Science.gov

Sample records for refined vegetable oils

  1. TREATMENT OF EFFLUENT WATERS FROM VEGETABLE OIL REFINING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A detailed investigation was done to characterize the wastewater from a vegetable oil refinery. A calcium chloride chemical treatment was installed which resulted in a net decrease in waste load of 71 percent from .0135 lb BOD5 per pound oil processed to .0039 lb BOD5 per pound o...

  2. Identification of vegetable oil botanical speciation in refined vegetable oil blends using an innovative combination of chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Maria Teresa; Haughey, Simon A; Elliott, Christopher T; Koidis, Anastasios

    2015-12-15

    European Regulation 1169/2011 requires producers of foods that contain refined vegetable oils to label the oil types. A novel rapid and staged methodology has been developed for the first time to identify common oil species in oil blends. The qualitative method consists of a combination of a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to profile the oils and fatty acid chromatographic analysis to confirm the composition of the oils when required. Calibration models and specific classification criteria were developed and all data were fused into a simple decision-making system. The single lab validation of the method demonstrated the very good performance (96% correct classification, 100% specificity, 4% false positive rate). Only a small fraction of the samples needed to be confirmed with the majority of oils identified rapidly using only the spectroscopic procedure. The results demonstrate the huge potential of the methodology for a wide range of oil authenticity work. PMID:26190602

  3. Mechanism of formation of 3-chloropropan-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) esters under conditions of the vegetable oil refining.

    PubMed

    Šmidrkal, Jan; Tesařová, Markéta; Hrádková, Iveta; Berčíková, Markéta; Adamčíková, Aneta; Filip, Vladimír

    2016-11-15

    3-MCPD esters are contaminants that can form during refining of vegetable oils in the deodorization step. It was experimentally shown that their content in the vegetable oil depends on the acid value of the vegetable oil and the chloride content. 3-MCPD esters form approximately 2-5 times faster from diacylglycerols than from monoacylglycerols. It has been proved that the higher fatty acids content in the oil caused higher 3-MCPD esters content in the deodorization step. Neutralization of free fatty acids in the vegetable oil before the deodorization step by alkaline carbonates or hydrogen carbonates can completely suppress the formation of 3-MCPD esters. Potassium salts are more effective than sodium salts. PMID:27283615

  4. Vegetable oil fuel standards

    SciTech Connect

    Pryde, E.H.

    1982-01-01

    Suggested standards for vegetable oils and ester fuels, as well as ASTM specifications for No. 2 diesel oil are given. The following physical properties were discussed: cetane number, cloud point, distillation temperatures, flash point, pour point, turbidity, viscosity, free fatty acids, iodine value, phosphorus, and wax. It was apparent that vegetable oils and their esters cannot meet ASTM specifications D975 for No. 2 diesel oil for use in the diesel engine. Vegetable oil modification or engine design modification may make it possible eventually for vegetable oils to become suitable alternative fuels. Vegetable oils must be recognized as experimental fuels until modifications have been tested thoroughly and generally accepted. 1 table. (DP)

  5. Vegetable oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is a technically competitive alternative to petroleum-derived diesel fuel. It can be obtained from commodity oils and fats such as soybean, sunflower, canola or tallow. However, the available amounts of these biodiesel feedstocks do not suffice to satisfy the long-term need for biodiesel...

  6. Refinement of microwave vegetation indices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous investigations have established the basis for a new type of vegetation index based on passive microwave satellite observations. These microwave vegetation indices (MVIs) have been qualitatively evaluated by examining global spatial and seasonal temporal features. Limited quantitative studie...

  7. Studies on acid oils and fatty acids for chickens III. Effect of chemical composition on metabolisable energy of by-products of vegetable oil refining.

    PubMed

    Vila, B; Esteve-Garcia, E

    1996-03-01

    1. Fourteen by-products of oil refining, selected for their variability in free fatty acid and unsaponifiable contents, were analysed chemically with the objective of relating the determined ME values of the products to chemical composition by means of multiple linear regression analysis. Refined sunflower oil was included as a reference fat. 2. Twenty-one 2-week-old chicks were used to determine fat digestibilities and AMEn values of diets, using the total collection method. Fats were included in a wheat-soyabean meal diet at 100 g/kg. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to express the ME values of fats as functions of the parameters measured (moisture, gross energy, impurities, unsaponifiables, non eluted material, free fatty acid content, unsaturated: saturated ratio, peroxide value, TBA test). 3. The ME of the fat products lay in the range l2.62 to 24.35 MJ/kg, and 29.26 MJ/kg for refined sunflower oil. Free fatty acid content of the fats was shown to be a poor predictor of their ME values, whereas non eluted material (NEM) of the fat products showed a good correlation with their ME. A regression equation could be derived (R2 0.6548; SEE 2.0064) with the unsaturated: saturated ratio (U:S) and NEM. An ME prediction equation based on the U:S, NEM and unsaponifiable content is also proposed (R2= 0.7l68; SEE= 1.9058). PMID:8833534

  8. Vegetable oil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Fifty contributions (presentations) involving more than one hundred people worldwide were given at the International Conference on Plant and Vegetable Oils as Fuels. The proceedings were in Fargo, North Dakota, from August 2-4, 1982. The conference helped to promote renewable fuels, bio-oils, from plant and vegetable oils. Separate abstracts were prepared for 44 items for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  9. Treatment of vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Bessler, T.R.

