Science.gov

Sample records for reference group reviews

  1. Reference Effectiveness: A Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Ronald R.

    1984-01-01

    This research review analyzes output measures that assess the effectiveness of a library's reference services: reference questions, reference staff performance, reference users, combined output measures, and combined input/output measures. The need for research, a definition of reference effectiveness, and input measures are noted. Seventy-three…

  2. Promotional Perspectives of Reference Group Influence: Advertising Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lessig, V. Parker; Park, C. Whan

    1978-01-01

    Examines the role of reference groups and promotional appeals in satisfying consumer motivations. Emphasizes three motivational reference group functions: informational, utilitarian, and value-expressive. (RL)

  3. Group Projects and Peer Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyrud, Marilyn A.

    2001-01-01

    Describes problems the author experienced with disfunctionality in student group projects. Describes how she implemented informal and formal peer reviews throughout the term in these groups, which has helped short-circuit disfunctionality, improve student productivity, and help the instructor form a fairer overall assessment. (SR)

  4. With Reference to Reference Genes: A Systematic Review of Endogenous Controls in Gene Expression Studies

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Joanne R.; Waldenström, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    The choice of reference genes that are stably expressed amongst treatment groups is a crucial step in real-time quantitative PCR gene expression studies. Recent guidelines have specified that a minimum of two validated reference genes should be used for normalisation. However, a quantitative review of the literature showed that the average number of reference genes used across all studies was 1.2. Thus, the vast majority of studies continue to use a single gene, with β-actin (ACTB) and/or glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) being commonly selected in studies of vertebrate gene expression. Few studies (15%) tested a panel of potential reference genes for stability of expression before using them to normalise data. Amongst studies specifically testing reference gene stability, few found ACTB or GAPDH to be optimal, whereby these genes were significantly less likely to be chosen when larger panels of potential reference genes were screened. Fewer reference genes were tested for stability in non-model organisms, presumably owing to a dearth of available primers in less well characterised species. Furthermore, the experimental conditions under which real-time quantitative PCR analyses were conducted had a large influence on the choice of reference genes, whereby different studies of rat brain tissue showed different reference genes to be the most stable. These results highlight the importance of validating the choice of normalising reference genes before conducting gene expression studies. PMID:26555275

  5. Ageing and the group-reference effect in memory.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeon-Nyeon; Rosa, Nicole M; Gutchess, Angela H

    2016-07-01

    The present study examines age differences in the memory benefits from group-referncing. While prior work establishes that the memory performance of younger and older adults similarly benefits from relating information to the self, this study assessed whether those benefits extend to referencing a meaningful group membership. Young and older adult participants encoded trait words by judging whether each word describes themselves, describes their group membership (selected for each age group), or is familiar. After a retention interval, participants completed a surprise recognition memory test. The results indicate that group-referencing increased recognition memory performance compared to the familiarity judgements for both young and older groups. However, the group-reference benefit is limited, emerging as smaller than the benefit from self-referencing. These results challenge previous findings of equivalent benefits for group-referencing and self-referencing, suggesting that such effects may not prevail under all conditions, including for older adults. The findings also highlight the need to examine the mechanisms of group-referencing that can lead to variability in the group-reference effect. PMID:26252870

  6. REFERENCE GROUP ORIENTATION AND TEACHER ATTITUDE TOWARD SCHOOL DISTRICT REORGANIZATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRUMBAUGH, ROBERT B.

    A STUDY WAS REPORTED OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LOCAL-COSMOPOLITAN ORIENTATION, A CONCEPT FROM REFERENCE GROUP THEORY, AND THE RESISTANCE TO ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE. A QUESTIONNAIRE WAS ADMINISTERED TO 329 PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHERS IN FIVE CONTIGUOUS SCHOOL DISTRICTS IN CENTRAL PENNSYLVANIA WHICH WERE TO LOSE THEIR INDIVIDUAL IDENTITIES UNDER THE…

  7. Male Reference Group Identity Dependence: A Theory of Male Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Jay C.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a theory of male identity developed to address the question of why men vary in their masculinity ideology and in their conformity to standards of masculinity. An overview of relevant masculinity research, theoretical foundations for the construct of reference group identity dependence, theoretical postulates, associated behavioral, and…

  8. Relative Deprivation and Health: Which Reference Groups Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangyo, Eiji; Park, Albert

    2011-01-01

    We examine the extent to which self-reported health and psychosocial health are affected by relative economic status in China, for the first time examining the importance of reference groups not defined by geographic location or demographic characteristics. We propose a methodology to address potential bias from subjective reporting biases and…

  9. Detecting Deception within Small Groups: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Vernham, Zarah; Granhag, Pär-Anders; Mac Giolla, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Investigators often have multiple suspects to interview in order to determine whether they are guilty or innocent of a crime. Nevertheless, co-offending has been significantly neglected within the deception detection literature. The current review is the first of its kind to discuss co-offending and the importance of examining the detection of deception within groups. Groups of suspects can be interviewed separately (individual interviewing) or simultaneously (collective interviewing) and these differing interviewing styles are assessed throughout the review. The review emphasizes the differences between lone individuals and groups. It focuses on the theoretical implications of group deceit and the reasons why groups need to be understood in terms of investigative interviewing and deception detection if all types of crime-related incidents are to be recognized and dealt with appropriately. Group strategies, consistency within- and between-statements, joint memory, and group dynamics are referred to throughout the review and the importance of developing interview protocols specifically for groups is discussed. The review concludes by identifying the gaps in the literature and suggesting ideas for future research, highlighting that more research is required if we are to obtain a true understanding of the deception occurring within groups and how best to detect it. PMID:27445957

  10. Development of a Unified Reference System for a Multi-personnel Research Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, D.; Fitzpaynes, J. Y. L.

    1973-01-01

    The establishment of a reference filing system, based on optical coincidence retrieval, for an eight-man research group studying gas reactions is described. The complete system is simple to use and gives rapid, precise reference retrieval. (1 reference) (Author)

  11. The reference group perspective for smoking cessation: an examination of the influence of social norms and social identification with reference groups on smoking cessation self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Phua, Joe J

    2013-03-01

    This study proposed the Reference Group Perspective for smoking cessation, examining smokers' identification with three reference groups: best friends, colleagues, and family members, and hypothesizing that identification with each group would moderate the relationship between injunctive and descriptive norms of the group and smoking cessation self-efficacy. Results of an online questionnaire (N = 208) indicated that injunctive and descriptive norms of all three reference groups significantly affected smoking cessation self-efficacy, and this relationship was moderated by identification. Injunctive norms were stronger in predicting smoking cessation self-efficacy than descriptive norms, with injunctive norms of family members and descriptive norms of best friends having the most significant effect. Positive attitude toward smoking was also significantly associated with smoking cessation self-efficacy. PMID:22732053

  12. Reference manual for the POISSON/SUPERFISH Group of Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The POISSON/SUPERFISH Group codes were set up to solve two separate problems: the design of magnets and the design of rf cavities in a two-dimensional geometry. The first stage of either problem is to describe the layout of the magnet or cavity in a way that can be used as input to solve the generalized Poisson equation for magnets or the Helmholtz equations for cavities. The computer codes require that the problems be discretized by replacing the differentials (dx,dy) by finite differences ({delta}X,{delta}Y). Instead of defining the function everywhere in a plane, the function is defined only at a finite number of points on a mesh in the plane.

  13. 7 CFR 3415.11 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3415.11 Section... Research Grant Applications § 3415.11 Composition of peer review groups. (a) Peer review group members and... need to maintain a balanced composition of peer review groups related to minority and...

  14. 7 CFR 3415.11 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3415.11 Section... Research Grant Applications § 3415.11 Composition of peer review groups. (a) Peer review group members and... need to maintain a balanced composition of peer review groups related to minority and...

  15. 7 CFR 3415.11 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3415.11 Section... Research Grant Applications § 3415.11 Composition of peer review groups. (a) Peer review group members and... need to maintain a balanced composition of peer review groups related to minority and...

  16. Reference Groups for Female Attractiveness Among Black and White College Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Algea O.; Stoner, David M.

    This study is concerned with the comparative reference group used by black and white women when evaluating female attractiveness. The study's examination of this issue is part of a larger report on the relationship between self-concept, attractiveness and reference group for black and white women. The study used the technique proposed by McGuire…

  17. 7 CFR 3411.11 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3411.11 Section... PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Grant Applications § 3411.11 Composition of peer review groups... need to maintain a balanced composition of peer review groups related to minority and...

  18. Group Work for Bulimia: A Review of Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimpfer, David G.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews descriptive and experimental research relating to the eating disorder known as bulimia nervosa. Reviews outcome studies of group treatment of bulimia to examine the effectiveness of group intervention. Provides recommendations for practice and future research. (Author/PVV)

  19. Reference radiochromic film dosimetry: Review of technical aspects.

    PubMed

    Devic, Slobodan; Tomic, Nada; Lewis, David

    2016-04-01

    For decades, film was used as a powerful two-dimensional (2D) dosimetry tool for radiotherapy treatment verification and quality assurance. Unlike the old silver-halide based radiographic films, radiochromic films change its color upon irradiation without the need for chemical development. Radiation dose deposited within a sensitive layer of the radiochromic film initiates polymerization of the active component, the degree of which depends on the amount of energy deposited. Response of the film to radiation is commonly expressed in terms of optical density change, which can be easily measured by any photometric device. However, a number of factors may have an impact on the signal detected by the measuring device. This review summarizes technical aspects associated with the establishment of reference radiochromic film dosimetry and its subsequent use for either clinical or research applications. PMID:27020097

  20. 7 CFR 3400.11 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3400.11 Section 3400.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH... Review of Research Grant Applications § 3400.11 Composition of peer review groups. (a) Peer review...

  1. 7 CFR 3411.11 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3411.11 Section... Research Grant Applications § 3411.11 Composition of peer review groups. (a) Peer review group members and..., private consultant(s)) and geographic locations; and (4) The need to maintain a balanced composition...

  2. 7 CFR 3400.11 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3400.11 Section 3400.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD... § 3400.11 Composition of peer review groups. (a) Peer review group members will be selected based...

  3. 7 CFR 3401.13 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3401.13 Section 3401.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD... Funding § 3401.13 Composition of peer review groups. Peer review group members will be selected based...

  4. 7 CFR 3401.13 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3401.13 Section 3401.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD... Funding § 3401.13 Composition of peer review groups. Peer review group members will be selected based...

  5. 7 CFR 3400.11 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3400.11 Section 3400.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD... § 3400.11 Composition of peer review groups. (a) Peer review group members will be selected based...

  6. 7 CFR 3401.13 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3401.13 Section 3401.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD... Funding § 3401.13 Composition of peer review groups. Peer review group members will be selected based...

  7. 7 CFR 3400.11 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3400.11 Section 3400.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD... § 3400.11 Composition of peer review groups. (a) Peer review group members will be selected based...

  8. 7 CFR 3401.13 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3401.13 Section 3401.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD... Funding § 3401.13 Composition of peer review groups. Peer review group members will be selected based...

  9. 7 CFR 3400.11 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3400.11 Section 3400.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD... § 3400.11 Composition of peer review groups. (a) Peer review group members will be selected based...

  10. Wade's and Gelso's Contribution to the New Psychology of Men: Male Reference Group Dependence Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, James M.

    1998-01-01

    Relates Wade's and Gelso's Male Reference Group Dependence Theory to past and present literature in the new psychology of men. Points out the strengths of the ideas and data; reflects on where the theory needs more clarification and extension. (MKA)

  11. Effects of reference pricing in pharmaceutical markets: a review.

    PubMed

    Galizzi, Matteo Maria; Ghislandi, Simone; Miraldo, Marisa

    2011-01-01

    This work aims to provide a systematic and updated survey of original scientific studies on the effect of the introduction of reference pricing (RP) policies in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. We searched PubMed, EconLit and Web of Knowledge for articles on RP. We reviewed studies that met the inclusion criteria established in the search strategy. From a total of 468 references, we selected the 35 that met all of the inclusion criteria. Some common themes emerged in the literature. The first was that RP was generally associated with a decrease in the prices of the drugs subject to the policy. In particular, price drops seem to have been experienced in virtually every country that implemented a generic RP (GRP) policy. A GRP policy applies only to products with expired patents and generic competition, and clusters drugs according to chemical equivalence (same form and active compound). More significant price decreases were observed in the sub-markets in which drugs were already facing generic competition prior to RP. Price drops varied widely according to the amount of generic competition and industrial strategies: brand-named drugs originally priced above RP values decreased their prices to a greater extent. A second common theme was that both therapeutic RP (TRP) and GRP have been associated with significant and consistent savings in the first years of application. A third general result is that generic market shares significantly increased whenever the firms producing brand-named drugs did not adopt one of the following strategies: lowering prices to RP values; launching new dosages and/or formulations; or marketing substitute drugs still under patent protection. Finally, concerning TRP, although more evidence is needed, studies based on a large number of patient-level observations showed no association between the RP policy and health outcomes. PMID:21142276

  12. Establishing a reference group for distal 18q-: clinical description and molecular basis.

    PubMed

    Cody, Jannine D; Hasi, Minire; Soileau, Bridgette; Heard, Patricia; Carter, Erika; Sebold, Courtney; O'Donnell, Louise; Perry, Brian; Stratton, Robert F; Hale, Daniel E

    2014-02-01

    Although constitutional chromosome abnormalities have been recognized since the 1960s, clinical characterization and development of treatment options have been hampered by their obvious genetic complexity and relative rarity. Additionally, deletions of 18q are particularly heterogeneous, with no two people having the same breakpoints. We identified 16 individuals with deletions that, despite unique breakpoints, encompass the same set of genes within a 17.6-Mb region. This group represents the most genotypically similar group yet identified with distal 18q deletions. As the deletion is of average size when compared with other 18q deletions, this group can serve as a reference point for the clinical and molecular description of this condition. We performed a thorough medical record review as well as a series of clinical evaluations on 14 of the 16 individuals. Common functional findings included developmental delays, hypotonia, growth hormone deficiency, and hearing loss. Structural anomalies included foot anomalies, ear canal atresia/stenosis, and hypospadias. The majority of individuals performed within the low normal range of cognitive ability but had more serious deficits in adaptive abilities. Of interest, the hemizygous region contains 38 known genes, 26 of which are sufficiently understood to tentatively determine dosage sensitivity. Published data suggest that 20 are unlikely to cause an abnormal phenotype in the hemizygous state and five are likely to be dosage sensitive: TNX3, NETO1, ZNF407, TSHZ1, and NFATC. A sixth gene, ATP9B, may be conditionally dosage sensitive. Not all distal 18q- phenotypes can be attributed to these six genes; however, this is an important advance in the molecular characterization of 18q deletions. PMID:24092497

  13. Grounding a Stereotype Theory: Reference Group Variable and the Homosexual Stereotype.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simms, Steven A.

    To ascertain the audience's perception of the homosexual stereotyped character in reference to the social contact variable, two groups were shown a television situational comedy that depicted two homosexual characters. The two groups, one composed of 45 homosexual and the other of 95 heterosexual college students, were then asked to evaluate the…

  14. A retrospective review of cancer treatments and outcomes among Inuit referred from Nunavut, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Asmis, T.R.; Febbraro, M.; Alvarez, G.G.; Spaans, J.N.; Ruta, M.; Lalany, A.; Osborne, G.; Goss, G.D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cancer is a health concern in Inuit populations. Unique cultural, dietary, and genetic factors and geographic isolation influence cancer epidemiology in this group. Inuit-specific data about oncology treatments and survival outcomes in Canadian Inuit referred to urban treatment centres are lacking. Methods A retrospective chart review of Inuit patients referred to The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre (tohcc) from the Baffin region of Nunavut between 2000 and 2010 was conducted. Nunavut cancer registry data were used to establish the percentage of cancer cases referred and their survival outcomes. Results Of 307 cancer patients registered among Baffin-region Inuit, 216 [70% (63 men, 153 women)] were referred to tohcc for chemotherapy (ct) and radiation therapy (rt). Mean age in the referred group was 59.3 years (range: 25–89 years), and current smokers constituted half the group (52%). The cancers most commonly leading to referral in men were lung (55%), colorectal (19%), and nasopharyngeal (11%) cancers; in women, they were lung (46%), colorectal (24%), breast (10%), nasopharyngeal (6%), and cervical (5%) cancers. Of the 216 referred patients, 82 (38%) had already undergone surgery, and 18 (8%) received chemoradiation or rt only, all given with curative intent. Among the surgical patients referred, 33 (40%) and 23 (28%) went on to receive adjuvant ct and adjuvant rt respectively. Among 116 patients referred for palliative care, 64 (55%) received ct, 76 (66%) received rt, 43 (37%) received both ct and rt, and 19 (16%) received neither treatment. Median all-stage overall survival was 10 months for patients with lung cancer [95% confidence interval: 6.1 to 13.9 months] and 37 months for patients with colorectal cancer [95% confidence interval: 14.8 to 59.2 months]. Conclusions High uptake of palliative and adjuvant ct and rt was observed in the Inuit patients referred to tohcc. Lung cancer was the most common cancer in referred Inuit men and women. The

  15. Mentoring Together: A Literature Review of Group Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huizing, Russell L.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have shown the benefits of mentoring in both personal and professional growth. It would seem that group mentoring would only enhance those benefits. This work represents a literature review of peer-reviewed articles and dissertations that contribute to the theory and research of group mentoring. This work reviews the articles that…

  16. 7 CFR 3401.13 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3401.13 Section 3401.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH... Peer Review of Research Applications for Funding § 3401.13 Composition of peer review groups....

  17. Changing Reference Service Environment: A Review of Perspectives from Managers, Librarians, and Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieh, Soo Young

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the literature on academic library reference service, and examines changes in the traditional reference desk model. Based on the review from the perspectives of managers, librarians, and users, new research directions are proposed in which users' information-search processes and librarians' intervention in reference service are integrated.…

  18. A Review of Group Systems Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, Joanie V.; Caple, Richard B.

    2005-01-01

    The ability to see interpersonal and group processes beyond the individual level is an essential skill for group therapists (Crouch, Bloch & Wanlass, 1994; Dies, 1994; Fuhriman & Burlingame, 1994). In addition to interpersonal therapy models (e.g., Sullivan and Yalom), there are a number of systems theory models that offer a broad array of…

  19. [Review of normal spectral emissivity standard reference materials].

    PubMed

    Yu, Kun; Liu, Yu-Fang; Zhao, Yue-Jin

    2012-11-01

    In order to improve the accuracy of spectral emissivity measurement, standard reference materials of spectral emissivity as the dissemination of quantity in spectral emissivity measurement are used for the calibration of spectral emissivity measurement apparatus. In the present paper, firstly the standard reference materials data proposed by the American National Institute of Standards and Technology are introduced, and some underlying standard reference materials suggested by some metering departments in Europe are analyzed in detail For the standard reference material Armco iron and SiC proposed by some researchers, the advantages and disadvantages were explored. Finally, the characteristics of standard reference materials are summarized, and the future development of spectral emissivity measurement standard is prospected. PMID:23387148

  20. 75 FR 55793 - Cooperative Agreement to Support the Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... Burden Epidemiology Reference Group of the World Health Organization (U18) AGENCY: Food and Drug... fiscal year 2010 (FY10) to the World Health Organization (WHO). One of the primary goals of the WHO is to... the estimation of foodborne disease burden where data are lacking; develop cause attribution models...

  1. 42 CFR 52h.4 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 52h.4 Section 52h.4 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS SCIENTIFIC... Composition of peer review groups. (a) To the extent applicable, the selection and appointment of members...

  2. 42 CFR 52h.4 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 52h.4 Section 52h.4 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS SCIENTIFIC... Composition of peer review groups. (a) To the extent applicable, the selection and appointment of members...

  3. 42 CFR 52h.4 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 52h.4 Section 52h.4 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS SCIENTIFIC... Composition of peer review groups. (a) To the extent applicable, the selection and appointment of members...

  4. 42 CFR 52h.4 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 52h.4 Section 52h.4 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS SCIENTIFIC... Composition of peer review groups. (a) To the extent applicable, the selection and appointment of members...

  5. 42 CFR 52h.4 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 52h.4 Section 52h.4 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS SCIENTIFIC... Composition of peer review groups. (a) To the extent applicable, the selection and appointment of members...

  6. Factors of Group Psychotherapy for Adult Alcoholics: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Jonathan K.

    Research on therapeutic factors of group psychotherapy for adult alcoholics is reviewed. The research in this area has focused on determining whether or not group psychotherapy is an effective treatment modality for alcoholics. This review examines therapeutic factors in three phases of treatment: (1) preadmission, (2) primary intervention, and…

  7. Focusing on Content: Discourse in L2 Peer Review Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorobel, Oksana; Kim, Deoksoon

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies on peer review groups in second language classes have focused on various topics, including collaboration (Carr, 2008) and the effect of peer review versus teacher feedback on students' writing (Zhang, 1995). One area that has received little attention is the content of students' speech during peer review. This longitudinal…

  8. The Organic Food Method and Movement: An Interdisciplinary Reference Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Elizabeth E.

    2011-01-01

    From popular movies to New York Times bestsellers, organic food is widely acknowledged to be of growing importance. Many community college students are asking: How is organic food different from everything else in the grocery store? What impact does farming have on the environment? How safe is our food? A survey of reference works introduces…

  9. 7 CFR 3415.11 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3415.11 Section 3415.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE BIOTECHNOLOGY RISK ASSESSMENT RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Grant Applications § 3415.11 Composition...

  10. Genomic Characterization of Group C Orthobunyavirus Reference Strains and Recent South American Clinical Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yu; Solórzano, Víctor Fiestas; Kuschner, Robert A.; Halsey, Eric S.; Jarman, Richard G.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.

    2014-01-01

    Group C orthobunyaviruses (family Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus), discovered in the 1950s, are vector-borne human pathogens in the Americas. Currently there is a gap in genomic information for group C viruses. In this study, we obtained complete coding region sequences of reference strains of Caraparu (CARV), Oriboca (ORIV), Marituba (MTBV) and Madrid (MADV) viruses, and five clinical isolates from Peru and Bolivia, using an unbiased de novo approach consisting of random reverse transcription, random anchored PCR amplification, and high throughput pyrosequencing. The small, medium, and large segments encode for a 235 amino acid nucleocapsid protein, an approximately 1430 amino acid surface glycoprotein polyprotein precursor, and a 2248 amino acid RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, respectively. Additionally, the S segment encodes for an 83 amino acid non-structural protein, although this protein is truncated or silenced in some isolates. Phylogenetically, three clinical isolates clustered with CARV, one clustered with MTBV, and one isolate appeared to be a reassortant or a genetic drift resulted from the high variability of the medium segment which was also seen in a few other orthobunyaviruses. These data represent the first complete coding region sequences for this serocomplex of pathogenic orthobunyaviruses. The genome-wide phylogeny of reference strains is consistent with the antigenic properties of the viruses reported in the original serological studies conducted in the 1960s. Comparative analysis of conserved protein regions across group C virus strains and the other orthobunyavirus groups revealed that these group C viruses contain characteristic domains of potential structural and functional significance. Our results provide the basis for the developments of diagnostics, further genetic analyses, and future epidemiologic studies of group C viruses. PMID:24633174

  11. Filtration and dewatering: review of literature. [117 references

    SciTech Connect

    Gala, H. B.; Chiang, S. H.

    1980-09-01

    Filtration and dewatering are important aspects of any chemical process involved in producing solid product from a slurry. However, these operations are not studied in as much detail as other industrial operations like distillation, absorption, etc. In the past, the design of filtration equipment was considered more of an art than science. Only in the last few years have attempts been made to understand the fundamental mechanism underlying these operations. In this review, the present status of filtration and dewatering is discussed, particularly concerning the models used for predicting the rate of filtration and dewatering. Effects of various parameters, size of particles in the slurry, their shape and method of cake formation, etc., on the characteristics of these operations are analyzed. A separate chapter on the use of these processes in coal cleaning is included. Dewatering of fine coal and refuse has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years. Special problems associated with dewatering of fine coal are discussed. Enhanced methods of dewatering are reviewed and finally areas requiring further research are highlighted.

  12. First Report of the Stable North America Reference Frame (SNARF) Working Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blewitt, G.; Bennett, R. A.; Calais, E.; Herring, T. A.; Larson, K. M.; Miller, M. M.; Sella, G.; Snay, R. A.; Tamisiea, M. E.

