic groups, but the extent of the differences in the various ethnic minority groups has not yet been systematically quantified. We conducted a meta-analysis of published data on T2D in various ethnic minority populations resident in Europe compared to their host European populations. We systematically searched MEDLINE (using PUBMED) and EMBASE for papers on T2D prevalence in ethnic minorities in Europe published between 1994 and 2014. The ethnic minority groups were classified into five population groups by geographical origin: South Asian (SA), Sub-Saharan African (SSA), Middle Eastern and North African (MENA), South and Central American (SCA), and Western Pacific (WP). Pooled odds ratios with corresponding 95 % confidence interval (CI) were calculated using Review Manager 5.3. Twenty articles were included in the analysis. Compared with the host populations, SA origin populations had the highest odds for T2D (3.7, 95 % CI 2.7-5.1), followed by MENA (2.7, 95 % CI 1.8-3.9), SSA (2.6, 95 % CI 2.0-3.5), WP (2.3, 95 % CI 1.2-4.1), and lastly SCA (1.3, 95 % CI 1.1-1.6). Odds ratios were in all ethnic minority populations higher for women than for men except for SCA. Among SA subgroups, compared with Europeans, Bangladeshi had the highest odds ratio of 6.2 (95 % CI 3.9-9.8), followed by Pakistani (5.4, 95 % CI 3.2-9.3) and Indians (4.1, 95 % CI 3.0-5.7). The risk of T2D among ethnic minority groups living in Europe compared to Europeans varies by geographical origin of the group: three to five times higher among SA, two to four times higher among MENA, and two to three times higher among SSA origin. Future research and policy initiatives on T2D among ethnic minority groups should take the interethnic differences into account. PMID:26370238

  11. Reviews

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-11-01

    BOOK REVIEW Search for Life BOOK REVIEW Health Physics BOOK REVIEW Language and Literacy in Science Education BOOK REVIEW Science Web Reader—Physics Correction GCSE BOOK REVIEW Physics for Higher Tier GCSE BOOK REVIEW Modular Science GCSE BOOK REVIEW Modular Science for AQA: Foundation level and Higher level GCSE BOOK REVIEW Physics for OCR A GCSE BOOK REVIEW Physics Matters, 3rd edition GCSE BOOK REVIEW Physics GCSE BOOK REVIEW Science Foundations: Physics (new edition) GCSE BOOK REVIEW Target Science: Physics Foundation Tier GCSE BOOK REVIEW Target Science: Physics Foundation Tier: AQA WEB WATCH Medical physics organizations

  12. The Art of Collection Development: Reference Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, John P.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses selecting for a reference collection, creative budgeting, cutting a deal, collection awareness (strengths/needs), Web site reviews, R-Net (reviews from diverse areas and institutions), and print vs. electronic reference products. Reference librarian adhere to high standards for reference book and Web sites, teach assessment techniques,…

  13. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral and Supportive-Expressive Group Therapy for Women Diagnosed with Breast Cancer: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boutin, Daniel L.

    2007-01-01

    A review of the literature revealed 20 studies that examined the extent to which cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), supportive-expressive group therapy (SEGT), and a combination of these two treatments impact women with breast cancer. Based on this review, it is determined that CBT and SEGT have repeated experimental support for positively…

  14. Using Nominal Group Technique to Develop a Consensus Derived Model for Peer Review of Teaching across a Multi-School Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Tracy; Findlay, Naomi; Killen, Chloe; Dempsey, Shane E.; Hunter, Sharyn; Chiarelli, Pauline; Snodgrass, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a peer review of teaching model for the Faculty of Health at the University of Newcastle, Australia. The process involved using the nominal group technique to engage Faculty academic staff to consider seven key decision points that informed the development of the peer review of teaching model. Use of the…

  15. Medical treatment of prosthetic vascular graft infections: Review of the literature and proposals of a Working Group.

    PubMed

    Revest, M; Camou, F; Senneville, E; Caillon, J; Laurent, F; Calvet, B; Feugier, P; Batt, M; Chidiac, C

    2015-09-01

    More than 400000 vascular grafts are inserted annually in the USA. Graft insertion is complicated by infection in 0.5-4% of cases. Vascular graft infections (VGIs) are becoming one of the most frequent prosthesis-related infections and are associated with considerable mortality, ranging from 10 to 25% within 30 days following the diagnosis. Treatment of VGI is based on urgent surgical removal of the infected graft followed by prolonged antibiotherapy. Data regarding the best antibiotherapy to use are lacking since no well designed trial to study antimicrobial treatment of VGI exists. Moreover, since VGIs demonstrate very specific pathophysiology, guidelines on other material-related infections or infective endocarditis treatment cannot be entirely applied to VGI. A French multidisciplinary group gathering infectious diseases specialists, anaesthesiologists, intensivists, microbiologists, radiologists and vascular surgeons was created to review the literature dealing with VGI and to make some proposals regarding empirical and documented antibiotic therapy for these infections. This article reveals these proposals. PMID:26163735

  16. Smoking Cessation among Low-Socioeconomic Status and Disadvantaged Population Groups: A Systematic Review of Research Output

    PubMed Central

    Courtney, Ryan J.; Naicker, Sundresan; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Clare, Philip; Martire, Kristy A.; Mattick, Richard P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Smoking cessation research output should move beyond descriptive research of the health problem to testing interventions that can provide causal data and effective evidence-based solutions. This review examined the number and type of published smoking cessation studies conducted in low-socioeconomic status (low-SES) and disadvantaged population groups. Methods: A systematic database search was conducted for two time periods: 2000–2004 (TP1) and 2008–2012 (TP2). Publications that examined smoking cessation in a low-SES or disadvantaged population were coded by: population of interest; study type (reviews, non-data based publications, data-based publications (descriptive, measurement and intervention research)); and country. Intervention studies were coded in accordance with the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care data collection checklist and use of biochemical verification of self-reported abstinence was assessed. Results: 278 citations were included. Research output (i.e., all study types) had increased from TP1 27% to TP2 73% (χ² = 73.13, p < 0.001), however, the proportion of data-based research had not significantly increased from TP1 and TP2: descriptive (TP1 = 23% vs. TP2 = 33%) or intervention (TP1 = 77% vs. TP2 = 67%). The proportion of intervention studies adopting biochemical verification of self-reported abstinence had significantly decreased from TP1 to TP2 with an increased reliance on self-reported abstinence (TP1 = 12% vs. TP2 = 36%). Conclusions: The current research output is not ideal or optimal to decrease smoking rates. Research institutions, scholars and funding organisations should take heed to review findings when developing future research and policy. PMID:26062037

  17. Ledipasvir-Sofosbuvir for Treating Chronic Hepatitis C: A NICE Single Technology Appraisal-An Evidence Review Group Perspective.

    PubMed

    Thokala, P; Simpson, E L; Tappenden, P; Stevens, J W; Dickinson, K; Ryder, S; Harrison, P

    2016-08-01

    The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited Gilead, the company manufacturing ledipasvir-sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF), to submit evidence for the clinical effectiveness and cost effectiveness of LDV/SOF for treating chronic hepatitis C. The School of Health and Related Research (ScHARR) Technology Assessment Group was commissioned as the Evidence Review Group (ERG). This paper describes the company's submission (CS), the ERG review and the subsequent decision of the NICE Appraisal Committee (AC). The ERG produced a critical review of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness evidence of LDV/SOF based upon the CS. The clinical effectiveness data for LDV/SOF were taken from ten trials: three phase III trials and seven phase II trials. Trials compared different durations of LDV/SOF, with and without ribavirin (RBV). There were no head-to-head trials comparing LDV/SOF with any comparator listed in the NICE scope. Data from the trials were mostly from populations with genotype 1 (GT1) disease, although some limited data were available for populations with genotypes 3 and 4. For GT1 treatment-naïve patients, sustained viral response for 12 weeks (SVR12) rates for LDV/SOF ranged from 93.1 to 99.4 % for subgroups of patients with non-cirrhotic disease, whilst SVR rates of 94.1 to 100 % were reported for subgroups of patients with compensated cirrhosis. For GT1 treatment-experienced patients, SVR12 rates ranging from 95.4 to 100 % were reported for subgroups of non-cirrhotic patients, and SVR rates ranging from 81.8 to 100 % were reported within subgroups of patients with compensated cirrhosis. Comparator data were not searched systematically as part of the submission, but were based on the company's previous NICE submission of sofosbuvir, with additional targeted searches. The ERG's critical appraisal of the company's economic evaluation highlighted a number of concerns. The ERG's base case analyses suggested that the incremental cost

  18. Chronic Illness Self-care and the Family Lives of Older Adults: A Synthetic Review Across Four Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Gallant, Mary P.; Spitze, Glenna; Grove, Joshua G.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to integrate the literature on family and social ties among older ethnic minority men and women with the literature on chronic illness self-care among elders in these groups, in order to increase understanding of social influences on self-care behavior, raise questions for future research, and inform culturally appropriate interventions to maximize the health-promoting potential of social relationships. The paper presents demographic and chronic illness prevalence information, and then summarizes literature about patterns of chronic illness self-care behaviors for older African-Americans, Latinos, Asian-Americans, and American Indians in the U.S. For each group, the sociological literature about residential, cultural, and socioeconomic patterns, family lives, and other social ties is then reviewed, and the self-care literature that has accounted for these patterns is discussed. Finally, six themes are outlined and related questions are identified to further illuminate the social context of older adults’ chronic illness self-care. PMID:20177963

  19. A systematic review of training interventions addressing sexual violence against marginalized at-risk groups of women.

    PubMed

    Kouta, Christiana; Pithara, Christalla; Zobnina, Anna; Apostolidou, Zoe; Christodoulou, Josie; Papadakaki, Maria; Chliaoutakis, Joannes

    2015-12-01

    Women from marginalized groups working in occupations such as domestic work are at increased risk for sexual violence. Scarce evidence exists about training interventions targeting such groups. The article aims to identify community and workplace-based training interventions aiming to increase capacity among marginalized at-risk women to deal with sexual violence. A systematic review was applied. Inclusion criteria were English language published between 2003 and 2013; reporting on delivery and/or evaluation; focusing on any form of sexual violence; delivered to professionals, affected or at-risk women; targeting migrant, at-risk women or domestic workers. Data were extracted on the setting, content, evaluation process and target population. Four studies which focused on prevention or responding to sexual violence were included. One study provided sexual violence training to vulnerable female and one provided a HIV prevention intervention to marginalized women. Learning objectives included increasing knowledge around issues of sexual violence and/or gender and human rights, prevention and response strategies. Two studies aimed to train trainers. All studies conducted an outcome evaluation and two a process evaluation. It seems there is a gap on participatory empowerment training for marginalized women. Community train-the-trainer interventions are imperative to protect themselves and deal with the risk of sexual violence. PMID:26590245

  20. Reference Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Jepsen, Richard

    2011-11-02

    Presentation from the 2011 Water Peer Review in which principal investigator discusses project progress to develop a representative set of Reference Models (RM) for the MHK industry to develop baseline cost of energy (COE) and evaluate key cost component/system reduction pathways.

  1. Reference Collections and Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkel, Lois

    1999-01-01

    Reviews six reference materials for young people: "The New York Public Library Kid's Guide to Research"; "National Audubon Society First Field Guide. Mammals"; "Star Wars: The Visual Dictionary"; "Encarta Africana"; "World Fact Book, 1998"; and "Factastic Book of 1001 Lists". Includes ordering information.(AEF)

  2. A Review of the Literature: The Effectiveness of Leveled Reading Groups in Improving Oral Proficiency and Comprehension to First Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway-Bell, Sandra

    This literature review and study examines information on the effectiveness of leveled reading groups in first grade students with respect to oral proficiency and reading comprehension. It explores whether there is evidence that leveled reading groups increase or decrease student achievement, as well as whether there is evidence that leveled…

  3. Ready Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koltay, Emery

    2001-01-01

    Includes four articles that relate to ready reference, including a list of publishers' toll-free telephone numbers and Web sites; how to obtain an ISBN (International Standard Book Number) and an ISSN (International Standard Serial Number); and how to obtain an SAN (Standard Address Number), for organizations that are involved in the book…

  4. Poroelastic references

    SciTech Connect

    Morency, Christina

    2014-12-12

    This file contains a list of relevant references on the Biot theory (forward and inverse approaches), the double-porosity and dual-permeability theory, and seismic wave propagation in fracture porous media, in RIS format, to approach seismic monitoring in a complex fractured porous medium such as Brady?s Geothermal Field.

  5. Group X

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, Susannah

    2007-08-16

    This project is currently under contract for research through the Department of Homeland Security until 2011. The group I was responsible for studying has to remain confidential so as not to affect the current project. All dates, reference links and authors, and other distinguishing characteristics of the original group have been removed from this report. All references to the name of this group or the individual splinter groups has been changed to 'Group X'. I have been collecting texts from a variety of sources intended for the use of recruiting and radicalizing members for Group X splinter groups for the purpose of researching the motivation and intent of leaders of those groups and their influence over the likelihood of group radicalization. This work included visiting many Group X websites to find information on splinter group leaders and finding their statements to new and old members. This proved difficult because the splinter groups of Group X are united in beliefs, but differ in public opinion. They are eager to tear each other down, prove their superiority, and yet remain anonymous. After a few weeks of intense searching, a list of eight recruiting texts and eight radicalizing texts from a variety of Group X leaders were compiled.

  6. Renormalization Group (RG) in Turbulence: Historical and Comparative Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Ye; McComb, W. David; Vahala, George

    1997-01-01

    The term renormalization and renormalization group are explained by reference to various physical systems. The extension of renormalization group to turbulence is then discussed; first as a comprehensive review and second concentrating on the technical details of a few selected approaches. We conclude with a discussion of the relevance and application of renormalization group to turbulence modelling.

  7. Between-group behaviour in health care: gaps, edges, boundaries, disconnections, weak ties, spaces and holes. A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Gaps are typically regarded as a problem to be solved. People are stimulated to close or plug them. Researchers are moved to fill deficits in the literature in order to realise a more complete knowledge base, health authorities want to bridge policy-practice disconnections, managers to secure resources to remedy shortfalls between poor and idealised care, and clinicians to provide services to patients across the divides of organisational silos. Despite practical and policy work in many health systems to bridge gaps, it is valuable to study research examining them for the insights provided. Structural holes, spaces between social clusters and weak or absent ties represent fissures in networks, located in less densely populated parts of otherwise closely connected social structures. Such gaps are useful as they illustrate how communication potentially breaks down or interactivity fails. This paper discusses empirical and theoretical work on this phenomenon with the aim of analysing a specific exemplar, the structures of silos within health care organisations. Methods The research literature on social spaces, holes, gaps, boundaries and edges was searched systematically, and separated into health [n = 13] and non-health [n = 55] samples. The health literature was reviewed and synthesised in order to understand the circumstances between stakeholders and stakeholder groups that both provide threats to networked interactions and opportunities to strengthen the fabric of organisational and institutional inter-relationships. Results The research examples illuminate various network structure characteristics and group interactions. They explicate a range of opportunities for improved social and professional relations that understanding structural holes, social spaces and absent ties affords. A principal finding is that these kinds of gaps illustrate the conditions under which connections are strained or have been severed, where the limits of integration between

  8. Health related virtual communities and electronic support groups: systematic review of the effects of online peer to peer interactions

    PubMed Central

    Eysenbach, Gunther; Powell, John; Englesakis, Marina; Rizo, Carlos; Stern, Anita

    2004-01-01

    Objective To compile and evaluate the evidence on the effects on health and social outcomes of computer based peer to peer communities and electronic self support groups, used by people to discuss health related issues remotely. Design and data sources Analysis of studies identified from Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Evidence Based Medicine Reviews, Electronics and Communications Abstracts, Computer and Information Systems Abstracts, ERIC, LISA, ProQuest Digital Dissertations, Web of Science. Selection of studies We searched for before and after studies, interrupted time series, cohort studies, or studies with control groups; evaluating health or social outcomes of virtual peer to peer communities, either as stand alone interventions or in the context of more complex systems with peer to peer components. Main outcome measures Peer to peer interventions and co-interventions studied, general characteristics of studies, outcome measures used, and study results. Results 45 publications describing 38 distinct studies met our inclusion criteria: 20 randomised trials, three meta-analyses of n of 1 trials, three non-randomised controlled trials, one cohort study, and 11 before and after studies. Only six of these evaluated “pure” peer to peer communities, and one had a factorial design with a “peer to peer only” arm, whereas 31 studies evaluated complex interventions, which often included psychoeducational programmes or one to one communication with healthcare professionals, making it impossible to attribute intervention effects to the peer to peer community component. The outcomes measured most often were depression and social support measures; most studies did not show an effect. We found no evidence to support concerns over virtual communities harming people. Conclusions No robust evidence exists of consumer led peer to peer communities, partly because most peer to peer communities have been evaluated only in conjunction with more complex interventions or

  9. The 10ka Grímsvötn tephra series in Iceland (usually referred to as the Saksunarvatn ash). A review.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oladottir, Bergrun; Thordarson, Thor; Geirsdóttir, Áslaug

    2016-04-01

    The Sakunarvatn ash was first identified as a single layer in sediment cores from lake Saksunarvatn in the Faroe Islands and its origin was traced to the volcanic system Grímsvötn in Iceland. With time more and more tephra in the North Atlantic region were identified and correlated to this single layer and thereby the layer became a well-dated (10.4-9.9ka) and widely used, early Holocene tephra marker layer in the North Atlantic region. However, tephra studies on sediment cores from Iceland and the Greenland shelf show that during these 500 years the Grímsvötn volcanic system produced several tephra layers of essentially identical major element composition, changing the Saksunarvatn ash marker layer to a marker horizon consisting of several tephra layers. Hence, the use of the name Saksunarvatn ash as a common nominator for the entire tephra horizon is inadequate. Furthermore, and more importantly, this revelation complicates its use as a marker horizon in the North Atlantic region, especially in light of higher time resolution for these types of sediment archives and much improved correlation techniques. Thus, we prefer to refer to the marker horizon as the 10ka Grímsvötn tephra series. In this presentation we present a review on current state of knowledge concerning the 10ka Grímsvötn tephra series in profiles across Iceland. We describe their occurrence and state of preservation as well as assessing the number of tephra layers preserved at each locality. Our collective data base on the 10ka Grímsvötn tephra in Iceland will aid investigations on and improve the age resolution for this marker horizon elsewhere.