    1986-05-13

    A process is described for preparing an injectable vegetable oil selected from the group consisting of soybean oil and sunflower oil and mixtures thereof which comprise: (a) first treating the vegetable oil at a temperature of 80/sup 0/C to about 130/sup 0/C with an acid clay; (b) deodorizing the vegetable oil with steam at a temperature of 220/sup 0/C to about 280/sup 0/C and applying a vacuum to remove volatilized components; (c) treating the deodorized vegetable oil, at a temperature of from about 10/sup 0/C to about 60/sup 0/C, with an acid clay to reduce the content of a member selected from the group consisting of diglycerides, tocopherol components, and trilinolenin and mixtures thereof, wherein the acid clay is added in a weight ratio to the deoderized vegetable oil of from about 1:99 to about 1:1; and (d) thereafter conducting a particulate filtration to remove a substantial portion of the acid clay from the vegetable oil, wherein the filtration is accomplished with filters having a pore size of from about 0.1 to 0.45 microns, thereby obtaining the injectable oil.

  10. Products from vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Bagby, M.O.

    1995-12-01

    Vegetable oils serve various industrial applications such as plasticizers, emulsifiers, surfactants, plastics and resins. Research and development approaches may take advantage of natural properties of the oils. More often it is advantageous to modify those properties for specific applications. One example is the preparation of ink vehicles using vegetable oils in the absence of petroleum. They are cost competitive with petroleum-based inks with similar quality factors. Vegetable oils have potential as renewable sources of fuels for the diesel engine. However, several characteristics can restrict their use. These include poor cold-engine startup, misfire and for selected fuels, high pour point and cloud point temperatures. Other characteristics include incomplete combustion causing carbon buildup, lube oil dilution and degradation, and elevated NO{sub x} emissions. Precombustion and fuel quality data are presented as a tool for understanding and solving these operational and durability problems.

  11. Vegetable oil as fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    A review is presented of various experiments undertaken over the past few years in the U.S. to test the performance of vegetable oils in diesel engines, mainly with a view to on-farm energy self-sufficiency. The USDA Northern Regional Research Center in Peoria, Illinois, is screening native U.S. plant species as potential fuel oil sources.

  12. Vegetable oil based grease formulations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental concerns have brought forward vegetable oils as alternatives to more expensive synthetic lubricant base oils and less environmental friendly petroleum base stocks, in moderate operating conditions. Vegetable oils are becoming an obvious choice for potential replacement of petroleum ba...

  13. Vegetable oil fuels: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Karaosmanoglu, F.

    1999-04-01

    Using vegetable oils as fuel alternatives has economic, environmental, and energy benefits for Turkey. The present work provides insight to the status of vegetable oil fuels in Turkey. A brief historical background of the issue, as well as an up to date review of the research carried out on vegetable oil fuels, is given and the future of their production and application is discussed.

  14. Terahertz spectroscopy for quantifying refined oil mixtures.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi-nan; Li, Jian; Zeng, Zhou-mo; Li, Jie; Tian, Zhen; Wang, Wei-kui

    2012-08-20

    In this paper, the absorption coefficient spectra of samples prepared as mixtures of gasoline and diesel in different proportions are obtained by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. To quantify the components of refined oil mixtures, a method is proposed to evaluate the best frequency band for regression analysis. With the data in this frequency band, dualistic linear regression fitting is used to determine the volume fraction of gasoline and diesel in the mixture based on the Beer-Lambert law. The minimum of regression fitting R-Square is 0.99967, and the mean error of fitted volume fraction of 97# gasoline is 4.3%. Results show that refined oil mixtures can be quantitatively analyzed through absorption coefficient spectra in terahertz frequency, which it has bright application prospects in the storage and transportation field for refined oil. PMID:22907017

  15. Zeolites as catalysts in oil refining.

    PubMed

    Primo, Ana; Garcia, Hermenegildo

    2014-11-21

    Oil is nowadays the main energy source and this prevalent position most probably will continue in the next decades. This situation is largely due to the degree of maturity that has been achieved in oil refining and petrochemistry as a consequence of the large effort in research and innovation. The remarkable efficiency of oil refining is largely based on the use of zeolites as catalysts. The use of zeolites as catalysts in refining and petrochemistry has been considered as one of the major accomplishments in the chemistry of the XXth century. In this tutorial review, the introductory part describes the main features of zeolites in connection with their use as solid acids. The main body of the review describes important refining processes in which zeolites are used including light naphtha isomerization, olefin alkylation, reforming, cracking and hydrocracking. The final section contains our view on future developments in the field such as the increase in the quality of the transportation fuels and the coprocessing of increasing percentage of biofuels together with oil streams. This review is intended to provide the rudiments of zeolite science applied to refining catalysis. PMID:24671148

  16. Vegetable oils for tractors

    SciTech Connect

    Moroney, M.