    2004-05-01

    We report on the first SNARF Workshop funded by NSF EarthScope, held on Jan 27, 2004. The initial SNARF Working Group membership was approved by the UNAVCO Board and is charged with producing a standard reference frame (for studies in North America) and specifying standard procedures to realize such a frame to meet the needs of EarthScope and the UNAVCO community. SNARF is an official IAG working group under the North America Reference Frame (NAREF) sub-commission. There is also a public service element to these activities in that one objective is for SNARF to become part of the definition of the legal reference frame used in the USA and Canada (NAD83), a natural spin-off demanded by society's increasingly sophisticated needs following on the heels of scientific progress. Through the first workshop, the SNARF WG has already begun to address the pressing needs for a North America-fixed reference frame that is stable at the sub-millimeter level, and what is involved in defining a frame with such stability. Velocity solutions from GPS networks covering the North America-Pacific plate boundary (including the Plate Boundary Observatory under construction) are most naturally expressed with respect to the stable interiors of either the North America or Pacific plates. As well as providing a common frame by which to compare results from different analysis groups, such a system makes it easier to interpret the data in terms of where the total budget of relative plate motion is accomodated, and how deep plate boundary dynamics penetrate into the plate interior. Defining a stable frame at the sub-millimeter level requires adequate characterization of kinematics at that level across a sufficiently broad expanse of what may be termed the "plate interior," which deforms due to GIA and other mantle processes, coupled with lithospheric heterogeneity. A dynamically defined velocity datum (as opposed to a purely kinematic choice) is preferable to add interpretive value to site

  13. Constellation Mission Operation Working Group: ESMO Maneuver Planning Process Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moyer, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The Earth Science Mission Operation (ESMO) Project created an Independent Review Board to review our Conjunction Risk evaluation process and Maneuver Planning Process to identify improvements that safely manages mission conjunction risks, maintains ground track science requirements, and minimizes overall hours expended on High Interest Events (HIE). The Review Board is evaluating the current maneuver process which requires support by multiple groups. In the past year, there have been several changes to the processes although many prior and new concerns exist. This presentation will discuss maneuver process reviews and Board comments, ESMO assessment and path foward, ESMO future plans, recent changes and concerns.

  14. Systematic review to support the development of nutrient reference intake values: challenges and solutions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Workshops sponsored by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and the World Health Organization (WHO) suggested that incorporating systematic reviews into the process of updating nutrient reference values would enhance the transparency of the process. The IOM issues the Dietary Reference Intake values (DR...

  15. Aggression in children with autism spectrum disorders and a clinic-referred comparison group.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Cristan; Butter, Eric; Mazurek, Micah O; Cowan, Charles; Lainhart, Janet; Cook, Edwin H; DeWitt, Mary Beth; Aman, Michael

    2015-04-01

    A gap exists in the literature regarding aggression in autism spectrum disorders and how this behavior compares to other groups. In this multisite study, the Children's Scale for Hostility and Aggression: Reactive/Proactive and the Aggression subscale of the Child Behavior Checklist were rated for 414 children with autism spectrum disorder (autistic disorder, 69%; pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, 24%; Asperger's disorder, 7%) and 243 clinic-referred children without autism spectrum disorder, aged 1-21 years (mean age about 7 years). Participants were not selected for aggressive behavior. Relative to the comparison group, children with autism spectrum disorder were reported to have less aggression and were more likely to be rated as reactive rather than proactive. Among all subjects, sex was not associated with aggression; higher IQ/adaptive behavior and older age were associated with more sophisticated types of aggression, while lower scores on IQ, adaptive behavior, and communication measures were associated with more physical aggression. The interaction between demographic variables and diagnosis was significant only for age: younger but not older children with autism spectrum disorder showed less aggression than clinic-referred controls. PMID:24497627

  16. 42 CFR 61.15 - Moral character or loyalty; reference to Special Review Committee; review and recommendation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Moral character or loyalty; reference to Special Review Committee; review and recommendation. 61.15 Section 61.15 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular...

  17. 42 CFR 61.15 - Moral character or loyalty; reference to Special Review Committee; review and recommendation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Moral character or loyalty; reference to Special Review Committee; review and recommendation. 61.15 Section 61.15 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular...

  18. 42 CFR 61.15 - Moral character or loyalty; reference to Special Review Committee; review and recommendation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Moral character or loyalty; reference to Special Review Committee; review and recommendation. 61.15 Section 61.15 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular...

  19. 42 CFR 61.15 - Moral character or loyalty; reference to Special Review Committee; review and recommendation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Moral character or loyalty; reference to Special Review Committee; review and recommendation. 61.15 Section 61.15 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular...

  20. 42 CFR 61.15 - Moral character or loyalty; reference to Special Review Committee; review and recommendation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Moral character or loyalty; reference to Special Review Committee; review and recommendation. 61.15 Section 61.15 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular...

  1. Strategic groups in health care: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Perryman, Martha M; Rivers, Patrick A

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to review the literature that discusses the relationship between strategic group membership and performance in the nursing home industry. This literature review examines the relationship between organizational structure and performance in the nursing home industry. Results from these studies suggest industry stability of segmentation; limitation of strategic choice due to high mobility barriers (as represented by facility, staffing and location variables); quality is controlled by the existing combinations of industry regulation and market competition; and the existence of performance differences among strategic groups. PMID:21840900

  2. Quantum reference frames associated with noncompact groups: The case of translations and boosts and the role of mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Alexander R. H.; Piani, Marco; Mann, Robert B.

    2016-07-01

    Quantum communication without a shared reference frame or the construction of a relational quantum theory requires the notion of a quantum reference frame. We analyze aspects of quantum reference frames associated with noncompact groups, specifically, the group of spatial translations and Galilean boosts. We begin by demonstrating how the usually employed group average, used to dispense of the notion of an external reference frame, leads to unphysical states when applied to reference frames associated with noncompact groups. However, we show that this average does lead naturally to a reduced state on the relative degrees of freedom of a system, which was previously considered by Angelo et al. [J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 44, 145304 (2011), 10.1088/1751-8113/44/14/145304]. We then study in detail the informational properties of this reduced state for systems of two and three particles in Gaussian states.

  3. 15 CFR 2002.1 - Trade Policy Committee Review Group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Trade Policy Committee Review Group. 2002.1 Section 2002.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements..., December 11, 1971 (15 CFR 2002.1), is abolished and there is hereby established as a subordinate body...

  4. 15 CFR 2002.1 - Trade Policy Committee Review Group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., December 11, 1971 (15 CFR 2002.1), is abolished and there is hereby established as a subordinate body of... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trade Policy Committee Review Group. 2002.1 Section 2002.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade...

  5. Software Development Group. Software Review Center. Microcomputing Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkey, Nadine; Smith, Shirley C.

    Two papers describe the roles of the Software Development Group (SDG) and the Software Review Center (SRC) at Drexel University. The first paper covers the primary role of the SDG, which is designed to assist Drexel faculty with the technical design and programming of courseware for the Apple Macintosh microcomputer; the relationship of the SDG…

  6. 15 CFR 2002.1 - Trade Policy Committee Review Group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., December 11, 1971 (15 CFR 2002.1), is abolished and there is hereby established as a subordinate body of... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Trade Policy Committee Review Group. 2002.1 Section 2002.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade...

  7. 15 CFR 2002.1 - Trade Policy Committee Review Group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., December 11, 1971 (15 CFR 2002.1), is abolished and there is hereby established as a subordinate body of... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Trade Policy Committee Review Group. 2002.1 Section 2002.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade...

  8. Business vs. Cultural Frames of Reference in Group Decision Making: Interactions among Austrian, Finnish, and Swedish Business Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auer-Rizzi, Werner; Berry Michael

    2000-01-01

    Examines ways business and cultural frames of reference affect decision making in multicultural groups. Finds students' reactions to two class activities shows how "groupthink" arose in both exercises; cultural interference paralyzed group decision making in one group; and cultural interference demonstrated the importance of a cultural negotiation…

  9. Evolutionary dynamics of group interactions on structured populations: a review

    PubMed Central

    Perc, Matjaž; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús; Szolnoki, Attila; Floría, Luis M.; Moreno, Yamir

    2013-01-01

    Interactions among living organisms, from bacteria colonies to human societies, are inherently more complex than interactions among particles and non-living matter. Group interactions are a particularly important and widespread class, representative of which is the public goods game. In addition, methods of statistical physics have proved valuable for studying pattern formation, equilibrium selection and self-organization in evolutionary games. Here, we review recent advances in the study of evolutionary dynamics of group interactions on top of structured populations, including lattices, complex networks and coevolutionary models. We also compare these results with those obtained on well-mixed populations. The review particularly highlights that the study of the dynamics of group interactions, like several other important equilibrium and non-equilibrium dynamical processes in biological, economical and social sciences, benefits from the synergy between statistical physics, network science and evolutionary game theory. PMID:23303223

  10. Effects of documentation and grouping on the use of CD-ROM reference sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newmaster, Margaret Ann Lyon

    The effect of elaboration in technical documentation and the use of cooperative learning strategies on the performance and attitude of high school biology students using Science Navigator, a networked CD-ROM reference tool, were investigated. Students were randomly assigned to an individual or paired grouping treatment and to one of three documentation treatments: elaborated documentation, minimal manual, or minimal cards. Students completed two CD-ROM information search exercises. The initial search was performed either with a cooperative partner or independently. All participants performed the second search independently. Performance time was recorded. Students completed a 10-item attitude survey individually after each exercise. Analysis of data revealed a main effect for grouping. Participants in the cooperative treatment completed both exercises in significantly less time than students in the independent treatment. Cooperative treatment participants expressed significantly more positive attitudes about both exercises and the documentation. A main effect was also found for documentation. Participants in both minimal documentation treatments completed the second exercise in significantly less time than participants in the elaborated documentation treatment. Participants in both minimalist documentation treatments expressed significantly more positive attitudes toward both the exercises and the documentation than participants in the elaborated documentation treatment.

  11. Spiritually and Religiously Integrated Group Psychotherapy: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We systematically reviewed the research literature on spiritually and religiously integrated group psychotherapy to answer the following three questions: first, how are spirituality and religiosity defined; second, how are spiritual and religious factors characterized and integrated into group psychotherapy; and, third, what is the outcome of the group psychotherapies? We searched in two databases: PsycINFO and PubMed. Inclusion and exclusion criteria and checklists from standardized assessment tools were applied to the research literature. Qualitative and quantitative papers were included. In total, 8 articles were considered eligible for the review. Findings from the evaluation suggested that the concepts of spirituality and religiosity were poorly conceptualized and the way in which spiritual and religious factors were integrated into such group psychotherapies, which distinguished it from other types of group psychotherapies, was not fully conceptualized or understood either. However, clear and delimited conceptualization of spiritual and religious factors is crucial in order to be able to conclude the direct influences of spiritual or religious factors on outcomes. Implications for spiritually or religiously integrated group psychotherapy and conducting research in this field are propounded. PMID:24288557

  12. The Group A Streptococcal Carrier State Reviewed: Still an Enigma.

    PubMed

    DeMuri, Gregory P; Wald, Ellen R

    2014-12-01

    Despite the common nature of group A streptococcal (GAS) infections, the carrier state of this organism is not well understood. In this article, we review the historical and recent research on the definition, epidemiology, and pathogenesis of the GAS carrier state. In addition, we outline trials of antimicrobial agents in the eradication of the carrier state and discuss indications for providing treatment to patients in the clinical setting. PMID:26625454

  13. Review of Federal Reference Method for Ozone: Nitric Oxide-Chemiluminescence:Supplemental Material for CASAC AMMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ApproachPer suggestion made by CASAC AMMS members during the April 3, 2014 conference call on the Review of Federal Reference Method for Ozone: Nitric Oxide-Chemiluminescence, ORD has performed additional data analysis activities to explain and mitigate scatter observed in the co...

  14. RNA-seq of human reference RNA samples using a thermostable group II intron reverse transcriptase.

    PubMed

    Nottingham, Ryan M; Wu, Douglas C; Qin, Yidan; Yao, Jun; Hunicke-Smith, Scott; Lambowitz, Alan M

    2016-04-01

    Next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has revolutionized our ability to analyze transcriptomes. Current RNA-seq methods are highly reproducible, but each has biases resulting from different modes of RNA sample preparation, reverse transcription, and adapter addition, leading to variability between methods. Moreover, the transcriptome cannot be profiled comprehensively because highly structured RNAs, such as tRNAs and snoRNAs, are refractory to conventional RNA-seq methods. Recently, we developed a new method for strand-specific RNA-seq using thermostable group II intron reverse transcriptases (TGIRTs). TGIRT enzymes have higher processivity and fidelity than conventional retroviral reverse transcriptases plus a novel template-switching activity that enables RNA-seq adapter addition during cDNA synthesis without using RNA ligase. Here, we obtained TGIRT-seq data sets for well-characterized human RNA reference samples and compared them to previous data sets obtained for these RNAs by the Illumina TruSeq v2 and v3 methods. We find that TGIRT-seq recapitulates the relative abundance of human transcripts and RNA spike-ins in ribo-depleted, fragmented RNA samples comparably to non-strand-specific TruSeq v2 and better than strand-specific TruSeq v3. Moreover, TGIRT-seq is more strand specific than TruSeq v3 and eliminates sampling biases from random hexamer priming, which are inherent to TruSeq. The TGIRT-seq data sets also show more uniform 5' to 3' gene coverage and identify more splice junctions, particularly near the 5' ends of mRNAs, than do the TruSeq data sets. Finally, TGIRT-seq enables the simultaneous profiling of mRNAs and lncRNAs in the same RNA-seq experiment as structured small ncRNAs, including tRNAs, which are essentially absent with TruSeq. PMID:26826130

  15. Prekindergarten Teachers' Verbal References to Print during Classroom-Based, Large-Group Shared Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Tricia A.; Justice, Laura M.; Piasta, Shayne B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The frequency with which adults reference print when reading with preschool-age children is associated with growth in children's print knowledge (e.g., L.M. Justice & H.K. Ezell, 2000, 2002). This study examined whether prekindergarten (pre-K) teachers naturally reference print during classroom shared reading and if verbal print…

  16. Selected Bibliographies and State-of-the-Art Review for Environmental Health. Volume 2: Environmental Health References. International Health Planning Reference Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Renee White; Shani, Hadasa

    Intended as a companion piece to volume 2 in the Method Series, Environmental Health Planning (CE 024 230), this second of six volumes in the International Health Planning Reference Series is a combined literature review and annotated bibliography dealing with environmental factors in health planning for developing countries. The review identifies…

  17. Effect of cow reference group on validation reliability of genomic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Koivula, M; Strandén, I; Aamand, G P; Mäntysaari, E A

    2016-06-01

    We studied the effect of including genomic data for cows in the reference population of single-step evaluations. Deregressed individual cow genetic evaluations (DRP) from milk production evaluations of Nordic Red Dairy cattle were used to estimate the single-step breeding values. Validation reliability and bias of the evaluations were calculated with four data sets including different amount of DRP record information from genotyped cows in the reference population. The gain in reliability was from 2% to 4% units for the production traits, depending on the used DRP data and the amount of genomic data. Moreover, inclusion of genotyped bull dams and their genotyped daughters seemed to create some bias in the single-step evaluation. Still, genotyping cows and their inclusion in the reference population is advantageous and should be encouraged. PMID:27075712

  18. How are personality judgments made? A cognitive model of reference group effects, personality scale responses, and behavioral reactions.

    PubMed

    Wood, Alex M; Brown, Gordon D A; Maltby, John; Watkinson, Pat

    2012-10-01

    This article suggests that personality judgments are wholly relative, being the outcome of a comparison of a given individual to a reference group of others. The underlying comparison processes are the same as those used to judge psychophysical stimuli (as outlined by range frequency theory and decision by sampling accounts). Five experimental studies show that the same person's personality is rated differently depending on how his or her behavior (a) ranks within a reference group and (b) falls within the overall range of behavior shown by other reference group members. Results were invariant across stimulus type and response options (7-point Likert scale, 990-point allocation task, or dichotomous choice). Simulated occupational scenarios led participants to give different-sized bonuses and employ different people as a function of context. Future research should note that personality judgments (as in self-report personality scales) only represent perceived standing relative to others or alternatively should measure personality through behavior or biological reactivity. Personality judgments cannot be used to compare different populations when the population participants have different reference groups (as in cross-cultural research). PMID:22224626

  19. Using Cochran's Z Statistic to Test the Kernel-Smoothed Item Response Function Differences between Focal and Reference Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Yinggan; Gierl, Mark J.; Cui, Ying

    2010-01-01

    This study combined the kernel smoothing procedure and a nonparametric differential item functioning statistic--Cochran's Z--to statistically test the difference between the kernel-smoothed item response functions for reference and focal groups. Simulation studies were conducted to investigate the Type I error and power of the proposed…

  20. An Evaluation of a Group Treatment Program with Youth Referred to the Juvenile Probation Service because of Violent Crime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoury-Kassabri, Mona; Sharvet, Rachel; Braver, Efi; Livneh, Chaim

    2010-01-01

    This study assesses the outcomes of group intervention program with violent juveniles. The intervention is based on the ecological approach of Edleson and Tolman (1992). Forty-eight juveniles referred to the juvenile probation service because of violent crime completed the 16 sessions of the intervention. Participants completed questionnaires…

  1. Review Of The Working Group On Precession And The Ecliptic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton, J. L.

    2006-08-01

    The IAU Working Group on Precession and the Ecliptic was charged with providing a precession model that was both dynamically consistent and compatible with the IAU 2000A nutation model, along with an updated definition and model for the ecliptic. The report of the working group has been accepted for publication in Celestial Mechanics (Hilton et al. 2006, in press) and has resulted in a recommendation to be considered at this General Assembly of the IAU. Specifically, the working group recommends: 1. That the terms lunisolar precession and planetary precession be replaced by precession of the equator and precession of the ecliptic, respectively. 2. That, beginning on 1 January 2009, the precession component of the IAU 2000A precession-nutation model be replaced by the P03 precession theory, of Capitaine et al. (2003, A&A, 412, 567-586) for the precession of the equator (Eqs. 37) and the precession of the ecliptic (Eqs. 38); the same paper provides the polynomial developments for the P03 primary angles and a number of derived quantities for use in both the equinox based and Celestial Intermediate Origin based paradigms. 3. That the choice of precession parameters be left to the user. 4. That the ecliptic pole should be explicitly defined by the mean orbital angular momentum vector of the Earth-Moon barycenter in an inertial reference frame, and this definition should be explicitly stated to avoid confusion with other, older definitions. consistent and compatible with the IAU 2000A nutation model, along consistent and compatible with the IAU 2000A nutation model, along with an updated definition and model for the ecliptic. The report of the working group has been accepted for publication in Celestial Mechanics (Hilton et al. 2006, in press) and has resulted in a recommendation to be considered at this General Assembly of the IAU. Specifically, the working group recommends, * that the terms lunisolar precession and planetary precession be replaced by precession of the

  2. Does whom you work with matter? Effects of referent group gender and age composition on managers' compensation.

    PubMed

    Ostroff, Cheri; Atwater, Leanne E

    2003-08-01

    Much research has examined gender and age effects on compensation, concluding that a wage gap exists favoring men and negative stereotypes against older workers persist. Although the effect of an employee's gender or age has been widely studied, little work has examined the impact of the demographic characteristics of a focal employee's immediate referent groups (e.g., subordinates, peers, or supervisors) on pay. The effect of the gender and age composition of a focal manager's subordinates, peers, and supervisor on the manager's compensation levels was investigated in a sample of 2,178 managers across a wide range of organizations and functional areas. After controlling for a number of human capital variables, results indicated that not only does a wage gap favoring men exist, but also managerial pay is lower when managers' referent groups are largely female, when subordinates are outside the prime age group, and when peers and supervisors are younger. PMID:12940411

  3. Pizza and pop and the student identity: the role of referent group norms in healthy and unhealthy eating.

    PubMed

    Louis, Winnifred; Davies, Sarah; Smith, Joanne; Terry, Deborah

    2007-02-01

    Using the Theory of Planned Behavior (I. Ajzen, 1985, 1991) and referent group (student) norms and identification (D. J. Terry & M. A. Hogg, 1996), the authors longitudinally predicted healthy eating intentions and behavior in a sample of 137 university students. Specifically, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived control predicted intentions at Time 1, which predicted self-reported behavior at Time 2. There was also a link between intentions and observed behavior at Time 2. Beyond the planned behavior variables, referent group norms for university students' eating behavior interacted with participants' identification as students to predict healthy eating intentions. The authors discussed implications for researcher's conceptualization of normative influence and for interventions into this group's eating behavior. PMID:17345922

  4. Report on the technical review workshop on the reference dose for Aroclor 1016. Held in Washington, DC on May 24-25, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-01

    The report includes information and material from a technical review workshop organized by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Risk Assessment Forum for EPA`s Reference Dose/Reference Concentration (RfD/RfC) Work Group. The meeting was held in Washington, DC, at the Barcelo Washington Hotel on May 24-25, 1994. The subject of the technical review was the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) RfD entry for Aroclor 1016, a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB). The expert technical review panel was convened to independently evaluate whether the RfD for Aroclor 1016 is based on a scientifically responsible analysis that represents full consideration of the available data and clean articulation of that analysis in the IRIS RfD entry. EPA also requested panel members to consider four broad options for the Aroclor 1016 RfD as potential recommendations to the RfD/RfC Work Group.

  5. References that anyone can edit: review of Wikipedia citations in peer reviewed health science literature

    PubMed Central

    Hladkowicz, Emily S; Pigford, Ashlee-Ann E; Ufholz, Lee-Anne; Postonogova, Tatyana; Shin, Eunkyung; Boet, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine indexed health science journals to evaluate the prevalence of Wikipedia citations, identify the journals that publish articles with Wikipedia citations, and determine how Wikipedia is being cited. Design Bibliometric analysis. Study selection Publications in the English language that included citations to Wikipedia were retrieved using the online databases Scopus and Web of Science. Data sources To identify health science journals, results were refined using Ulrich’s database, selecting for citations from journals indexed in Medline, PubMed, or Embase. Using Thomson Reuters Journal Citation Reports, 2011 impact factors were collected for all journals included in the search. Data extraction Resulting citations were thematically coded, and descriptive statistics were calculated. Results 1433 full text articles from 1008 journals indexed in Medline, PubMed, or Embase with 2049 Wikipedia citations were accessed. The frequency of Wikipedia citations has increased over time; most citations occurred after December 2010. More than half of the citations were coded as definitions (n=648; 31.6%) or descriptions (n=482; 23.5%). Citations were not limited to journals with a low or no impact factor; the search found Wikipedia citations in many journals with high impact factors. Conclusions Many publications are citing information from a tertiary source that can be edited by anyone, although permanent, evidence based sources are available. We encourage journal editors and reviewers to use caution when publishing articles that cite Wikipedia. PMID:24603564

  6. Use of Expert Panels to Define the Reference Standard in Diagnostic Research: A Systematic Review of Published Methods and Reporting

    PubMed Central

    Bertens, Loes C. M.; Broekhuizen, Berna D. L.; Naaktgeboren, Christiana A.; Rutten, Frans H.; Hoes, Arno W.; van Mourik, Yvonne; Moons, Karel G. M.; Reitsma, Johannes B.

    2013-01-01

    Background In diagnostic studies, a single and error-free test that can be used as the reference (gold) standard often does not exist. One solution is the use of panel diagnosis, i.e., a group of experts who assess the results from multiple tests to reach a final diagnosis in each patient. Although panel diagnosis, also known as consensus or expert diagnosis, is frequently used as the reference standard, guidance on preferred methodology is lacking. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of methods used in panel diagnoses and to provide initial guidance on the use and reporting of panel diagnosis as reference standard. Methods and Findings PubMed was systematically searched for diagnostic studies applying a panel diagnosis as reference standard published up to May 31, 2012. We included diagnostic studies in which the final diagnosis was made by two or more persons based on results from multiple tests. General study characteristics and details of panel methodology were extracted. Eighty-one studies were included, of which most reported on psychiatry (37%) and cardiovascular (21%) diseases. Data extraction was hampered by incomplete reporting; one or more pieces of critical information about panel reference standard methodology was missing in 83% of studies. In most studies (75%), the panel consisted of three or fewer members. Panel members were blinded to the results of the index test results in 31% of studies. Reproducibility of the decision process was assessed in 17 (21%) studies. Reported details on panel constitution, information for diagnosis and methods of decision making varied considerably between studies. Conclusions Methods of panel diagnosis varied substantially across studies and many aspects of the procedure were either unclear or not reported. On the basis of our review, we identified areas for improvement and developed a checklist and flow chart for initial guidance for researchers conducting and reporting of studies involving panel

  7. Standardized low-load repetitive work: evidence of different motor control strategies between experienced workers and a reference group.