  10. Reference aircraft for ICAO Working Group E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The results of an advanced supersonic transport aircraft/engine integration study to be used as a detail preliminary design case to assist in the assessment of noise standards applicable to future supersonic transports are summarized. The design considered reflects the application of the advanced technologies which are projected to be available for program initiation in the 1980-1985 time period. Suppression characteristics included were obtained in simulated forward flight in the Rolls-Royce spin rig using a small scale model. The engine size selected produces a noise no greater than 108 EPNdB at any of the three Far Part 36 (Stage 2) defined measuring points and is sized slightly larger than the optimum cruise size to meet this noise constraint condition.

  11. A review of vacuum insulation research and development in the Building Materials Group of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kollie, T.G.; McElroy, D.L.; Fine, H.A.; Childs, K.W.; Graves, R.S.; Weaver, F.J.

    1991-09-01

    This report is a summary of the development work on flat-vacuum insulation performed by the Building Materials Group (BMG) in the Metals and Ceramics Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the last two years. A historical review of the technology of vacuum insulation is presented, and the role that ORNL played in this development is documented. The ORNL work in vacuum insulation has been concentrated in Powder-filled Evacuated Panels (PEPs) that have a thermal resistivity over 2.5 times that of insulating foams and seven times that of many batt-type insulations, such as fiberglass. Experimental results of substituting PEPs for chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) foal insulation in Igloo Corporation ice coolers are summarized. This work demonstrated that one-dimensional (1D) heat flow models overestimated the increase in thermal insulation of a foam/PEP-composite insulation, but three-dimensional (3D) models provided by a finite-difference, heat-transfer code (HEATING-7) accurately predicted the resistance of the composites. Edges and corners of the ice coolers were shown to cause the errors in the 1D models as well as shunting of the heat through the foam and around the PEPs. The area of coverage of a PEP in a foam/PEP composite is established as an important parameter in maximizing the resistance of such composites. 50 refs., 27 figs,. 22 tabs.

  12. Executive summary of major NuMI lessons learned: a review of relevant meetings of Fermilab's DUSEL Beamline Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, Mike; Appel, Jeffrey A.; Bogert, Dixon; Childress, Sam; Cossairt, Don; Griffing, William; Grossman, Nancy; Harding, David; Hylen, Jim; Kuchler, Vic; Laughton, Chris; /Fermilab /Argonne /Brookhaven /LBL, Berkeley

    2009-05-01

    We have gained tremendous experience with the NuMI Project on what was a new level of neutrino beams from a high power proton source. We expect to build on that experience for any new long baseline neutrino beam. In particular, we have learned about some things which have worked well and/or where the experience is fairly directly applicable to the next project (e.g., similar civil construction issues including: tunneling, service buildings, outfitting, and potential claims/legal issues). Some things might be done very differently (e.g., decay pipe, windows, target, beam dump, and precision of power supply control/monitoring). The NuMI experience does lead to identification of critical items for any future such project, and what issues it will be important to address. The DUSEL Beamline Working Group established at Fermilab has been meeting weekly to collect and discuss information from that NuMI experience. This document attempts to assemble much of that information in one place. In this Executive Summary, we group relevant discussion of some of the major issues and lessons learned under seven categories: (1) Differences Between the NuMI Project and Any Next Project; (2) The Process of Starting Up the Project; (3) Decision and Review Processes; (4) ES&H: Environment, Safety, and Health; (5) Local Community Buy-In; (6) Transition from Project Status to Operation; and (7) Some Lessons on Technical Elements. We concentrate here on internal project management issues, including technical areas that require special attention. We cannot ignore, however, two major external management problems that plagued the NuMI project. The first problem was the top-down imposition of an unrealistic combination of scope, cost, and schedule. This situation was partially corrected by a rebaselining. However, the full, desirable scope was never achievable. The second problem was a crippling shortage of resources. Critical early design work could not be done in a timely fashion, leading to

  13. Group Work Publication-1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimpfer, David G.

    1992-01-01

    Lists 21 new publications in group work, of which 9 are reviewed. Those discussed include publications on group counseling and psychotherapy, structured groups, support groups, psychodrama, and social group work. (Author/NB)

  14. Comment on the International Atomic Energy Agency Report on the Advisory Group Meeting on Stable Isotope Reference Samples for Geochemical and Hydrological Investigation, Vienna, Austria, September 19-21, 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplen, T.B.; Friedman, Irving; O'Neil, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    According to U.S. Geological Survey records, a report prepared by R. Gonfiantini summarizing the findings and recommendations of the 1983 Advisory Group Meeting on Stable Isotope Reference Samples for Geochemical and Hydrologic Investigations held in Vienna does not accurately represent the consultants ' consensus on three important points. The consultants (1) recommended no value for the C02-H20 oxygen isotope fractionation factor, not the cited value of 1.04115, (2) adopted a value of 1.0309 rather than 1.03086 to relate the PDB and SMOW scales, and (3) adopted a firm 180 value of -2.20% for NBS-19 on the PDB scale rather than agreeing that this would be a tentative value subject to modification when more measurements in selected laboratories are available. (USGS)

  15. A review of the multiwell experiment in tight gas sandstones of the Mesaverde Group, Piceance Basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, P.H.

    2002-01-01

    The Cretaceous Iles and Williams Fork Formations of the Mesaverde Group contain important reservoir and source rocks for basin-centered gas accumulations in the Piceance Basin of northwestern Colorado. The sandstones in these formations have very low permeability, so low that successful production of gas requires the presence of fractures. To increase gas production, the natural fracture system of these "tight gas sandstones" must be augmented by inducing artificial fractures, while minimizing the amount of formation damage due to introduced fluids. The Multiwell Experiment was undertaken to provide geological characterization, obtain physical property data, and perform stimulation experiments in the Iles and Williams Fork Formations. Three vertical wells and one follow-up slant well were drilled, logged, partially cored, tested for gas production, stimulated in various manners, and tested again. Drawing from published reports and papers, this review paper presents well log, core, and test data from the Multiwell Experiment while emphasizing the geological controls on gas production at the site. Gas production is controlled primarily by a set of regional fractures trending west-northwest. The fractures are vertical, terminating at lithologic boundaries within and at the upper and lower boundaries of sandstone beds. Fractures formed preferentially in sandstones where in situ stress and fracture gradients are lower than in shales and mudstones. The fractures cannot be identified adequately in vertical wellbores; horizontal wells are required. Because present-day maximum horizontal stress is aligned with the regional fractures, artificial fractures induced by pressuring the wellbore form parallel to the regional fractures rather than linking them, with consequent limitations upon enhancement of gas production.

  16. Reviews

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-07-01

    A-LEVEL RESOURCES REVIEWS SPECIAL AS and A2 books and resources: deciding what to buy? SUMMARY Exam boards, specifications and support materials OCR (Oxford Cambridge and RSA Examinations) CORRECTION BOOK REVIEW Good Practice in Science Teaching WEB WATCH Astronomy and cosmology DVD REVIEW The Video Encyclopedia of Physics Demonstrations SOFTWARE REVIEW Graph Paper Printer

  17. Reviews

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-07-01

    CD REVIEWS (346) Spectrum 7 Physics - Waves SOFTWARE REVIEW (347) Sound Packages BOOK REVIEW (350) Measured Tones, 2nd edition WEB WATCH (351) What’s the frequency, Kenneth? BOOK REVIEW (354) We know what you did last summer ... now do something better this summer

  18. Reviews

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-03-01

    CD-ROM REVIEWS SPECIAL: Multimedia CD-ROMs WEB WATCH: Medical imaging BOOK REVIEW: Understanding Science Lessons CD-ROM REVIEWS SPECIAL Multimedia CD-ROMs: what do they offer to enhance physics teaching? PEAR: Physics Exercises for Assessment and Revision GCSE Physics 1998 33 72 Contact: Europress WEB WATCH Medical imaging BOOK REVIEW Understanding Science Lessons

  19. Reference Man anatomical model

    SciTech Connect

    Cristy, M.

    1994-10-01

    The 70-kg Standard Man or Reference Man has been used in physiological models since at least the 1920s to represent adult males. It came into use in radiation protection in the late 1940s and was developed extensively during the 1950s and used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in its Publication 2 in 1959. The current Reference Man for Purposes of Radiation Protection is a monumental book published in 1975 by the ICRP as ICRP Publication 23. It has a wealth of information useful for radiation dosimetry, including anatomical and physiological data, gross and elemental composition of the body and organs and tissues of the body. The anatomical data includes specified reference values for an adult male and an adult female. Other reference values are primarily for the adult male. The anatomical data include much data on fetuses and children, although reference values are not established. There is an ICRP task group currently working on revising selected parts of the Reference Man document.

  20. Reaching the hard-to-reach: a systematic review of strategies for improving health and medical research with socially disadvantaged groups

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aims to review the literature regarding the barriers to sampling, recruitment, participation, and retention of members of socioeconomically disadvantaged groups in health research and strategies for increasing the amount of health research conducted with socially disadvantaged groups. Methods A systematic review with narrative synthesis was conducted. Searches of electronic databases Medline, PsychInfo, EMBASE, Social Science Index via Web of Knowledge and CINHAL were conducted for English language articles published up to May 2013. Qualitative and quantitative studies as well as literature reviews were included. Articles were included if they reported attempts to increase disadvantaged group participation in research, or the barriers to research with disadvantaged groups. Groups of interest were those described as socially, culturally or financially disadvantaged compared to the majority of society. Eligible articles were categorised according to five phases of research: 1) sampling, 2) recruitment and gaining consent, 3) data collection and measurement, 4) intervention delivery and uptake, and 5) retention and attrition. Results In total, 116 papers from 115 studies met inclusion criteria and 31 previous literature reviews were included. A comprehensive summation of the major barriers to working with various disadvantaged groups is provided, along with proposed strategies for addressing each of the identified types of barriers. Most studies of strategies to address the barriers were of a descriptive nature and only nine studies reported the results of randomised trials. Conclusions To tackle the challenges of research with socially disadvantaged groups, and increase their representation in health and medical research, researchers and research institutions need to acknowledge extended timeframes, plan for higher resourcing costs and operate via community partnerships. PMID:24669751

  1. A review of the Japanese species of the choragella-group of the genus Morophaga Herrich-Schäffer (Lepidoptera: Tineidae), with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Osada, Yohei; Hirowatari, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    The taxonomy of the Japanese species of the choragella-group of the genus Morophaga is reviewed. Previously, one species, Morophaga fasciculata Robinson, 1986, was recorded from Japan. In the present study, a second species, Morophaga plana, sp. nov., is described based on adult morphological characters. PMID:27395621

  2. Factors that Promote High Post-16 Participation of Some Minority Ethnic Groups in England: A Systematic Review of the UK-Based Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    See, Beng Huat; Torgerson, Carole; Gorard, Stephen; Ainsworth, Hannah; Low, Graham; Wright, Kath

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the article is to identify those factors that drive the high participation in immediate post-16 and higher education of some minority ethnic groups in the UK. What could we learn from these examples to encourage higher aspirations more generally? The article reports a summary of a formal and systematic review of 1678 studies dated 1997…

  3. A Review of Recent Research (2000-2008) on Applied Linguistics and Language Teaching with Specific Reference to L2 Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anton, Marta

    2011-01-01

    This review presents a broad picture of recent work on L2 Spanish in educational contexts. The thematic and geographic scope of the review is wide, in order to capture the diversity of learners and learning contexts of L2 Spanish, just two decades after teaching and learning the language gained impetus worldwide. Traditional second or foreign…

  4. Enterprise Reference Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickham, Grandin; Saile, Lynn; Havelka, Jacque; Fitts, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Johnson Space Center (JSC) offers two extensive libraries that contain journals, research literature and electronic resources. Searching capabilities are available to those individuals residing onsite or through a librarian s search. Many individuals have rich collections of references, but no mechanisms to share reference libraries across researchers, projects, or directorates exist. Likewise, information regarding which references are provided to which individuals is not available, resulting in duplicate requests, redundant labor costs and associated copying fees. In addition, this tends to limit collaboration between colleagues and promotes the establishment of individual, unshared silos of information The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) team has utilized a centralized reference management tool during the development, test, and operational phases of this project. The Enterprise Reference Library project expands the capabilities developed for IMM to address the above issues and enhance collaboration across JSC. Method: After significant market analysis for a multi-user reference management tool, no available commercial tool was found to meet this need, so a software program was built around a commercial tool, Reference Manager 12 by The Thomson Corporation. A use case approach guided the requirements development phase. The premise of the design is that individuals use their own reference management software and export to SharePoint when their library is incorporated into the Enterprise Reference Library. This results in a searchable user-specific library application. An accompanying share folder will warehouse the electronic full-text articles, which allows the global user community to access full -text articles. Discussion: An enterprise reference library solution can provide a multidisciplinary collection of full text articles. This approach improves efficiency in obtaining and storing reference material while greatly reducing labor, purchasing and

  5. I. Fundamental Practicum: Temperature Measurements of Falling Droplets, July, 1989. II. Industrial Practicum: Interaction and Effect of Adsorbed Organics on Reference Clays and Reservoir Rock, April, 1988. III. Apprenticeship Practicum: Studies of Group XIII Metal Inclusion Complexes, March, 1987

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Mark Richard

    The temperature of 225 μm decane droplets falling through a hot, quiescent, oxygen -free environment were measured using laser-induced exciplex fluorescence thermometry. The temperature of the droplets was found to increase approximately 0.42^ circC/^circC increase in the environment temperature as the environment temperature was increased to 250^circ C. Less than 10% evaporation of the droplets was observed at the highest environment temperatures. This represents one of the first successful applications of a remote-sensing technique for the temperature determination of droplets in a dynamic system. Industrial practicum. The industrial practicum report, entitled "Interaction and Effect of Adsorbed Organics on Reference Clays and Reservoir Rock," is a discussion of the measurement of the effect adsorbed organic material, especially from crude petroleum, has on the surface area, cation exchange capacity, and zeta potential of reference clay material and reservoir rock. In addition, the energetics of adsorption of a petroleum extract onto several reference clays and reservoir rock were measured using both flow and batch microcalorimetry. These results are very important in evaluating and understanding the wettability of reservoir rock and its impact on the recovery of crude oil from a petroleum reservoir. Apprenticeship practicum. "Studies of Group XIII Metal Inclusion Complexes" investigates the structure and dynamics of liquid inclusion complexes having the general formula (R_4N) (Al_2 Me_6I) cdot (C_6H_6) _{rm x}. ^1H and ^{13}C spin-lattice relaxation times, nuclear Overhauser enhancements, and molecular correlation times were measured as well as diffusion coefficients of the various species in solution. The dynamics of transfer between "guest" and free solvent molecules were measured using a variety of techniques. The inherent structure of liquid inclusion complexes as an ordered medium for homogeneous catalysis was studied using hydrogenation catalyzed by

  6. Review of Education in Mathematics, Data Science and Quantitative Disciplines: Report to the Group of Eight Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gavin

    2009-01-01

    The Reference Committee firmly shares the view that the state of the mathematical sciences and related quantitative disciplines in Australia has deteriorated to a dangerous level, and continues to deteriorate. Accordingly the author decided to structure this Report around a small number of recommendations, some long term and others to address…

  7. Ensuring Resident Competence: A Narrative Review of the Literature on Group Decision Making to Inform the Work of Clinical Competency Committees.

    PubMed

    Hauer, Karen E; Cate, Olle Ten; Boscardin, Christy K; Iobst, William; Holmboe, Eric S; Chesluk, Benjamin; Baron, Robert B; O'Sullivan, Patricia S

    2016-05-01

    Background The expectation for graduate medical education programs to ensure that trainees are progressing toward competence for unsupervised practice prompted requirements for a committee to make decisions regarding residents' progress, termed a clinical competency committee (CCC). The literature on the composition of these committees and how they share information and render decisions can inform the work of CCCs by highlighting vulnerabilities and best practices. Objective We conducted a narrative review of the literature on group decision making that can help characterize the work of CCCs, including how they are populated and how they use information. Methods English language studies of group decision making in medical education, psychology, and organizational behavior were used. Results The results highlighted 2 major themes. Group member composition showcased the value placed on the complementarity of members' experience and lessons they had learned about performance review through their teaching and committee work. Group processes revealed strengths and limitations in groups' understanding of their work, leader role, and information-sharing procedures. Time pressure was a threat to the quality of group work. Conclusions Implications of the findings include the risks for committees that arise with homogeneous membership, limitations to available resident performance information, and processes that arise through experience rather than deriving from a well-articulated purpose of their work. Recommendations are presented to maximize the effectiveness of CCC processes, including their membership and access to, and interpretation of, information to yield evidence-based, well-reasoned judgments. PMID:27168881

  8. The effect of group training on pregnancy-induced lumbopelvic pain: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized control trials.