    1981-11-14

    Preliminary tests by the Agricultural Institute, show that tractors can be run on a 50:50 rape oil-diesel mixture or on pure rape oil. In fact, engine power actually increased slightly with the 50:50 blend but decreased fractionally with pure rape oil. Research at the North Dakota State University on using sunflower oil as an alternative to diesel fuel is also noted.

  17. New Sulfide Derivatives of Vegetable Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils containing sulfide group were synthesized using a UV initiated thiol-ene reaction. The reaction involved addition of butyl thiol to the double bonds of the vegetable oil without the presence of a solvent. The effects of temperature, reaction time, type of vegetable oil, thiol to veg...

  18. Diesel fuels from vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, A.W.; Bagby, M.O.; Freedman, B.

    1986-03-01

    Vegetable oils have heat contents approximately 90% that of diesel fuel and are potential alternate fuel candidates. A major obstacle deterring their use in the direct-injection diesel engine is their inherent high viscosities which are nearly 10 times that of diesel fuel. Solution to the viscosity problem has been approached in three ways: 1) microemulsification, 2) pyrolysis, and 3) transesterification. Microemulsification with short chain alcohols such as methanol and ethanol yields fuels that are clear, thermodynamically stable liquid systems with viscosities near the ASTM specified range for number2 diesel fuel. These micellar systems may be formulated ionically or nonionically. The alcohols are attractive from an economic as well as a renewable resource viewpoint. Methanol has an economic advantage over ethanol, and it can be derived from a large variety of base stocks. These include biomass, municipal waste, natural gas being flared at refineries and from coal. Pyrolysis of vegetable oils is another approach to lowering their viscosity. Soybean and safflower oils were thermally decomposed in both air and nitrogen to obtain fuels for the diesel engine. Using standard ASTM distillation conditions, yields of pyrolysis products were about 75%. GS-MS analysis of the distillates showed the presence of alkanes, alkenes, aromatics, and carboxylic acids with carbon numbers ranging from 4 to more than 20. Fuel properties of the thermal decomposition products were substantially improved as evaluated by lower viscosities and higher cetane numbers compared to the unpyrrolyzed vegetable oils. Simple esters from transesterification of vegetable oils perform well in engine tests, and thus show good promise as an alternative or emergency fuel for diesel engines.

  19. Fuel properties of eleven vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Goering, C.E.; Schwab, A.W.; Daugherty, M.J.; Pryde, E.H.; Keakin, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    Eleven vegetable oils that can be grown as domestic field crops were identified for inclusion in a comparative study. Sample lots of each oil were subjected to ASTM tests appropriate for diesel fuels. The tests identified some problem areas with vegetable oil fuels. The oil samples were also characterized chemically and certain fuel properties were correlated to chemical composition. 10 refs.

  20. MODIFICATION OF VEGETABLE OILS FOR LUBRICANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils are recognized as rapidly biodegradable and are thus promising candidates as base fluids in environmental-friendly lubricants. Vegetable oils have excellent lubricity, but poor oxidation and low-temperature stability. This paper presents a series of structural modifications of veget...

  1. Fuel properties of eleven vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Goering, C.E.; Schwab, A.W.; Daugherty, M.J.; Pryde, E.H.; Heakin, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    Eleven vegetable oils that can be grown as domestic field crops were identified for inclusion in a comparative study of chemical and fuel properties. Sample lots of each oil were subjected to ASTM tests appropriate for diesel fuels. The tests identified some problem areas with vegetable oil fuels. The oil samples were also characterized chemically and certain fuel properties were correlated to chemical compositions. (Refs. 11).

  2. Energy accounting for eleven vegetable oil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Goering, C.E.; Daugherty, M.J.

    1982-09-01

    Energy inputs and outputs were comparatively analyzed for 11 vegetable oil fuels. Three-year average prices and production quantities were also compared. All nonirrigated oil crops had favorable energy ratios. Soybean, peanut and sunflower oils were the most promising as domestic fuel sources. Rapeseed oil would also be promising if significant domestic production can be established.

  3. Effect of refining on quality and composition of sunflower oil.

    PubMed

    Pal, U S; Patra, R K; Sahoo, N R; Bakhara, C K; Panda, M K

    2015-07-01

    An experimental oil refining unit has been developed and tested for sunflower oil. Crude pressed sunflower oil obtained from a local oil mill was refined using chemical method by degumming, neutralization, bleaching and dewaxing. The quality and composition of crude and refined oil were analysed compared. Reduction in phosphorous content from 6.15 ppm to 0, FFA content from 1.1 to 0.24 % (oleic acid), peroxide value from 22.5 to 7.9 meq/kg, wax content from 1,420 to 200 ppm and colour absorbance value from 0.149 to 0.079 (in spectrophotometer at 460 nm) were observed from crude to refined oil. It was observed that refining did not have significant effect on fatty acid compositions as found in the percentage peak area in the GC-MS chromatogram. The percentage of unsaturated fatty acid in both the oils were recorded to be about 95 % containing 9-Octadecenoic acid (Oleic acid) and 11,14-Eicosadienoic acid (elongated form of linoleic acid). The research results will be useful to small entrepreneurs and farmers for refining of sunflower oil for better marketability. PMID:26139933