    PubMed

    Madeleine, Pascal; Lundager, Birthe; Voigt, Michael; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2003-11-01

    The purpose of this laboratory study was to evaluate the possible differences in motor strategies to a new standardized low-load repetitive work task in between healthy experienced workers and a reference group. Work task event duration, i.e. working rhythm, cutting forces, surface electromyographic (EMG) activity from four shoulder muscles, postural activity, and arm and trunk movements in 3D were recorded during low-load repetitive work simulation. The experienced group showed lower EMG activity and frequency contents (P<0.05), more abducted position of the upper arm and forward flexion of the trunk prior to work simulation (P<0.05), and increased arm and trunk range of motion (P<0.05) compared with the reference group. The results highlight that experienced butchers have a different motor strategy compared with a reference group, i.e. more variable form of coordination pattern. Furthermore, the initial implementation of a possible protective motor strategy by experienced workers might be a very important prognostic factor. PMID:14559412

  8. Patient grouping for dose surveys and establishment of diagnostic reference levels in paediatric computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Vassileva, J; Rehani, M

    2015-07-01

    There has been confusion in literature on whether paediatric patients should be grouped according to age, weight or other parameters when dealing with dose surveys. The present work aims to suggest a pragmatic approach to achieve reasonable accuracy for performing patient dose surveys in countries with limited resources. The analysis is based on a subset of data collected within the IAEA survey of paediatric computed tomography (CT) doses, involving 82 CT facilities from 32 countries in Asia, Europe, Africa and Latin America. Data for 6115 patients were collected, in 34.5 % of which data for weight were available. The present study suggests that using four age groups, <1, >1-5, >5-10 and >10-15 y, is realistic and pragmatic for dose surveys in less resourced countries and for the establishment of DRLs. To ensure relevant accuracy of results, data for >30 patients in a particular age group should be collected if patient weight is not known. If a smaller sample is used, patient weight should be recorded and the median weight in the sample should be within 5-10 % from the median weight of the sample for which the DRLs were established. Comparison of results from different surveys should always be performed with caution, taking into consideration the way of grouping of paediatric patients. Dose results can be corrected for differences in patient weight/age group. PMID:25836695

  9. One library's experience with review and selection of chat software for reference.

    PubMed

    Behm, Leslie M

    2003-01-01

    When Michigan State University (MSU) Libraries decided to make the foray into virtual reference, the first thing that needed to be done was to decide on the software to use. This article discusses the process used including the items considered essential (deal-breakers) for software to make the first cut, what other features needed to be included, and what features would be useful but were not critical. A literature review of some useful current articles on virtual reference is included. The vendor and software ultimately selected was not one of the original vendors; how MSU Libraries was able to evaluate and select Docutek is presented. A matrix for software comparison is included in the appendix. PMID:12723817

  10. Reference datasets for bioequivalence trials in a two-group parallel design.

    PubMed

    Fuglsang, Anders; Schütz, Helmut; Labes, Detlew

    2015-03-01

    In order to help companies qualify and validate the software used to evaluate bioequivalence trials with two parallel treatment groups, this work aims to define datasets with known results. This paper puts a total 11 datasets into the public domain along with proposed consensus obtained via evaluations from six different software packages (R, SAS, WinNonlin, OpenOffice Calc, Kinetica, EquivTest). Insofar as possible, datasets were evaluated with and without the assumption of equal variances for the construction of a 90% confidence interval. Not all software packages provide functionality for the assumption of unequal variances (EquivTest, Kinetica), and not all packages can handle datasets with more than 1000 subjects per group (WinNonlin). Where results could be obtained across all packages, one showed questionable results when datasets contained unequal group sizes (Kinetica). A proposal is made for the results that should be used as validation targets. PMID:25488055

  11. Differential Tendencies To Guess as a Function of Gender and Lingual-Cultural Reference Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafni, Naomi; Estela, Melamed

    The objective of this study was to investigate differential tendencies to avoid guessing as a function of three variables: (1) lingual-cultural-group; (2) gender; and (3) examination year. The Psychometric Entrance Test (PET) for universities in Israel was used, which is administered in Hebrew, Arabic, English, French, Spanish, and Russian. The…

  12. Aggression in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and a Clinic-Referred Comparison Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Cristan; Butter, Eric; Mazurek, Micah O.; Cowan, Charles; Lainhart, Janet; Cook, Edwin H.; DeWitt, Mary Beth; Aman, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A gap exists in the literature regarding aggression in autism spectrum disorders and how this behavior compares to other groups. In this multisite study, the "Children's Scale for Hostility and Aggression: Reactive/Proactive" and the Aggression subscale of the "Child Behavior Checklist" were rated for 414 children with autism…

  13. Opportunities and challenges in conducting systematic reviews to support the development of nutrient reference values: vitamin A as an example1234

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Robert; Chung, Mei; Balk, Ethan M; Atkinson, Stephanie; Giovannucci, Edward L; Ip, Stanley; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Mayne, Susan Taylor; Raman, Gowri; Ross, A Catharine; Trikalinos, Thomas A; West, Keith P; Lau, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Nutrient reference values have significant public health and policy implications. Given the importance of defining reliable nutrient reference values, there is a need for an explicit, objective, and transparent process to set these values. The Tufts Medical Center Evidence-based Practice Center assembled a group of nutrition experts from academic institutions and federal government agencies, led participants in discussions, conducted exercises in formulating questions and evidence review criteria that would be amenable to systematic reviews of the scientific literature, performed a literature search on the questions to identify potentially relevant publications, and identified challenges and limitations of applying this method to support the development of nutrient reference values using vitamin A as an example. The workgroup concluded that the systematic review approach could be productively used to inform the development of reference values. Challenges identified in this exercise include prioritizing and defining research questions when the volume of literature is large, relying on intermediate (surrogate) outcomes when few or no studies directly linking nutrient intake with clinical outcomes are available, and determining reliable nutrient biomarkers. Ultimately, an objective, unbiased systematic review of a defined question could be useful, not only in helping to set nutrient reference values, but also for increasing the transparency of the decision making process. PMID:19176732

  14. Effects of group housing on sow welfare: a review.

    PubMed

    Verdon, M; Hansen, C F; Rault, J-L; Jongman, E; Hansen, L U; Plush, K; Hemsworth, P H

    2015-05-01

    Factors that have been shown to impact the welfare of group-housed sows are discussed in this review. Floor space allowance markedly affects sow welfare. In addition to quantity of floor space, the quality of space is important: spatial separation between sows can be provided with visual or physical barriers and stalls. Whereas 1.4 m/sow is insufficient, further research is required to examine space effects in the range of 1.8 to 2.4 m/sow in more detail. The period immediately after mixing has the most pronounced effects on aggression and stress, and therefore, well-designed mixing pens offer the opportunity to reduce aggression, injury, and stress while allowing the social hierarchy to quickly form. Because hunger is likely to lead to competition for feed or access to feeding areas, strategies to reduce hunger between meals through higher feeding levels, dietary fiber, or foraging substrate should be examined. However, feeding systems, such as full-body feeding stalls, can also affect aggression and stress by providing protection at feeding, but deriving conclusions on this topic is difficult because research directly comparing floor feeding, feeding stalls, and electronic sow feeder systems has not been conducted. Familiar sows engage in less aggression, so mixing sows that have been housed together in the previous gestation may reduce aggression. Although there is evidence in other species that early experience may affect social skills later in life, there are few studies on the effects of early "socialization" on aggressive behavior of adult sows. Genetic selection has the potential to reduce aggression, and therefore, continued research on the opportunity to genetically select against aggressiveness and its broader implications is required. Most research to date has examined mixing sows after insemination and knowledge on grouping after weaning is limited. PMID:26020296

  15. Review and application of group theory to molecular systems biology

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we provide a review of selected mathematical ideas that can help us better understand the boundary between living and non-living systems. We focus on group theory and abstract algebra applied to molecular systems biology. Throughout this paper we briefly describe possible open problems. In connection with the genetic code we propose that it may be possible to use perturbation theory to explore the adjacent possibilities in the 64-dimensional space-time manifold of the evolving genome. With regards to algebraic graph theory, there are several minor open problems we discuss. In relation to network dynamics and groupoid formalism we suggest that the network graph might not be the main focus for understanding the phenotype but rather the phase space of the network dynamics. We show a simple case of a C6 network and its phase space network. We envision that the molecular network of a cell is actually a complex network of hypercycles and feedback circuits that could be better represented in a higher-dimensional space. We conjecture that targeting nodes in the molecular network that have key roles in the phase space, as revealed by analysis of the automorphism decomposition, might be a better way to drug discovery and treatment of cancer. PMID:21696623

  16. Review and application of group theory to molecular systems biology.

    PubMed

    Rietman, Edward A; Karp, Robert L; Tuszynski, Jack A

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we provide a review of selected mathematical ideas that can help us better understand the boundary between living and non-living systems. We focus on group theory and abstract algebra applied to molecular systems biology. Throughout this paper we briefly describe possible open problems. In connection with the genetic code we propose that it may be possible to use perturbation theory to explore the adjacent possibilities in the 64-dimensional space-time manifold of the evolving genome. With regards to algebraic graph theory, there are several minor open problems we discuss. In relation to network dynamics and groupoid formalism we suggest that the network graph might not be the main focus for understanding the phenotype but rather the phase space of the network dynamics. We show a simple case of a C6 network and its phase space network. We envision that the molecular network of a cell is actually a complex network of hypercycles and feedback circuits that could be better represented in a higher-dimensional space. We conjecture that targeting nodes in the molecular network that have key roles in the phase space, as revealed by analysis of the automorphism decomposition, might be a better way to drug discovery and treatment of cancer. PMID:21696623

  17. Complete Genome Assembly of Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 19615, a Group A β-Hemolytic Reference Strain.

    PubMed

    Minogue, T D; Daligault, H A; Davenport, K W; Bishop-Lilly, K A; Broomall, S M; Bruce, D C; Chain, P S; Chertkov, O; Coyne, S R; Freitas, T; Frey, K G; Gibbons, H S; Jaissle, J; Redden, C L; Rosenzweig, C N; Xu, Y; Johnson, S L

    2014-01-01

    We present the complete genome assembly of Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 19615 (Rosenbach) as submitted to GenBank under accession number CP008926. This group A nonmotile β-hemolytic clinical isolate is used for quality control in a variety of commercially available tests. The assembled genome is 1.84 Mb (38.5% G+C content) and contains 1,788 coding regions. PMID:25258274

  18. Complete Genome Assembly of Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 19615, a Group A β-Hemolytic Reference Strain

    PubMed Central

    Minogue, T. D.; Daligault, H. A.; Davenport, K. W.; Bishop-Lilly, K. A.; Broomall, S. M.; Bruce, D. C.; Chain, P. S.; Chertkov, O.; Coyne, S. R.; Freitas, T.; Frey, K. G.; Gibbons, H. S.; Jaissle, J.; Redden, C. L.; Rosenzweig, C. N.; Xu, Y.

    2014-01-01

    We present the complete genome assembly of Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 19615 (Rosenbach) as submitted to GenBank under accession number CP008926. This group A nonmotile β-hemolytic clinical isolate is used for quality control in a variety of commercially available tests. The assembled genome is 1.84 Mb (38.5% G+C content) and contains 1,788 coding regions. PMID:25258274

  19. International geomagnetic reference field 1980: a report by IAGA Division I working group.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peddie, N.W.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the recommendations of the working group, which suggested additions to IGRF because of the cumulative effect of the inevitable uncertainties in the secular variation models which had led to unacceptable inaccuracies in the IGRF by the late 1970's. The recommendations were accepted by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy on August 15, 1981 at the 4th Scientific Assembly, Edinburgh. An extended table sets out spherical harmonic coefficients of the IGRF 1980.-R.House

  20. Who uses sunbeds? A systematic literature review of risk groups in developed countries.

    PubMed

    Schneider, S; Krämer, H

    2010-06-01

    Skin cancer is caused by ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Indoor tanning is a totally avoidable risk behaviour. This review addresses the specific characteristics of sunbed users and the differences in motivation and risk perception compared with non-users. This review is based solely on empirical original articles. Based on literature searches with widely used reference databases ('PubMed', 'OVID', 'Social Citation Index', 'ERIC--Educational Resources Information Center', 'Web of Science' and the 'International Bibliography of the Social Sciences'), we included studies from developed nations with a publication date between 1 January 2000 and 12 August 2008. All studies were selected, classified and coded simultaneously by both authors on a blinded basis. All searches were performed on 13 and 14 August 2008. In accordance with the QUOROM and the MOOSE Statements, we identified 16 original studies. The typical sunbed user is female, between 17 and 30 years old, and tends to live a comparatively unhealthy lifestyle: Users smoke cigarettes and drink alcohol more frequently and eat less healthy food than non-users. Users are characterized by a lack of knowledge about health risks of UVR, and prompted by the frequent use of sunbeds by friends or family members and the experience of positive emotions and relaxation by indoor tanning. This review is the first systematic review on risk groups among sunbed users that has been published in a scientific journal. There is still a lack of information among users, particularly among young people regarding the safety of solariums. PMID:20015180

  1. The International Reference Ionosphere: A review of current activities and plans for the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilitza, Dieter

    2014-05-01

    The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) is at the core of many assimilative models of the global ionosphere that aspire to provide a more accurate representation of the 4-D ionosphere by combining a core ionosphere model with GNSS and other data sets. This presentation will review the status of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) project and model with special emphasis on activities during the last two years. We will discuss the most important IRI improvements and parameter additions that were accomplished during this time period. The scorecard includes significant improvements in the bottomside electron density and ion composition, the inclusion of solar activity variations for the topside electron temperature, and for the first time a model for auroral oval boundaries. In addition we will also review the status of several ongoing collaborative projects that promise significant future improvements for the IRI model including a better representation of the F2-peak height (hmF2), the coupling of IRI to plasmaspheric models, and the development of a real-time IRI (IRI-RT). Work also continues on the accurate IRI representation of ionosphere conditions during the recent highly unusually low and extended solar minimum. Time permitting, we will briefly discuss recent IRI-related meetings and workshops and their outcomes, and present some recent IRI usage statistics.

  2. Multireference electron correlation methods with density matrix renormalisation group reference functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurashige, Yuki

    2014-06-01

    Recent advances in quantum chemical density matrix renormalisation group (DMRG) theory are presented. The DMRG, originally devised as an alternative to the exact diagonalisation in condensed matter physics, has become a powerful quantum chemical method for molecular systems that exhibit a multireference character, e.g., excited states, π-conjugated systems, transition metal complexes, and in particular for large systems by combining it with conventional multireference electron correlation methods. The capability of the current quantum chemical DMRG is demonstrated for an application involving the potential energy curve of the chromium dimer, which is one of the most demanding multireference systems and thus requires the best electronic structure treatment for non-dynamical and dynamical correlation as well as large basis sets.

  3. 42 CFR 52h.3 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups... GRANTS SCIENTIFIC PEER REVIEW OF RESEARCH GRANT APPLICATIONS AND RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT PROJECTS § 52h.3 Establishment and operation of peer review groups. (a) To the extent applicable,...

  4. 7 CFR 3401.12 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups... INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE RANGELAND RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Applications for Funding § 3401.12 Establishment and operation of peer review groups. Subject to § 3401.7,...

  5. 7 CFR 3400.10 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups... INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE SPECIAL RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Grant Applications § 3400.10 Establishment and operation of peer review groups. Subject to § 3400.5, the...

  6. 7 CFR 3401.12 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups... INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE RANGELAND RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Applications for Funding § 3401.12 Establishment and operation of peer review groups. Subject to § 3401.7,...

  7. 7 CFR 3400.10 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups... INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE SPECIAL RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Grant Applications § 3400.10 Establishment and operation of peer review groups. Subject to § 3400.5,...

  8. 7 CFR 3400.10 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups... INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE SPECIAL RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Grant Applications § 3400.10 Establishment and operation of peer review groups. Subject to § 3400.5, the...

  9. 7 CFR 3401.12 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups... INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE RANGELAND RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Applications for Funding § 3401.12 Establishment and operation of peer review groups. Subject to § 3401.7,...

  10. 7 CFR 3401.12 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups... INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE RANGELAND RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Applications for Funding § 3401.12 Establishment and operation of peer review groups. Subject to § 3401.7,...

  11. 7 CFR 3400.10 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups... INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE SPECIAL RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Grant Applications § 3400.10 Establishment and operation of peer review groups. Subject to § 3400.5, the...

  12. SEURAT-1 liver gold reference compounds: a mechanism-based review.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Paul; Schwarz, Michael; Landesmann, Brigitte; Maggioni, Silvia; Goumenou, Marina; Bower, David; Leonard, Martin O; Wiseman, Jeffrey S

    2014-12-01

    There is an urgent need for the development of alternative methods to replace animal testing for the prediction of repeat dose chemical toxicity. To address this need, the European Commission and Cosmetics Europe have jointly funded a research program for 'Safety Evaluation Ultimately Replacing Animal Testing.' The goal of this program was the development of in vitro cellular systems and associated computational capabilities for the prediction of hepatic, cardiac, renal, neuronal, muscle, and skin toxicities. An essential component of this effort is the choice of appropriate reference compounds that can be used in the development and validation of assays. In this review, we focus on the selection of reference compounds for liver pathologies in the broad categories of cytotoxicity and lipid disorders. Mitochondrial impairment, oxidative stress, and apoptosis are considered under the category of cytotoxicity, while steatosis, cholestasis, and phospholipidosis are considered under the category of lipid dysregulation. We focused on four compound classes capable of initiating such events, i.e., chemically reactive compounds, compounds with specific cellular targets, compounds that modulate lipid regulatory networks, and compounds that disrupt the plasma membrane. We describe the molecular mechanisms of these compounds and the cellular response networks which they elicit. This information will be helpful to both improve our understanding of mode of action and help in the selection of appropriate mechanistic biomarkers, allowing us to progress the development of animal-free models with improved predictivity to the human situation. PMID:25395007

  13. Group methods of determining surfactants in water (review)

    SciTech Connect

    Subbotina, E.I.; Dedkov, Yu.M.

    1988-01-01

    In recent years new and promising methods for the determination of industrial surfactant waste migration and concentration in the hydrosphere have been developed. These methods include different forms of chromatography, ion selective electrode analysis, titration, and solvent extraction. This article reviews the application and usefulness of each of these methods in the analysis of various surfactants. The methods of chromatography reviewed include liquid column, thin layer, and ion exchange.

  14. OMERACT 6 Economics Working Group report: a proposal for a reference case for economic evaluation in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Sherine; Drummond, Michael; Maetzel, Andreas; Boers, Maarten; Coyle, Doug; Welch, Vivian; Tugwell, Peter

    2003-04-01

    Standardization of methods for economic evaluation is essential for defining the methodological research agenda that will advance the discipline. Standardization also greatly facilitates the interpretation and comparison of the results of economic analyses. For these reasons, several jurisdictions now require economic evaluation, conducted according to standardized methodological guidelines, as a key ingredient in decision making for reimbursement of health treatments and technologies. The application of these general guidelines, however, can be difficult in the absence of disease-specific information. In the case of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the recent emergence of innovative, highly effective, but also expensive treatments has created an immediate need to more fully understand the economic implications of RA treatments. With this background, the OMERACT Economics Working Group set out in 1994 to develop an RA-specific reference case for economic evaluation. This report summarizes the OMERACT process leading to specific recommendations on the 12 key elements of a proposed "reference case" for economic evaluation in RA. These elements include: study horizon, duration of therapy, extrapolation beyond trial duration, modeling beyond therapy, synthesis of comparisons where head-to-head trials do not exist, clinical outcome measures, mortality, valuation of health states, resource utilization, discontinuation of therapy, therapeutic sequence, and population risk stratification. Through these efforts, the OMERACT Economics Working Group aims to expedite and enhance the conduct and dissemination of methodological research in economic analyses in the rheumatic diseases. PMID:12672223

  15. Banal no more: an essay on the film Hannah Arendt, with special reference to Eichmann and the Nazi killing groups.

    PubMed

    Roth, Bennett

    2015-04-01

    This movie review and essay about the recent film Hannah Arendt by director Margarethe von Trotta seeks to examine Arendt's controversial term "banality of evil" as well as the nature of Arendt's misperception of Adolph Eichmann as thoughtless, and to situate Eichmann's personality within recent understandings of totalitarian group behavior and organizational killers. What emerges is that Arendt was unable to understand Eichmann's ruthless indifference to others as well as his attraction to being a Nazi and to organized mass killing. This paper examines Mann's (2005) formulation of different levels of functional attraction to totalitarian perpetrators, in which a racial morality is imposed and restrictions to eliminist violence are removed. Under such group conditions, violent "sleeper" needs emerge and are rationalized by political beliefs. In conclusion, the term "banality of evil" has little explanative value, while violent mass murder continues to this day as a totalitarian solution. PMID:25871693

  16. Outcomes of Group Care for Youth: A Review of Comparative Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Bethany R.; Bright, Charlotte L.; Svoboda, Deborah V.; Fakunmoju, Sunday; Barth, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to review empirical evidence of the effects of placement in group care compared to other interventions. Method: Two-group empirical studies were identified and effect sizes for all reported outcomes were calculated. Results: Nineteen two-group studies were found that compared group care with family foster…

  17. Report of the Event Tag Review and Recommendation Group

    SciTech Connect

    ATLAS Group; Assamagan, K.A.; Barberis, D.; Bentvelsen, S.; Brooijmans, G.; Cranmer, K.; Cranshaw, J.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Farbin, A.; Froidevaux, D.; Gianotti, F.; Hinchliffe, I.; LeCompte, T.; Maeno, T.; Malon, D.; Paige, F.; Polesello, G.; Quarrie, D.; Rousseau, D.; Schaffer, R.D.; Smizanska, M.; Unal, G.; Voss, K.; Wielers, M.

    2006-04-12

    In order to facilitate access to the large volumes of data (multiple petabytes per year) which will be produced during data taking and Monte Carlo production at ATLAS, work has proceeded on building a system of event-level metadata to allow selections of a subset of events to use as input to an analysis. This was included in the ATLAS Computing Model and was first studied and implemented by the Physics Analysis Tools group based on the decisions of the ESD/AOD Task Force. They used tools developed and supported by the CERN IT group and the ATLAS Database group. During 2005 this structure was put through various tests and evaluations. Also, work by physicists on reconstruction and analysis led to an improved understanding of the requirements on the TAG. This report addresses the effect of these new inputs on the previous work with regard to content and the infrastructure needed to support it.

  18. The Effectiveness of Nurture Groups: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Naomi Katherine; Schlösser, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Children with emotional difficulties often experience problems at school in terms of academic progress and within peer relationships. They are also more likely to continue to experience emotional problems in their adult lives. Nurture groups (NGs) were developed in the 1960s by the educational psychologist Majorie Boxall and their aim is to…

  19. The epidemiology of infertility: a review with particular reference to sub-Saharan Africa*

    PubMed Central

    Belsey, Mark A.