    PubMed

    Fisseha, Berihu; Mishra, Prakash Kumar

    2016-02-01

    Since there is lack of up to date consensus exists as to whether group training is effective in improving lumbopelvic pain (LPP) after pregnancy, a review of the recent evidences is needed. To determine the effect of group exercise training for the management of LPP among pregnant women compared with usual antenatal care. An electronic database search for relevant randomized control trials published in English from 2006 to 2015 was conducted. Articles with outcome measures of self-reported LPP, visual analogue scale and sick leave due to LPP after pregnancy were included. Quality of the included articles was rated using Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale and the pooled effect of self-reported LPP was obtained by Review Manager (RevMan 5) software. Significant effect of group training was detected over usual antenatal care or no treatment with P=0.0035 (95% confidence interval, -0.2348 to -0.0044). The results of this systematic review proposed that group training reduces LPP significantly better than routine antenatal care for pregnant women suffered from LPP. PMID:26933655

  9. A Systematic Review of Training Interventions Addressing Sexual Violence against Marginalized At-Risk Groups of Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouta, Christiana; Pithara, Christalla; Zobnina, Anna; Apostolidou, Zoe; Christodoulou, Josie; Papadakaki, Maria; Chliaoutakis, Joannes

    2015-01-01

    Women from marginalized groups working in occupations such as domestic work are at increased risk for sexual violence. Scarce evidence exists about training interventions targeting such groups. The article aims to identify community and workplace-based training interventions aiming to increase capacity among marginalized at-risk women to deal with…

  10. 76 FR 54969 - Rate Increase Disclosure and Review: Definitions of “Individual Market” and “Small Group Market”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... PHS Act are derived from definitions of employer and employee welfare benefit plan in ERISA section 3... group health plan will exist at the individual employer level and not at the association level, in which... group health plan may exist at the association level. See DOL MEWA Guide (...

  11. WWC Review of the Article "Culture and the Interaction of Student Ethnicity with Reward Structure in Group Learning"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Culture and the Interaction of Student Ethnicity with Reward Structure in Group Learning" examined the effects of different reward systems used in group learning situations on the math skills of African-American and white students. The study analyzed data on 75 African-American and 57 white fourth- and fifth-grade students from urban schools in…

  12. Facilities removal working group

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This working group`s first objective is to identify major economic, technical, and regulatory constraints on operator practices and decisions relevant to offshore facilities removal. Then, the group will try to make recommendations as to regulatory and policy adjustments, additional research, or process improvements and/or technological advances, that may be needed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the removal process. The working group will focus primarily on issues dealing with Gulf of Mexico platform abandonments. In order to make the working group sessions as productive as possible, the Facilities Removal Working Group will focus on three topics that address a majority of the concerns and/or constraints relevant to facilities removal. The three areas are: (1) Explosive Severing and its Impact on Marine Life, (2) Pile and Conductor Severing, and (3) Deep Water Abandonments This paper will outline the current state of practice in the offshore industry, identifying current regulations and specific issues encountered when addressing each of the three main topics above. The intent of the paper is to highlight potential issues for panel discussion, not to provide a detailed review of all data relevant to the topic. Before each panel discussion, key speakers will review data and information to facilitate development and discussion of the main issues of each topic. Please refer to the attached agenda for the workshop format, key speakers, presentation topics, and panel participants. The goal of the panel discussions is to identify key issues for each of the three topics above. The working group will also make recommendations on how to proceed on these key issues.

  13. Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schodde, P.; Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Reviews 17 books and curriculum materials of interest to secondary science teachers. Topics include plant science, pollution, fishes, science investigations, general zoology, neurobiology, electronics, and the environment. (MLH)

  14. A Group-Oriented Contingency Management Program: A Review of Research on the Good Behavior Game and Implications for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tankersley, Melody

    1995-01-01

    Research on a team game designed to reinforce positive target behaviors is reviewed. Classroom organization, reinforcement criteria, when and how long to play the game, and reinforcement for winning teams are discussed, as are two variants on the original game. The game is found to be highly effective in reducing talking and out-of-seat behavior.…

  15. Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Reviews three computer software packages for Apple II computers. Includes "Simulation of Hemoglobin Function,""Solution Equilibrium Problems," and "Thin-Layer Chromatography." Contains ratings of ease of use, subject matter content, pedagogic value, and student reaction according to two separate reviewers for each program. (CW)

  16. Reviews

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-09-01

    CD-ROM REVIEWS (449) It's Physics Furry Elephant: Electricity Explained BOOK REVIEWS (450) What Are the Chances? Voodoo Deaths, Office Gossip and Other Adventures in Probability Dictionary of Mechanics: A handbook for teachers and students Intermediate 2 Physics PLACES TO VISIT (452) Spaceguard Centre WEB WATCH (455) Risk

  17. Reviews

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-01-01

    BOOK REVIEWS (99) Complete A-Z Physics Handbook Science Magic in the Kitchen The Science of Cooking Science Experiments You Can Eat WEB WATCH (101) These journal themes are pasta joke Microwave oven Web links CD REVIEW (104) Electricity and Magnetism, KS3 Big Science Comics

  18. Fifty years of Brazilian Dental Materials Group: scientific contributions of dental materials field evaluated by systematic review

    PubMed Central

    ROSA, Wellington Luiz de Oliveira; SILVA, Tiago Machado; LIMA, Giana da Silveira; SILVA, Adriana Fernandes; PIVA, Evandro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective A systematic review was conducted to analyze Brazilian scientific and technological production related to the dental materials field over the past 50 years. Material and Methods This study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (Prisma) statement. Searches were performed until December 2014 in six databases: MedLine (PubMed), Scopus, LILACS, IBECS, BBO, and the Cochrane Library. Additionally, the Brazilian patent database (INPI - Instituto Nacional de Propriedade Industrial) was screened in order to get an overview of Brazilian technological development in the dental materials field. Two reviewers independently analyzed the documents. Only studies and patents related to dental materials were included in this review. Data regarding the material category, dental specialty, number of documents and patents, filiation countries, and the number of citations were tabulated and analyzed in Microsoft Office Excel (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington, United States). Results A total of 115,806 studies and 53 patents were related to dental materials and were included in this review. Brazil had 8% affiliation in studies related to dental materials, and the majority of the papers published were related to dental implants (1,137 papers), synthetic resins (681 papers), dental cements (440 papers), dental alloys (392 papers) and dental adhesives (361 papers). The Brazilian technological development with patented dental materials was smaller than the scientific production. The most patented type of material was dental alloys (11 patents), followed by dental implants (8 patents) and composite resins (7 patents). Conclusions Dental materials science has had a substantial number of records, demonstrating an important presence in scientific and technological development of dentistry. In addition, it is important to approximate the relationship between academia and industry to expand the technological development in

  19. Library Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Constance; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Seven articles on library reference services highlight reference obsolescence in academic libraries, major studies of unobtrusive reference tests, methods for evaluating reference desk performance, reference interview evaluation, problems of reference desk control, online searching by end users, and reference collection development in…

  20. Imaging surveillance programs for women at high breast cancer risk in Europe: Are women from ethnic minority groups adequately included? (Review).

    PubMed

    Belkić, Karen; Cohen, Miri; Wilczek, Brigitte; Andersson, Sonia; Berman, Anne H; Márquez, Marcela; Vukojević, Vladana; Mints, Miriam

    2015-09-01

    Women from ethnic minority groups, including immigrants and refugees are reported to have low breast cancer (BC) screening rates. Active, culturally-sensitive outreach is vital for increasing participation of these women in BC screening programs. Women at high BC risk and who belong to an ethnic minority group are of special concern. Such women could benefit from ongoing trials aimed at optimizing screening strategies for early BC detection among those at increased BC risk. Considering the marked disparities in BC survival in Europe and its enormous and dynamic ethnic diversity, these issues are extremely timely for Europe. We systematically reviewed the literature concerning European surveillance studies that had imaging in the protocol and that targeted women at high BC risk. The aim of the present review was thereby to assess the likelihood that women at high BC risk from minority ethnic groups were adequately included in these surveillance programs. Twenty-seven research groups in Europe reported on their imaging surveillance programs for women at increased BC risk. The benefit of strategies such as inclusion of magnetic resonance imaging and/or more intensive screening was clearly documented for the participating women at increased BC risk. However, none of the reports indicated that sufficient outreach was performed to ensure that women at increased BC risk from minority ethnic groups were adequately included in these surveillance programs. On the basis of this systematic review, we conclude that the specific screening needs of ethnic minority women at increased BC risk have not yet been met in Europe. Active, culturally-sensitive outreach is needed to identify minority women at increased BC risk and to facilitate their inclusion in on-going surveillance programs. It is anticipated that these efforts would be most effective if coordinated with the development of European-wide, population-based approaches to BC screening. PMID:26134040

  1. Progressive changes in cutaneous trigger zones for sensation referred to a phantom hand: a case report and review with implications for cortical reorganization.

    PubMed

    Doetsch, G S

    1997-01-01

    The dominant model of cortical plasticity induced by peripheral denervation suggests that a physiologically-reorganized cortical area can acquire new perceptual meaning, including a change in the peripheral referral of sensation. An alternative view is that such an area may retain its former perceptual significance, even though it becomes responsive to new peripheral inputs. To examine evidence related to this issue, a clinical case is presented documenting the time course of changes in phantom limb sensation in a patient with accidental amputation of a hand. About 24 h after injury, a vivid phantom hand was present; tactile stimulation revealed cutaneous trigger zones on the arm, stimulation of which elicited sensation referred to specific fingers of the phantom. While the phantom hand percept remained fairly stable over time, the trigger zones expanded progressively in size during the next 1-8 weeks but had contracted and changed location considerably about one year later. At all times studied, the trigger zones were topographically related to specific fingers and other parts of the phantom hand. The implications of these and other recent clinical findings for cortical reorganization are discussed, and the following tentative conclusions are drawn. (1) A phantom percept is mediated by central neural networks which remain functionally intact after amputation. (2) Cutaneous trigger-zones mapped in humans correspond to novel receptive fields of cortical neurons mapped in animals following peripheral denervation. (3) Cortical reorganization induced by denervation does not produce a major change in perceptual meaning or peripheral reference. In the present case, stimulation of new trigger zones (receptive fields) on the patient's arm presumably activated a reorganized cortical hand area but evoked sensation still referred to the (now missing) hand. Hence, physiological cortical remapping is not necessarily accompanied by functional respecification. PMID:9241724

  2. Review and redescription of species in the Oecetis avara group, with the description of 15 new species (Trichoptera, Leptoceridae)

    PubMed Central

    Blahnik, Roger J.; Holzenthal, Ralph W.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The O. avara group of Oecetis is formally defined to include 4 described species, O. avara (Banks), O. disjuncta (Banks), O. elata Denning & Sykora, and O. metlacenis Bueno-Soria, and 15 new species. Oecetis marquesi Bueno-Soria, previously considered a member of the O. avara group, is treated as incertae sedis to species group, but is also redescribed and treated in the current work. New species described here (with their respective distributions) include: O. acciptrina (Costa Rica, Panama, Ecuador), O. agosta (Mexico), O. angularis (Guatemala to Ecuador), O. apache (SW USA), O. campana (Ecuador), O. constricta (Mexico to Ecuador, Venezuela, and Trinidad), O. houghtoni (North America), O. maritza (Costa Rica), O. mexicana (Mexico to Ecuador), O. patula (Guatemala, Nicaragua), O. protrusa (Mexico to Ecuador), O. sordida (Mexico, USA, Canada), O. tumida (Costa Rica), O. uncata (Costa Rica), and O. verrucula (Mexico to Costa Rica). A key to the species is also provided. PMID:24574849

  3. Review and redescription of species in the Oecetis avara group, with the description of 15 new species (Trichoptera, Leptoceridae).

    PubMed

    Blahnik, Roger J; Holzenthal, Ralph W

    2014-01-01

    The O. avara group of Oecetis is formally defined to include 4 described species, O. avara (Banks), O. disjuncta (Banks), O. elata Denning & Sykora, and O. metlacenis Bueno-Soria, and 15 new species. Oecetis marquesi Bueno-Soria, previously considered a member of the O. avara group, is treated as incertae sedis to species group, but is also redescribed and treated in the current work. New species described here (with their respective distributions) include: O. acciptrina (Costa Rica, Panama, Ecuador), O. agosta (Mexico), O. angularis (Guatemala to Ecuador), O. apache (SW USA), O. campana (Ecuador), O. constricta (Mexico to Ecuador, Venezuela, and Trinidad), O. houghtoni (North America), O. maritza (Costa Rica), O. mexicana (Mexico to Ecuador), O. patula (Guatemala, Nicaragua), O. protrusa (Mexico to Ecuador), O. sordida (Mexico, USA, Canada), O. tumida (Costa Rica), O. uncata (Costa Rica), and O. verrucula (Mexico to Costa Rica). A key to the species is also provided. PMID:24574849

  4. The Impact of Antenatal Psychological Group Interventions on Psychological Well-Being: A Systematic Review of the Qualitative and Quantitative Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Wadephul, Franziska; Jones, Catriona; Jomeen, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Depression, anxiety and stress in the perinatal period can have serious, long-term consequences for women, their babies and their families. Over the last two decades, an increasing number of group interventions with a psychological approach have been developed to improve the psychological well-being of pregnant women. This systematic review examines interventions targeting women with elevated symptoms of, or at risk of developing, perinatal mental health problems, with the aim of understanding the successful and unsuccessful features of these interventions. We systematically searched online databases to retrieve qualitative and quantitative studies on psychological antenatal group interventions. A total number of 19 papers describing 15 studies were identified; these included interventions based on cognitive behavioural therapy, interpersonal therapy and mindfulness. Quantitative findings suggested beneficial effects in some studies, particularly for women with high baseline symptoms. However, overall there is insufficient quantitative evidence to make a general recommendation for antenatal group interventions. Qualitative findings suggest that women and their partners experience these interventions positively in terms of psychological wellbeing and providing reassurance of their ‘normality’. This review suggests that there are some benefits to attending group interventions, but further research is required to fully understand their successful and unsuccessful features. PMID:27417620

  5. Joint Working Group-39, Manufacturing Technology Subworking Group-F, remote handling and automation

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, R.D.

    1995-02-01

    The terms of reference were reviewed and continue to encompass the scope of activities of the SUBWOG. No revisions to the terms of reference were proposed. The list of site contacts who should receive copies of SUBWOG correspondence and meeting minutes was reviewed and updated. Documents exchanged related to the meeting include: Minutes of the sixth SUBOG 39F meeting; transactions of the fifth topical meeting on robotics and remote handling; data on manipulators was forwarded to LLNL from the robotics group at AEA Harwell; and the specifications of the duct remediation robot from the Rocky Flats Plant.

  6. The work of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Food Additives (EURL) and its support for the authorisation process of feed additives in the European Union: a review

    PubMed Central

    von Holst, Christoph; Robouch, Piotr; Bellorini, Stefano; de la Huebra, María José González; Ezerskis, Zigmas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper describes the operation of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Feed Additives (EURL) and its role in the authorisation procedure of feed additives in the European Union. Feed additives are authorised according to Regulation (EC) No. 1831/2003, which introduced a completely revised authorisation procedure and also established the EURL. The regulations authorising feed additives contain conditions of use such as legal limits of the feed additives, which require the availability of a suitable method of analysis for official control purposes under real world conditions. It is the task of the EURL to evaluate the suitability of analytical methods as proposed by the industry for this purpose. Moreover, the paper shows that one of the major challenges is the huge variety of the methodology applied in feed additive analysis, thus requiring expertise in quite different analytical areas. In order to cope with this challenge, the EURL is supported by a network of national reference laboratories (NRLs) and only the merged knowledge of all NRLs allows for a scientifically sound assessment of the analytical methods. PMID:26540604

  7. Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenleaf, Floyd; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reviews eight textbooks, readers, and books. Topics include Latin America, colonial America, the Carolinians, women in French textbooks, the Vikings, the Soviet Union, nineteenth-century Black America, and Ernest Rutherford. (TRS)

  8. Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Reviewed are two computer software packages: "Introduction to Spectroscopy, IR, NMR & CMR," and "ASYSTANT" (a mathematical and statistical analysis software tool). Discussed are the functions, strengths, weaknesses, hardware requirements, components, level, and cost for each package. (CW)

  9. Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides a review of both the Apple and IBM versions of ENZPACK, a software package which is designed to assist in the teaching of enzyme kinetics in courses where this topic is treated in some depth. (TW)

  10. Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Reviews four software packages: (1) Agents of Infection; (2) The Earth Science Series; (3) Investigating Electric Fields; and (4) Aquatic Biology-PC. Describes the hardware needed, bibliographic data and specific details of the programs themselves. (CW)

  11. Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Reviews four software packages available for IBM PC or Apple II. Includes "Graphical Analysis III"; "Space Max: Space Station Construction Simulation"; "Guesstimation"; and "Genetic Engineering Toolbox." Focuses on each packages' strengths in a high school context. (CW)

  12. Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides reviews of four computer software packages designed for use in science education. Describes courseware dealing with a variety of tips for teaching physics concepts, chemical reactions in an aqueous solution, mitosis and meiosis, and photosynthesis. (TW)

  13. Review on the Oxidation of Metallic Thermal Sprayed Coatings: A Case Study with Reference to Rare-Earth Permanent Magnetic Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Jo Ann; Berndt, Christopher C.

    2013-10-01

    Thermal spray fabrication of rare-earth permanent magnetic coatings (PMCs) presents potential manufacturing routes for micro-magnetic devices. Despite this potential, thermal spray of PMCs is still not widely explored due to oxidation concerns. It was established that oxidation leads to the loss of ferromagnetic phases in these materials and results in deterioration of magnetic performance. Although this review focuses on a specific class of material, i.e., magnetic materials, there is significant technical crossover to all classes of feedstocks that are employed in thermal spray processing. The oxidation mechanisms and the associated influencing factors are explored in this work to implement effective processing techniques during the deposition process. This paper reviews the various stages and mechanisms of oxidation in thermal spray processes. The factors that influence the extent of oxidation depend on the type of oxidation that is dominant and rely on the type of spray system, powder injection position, and the particle size of feedstock. Among the aspects that are reviewed include the oxygen-fuel ratio for high velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF), current intensity, gas flow rate, particle size, spray distance, and substrate temperature. Protection strategies to minimize oxidation in thermal spray processes, such as gas shrouding and shielding, are presented.