  4. A detection method of vegetable oils in edible blended oil based on three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy technique.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Liu, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Yu-Tian

    2016-12-01

    Edible blended vegetable oils are made from two or more refined oils. Blended oils can provide a wider range of essential fatty acids than single vegetable oils, which helps support good nutrition. Nutritional components in blended oils are related to the type and content of vegetable oils used, and a new, more accurate, method is proposed to identify and quantify the vegetable oils present using cluster analysis and a Quasi-Monte Carlo integral. Three-dimensional fluorescence spectra were obtained at 250-400nm (excitation) and 260-750nm (emission). Mixtures of sunflower, soybean and peanut oils were used as typical examples to validate the effectiveness of the method. PMID:27374508

  5. Pressure viscosity coefficient of vegetable oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The elastohydrodynamic (EHD) pressure viscosity coefficient (PVC) of ten vegetable oils from commodity and new crops, and two petroleum-based oils, polyalphaolefin (PAO) and hexadecane, were investigated. PVC was measured using three different methods: the So and Klaus (S-K) procedure from oil visco...

  6. Solvent refining of lube oils the MP advantage

    SciTech Connect

    Jahnke, F.C.

    1986-01-01

    The current trend in lube oil solvent refining is towards the increased use of MP (N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone) as the solvent. This paper explains why by providing an economic analysis of using MP versus furfural refining. Included are a grassroots comparison; an analysis of converting an existing unit to MP; and a brief review of why MP provides an advantage.

  7. Variables affecting the yields of fatty esters from transesterified vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Freedman, B.; Pryde, E.H.; Mounts, T.L.

    1984-10-01

    Transesterification reaction variables that affect yield and purity of the product esters from cottonseed, peanut, soybean and sunflower oils include molar ratio of alcohol to vegetable oil, type of catalyst (alkaline vs acidic), temperature and degree of refinement of the vegetable oil. With alkaline catalysts (either sodium hydroxide or methoxide), temperatures of 60 degrees C or higher, molar ratios of at least 6 to 1 and with fully refined oils, conversion to methyl, ethyl and butyl esters was essentially complete in 1 hr. At moderate temperatures (32 degrees C), vegetable oils were 99% transesterified in ca. 4 hr with an alkaline catalyst. Transesterification by acid catalysis was much slower than by alkali catalysis. Although the crude oils could be transesterified, ester yields were reduced because of gums and extraneous material present in the crude oils. 30 references.

  8. Straight Vegetable Oil as a Diesel Fuel?

    SciTech Connect

    2014-01-01

    Biodiesel, a renewable fuel produced from animal fats or vegetable oils, is popular among many vehicle owners and fleet managers seeking to reduce emissions and support U.S. energy security. Questions sometimes arise about the viability of fueling vehicles with straight vegetable oil (SVO), or waste oils from cooking and other processes, without intermediate processing. But SVO and waste oils differ from biodiesel (and conventional diesel) in some important ways and are generally not considered acceptable vehicle fuels for large-scale or long-term use.

  9. Modified vegetable oils-based lubricant emulsions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lubricants made from vegetable oils represent only a small section of the market today. Recent legislation, however, in both the United States and Europe, could begin to brighten their prospects due to their eco-friendly and biodegradable character, unlike petroleum oil-based products. In order to u...

  10. Lubricant Properties of Modified Vegetable Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lubricants made from vegetable oils represent a small section of the market today, but recent legislation in both the United States and Europe could begin to brighten their prospects due to their eco-friendly and biodegradable character unlike petroleum oil based products. In order to understand th...

  11. Petroleum mineral oil refining and evaluation of cancer hazard.

    PubMed

    Mackerer, Carl R; Griffis, Larry C; Grabowski Jr, John S; Reitman, Fred A

    2003-11-01

    Petroleum base oils (petroleum mineral oils) are manufactured from crude oils by vacuum distillation to produce several distillates and a residual oil that are then further refined. Aromatics including alkylated polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) are undesirable constituents of base oils because they are deleterious to product performance and are potentially carcinogenic. In modern base oil refining, aromatics are reduced by solvent extraction, catalytic hydrotreating, or hydrocracking. Chronic exposure to poorly refined base oils has the potential to cause skin cancer. A chronic mouse dermal bioassay has been the standard test for estimating carcinogenic potential of mineral oils. The level of alkylated 3-7-ring PAC in raw streams from the vacuum tower must be greatly reduced to render the base oil noncarcinogenic. The processes that can reduce PAC levels are known, but the operating conditions for the processing units (e.g., temperature, pressure, catalyst type, residence time in the unit, unit engineering design, etc.) needed to achieve adequate PAC reduction are refinery specific. Chronic dermal bioassays provide information about whether conditions applied can make a noncarcinogenic oil, but cannot be used to monitor current production for quality control or for conducting research or developing new processes since this test takes at least 78 weeks to conduct. Three short-term, non-animal assays all involving extraction of oil with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) have been validated for predicting potential carcinogenic activity of petroleum base oils: a modified Ames assay of a DMSO extract, a gravimetric assay (IP 346) for wt. percent of oil extracted into DMSO, and a GC-FID assay measuring 3-7-ring PAC content in a DMSO extract of oil, expressed as percent of the oil. Extraction with DMSO concentrates PAC in a manner that mimics the extraction method used in the solvent refining of noncarcinogenic oils. The three assays are described, data demonstrating the

  12. Organogels of vegetable oil with plant wax – trans/saturated fat replacements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This featured article reviews recent advances on the development of trans fat-free, low saturated fat food products from organogels formed by a plant wax in a vegetable oil. Plant waxes are of great interest in this research area because they are obtained as by-products during the oil refining proce...