    1976-01-01

    The problem of infertility, with particular reference to Africa south of the Sahara, is reviewed. In many areas, up to 40% of women are reported to have completed their reproductive years without bearing a child. The condition is widely distributed, but also often localized in pockets corresponding to geographical or tribal units. Most available demographic data provide estimates of childlessness but it is not sufficient to define the problem in terms of primary and secondary infertility, pregnancy wastage, and infant and child mortality. The major underlying cause for the high levels of infertility appears to be the sequelae of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection in both men and women, manifested as obstructive azoospermia and tubal occlusion. Other infections, such as those that may follow abortion or delivery, or systemic infections, may be important in some areas. The available data suggest that different patterns of infertility and pregnancy wastage, and different etiological agents and processes, contribute to the problem of infertility in the different areas. The need for a systematic, standardized research approach in several areas is clearly indicated. PMID:798639

  20. Perceived food hypersensitivity: a review of 10 years of interdisciplinary research at a reference center.

    PubMed

    Lied, Gülen Arslan; Lillestøl, Kristine; Lind, Ragna; Valeur, Jørgen; Morken, Mette Helvik; Vaali, Kirsi; Gregersen, Kine; Florvaag, Erik; Tangen, Tone; Berstad, Arnold

    2011-10-01

    Perceived food hypersensitivity is a prevalent, but poorly understood condition. In this review article, we summarize narratively recent literature including results of our 10 years' interdisciplinary research program dealing with such patients. The patients (more than 400) included in our studies were all adults referred to a university hospital because of gastrointestinal complaints self-attributed to food hypersensitivity. Despite extensive examinations, food allergy was seldom diagnosed. The majority of the patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for irritable bowel syndrome. In addition, most suffered from several extra-intestinal health complaints and had considerably impaired quality of life. However, psychological factors could explain only approximately 10% of the variance in the patients' symptom severity and 90% of the variance thus remained unexplained. Intolerance to low-digestible carbohydrates was a common problem and abdominal symptoms were replicated by carbohydrate ingestion. A considerable number of patients showed evidence of immune activation by analyses of B-cell activating factor, dendritic cells and "IgE-armed" mast cells. Multiple factors such as immune activation, disturbed intestinal fermentation, enteric dysmotility, post-infectious changes and "local" allergy in the gut as well as psychological disturbances may play a role in the pathophysiology of perceived food hypersensitivity. Hence, our results support the view that management of these patients should be interdisciplinary. PMID:21679125

  1. A review on alum sludge reuse with special reference to agricultural applications and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Dassanayake, K B; Jayasinghe, G Y; Surapaneni, A; Hetherington, C

    2015-04-01

    Alum salts are commonly used in the water industry to promote coagulation in the production of clean drinking water, which results in the generation and accumulation of 'waste' by-product 'alum sludge' in large volumes. Effective and efficient management of alum sludge in an economically and environmentally sustainable manner remains a significant social and environmental concern with ever increasing demand for potable water as a result of rapidly escalating world population and urban expansion. Various intensive practices have been employed to reuse the alum sludge in an attempt to figure out how to fill the gap between successful drinking water treatment process and environmentally friendly alum sludge management for over the years. This paper primarily aimed at comprehensive review of the existing literature on alum sludge characteristics, its environmental concerns and their potential utilization, especially in agricultural and horticultural sectors leading to update our recent state of knowledge and formulate a compendium of present and past developments. Different types of alum sludge utilizations in various fields were recognized and examined. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and potential risks of alum sludge reuse options with particular reference to agriculture were highlighted and knowledge gaps were identified. Research priorities and future challenges that will support in the development of effective alumsludgemanagement practices in agriculture with multi-prong strategies were discussed. PMID:25655353

  2. 7 CFR 3415.10 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups... INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE BIOTECHNOLOGY RISK ASSESSMENT RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Grant Applications § 3415.10 Establishment and operation of peer review...

  3. 7 CFR 3415.10 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups... INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE BIOTECHNOLOGY RISK ASSESSMENT RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Grant Applications § 3415.10 Establishment and operation of peer review...

  4. 7 CFR 3411.10 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups... INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE NATIONAL RESEARCH INITIATIVE COMPETITIVE GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Grant Applications § 3411.10 Establishment and operation of peer review...

  5. A Systematic Review of Small-Group Communication in Post-Secondary Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahng, Namsook

    2012-01-01

    This systematic review establishes a comprehensive understanding of research trends and the findings of current studies that focus on small-group communication in post-secondary online courses. The review includes 18 journal articles which are categorised and summarised on the basis of their common themes. This review finds that a majority of the…

  6. What Works in Group Care? – A Structured Review of Treatment Models for Group Homes and Residential Care

    PubMed Central

    James, Sigrid

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a structured review of treatment models that are relevant to group care and residential treatment settings for children involved with the child welfare system. Initiated and guided by The California Evidence-Based Clearinghouse for Child Welfare, five treatment models – Positive Peer Culture, Teaching Family Model, Sanctuary Model, Stop-Gap Model, and Re-ED – were reviewed for effectiveness. In this paper, each model s treatment features are described and relevant outcome studies reviewed in terms of their effectiveness as well as relevance for child welfare practice. Findings indicate that four of the models are either supported or promising in terms of evidence for effectiveness. Implications for group care practice and research are discussed. PMID:22468014

  7. A Quantitative Review of Ethnic Group Differences in Experimental Pain Response: Do Biology, Psychology and Culture Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Joseph L.; Williams, Ameenah K.K.; Fillingim, Roger B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Pain is a subjectively complex and universal experience. We examine research investigating ethnic group differences in experimental pain response, and factors contributing to group differences. Method We conducted a systematic literature review and analysis of studies using experimental pain stimuli to assess pain sensitivity across multiple ethnic groups. Our search covered the period from 1944-2011, and utilized the PUBMED bibliographic database; a reference source containing over 17 million citations. We calculated effect sizes, identified ethnic/racial group categories, pain stimuli and measures, and examined findings regarding biopsychosociocultural factors contributing to ethnic/racial group differences. Results We found 472 studies investigating ethnic group differences and pain. Twenty-six of these met our review inclusion criteria of investigating ethnic group differences in experimental pain. The majority of studies included comparisons between African Americans (AA) and non-Hispanic Whites (NHW). There were consistently moderate to large effect sizes for pain tolerance across multiple stimulus modalities; African Americans demonstrated lower pain tolerance. For pain threshold, findings were generally in the same direction, but effect sizes were small to moderate across ethnic groups. Limited data were available for suprathreshold pain ratings. A subset of studies comparing NHW and other ethnic groups showed a variable range of effect sizes for pain threshold and tolerance. Conclusion There are potentially important ethnic/racial group differences in experimental pain perception. Elucidating ethnic group differences, has translational merit for culturally-competent clinical care and for addressing and reducing pain treatment disparities among ethnically/racially diverse groups. PMID:22390201

  8. Antimicrobials in future caries control? A review with special reference to chlorhexidine treatment.

    PubMed

    Twetman, Svante

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to examine recent evidence for the effect of the antibacterial approach to prevent and control caries with special reference to the use of chlorhexidine (CHX). Existing information from the mid 1990s provided limited evidence for the effectiveness of CHX gels, rinses and toothpaste in preventing caries in permanent teeth of children and adolescents. An updated literature search on CHX intervention in controlled clinical trials from 1995 to May 2003 unveiled 22 studies covering over 4,500 patients with clinical caries as end point. The vast majority (n = 21) were dealing with CHX-containing varnishes. Since the studies exhibited disparities in design, diagnosis and intervention, the findings were subgrouped with respect to caries type and localization. According to the ranking system of the Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care, the evidence for an anticaries effect of CHX varnishes was rated as inconclusive for caries-active schoolchildren and adolescents with regular fluoride exposure. Regarding fissure caries, a preventive effect of CHX varnishes was demonstrated in 4 studies out of 5 when compared to no treatment in children with low fluoride exposure. The evidence for arresting root caries in dry-mouth patients and frail elderly subjects was inconclusive. In conclusion, the evidence from the recent literature was inconclusive for the use of CHX varnishes for caries prevention in risk groups. PMID:15153692

  9. A review of the JR blood group system.

    PubMed

    Castilho, Lilian; Reid, Marion E

    2013-01-01

    The JR blood group system (ISBT 032) consists of one antigen,Jra, which is of high prevalence in all populations. The rare Jr(a-) phenotype has been found mostly in Japanese and other Asian populations, but also in people of northern European ancestry, in Bedouin Arabs, and in one Mexican. Anti-Jra has caused transfusion reactions and is involved in hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. The Jra antigen is located on ABCG2 transporter, a multipass membrane glycoprotein (also known as the breast cancer resistance protein, BCRP), which is encoded by the ABCG2 gene on chromosome 4q22.1. The Jr(a-) phenotype mostly results from recessive inheritance of ABCG2 null alleles caused by frameshift or nonsense changes. PMID:24094238

  10. Reference Reviewed and Re-Envisioned: Revamping Librarian and Desk-Centric Services with LibStARs and LibAnswers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Christy R.

    2013-01-01

    The first section of this article reviews the literature on the changing face of reference, beginning with a discussion of the national decline in reference transactions, its causes, and the likelihood that online reference services might one day halt or reverse the decline. It then analyzes definitions of the term "reference," pointing to a…

  11. The Transcriptome of the Reference Potato Genome Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja Clone DM1-3 516R44

    PubMed Central

    Massa, Alicia N.; Childs, Kevin L.; Lin, Haining; Bryan, Glenn J.; Giuliano, Giovanni; Buell, C. Robin

    2011-01-01

    Advances in molecular breeding in potato have been limited by its complex biological system, which includes vegetative propagation, autotetraploidy, and extreme heterozygosity. The availability of the potato genome and accompanying gene complement with corresponding gene structure, location, and functional annotation are powerful resources for understanding this complex plant and advancing molecular breeding efforts. Here, we report a reference for the potato transcriptome using 32 tissues and growth conditions from the doubled monoploid Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja clone DM1-3 516R44 for which a genome sequence is available. Analysis of greater than 550 million RNA-Seq reads permitted the detection and quantification of expression levels of over 22,000 genes. Hierarchical clustering and principal component analyses captured the biological variability that accounts for gene expression differences among tissues suggesting tissue-specific gene expression, and genes with tissue or condition restricted expression. Using gene co-expression network analysis, we identified 18 gene modules that represent tissue-specific transcriptional networks of major potato organs and developmental stages. This information provides a powerful resource for potato research as well as studies on other members of the Solanaceae family. PMID:22046362

  12. Review of the Australian Apprenticeship and Traineeship Literature: References and Their Key Issues. Australian Apprenticeships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, S.

    This volume is a survey of more than 125 Australian apprenticeship and traineeship references from 1985-99. Each item identifies author/editor/organization, date, title, organization and place of publication or development. A "key" provides a descriptive phrase relating to the reference type, such as an industry-body paper on training delivery (to…

  13. The Implications of Library Anxiety for Academic Reference Services: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlile, Heather

    2007-01-01

    Academic reference librarians continually observe that many students are embarrassed about not knowing how to use the library and are reluctant to approach the reference desk. The theory of library anxiety offers an explanation, proposing that a fear of being in and using libraries serves as a psychological barrier, hindering many university…

  14. Is there evidence that walking groups have health benefits? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Sarah; Jones, Andy

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the health benefits of outdoor walking groups. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of walking group interventions examining differences in commonly used physiological, psychological and well-being outcomes between baseline and intervention end. Data sources Seven electronic databases, clinical trial registers, grey literature and reference lists in English language up to November 2013. Eligibility criteria Adults, group walking outdoors with outcomes directly attributable to the walking intervention. Results Forty-two studies were identified involving 1843 participants. There is evidence that walking groups have wide-ranging health benefits. Meta-analysis showed statistically significant reductions in mean difference for systolic blood pressure −3.72 mm Hg (−5.28 to −2.17) and diastolic blood pressure −3.14 mm Hg (−4.15 to −2.13); resting heart rate −2.88 bpm (−4.13 to −1.64); body fat −1.31% (−2.10 to −0.52), body mass index −0.71 kg/m2 (−1.19 to −0.23), total cholesterol −0.11 mmol/L (−0.22 to −0.01) and statistically significant mean increases in VO2max of 2.66 mL/kg/min (1.67–3.65), the SF-36 (physical functioning) score 6.02 (0.51 to 11.53) and a 6 min walk time of 79.6 m (53.37–105.84). A standardised mean difference showed a reduction in depression scores with an effect size of −0.67 (−0.97 to −0.38). The evidence was less clear for other outcomes such as waist circumference fasting glucose, SF-36 (mental health) and serum lipids such as high-density lipids. There were no notable adverse side effects reported in any of the studies. Conclusions Walking groups are effective and safe with good adherence and wide-ranging health benefits. They could be a promising intervention as an adjunct to other healthcare or as a proactive health-promoting activity. PMID:25601182

  15. Monte Carlo reference data sets for imaging research: Executive summary of the report of AAPM Research Committee Task Group 195.

    PubMed

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis; Ali, Elsayed S M; Badal, Andreu; Badano, Aldo; Boone, John M; Kyprianou, Iacovos S; Mainegra-Hing, Ernesto; McMillan, Kyle L; McNitt-Gray, Michael F; Rogers, D W O; Samei, Ehsan; Turner, Adam C

    2015-10-01

    The use of Monte Carlo simulations in diagnostic medical imaging research is widespread due to its flexibility and ability to estimate quantities that are challenging to measure empirically. However, any new Monte Carlo simulation code needs to be validated before it can be used reliably. The type and degree of validation required depends on the goals of the research project, but, typically, such validation involves either comparison of simulation results to physical measurements or to previously published results obtained with established Monte Carlo codes. The former is complicated due to nuances of experimental conditions and uncertainty, while the latter is challenging due to typical graphical presentation and lack of simulation details in previous publications. In addition, entering the field of Monte Carlo simulations in general involves a steep learning curve. It is not a simple task to learn how to program and interpret a Monte Carlo simulation, even when using one of the publicly available code packages. This Task Group report provides a common reference for benchmarking Monte Carlo simulations across a range of Monte Carlo codes and simulation scenarios. In the report, all simulation conditions are provided for six different Monte Carlo simulation cases that involve common x-ray based imaging research areas. The results obtained for the six cases using four publicly available Monte Carlo software packages are included in tabular form. In addition to a full description of all simulation conditions and results, a discussion and comparison of results among the Monte Carlo packages and the lessons learned during the compilation of these results are included. This abridged version of the report includes only an introductory description of the six cases and a brief example of the results of one of the cases. This work provides an investigator the necessary information to benchmark his/her Monte Carlo simulation software against the reference cases included here

  16. Update of strategies to translate evidence from cochrane musculoskeletal group systematic reviews for use by various audiences.

    PubMed

    Rader, Tamara; Pardo Pardo, Jordi; Stacey, Dawn; Ghogomu, Elizabeth; Maxwell, Lara J; Welch, Vivian A; Singh, Jasvinder A; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Légaré, France; Santesso, Nancy; Toupin April, Karine; O'Connor, Annette M; Wells, George A; Winzenberg, Tania M; Johnston, Renea; Tugwell, Peter

    2014-02-01

    For rheumatology research to have a real influence on health and well-being, evidence must be tailored to inform the decisions of various audiences. The Cochrane Musculoskeletal Group (CMSG), one of 53 groups of the not-for-profit international Cochrane Collaboration, prepares, maintains, and disseminates systematic reviews of treatments for musculoskeletal diseases. While systematic reviews provided by the CMSG fill a major gap in meeting the need for high-quality evidence syntheses, our work does not end at the completion of a review. The term "knowledge translation" (KT) refers to the activities involved in bringing research evidence to various audiences in a useful form so it can be used to support decision making and improve practices. Systematic reviews give careful consideration to research methods and analysis. Because the review is often long and detailed, the clinically relevant results may not be apparent or in the optimal form for use by patients and their healthcare practitioners. This paper describes 10 formats, many of them new, for ways that evidence from Cochrane Reviews can be translated with the intention of meeting the needs of various audiences, including patients and their families, practitioners, policy makers, the press, and members of the public (the "5 Ps"). Current and future knowledge tools include summary of findings tables, patient decision aids, plain language summaries, press releases, clinical scenarios in general medical journals, frequently asked questions (Cochrane Clinical Answers), podcasts, Twitter messages, Journal Club materials, and the use of storytelling and narratives to support continuing medical education. Future plans are outlined to explore ways of improving the influence and usefulness of systematic reviews by providing results in formats suitable to our varied audiences. PMID:24293571

  17. A Review of the Research on Pinkston's Single-Parent Group Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Harold E.; Cox, Wendell H.; Sharkey, Caroline N.; Briggs, Adam C.; Black, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this review is to chronicle the extent to which the Pinkston and colleagues model is utilized in single-parent training group (SPG) interventions in the home environment for children aged 5 to 12 or preadolescent school-aged children. Methods: Several databases were searched electronically and independent full reviews were…

  18. Narrowing the Gap in Outcomes for Vulnerable Groups: A Review of the Research Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Sally; Straw, Suzanne; Jones, Megan; Springate, Iain; Grayson, Hilary

    2008-01-01

    This report presents findings from a review of the best evidence on narrowing the gap in outcomes across the five Every Child Matters (ECM) areas for vulnerable groups in the context of improving outcomes for all. The review was commissioned to prepare the ground for work on "Narrowing the Gap" with participating local authorities (LAs). Although…

  19. 42 CFR 52h.3 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... listed in 45 CFR 5.31 and may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups... GRANTS SCIENTIFIC PEER REVIEW OF RESEARCH GRANT APPLICATIONS AND RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT...

  20. 7 CFR 3401.12 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups. 3401.12 Section 3401.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RANGELAND RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of...

  1. 7 CFR 3400.10 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups. 3400.10 Section 3400.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of...

  2. 42 CFR 52h.3 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... listed in 45 CFR 5.31 and may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups... GRANTS SCIENTIFIC PEER REVIEW OF RESEARCH GRANT APPLICATIONS AND RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT...

  3. 42 CFR 52h.3 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... listed in 45 CFR 5.31 and may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups... GRANTS SCIENTIFIC PEER REVIEW OF RESEARCH GRANT APPLICATIONS AND RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT...

  4. 42 CFR 52h.3 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... listed in 45 CFR 5.31 and may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups... GRANTS SCIENTIFIC PEER REVIEW OF RESEARCH GRANT APPLICATIONS AND RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT...

  5. Review of statistical methods used in enhanced-oil-recovery research and performance prediction. [131 references

    SciTech Connect

    Selvidge, J.E.

    1982-06-01

    Recent literature in the field of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) was surveyed to determine the extent to which researchers in EOR take advantage of statistical techniques in analyzing their data. In addition to determining the current level of reliance on statistical tools, another objective of this study is to promote by example the greater use of these tools. To serve this objective, the discussion of the techniques highlights the observed trend toward the use of increasingly more sophisticated methods and points out the strengths and pitfalls of different approaches. Several examples are also given of opportunities for extending EOR research findings by additional statistical manipulation. The search of the EOR literature, conducted mainly through computerized data bases, yielded nearly 200 articles containing mathematical analysis of the research. Of these, 21 were found to include examples of statistical approaches to data analysis and are discussed in detail in this review. The use of statistical techniques, as might be expected from their general purpose nature, extends across nearly all types of EOR research covering thermal methods of recovery, miscible processes, and micellar polymer floods. Data come from field tests, the laboratory, and computer simulation. The statistical methods range from simple comparisons of mean values to multiple non-linear regression equations and to probabilistic decision functions. The methods are applied to both engineering and economic data. The results of the survey are grouped by statistical technique and include brief descriptions of each of the 21 relevant papers. Complete abstracts of the papers are included in the bibliography. Brief bibliographic information (without abstracts) is also given for the articles identified in the initial search as containing mathematical analyses using other than statistical methods.

  6. Review of Global Menace of Road Accidents with Special Reference to Malaysia- A Social Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kareem, Abdul

    2003-01-01

    Road accident is ‘a global tragedy’ with ever-rising trend. The goal of this article includes review of the causes and nature of accidents, statistical data regarding road accidents and the economical impact. 1.17 million deaths occur each year worldwide due to road accidents 70 % of which occur in developing countries. 65% of deaths involve pedestrians, 35 % of which are children. Estimates suggest that 23–34 million people are injured worldwide every year in road crashes - a value almost twice that previously estimated. It is estimated that more than 200 U.S. citizens die each year due to road accidents abroad. Every year in Europe, more than 50,000 peoples are killed in road accidents, and more than 150,000 remain disabled. It is a sad fact that the total number of road accidents in Malaysia exceeded 223,000 in 1999. On the average, 16 persons died from these road accidents, every single day in 1999. Lack of attention, reckless driving, lack of proper protection, speeding, bad personal habits, social and behavioral misconduct and inconsiderate drivers of larger vehicles are some of the problems that cause accidents. In Malaysia, motorcycle fatal accidents (60%) warrant a high degree of concern. Young children and senior citizens are found to be in the vulnerable age group. In Malaysia, in 1999 alone, general insurers paid RM1.67 billion or an average of RM4.6 million a day on motor claims. It is now recognized that road traffic accidents represent a major public health problem, because of the high number of victims involved and because of the seriousness of the consequences for themselves and for their families. PMID:23386795

  7. Review of the Literature on Tracking and Ability Grouping. Second Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindle, Jane Clark

    This review of the research literature on ability grouping and tracking draws on professional and scholarly research journals and electronic databases. Five assumptions have been used to support the recurring practices of tracking and ability grouping, but none of these assumptions has withstood close examination in 70 years of research. They are:…

  8. Review Article: Structural flood-protection measures referring to several European case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryžanowski, A.; Brilly, M.; Rusjan, S.; Schnabl, S.

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a review of structural measures that were taken to cope with floods in some cities along the Danube River, such as Vienna, Bratislava, and Belgrade. These cities were also considered as case studies within the KULTURisk project. The structural measures are reviewed and compared to each other according to the type, duration of application, the return period of the design flood event, how the project measures are integrated into spatial planning and the problems that occur in the flood defences today. Based on this review, some suggestions are given on how to improve the flood risk management in flood-prone areas.

  9. Education and Training for Computer-Based Reference Services: Review of Training Efforts to Date.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourne, Charles P.; Robinson, Jo

    1980-01-01

    Discusses issues regarding training for computer-based reference services, including who is to be trained and who is responsible for training, and summarizes the training offered to date by search service suppliers, database suppliers, library schools, and extension programs. Available training materials are also considered. (Author/FM)

  10. The prevalence of symptoms associated with sick buildings and polluted industrial environments as compared to unexposed reference groups without expressed dissatisfaction

    SciTech Connect

    Norbaeck, D.; Rand, G.; Michel, I. ); Amcoff, S. )

    1989-01-01

    The prevalence of certain symptoms (eye, skin and upper airway irritation, headache, nausea and fatigue) associated with the sick building syndrome was studied among personnel exposed to sick buildings, among industrial and hospital workers exposed to irritants and among nonexposed reference groups without expressed dissatisfaction. The exposures were quantified by hygienic measurements. Both sick building personnel and industrial and hospital workers exposed to irritants in their work places exhibited a significantly enhanced symptom prevalence in comparison with the reference groups. The enhanced prevalence of many symptoms was more pronounced among personnel in the sick buildings than among the exposed workers, but the exposure levels in comparison with the occupational exposure limit values, were lower in the sick buildings than in the industrial environment. the proportion of females was higher in the sick buildings than in the reference groups, and all sick buildings were found in the public sector. The sick building groups did not differ from the reference groups with regard to other factors such as mean age, smoking habits, atopy frequency, work stress, or work satisfaction. The results indicate that modern indoor environments could be as potent as current industrial environments in inducing irritative symptoms. The enhanced prevalence of symptoms in the sick buildings could not be explained by an accumulation of sensitive individuals in certain buildings.