  14. Is Early Experience Destiny? Review of Research on Long-Term Outcomes following International Adoption with Special Reference to the British Chinese Adoption Study

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Margaret; Rushton, Alan; Simmonds, John

    2016-01-01

    The pathway from adverse early experience to adulthood for internationally adopted children is complex in identifying key influences, impacts, and outcomes. This review arose from the authors' involvement in the British Chinese Adoption Study, a recent outcomes study that explored the links between early orphanage care, adoptive experiences, and midadulthood. It differs from previous reviews in focusing on a greater length of time since adoption. Both quantitative and qualitative studies were included to allow for examination of a fuller range of adult-related outcomes rather than mental health scores alone. The sampling, methods, and results of reviewed articles are summarised and a critical commentary is provided. Despite methodological differences and identified strengths and weaknesses, conclusions are drawn on the basis of the evidence available. Special attention is paid to the interpretation of negative outcomes. Findings identify areas that should be explored further in order to gain a fuller understanding of midlife outcomes of people who experienced a poor start in life followed by international adoption. Such studies help in refining lifespan developmental theories. PMID:27247964

  15. Is Early Experience Destiny? Review of Research on Long-Term Outcomes following International Adoption with Special Reference to the British Chinese Adoption Study.

    PubMed

    Grant, Margaret; Rushton, Alan; Simmonds, John

    2016-01-01

    The pathway from adverse early experience to adulthood for internationally adopted children is complex in identifying key influences, impacts, and outcomes. This review arose from the authors' involvement in the British Chinese Adoption Study, a recent outcomes study that explored the links between early orphanage care, adoptive experiences, and midadulthood. It differs from previous reviews in focusing on a greater length of time since adoption. Both quantitative and qualitative studies were included to allow for examination of a fuller range of adult-related outcomes rather than mental health scores alone. The sampling, methods, and results of reviewed articles are summarised and a critical commentary is provided. Despite methodological differences and identified strengths and weaknesses, conclusions are drawn on the basis of the evidence available. Special attention is paid to the interpretation of negative outcomes. Findings identify areas that should be explored further in order to gain a fuller understanding of midlife outcomes of people who experienced a poor start in life followed by international adoption. Such studies help in refining lifespan developmental theories. PMID:27247964

  16. Participation of racial/ethnic groups in clinical trials and race-related labeling: a review of new molecular entities approved 1995-1999.

    PubMed Central

    Evelyn, B.; Toigo, T.; Banks, D.; Pohl, D.; Gray, K.; Robins, B.; Ernat, J.

    2001-01-01

    Few recent data are available from formal evaluations of approved new drug applications to address perceptions that racial and ethnic groups are under-represented in clinical trials of new drugs. This study reviews racial and ethnic group participation in clinical trials and race-related labeling for new molecular entities approved during a five-year period by the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER). This was a retrospective review of FDA medical officers' reviews of clinical trial protocols and product labeling for 185 new molecular entities (NME's) approved by CDER between January 1,1995, and December 31, 1999. Enrollment data were obtained from the reviews and tabulated according to race/ethnicity. The approved product labeling was searched for statements related to product testing in various racial/ethnic groups. All data were compiled and analyzed using Microsoft Access. This study quantifies the participation of racial/ethnic groups in clinical trials by year and therapeutic category. Additionally, the study categorizes labeling based on the types of effects described as related to race/ethnicity. Racial and ethnic groups appear to participate in clinical trials to varying degrees. African Americans participated in trials to the greatest extent; however, their participation steadily declined from 12% in 1995 to 6% in 1999. Among trials known to be conducted only in the U.S., African-American participation is comparable to their representation in the U.S. population. In all cases, participants designated as Hispanic appear to be far below their representation in the population. Some differences in participation for all racial and ethnic groups are seen when comparisons from year-to-year or among drug classes are made. Labeling for 45% (84/185) of the products contained some statement about race, although in only 8% (15/185) were differences related to race described. Fifty percent (50%) of the effects were

  17. Quantifying greenhouse gas mitigation potential of cropland management practices: A review of the GRA croplands research group greenhouse gas network

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multi-national greenhouse gas (GHG) flux networks play a central role facilitating model development and verification while concurrently identifying critical research needs. In 2012, a network was established within Component 1 of the Global Research Alliance (GRA) Croplands Research Group. The ne...

  18. A Meta-Analytic Review of Studies of the Effectiveness of Small-Group Learning Methods on Statistics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalaian, Sema A.; Kasim, Rafa M.

    2014-01-01

    This meta-analytic study focused on the quantitative integration and synthesis of the accumulated pedagogical research in undergraduate statistics education literature. These accumulated research studies compared the academic achievement of students who had been instructed using one of the various forms of small-group learning methods to those who…

  19. 32 CFR 865.101 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false References. 865.101 Section 865.101 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ORGANIZATION AND MISSION-GENERAL PERSONNEL REVIEW BOARDS Air Force Discharge Review Board § 865.101 References. (a) Title 10 U.S.C.,...

  20. Usenet as a Reference Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Tim W.

    1995-01-01

    Describes Usenet, an Internet service that provides access to computerized discussion groups, and examines how it can be used as a reference tool. Topics include subject groups, appropriate questions, exhausting local resources before posting, explaining Usenet to patrons, sending the question, and evaluating the answer. (AEF)

  1. Celestial Reference Frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Christopher S.

    2013-09-01

    Concepts and Background: This paper gives an overview of modern celestial reference frames as realized at radio frequencies using the Very Long baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technique. We discuss basic celestial reference frame concepts, desired properties, and uses. We review the networks of antennas used for this work. We briefly discuss the history of the science of astrometry touching upon the discovery of precession, proper motion, nutation, and parallax, and the field of radio astronomy. Building Celestial Frames: Next, we discuss the multi-step process of building a celestial frame: First candidate sources are identified based on point-like properties from single dish radio telescopes surveys. Second, positions are refined using connected element interferometers such as the Very Large Array, and the ATCA. Third, positions of approximately milli-arcsecond (mas) accuracy are determined using intercontinental VLBI surveys. Fourth, sub-mas positions are determined by multiyear programs using intercontinental VLBI. These sub-mas sets of positions are then verified by multiple teams in preparation for release to non-specialists in the form of an official IAU International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). The process described above has until recently been largely restricted to work at S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz). However, in the last decade sub-mas work has expanded to include celestial frames at K-band (24 GHz), Ka-band (32 GHz), and Q-band (43 GHz). While these frames currently have the disadvantage of far smaller data sets, the astrophysical quality of the sources themselves improves at these higher frequencies and thus make these frequencies attractive for realizations of celestial reference frames. Accordingly, we review progress at these higher frequency bands. Path to the Future: We discuss prospects for celestial reference frames over the next decade. We present an example of an error budget for astrometric VLBI and discuss the budget's use as a tool for

  2. 32 CFR 861.1 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false References. 861.1 Section 861.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORTATION QUALITY AND SAFETY REVIEW PROGRAM § 861.1 References. The following references apply to this...

  3. Reference Expertise: Paradigms, Strategies, and Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrank, Lawrence J.

    1993-01-01

    Explores the significance of expert system design for library reference services and library education, focusing on model logic and modeling for query analysis. The approaches of some graduate library schools are reviewed. Appendices included a decision-support module, a reference module component, and a typology of queries and reference tools.…

  4. Reference Frames and Relativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Clifford

    1989-01-01

    Stresses the importance of a reference frame in mechanics. Shows the Galilean transformation in terms of relativity theory. Discusses accelerated reference frames and noninertial reference frames. Provides examples of reference frames with diagrams. (YP)

  5. Taxonomic review of catsharks of the Scyliorhinus haeckelii group, with the description of a new species (Chondrichthyes: Carcharhiniformes: Scyliorhinidae).

    PubMed

    Soares, Karla D A; Gomes, Ulisses L; Carvalho, Marcelo R De

    2016-01-01

    Sharks of the genus Scyliorhinus from the southwestern Atlantic are reviewed; identification problems and taxonomic misinformation given in the literature are rectified. After extensive examination of the external and internal morphology of specimens collected mostly off southeastern and southern Brazil, Scyliorhinus besnardi Springer & Sadowsky, 1970 is placed in the synonymy of S. haeckelii (Miranda Ribeiro, 1907), which is thoroughly redescribed. Additionally, a new species, Scyliorhinus cabofriensis, sp. nov., is described from the state of Rio de Janeiro, distinguished from all southwestern Atlantic congeners by its color pattern, clasper and neurocranial morphology, and proportional measurements. A key to Scyliorhinus species occurring in the southwestern Atlantic is also provided. PMID:27395851

  6. A critical review of the research literature on Six Sigma, Lean and StuderGroup's Hardwiring Excellence in the United States: the need to demonstrate and communicate the effectiveness of transformation strategies in healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Vest, Joshua R; Gamm, Larry D

    2009-01-01

    Background U.S. healthcare organizations are confronted with numerous and varied transformational strategies promising improvements along all dimensions of quality and performance. This article examines the peer-reviewed literature from the U.S. for evidence of effectiveness among three current popular transformational strategies: Six Sigma, Lean/Toyota Production System, and Studer's Hardwiring Excellence. Methods The English language health, healthcare management, and organizational science literature (up to December 2007) indexed in Medline, Web of Science, ABI/Inform, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and ERIC was reviewed for studies on the aforementioned transformation strategies in healthcare settings. Articles were included if they: appeared in a peer-reviewed journal; described a specific intervention; were not classified as a pilot study; provided quantitative data; and were not review articles. Nine references on Six Sigma, nine on Lean/Toyota Production System, and one on StuderGroup meet the study's eligibility criteria. Results The reviewed studies universally concluded the implementations of these transformation strategies were successful in improving a variety of healthcare related processes and outcomes. Additionally, the existing literature reflects a wide application of these transformation strategies in terms of both settings and problems. However, despite these positive features, the vast majority had methodological limitations that might undermine the validity of the results. Common features included: weak study designs, inappropriate analyses, and failures to rule out alternative hypotheses. Furthermore, frequently absent was any attention to changes in organizational culture or substantial evidence of lasting effects from these efforts. Conclusion Despite the current popularity of these strategies, few studies meet the inclusion criteria for this review. Furthermore, each could have been improved substantially in order to ensure the validity of the

  7. Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma and Occupational Exposure to Agricultural Pesticide Chemical Groups and Active Ingredients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Schinasi, Leah; Leon, Maria E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes results from a systematic review and a series of meta-analyses of nearly three decades worth of epidemiologic research on the relationship between non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and occupational exposure to agricultural pesticide active ingredients and chemical groups. Estimates of associations of NHL with 21 pesticide chemical groups and 80 active ingredients were extracted from 44 papers, all of which reported results from analyses of studies conducted in high-income countries. Random effects meta-analyses showed that phenoxy herbicides, carbamate insecticides, organophosphorus insecticides and the active ingredient lindane, an organochlorine insecticide, were positively associated with NHL. In a handful of papers, associations between pesticides and NHL subtypes were reported; B cell lymphoma was positively associated with phenoxy herbicides and the organophosphorus herbicide glyphosate. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was positively associated with phenoxy herbicide exposure. Despite compelling evidence that NHL is associated with certain chemicals, this review indicates the need for investigations of a larger variety of pesticides in more geographic areas, especially in low- and middle-income countries, which, despite producing a large portion of the world’s agriculture, were missing in the literature that were reviewed. PMID:24762670

  8. A Systematic Review of Therapeutic Alliance, Group Cohesion, Empathy, and Goal Consensus/Collaboration in Psychotherapeutic Interventions in Cancer: Uncommon Factors?

    PubMed Central

    Schnur, Julie B.; Montgomery, Guy H.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of four empirically supported therapeutic relationship factors (therapeutic alliance, empathy, goal consensus/collaboration, and group cohesion) on the outcome of psychotherapeutic interventions conducted with individuals living with cancer were systematically reviewed. PubMed, PsycINFO, and CINAHL were searched from their inception through November 13, 2008. Studies of psychotherapeutic interventions targeted to individuals living with cancer, which also empirically assessed the association between any of these therapeutic relationship factors and psychotherapy outcome were included in the review (8 of 742 papers initially reviewed). Information on study methodology and results were abstracted independently by the authors using a standardized form. Results indicated that therapist-rated rapport and group cohesion were significantly related to positive psychotherapeutic outcomes. No studies examined empathy. The literature on collaboration was mixed, but showed some support for increased collaboration being related to positive therapeutic outcomes. Overall the current literature on the role of therapeutic relationship factors in the context of individuals living with cancer is scant, and much more research is needed to determine the overall contribution of these four relationship elements to the outcomes of psychotherapeutic interventions for individuals living with cancer. Results of such studies could have important clinical and research implications. PMID:20006414

  9. The International Scientific Working Group on Tick-Borne Encephalitis (ISW TBE): Review of 17 years of activity and commitment.

    PubMed

    Kunze, Ursula

    2016-04-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) has been a growing public health problem in Europe and other parts of the world for the past 20 years. In 1999, in order to encourage the control of TBE, international experts created a new body: The International Scientific Working Group on Tick-Borne Encephalitis (ISW-TBE). This Working Group has been composed of internationally recognized scientific experts from tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEv)-endemic and non-endemic regions with extensive personal expertise in the field and a high level of commitment to improve the knowledge of TBE and to increase the public awareness of TBE. Since the foundation of the Working Group, ISW-TBE members meet annually. Every meeting is dedicated to a specific topic, and since 2004 a yearly conference report has been published to inform the scientific community about the latest developments. Among the specific issues that have been extensively discussed over the years were the following: clinical aspects of the disease, TBE in children and golden agers, epidemiology, possible causes for the increase in TBE incidence in Europe, TBE and awareness, TBE and travel, (low) vaccination rates, and the cooperation with the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). This paper gives an overview of the most important activities and achievements of the ISW-TBE over the past 17 years. PMID:26795231

  10. FIFA 11+: an effective programme to prevent football injuries in various player groups worldwide—a narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Bizzini, Mario; Dvorak, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, FIFA promoted and disseminated the FIFA 11+ injury prevention programme worldwide. Developed and studied by the FIFA Medical Assessment and Research Centre (F-MARC), the programme was based on a randomised controlled study and one countrywide campaign in amateur football that significantly reduced injuries and healthcare costs. Since the FIFA 11+ launch, key publications have confirmed the preventive effects of the programme and have evaluated its performance effects in female as well as male amateur football players. Furthermore, implementation strategies of this prevention programme have also been studied. The goal of this narrative review was to summarise the available scientific evidence about the FIFA 11+ programme. While FIFA continues to disseminate and implement FIFA 11+ among its Member Associations, adaptations of the injury prevention programme for children and referees have been developed and are currently being evaluated. PMID:25878073

  11. Venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for acute respiratory failure : A clinical review from an international group of experts.

    PubMed

    Fan, Eddy; Gattinoni, Luciano; Combes, Alain; Schmidt, Matthieu; Peek, Giles; Brodie, Dan; Muller, Thomas; Morelli, Andrea; Ranieri, V Marco; Pesenti, Antonio; Brochard, Laurent; Hodgson, Carol; Van Kiersbilck, Cecile; Roch, Antoine; Quintel, Michael; Papazian, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    Despite expensive life-sustaining interventions delivered in the ICU, mortality and morbidity in patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF) remain unacceptably high. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has emerged as a promising intervention that may provide more efficacious supportive care to these patients. Improvements in technology have made ECMO safer and easier to use, allowing for the potential of more widespread application in patients with ARF. A greater appreciation of the complications associated with the placement of an artificial airway and mechanical ventilation has led clinicians and researchers to seek viable alternatives to providing supportive care in these patients. Thus, this review will summarize the current knowledge regarding the use of venovenous (VV)-ECMO for ARF and describe some of the recent controversies in the field, such as mechanical ventilation, anticoagulation and transfusion therapy, and ethical concerns in patients supported with VV-ECMO. PMID:27007108

  12. FIFA 11+: an effective programme to prevent football injuries in various player groups worldwide-a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Bizzini, Mario; Dvorak, Jiri

    2015-05-01

    In 2009, FIFA promoted and disseminated the FIFA 11+ injury prevention programme worldwide. Developed and studied by the FIFA Medical Assessment and Research Centre (F-MARC), the programme was based on a randomised controlled study and one countrywide campaign in amateur football that significantly reduced injuries and healthcare costs. Since the FIFA 11+ launch, key publications have confirmed the preventive effects of the programme and have evaluated its performance effects in female as well as male amateur football players. Furthermore, implementation strategies of this prevention programme have also been studied. The goal of this narrative review was to summarise the available scientific evidence about the FIFA 11+ programme. While FIFA continues to disseminate and implement FIFA 11+ among its Member Associations, adaptations of the injury prevention programme for children and referees have been developed and are currently being evaluated. PMID:25878073

  13. Breakthrough pain and its treatment: critical review and recommendations of IOPS (Italian Oncologic Pain Survey) expert group.

    PubMed

    Mercadante, Sebastiano; Marchetti, Paolo; Cuomo, Arturo; Mammucari, Massimo; Caraceni, Augusto

    2016-02-01

    Controversies exist about the definition and epidemiology of breakthrough cancer pain (BTcP), the pharmacological treatment options, drug dosing, and how to select the medications for BTcP among the new fentanyl products. Existing data were critically evaluated to provide recommendations by an expert group. An algorithm to diagnose BTcP should be used followed by a careful assessment. Fentanyl products provide efficacy and rapidity of action to counteract the temporal pattern of BTcP. The doses of opioids used for background pain should guide the choice of the doses of fentanyl products. The choice of fentanyl products should be based on individual clinical conditions. PMID:26438145

  14. A retrospective review of cytogenetic studies on methyl isocyanate with special reference to the Bhopal gas tragedy: is the next generation also at risk?