  13. Authentication of vegetable oils by bulk and molecular carbon isotope analyses with emphasis on olive oil and pumpkin seed oil.

    PubMed

    Spangenberg, J E; Ogrinc, N

    2001-03-01

    The authenticity of vegetable oils consumed in Slovenia and Croatia was investigated by carbon isotope analysis of the individual fatty acids by the use of gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS), and through carbon isotope analysis of the bulk oil. The fatty acids from samples of olive, pumpkin, sunflower, maize, rape, soybean, and sesame oils were separated by alkaline hydrolysis and derivatized to methyl esters for chemical characterization by capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) prior to isotopic analysis. Enrichment in heavy carbon isotope ((13)C) of the bulk oil and of the individual fatty acids are related to (1) a thermally induced degradation during processing (deodorization, steam washing, or bleaching), (2) hydrolytic rancidity (lipolysis) and oxidative rancidity of the vegetable oils during storage, and (3) the potential blend with refined oil or other vegetable oils. The impurity or admixture of different oils may be assessed from the delta(13)C(16:0) vs. delta(13)C(18:1) covariations. The fatty acid compositions of Slovenian and Croatian olive oils are compared with those from the most important Mediterranean producer countries (Spain, Italy, Greece, and France). PMID:11312892

  14. Crisis and Survival in Western European Oil Refining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinder, David A.

    1986-01-01

    In recent years, oil refining in Western Europe has experienced a period of intense contraction. Discussed are the nature of the crisis, defensive strategies that have been adopted, the spatial consequences of the strategies, and how effective they have been in combatting the root causes of crises. (RM)

  15. 19 CFR 10.56 - Vegetable oils, denaturing; release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. 10.56 Section... Vegetable Oils § 10.56 Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. (a) Olive, palm-kernel, rapeseed, sunflower, and sesame oil shall be classifiable under subheadings 1509.10.20, 1509.10.40, 1509.90.20, 1509.90.40,...

  16. 19 CFR 10.56 - Vegetable oils, denaturing; release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. 10.56 Section... Vegetable Oils § 10.56 Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. (a) Olive, palm-kernel, rapeseed, sunflower, and sesame oil shall be classifiable under subheadings 1509.10.20, 1509.10.40, 1509.90.20, 1509.90.40,...

  17. 19 CFR 10.56 - Vegetable oils, denaturing; release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. 10.56 Section... Vegetable Oils § 10.56 Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. (a) Olive, palm-kernel, rapeseed, sunflower, and sesame oil shall be classifiable under subheadings 1509.10.20, 1509.10.40, 1509.90.20, 1509.90.40,...

  18. Fate of oxidized triglycerides during refining of seed oils.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Tommaso; Caponio, Francesco; Delcuratolo, Debora

    2003-07-30

    The evolution of oxidized triglycerides (ox-TG) during industrial refining was studied in soybean, sunflower, peanut, and corn oils. The analytical techniques used were silica gel column chromatography and high-performance size exclusion chromatography. The decrease in ox-TG during refining (42.3% on average) was accompanied by an increase in triglyceride oligopolymers (TGP). The inverse correlation between the two lipid groups suggests that the decrease in ox-TG during refining was due in part to the occurrence of polymerization reactions. An inverse correlation was also found between the percentage sum of ox-TG + TGP and percent TGP, indicating that a part of the ox-TG also underwent degradation or transformation reactions. On average, almost 58% of the ox-TG remained unchanged during refining and, of the rest, about half was involved in polymerization reactions and half in degradation or transformation reactions. PMID:14705891

  19. Screening emissions of high oleic vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This article describes tests of a high oleic safflower oil for use as a fuel in diesel engines. Test included looking at the following: costs with reformulated diesel fuels or other benefits; reduction of particulate emissions by at least 14 percent; reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions; use without causing engine deposits and other problems. Results are given on emissions of high oleic vegetable oils, and commercial opportunities are discussed briefly.

  20. Improving vegetable oil properties for lubrication methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The inherent problems of vegetable oils, such as poor oxidation and low-temperature properties, can be improved by attaching functional groups at the sites of unsaturation through chemical modifications. In this article, you will see how functionalization helps overcome these disadvantages....

  1. Alloy performance in high temperature oil refining environments

    SciTech Connect

    Sorell, G.; Humphries, M.J.; McLaughlin, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    The performance of steels and alloys in high temperature petroleum refining applications is strongly influenced by detrimental interactions with aggressive process environments. These are encountered in conventional refining processes and especially in processing schemes for fuels conversion and upgrading. Metal-environment interactions can shorten equipment life and cause impairment of mechanical properties, metallurgical stability and weldability. Corrosion and other high temperature attack modes discussed are sulfidation, hydrogen attack, carburization, and metal dusting. Sulfidation is characterized by bulky scales that are generally ineffective corrosion barriers. Metal loss is often accompanied by sub-surface sulfide penetration. Hydrogen attack and carburization proceed without metal loss and are detectable only by metallographic examination. In advanced stages, these deterioration modes cause severe impairment of mechanical properties. Harmful metal-environment interactions are characterized and illustrated with data drawn from test exposures and plant experience. Alloys employed for high temperature oil refining equipment are identified, including some promising newcomers.