  11. An iterative evaluation of two shortened systematic review formats for clinicians: a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    Perrier, Laure; Kealey, M Ryan; Straus, Sharon E

    2014-01-01

    Objective To conduct a series of focus groups with primary care physicians to determine the optimal format of a shortened, focused systematic review. Materials and methods Prototypes for two formats of a shortened systematic review were developed and presented to participants during focus group sessions. Focus groups were conducted with primary care physicians who were in full- or part-time practice. An iterative process was used so that the information learned from the first set of focus groups (Round 1) influenced the material presented to the second set of focus groups (Round 2). The focus group discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed. Results Each of the two rounds of testing included three focus groups. A total of 32 physicians participated (Round 1:16 participants; Round 2:16 participants). Analysis of the transcripts from Round 1 identified three themes including ease of use, clarity, and implementation. Changes were made to the prototypes based on the results so that the revised prototypes could be presented and discussed in the second round of focus groups. After analysis of transcripts from Round 2, four themes were identified, including ease of use, clarity, brevity, and implementation. Revisions were made to the prototypes based on the results. Conclusions Primary care physicians provided input on the refinement of two prototypes of a shortened systematic review for clinicians. Their feedback guided changes to the format, presentation, and layout of these prototypes in order to increase usability and uptake for end-users. PMID:24786378

  12. CTSA Consortium Consensus Scientific Review Committee (SRC) Working Group Report on the SRC Processes.

    PubMed

    Selker, Harry P; Buse, John B; Califf, Robert M; Carter, Robert; Cooper, Dan M; Davis, Jonathan; Ford, Daniel E; Galassetti, Pietro; Guay-Woodford, Lisa; Huggins, Gordon S; Kasper, Amanda; Kieburtz, Karl; Kirby, Aaron; Klein, Andreas K; Kline, Joel; O' Neill, Robert T; Rape, Marie; Reichgott, Douglas J; Rojevsky, Svetlana; Rosenthal, Gary E; Rubinstein, Eric P; Shepherd, Amy; Stacy, Mark; Terrin, Norma; Wallace, Mark; Welch, Lisa

    2015-12-01

    Human research projects must have a scientifically valid study design, analytic plan, and be operationally feasible in order to be successfully completed and thus to have translational impact. To ensure this, institutions that conduct clinical research should have a scientific review process prior to submission to the Institutional Review Committee (IRB). This paper reports the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) Consortium Scientific Review Committee (SRC) Consensus Working Group's proposed framework for a SRC process. Recommendations are provided for institutional support and roles of CTSAs, multisite research, criteria for selection of protocols that should be reviewed, roles of committee members, application process, and committee process. Additionally, to support the SCR process effectively, and to ensure efficiency, the Working Group recommends information technology infrastructures and evaluation metrics to determine outcomes are provided. PMID:26184433

  13. Challenges and opportunities of group therapy for adolescent substance abuse: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Kaminer, Yifrah

    2005-10-01

    Group intervention has been the most commonly employed treatment modality for adolescents with substance use disorders (SUD). Evidence has been accumulating in support for the efficacy of diverse forms of group therapy that have been utilized with adolescents. It has been argued however, that aggregation of youths who display problem behavior into group interventions may, under some conditions, produce iatrogenic effects on all participants. This assertion known also as "deviancy training" and its presumed effect on treatment outcomes has created a barrier to progress regardless of the fact that it has not been tested or empirically supported in heterogeneous groups of adolescents treated for SUD. It is imperative to optimize group intervention while considering how to prevent, reduce and control, potentially iatrogenic effects associated with the aggregation of antisocial youths in heterogeneous groups. The main objective of this review is to address the challenges and opportunities regarding group treatment of adolescent SUD. PMID:16051443

  14. Does who you know in the positional hierarchy protect or hurt? Social capital, comparative reference group, and depression in two societies.

    PubMed

    Song, Lijun

    2015-07-01

    Does the socioeconomic status (SES) that one's (ego's) network members (alters) occupy indicate social resources or social comparison standards in the dynamics of health across culture? Using nationally representative data simultaneously collected from the United States and urban China, this study examines two competing theories-social capital and comparative reference group-in the two societies and compares their different application across the two societies using two cultural explanations, relational dependence and self-evaluation motive. Social capital theory expects absolute accessed SES and the size of higher accessed socioeconomic positions to protect health, and the size of lower accessed socioeconomic positions to harm health. But comparative reference group theory predicts the opposite. Additionally, the relational dependence explanation anticipates social capital theory to be more applicable to urban China and comparative reference group theory to be more applicable to the United States. The self-evaluation motive explanation expects the same pattern across the two societies in the examination of the size of lower accessed socioeconomic positions but the opposite pattern in the analysis of absolute accessed SES and the size of higher accessed socioeconomic positions. This study focuses on depressive symptoms and measures accessed occupational status. Results are consistent with the self-evaluation motive explanation. They support both social capital theory and comparative reference group theory in the United States but only the latter theory in urban China. PMID:25993522

  15. Bioaccumulation and toxicity of heavy metals and related trace elements. [Review (96 references)

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.B. Jr.

    1981-06-01

    This article reviews the experimental data on heavy metals in the aquatic environment and their biological effects on aquatic ecosystems. Arsenic, cadmium, copper, chromium, lead, mercury, zinc, selenium, and cobalt were discussed. In addition, the concepts of bioconcentration and detoxification of heavy metals were described. (KRM)

  16. Class Size and Educational Achievement: A Review of Methodology with Particular Reference to Study Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Harvey; Blatchford, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Reviews research into class size effects from a methodological viewpoint, concentrating on various strengths and weaknesses of randomized controlled trials (RCT) and observational studies. Discusses population definitions, causation, and generally sets out criteria for valid inferences from such studies. Illustrates with new findings from data in…

  17. Peer Review of Submissions to the Annual American Evaluation Association Conference by the Graduate Student & New Evaluators Topical Interest Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroter, Daniela C.; Coryn, Chris L. S.; Montrosse, Bianca E.

    2008-01-01

    Peer review is an umbrella term that refers to a class of selection and oversight practices, including the familiar mechanisms of the review of proposals submitted for funding, of manuscripts for scholarly publications, and of personnel qualifications and portfolios for selection and promotion. Peer review has long been a cornerstone of modern…

  18. Rate increase disclosure and review: definitions of "individual market" and "small group market." Final rule.

    PubMed

    2011-09-01

    This final rule amends a May 23, 2011, final rule entitled "Rate Increase Disclosure and Review". The final rule provided that, for purposes of rate review only, definitions of "individual market" and "small group market" under State rate filing laws would govern even if those definitions departed from the definitions that otherwise apply under title XXVII of the Public Health Service Act (PHS Act). The preamble to the final rule requested comments on whether this policy should apply in cases in which State rate filing law definitions of "individual market" and "small group market" exclude association insurance policies that would be included in these definitions for other purposes under the PHS Act. In response to comments, this final rule amends the definitions of "individual market" and "small group market" that apply for rate review purposes to include coverage sold to individuals and small groups through associations even if the State does not include such coverage in its definitions of individual and small group market. This final rule also updates standards for health insurance issuers regarding disclosure and review of unreasonable premium increases under section 2794 of the Public Health Service Act. PMID:21894663

  19. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of Westinghouse Electric Corporation's report on reference conceptual designs for a repository waste package

    SciTech Connect

    Rote, D.M.; Hull, A.B.; Was, G.S.; Macdonald, D.D.; Wilde, B.E.; Russell, J.E.; Kruger, J.; Harrison, W.; Hambley, D.F.

    1985-10-01

    This report documents the findings of the peer panel constituted by Argonne National Laboratory to review Region A of Westinghouse Electric Corporation's report entitled Waste Package Reference Conceptual Designs for a Repository in Salt. The panel determined that the reviewed report does not provide reasonable assurance that US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements for waste packages will be met by the proposed design. It also found that it is premature to call the design a ''reference design,'' or even a ''reference conceptual design.'' This review report provides guidance for the preparation of a more acceptable design document.

  20. Review of effects of water pollution on the breeding success of waterbirds, with particular reference to ardeids in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    De Luca-Abbott, S B; Wong, B S; Peakall, D B; Lam, P K; Young, L; Lam, M H; Richardson, B J

    2001-12-01

    Predatory waterbirds, such as ardeids, are susceptible to bioaccumulation of pollutants through the ingestion of contaminated food sources. High body burdens of contaminants, including PCBs, PAHs, cadmium, mercury, lead, copper, zinc and arsenic have been detected in many bird species worldwide. There is a paucity of literature, however, linking contaminant body burden and effects on reproductive success in waterbirds. This review is a synthesis of pertinent literature on this topic, with specific reference to contaminant residues in various tissue types, relationship between body burden and reproductive success, and the use of biomarkers to predict more serious adverse affects. The impetus for this review was the development of a conservation strategy and management plan (commissioned by the Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR)) for an important wetland in Hong Kong that supports many threatened waterbirds, including ardeids. PMID:11759567

  1. A Systematic Evidence Review of School-Based Group Contingency Interventions for Students with Challenging Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maggin, Daniel M.; Johnson, Austin H.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Ruberto, Laura M.; Berggren, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to synthesize the research underlying group contingency interventions to determine whether there is sufficient evidence to support their use for managing the classroom behavior of students with behavioral difficulties. An application of the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) procedures for evaluating single-subject…

  2. 7 CFR 3415.10 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups. 3415.10 Section 3415.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BIOTECHNOLOGY RISK ASSESSMENT RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific...

  3. 7 CFR 3411.10 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups. 3411.10 Section 3411.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL RESEARCH INITIATIVE COMPETITIVE GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific...

  4. Review of Social Skills Training Groups for Youth with Asperger Syndrome and High Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappadocia, M. Catherine; Weiss, Jonathan A.

    2011-01-01

    Although social skills deficits represent core symptoms of Asperger Syndrome and High Functioning Autism, there is limited research investigating the empirical validity of social skills interventions currently being used with these populations. This literature review compares three types of social skills training groups: traditional, cognitive…

  5. 75 FR 19983 - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control Initial Review Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control Initial Review Group In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the following...

  6. Mostly Heterosexual as a Distinct Sexual Orientation Group: A Systematic Review of the Empirical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savin-Williams, Ritch C.; Vrangalova, Zhana

    2013-01-01

    We reviewed empirical evidence regarding whether mostly heterosexual exists as a sexual orientation distinct from two adjacent groups on a sexual continuum--exclusively heterosexual and substantially bisexual. We addressed the question: Do mostly heterosexuals show a unique profile of sexual and romantic characteristics that distinguishes them as…

  7. 7 CFR 3415.10 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups. 3415.10 Section 3415.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE BIOTECHNOLOGY RISK ASSESSMENT RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific...

  8. A Biosocial View of Population: Fertility Behavior in Animal Groups and Early Human Societies. A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Elaine M.

    The paper discusses the relationship between social structure and fertility behavior in man. Focusing upon human fertility within the context of varying social groups, the document reviews recent interdisciplinary population studies. Information and interpretations from biology, ethnology, anthropology, history, and sociology are presented in four…

  9. 7 CFR 3415.10 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups. 3415.10 Section 3415.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE BIOTECHNOLOGY RISK ASSESSMENT RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific...

  10. Participation, Interaction and Social Presence: An Exploratory Study of Collaboration in Online Peer Review Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Huahui; Sullivan, Kirk P. H.; Mellenius, Ingmarie

    2014-01-01

    A key reason for using asynchronous computer conferencing in instruction is its potential for supporting collaborative learning. However, few studies have examined collaboration in computer conferencing. This study examined collaboration in six peer review groups within an asynchronous computer conferencing. Eighteen tertiary students participated…

  11. Family and Group Treatment for Sexually-Abused Children: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silovsky, Jane F.; Hembree-Kigin, Toni L.

    1994-01-01

    Provides a critical discussion of current research on the efficacy of family and group interventions for child sexual abuse victims. Treatment goals and components are described, followed by a review of relevant empirical studies. Suggestions are presented for improving the methodology of future sexual abuse intervention research. (JPS)

  12. Chronic shoulder pain referred from thymic carcinoma: a case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Dee, Shu-Wei; Kao, Mu-Jung; Hong, Chang-Zern; Chou, Li-Wei; Lew, Henry L

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of thymic carcinoma presenting as unilateral shoulder pain for 13 months. Before an accurate diagnosis was made, the patient received conservative treatment, cervical discectomies, and myofascial trigger point injection, none of which relieved his pain. When thymic carcinoma was eventually diagnosed, he received total resection of the tumor and the shoulder pain subsided completely. Thymic carcinoma is a rare carcinoma, and our review of the literature did not show shoulder pain as its initial presentation except for one case report. The purpose of this report is to document our clinical experience so that other physiatrists can include thymic carcinoma in their differential diagnosis of shoulder pain. PMID:22969299

  13. Review on the association of Group B Streptococcus capsular antibody and protection against invasive disease in infants.

    PubMed

    Dangor, Ziyaad; Kwatra, Gaurav; Izu, Alane; Lala, Sanjay G; Madhi, Shabir A

    2015-01-01

    A trivalent Group B streptococcus (GBS) polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine for vaccination of pregnant women is under development to protect their newborns against invasive GBS disease. Establishing sero-correlates of protection against invasive GBS disease in infants could expedite the licensure pathway of polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine. A systematic review of studies reporting on the association of capsular antibodies and invasive GBS disease in infants and colonization in women or newborns was undertaken. Most studies that described maternal and/or infant capsular antibody levels in infants with invasive GBS disease identified an association between low capsular antibody levels in invasive GBS cases compared to controls. Different assay methods and the lack of standardized reference ranges for serotype-specific antibody levels makes it difficult to select an antibody level that may be used as a reliable sero-correlate of protection. Further studies using standardized methods are warranted. PMID:25242617

  14. Review of bioaerosols in indoor environment with special reference to sampling, analysis and control mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Bipasha; Lal, Himanshu; Srivastava, Arun

    2015-12-01

    Several tiny organisms of various size ranges present in air are called airborne particles or bioaerosol which mainly includes live or dead fungi and bacteria, their secondary metabolites, viruses, pollens, etc. which have been related to health issues of human beings and other life stocks. Bio-terror attacks in 2001 as well as pandemic outbreak of flue due to influenza A H1N1 virus in 2009 have alarmed us about the importance of bioaerosol research. Hence characterization i.e. identification and quantification of different airborne microorganisms in various indoor environments is necessary to identify the associated risks and to establish exposure threshold. Along with the bioaerosol sampling and their analytical techniques, various literatures revealing the concentration levels of bioaerosol have been mentioned in this review thereby contributing to the knowledge of identification and quantification of bioaerosols and their different constituents in various indoor environments (both occupational and non-occupational sections). Apart from recognition of bioaerosol, developments of their control mechanisms also play an important role. Hence several control methods have also been briefly reviewed. However, several individual levels of efforts such as periodic cleaning operations, maintenance activities and proper ventilation system also serve in their best way to improve indoor air quality. PMID:26436919

  15. Review of the enzymatic machinery of Halothermothrix orenii with special reference to industrial applications.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Abhishek; Pletschke, Brett I

    2014-02-01

    Over the past few decades the extremes at which life thrives has continued to challenge our understanding of physiology, biochemistry, microbial ecology and evolution. Innovative culturing approaches, environmental genome sequencing, and whole genome sequencing have provided new opportunities for the biotechnological exploration of extremophiles. The whole genome sequencing of H. orenii has provided valuable insights not only into the survival and adaptation strategies of thermohalophiles but has also led to the identification of genes encoding biotechnologically relevant enzymes. The present review focuses on the purified and characterized enzymes from H. orenii including amylases, β-glucosidase, fructokinase, and ribokinase--along with uncharacterized but industrially important enzymes encoded by the genes identified in the genome such as β-galactosidases, mannosidases, pullulanases, chitinases, α-L-arabinofuranosidases and other glycosyl hydrolases of commercial interest. This review highlights the importance of the enzymes and their applications in different sectors and why future research for exploring the enzymatic machinery of H. orenii should focus on the expression, purification, and characterization of the novel proteins in H. orenii and their feasible application to pertinent industrial sectors. H. orenii is an anaerobe; genome sequencing studies have also revealed the presence of enzymes for gluconeogenesis and fermentation to ethanol and acetate, making H. orenii an attractive strain for the conversion of starch into bioethanol. PMID:24411459

  16. Targeted group-based interventions in schools to promote emotional well-being: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cheney, Gemma; Schlösser, Annette; Nash, Poppy; Glover, Lesley

    2014-07-01

    The school environment offers significant opportunities to deliver psychological interventions to groups of young people in the UK. However, the nature and effectiveness of programmes are not consistently documented. This systematic review aimed to identify and examine group-based interventions delivered in UK schools. Sixteen papers describing eight interventions were included. It was found that nurture groups have an immediate positive impact on the social and emotional well-being of young people. Results from follow-up studies are less clear, and limited by a high level of sample attrition. The findings reported in relation to social and emotional aspects of learning, cognitive, behavioural and social skills based interventions were limited as each intervention is only evaluated by one paper. The review highlighted a need to implement well-designed, longitudinal studies with larger samples in order to evaluate which interventions are effective in UK schools. PMID:23737607

  17. The determination of polychlorinated biphenyl residues: a review with special reference to foods.

    PubMed

    Robards, K

    1990-01-01

    The determination of polychlorinated biphenyls presents several unique analytical problems, not least of which is the need to identify and quantify 209 possible analytes. Moreover, congener-specific analysis is essential because of structure-activity effects on toxicity and environmental stability. Although significant advances have been achieved in identification/quantification procedures with the aid of highly efficient, inert open tubular chromatography columns and coupled GC-MS, sampling and extraction procedures have not developed to the same extent. The primary focus of this review is the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in foods. However, the problems of separation and identification overshadow the importance of the sample matrix, and relevant data from other areas of analysis are quoted. PMID:2113010

  18. Environmental impacts of perchlorate with special reference to fireworks--a review.

    PubMed

    Sijimol, M R; Mohan, Mahesh

    2014-11-01

    Perchlorate is an inorganic anion that is used in solid rocket propellants, fireworks, munitions, signal flares, etc. The use of fireworks is identified as one of the main contributors in the increasing environmental perchlorate contamination. Although fireworks are displayed for entertainment, its environmental costs are dire. Perchlorates are also emerging as potent thyroid disruptors, and they have an impact on the ecology too. Many studies have shown that perchlorate contaminates the groundwater and the surface water, especially in the vicinity of fireworks manufacturing sites and fireworks display sites. The health and ecological impacts of perchlorate released in fireworks are yet to be fully assessed. This paper reviews fireworks as a source of perchlorate contamination and its expected adverse impacts. PMID:25004859

  19. Submarine canyons as important habitat for cetaceans, with special reference to the Gully: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moors-Murphy, Hilary B.

    2014-06-01

    There has been much research interest in the use of submarine canyons by cetaceans, particularly beaked whales (family Ziphiidae), which appear to be especially attracted to canyon habitats in some areas. However, not all submarine canyons are associated with large numbers of cetaceans and the mechanisms through which submarine canyons may attract cetaceans are not clearly understood. This paper reviews some of the cetacean associations with submarine canyons that have been anecdotally described or presented in scientific literature and discusses the physical, oceanographic and biological mechanisms that may lead to enhanced cetacean abundance around these canyons. Particular attention is paid to the Gully, a large submarine canyon and Marine Protected Area off eastern Canada for which there exists some of the strongest evidence available for submarine canyons as important cetacean habitat. Studies demonstrating increased cetacean abundance in the Gully and the processes that are likely to attract cetaceans to this relatively well-studied canyon are discussed. This review provides some limited evidence that cetaceans are more likely to associate with larger canyons; however, further studies are needed to fully understand the relationship between the physical characteristics of canyons and enhanced cetacean abundance. In general, toothed whales (especially beaked whales and sperm whales) appear to exhibit the strongest associations with submarine canyons, occurring in these features throughout the year and likely attracted by concentrating and aggregating processes. By contrast, baleen whales tend to occur in canyons seasonally and are most likely attracted to canyons by enrichment and concentrating processes. Existing evidence thus suggests that at least some submarine canyons are important foraging areas for cetaceans, and should be given special consideration for cetacean conservation and protection.

  20. Competitive Team-Based Learning versus Group Investigation with Reference to the Language Proficiency of Iranian EFL Intermediate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad Hassan

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a report on an experimental study which intended to look into the possible effects of Competitive Team-Based Learning (CTBL) vis-à-vis Group Investigation (GI) method of Cooperative Learning (CL) on the language proficiency of Iranian EFL intermediate students. Seventy homogeneous Iranian intermediate students were selected out of a…

  1. Tweeting links to Cochrane Schizophrenia Group reviews: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Adams, C E; Bodart, A Y M; Sampson, S; Zhao, S; Montgomery, A A

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of using health social media on web activity. Design Individually randomised controlled parallel group superiority trial. Setting Twitter and Weibo. Participants 170 Cochrane Schizophrenia Group full reviews with an abstract and plain language summary web page. Interventions Three randomly ordered slightly different 140 character or less messages, each containing a short URL to the freely accessible summary page sent on specific times on one single day. This was compared with no messaging. Outcome The primary outcome was web page visits at 1 week. Secondary outcomes were other metrics of web activity at 1 week. Results 85 reviews were randomised to each of the intervention and control arms. Google Analytics allowed 100% follow-up within 1 week of completion. Intervention and control reviews received a total of 1162 and 449 visits, respectively (IRR 2.7, 95% CI 2.2 to 3.3). Fewer intervention reviews had single page only visits (16% vs 31%, OR 0.41, 0.19 to 0.88) and users spent more time viewing intervention reviews (geometric mean 76 vs 31 s, ratio 2.5, 1.3 to 4.6). Other secondary metrics of web activity all showed strong evidence in favour of the intervention. Conclusions Tweeting in this limited area of healthcare increases ‘product placement’ of evidence with the potential for that to influence care. Trial registration number ISRCTN84658943. PMID:26956164

  2. Review and evaluation of the effects of xenobiotic chemicals on microorganisms in soil. [139 references

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, R.J.; Van Voris, P.

    1988-02-01

    The primary objective was to review and evaluate the relevance and quality of existing xenobiotic data bases and test methods for evaluating direct and indirect effects (both adverse and beneficial) of xenobiotics on the soil microbial community; direct and indirect effects of the soil microbial community on xenobiotics; and adequacy of test methods used to evaluate these effects and interactions. Xenobiotic chemicals are defined here as those compounds, both organic and inorganic, produced by man and introduced into the environment at concentrations that cause undesirable effects. Because soil serves as the main repository for many of these chemicals, it therefore has a major role in determining their ultimate fate. Once released, the distribution of xenobiotics between environmental compartments depends on the chemodynamic properties of the compounds, the physicochemical properties of the soils, and the transfer between soil-water and soil-air interfaces and across biological membranes. Abiotic and biotic processes can transform the chemical compound, thus altering its chemical state and, subsequently, its toxicity and reactivity. Ideally, the conversion is to carbon dioxide, water, and mineral elements, or at least, to some harmless substance. However, intermediate transformation products, which can become toxic pollutants in their own right, can sometimes be formed. 139 refs., 6 figs., 11 tabs.