    PubMed

    Samarth, Ravindra M; Gandhi, Puneet; Maudar, Kewal K

    2013-06-01

    The world's worst industrial disaster, at Union Carbide, Bhopal, India, took place on 2-3 December 1984, leading to the leakage of poisonous methyl-isocyanate into the environment, causing thousands of deaths, pregnancy loss and for some, incapacitation for life. More than a quarter of a century later, the Indian Council of Medical Research undertook to redefine the abysmal consequences of the toxic gas exposure on the exposed population. This invigorated the interest of scientific community in the evaluation of the long-term effects, with reference to cytogenetic parameters. The thrust area was identified in terms of genetic disorders, low birth weight, developmental/growth disorders and congenital malformations. Also the impact on epigenetic factors, which may have contributed to variations in the functional expression of genes, was not negated, stimulating intense scientific research on in utero exposure and the progeny of the exposed population. To accomplish this mammoth task, molecular cytogenetic investigations must be undertaken in conjunction with conventional cytogenetics, using techniques such as FISH, Immuno-FISH, SKY and SNP analysis, to build up a cytogenetic database of the surviving population. PMID:23857370

  15. Hepatitis with special reference to dogs. A review on the pathogenesis and infectious etiologies, including unpublished results of recent own studies.

    PubMed

    Boomkens, S Y; Penning, L C; Egberink, H F; van den Ingh, T S G A M; Rothuizen, J

    2004-09-01

    The causes of hepatitis in dogs are mostly unknown. Known causes of canine hepatitis are infectious (CAV-1), toxic (e.g. aflatoxin), and metabolic (copper accumulation). In order to understand the unknown causes, research in this field is necessary. Despite the marked progress in the knowledge on viral causes for human hepatitis, the involvement of infectious agents in the pathogenesis of hepatitis in the dog is still largely unknown. It is, like in human hepatitis, very likely that more than one causative infectious agent may cause hepatitis in the dog. This review presents the various forms of hepatitis in the dog, the known infectious and non-infectious causes of canine hepatitis, the infectious causes of hepatitis in man and other animals, and finally our recent infection and molecular studies to investigate possible infectious causes of canine hepatitis. PMID:15559391

  16. [Cutaneous administration of liposomes--a review of the literature with special reference to findings from keratinocyte cultures, animal experiments and clinical studies].

    PubMed

    Bonnekoh, B; Mahrle, G

    1990-01-01

    Recent findings regarding the topical application of liposomes are reviewed under 3 headings: (1) keratinocyte cultures, (2) animal experiments, and (3) clinical studies. Under cell culturing conditions, liposomes are able to get into direct contact with living keratinocytes--just as in cutaneous application when the barrier of the horny layer is missing (i.e. in case of superficial skin defects or unkeratinized mucocutaneoaus surfaces). Under these circumstances, keratinocytes show liposomal alterations of the cell structure, proliferation, and lipid fluidity. Animal experiments and clinical studies have pointed out that, in comparison with a conventional formulation, a liposomal way of application can enhance the penetration of various substances as well as their toposelective enrichment in the skin, since the dermal-vascular absorption is diminished. PMID:2183509

  17. Review: Groundwater flow and transport modeling of karst aquifers, with particular reference to the North Coast Limestone aquifer system of Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemizadeh, Reza; Hellweger, Ferdinand; Butscher, Christoph; Padilla, Ingrid; Vesper, Dorothy; Field, Malcolm; Alshawabkeh, Akram

    2013-01-01

    Karst systems have a high degree of heterogeneity and anisotropy, which makes them behave very differently from other aquifers. Slow seepage through the rock matrix and fast flow through conduits and fractures result in a high variation in spring response to precipitation events. Contaminant storage occurs in the rock matrix and epikarst, but contaminant transport occurs mostly along preferential pathways that are typically inaccessible locations, which makes modeling of karst systems challenging. Computer models for understanding and predicting hydraulics and contaminant transport in aquifers make assumptions about the distribution and hydraulic properties of geologic features that may not always apply to karst aquifers. This paper reviews the basic concepts, mathematical descriptions, and modeling approaches for karst systems. The North Coast Limestone aquifer system of Puerto Rico (USA) is introduced as a case study to illustrate and discuss the application of groundwater models in karst aquifer systems to evaluate aquifer contamination. PMID:23645996

  18. Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Presents information and concerns regarding computer courseware, books, and audiovisual materials reviewed by teachers. Covers a variety of topics including dissection of common classroom specimens, medicine, acid rain projects, molecules, the water cycle, erosion, plankton, and evolution. Notes on availability, price, and needed equipment, where…

  19. Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Reviews two computer programs: "Molecular Graphics," which allows molecule manipulation in three-dimensional space (requiring IBM PC with 512K, EGA monitor, and math coprocessor); and "Periodic Law," a database which contains up to 20 items of information on each of the first 103 elements (Apple II or IBM PC). (MVL)

  20. Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newland, Robert J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reviews four organic chemistry computer programs and three books. Software includes: (1) NMR Simulator 7--for IBM or Macintosh, (2) Nucleic Acid Structure and Synthesis--for IBM, (3) Molecular Design Editor--for Apple II, and (4) Synthetic Adventure--for Apple II and IBM. Book topics include physical chemistry, polymer pioneers, and the basics of…

  1. Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Reviews seven software programs: (1) "Science Baseball: Biology" (testing a variety of topics); (2) "Wildways: Understanding Wildlife Conservation"; (3) "Earth Science Computer Test Bank"; (4) "Biology Computer Test Bank"; (5) "Computer Play & Learn Series" (a series of drill and test programs); (6) "ENLIST Micros" (resources on computing for…

  2. Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Reviews three computer software packages for chemistry education including "Osmosis and Diffusion" and "E.M.E. Titration Lab" for Apple II and "Simplex-V: An Interactive Computer Program for Experimental Optimization" for IBM PC. Summary ratings include ease of use, content, pedagogic value, student reaction, and cost. (CW)

  3. Reviews

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-07-01

    BOOK REVIEWS (353) Dr Dyer's Academy Further Advanced Physics Physics 11-14, with Biology 11-14 and Chemistry 11-14 Nelson Modular Science: Books 1 and 2 Key Science: Physics, 3rd Edition Nelson Science: Physics, 2nd Edition Physics for AQA: Separate Award, Coordinated Award Physical Processes: A Visual Approach WEB WATCH (359) Physics Favourites: John Miller's selection

  4. Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adoption & Fostering, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Reviews 17 publications covering a variety of topics including abused disabled children; child placement; helping attachment disordered children; open adoption; family empowerment; teenage fostering; the Children Act of 1989 (Great Britain); family law; social services and child care law; and challenging racism in the early years. (TJQ)

  5. Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repak, Arthur J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Computer software, audiovisuals, and books are reviewed. Includes topics on interfacing, ionic equilibrium, space, the classification system, Acquired Immune Disease Syndrome, evolution, human body processes, energy, pesticides, teaching school, cells, and geological aspects. Availability, price, and a description of each are provided. (RT)

  6. Reviews

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-05-01

    DISTANCE-LEARNING COURSES (263) Planetary Science and Astronomy BOOK REVIEWS (263) A New Kind of Science Planetary Science: The Science of Planets Around Stars EQUIPMENT (265) The Science Enhancement Program (SEP) Geiger Counter WEB WATCH (265) Revision sites SOFTWARE (267) Exploration of Physics Volume 1

  7. Sniffing around oxytocin: review and meta-analyses of trials in healthy and clinical groups with implications for pharmacotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Bakermans-Kranenburg, M J; van IJzendoorn, M H

    2013-01-01

    The popularity of oxytocin (OT) has grown exponentially during the past decade, and so has the number of OT trials in healthy and clinical groups. We take stock of the evidence from these studies to explore potentials and limitations of pharmacotherapeutic applications. In healthy participants, intranasally administered OT leads to better emotion recognition and more trust in conspecifics, but the effects appear to be moderated by context (perceived threat of the ‘out-group'), personality and childhood experiences. In individuals with untoward childhood experiences, positive behavioral or neurobiological effects seem lowered or absent. In 19 clinical trials, covering autism, social anxiety, postnatal depression, obsessive-compulsive problems, schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder and post-traumatic stress, the effects of OT administration were tested, with doses ranging from 15 IU to more than 7000 IU. The combined effect size was d=0.32 (N=304; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.18–0.47; P<0.01). However, of all disorders, only studies on autism spectrum disorder showed a significant combined effect size (d=0.57; N=68; 95% CI: 0.15–0.99; P<0.01). We hypothesize that for some of the other disorders, etiological factors rooted in negative childhood experiences may also have a role in the diminished effectiveness of treatment with OT. PMID:23695233

  8. Joint Launch + One Year Science Review of USML-1 and USMP-1 with the Microgravity Measurement Group. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, N. (Editor); Frazier, D. O. (Editor); Lehoczky, S. L. (Editor); Baugher, C. R. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    On September 22-24, 1993, investigators from the First United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-1) and the First United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-1) Missions met with the Microgravity Measurement Group (MGMG) in Huntsville, Alabama, to discuss science results and the microgravity environments from the respective missions. USML-1 was launched June 1992, and USMP-1 was launched October 1992. This document summarizes from the various investigations, the comprehensive results and highlights, and also serves as a combined mission report for the two missions. USML-1 was the first totally U.S.-sponsored mission dedicated to microgravity research and included 31 investigations in fluid dynamics, crystal growth, combustion, biotechnology, and technology demonstrations supported by 11 facilities. The papers in these proceedings attest to the wealth of information gleaned from the highly successful mission. On the USMP-1 mission, both the MEPHISTO and the Lambda Point experiments exceeded by over 100% their planned science objectives. The mission also marked the first time that acceleration data were down-linked and analyzed in real-time. The meeting, which concentrated on flight results, brought low-gravity investigators, accelerometer designers, and acceleration data analysis experts together. This format facilitated a tremendous amount of information exchange between these varied groups. Several of the experimenters showed results, sane for the very first time, of the effects of residual accelerations on their experiment. The proceedings which are published in two volumes also contain transcriptions of the discussion periods following talks and also submittals from a simultaneous poster session.

  9. Review of experimental studies in social psychology of small groups when an optimal choice exists and application to operating room management decision-making.

    PubMed

    Prahl, Andrew; Dexter, Franklin; Braun, Michael T; Van Swol, Lyn

    2013-11-01

    Because operating room (OR) management decisions with optimal choices are made with ubiquitous biases, decisions are improved with decision-support systems. We reviewed experimental social-psychology studies to explore what an OR leader can do when working with stakeholders lacking interest in learning the OR management science but expressing opinions about decisions, nonetheless. We considered shared information to include the rules-of-thumb (heuristics) that make intuitive sense and often seem "close enough" (e.g., staffing is planned based on the average workload). We considered unshared information to include the relevant mathematics (e.g., staffing calculations). Multiple studies have shown that group discussions focus more on shared than unshared information. Quality decisions are more likely when all group participants share knowledge (e.g., have taken a course in OR management science). Several biases in OR management are caused by humans' limited abilities to estimate tails of probability distributions in their heads. Groups are more susceptible to analogous biases than are educated individuals. Since optimal solutions are not demonstrable without groups sharing common language, only with education of most group members can a knowledgeable individual influence the group. The appropriate model of decision-making is autocratic, with information obtained from stakeholders. Although such decisions are good quality, the leaders often are disliked and the decisions considered unjust. In conclusion, leaders will find the most success if they do not bring OR management operational decisions to groups, but instead act autocratically while obtaining necessary information in 1:1 conversations. The only known route for the leader making such decisions to be considered likable and for the decisions to be considered fair is through colleagues and subordinates learning the management science. PMID:24108254

  10. Could the 2012 Drought in Central U.S. Have Been Anticipated? A Review of NASA Working Group Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, S.-Y. Simon; Barandiaran, Danny; Hilburn, Kyle; Houser, Paul; Oglesby, Bob; Pan, Ming; Pinker, Rachel; Santanello, Joe; Schubert, Siegfried; Wang, Hailan; Gillies, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarizes research related to the 2012 record drought in the central United States conducted by members of the NASA Energy and Water cycle Study (NEWS) Working Group. Past drought patterns were analyzed for signal coherency with latest drought and the contribution of long-term trends in the Great Plains low-level jet, an important regional circulation feature of the spring rainy season in the Great Palins. Long-term changes in the seasonal transition from rainy spring into dry summer were also examined. Potential external forcing from radiative processes, soil-air interactions, and ocean teleconnections were assessed as contributors to the intensity of the drought. The atmospheric Rossby wave activity was found to be a potential source of predictability for the onset of drought. A probabilistic model was introduced and evaluated for its performance in predicting drought recovery in the Great Plains.

  11. Bridging gaps to promote networked care between teams and groups in health delivery systems: a systematic review of non-health literature

    PubMed Central

    Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess non-health literature, identify key strategies in promoting more networked teams and groups, apply external ideas to healthcare, and build a model based on these strategies. Design A systematic review of the literature outside of healthcare. Method Searches guided by Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) of ABI/INFORM Global, CINAHL, IBSS, MEDLINE and Psychinfo databases following a mind-mapping exercise generating key terms centred on the core construct of gaps across organisational social structures that uncovered 842 empirical articles of which 116 met the inclusion criteria. Data extraction and content analysis via data mining techniques were performed on these articles. Results The research involved subjects in 40 countries, with 32 studies enrolling participants in multiple countries. There were 40 studies conducted wholly or partly in the USA, 46 wholly or partly in continental Europe, 29 wholly or partly in Asia and 12 wholly or partly in Russia or Russian federated countries. Methods employed included 30 mixed or triangulated social science study designs, 39 qualitative studies, 13 experimental studies and 34 questionnaire-based studies, where the latter was mostly to gather data for social network analyses. Four recurring factors underpin a model for promoting networked behaviours and fortifying cross-group cooperation: appreciating the characteristics and nature of gaps between groups; using the leverage of boundary-spanners to bridge two or more groups; applying various mechanisms to stimulate interactive relationships; and mobilising those who can exert positive external influences to promote connections while minimising the impact of those who exacerbate divides. Conclusions The literature assessed is rich and varied. An evidence-oriented model and strategies for promoting more networked systems are now available for application to healthcare. While caution needs to be exercised in translating

  12. Introduction to Sporadic Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boya, Luis J.

    2011-01-01

    This is an introduction to finite simple groups, in particular sporadic groups, intended for physicists. After a short review of group theory, we enumerate the 1+1+16=18 families of finite simple groups, as an introduction to the sporadic groups. These are described next, in three levels of increasing complexity, plus the six isolated ''pariah'' groups. The (old) five Mathieu groups make up the first, smallest order level. The seven groups related to the Leech lattice, including the three Conway groups, constitute the second level. The third and highest level contains the Monster group M, plus seven other related groups. Next a brief mention is made of the remaining six pariah groups, thus completing the 5+7+8+6=26 sporadic groups. The review ends up with a brief discussion of a few of physical applications of finite groups in physics, including a couple of recent examples which use sporadic groups.

  13. A review and assessment of non-governmental organization-based STD/AIDS education and prevention projects for marginalized groups.

    PubMed

    Crane, S F; Carswell, J W

    1992-06-01

    A review of projects run by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in primarily developing countries, which have aimed to provide STD/AIDS education and prevention skills to various marginalized groups, reveals that past quantitative and formative research has failed to identify key programmatic factors which lead to more successful project implementation and sustainability. In observations, interviews with field staff, visits to program sites and information drawn from the literature, a variety of methods to reach a wide range of groups such as men who have sex with men, prostitutes, clients of prostitutes, prisoners, street children, migrant workers and refugees are explored. Factors found to facilitate project success include the following: at least one full-time committed staff member; respectful treatment and appropriate motivation of the target group; suitable and sufficient equipment and supplies (particularly condoms); planning ahead for the participation of HIV-positive individuals and ways to meet their needs; focusing on qualitative rather than quantitative evaluation; planning in advance beyond a 9 or 12 month 'model'. Despite some evidence that marginalized groups can be successfully motivated to practise safer sex through prevention education, long-term behaviour change still presents major challenges--even when specific conditions are met. PMID:10171671

  14. Computers and Reference Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, Royal

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the current status and potential for automated library reference services in the areas of community information systems, online catalogs, remote online reference services, and telephone reference services. Several models of the reference procedure which might be used in developing expert systems are examined. (19 references) (CLB)

  15. Reference Service Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, William F.

    This reference service policy manual provides general guidelines to encourage reference service of the highest possible quality and to insure uniform practice. The policy refers only to reference service in the University Libraries and is intended for use in conjunction with other policies and procedures issued by the Reference Services Division.…

  16. A Systematic Review of CPAP Adherence Across Age Groups: Clinical and Empiric Insights for Developing CPAP Adherence Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Sawyer, A.M.; Gooneratne, N.; Marcus, C.L.; Ofer, D.; Richards, K.C.; Weaver, T.E.

    2011-01-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a highly efficacious treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) but adherence to the treatment limits its overall effectiveness across all age groups of patients. Factors that influence adherence to CPAP include disease and patient characteristics, treatment titration procedures, technological device factors and side effects, and psychological and social factors. These influential factors have guided the development of interventions to promote CPAP adherence. Various intervention strategies have been described and include educational, technological, psychosocial, pharmacological, and multi-dimensional approaches. Though evidence to date has led to innovative strategies that address adherence in CPAP-treated children, adults, and older adults, significant opportunities exist to develop and test interventions that are clinically applicable, specific to subgroups of patients likely to demonstrate poor adherence, and address the multifactorial nature of CPAP adherence. The translation of CPAP adherence promotion interventions to clinical practice is imperative to improve health and functional outcomes in all persons with CPAP-treated OSA. PMID:21652236

  17. Imaging in pleural mesothelioma: A review of the 12th International Conference of the International Mesothelioma Interest Group.