  2. Process for refining coal-based heavy oils

    SciTech Connect

    Sunami, Y.; Iwahashi, T.; Sasaki, K.

    1983-09-06

    A coal-based heavy oil is refined so as to remove quinoline insolubles and provide a hydrocarbon product suitable for making carbon stocks by heating to remove the volatile components which have boiling points ranging from the initial boiling point of the heavy oil to up to at least 200/sup 0/C and at most 270/sup 0/C, thereby leaving a residual coal-based heavy oil. The residual coal-based heavy oil is mixed with a ketone-type solvent having a boiling point less than 200/sup 0/C to form an insoluble precipitate (including quinoline insolubles) and a supernatent. The supernatent is treated to recover the ketone-type solvent, and the remaining hydrocarbon mixture is easily processed by vacuum distillation to produce a hydrocarbon product suitable for making carbon stocks.

  3. 19 CFR 10.56 - Vegetable oils, denaturing; release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. 10.56 Section 10.56 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Vegetable Oils § 10.56 Vegetable oils,...

  4. 21 CFR 180.30 - Brominated vegetable oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Brominated vegetable oil. 180.30 Section 180.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Brominated vegetable oil. The food additive brominated vegetable oil may be safely used in accordance...

  5. 21 CFR 180.30 - Brominated vegetable oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Brominated vegetable oil. 180.30 Section 180.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Brominated vegetable oil. The food additive brominated vegetable oil may be safely used in accordance...

  6. 19 CFR 10.56 - Vegetable oils, denaturing; release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. 10.56 Section 10.56 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Vegetable Oils § 10.56 Vegetable oils,...

  7. 21 CFR 180.30 - Brominated vegetable oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Brominated vegetable oil. 180.30 Section 180.30... Requirements for Certain Food Additives § 180.30 Brominated vegetable oil. The food additive brominated vegetable oil may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The...

  8. 21 CFR 180.30 - Brominated vegetable oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brominated vegetable oil. 180.30 Section 180.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Brominated vegetable oil. The food additive brominated vegetable oil may be safely used in accordance...

  9. Refining and separation of crude tall-oil components

    SciTech Connect

    Nogueira, J.M.F.

    1996-10-01

    Methods for crude tall-oil refining and fractionation evolving research studies of long-chain fatty and resinic acids separation are reviewed. Although several techniques have been applied since the 1940s with industrial aims, only distillation under high vacuum is economically practicable for crude tall-oil fractionation. Techniques such as adsorption and dissociation extraction seem to be the most industrially promising for implementation in the future for the separation of long-chain fatty and resinic acids fractions with a high purity level at low cost.

  10. [Quality of the various vegetable oils available on the Polish market].

    PubMed

    Rutkowska, Jarosława; Zbikowska, Anna

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was the examination of the quality of 17 different vegetable oils (13 refined and 4 extra virgin olive oils) available on the domestic market. The quality of oils was expressed by the following factors: conformity of fatty acid composition that as declared by manufacturer, content of oxidation products (PV, AnV, Totox), content of free fatty acids (LK) and oxidative stability. It was found that 40% of oils did not comply with the requirements concerning oxidative stability. The fatty acid composition of only 1 oil out of 17 investigated did not comply with the declaration by manufacturer. The oxidative stabilities of extra vergin olive oils: 6.44-8.24 hrs., were considerably higher that of other refined oils 2.34 to 8.24 hrs. PMID:18246656

  11. Vegetable Oil: Nutritional and Industrial Perspective.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Aruna; Sharma, Aarti; Upadhyaya, Kailash C

    2016-06-01

    Oils of plant origin have been predominantly used for food-based applications. Plant oils not only represent a non-polluting renewable resource but also provide a wide diversity in fatty acids (FAs) composition with diverse applications. Besides being edible, they are now increasingly being used in industrial applications such as paints, lubricants, soaps, biofuels etc. In addition, plants can be engineered to produce fatty acids which are nutritionally beneficial to human health. Thus these oils have potential to 1) substitute ever increasing demand of non -renewable petroleum sources for industrial application and 2) also spare the marine life by providing an alternative source to nutritionally and medically important long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids or 'Fish oil'. The biochemical pathways producing storage oils in plants have been extensively characterized, but the factors regulating fatty acid synthesis and controlling total oil content in oilseed crops are still poorly understood. Thus understanding of plant lipid metabolism is fundamental to its manipulation and increased production. This review on oils discusses fatty acids of nutritional and industrial importance, and approaches for achieving future designer vegetable oil for both edible and non-edible uses. The review will discuss the success and bottlenecks in efficient production of novel FAs in non-native plants using genetic engineering as a tool. PMID:27252590