  3. Cryogenics and its application with reference to spice grinding: a review.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, S; Gupta, Manoj Kumar; Singh, K K

    2012-01-01

    Cryogenics is the study of very low temperature and its application on different materials including biological products. Cryogenics has numerous applications in space science, electronics, automobiles, the manufacturing industry, sports and musical instruments, biological science and agriculture, etc. Cryogenic freezing finds pivotal application in food, that is, spices and condiments. Although there is a wide range of cryogens to produce the desired low temperature, generally liquid nitrogen (LN₂) is used in food grinding. The application of low temperature shows a promising pathway to produce higher quality end product with higher flavor and volatile oil retention. Cryogenic grinders generally consist of precoolers and grinder with the cryogen distribution system. In such grinding systems, cryogens subject the raw material up to or lower than glass transition temperature before it is ground, thus eliminating much of the material and quality hassles of traditional grinding. At present, the capital investment including cryogen and handling costs escalate the final cost of the product. Thus, for large-scale production, a proper design to optimize and make it feasible is the need of the hour and understanding the behavior of different food materials at these low temperature conditions. This article reviews the scenario and application of cryogenics in different sectors, especially to spice grinding. PMID:22698269

  4. Normatology: a review and commentary with reference to abortion and physician-assisted suicide.

    PubMed

    Brodie, H K; Banner, L

    1997-06-01

    This article opens with a review of the concept of "normatology," which was developed by Sabshin and Offer in four books published over a period of 30 years. Normatology seeks to produce an "operational definition of normality and health" over the life cycle. Such a definition can be used as a guideline in the deliver of health care. The importance of this field of study is highlighted when considering issues such as abortion or physician-assisted suicide. Fortunately, the proclivity of Americans to conduct public opinion polls helps researchers determine what is considered "normal" at any given time. Gallup Polls, which have posed the same question about the legality of abortion from 1975 to 1995, indicate that about half of all Americans continuously occupy the middle ground on this issue despite a somewhat liberalizing trend. In general, public opinion holds that it is normal to want to avoid giving birth to a damaged child, to place the mother's health and safety above that of the fetus, and to terminate a pregnancy resulting from rape. It is less normal to abort a healthy fetus on demand. Thus, abortion will likely continue to be a source of controversy and confusion in our society and among psychiatric patients. In comparison, psychiatrists express attitudes about abortion that are more liberal than normal. In the case of physician-assisted suicide, public approval has increased since 1950 as scientific advancements have facilitated the prolongation of unproductive and painful life. If legalized, physician-assisted suicide may depend upon psychiatric assessment of an absence of mental disease. Such an assessment is required in the Northern Territory of Australia, where voluntary euthanasia is legal, but not in the Netherlands, where it is government-regulated. Psychiatrists must understand public opinion in order to influence it or deal with it competently. PMID:9167540

  5. Review of remediation practices regarding cadmium-enriched farmland soil with particular reference to China.

    PubMed

    Tang, X; Li, Q; Wu, M; Lin, L; Scholz, M

    2016-10-01

    Cadmium-enrichment of farmland soil greatly threatens the sustainable use of soil resources and the safe cultivation of grain. This review paper briefly introduces the status of farmland soil as well as grain, which are both often polluted by cadmium (Cd) in China, and illustrates the major sources of Cd contaminants in farmland soil. In order to meet soil environmental quality standards and farmland environmental quality evaluation standards for edible agricultural products, Cd-enriched farmland soil is frequently remediated with the following prevailing techniques: dig and fill, electro-kinetic remediation, chemical elution, stabilisation and solidification, phytoremediation, field management and combined remediation. Most remediation techniques are still at the stage of small-scale trial experiments in China and few techniques are assessed in field trials. After comparing the technical and economical applicability among different Cd-enriched farmland soil remediation techniques, a novel ecological and hydraulic remediation technique has been proposed, which integrated the advantages of chemical elution, solidification and stabilisation, phytoremediation and field management. The ecological and hydraulic remediation concept is based on existing irrigation and drainage facilities, ecological ditches (ponds) and agronomic measures, which mainly detoxify the Cd-enriched soil during the interim period of crop cultivation, and guarantee the grain safety during its growth period. This technique may shift the challenge from soil to water treatment, and thus greatly enhances the remediation efficiency and shortens the remediation duration. Moreover, the proposed ecological and hydraulic remediation method matches well with the practical choice of cultivation while remediation for Cd-enriched soil in China, which has negligible impacts on the normal crop cultivation process, and thus shows great potential for large area applications. PMID:27562701

  6. The use of ephemera with particular reference to blood and organ donation: a review of sources.

    PubMed

    Rose, G M

    1994-06-01

    Emphasis has been placed upon a study of the use made of ephemera such as leaflets, pamphlets and booklets by non-professional staff working in British statutory organizations such as health authorities, community health councils and family health services authorities as well as voluntary organizations such as charities, citizens' advice bureaux and patient participation groups. Publicity methods and the use made of ephemeral materials by those statutory and voluntary organizations involved in recruiting and retaining blood and organ donors is highlighted. Research findings confirm that patients, carers and others, wish to receive comprehendable and appropriate health information. Ephemera provided in support of this need are not comprehensive in subject coverage and lack any standardization of format. In particular, great care needs to be taken with the design of leaflets, pamphlets and booklets. Ephemeral materials are difficult to locate and obtain, and no bibliographical centre exists to coordinate and support existing activity by identifying, acquiring, storing, advertising and distributing such health care material. Marketing and publicity skills, and much time and effort are required to rectify this deficiency, and thus to satisfy the needs of consumers. PMID:10136650

  7. Plant functional traits with particular reference to tropical deciduous forests: a review.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, R K; Raghubanshi, A S; Singh, J S

    2011-12-01

    Functional traits (FTs) integrate the ecological and evolutionary history of a species, and can potentially be used to predict its response as well as its influence on ecosystem functioning. Study of inter-specific variation in the FTs of plants aids in classifying species into plant functional types (PFTs) and provides insights into fundamental patterns and trade-offs in plant form and functioning and the effect of changing species composition on ecosystem functions. Specifically, this paper focuses on those FTs that make a species successful in the dry tropical environment. Following a brief overview, we discuss plant FTs that may be particularly relevant to tropical deciduous forests (TDFs). We consider the traits under the following categories: leaf traits, stem and root traits, reproductive traits, and traits particularly relevant to water availability. We compile quantitative information on functional traits of dry tropical forest species. We also discuss trait-based grouping of plants into PFTs. We recognize that there is incomplete knowledge about many FTs and their effects on TDFs and point out the need for further research on PFTs of TDF species, which can enable prediction of the dynamics of these forests in the face of disturbance and global climate change. Correlations between structural and ecophysiological traits and ecosystem functioning should also be established which could make it possible to generate predictions of changes in ecosystem services from changes in functional composition. PMID:22116295

  8. Reference scenarios for deforestation and forest degradation in support of REDD: a review of data and methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olander, Lydia P.; Gibbs, Holly K.; Steininger, Marc; Swenson, Jennifer J.; Murray, Brian C.

    2008-04-01

    Global climate policy initiatives are now being proposed to compensate tropical forest nations for reducing carbon emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD). These proposals have the potential to include developing countries more actively in international greenhouse gas mitigation and to address a substantial share of the world's emissions which come from tropical deforestation. For such a policy to be viable it must have a credible benchmark against which emissions reduction can be calculated. This benchmark, sometimes termed a baseline or reference emissions scenario, can be based directly on historical emissions or can use historical emissions as input for business as usual projections. Here, we review existing data and methods that could be used to measure historical deforestation and forest degradation reference scenarios including FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations) national statistics and various remote sensing sources. The freely available and corrected global Landsat imagery for 1990, 2000 and soon to come for 2005 may be the best primary data source for most developing countries with other coarser resolution high frequency or radar data as a valuable complement for addressing problems with cloud cover and for distinguishing larger scale degradation. While sampling of imagery has been effectively useful for pan-tropical and continental estimates of deforestation, wall-to-wall (or full coverage) allows more detailed assessments for measuring national-level reference emissions. It is possible to measure historical deforestation with sufficient certainty for determining reference emissions, but there must be continued calls at the international level for making high-resolution imagery available, and for financial and technical assistance to help countries determine credible reference scenarios. The data available for past years may not be sufficient for assessing all forms of forest degradation, but new data sources

  9. Human Ontogeny of Drug Transporters: Review and Recommendations of the Pediatric Transporter Working Group.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, K L R; Aleksunes, L M; Brandys, B; Giacoia, G P; Knipp, G; Lukacova, V; Meibohm, B; Nigam, S K; Rieder, M; de Wildt, S N

    2015-09-01

    The critical importance of membrane-bound transporters in pharmacotherapy is widely recognized, but little is known about drug transporter activity in children. In this white paper, the Pediatric Transporter Working Group presents a systematic review of the ontogeny of clinically relevant membrane transporters (e.g., SLC, ABC superfamilies) in intestine, liver, and kidney. Different developmental patterns for individual transporters emerge, but much remains unknown. Recommendations to increase our understanding of membrane transporters in pediatric pharmacotherapy are presented. PMID:26088472

  10. A comparative study of the diagnostic methods for Group A streptococcal sore throat in two reference hospitals in Yaounde, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Gonsu, Hortense Kamga; Bomki, Cynthia Mbimenyuy; Djomou, François; Toukam, Michel; Ndze, Valantine Ngum; Lyonga, Emilia Enjema; Mbakop, Calixte Didier; Koulla-Shiro, Sinata

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sore throat is a common complaint in general practice which is more frequent in children. The most frequent pathogenic bacteria associated with this infection is Streptococcus pyogenes. Rapid Antigen Diagnostic Test (RADT) facilitates the rapid identification and consequently prompt treatment of patients, prevents complications, and also reduces the risk of spread of Group A Streptococcus (GAS). The main objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of a rapid streptococcal antigen detection test in patients with sore throat. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out from January to April 2011 on patients aged 3 to 72 years consulting for pharyngitis or sore throat at the paediatric and Ear, Nose and Throat units of the University Teaching Hospital Yaounde and the Central Hospital Yaounde. Two throat swabs were collected per patient. One was used for the rapid test and the other for standard bacteriological analysis. Results The prevalence of GAS in the study population was 22.5%. Out of the 71 samples collected, the RADT detected group A streptococcal antigens in 12 of 16 positive cultures giving a sensitivity of 75%. The specificity of the rapid test was 96%, with positive predictive value of 85.7%, and negative predictive value of 93% respectively. Conclusion Rapid test may have an additional value in the management of patients with high risk of having GAS infection. However, tests with a higher sensitivity are needed for accurate and reliable results for early diagnosis of patients with sore throat caused by GAS.

  11. Invited review: Effects of group housing of dairy calves on behavior, cognition, performance, and health.

    PubMed

    Costa, J H C; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Weary, D M

    2016-04-01

    Standard practice in the dairy industry is to separate the calf and dam immediately after birth and raise calves in individual pens during the milk-feeding period. In nature and in extensive beef systems, the young calf lives in a complex social environment. Social isolation during infancy has been associated with negative effects, including abnormal behavior and developmental problems, in a range of species. Here, we review empirical work on the social development of calves and the effects of social isolation in calves and other species; this evidence indicates that calves reared in isolation have deficient social skills, difficulties in coping with novel situations, as well as specific cognitive deficits. We also review the practices associated with group housing of dairy calves, and discuss problems and suggested solutions, especially related to cross-sucking, competition, aggression, and disease. The studies reviewed indicate that social housing improves solid feed intakes and calf weight gains before and after calves are weaned from milk to solid feed. Evidence regarding the effects of social housing on calf health is mixed, with some studies showing increased risk of disease and other studies showing no difference or even improved health outcomes for grouped calves. We conclude that there is strong and consistent evidence of behavioral and developmental harm associated with individual housing in dairy calves, that social housing improves intakes and weight gains, and that health risks associated with grouping can be mitigated with appropriate management. PMID:26874423

  12. Selected Bibliographies and State-of the-Art Review for Socio-cultural Factors in Health. Volume 4: Socio-cultural Factors in Health References. International Health Planning Reference Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Renee White; Shani, Hadasa

    Intended as a companion picce to volume 4 in the Method Series, Sociocultural Factors in Health Planning (CE 024 232), this fourth of six volumes in the International Health Planning Reference Series is a combined literature review and annotated bibliography dealing with social, cultural, and behavioral aspects of delivering, planning, and…

  13. A review of sow and piglet behaviour and performance in group housing systems for lactating sows.

    PubMed

    van Nieuwamerongen, S E; Bolhuis, J E; van der Peet-Schwering, C M C; Soede, N M

    2014-03-01

    Commercial use of group housing systems for lactating sows is limited, but the recent transition to group housing during gestation in the EU may result in a renewed interest in such systems. Therefore, this review aims to identify key factors that may contribute to the success or failure of group housing of lactating sows in comparison with individual housing by describing the variety in group housing systems and discussing animal behaviour and performance compared with individual housing. Group housing systems can be divided in multi-suckling (MS) systems, in which sows are grouped with their litters, and get-away (GA) systems, which include a separate communal area accessible to sows only. These systems differ in many aspects regarding management and layout but, compared with individual housing, generally provide more environmental complexity, more freedom of movement for the sows and more freedom to express behaviours related to, for example, maternal care and social interactions. Group housing poses several risks, such as disrupted nursing and an increased level of crushing during the MS phase, and in the GA systems there is a risk for early cessation of nursing. On the other hand, pre-weaning mingling of litters clearly benefits piglet social development and may improve adaptation to the post-weaning situation. In addition, group-housed sows may show lactational ovulation, which provides opportunities for insemination during an extended lactation period, which benefits the piglets. Gradual transitions in social and physical environment around gestation, farrowing, grouping and weaning seem to be key success factors for group housing systems during lactation. In addition, selection of suitable sows and quality of stockmanship seem important. PMID:24534691

  14. Spectral reference line data relevant to remote sensing applications: a review and outline of the EUMETRISPEC project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werhahn, O.; Brunzendorf, J.; Nwaboh, J.; Serdyukov, A.; Werwein, Viktor; Ebert, V.

    2014-10-01

    Within the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP)1 the EUMETRISPEC joint research project was focused on metrological aspects of spectral reference line data2 as presented earlier3. We review EUMETRISPEC's first funding through the EMRP and the outcome of this metrology effort to support the line data and the atmospheric remote sensing community. We describe current examples from the EMRP project to address present deficiencies of available line data. Key points of this project were the development of an open European hardware infrastructure for traceable spectral reference data and the development of standardized procedures to measure traceable molecular spectral line data. The paper describes the development of a spectroscopy infrastructure based on a Bruker IFS 125 HR high-resolution Fourier- Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, discusses the achieved results on molecular line parameters (e.g. line strengths and pressure broadening coefficients) of the greenhouse gas species CO2 and CO. Here, metrology aims to provide its additional input in terms of improved quality management, detailed uncertainty assessments and ultimately traceable spectral data linked to the SI units wherever tightened data quality objectives and improved data quality are required for certain remote sensing applications. In this paper we show how metrology efforts support this goal by means of spectroscopy infrastructure. An outline of future activities is given promoting the discussion with the remote sensing community and fostering improved links to the metrology community.

  15. Determination of the platinum - Group elements (PGE) and gold (Au) in manganese nodule reference samples by nickel sulfide fire-assay and Te coprecipitation with ICP-MS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balaram, V.; Mathur, R.; Banakar, V.K.; Hein, J.R.; Rao, C.R.M.; Gnaneswara, Rao T.; Dasaram, B.

    2006-01-01

    Platinum group elements (PGE) and Au data in polymetallic oceanic ferromanganese nodule reference samples and crust samples obtained by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), after separation and pre-concentration by nickel sulfide fire-assay and Te coprecipitation, are presented. By optimizing several critical parameters such as flux composition, matrix matching calibration, etc., best experimental conditions were established to develop a method suitable for routine analysis of manganese nodule samples for PGE and Au. Calibrations were performed using international PGE reference materials, WMG-1 and WMS-1. This improved procedure offers extremely low detection limits in the range of 0.004 to 0.016 ng/g. The results obtained in this study for the reference materials compare well with previously published data wherever available. New PGE data arc also provided on some international manganese nodule reference materials. The analytical methodology described here can be used for the routine analysis of manganese nodule and crust samples in marine geochemical studies.

  16. Improved group-specific primers based on the full SILVA 16S rRNA gene reference database.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Stefan; Pastar, Milica; Mitter, Birgit; Lippert, Kathrin; Hackl, Evelyn; Lojan, Paul; Oswald, Andreas; Sessitsch, Angela

    2014-08-01

    Quantitative PCR (qPCR) and community fingerprinting methods, such as the Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis,are well-suited techniques for the examination of microbial community structures. The use of phylum and class-specific primers can provide enhanced sensitivity and phylogenetic resolution as compared with domain-specific primers. To date, several phylum- and class-specific primers targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA gene have been published. However, many of these primers exhibit low discriminatory power against non-target bacteria in PCR. In this study, we evaluated the precision of certain published primers in silico and via specific PCR. We designed new qPCR and T-RFLP primer pairs (for the classes Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria, and the phyla Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria) by combining the sequence information from a public dataset (SILVA SSU Ref 102 NR) with manual primer design. We evaluated the primer pairs via PCR using isolates of the above-mentioned groups and via screening of clone libraries from environmental soil samples and human faecal samples. As observed through theoretical and practical evaluation, the primers developed in this study showed a higher level of precision than previously published primers, thus allowing a deeper insight into microbial community dynamics. PMID:25229098

  17. Thyroiditis: a Clinico-cytomorphological Study with a Reference to the Ethnic Groups of Northeast Regions of India.

    PubMed

    Kalita, Abhijit; Baruah, Ronica

    2015-12-01

    Definite clinico-cytological criterion is outlined for thyroid lesions. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) makes it easier to segregate cases of thyroiditis (Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis/Hashimoto's thyroiditis-CLT/HT, and subacute thyroiditis-SAT) from other benign and malignant lesions of thyroid. The study was done for a period of 5½ years at a diagnostic centre in Guwahati. Patients underwent FNAC and smears were studied for cytomorphology. A correlation with clinical features and thyroid function, including antithyroid antibody estimation, was done, wherever possible. 792 thyroid lesions were encountered during the study, of which 213 (26.89 %) were cases of thyroiditis (70.43 % CLT/HT, 24.9 % SAT and 3.76 % having overlapping features of CLT/HT and SAT); 2 cases (0.9 %) of CLT showed suspicion of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL), which was confirmed on histopathology. 24 cases (11.26 %) belonged to different ethnic tribal groups of Northeast India. CLT/HT presented predominantly with diffuse thyroid enlargement, but 12 cases (8 % of CLT/HT cases) had nodular enlargement. Patients presented with predominantly hypothyroidism; however occasional hyperthyroid cases were also seen. SAT showed signs of inflammation and presented with hyperthyroidism. Overlap cases of CLT/HT and SAT showed combined clinico-cytomorphological features of both lesions. 37.5 % cases with overlapping features belonged to tribal communities. A rise in incidence of thyroiditis, particularly CLT/HT, was seen. Overlap features of CLT/HT and SAT was noticed in significant percentage. No bias was noticed amongst any specific tribal community. FNAC, coupled with clinico-serological study, helps to diagnose thyroiditis at early stage. PMID:26693459

  18. 75 FR 34458 - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG) Correction: This notice was published in the Federal Register on... Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the following meeting of the aforementioned review group: Time...

  19. An International Strategy for Human Exploration of the Moon: The International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) Reference Architecture for Human Lunar Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laurini, Kathleen C.; Hufenbach, Bernhard; Junichiro, Kawaguchi; Piedboeuf, Jean-Claude; Schade, Britta; Lorenzoni, Andrea; Curtis, Jeremy; Hae-Dong, Kim

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) was established in response to The Global Exploration Strategy: The Framework for Coordination developed by fourteen space agencies and released in May 2007. Several ISECG participating space agencies have been studying concepts for human exploration of the moon that allow individual and collective goals and objectives to be met. This 18 month study activity culminated with the development of the ISECG Reference Architecture for Human Lunar Exploration. The reference architecture is a series of elements delivered over time in a flexible and evolvable campaign. This paper will describe the reference architecture and how it will inform near-term and long-term programmatic planning within interested agencies. The reference architecture is intended to serve as a global point of departure conceptual architecture that enables individual agency investments in technology development and demonstration, International Space Station research and technology demonstration, terrestrial analog studies, and robotic precursor missions to contribute towards the eventual implementation of a human lunar exploration scenario which reflects the concepts and priorities established to date. It also serves to create opportunities for partnerships that will support evolution of this concept and its eventual realization. The ISECG Reference Architecture for Human Lunar Exploration (commonly referred to as the lunar gPoD) reflects the agency commitments to finding an effective balance between conducting important scientific investigations of and from the moon, as well as demonstrating and mastering the technologies and capabilities to send humans farther into the Solar System. The lunar gPoD begins with a robust robotic precursor phase that demonstrates technologies and capabilities considered important for the success of the campaign. Robotic missions will inform the human missions and buy down risks. Human exploration will start

  20. [The Goldthorpe Social Class Classification: reference framework for a proposal for the measurement of social class by the Working Group of the Spanish Society of Epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Regidor, E

    2001-01-01

    Two of the most important theory-based social class classifications are that of the neo-Weberian Goldthorpe and that of the neo-Marxist Wright. The social class classification proposal of the SES Working Group employed the Goldthorpe schema as a reference due to the empirical and mainly pragmatic aspects involved. In this article, these aspects are discussed and it is also discussed the problem of the validation of the measurements of social class and the problem of the use of the social class as an independent variable. PMID:11400411

  1. Micturition in Göttingen minipigs: first reference in vivo data for urological research and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Huppertz, N D; Tolba, R H; Grosse, J O

    2015-10-01

    One possible symptom of overactive bladder (OAB) is urinary incontinence, which is generally considered to be an age-associated disease and which is rapidly increasing with demographic changes. Rodent models are commonly used for the investigation of lower urinary tract functions, although the use of these species has limitations in several translational aspects. In biomedical research and preclinical toxicology, Göttingen minipigs are used increasingly. But in urological research, only few data are available for Göttingen minipigs. To the best of our knowledge, this study is one of the first to provide reference data of micturition in female Göttingen minipigs. Micturition frequency and volumes were monitored and analyzed in five female Göttingen minipigs. Voided volume was 520 ± 383 mL (mean ± standard deviation of mean [SD]) and micturition frequency 6.17 ± 3.68 (mean ± SD). We also performed a review of the literature to compare our data with data from different species (humans, pigs, rats and mice). Our findings revealed that micturition volume and frequency of Göttingen minipigs are more comparable with that of humans, leading to the conclusion that Göttingen minipigs may be the better choice for translational research in different research fields, such as urology, neurology and nephrology, etc. The provision of in vivo reference values meets with the 3R concept of 'reduction, refinement and replacement' of laboratory animals, because they allow comprehensive statistical power calculations (reduction), planning of telemetric approaches (refinement), and generation of computer-based modulation for the development of intravesical drug delivery systems (replacement). PMID:25660835

  2. Paleomagnetism, Geochronology, and Geochemistry of the Type Section of the Stanislaus Group: Reference Parameters from the Stable Sierra Nevada Microplate, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farner, M. J.; Pluhar, C. J.; Asami, R.; Putirka, K. D.; Busby, C.; Renne, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    The Late Miocene Stanislaus Group, of California and Nevada is composed of Table Mountain Formation, Eureka Valley Tuff, and Dardanelles Formation. This ~9.0-~10.2 million year old unit interrupted Miocene andesitic arc volcanism in the Sierra Nevada, providing a regional lithostratigraphic marker that has been used extensively to reconstruct tilt and uplift of the range, Neogene tectonics of the Walker Lane Belt, magmagenetic processes beneath the Sierra Nevada, and lithospheric evolution of the Sierra Nevada and Eastern California. A recent study (Koerner et al, 2009) produced a measured section and geologic map of the Stanislaus Group type section, but until now this locality has never seen comprehensive multidisciplinary study of the geochronology, geochemistry, and magnetostratigraphy of the site and to integrate this into the overall understanding of the Stanislaus Group. Stratigraphy, geochemistry, and paleomagnetism from the type section suggest addition of a basal trachyte lava flow member to the Eureka Valley tuff and adds an additional intermediate-polarity lava flow to Table Mountain Formation magnetostratigraphy. This study dates the youngest member of the Stanislaus Group, the Dardanelles Formation, by 40Ar/39Ar radioisotopic dating for the first time, yielding an age of 9.048 ± 0.017 Ma. Paleomagnetic results verify the previous paleomagnetic reference direction from the Sierra Nevada microplate for the Tollhouse Flat Member of the Eureka Valley Tuff (King et al., 2007). However, our work revises the By-Day Member reference direction to D = 349.6°, I = 51.9° n = 8, α95 = 3.0°, k = 346. This difference is because the prior work analyzed By-Day localities within the tectonically-active Walker Lane Belt. The revised reference direction is critical for measurements of relative vertical-axis rotation studies in the Walker Lane. Our study also demonstrates that little to no vertical-axis rotation of the Sierra Nevada microplate has occurred since

  3. Invited Review: Polycomb group genes in the regeneration of the healthy and pathological skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Marino, S; Di Foggia, V

    2016-08-01

    The polycomb group (PcG) proteins are epigenetic repressors required during key developmental processes, such as maintenance of cell identity and stem cell differentiation. To exert their repressive function, PcG proteins assemble on chromatin into multiprotein complexes, known as polycomb repressive complex 1 and 2. In this review, we will focus on the role and mode of function of PcG proteins in the development and regeneration of the skeletal muscle, both in normal and pathological conditions and we will discuss the emerging concept of modulation of their expression to enhance the muscle-specific regenerative process for patient benefit. PMID:26479276

  4. The Cochrane Collaboration: international activity within Cochrane Review Groups in the first decade of the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Allen, Claire; Richmond, Kiley

    2011-02-01

    The Cochrane Collaboration (http://www.cochrane.org) is the world's largest organisation dedicated to preparing, maintaining and promoting the accessibility of systematic reviews of the effects of healthcare interventions. It is an international organisation with participants in more than 100 countries, principally focused around the Cochrane Review Groups that are responsible for the preparation and maintenance of Cochrane reviews. Since 2000, a periodic audit has been done to count the number of active members in the Cochrane Review Groups, subdivided by the countries in which these people are based. At the beginning of 2010, there were almost 28,000 people involved, an increase from about 5500 in 2000. The growth of activity has been dramatic, and especially large for authors of Cochrane reviews and protocols. In the year 2000, 2840 people were listed as authors by the Cochrane Review Groups. At the beginning of 2010, this had risen to over 21,000 people. PMID:21342476

  5. Yusho and its latest findings-A review in studies conducted by the Yusho Group.

    PubMed

    Mitoma, Chikage; Uchi, Hiroshi; Tsukimori, Kiyomi; Yamada, Hideyuki; Akahane, Manabu; Imamura, Tomoaki; Utani, Atsushi; Furue, Masutaka

    2015-09-01

    The Yusho incident is an unprecedented mass food poisoning that occurred in Japan in 1968. It was caused by the ingestion of rice bran oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and various dioxins and dioxin-like compounds, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The victims of Yusho have suffered from characteristic skin manifestations associated with systemic, ophthalmological, and mucosal symptoms for a long period of time. The Study Group of Yusho (the Yusho Group) has been conducting annual medical check-ups on Yusho victims for more than 45years. Since 2002, when concentrations of dioxins in the blood of Yusho patients started to be measured, the pharmacokinetics of dioxins, relationship between blood levels of dioxins and symptoms/signs in patients directly exposed to dioxins, and the adverse effects on the next generation have become dramatically clear. Herein we review recent findings of studies conducted by the Yusho Group to evaluate chronic dioxin-induced toxicity to the next generation as well as Yusho patients in comparison with a similar food mass poisoning, the Yucheng incident. Additionally, we summarized basic studies carried out by the Yusho Group to re-evaluate the mechanisms of dioxin toxicities in experimental models and various functions of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), known as the dioxin receptor, pathway. PMID:26010306

  6. Reference Group Summaries: October 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Information Center on Education.