    PubMed

    Armato, Samuel G; Coolen, Johan; Nowak, Anna K; Robinson, Cleo; Gill, Ritu R; Straus, Christopher; Khanwalkar, Ashoke

    2015-11-01

    Imaging of malignant pleural mesothelioma is essential to patient management, prognostication, and response assessment. From animal models to clinical trials, the gamut of research activities and clinical standards relies on imaging to provide information on lesion morphology and the growing number of physiologic characteristics amenable to capture through imaging techniques. The complex morphology, growth pattern, and biological mechanisms of mesothelioma, however, present challenges for image acquisition and interpretation. Nevertheless, novel approaches to image acquisition and subsequent image analysis have expanded the opportunities for (as well as the need for) imaging in this disease. This paper summarizes the imaging-based research presented orally at the 2014 International Conference of the International Mesothelioma Interest Group (iMig) in Cape Town, South Africa, October 2014. Presented topics include the imaging of hypoxia in a murine model through positron emission tomography (PET), the use of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess the histologic composition of biphasic mesothelioma and to assess early response to chemotherapy, the correlation of CT-based tumor volume with the volume of the post-surgical tumor specimen, the development of volumetric tumor response criteria, and pre-treatment tumor volume growth considerations for tumor response assessment. PMID:26298162

  18. Constituents and Pharmacological Activities of Myrcia (Myrtaceae): A Review of an Aromatic and Medicinal Group of Plants

    PubMed Central

    Cascaes, Márcia Moraes; Guilhon, Giselle Maria Skelding Pinheiro; Andrade, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar; Zoghbi, Maria das Graças Bichara; Santos, Lourivaldo da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Myrcia is one of the largest genera of the economically important family Myrtaceae. Some of the species are used in folk medicine, such as a group known as “pedra-hume-caá” or “pedra-ume-caá” or “insulina vegetal” (insulin plant) that it is used for the treatment of diabetes. The species are an important source of essential oils, and most of the chemical studies on Myrcia describe the chemical composition of the essential oils, in which mono- and sesquiterpenes are predominant. The non-volatile compounds isolated from Myrcia are usually flavonoids, tannins, acetophenone derivatives and triterpenes. Anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antioxidant, antimicrobial activities have been described to Myrcia essential oils, while hypoglycemic, anti-hemorrhagic and antioxidant activities were attributed to the extracts. Flavonoid glucosides and acetophenone derivatives showed aldose reductase and α-glucosidase inhibition, and could explain the traditional use of Myrcia species to treat diabetes. Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory are some of the activities observed for other isolated compounds from Myrcia. PMID:26473832

  19. Coal data: A reference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

  20. A review of the likely effects of climate change on anadromous Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and brown trout Salmo trutta, with particular reference to water temperature and flow.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, B; Jonsson, N

    2009-12-01

    The present paper reviews the effects of water temperature and flow on migrations, embryonic development, hatching, emergence, growth and life-history traits in light of the ongoing climate change with emphasis on anadromous Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and brown trout Salmo trutta. The expected climate change in the Atlantic is for milder and wetter winters, with more precipitation falling as rain and less as snow, decrease in ice-covered periods and frequent periods with extreme weather. Overall, thermal limits for salmonids are species specific. Scope for activity and growth and optimal temperature for growth increase with temperature to an optimal point before constrain by the oxygen content of the water. The optimal temperature for growth decreases with increasing fish size and varies little among populations within species, whereas the growth efficiency may be locally adapted to the temperature conditions of the home stream during the growth season. Indirectly, temperature influences age and size at smolting through its effect on growth. Time of spawning, egg hatching and emergence of the larvae vary with temperature and selective effects on time of first feeding. Traits such as age at first maturity, longevity and fecundity decrease with increasing temperature whilst egg size increases with temperature. Water flow influences the accessibility of rivers for returning adults and speed of both upstream and downstream migration. Extremes in water flow and temperature can decrease recruitment and survival. There is reason to expect a northward movement of the thermal niche of anadromous salmonids with decreased production and population extinction in the southern part of the distribution areas, migrations earlier in the season, later spawning, younger age at smolting and sexual maturity and increased disease susceptibility and mortality. Future research challenges are summarized at the end of the paper. PMID:20738500

  1. Environmental Sciences Reference Sources. An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMartin, Mary I., Comp.

    This list of Environmental Sciences References Sources is intended to give undergraduate and graduate students a starting point when searching for information in the library. Entries are grouped according to type of reference material and then are listed in alphabetical order. The types of reference material included are guides to dictionaries,…

  2. Reviews

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-01-01

    WE RECOMMEND The Cloudspotter's Guide Not a reference book, but well written and pleasing to read. The Virtual Physical Laboratory This free CD contains useful simulations for the classroom. The Science of Ice Cream A comprehensive text suitable for A-level students. Singapore Science Centre A must-see centre for physics enthusiasts in Singapore. Weatherbytes A DVD containing five programmes explaining the weather. WORTH A LOOK How Teachers Learn Best, An Ongoing Professional Development Model A book to help you spot a school with good CPD opportunities. Fifex LED Array An expensive but well-made LED array. School Stop-Clock A sturdy clock suitable for a variety of timing experiments. WEB WATCH A collection of websites related to light.

  3. Reviews

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-07-01

    WE RECOMMEND Demonstrating Physics: Forces This free video has some great ideas and tips for demonstrations. CN Tower The tallest structure in the world is a great place for a science trip. e.Log dataloggers A new datalogger and its software can be put to good use in class. Assessment in Physics This excellent software allows students to be assessed ‘virtually’. The Mathematics Companion A thoroughly readable maths reference book. WORTH A LOOK Electrosmog microwave detector A useful piece of equipment for explaining microwave radiation. Science for AQA This is a good introductory book for the new AQA syllabus. HANDLE WITH CARE Tears of the Tree This is a gruesome history book and not a physics teaching aide. WEB WATCH There are plenty of physics-related websites that beauty therapists should take a look at to help them carry out their work safely.

  4. Inpatient drug utilization in Europe: nationwide data sources and a review of publications on a selected group of medicines (PROTECT project).

    PubMed

    Sabaté, Mònica; Ferrer, Pili; Ballarín, Elena; Rottenkolber, Marietta; Amelio, Justyne; Schmiedl, Sven; Reynolds, Robert; Klungel, Olaf; Ibáñez, Luisa

    2015-03-01

    Drug utilization (DU) studies in inpatient settings at a national level are rarely conducted. The main objective of this study was to review the general information on hospital medicine management in Europe and to report on the availability and characteristics of nationwide administrative drug consumption databases. A secondary objective was to perform a review of published studies on hospital DU of a group of selected drugs, focusing on methodological characteristics (ATC/DDD). General information on hospital drug management was retrieved from several websites, nationwide administrative drug consumption databases and reports published by governmental organizations. A PubMed search was conducted using keywords related to the selected group of drugs AND 'hospital drug utilization'. The data sources for hospital DU information varied widely and included 14 databases from 25 reviewed countries. Bulgaria, Croatia, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Hungary, Iceland, Latvia, Norway and Sweden obtain information on inpatient DU at a national level from wholesalers/manufacturers. In Belgium, Italy and Portugal, drugs dispensed to patients in hospitals are registered at a national level. Data are freely available online only for Denmark and Iceland. From the PubMed search, of a total of 868 retrieved studies, only 13 studies used the ATC/DDD methodology. Although the number of DDD/100 bed-days was used in four studies, other units of measure were also used. The type of information provided for the inpatient sector allowed primarily for conducting DU research at an aggregated data level. The existence of national administrative structures to monitor hospital DU would contribute to promoting the rational use of medicines and improving the safety and quality of prescribing. PMID:25420967

  5. The prognostic value of histological grading of posterior fossa ependymomas in children: a Children's Oncology Group study and a review of prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Tihan, Tarik; Zhou, Tianni; Holmes, Emi; Burger, Peter C; Ozuysal, Sema; Rushing, Elisabeth J

    2008-02-01

    We performed a retrospective analysis of 96 pediatric posterior fossa ependymomas in order to determine the prognostic value of histological grade based on the current WHO grading scheme. The patients were selected among Children's Oncology Group (previously Pediatric Oncology Group-POG) patients enrolled in clinical trials, and on the basis of central pathology review, location, and age. We excluded entities such as sub-ependymoma, myxopapillary, or clear-cell ependymoma, after a consensus diagnosis by three neuropathologists. A total of 66 males and 30 females with a median age of 48 months were identified. The group was analyzed to determine the effects of histological grade, age, gender, and extent of resection on event-free and overall survival. Our results showed that extent of resection, age, and histological grade were independent prognostic variables for event-free survival. The relative risk for extent of resection and histological grade was calculated as 3.59 (P<0.001) and 3.58 (P<0.001), respectively. Overall survival significantly correlated with extent of resection and age, but not with histological grade. We compared our results with peer-reviewed publications on pediatric intracranial ependymomas in the English language between 1990 and 2005. Selection criteria identified 32 manuscripts involving 1444 patients. Extent of resection was a significant factor in 21, age in 12, and histological grading in nine of these studies. Other factors reported to be significant by more than one study included tumor location and radiation treatment. Our findings suggest that histological grade (WHO Grade II vs III) is an independent prognostic indicator for event-free survival, but may not be so for overall survival in pediatric posterior fossa ependymomas. We believe that an accurate assessment of the prognostic value of histological grade depends on the selection of a well-characterized clinical cohort of sufficient size, and the inclusion of relevant

  6. How effective are brief interventions in reducing alcohol consumption: do the setting, practitioner group and content matter? Findings from a systematic review and metaregression analysis

    PubMed Central

    Platt, Lucy; Melendez-Torres, G J; O'Donnell, Amy; Bradley, Jennifer; Newbury-Birch, Dorothy; Kaner, Eileen; Ashton, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Background While the efficacy and effectiveness of brief interventions for alcohol (ABI) have been demonstrated in primary care, there is weaker evidence in other settings and reviews do not consider differences in content. We conducted a systematic review to measure the effect of ABIs on alcohol consumption and how it differs by the setting, practitioner group and content of intervention. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO; CINAHL, Social Science Citation Index, Cochrane Library and Global Health up to January 2015 for randomised controlled trials that measured effectiveness of ABIs on alcohol consumption. We grouped outcomes into measures of quantity and frequency indices. We used multilevel meta-analysis to estimate pooled effect sizes and tested for the effect of moderators through a multiparameter Wald test. Stratified analysis of a subset of quantity and frequency outcomes was conducted as a sensitivity check. Results 52 trials were included contributing data on 29 891 individuals. ABIs reduced the quantity of alcohol consumed by 0.15 SDs. While neither the setting nor content appeared to significantly moderate intervention effectiveness, the provider did in some analyses. Interventions delivered by nurses had the most effect in reducing quantity (d=−0.23, 95% CI (−0.33 to −0.13)) but not frequency of alcohol consumption. All content groups had statistically significant mean effects, brief advice was the most effective in reducing quantity consumed (d=−0.20, 95% CI (−0.30 to −0.09)). Effects were maintained in the stratified sensitivity analysis at the first and last assessment time. Conclusions ABIs play a small but significant role in reducing alcohol consumption. Findings show the positive role of nurses in delivering interventions. The lack of evidence on the impact of content of intervention reinforces advice that services should select the ABI tool that best suits their needs. PMID:27515753

  7. Dietary reference intakes: cases of appropriate and inappropriate uses.

    PubMed

    Trumbo, Paula R; Barr, Susan I; Murphy, Suzanne P; Yates, Allison A

    2013-10-01

    The dietary reference intakes (DRIs) are a set of reference intake levels for nutrients that can be used for planning diets and assessing nutrient inadequacies of individuals and groups. Since the publication of the DRI reports 1997-2004, the reference intake levels have been used for various purposes. While DRIs have been used appropriately for planning and assessing diets for many different situations, there have been instances in which specific DRI categories have not been applied as intended. In this review, cases are described in which DRIs were applied correctly, as well as cases from the growing number of examples in which the wrong DRI was used or DRIs were used incorrectly. PMID:24117790

  8. The Group Discussion as a Measure of Oral Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venugopal, Shanta Nair

    1992-01-01

    The group discussion test has gained prominence as a measure of oral interaction skills in second-language learning. This article reviews test types and administration, the communicative nature of the test, development of criteria and rating scales, and advantages. A sample rating scale is appended. (Contains 15 references.) (LB)

  9. Reach for Reference. Four Recent Reference Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safford, Barbara Ripp

    2004-01-01

    This article provides descriptions of four new science and technology encyclopedias that are appropriate for inclusion in upper elementary and/or middle school reference collections. "The Macmillan Encyclopedia of Weather" (Stern, Macmillan Reference/Gale), a one-volume encyclopedia for upper elementary and middle level students, is a…

  10. Fundamentals of Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulac, Carolyn M.

    2012-01-01

    The all-in-one "Reference reference" you've been waiting for, this invaluable book offers a concise introduction to reference sources and services for a variety of readers, from library staff members who are asked to work in the reference department to managers and others who wish to familiarize themselves with this important area of…

  11. Live, Digital Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Brian

    2002-01-01

    Discusses digital reference services, also known as virtual reference, chat reference, or online reference, based on a round table discussion at the 2002 American Library Association annual conference in Atlanta. Topics include numbers and marketing; sustainability; competition and models; evaluation methods; outsourcing; staffing and training;…

  12. Statistical Reference Datasets

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    Statistical Reference Datasets (Web, free access)   The Statistical Reference Datasets is also supported by the Standard Reference Data Program. The purpose of this project is to improve the accuracy of statistical software by providing reference datasets with certified computational results that enable the objective evaluation of statistical software.

  13. What Makes Groups Tick.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allcorn, Seth

    1985-01-01

    By reviewing this analysis of the behavior of both groups and individuals in groups, human resources managers can learn to tell whether committees, task forces, and departments may be encouraging or inhibiting the work they set out to do. (Author)

  14. Assessment of physical activity - a review of methodologies with reference to epidemiological research: a report of the exercise physiology section of the European Association of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Warren, Janet M; Ekelund, Ulf; Besson, Herve; Mezzani, Alessandro; Geladas, Nickos; Vanhees, Luc

    2010-04-01

    Physical activity has a fundamental role in the prevention and treatment of chronic disease. The precise measurement of physical activity is key to many surveillance and epidemiological studies investigating trends and associations with disease. Public health initiatives aimed at increasing physical activity rely on the measurement of physical activity to monitor their effectiveness. Physical activity is multidimensional, and a complex behaviour to measure; its various domains are often misunderstood. Inappropriate or crude measures of physical activity have serious implications, and are likely to lead to misleading results and underestimate effect size. In this review, key definitions and theoretical aspects, which underpin the measurement of physical activity, are briefly discussed. Methodologies particularly suited for use in epidemiological research are reviewed, with particular reference to their validity, primary outcome measure and considerations when using each in the field. It is acknowledged that the choice of method may be a compromise between accuracy level and feasibility, but the ultimate choice of tool must suit the stated aim of the research. A framework is presented to guide researchers on the selection of the most suitable tool for use in a specific study. PMID:20215971

  15. Review of the paper wasps of the Parapolybia indica species-group (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Polistinae) in eastern parts of Asia.

    PubMed

    Saito-Morooka, Fuki; Nguyen, Lien T P; Kojima, Jun-Ichi

    2015-01-01

    Nine species of the Parapolybia indica species-group in eastern parts of Asia are reviewed. Four new species are described: P. flava sp. nov. (Vietnam), P. crocea sp. nov. (Japan), P. nana sp. nov. (Vietnam), and P. albida sp. nov. (Vietnam). Parapolybia indica (de Saussure, 1854), P. bioculata van der Vecht, 1966 and P. tinctipennis (Cameron, 1900) are redescribed. The status is reinstanted for P. fulvinerva (Cameron, 1900), stat. resurr. and P. tinctipennis (Cameron, 1900), stat. resurr. and new status is proposed for P. bioculata van der Vecht, 1966, stat. nov. Parapolybia tinctipennis (Cameron, 1900) is newly recorded from China, Vietnam and Laos. The key to species is given. The nests of P. indica, P. bioculata, P. tinctipennis, P. flava and P. crocea are remarked. PMID:25947731

  16. Selected Reference Books of 1979-80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehy, Eugene P.

    1981-01-01

    Presents book reviews of recently published scholarly and general works of interest to reference workers in university libraries. The listing includes a brief roundup of new editions of standard works, continuations, and supplements. (RAA)

  17. Drell-Yan Cross Sections: Data from DOE laboratory experiments as compiled in data reviews by the Durham High Energy Physics Database Group

    DOE Data Explorer

    Stirling, W. J.; Whalley, M. R.