  12. Enzymatic Biodiesel Synthesis Using a Byproduct Obtained from Palm Oil Refining

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos Corrêa, Igor Nascentes; Lorena de Souza, Susana; Catran, Marly; Bernardes, Otávio Luiz; Portilho, Márcio Figueiredo; Langone, Marta Antunes Pereira

    2011-01-01

    An alternative route to produce biodiesel is based on esterification of free fatty acids present in byproducts obtained from vegetable oil refining, such as palm oil fatty acid distillate (PFAD). PFAD is a byproduct of the production of edible palm oil, which contains 96 wt.% of free fatty acids. The purpose of this work was to study biodiesel synthesis via esterification of PFAD with methanol and ethanol, catalyzed by commercial immobilized lipases (Novozym 435, Lipozyme RM-IM, and Lipozyme TL-IM), in a solvent-free system. The effects of reaction parameters such as type of lipase, enzyme amount, type of alcohol, alcohol amount, and enzyme reuse were studied. Fatty acid conversion of 93% was obtained after 2.5 h of esterification reaction between PFAD and ethanol using 1.0 wt.% of Novozym 435 at 60°C. PMID:21687622

  13. Vegetable oils as fuel alternatives - symposium overview

    SciTech Connect

    Pryde, E.H.

    1984-10-01

    Several encouraging statements can be made about the use of vegetable oil products as fuel as a result of the information presented in these symposium papers. Vegetable oil ester fuels have the greatest promise, but further engine endurance tests will be required. These can be carried out best by the engine manufacturers. Microemulsions appear to have promise, but more research and engine testing will be necessary before performance equivalent to the ester fuels can be developed. Such research effort can be justified because microemulsification is a rather uncomplicated physical process and might be adaptable to on-farm operations, which would be doubtful for the more involved transesterfication process. Although some answers have been provided by this symposium, others are still not available; engine testing is continuing throughout the world particularly in those countries that do not have access to petroleum. 9 references.

  14. Multigeneration studies on red palm oil, and on hydrogenated vegetable oil containing mahua oil.

    PubMed

    Manorama, R; Chinnasamy, N; Rukmini, C

    1993-05-01

    Edible grade red palm oil (RPO; Elaeis guineensis) is being considered for use an an edible oil in India since it is one of the richest natural sources of carotenoids. Earlier chemical and nutritional evaluations in rats indicated no adverse effects. Multigeneration breeding studies in rats have now been carried out. Mahua oil (MO; Madhuca latifolia) is used in hydrogenated vegetable oil (HVO) for human consumption. Earlier studies on MO indicated adverse effects on the male reproductive system. Hence, a study was undertaken to evaluate the safety of HVO containing 30% MO (MO-HVO) in terms of reproductive performance. A three-generation study was conducted with groups of 12 male and 12 female Wistar/NIN/inbred albino rats fed, at 10% in the diet (20% protein), groundnut oil (controls), RPO, refined, bleached and deodorized palmolein (RBDPO), or MO-HVO. Reproductive parameters including percentage conception, birth weight, litter size, weanling weight, sex ratio at birth and weaning, preweaning mortality and number of days from introduction to mating, were recorded. Behavioural and reflexological tests were conducted on preweaning animals. Adult animals were subjected to weekly observation. No significant differences were found between the RPO and MO-HVO groups in comparison with groups fed GNO or RBDPO in any of the above parameters. However, certain indications of reduced fertility were observed in the MO-HVO group in the first and third generations. The results indicate that RPO did not produce any adverse effect on reproductive performance or other toxicological parameters studied, and therefore it can be considered as safe for consumption. On the other hand, HVO containing 30% MO needs further testing with a larger number of animals. PMID:8505022

  15. Vegetable Oil from Leaves and Stems: Vegetative Production of Oil in a C4 Crop

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    PETRO Project: Arcadia Biosciences, in collaboration with the University of California-Davis, is developing plants that produce vegetable oil in their leaves and stems. Ordinarily, these oils are produced in seeds, but Arcadia Biosciences is turning parts of the plant that are not usually harvested into a source of concentrated energy. Vegetable oil is a concentrated source of energy that plants naturally produce and is easily separated after harvest. Arcadia Biosciences will isolate traits that control oil production in seeds and transfer them into leaves and stems so that all parts of the plants are oil-rich at harvest time. After demonstrating these traits in a fast-growing model plant, Arcadia Biosciences will incorporate them into a variety of dedicated biofuel crops that can be grown on land not typically suited for food production

  16. Base catalytic transesterification of vegetable oil.

    PubMed

    Mainali, Kalidas

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable economic and industrial growth requires safe, sustainable resources of energy. Biofuel is becoming increasingly important as an alternative fuel for the diesel engine. The use of non-edible vegetable oils for biofuel production is significant because of the increasing demand for edible oils as food. With the recent debate of food versus fuel, some non-edible oils like soapnut and Jatropha (Jatropha curcus. L) are being investigated as possible sources of biofuel. Recent research has focused on the application of heterogeneous catalysis. This review considers catalytic transesterification and the possibility of heterogeneous base catalysts. The process of transesterification, and the effect of parameters, mechanism and kinetics are reviewed. Although chromatography (GC and HPLC) are the analytical methods most often used for biofuel characterization, other techniques and some improvements to analytical methods are discussed. PMID:22574385