    This report provides a statistical summary for data included in the October 1987 Comprehensive Assessment Reports and of the results of the spring 1987 administration of the Pupil Evaluation Program (PEP) tests for New York State. The data for the 1986-87 school year in this report will enable school administrators to compare test results for…

  7. Injuries in combat from 1982-2005 with particular reference to those to the head and neck: A review.

    PubMed

    Rustemeyer, Jan; Kranz, Volker; Bremerich, Andreas

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this review was to examine the range of combat injuries with particular reference to those of the head and neck. We evaluated 10 retrospective studies selected from the period 1982-2005 that covered war injuries from Vietnam, Lebanon, Slovenia, Croatia, Iraq, Somalia, and Afghanistan. We found differences in the causes of injuries. Injuries from fragments were more common during the 90s than during the Vietnam War, where shooting injuries predominated. Injuries to the trunk were reduced in conflicts from 1991 onwards as military personal armour systems including protective vests were used. However, the mortality of wounded soldiers in all conflicts was consistently between 10% and 14%. There was a high incidence of injuries to the head and neck (up to 40%) though they affected only 12% of the body surface area. Though the data from the different military conflicts are not totally comparable, there are trends in the type of injuries and mortality, which may lead to changes in existing systems of medical care. PMID:17316932

  8. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB): a scoping review of pharmacology, toxicology, motives for use, and user groups.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Rebekah; Van Hout, Marie Claire

    2014-01-01

    Gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a central nervous system depressant with euphoric and relaxant effects. Documentation of GHB prevalence and the underreporting of abuse remains problematic, given the availability of GHB and its precursors γ-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD) and the ease of synthesis from kits available on the Internet. The continued abuse of and dependence on GHB, and associated fatalities, present an on-going public health problem. As the drug GHB remains an underresearched topic, a scoping review was chosen as a technique to map the available literature into a descriptive summarized account. PRISMA was used to assist in data retrieval, with subsequent data charting into three key themes (pharmacology and toxicology, outcomes, and user groups). Administered orally, GHB is dose-dependent and popular for certain uses (therapeutic, body enhancement, sexual assault) and amongst user sub groups (recreational party drug users, homosexual men). Despite the low prevalence of use in comparison to other club drugs, rising abuse of the drug is associated with dependence, withdrawal, acute toxicity, and fatal overdose. Clinical diagnosis and treatment is complicated by the co-ingestion of alcohol and other drugs. Limitations of the scoping review and potential for further research and harm reduction initiatives are discussed. PMID:25052883

  9. Acute monoblastic leukemia: a unique subtype--a review from the Childrens Cancer Study Group.

    PubMed

    Odom, L F; Lampkin, B C; Tannous, R; Buckley, J D; Hammond, G D

    1990-01-01

    The acute non-lymphocytic leukemias (ANLL) are generally treated as a homogeneous group. However, the literature is replete with articles alluding to distinctive features of acute monoblastic leukemia (AMoL). This review addresses the unique clinical, laboratory, epidemiological, and therapeutic features of AMoL. Leukemic monoblasts are distinguished from other cells in the myelocytic series by physical properties such as greater adhesiveness, deformability, and motility. Patients with AMoL often exhibit hyperleukocytosis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and extramedullary involvement, particularly in the skin, gingiva, and central nervous system (CNS). AMoL occurs predominantly in adults over 40 and children under 10, fifty percent of whom are under 2 years of age at diagnosis. Its relatively common occurrence in infants parallels the high rate of proliferation of monocytes in that age group. Additionally, its occurrence in young children appears to be associated with in utero exposure to marijuana and parental exposure to pesticides and solvents. Therapeutic results are generally poor due to high rates of fatal complications during induction, induction failures, and frequent extramedullary and medullary relapses. This poor outcome is particularly noted in infants. Higher remission induction rates attained with epipodophyllotoxins and incorporation of bone marrow transplantation have not yet resulted in substantial improvement of long-term outcome. Recurrence of disease in the CNS is minimized by the use of intensive CNS presymptomatic treatment, usually incorporating irradiation. Our review suggests that unique and innovative treatment strategies are needed to improve outcome for patients with AMoL. PMID:2406511

  10. Does Quality of Radiation Therapy Predict Outcomes of Multicenter Cooperative Group Trials? A Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Fairchild, Alysa; Straube, William; Laurie, Fran; Followill, David

    2013-10-01

    Central review of radiation therapy (RT) delivery within multicenter clinical trials was initiated in the early 1970s in the United States. Early quality assurance publications often focused on metrics related to process, logistics, and timing. Our objective was to review the available evidence supporting correlation of RT quality with clinical outcomes within cooperative group trials. A MEDLINE search was performed to identify multicenter studies that described central subjective assessment of RT protocol compliance (quality). Data abstracted included method of central review, definition of deviations, and clinical outcomes. Seventeen multicenter studies (1980-2012) were identified, plus one Patterns of Care Study. Disease sites were hematologic, head and neck, lung, breast, and pancreas. Between 0 and 97% of treatment plans received an overall grade of acceptable. In 7 trials, failure rates were significantly higher after inadequate versus adequate RT. Five of 9 and 2 of 5 trials reported significantly worse overall and progression-free survival after poor-quality RT, respectively. One reported a significant correlation, and 2 reported nonsignificant trends toward increased toxicity with noncompliant RT. Although more data are required, protocol-compliant RT may decrease failure rates and increase overall survival and likely contributes to the ability of collected data to answer the central trial question.

  11. Does Quality of Radiotherapy Predict Outcomes of Multicentre Cooperative Group Trials? A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Fairchild, Alysa; Straube, William; Laurie, Fran; Followill, David

    2013-01-01

    Central review of radiotherapy (RT) delivery within multicentre clinical trials was initiated in the early 1970’s in the USA. Early quality assurance (QA) publications often focused on metrics related to process, logistics and timing. Our objective was to review the available evidence supporting correlation of RT quality with clinical outcomes within cooperative group trials. Medline search was performed to identify multicentre studies which described central subjective assessment of RT protocol compliance (quality). Data abstracted included method of central review, definition of deviations, and clinical outcomes. Seventeen multicentre studies (1980–2012) were identified, plus one Patterns of Care Study. Disease sites were hematologic, head and neck, lung, breast and pancreas. Between 0% and 97% of treatment plans received an overall grade of acceptable. In seven trials, failure rates were significantly higher after inadequate versus adequate RT. 5/9 and 2/5 trials reported significantly worse overall and progression-free survival after poor quality RT, respectively. One reported a significant correlation and two reported non-significant trends towards increased toxicity with non-compliant RT. Although more data are required, protocol-compliant RT may decrease failure rates and increase overall survival and likely contributes to the ability of collected data to answer the central trial question. PMID:23683829

  12. Lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin's disease. An immunohistochemical analysis of 208 reviewed Hodgkin's disease cases from the German Hodgkin Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    von Wasielewski, R.; Werner, M.; Fischer, R.; Hansmann, M. L.; Hübner, K.; Hasenclever, D.; Franklin, J.; Sextro, M.; Diehl, V.; Georgii, A.

    1997-01-01

    There is wide consensus that lymphocyte predominance Hodgkin's disease (LPHD) represents a distinct clinicopathological entity of B-cell origin. However, inconsistent results of immunophenotyping studies and low confirmation rates among multi-center trials pose the question of whether LPHD really expresses heterogeneous marker profiles or whether it represents a mixture of morphologically similar entities. Among 2,836 cases reviewed by the German Hodgkin Study Group, immunophenotyping was performed on 1) cases classified or confirmed as LPHD by the reference panel (n = 104) or 2) cases not confirmed as LPHD but classified as classical HD (cHD) within the reference study trial (n = 104). In most cases, immunohistochemistry revealed a phenotype either LPHD-like (CD20+, CD15-, CD30-, CD45+) or cHD-like (CD15+, CD30+, CD20-, CD45-). In 27 cases, the immunophenotype was not fully conclusive. Additional markers for Epstein-Barr virus and CD57 and in situ hybridization for mRNA light chains allowed for a more clear-cut distinction between LPHD and cHD. However, in 25 of 104 cases, immunohistochemistry disproved the morphological diagnosis of LPHD of the panel experts, whereas 13 cases originally not confirmed as LPHD showed a LPHD-like immunopattern. Immunohistochemically confirmed LPHD cases showed a significantly better freedom from treatment failure (P = 0.033) than cHD; this was not observed in the original study classification based only on morphology (P > 0.05). Significantly better survival for LPHD cases improved from P = 0.047 (original study classification) to P = 0.0071 when classified by immunohistochemistry. Our results show that LPHD is a more immunohistochemical rather than a purely morphological diagnosis. Immunophenotyping of HD biopsies suspected of being LPHD is mandatory when a modified therapy protocol, that is, one different from those used in cHD, is discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9060817

  13. Review of geochemical reference sample programs since G-1 and W-1: progress to date and remaining challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    A brief history of programs to develop geochemical reference samples and certified reference samples for use in geochemical analysis is presented. While progress has been made since G-1 and W-1 were issued, many challenges remain. ?? 1991.

  14. Tibialis posterior in health and disease: a review of structure and function with specific reference to electromyographic studies

    PubMed Central

    Semple, Ruth; Murley, George S; Woodburn, James; Turner, Deborah E

    2009-01-01

    Tibialis posterior has a vital role during gait as the primary dynamic stabiliser of the medial longitudinal arch; however, the muscle and tendon are prone to dysfunction with several conditions. We present an overview of tibialis posterior muscle and tendon anatomy with images from cadaveric work on fresh frozen limbs and a review of current evidence that define normal and abnormal tibialis posterior muscle activation during gait. A video is available that demonstrates ultrasound guided intra-muscular insertion techniques for tibialis posterior electromyography. Current electromyography literature indicates tibialis posterior intensity and timing during walking is variable in healthy adults and has a disease-specific activation profile among different pathologies. Flat-arched foot posture and tibialis posterior tendon dysfunction are associated with greater tibialis posterior muscle activity during stance phase, compared to normal or healthy participants, respectively. Cerebral palsy is associated with four potentially abnormal profiles during the entire gait cycle; however it is unclear how these profiles are defined as these studies lack control groups that characterise electromyographic activity from developmentally normal children. Intervention studies show antipronation taping to significantly decrease tibialis posterior muscle activation during walking compared to barefoot, although this research is based on only four participants. However, other interventions such as foot orthoses and footwear do not appear to systematically effect muscle activation during walking or running, respectively. This review highlights deficits in current evidence and provides suggestions for the future research agenda. PMID:19691828

  15. A sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) reference FISH karyotype for chromosome and chromosome-arm identification, integration of genetic linkage groups and analysis of major repeat family distribution.

    PubMed

    Paesold, Susanne; Borchardt, Dietrich; Schmidt, Thomas; Dechyeva, Daryna

    2012-11-01

    We developed a reference karyotype for B. vulgaris which is applicable to all beet cultivars and provides a consistent numbering of chromosomes and genetic linkage groups. Linkage groups of sugar beet were assigned to physical chromosome arms by FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization) using a set of 18 genetically anchored BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) markers. Genetic maps of sugar beet were correlated to chromosome arms, and North-South orientation of linkage groups was established. The FISH karyotype provides a technical platform for genome studies and can be applied for numbering and identification of chromosomes in related wild beet species. The discrimination of all nine chromosomes by BAC probes enabled the study of chromosome-specific distribution of the major repetitive components of sugar beet genome comprising pericentromeric, intercalary and subtelomeric satellites and 18S-5.8S-25S and 5S rRNA gene arrays. We developed a multicolor FISH procedure allowing the identification of all nine sugar beet chromosome pairs in a single hybridization using a pool of satellite DNA probes. Fiber-FISH was applied to analyse five chromosome arms in which the furthermost genetic marker of the linkage group was mapped adjacently to terminal repetitive sequences on pachytene chromosomes. Only on two arms telomere arrays and the markers are physically linked, hence these linkage groups can be considered as terminally closed making the further identification of distal informative markers difficult. The results support genetic mapping by marker localization, the anchoring of contigs and scaffolds for the annotation of the sugar beet genome sequence and the analysis of the chromosomal distribution patterns of major families of repetitive DNA. PMID:22775355

  16. Alteplase for the treatment of acute ischaemic stroke: a NICE single technology appraisal; an evidence review group perspective.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Michael; Davis, Sarah; Simpson, Emma

    2015-03-01

    The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited Boehringer Ingelheim GmbH, the manufacturer of alteplase, to submit evidence for the clinical and cost-effectiveness of alteplase for the prevention of strokes within a 0-4.5 h window. The comparator was standard medical and supportive management that does not include alteplase. This paper provides a description of the company submission, the Evidence Review Group (ERG) review and NICE's subsequent decisions. Clinical effectiveness evidence for alteplase was derived from 5 trials. For the 3-4.5 h treatment window, alteplase did not show a statistically significant treatment effect on death or dependency at three months follow-up. For the 0-4.5 h treatment window data from a meta-analysis of 3 trials indicated that the reduction of death and dependency was statistically significant. In both cases there was a significant increase in symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage. The economic model described in the manufacturer's submission was considered by the ERG to meet the NICE reference case. The model structure was considered to be appropriate and the ERG has no major concerns regarding the selection of data used within the model. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) for all treatment windows were well below accepted willingness to pay thresholds. The ERG had no major concerns regarding the completeness of the submission or the robustness of the evidence presented. For all treatment windows considered, alteplase was found to be cost-effective compared with standard treatment. PMID:25424495

  17. National Drug Formulary review of statin therapeutic group using the multiattribute scoring tool

    PubMed Central

    Ramli, Azuana; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Sulong, Saperi; Md Yusof, Faridah Aryani

    2013-01-01

    Purpose HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are extensively used in treating hypercholesterolemia. The statins available in Malaysia include atorvastatin, lovastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin, simvastatin, and fluvastatin. Over the years, they have accumulated in the National Drug Formulary; hence, the need for review. Effective selection of the best drugs to remain in the formulary can become complex due to the multiple drug attributes involved, and is made worse by the limited time and resources available. The multiattribute scoring tool (MAST) systematizes the evaluation of the drug attributes to facilitate the drug selection process. In this study, a MAST framework was developed to rank the statins based on their utilities or benefits. Methods Published literature on multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) were studied and five sessions of expert group discussions were conducted to build the MAST framework and to review the evidence. The attributes identified and selected for analysis were efficacy (clinical efficacy, clinical endpoints), safety (drug interactions, serious side effects and documentation), drug applicability (drug strength/formulation, indications, dose frequency, side effects, food–drug interactions, and dose adjustments), and cost. The average weights assigned by the members for efficacy, safety, drug applicability and cost were 32.6%, 26.2%, 24.1%, and 17.1%, respectively. The utility values of the attributes were scored based on the published evidence or/and agreements during the group discussions. The attribute scores were added up to provide the total utility score. Results Using the MAST, the six statins under review were successfully scored and ranked. Atorvastatin scored the highest total utility score (TUS) of 84.48, followed by simvastatin (83.11). Atorvastatin and simvastatin scored consistently high, even before drug costs were included. The low scores on the side effects for atorvastatin were compensated for by the higher

  18. TOPICAL REVIEW: An angular momentum approach to quadratic Fourier transform, Hadamard matrices, Gauss sums, mutually unbiased bases, the unitary group and the Pauli group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibler, Maurice R.

    2009-09-01

    The construction of unitary operator bases in a finite-dimensional Hilbert space is reviewed through a nonstandard approach combining angular momentum theory and representation theory of SU(2). A single formula for the bases is obtained from a polar decomposition of SU(2) and is analyzed in terms of cyclic groups, quadratic Fourier transforms, Hadamard matrices and generalized Gauss sums. Weyl pairs, generalized Pauli operators and their application to the unitary group and the Pauli group naturally arise in this approach. Dedicated to the memory of Yurii Fedorovich Smirnov.

  19. Joint Funding Councils' Libraries Review Group (the "Follett") Report: The Contribution of the Information Technology Sub-Committee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brindley, Lynne J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to look into a review of library provision in higher education, which was originally set up in 1992 by The Funding Councils of England, Scotland and Wales, and the Department of Education for Northern Ireland. Design/methodology/approach: The review group was structured into three sub-committees, under the umbrella of…

  20. 75 FR 34459 - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG) Correction: This notice was published in the Federal Register on... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the following meeting of the aforementioned review...

  1. Uterine sarcoma Part I-Uterine leiomyosarcoma: The Topic Advisory Group systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wen, Kuo-Chang; Horng, Huann-Cheng; Wang, Peng-Hui; Chen, Yi-Jen; Yen, Ming-Shyen; Ng, Heung-Tat

    2016-08-01

    Uterine sarcomas account for 3-7% of all uterine cancers. Because of their rarity, unknown etiology, and highly divergent genetic aberration, there is a lack of consensus on risk factors for occurrence and predictive poor outcomes as well as optimal therapeutic choices. Tumor types according to the World Health Organization classification include leiomyosarcoma, endometrial stroma sarcoma, and undifferentiated sarcoma. Staging is done using the 2014 Federation International Gynecology and Obstetrics and 2010 American Joint Committee on Cancer tumor, lymph node, and metastases systems. Tumor grade can be classified based on the French Federation of Cancer Centers Sarcoma Group system or the Broder's system that incorporates tumor differentiation, mitotic count, and tumor necrosis. This review is a series of articles discussing uterine sarcoma, and this is Part I, which focuses on one of the subtypes of uterine sarcomas-uterine leiomyosarcoma. The clinical characteristics, diagnosis, outcome, and recent advances are summarized in this article. PMID:27590365

  2. Appraisal of literature reviews on end-of-life care for minority ethnic groups in the UK and a critical comparison with policy recommendations from the UK end-of-life care strategy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Evidence of low end-of-life (EoL) care service use by minority ethnic groups in the UK has given rise to a body of research and a number of reviews of the literature. This article aims to review and evaluate literature reviews on minority ethnic groups and EoL care in the UK and assess their suitability as an evidence base for policy. Methods Systematic review. Searches were carried out in thirteen electronic databases, eight journals, reference lists, and grey literature. Reviews were included if they concerned minority ethnic groups and EoL care in the UK. Reviews were graded for quality and key themes identified. Results Thirteen reviews (2001-2009) met inclusion criteria. Seven took a systematic approach, of which four scored highly for methodological quality (a mean score of six, median seven). The majority of systematic reviews were therefore of a reasonable methodological quality. Most reviews were restricted by ethnic group, aspect of EoL care, or were broader reviews which reported relevant findings. Six key themes were identified. Conclusions A number of reviews were systematic and scored highly for methodological quality. These reviews provide a good reflection of the primary evidence and could be used to inform policy. The complexity and inter-relatedness of factors leading to low service use was recognised and reflected in reviews' recommendations for service improvement. Recommendations made in the UK End-of-Life Care Strategy were limited in comparison, and the Strategy's evidence base concerning minority ethnic groups was found to be narrow. Future policy should be embedded strongly in the evidence base to reflect the current literature and minimise bias. PMID:21635738

  3. Mental health of Asian American and Pacific Islander military veterans: brief review of an understudied group.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jack; Kong, Grace

    2012-11-01

    The mental health of American military soldiers and veterans is of widespread concern; yet, there has been no prior review of studies on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) veterans. This article provides a brief, but comprehensive review of the mental health of AAPI veterans. An exhaustive literature search was conducted using the major medical and mental health literature databases. Of 13 identified articles, nine were empirical studies on either post-traumatic stress disorder among AAPI Vietnam veterans or health functioning of AAPI veterans based on national veteran surveys. Findings from these studies showed that some AAPI veterans who served during the Vietnam War encountered racism from fellow soldiers and race-related stressors were associated with more severe post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. As a group, AAPI veterans were found to be physically healthier than other veterans, but reported poorer mental health and were less likely to use mental health services. However, these findings were limited by the paucity of studies on AAPI veterans and suggest a need for more research on this subpopulation. PMID:23198528

  4. Group social skills interventions for adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Spain, Debbie; Blainey, Sarah H

    2015-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are characterised by impairments in communication and social interaction. Social skills interventions have been found to ameliorate socio-communication deficits in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Little is known about the effectiveness of social skills interventions for adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (hf-ASD) - a clinical population who can present with more subtle core deficits, but comparable levels of impairment and secondary difficulties. A systematic review was undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of social skills interventions for adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. Five studies met the pre-specified review inclusion criteria: two quasi-experimental comparative trials and three single-arm interventions. There was a degree of variation in the structure, duration and content of the social skills interventions delivered, as well as several methodological limitations associated with included studies. Nevertheless, narrative analysis tentatively indicates that group social skills interventions may be effective for enhancing social knowledge and understanding, improving social functioning, reducing loneliness and potentially alleviating co-morbid psychiatric symptoms. PMID:26045543

  5. Platinum-group element systematics and petrogenetic processing of the continental upper mantle: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorand, Jean-Pierre; Luguet, Ambre; Alard, Olivier

    2013-04-01

    The platinum-group element (PGE) systematics of continental mantle peridotites show large variability, reflecting petrogenetic processing of the upper mantle during partial melting and melt/fluid percolation inside the lithosphere. By removing Pd-Cu-Ni rich sulfides, partial melting events that have stabilized the sub-continental mantle lithosphere fractionated PPGEs (Palladium-group PGE; Pt, Pd) relative to IPGEs (Iridium-group PGE; Os, Ir, Ru, Rh). Residual base-metal sulfides (BMS) survive as enclosed IPGE-enriched Monosulfide Solid Solutions (Mss), which otherwise decompose into Ru-Os-Ir-rich refractory platinum-group minerals (PGMs) once the partial melts become S-undersaturated. The small-scale heterogeneous distribution of these microphases may cause extreme nugget effects, as seen in the huge variations in absolute PGE concentrations documented in cratonic peridotites. Magmas fluxing through the lithospheric mantle may change the initial PGE budgets inherited from the melting events, resulting in the great diversity of PGE systematics seen in peridotites from the sub-continental lithosphere. For instance, melt-rock reactions at increasing melt/rock ratios operate as open-system melting processes removing residual BMS/PGMs. Highly percolated peridotites are characterized by extreme PGE depletion, coupled with PGE patterns and Os-isotope compositions that gradually evolve toward that of the percolating melt. Reactions at decreasing melt-rock ratios (usually referred to as «mantle metasomatism») precipitate PPGE-enriched BMS that yield suprachondritic Pd/Ir and occasionally affect Pt/Ir and Rh/Ir ratios as well. Moreover, volatile-rich, small volume melts fractionate Os relative to Ir and S relative to Se, thereby producing rocks with supra-chondritic Os/Ir and S/Se coupled with supra-chondritic Pd/Ir and Pt/Ir. Major magmatic inputs at the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary may rejuvenate the PGE systematics of the depleted mantle. Integrated studies of

  6. A Systematic Review of Peer-Support Programs for Smoking Cessation in Disadvantaged Groups

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Pauline; Clifford, Anton; Gussy, Kim; Gartner, Coral

    2013-01-01

    The burden of smoking is borne most by those who are socially disadvantaged and the social gradient in smoking contributes substantially to the health gap between the rich and poor. A number of factors contribute to higher tobacco use among socially disadvantaged populations including social (e.g., low social support for quitting), psychological (e.g., low self-efficacy) and physical factors (e.g., greater nicotine dependence). Current evidence for the effectiveness of peer or partner support interventions in enhancing the success of quit attempts in the general population is equivocal, largely due to study design and lack of a theoretical framework in this research. We conducted a systematic review of peer support interventions for smoking cessation in disadvantaged groups. The eight studies which met the inclusion criteria showed that interventions that improve social support for smoking cessation may be of greater importance to disadvantaged groups who experience fewer opportunities to access such support informally. Peer-support programs are emerging as highly effective and empowering ways for people to manage health issues in a socially supportive context. We discuss the potential for peer-support programs to address the high prevalence of smoking in vulnerable populations and also to build capacity in their communities. PMID:24169412

  7. The contributions of the Second Auxiliary Surgical Group to military surgery during World War II with special reference to thoracic surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, L A

    1983-01-01

    The outstanding scientific and surgical accomplishments of the Second Auxiliary Surgical Group in the Mediterranean Theater of Operations and the 7th Army in World War II were not exceeded by any other group in the United States Army Medical Corps. In the final 921-page report to the Surgeon General with 550 tables, 8801 severely wounded casualties out of a total of 22,000 treated were reviewed. In addition, the major portion of three books on war surgery and over 60 scientific articles were written by this group. The contributions in thoracic surgery that focused attention on physiologic principles and limited the indications for thoracotomy have stood the test of time. The author made the original description of the reaction of the lung to severe trauma of the brain, abdomen, and extremities by the development of "the wet lung of trauma" (RDS), while his introduction of a hand-operated, intermittent positive pressure oxygen respirator to treat the advanced form of this syndrome (pulmonary edema) ushered in a new form of treatment. Long-term, follow-up studies by the author confirm the validity of the physiologic approach to the treatment of thoracic trauma. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7A and B. Fig. 8. PMID:6338843

  8. WWC Quick Review of the Article "Culture and the Interaction of Student Ethnicity with Reward Structure in Group Learning" Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an updated WWC (What Works Clearinghouse) Review of the Article "Culture and the Interaction of Student Ethnicity with Reward Structure in Group Learning". The study examined the effects of different reward systems used in group learning situations on the math skills of African-American and White students. The research…

  9. 75 FR 63532 - In the Matter of the Review of the Designation of the Armed Islamic Group and All Associated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE In the Matter of the Review of the Designation of the Armed Islamic Group and All Associated Aliases as Foreign... for the 2003 re-designation of the Armed Islamic Group (GIA) as foreign terrorist organization...