    A compilation of data on Drell-Yan cross sections above a lepton-pair mass of 4 GeV/c2 is presented. The relevant experiments at Fermilab and CERN are included dating from approximately 1977 to the present day, covering p, p and pi +or- beams on a variety of nuclear and hydrogen targets, with centre-of-mass energies from 8.6 GeV to 630 GeV. The type of data presented include d sigma /dm, d2 sigma /dm dx and d2 sigma /dm dy distributions as well as other variations of these, and also transverse momentum distributions. The data are compared with a standard theoretical model, and a phenomenological 'K-factor' for each set is calculated. (Taken from the abstract of A Compilation of Drell-Yan Cross sections, W.J. Stirling and M.R. Whalley, Journal of Physics G (Nuclear and Particle Physics), Volume 19, Data Review, 1993.) The Durham High Energy Physics (HEP) Database Group makes these data, extracted from papers and data reviews, available in one place in an easy-to-access format. These data are also included in the Durham HEP Reaction Data Database which can be searched at http://hepdata.cedar.ac.uk/reaction

  18. A review of the Palaearctic Mniotype adusta (Esper, 1790) species-group with description of a new species and six new subspecies (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Volynkin, Anton V; Matov, Alexei Yu; Behounek, Gottfried; Han, Hui-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Eighteen Palaearctic taxa of the Mniotype adusta species-group are reviewed. One new species (M. kobyakovi Volynkin, Matov & Behounek, sp. n.) and six new subspecies (M. lama kortka Volynkin, Matov & Behounek, ssp. n., M. lama etugen Volynkin, Matov & Behounek, ssp. n., M. lama ayubaevorum Volynkin, Matov & Behounek, ssp. n., M. adusta poltavskyi Volynkin, Matov & Behounek, ssp. n., M. adjuncta cineritia Volynkin, Matov & Behounek, ssp. n. and M. dubiosa amitayus Volynkin & Han, ssp. n.) are described. Two taxa, previously regarded as subspecies are restored to specific status: M. adjuncta (Moore, 1881) stat. n. and M. dubiosa (A. Bang-Haas, 1912) stat. n. A taxon previously regarded as a junior synonym is restored to specific status: M. juldussica (Draudt, 1934) stat. n. A new synonymy is introduced: M. bathensis (Lutzau, 1900) = Hadena adusta var. moesta Staudinger, 1897 syn. n. The synonymy of M. bathensis and Crino adusta subsp. urupino Bryk, 1942 syn. rev. is revised. The lectotypes for Hadena? lama Staudinger, 1900, Mamestra vicina Alphéraky, 1882, Hadena adusta var. moesta Staudinger, 1897 and Hadena lama var. dubiosa A. Bang-Haas, 1912 are designated. The neotype for Crino adusta juldussica Draudt, 1934 is designated. The adults, male and female genitalia of all reviewed species and subspecies are illustrated. PMID:24870663

  19. Acute reference doses: theory and practical approaches.

    PubMed

    Moretto, A

    2000-07-01

    The approach of the Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues to the establishment of the acute reference dose for pesticides is presented and related issues are discussed. Three main points seem relevant when discussing the acute reference dose: (1) what compounds should have an acute reference dose, (2) what toxicological database is required for the establishment of an acute reference dose; (3) what safety factors are to be used. It is concluded that (1) groups of compounds that need an acute reference dose can be identified, whereas general rules for identifying groups not requiring an acute reference dose cannot be easily given; (2) studies from the standard toxicological database can often be used to allocate an acute reference dose and the usefulness of refinements (by requesting specific studies) should be evaluated after intake assessment; general rules on study requirements cannot be easily given; (3) more thought should be given to what safety factors apply in certain circumstances. PMID:10983586

  20. Reviews

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-09-01

    WE RECOMMEND Education Using PowerPoint Fun animated slides for 11-14 and 14-16 age groups. Antarctica CD-ROM The Royal Institution Christmas Lectures deliver a great resource. Making Modern Science: A Historical Survey This book tackles the social context of scientific developments. Teaching Science in the Primary Classroom: A Practical Guide Comprehensive guidebook for new primary teachers. Physics for Phun A video featuring 29 simple but effective physics demos. Material Selection and Processing A comprehensive resource pack on the topic of materials. WORTH A LOOK Quantum Generations: A History of Physics in the Twentieth Century A study of 100 years of developing physics knowledge. Test tube, rainbow and glow-in-the-dark ooze; Stretchy animals and space men These could make useful additions to a collection of physics toys. Electronic hanging balance A decent balance that can be a little hard to handle. PLACES TO VISIT Join the Einstein Trail in Bern and Berlin. WEB WATCH Materials science abounds on the Internet, with topics from Hooke’s law to bungee jumping.

  1. Writing references and using citation management software.

    PubMed

    Sungur, Mukadder Orhan; Seyhan, Tülay Özkan

    2013-09-01

    The correct citation of references is obligatory to gain scientific credibility, to honor the original ideas of previous authors and to avoid plagiarism. Currently, researchers can easily find, cite and store references using citation management software. In this review, two popular citation management software programs (EndNote and Mendeley) are summarized. PMID:26328132

  2. Reference. Advisory List of Instructional Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Education, Raleigh.

    The reference books featured in this annotated bibliography were selected from those titles that publishers submitted to the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction for review. As such, it is not a comprehensive list of all reference titles in print. This guide organizes the 33 titles into major subject categories: (1) Arts…

  3. 32 CFR 552.182 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true References. 552.182 Section 552.182 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL... Facilities § 552.182 References. Publications referenced in this section may be reviewed in the...

  4. S. R. Ranganathan's Theory of Reference Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varghese, Manoj M.

    A study of S. R. Ranganathan's theory of reference service is undertaken by using an historical methodology. It was evident from the literature review that Ranganathan had established that reference service was the most important work and served as the hub of all library practices. There were six factors that were repeatedly considered by…

  5. Research in Library Reference/Information Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Mary Jo

    1983-01-01

    This review of library reference service research, which focuses on the provision of information in response to questions, covers measurement of reference service, evaluation using unobtrusive techniques, online search services, information needs and uses, the process of asking and answering questions, and artificial intelligence. Eighty-four…

  6. HANFORD WASTE MINERALOGY REFERENCE REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    DISSELKAMP RS

    2010-06-29

    This report lists the observed mineral phases present in the Hanford tanks. This task was accomplished by performing a review of numerous reports that used experimental techniques including, but not limited to: x-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and particle size distribution analyses. This report contains tables that can be used as a quick reference to identify the crystal phases observed in Hanford waste.

  7. HANFORD WASTE MINEROLOGY REFERENCE REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    DISSELKAMP RS

    2010-06-18

    This report lists the observed mineral phase phases present in the Hanford tanks. This task was accomplished by performing a review of numerous reports using experimental techniques including, but not limited to: x-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and particle size distribution analyses. This report contains tables that can be used as a quick reference to identify the crystal phases present observed in Hanford waste.

  8. The geospace response to variable inputs from the lower atmosphere: a review of the progress made by Task Group 4 of CAWSES-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberheide, Jens; Shiokawa, Kazuo; Gurubaran, Subramanian; Ward, William E.; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Kosch, Michael J.; Makela, Jonathan J.; Takahashi, Hisao

    2015-12-01

    The advent of new satellite missions, ground-based instrumentation networks, and the development of whole atmosphere models over the past decade resulted in a paradigm shift in understanding the variability of geospace, that is, the region of the atmosphere between the stratosphere and several thousand kilometers above ground where atmosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere interactions occur. It has now been realized that conditions in geospace are linked strongly to terrestrial weather and climate below, contradicting previous textbook knowledge that the space weather of Earth's near space environment is driven by energy injections at high latitudes connected with magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling and solar radiation variation at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths alone. The primary mechanism through which energy and momentum are transferred from the lower atmosphere is through the generation, propagation, and dissipation of atmospheric waves over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales including electrodynamic coupling through dynamo processes and plasma bubble seeding. The main task of Task Group 4 of SCOSTEP's CAWSES-II program, 2009 to 2013, was to study the geospace response to waves generated by meteorological events, their interaction with the mean flow, and their impact on the ionosphere and their relation to competing thermospheric disturbances generated by energy inputs from above, such as auroral processes at high latitudes. This paper reviews the progress made during the CAWSES-II time period, emphasizing the role of gravity waves, planetary waves and tides, and their ionospheric impacts. Specific campaign contributions from Task Group 4 are highlighted, and future research directions are discussed.

  9. Self-Managing Work Groups: The Role of the External Leader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohannan, April

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the literature on self-managing teams to clarify the role of the external leader or coordinator of these groups. Conditions that aid in the development of self-management characteristics are identified; a model of group members and leader behavior is presented; and further areas of research are suggested. (14 references) (MES)

  10. REFERENCE DOSE FOR METHYLMERCURY (EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1997, U.S. EPA issued the Mercury Study Report to Congress (MSRC). Among the assessments in the MSRC was a state-of-the-science evaluation of the health effects of methylmercury. There has been considerable discussion within the scientific community regarding the level of e...

  11. Group based diabetes self-management education compared to routine treatment for people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A systematic review with meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Diabetes self-management education (DSME) can be delivered in many forms. Group based DSME is widespread due to being a cheaper method and the added advantages of having patient meet and discuss with each other. assess effects of group-based DSME compared to routine treatment on clinical, lifestyle and psychosocial outcomes in type-2 diabetes patients. Methods A systematic review with meta-analysis. Computerised bibliographic database were searched up to January 2008 for randomised controlled trials evaluating group-based DSME for adult type-2 diabetics versus routine treatment where the intervention had at least one session and =/>6 months follow-up. At least two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed study quality. Results In total 21 studies (26 publications, 2833 participants) were included. Of all the participants 4 out of 10 were male, baseline age was 60 years, BMI 31.6, HbA1c 8.23%, diabetes duration 8 years and 82% used medication. For the main clinical outcomes, HbA1c was significantly reduced at 6 months (0.44% points; P = 0.0006, 13 studies, 1883 participants), 12 months (0.46% points; P = 0.001, 11 studies, 1503 participants) and 2 years (0.87% points; P < 0.00001, 3 studies, 397 participants) and fasting blood glucose levels were also significantly reduced at 12 months (1.26 mmol/l; P < 0.00001, 5 studies, 690 participants) but not at 6 months. For the main lifestyle outcomes, diabetes knowledge was improved significantly at 6 months (SMD 0.83; P = 0.00001, 6 studies, 768 participants), 12 months (SMD 0.85; P < 0.00001, 5 studies, 955 participants) and 2 years (SMD 1.59; P = 0.03, 2 studies, 355 participants) and self-management skills also improved significantly at 6 months (SMD 0.55; P = 0.01, 4 studies, 534 participants). For the main psychosocial outcomes, there were significant improvement for empowerment/self-efficacy (SMD 0.28, P = 0.01, 2 studies, 326

  12. An Investigation of the Shortcomings of the CONSORT 2010 Statement for the Reporting of Group Sequential Randomised Controlled Trials: A Methodological Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Stevely, Abigail; Dimairo, Munyaradzi; Todd, Susan; Julious, Steven A.; Nicholl, Jonathan; Hind, Daniel; Cooper, Cindy L.

    2015-01-01

    Background It can be argued that adaptive designs are underused in clinical research. We have explored concerns related to inadequate reporting of such trials, which may influence their uptake. Through a careful examination of the literature, we evaluated the standards of reporting of group sequential (GS) randomised controlled trials, one form of a confirmatory adaptive design. Methods We undertook a systematic review, by searching Ovid MEDLINE from the 1st January 2001 to 23rd September 2014, supplemented with trials from an audit study. We included parallel group, confirmatory, GS trials that were prospectively designed using a Frequentist approach. Eligible trials were examined for compliance in their reporting against the CONSORT 2010 checklist. In addition, as part of our evaluation, we developed a supplementary checklist to explicitly capture group sequential specific reporting aspects, and investigated how these are currently being reported. Results Of the 284 screened trials, 68(24%) were eligible. Most trials were published in “high impact” peer-reviewed journals. Examination of trials established that 46(68%) were stopped early, predominantly either for futility or efficacy. Suboptimal reporting compliance was found in general items relating to: access to full trials protocols; methods to generate randomisation list(s); details of randomisation concealment, and its implementation. Benchmarking against the supplementary checklist, GS aspects were largely inadequately reported. Only 3(7%) trials which stopped early reported use of statistical bias correction. Moreover, 52(76%) trials failed to disclose methods used to minimise the risk of operational bias, due to the knowledge or leakage of interim results. Occurrence of changes to trial methods and outcomes could not be determined in most trials, due to inaccessible protocols and amendments. Discussion and Conclusions There are issues with the reporting of GS trials, particularly those specific to the

  13. Functional Group Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Walter T., Jr.; Patterson, John M.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses analytical methods selected from current research articles. Groups information by topics of general interest, including acids, aldehydes and ketones, nitro compounds, phenols, and thiols. Cites 97 references. (CS)

  14. The integripennis species group of Geocharidius Jeannel, 1963 (Carabidae, Bembidiini, Anillina) from Nuclear Central America: a taxonomic review with notes about biogeography and speciation.

    PubMed

    Sokolov, Igor M; Kavanaugh, David H

    2014-01-01

    Our review recognizes 15 species of the integripennis species group of Geocharidius from Nuclear Central America, include three species previously described (Geocharidiusgimlii Erwin, Geocharidiusintegripennis (Bates) and Geocharidiuszullinii Vigna Taglianti) and 12 described here as new. They are: Geocharidiusandersoni sp. n. (type locality: Chiapas, Chiapas Highlands, Cerro Huitepec) and Geocharidiusvignatagliantii sp. n. (type locality: Chiapas, Motozintla, Sierra Madre de Chiapas, Benito Juárez) from Mexico; Geocharidiusantigua sp. n. (type locality: Sacatepéquez, 5 km SE of Antigua), Geocharidiusbalini sp. n. (type locality: Suchitepéquez, 4 km S of Volcan Atitlán), Geocharidiuserwini sp. n. (type locality: Quiché Department, 7 km NE of Los Encuentros), Geocharidiusjalapensis sp. n. (type locality: Jalapa Department, 4 km E of Mataquescuintla), Geocharidiuslonginoi, sp. n. (type locality: El Progreso Department, Cerro Pinalón), and Geocharidiusminimus sp. n. (type locality: Sacatepéquez Department, 5 km SE of Antigua) from Guatemala; and Geocharidiuscelaquensis sp. n. (type locality: Lempira Department, Celaque National Park), Geocharidiuscomayaguanus sp. n. (type locality: Comayagua Department, 18 km ENE of Comayagua), Geocharidiusdisjunctus sp. n. (type locality: Francisco Morazán, La Tigra National Park), and Geocharidiuslencanus sp. n. (type locality: Lempira Department, Celaque National Park) from Honduras. For all members of the group, adult structural characters, including male and female genitalia, are described, and a taxonomic key for all members of the integripennis species group is presented based on these characters. Behavioral and biogeographical aspects of speciation in the group are discussed, based on the morphological analysis. In all cases of sympatry, pairs of closely related species show greater differences in sizes than pairs of more remotely related species. Integripennis group species occupy six different montane areas at

  15. The integripennis species group of Geocharidius Jeannel, 1963 (Carabidae, Bembidiini, Anillina) from Nuclear Central America: a taxonomic review with notes about biogeography and speciation

    PubMed Central

    Sokolov, Igor M.; Kavanaugh, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Our review recognizes 15 species of the integripennis species group of Geocharidius from Nuclear Central America, include three species previously described (Geocharidius gimlii Erwin, Geocharidius integripennis (Bates) and Geocharidius zullinii Vigna Taglianti) and 12 described here as new. They are: Geocharidius andersoni sp. n. (type locality: Chiapas, Chiapas Highlands, Cerro Huitepec) and Geocharidius vignatagliantii sp. n. (type locality: Chiapas, Motozintla, Sierra Madre de Chiapas, Benito Juárez) from Mexico; Geocharidius antigua sp. n. (type locality: Sacatepéquez, 5 km SE of Antigua), Geocharidius balini sp. n. (type locality: Suchitepéquez, 4 km S of Volcan Atitlán), Geocharidius erwini sp. n. (type locality: Quiché Department, 7 km NE of Los Encuentros), Geocharidius jalapensis sp. n. (type locality: Jalapa Department, 4 km E of Mataquescuintla), Geocharidius longinoi, sp. n. (type locality: El Progreso Department, Cerro Pinalón), and Geocharidius minimus sp. n. (type locality: Sacatepéquez Department, 5 km SE of Antigua) from Guatemala; and Geocharidius celaquensis sp. n. (type locality: Lempira Department, Celaque National Park), Geocharidius comayaguanus sp. n. (type locality: Comayagua Department, 18 km ENE of Comayagua), Geocharidius disjunctus sp. n. (type locality: Francisco Morazán, La Tigra National Park), and Geocharidius lencanus sp. n. (type locality: Lempira Department, Celaque National Park) from Honduras. For all members of the group, adult structural characters, including male and female genitalia, are described, and a taxonomic key for all members of the integripennis species group is presented based on these characters. Behavioral and biogeographical aspects of speciation in the group are discussed, based on the morphological analysis. In all cases of sympatry, pairs of closely related species show greater differences in sizes than pairs of more remotely related species. Integripennis group species occupy six different

  16. Genetics Home Reference

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Genetics Home Reference Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of ... of this page please turn Javascript on. The Genetics Home Reference (GHR) Web site — ghr.nlm.nih. ...

  17. The Test of Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childers, Thomas

    1980-01-01

    Reports the results of an unobtrusive study, from a user's viewpoint, of reference services available in the Suffolk Cooperative Library System. The study raises questions of policy centering around user expectations of library reference services. (RAA)

  18. Best Reference Sources 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coutts, Brian; McConnell, Tamara

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated list of the best reference materials published in 2001. Discusses activity in the reference publishing industry; costs; and lists print materials, Web sites, databases, and CD-ROMs. (LRW)

  19. Access to Elementary Education in India. Country Analytical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Govinda, R.; Bandyopadhyay, Madhumita

    2008-01-01

    This analytical review aims at exploring trends in educational access and delineating different groups, which are vulnerable to exclusion from educational opportunities at the elementary stage. This review has drawn references from series of analytical papers developed on different themes i.e. regional disparity in education, social equity and…

  20. Reference Librarians at the Reference Desk in a Learning Commons: A Mixed Methods Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth B.; Moore, Anne C.; Lang, Beth W.