  10. Group Incentives for Teachers and Their Effects on Student Learning: A Systematic Review of Theory and Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirivayi, Nyasha; Maasen van den Brink, Henriette; Groot, Wim

    2014-01-01

    The effects of teachers' group incentives on student achievement are examined by reviewing theoretical arguments and empirical studies published between 1990 and 2011. Studies from developing countries reported positive effects of group incentives on student test scores. However, experimental studies from developed countries reported…

  11. Systematic Review on Internet Support Groups (ISGs) and Depression (2): What Is Known About Depression ISGs?

    PubMed Central

    Calear, Alison L; Banfield, Michelle; Tam, Ada

    2009-01-01

    Background Internet support groups (ISGs) are a popular means by which consumers with depression communicate online. A number of studies have evaluated the nature and impact of depression-specific ISGs. However, to date there have been no published systematic reviews of this evidence. Objective The aim was to systematically identify and summarize the available evidence concerning the scope and findings of studies of depression ISGs. Methods Three databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, Cochrane) were searched using over 150 search terms extracted from relevant papers, abstracts, and a thesaurus. Papers were included if they employed an online peer-to-peer depression-specific support group and reported either quantitative or qualitative empirical data. The objective of each study was coded according to a 20-category classification system, which included the effect on depression and other outcomes, including help seeking; user characteristics, activity, satisfaction, perceived benefits, perceived disadvantages; the reason for using the ISG; the nature of ISG posts; characteristics of depression ISGs compared to other ISG types, face-to-face groups, and face-to-face counseling; ISG structure and longitudinal changes; and predictors of ISG adherence. Results Thirteen papers satisfied the inclusion criteria from an initial pool of 12,692 abstracts. Of these, three collected data using survey questionnaires, nine analyzed samples of posts, and one both collected survey data and analyzed a sample of posts. The quality of most studies was not high, and little data were collected on most key aspects of depression ISGs. The most common objective of the studies was to analyze the nature of the posts (eight studies) and to describe site usage (six studies) and user characteristics (five studies). The most prevalent types of social support were emotional, informational, and social companionship. Conclusions Given the popularity of depression ISGs and the paucity of available evidence

  12. Systematic Review on Internet Support Groups (ISGs) and Depression (1): Do ISGs Reduce Depressive Symptoms?

    PubMed Central

    Calear, Alison L; Banfield, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Background Internet support groups (ISGs) enable individuals with specific health problems to readily communicate online. Peer support has been postulated to improve mental health, including depression, through the provision of social support. Given the growing role of ISGs for both users with depression and those with a physical disorder, there is a need to evaluate the evidence concerning the efficacy of ISGs in reducing depressive symptoms. Objective The objective was to systematically review the available evidence concerning the effect of ISGs on depressive symptoms. Method Three databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, Cochrane) were searched using over 150 search terms extracted from relevant papers, abstracts, and a thesaurus. Papers were included if they (1) employed an online peer-to-peer support group, (2) incorporated a depression outcome, and (3) reported quantitative data. Studies included both stand-alone ISGs and those used in the context of a complex multi-component intervention. All trials were coded for quality. Results Thirty-one papers (involving 28 trials) satisfied the inclusion criteria from an initial pool of 12,692 abstracts. Sixteen trials used either a single-component intervention, a design in which non-ISG components were controlled, or a cross-sectional analysis, of which 10 (62.5%) reported a positive effect of the ISG on depressive symptoms. However, only two (20%) of these studies employed a control group. Only two studies investigated the efficacy of a depression ISG and neither employed a control group. Studies with lower design quality tended to be associated with more positive outcomes (P = .07). Overall, studies of breast cancer ISGs were more likely to report a reduction in depressive symptoms than studies of other ISG types (Fisher P = .02), but it is possible that this finding was due to confounding design factors rather than the nature of the ISG. Conclusions There is a paucity of high-quality evidence concerning the efficacy or

  13. Opportunities and challenges in conducting systematic reviews to support development of nutrient reference values: vitamin A as an example

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrient reference values have significant public health and policy implications. Given the importance of defining reliable nutrient reference values, there is a need for an explicit, objective, and transparent process to set these values. The Tufts Medical Center Evidence-based Practice Center asse...

  14. Taxonomic review of the major larval pests of bolete fungi (Boletaceae) in Europe: The Pegomya fulgens, furva and tabida species groups (Diptera: Anthomyiidae).

    PubMed

    Michelsen, Verner

    2015-01-01

    A taxonomic review of the European species of the Pegomya fulgens, furva and tabida species groups is given with emphasis on characters of importance for the identification of males and females. These Pegomya species groups are represented in Europe by two, two and nine species, respectively. Their mycophagous larvae may all feed exclusively on bolete sporocarps of Leccinum and Boletus aff. edulis. Their relationships and biology are summarized. Each species is given a selective list of references and synonymy, richly illustrated descriptions of males and females, a list or summary of the examined material, and a synopsis of the known distribution and biology. Pegomya ringdahli sp. nov., previously confused with P. scapularis (Zetterstedt, 1846), is described from Fennoscandia. Lectotypes are designated for Anthomyia fulgens Meigen, 1826 and Pegomyia (Pegomyia) furva Ringdahl, 1938. An identification key is given to all 17 species (males and females) of Pegomya that supposedly feed as larvae on sporocarps of Boletaceae and Suillaceae in Europe. PMID:26624089

  15. A review of the sarawakensis species group of the ground beetle genus Orthogonius MacLeay, 1825 (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Orthogoniini)

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Mingyi; Deuve, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The sarawakensis species group of the termitophilous carabid genus Orthogonius MacLeay, 1825 is defined and reviewed. Members of this species group are distributed in Southeast Asia and represented by four species, including two new species: Orthogonius sabahicus sp. n. (Sabah, northern Borneo, Malaysia) and Orthogonius morvanianus sp. n. (southern Thailand). A key to all species of the species group is also provided. PMID:27408560

  16. Associations between food and beverage groups and major diet-related chronic diseases: an exhaustive review of pooled/meta-analyses and systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Fardet, Anthony; Boirie, Yves

    2014-12-01

    Associations between food and beverage groups and the risk of diet-related chronic disease (DRCD) have been the subject of intensive research in preventive nutrition. Pooled/meta-analyses and systematic reviews (PMASRs) aim to better characterize these associations. To date, however, there has been no attempt to synthesize all PMASRs that have assessed the relationship between food and beverage groups and DRCDs. The objectives of this review were to aggregate PMASRs to obtain an overview of the associations between food and beverage groups (n = 17) and DRCDs (n = 10) and to establish new directions for future research needs. The present review of 304 PMASRs published between 1950 and 2013 confirmed that plant food groups are more protective than animal food groups against DRCDs. Within plant food groups, grain products are more protective than fruits and vegetables. Among animal food groups, dairy/milk products have a neutral effect on the risk of DRCDs, while red/processed meats tend to increase the risk. Among beverages, tea was the most protective and soft drinks the least protective against DRCDs. For two of the DRCDs examined, sarcopenia and kidney disease, no PMASR was found. Overweight/obesity, type 2 diabetes, and various types of cardiovascular disease and cancer accounted for 289 of the PMASRs. There is a crucial need to further study the associations between food and beverage groups and mental health, skeletal health, digestive diseases, liver diseases, kidney diseases, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. PMID:25406801

  17. Airborne particulate matter, platinum group elements and human health: a review of recent evidence.

    PubMed

    Wiseman, Clare L S; Zereini, Fathi

    2009-04-01

    Environmental concentrations of the platinum group elements (PGE) platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd) and rhodium (Rh) have been on the rise, due largely to the use of automobile catalytic converters which employ these metals as exhaust catalysts. It has generally been assumed that the health risks associated with environmental exposures to PGE are minimal. More recent studies on PGE toxicity, environmental bioavailability and concentrations in biologically relevant media indicate however that environmental exposures to these metals may indeed pose a health risk, especially at a chronic, subclinical level. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent evidence and provide an up-to-date assessment of the risks related to environmental exposures of PGE, particularly in airborne particulate matter (PM). This review concludes that these metals may pose a greater health risk than once thought for several reasons. First, emitted PGE may be easily mobilised and solubilised by various compounds commonly present in the environment, thereby enhancing their bioavailability. Second, PGE may be transformed into more toxic species upon uptake by organisms. The presence of chloride in lung fluids, for instance, may lead to the formation of halogenated PGE complexes that have a greater potential to induce cellular damage. Third, a significant proportion of PGE found in airborne PM is present in the fine fraction that been found to be associated with increases in morbidity and mortality. PGE are also a concern to the extent that they contribute to the suite of metals found in fine PM suspected of eliciting a variety of health effects, especially in vulnerable populations. All these factors highlight the need to monitor environmental levels of PGE and continue research on their bioavailability, behaviour, speciation and associated toxicity to enable us to better assess their potential to elicit health effects in humans. PMID:19181366

  18. Renormalization group invariance and optimal QCD renormalization scale-setting: a key issues review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xing-Gang; Ma, Yang; Wang, Sheng-Quan; Fu, Hai-Bing; Ma, Hong-Hao; Brodsky, Stanley J.; Mojaza, Matin

    2015-12-01

    A valid prediction for a physical observable from quantum field theory should be independent of the choice of renormalization scheme—this is the primary requirement of renormalization group invariance (RGI). Satisfying scheme invariance is a challenging problem for perturbative QCD (pQCD), since a truncated perturbation series does not automatically satisfy the requirements of the renormalization group. In a previous review, we provided a general introduction to the various scale setting approaches suggested in the literature. As a step forward, in the present review, we present a discussion in depth of two well-established scale-setting methods based on RGI. One is the ‘principle of maximum conformality’ (PMC) in which the terms associated with the β-function are absorbed into the scale of the running coupling at each perturbative order; its predictions are scheme and scale independent at every finite order. The other approach is the ‘principle of minimum sensitivity’ (PMS), which is based on local RGI; the PMS approach determines the optimal renormalization scale by requiring the slope of the approximant of an observable to vanish. In this paper, we present a detailed comparison of the PMC and PMS procedures by analyzing two physical observables R e+e- and Γ(H\\to b\\bar{b}) up to four-loop order in pQCD. At the four-loop level, the PMC and PMS predictions for both observables agree within small errors with those of conventional scale setting assuming a physically-motivated scale, and each prediction shows small scale dependences. However, the convergence of the pQCD series at high orders, behaves quite differently: the PMC displays the best pQCD convergence since it eliminates divergent renormalon terms; in contrast, the convergence of the PMS prediction is questionable, often even worse than the conventional prediction based on an arbitrary guess for the renormalization scale. PMC predictions also have the property that any residual dependence on

  19. Postmortem Body and Organ Measurements in Neonates and Infants: A Review of Reference Resources Used by Ontario Pathologists (Part 1).

    PubMed

    Evetts, Audrey-Ann Marie; Shkrum, Michael J; Tugaleva, Elena

    2016-09-01

    It is common practice in pediatric autopsies to compare the body and organ measurements of the deceased child against the existing reference data. Although a number of resources are available, many are outdated and have significant limitations. The goal of this study was to assess the reference sources currently used by the Ontario pathologists in pediatric autopsies. A survey of 14 Ontario pathologists, who do coroners' pediatric autopsies, identified 20 publications commonly referenced for body and organ measurements. Of all the cited sources, only a few had all the features regarded by the pathologists as ideal for a reference source. These features included accessibility to the source, large sample size, defined control populations, statistical analyses, and sex distinctions. The results of this study will be used to guide the development of a new reference, based on Ontario data, that will enhance measurement standards in pediatric autopsy practice. PMID:27438787

  20. Can Research Assessments Themselves Cause Bias in Behaviour Change Trials? A Systematic Review of Evidence from Solomon 4-Group Studies

    PubMed Central

    McCambridge, Jim; Butor-Bhavsar, Kaanan; Witton, John; Elbourne, Diana

    2011-01-01

    Background The possible effects of research assessments on participant behaviour have attracted research interest, especially in studies with behavioural interventions and/or outcomes. Assessments may introduce bias in randomised controlled trials by altering receptivity to intervention in experimental groups and differentially impacting on the behaviour of control groups. In a Solomon 4-group design, participants are randomly allocated to one of four arms: (1) assessed experimental group; (2) unassessed experimental group (3) assessed control group; or (4) unassessed control group. This design provides a test of the internal validity of effect sizes obtained in conventional two-group trials by controlling for the effects of baseline assessment, and assessing interactions between the intervention and baseline assessment. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate evidence from Solomon 4-group studies with behavioural outcomes that baseline research assessments themselves can introduce bias into trials. Methodology/Principal Findings Electronic databases were searched, supplemented by citation searching. Studies were eligible if they reported appropriately analysed results in peer-reviewed journals and used Solomon 4-group designs in non-laboratory settings with behavioural outcome measures and sample sizes of 20 per group or greater. Ten studies from a range of applied areas were included. There was inconsistent evidence of main effects of assessment, sparse evidence of interactions with behavioural interventions, and a lack of convincing data in relation to the research question for this review. Conclusions/Significance There were too few high quality completed studies to infer conclusively that biases stemming from baseline research assessments do or do not exist. There is, therefore a need for new rigorous Solomon 4-group studies that are purposively designed to evaluate the potential for research assessments to cause bias in behaviour change trials. PMID

  1. A review of US anthropometric reference data (1971 2000) with comparisons to both stylized and tomographic anatomic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, C.; Bolch, W. E.

    2003-10-01

    Two classes of anatomic models currently exist for use in both radiation protection and radiation dose reconstruction: stylized mathematical models and tomographic voxel models. The former utilize 3D surface equations to represent internal organ structure and external body shape, while the latter are based on segmented CT or MR images of a single individual. While tomographic models are clearly more anthropomorphic than stylized models, a given model's characterization as being anthropometric is dependent upon the reference human to which the model is compared. In the present study, data on total body mass, standing/sitting heights and body mass index are collected and reviewed for the US population covering the time interval from 1971 to 2000. These same anthropometric parameters are then assembled for the ORNL series of stylized models, the GSF series of tomographic models (Golem, Helga, Donna, etc), the adult male Zubal tomographic model and the UF newborn tomographic model. The stylized ORNL models of the adult male and female are found to be fairly representative of present-day average US males and females, respectively, in terms of both standing and sitting heights for ages between 20 and 60-80 years. While the ORNL adult male model provides a reasonably close match to the total body mass of the average US 21-year-old male (within ~5%), present-day 40-year-old males have an average total body mass that is ~16% higher. For radiation protection purposes, the use of the larger 73.7 kg adult ORNL stylized hermaphrodite model provides a much closer representation of average present-day US females at ages ranging from 20 to 70 years. In terms of the adult tomographic models from the GSF series, only Donna (40-year-old F) closely matches her age-matched US counterpart in terms of average body mass. Regarding standing heights, the better matches to US age-correlated averages belong to Irene (32-year-old F) for the females and Golem (38-year-old M) for the males. Both

  2. Perceived barriers to smoking cessation in selected vulnerable groups: a systematic review of the qualitative and quantitative literature

    PubMed Central

    Twyman, Laura; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine; Bryant, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To identify barriers that are common and unique to six selected vulnerable groups: low socioeconomic status; Indigenous; mental illness and substance abuse; homeless; prisoners; and at-risk youth. Design A systematic review was carried out to identify the perceived barriers to smoking cessation within six vulnerable groups. Data sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycInfo were searched using keywords and MeSH terms from each database's inception published prior to March 2014. Study selection Studies that provided either qualitative or quantitative (ie, longitudinal, cross-sectional or cohort surveys) descriptions of self-reported perceived barriers to quitting smoking in one of the six aforementioned vulnerable groups were included. Data extraction Two authors independently assessed studies for inclusion and extracted data. Results 65 eligible papers were identified: 24 with low socioeconomic groups, 16 with Indigenous groups, 18 involving people with a mental illness, 3 with homeless groups, 2 involving prisoners and 1 involving at-risk youth. One study identified was carried out with participants who were homeless and addicted to alcohol and/or other drugs. Barriers common to all vulnerable groups included: smoking for stress management, lack of support from health and other service providers, and the high prevalence and acceptability of smoking in vulnerable communities. Unique barriers were identified for people with a mental illness (eg, maintenance of mental health), Indigenous groups (eg, cultural and historical norms), prisoners (eg, living conditions), people who are homeless (eg, competing priorities) and at-risk youth (eg, high accessibility of tobacco). Conclusions Vulnerable groups experience common barriers to smoking cessation, in addition to barriers that are unique to specific vulnerable groups. Individual-level, community-level and social network-level interventions are priority areas for future smoking cessation interventions within

  3. Environmental routes for platinum group elements to biological materials--a review.

    PubMed

    Ek, Kristine H; Morrison, Gregory M; Rauch, Sebastien

    2004-12-01

    The increased use of platinum group elements (PGE) in automobile catalysts has led to concern over potential environmental and biological accumulation. Platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd) and rhodium (Rh) concentrations have increased in the environment since the introduction of automobile catalysts. This review summarises current knowledge concerning the environmental mobility, speciation and bioavailability of Pt, Pd and Rh. The greater proportion of PGE emissions is from automobile catalysts, in the form of nanometer-sized catalyst particles, which deposit on roadside surfaces, as evidenced in samples of road dust, grass and soil. In soil, PGE can be transformed into more mobile species through complexation with organic matter and can be solubilised in low pH rainwater. There are indications that environmentally formed Pd species are more soluble and hence more mobile in the environment than Rh and Pt. PGE can reach waterbodies through stormwater transport and deposition in sediments. Besides external contamination of grass close to roads, internal PGE uptake has been observed for plants growing on soil contaminated with automobile catalyst PGE. Fine particles of PGE were also detected on the surface of feathers sampled from passerines and raptors in their natural habitat, and internal organs of these birds also contained PGE. Uptake has been observed in sediment-dwelling invertebrates, and laboratory studies have shown an uptake of PGE in eel and fish exposed to water containing road dust. The available evidence indicates that the PGE, especially Pd, are transported to biological materials through deposition in roots by binding to sulphur-rich low molecular weight species in plants. PGE uptake to exposed animals have uptake rates in the following order: Pd>Pt>Rh. The liver and kidney accumulate the highest levels of PGE, especially Pd. Urinary Pd and Rh, but not Pt, levels are correlated with traffic intensity. Dental alloys may lead to elevated urinary Pt levels

  4. Anti-choice group seeks Supreme Court review of federal clinic access law; Congress holds hearings.

    PubMed

    1995-05-19

    The Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act (FACE) is a federal statute which was signed into law May 1994 prohibiting the use of force, threat of force, or physical obstruction to intentionally injure, intimidate, or interfere with anyone providing reproductive health services. Since FACE was enacted, seven federal district courts and one federal appellate court have found the measure constitutional, although one federal district court in Wisconsin did rule against FACE. Anti-choice activists have argued that neither the Commerce Clause nor the Fourteenth Amendment to the US Constitution empower Congress to enact FACE. Congress relied upon both constitutional provisions when it enacted the statute, recognizing that illegal, violent acts against abortion providers and their patients threaten to disrupt medical care nationwide and eliminate the right to choose abortion. The US Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit on February 13, 1995, however, unanimously upheld a lower court's dismissal of the case, finding that FACE does not violate the US Constitution. Relying upon an April 26 Supreme Court decision in United States vs. Lopez, which held that Congress did not have the power under the Commerce Clause to enact a federal statute prohibiting the possession of a firearm within 100 feet of a school zone, an anti-choice group and several individuals petitioned the US Supreme Court in a May 12 filing to review the appellate court ruling in American Life League vs. Reno. The petitioners also challenge the broad powers of Congress under the Fourteenth Amendment to remedy infringements upon constitutional rights and assert FACE violates the First Amendment and the Religious Freedom Restoration Act. PMID:12346170

  5. Weight change in control group participants in behavioural weight loss interventions: a systematic review and meta-regression study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Unanticipated control group improvements have been observed in intervention trials targeting various health behaviours. This phenomenon has not been studied in the context of behavioural weight loss intervention trials. The purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-regression of behavioural weight loss interventions to quantify control group weight change, and relate the size of this effect to specific trial and sample characteristics. Methods Database searches identified reports of intervention trials meeting the inclusion criteria. Data on control group weight change and possible explanatory factors were abstracted and analysed descriptively and quantitatively. Results 85 trials were reviewed and 72 were included in the meta-regression. While there was no change in control group weight, control groups receiving usual care lost 1 kg more than control groups that received no intervention, beyond measurement. Conclusions There are several possible explanations why control group changes occur in intervention trials targeting other behaviours, but not for weight loss. Control group participation may prevent weight gain, although more research is needed to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:22873682

  6. 75 FR 34459 - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG) Correction: This notice was published in the Federal Register on February 18, 2010, Volume 75, Number 32,...

  7. 75 FR 7281 - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces...

  8. 75 FR 5089 - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces...

  9. 75 FR 7284 - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces...

  10. 75 FR 34458 - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG) Correction: This notice was published in the Federal Register on... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the following meeting of the...