    2008-01-01

    At the University of Massachusetts Amherst's W.E.B. Du Bois Library's Learning Commons, only reference librarians staff the Reference and Research Assistance Desk. Surveys, a focus group, reference question transcriptions, and question-type tallies indicate that this service model is strongly preferred by users and librarians over the previous…

  1. Bivalent rLP2086 Vaccine (Trumenba(®)): A Review in Active Immunization Against Invasive Meningococcal Group B Disease in Individuals Aged 10-25 Years.

    PubMed

    Shirley, Matt; Dhillon, Sohita

    2015-10-01

    Bivalent rLP2086 vaccine (Trumenba(®)) [hereafter referred to as rLP2086] is a Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (MenB) vaccine recently licensed in the USA for active immunization to prevent invasive disease caused by MenB in individuals 10-25 years of age. rLP2086, which contains two variants of the meningococcal surface protein factor H-binding protein (fHBP), was approved by the FDA under the accelerated approval pathway after the immunogenicity of the vaccine was demonstrated in several phase II trials. This article reviews the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of rLP2086 as demonstrated in the trials with a focus on the US setting and on use of the vaccine as per FDA-approved labeling. rLP2086 is approved in the USA as a three-dose series administered in a 0-, 2-, and 6-month schedule. In the phase II trials, rLP2086 elicited a robust immune response against a panel of MenB test strains. A strong immune response was evident in a marked proportion of subjects after two vaccine doses, with a further increase after a third dose. The four primary test strains used were selected to be representative of MenB strains prevalent in the USA, with each expressing an fHBP variant heterologous to the vaccine antigens. rLP2086 was generally well tolerated in the trials, with most adverse reactions being mild to moderate in severity. Although some questions remain, including the duration of the protective response, rLP2086 vaccine has the potential to be a valuable tool for the prevention of invasive MenB disease. PMID:26394633

  2. Assessment of Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Von Seggern, Marilyn

    1987-01-01

    This annotated bibliography of materials dealing with the evaluation of library reference services is arranged by category including literature success, quality, and accuracy of answers; cost and task analysis; interviews and communication; classification of reference questions; reference collections; staff availability; use and nonuse of…

  3. Academic Library Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batt, Fred

    This examination of the philosophy and objectives of academic library reference services provides an overview of the major reference approaches to fulfilling the following primary objectives of reference services: (1) providing accurate answers to patrons' questions and/or helping patrons find sources to pursue their research needs; (2) building…

  4. Sipuleucel-T for the Treatment of Metastatic Hormone-Relapsed Prostate Cancer: A NICE Single Technology Appraisal; An Evidence Review Group Perspective.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Emma L; Davis, Sarah; Thokala, Praveen; Breeze, Penny R; Bryden, Peter; Wong, Ruth

    2015-11-01

    The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited Dendreon, the company manufacturing sipuleucel-T, to submit evidence for the clinical and cost effectiveness of sipuleucel-T for asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic, metastatic, non-visceral hormone-relapsed prostate cancer patients in whom chemotherapy is not yet clinically indicated, as part of NICE's single technology appraisal process. The comparator was abiraterone acetate (AA) or best supportive care (BSC). The School of Health and Related Research at the University of Sheffield was commissioned to act as the Evidence Review Group (ERG). This paper describes the company submission (CS), ERG review, and subsequent decision of the NICE Appraisal Committee (AC). The ERG produced a critical review of the clinical and cost-effectiveness evidence of sipuleucel-T based upon the CS. Clinical-effectiveness data relevant to the decision problem were taken from three randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of sipuleucel-T and a placebo (PBO) comparator of antigen-presenting cells (APC) being re-infused (APC-PBO) (D9901, D9902A and D9902B), and one RCT (COU-AA-302) of AA plus prednisone vs. PBO plus prednisone. Two trials reported a significant advantage for sipuleucel-T in median overall survival compared with APC-PBO: for trial D9901, an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.47; (95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.29, 0.76) p < 0.002; for D9902B, adjusted HR 0.78 (95 % CI 0.61, 0.98) p = 0.03. There was no significant difference between groups in D9902A, unadjusted HR 0.79 (95 % CI 0.48, 1.28) p = 0.331. Sipuleucel-T and APC-PBO groups did not differ significantly in time to disease progression, in any of the three RCTs. Most adverse events developed within 1 day of the infusion, and resolved within 2 days. The CS included an indirect comparison of sipuleucel-T (D9902B) and AA plus prednisone (COU-AA-302). As trials differed in prior use of chemotherapy, an analysis of only chemotherapy-naïve patients was included

  5. Independent ethical review of studies involving personal medical records. Report of a working group to the Royal College of Physicians Committee on Ethical Issues in Medicine.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    There is a duty to use available information for the general good where this can be done without detriment. It is, in principle, ethically acceptable to use personal medical records without approaching or involving the patients concerned, provided that confidentiality and anonymity are preserved; such use does not require independent ethical approval provided that confidentiality is assured and subject to safeguards described below. Epidemiologists have a special interest in the use of personal medical records in their work (in this context the use of health-related registers and existing biological samples may be included), though access to such data involves professional staff in all medical specialties, not only those in epidemiology. The following guidance is based on a report of a working group (which included non-medical members) to the Royal College of Physicians Committee on Ethical Issues in Medicine. Activities such as medical audit, epidemiological surveillance, inquiries designed to establish indices of morbidity and mortality and outbreak investigations all constitute medical practice and as such do not require independent ethical review. Research involving access to medical records, health-related registers, or existing biological samples only, without direct patient involvement, requires neither explicit individual patient consent nor independent ethical review provided that: a) explicit consent to access a person's records is obtained either from official custodians of the records (who have a duty to satisfy themselves as to the bona fides and competence of the investigator) or from the patient's clinician: the decision to access personal medical information should not be left to the sole discretion of the investigator.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7807434

  6. 32 CFR 865.101 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ORGANIZATION AND MISSION-GENERAL PERSONNEL REVIEW BOARDS Air Force Discharge Review Board § 865.101 References. (a) Title 10 U.S.C., section... Directive 1332.14, “Enlisted Administrative Separations,” January 28, 1982. (g) DOD Directive 5400.7,...

  7. The Reference Librarian as General Fact-Totem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacson, David

    1980-01-01

    Argues that some reference librarians, often without knowing it, have become fact-totems--people who have made objects of worship out of facts. In suggesting an antidote to this "Gradgrind pedagogy," the author critically reviews some "reference" books. (JD)

  8. Standardization of Observatories, Instruments and Reference Frames for Planetary Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecconi, B.; Erard, S.; Le Sidaner, P.

    2015-10-01

    The recent developments on planetary science interoperability showed that a standardization of naming conventions was required for observatories (including ground based facilities and space mission), instruments (types and names) as well as reference frames used to describe planetary observations. A review of existing catalogs and naming for those entities is presented. We also report on the discussions that occurred within the IVOA (International Virtual Observatory Alliance), IPDA (International Planetary Data Alliance) and VESPA (Virtual European Solar and Planetary Access) working groups. A proposal for standard lists, possibly to be endorsed by IAU, is presented and discussed.

  9. Standardization of Observatories, Instruments and Reference Frames for Planetary Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecconi, Baptiste; Erard, Stéphane; Le Sidaner, Pierre

    2015-08-01

    The recent developments on planetary science interoperability showed that a standardization of naming conventions was required for observatories (including ground based facilities and space mission), instruments (types and names) as well as reference frames used to describe planetary observations. A review of existing catalogs and naming for those entities is presented. We also report on the discussions that occurred within the IVOA (International Virtual Observatory Alliance), IPDA (International Planetary Data Alliance) and VESPA (Virtual European Solar and Planetary Access) working groups. A proposal for standard lists, possibly to be endorsed by IAU, is presented and discussed.

  10. Inclusive Particle Production Data in E+E- Interactions: Data from DOE laboratory experiments as compiled in data reviews by the Durham High Energy Physics Database Group

    DOE Data Explorer

    Lafferty, G. D.; Reeves, P. I.; Whalley, M. R.

    A comprehensive compilation of experimental data on inclusive particle production in e+e- interactions is presented. Data are given in both tabular and graphical form for multiplicities and inclusive differential cross sections from experiments at all of the world`s high energy e+e- colliders. To facilitate comparison between the data sets, curves are also shown from the JETSET 7.4 Monte Carlo program. (Taken from the abstract of A Compilation of Inclusive Particle Production Data in E+E- Annihilation, G.D. Lafferty, P.I. Reeves, and M.R. Whalley, Journal of Physics G (Nuclear and Particle Physics), Volume 21, Number 12A, 1995.) The Durham High Energy Physics (HEP) Database Group makes these data, extracted from papers and data reviews, available in one place in an easy-to-access format. These data are also included in the Durham HEP Reaction Data Database which can be searched at http://hepdata.cedar.ac.uk/reaction

  11. Two-Photon Reactions Leading to Hadron Final States: Data from DOE laboratory experiments as compiled in data reviews by the Durham High Energy Physics Database Group

    DOE Data Explorer

    Whalley, M. R.

    This collection is a compilation of all experimental cross sections, published since 1994, on two-photon initiated reactions is presented. The author, M.R. Whalley, published this compilation in the Journal of Physics G (Nuclear and Particle Physics), volume 27, in 2001. It updates data published in 1994 by D. Morgan et al. Whalley’s abstract notes Processes with both quasi-real and virtual photons coming from e+e- collisions are encoded. The data encompass hadronic and leptonic structure functions, inclusive and exclusive hadronic cross sections, inclusive jet cross sections, heavy quark cross sections and total hadronic cross sections. Where appropriate, comparisons with theoretical curves are shown to aid the reader in comparing the different data sets. The data gathered from the relevant collaborations at DOEÆs SLAC are available, and so are data from related collaborations based at CERN, DESY, KEK, NOVO, ORSAY, and CORNELL University. The Durham High Energy Physics (HEP) Database Group makes these data, extracted from papers and data reviews, available in one place in an easy-to-access format. These data are also included in the Durham HEP Reaction Data Database which can be searched at http://hepdata.cedar.ac.uk/reaction

  12. Hadronic Total Cross Sections (R) in E+E- Interactions: Data from DOE laboratory experiments as compiled in data reviews by the Durham High Energy Physics Database Group

    DOE Data Explorer

    Whalley, M. R.

    A comprehensive compilation of experimental data on total hadronic cross sections, and R ratios, in e+e- interactions is presented. Published data from the Novosibirsk, Orsay, Frascati, SLAC, CORNELL, DESY, KEK and CERN e+e- colliders on both exclusive and inclusive final particle states are included from threshold energies to the highest LEP energies. The data are presented in tabular form supplemented by compilation plots of different exclusive final particle states and of different energy regions. (Taken from abstract of paper, A Compilation of Data on Hadronic Total Cross Sections in E+E- Interactions, M.R. Whalley, Journal of Physics G (Nuclear and Particle Physics), Volume 29, Number 12A, 2003). The Durham High Energy Physics (HEP) Database Group makes these data, extracted from papers and data reviews, available in one place in an easy-to-access format. The data are also included in the Durham HEP Reaction Data Database, which can be searched at http://hepdata.cedar.ac.uk/reaction

  13. Structure Functions in Deep Inelastic Lepton Scattering: Data from DOE laboratory experiments as compiled in data reviews by the Durham High Energy Physics Database Group

    DOE Data Explorer

    Gehrmann, T; Roberts, R. G.; Whalley, M. R.; Durham HEP Database Group

    Gehrmann, Roberts, and Whalley in their 1999 paper, A Compilation of Structure Functions in Deep Inelastic Scattering, published in volume 25 of Journal of Physics G (Nuclear and Particle Physics) note that these data will continue to be relevant to the next generation of hadron colliders. They present data on the unpolarized structure functions F2 and xF3, R D ._L=_T /, the virtual photon asymmetries A1 and A2 and the polarized structure functions g1 and g2, from deep inelastic lepton scattering off protons, deuterium and nuclei. Data are presented in both tabular and graphical format and include predictions based on the MRST98 and CTEQ4 parton distribution functionsö as well. The data gathered from the relevant collaborations at DOE's Fermilab, SLAC, and JLAB are available, and so are data from related collaborations based at CERN and DESY. The Durham High Energy Physics (HEP) Database Group makes these data, extracted from papers and data reviews, available in one place in an easy-to-access format. These data are also include in the Durham HEP Reaction Data Database which can be searched at http://hepdata.cedar.ac.uk/reaction

  14. The Evolving Biology of Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: Review of Recommendations From the Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials Working Group 3.

    PubMed

    Geethakumari, Praveen Ramakrishnan; Cookson, Michael S; Kelly, William Kevin

    2016-02-01

    In 2008, the Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials Working Group 2 (PCWG2) developed consensus guidelines for clinical trial design and conduct that redefined trial endpoints, with a dual-objective paradigm: to (1) controlling, relieving, or eliminating disease manifestations at the start of treatment; and (2) preventing or delaying further disease manifestations. Clinical and translational research in prostate cancer has expanded our current-day understanding of the mechanisms of its pathogenesis, as well as the different clinicopathologic and molecular subtypes of the disease, and has improved the therapeutic armamentarium for the management of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). These new advances led to the development of the updated PCWG3 guidelines in 2015. In this review, we analyze our evolving understanding of the biology of CRPC, acquired resistance mechanisms, and emerging therapeutic targets in light of the updated PCWG3 guidelines. We present a joint perspective from the medical oncology and urologic disciplines on the ongoing efforts to advance clinical trial performance in order to discover new therapies for this fatal disease. PMID:26888794

  15. Single Photon Production in Hadronic Interactions: Data from DOE laboratory experiments as compiled in data reviews by the Durham High Energy Physics Database Group

    DOE Data Explorer

    Vogelsang and Whalley in their 1997 paper, ôA Compilation of Data on Single and Double Prompt Photon Production in Hadron-Hadron Interactionsö published in volume 23 of Journal of Physics G (Nuclear and Particle Physics) present the compilation as well as ôan interpretation of these data in terms of the æstate-of-the-art NLO theory with specific emphasis on the uncertainties involved.ö They also say, ôComparisons of this theory with the individual data sets are made in order to indicate to the reader the scope and general status of the available data. For completeness, data on two-prompt-photon production are also included in a separate small section.ö The data gathered from the relevant collaborations at DOEÆs Fermilab are available, and so are data from related collaborations based at CERN. The Durham High Energy Physics (HEP) Database Group makes these data, extracted from papers and data reviews, available in one place in an easy-to-access format. These data are also included in the Durham HEP Reaction Data Database which can be searched at http://hepdata.cedar.ac.uk/reaction

  16. Genetics Home Reference: Gorlin syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Syndrome Life Support Network Gorlin Syndrome Group National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) GeneReviews (1 link) Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome Genetic Testing Registry (1 link) Gorlin syndrome Scientific articles on PubMed (1 link) PubMed OMIM (1 link) ...

  17. Review Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Dean; Harris, Alma; Strain, Michael; Willmott, Rob; Gunter, Helen

    2002-01-01

    The book "Leaders and Leadership in Education," by Helen Gunter, is the topic of four separate reviews and a response by the author. Each brief essay contains references. Dean Fink describes the book as "a breathtaking survey of contemporary management and leadership literature, particularly British." (Contains 68 references.) (MLF)

  18. Guide to Children's Magazines, Newspapers, Reference Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Peter

    The annotated entries in this bibliography of publications for children are divided into two categories: magazines and newspapers, and reference books. The first section, arranged alphabetically, includes periodicals on sports, science, history, hobbies, and entertainment. The reference books are grouped under the following headings: biography,…

  19. Species of Pseudorhabdosynochus (Monogenea, Diplectanidae) from Groupers (Mycteroperca spp., Epinephelidae) in the Mediterranean and Eastern Atlantic Ocean, with Special Reference to the 'Beverleyburtonae Group' and Description of Two New Species.

    PubMed

    Chaabane, Amira; Neifar, Lassad; Gey, Delphine; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2016-01-01

    Pseudorhabdosynochus Yamaguti, 1958 is a species-rich diplectanid genus, mainly restricted to the gills of groupers (Epinephelidae) and especially abundant in warm seas. Species from the Mediterranean are not fully documented. Two new and two previously known species from the gills of Mycteroperca spp. (M. costae, M. rubra, and M. marginata) in the Mediterranean and Eastern Atlantic Ocean are described here from new material and slides kept in collections. Identifications of newly collected fish were ascertained by barcoding of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences. Pseudorhabdosynochus beverleyburtonae (Oliver, 1984) Kritsky & Beverley-Burton, 1986 and P. sosia Neifar & Euzet 2007 are redescribed from type-specimens and new specimens collected off Tunisia and Libya from M. marginata and M. costae, respectively. Pseudorhabdosynochus oliveri n. sp., from M. marginata (type-host) off the Mediterranean coast of France (type-locality), is described from specimens found among voucher specimens of P. beverleyburtonae deposited by Guy Oliver in the collection of the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris. Pseudorhabdosynochus oliveri is distinguished by the shape of its sclerotised vagina; it was not found in the other localities investigated. Pseudorhabdosynochus hayet n. sp. is described from M. rubra (type host) off Senegal (type-locality) and Tunisia. Pseudorhabdosynochus hayet is morphologically similar to P. sosia (type-host: M. costae) but was distinguished by differences in measurements of the vagina and male copulatory organ, different host, and divergent COI sequences. The four species (P. beverleyburtonae, P. sosia, P. oliveri, and P. hayet) share common characteristics such as squamodiscs with 2 innermost circular rows of rodlets and a similar general structure of the sclerotised vagina; we propose to group them into a 'beverleyburtonae group' within Pseudorhabdosynochus. PMID:27532108

  20. High frequency reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or halo' at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes. 4 figs.