  17. Transesterification of vegetable oils for fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Kusy, P.F.

    1982-01-01

    A continuous procedure was developed and tested, in a stepwise manner, for the transesterification of soybean and sunflower oils using ethanol. Good yields of ethyl soyate and sunflowerate were achieved, and the products made agreed very closely with those made by a direct esterification of the acids of vegetable oils and ethanol. The viscosity of the esters was considerably less than that of the oils and more nearly like that of diesel fuel. Because the ethyl soyate and sunflowerate have many components which solidify at relatively high temperatures, cloud points of the fuels are about 8 to 12/sup 0/C, which indicates they would not be readily usable at or below that temperature without dilution with No. 1 or No. 2 diesel fuel and/or the addition of additives. 3 figures, 7 tables.

  18. Assessment of the radiological impact of oil refining industry.

    PubMed

    Bakr, W F

    2010-03-01

    The field of radiation protection and corresponding national and international regulations has evolved to ensure safety in the use of radioactive materials. Oil and gas production processing operations have been known to cause naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) to accumulate at elevated concentrations as by-product waste streams. A comprehensive radiological study on the oil refining industry in Egypt was carried out to assess the radiological impact of this industry on the workers. Scales, sludge, water and crude oil samples were collected at each stage of the refining process. The activity concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were determined using high-resolution gamma spectrometry. The average activity concentrations of the determined isotopes are lower than the IAEA exempt activity levels for NORM isotopes. Different exposure scenarios were studied. The average annual effective dose for workers due to direct exposure to gamma radiation and dust inhalation found to be 0.6 microSv and 3.2 mSv, respectively. Based on the ALARA principle, the results indicate that special care must be taken during cleaning operations in order to reduce the personnel's exposure due to maintenance as well as to avoid contamination of the environment. PMID:20005611

  19. Thioether-functionalized vegetable oils: Metal-absorbing biobased ligands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils containing thioether groups have been synthesized and used to effectively remove a heavy metal ion from an aqueous solution. The use of thioether-functionalized corn oil (TF-corn oil) and thioether-functionalized canola oil (TF-canola oil) were both effective in the extraction of Ag+ ...

  20. One-pot synthesis of chemically modified vegetable oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils are promising candidates as substitutes for petroleum-base oils in lubricants applications, such as total loss lubrication, military applications and outdoor activities. Although vegetable oils have some advantages, they also have poor oxidation and low temperature stability. One of...

  1. Linkages between the markets for crude oil and the markets for refined products

    SciTech Connect

    Didziulis, V.S.

    1990-01-01

    To understand the crude oil price determination process it is necessary to extend the analysis beyond the markets for petroleum. Crude oil prices are determined in two closely related markets: the markets for crude oil and the markets for refined products. An econometric-linear programming model was developed to capture the linkages between the markets for crude oil and refined products. In the LP refiners maximize profits given crude oil supplies, refining capacities, and prices of refined products. The objective function is profit maximization net of crude oil prices. The shadow price on crude oil gives the netback price. Refined product prices are obtained from the econometric models. The model covers the free world divided in five regions. The model is used to analyze the impacts on the markets of policies that affect crude oil supplies, the demands for refined products, and the refining industry. For each scenario analyzed the demand for crude oil is derived from the equilibrium conditions in the markets for products. The demand curve is confronted with a supply curve which maximizes revenues providing an equilibrium solution for both crude oil and product markets. The model also captures crude oil price differentials by quality. The results show that the demands for crude oil are different across regions due to the structure of the refining industries and the characteristics of the demands for refined products. Changes in the demands for products have a larger impact on the markets than changes in the refining industry. Since markets for refined products and crude oil are interrelated they can't be analyzed individually if an accurate and complete assessment of a policy is to be made. Changes in only one product market in one region affect the other product markets and the prices of crude oil.

  2. Thermal stabilized vegetable oil extended diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, W.M.; Lachowicz, D.R.

    1986-03-11

    A middle distillate fuel composition is described comprising: (a) a major portion of a middle distillate containing a hydrocarbon boiling in the middle distillate boiling range; (b) an extending portion of a vegetable oil; and (c) an effective thermal-stabilizing amount of a nitrogen-containing polymer prepared by reacting an ethylene/propylene copolymer with maleic anhydride, thereby forming a succinic anhydride, reacting the succinic anhydride, with an alcohol, thereby forming a succinate ester while leaving a portion of the succinic anhydride unreacted, and, reacting the succinate ester and the unreacted succinic anhydride with dimethylaminopropylamine, thereby forming a nitrogen-containing polymer.

  3. Production and characterization of refined oils obtained from Indian oil sardine (Sardinella longiceps).

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Kajal; Joseph, Deepu

    2015-01-28

    Crude Sardinella longiceps oil was refined in different stages such as degumming, neutralization, bleaching, and deodorization. The efficiency of these processes was evaluated on the basis of free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide (PV), p-anisidine (pAV), total oxidation (TOTOX), thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) values, Lovibond CIE-L*a*b* color analyses, and (1)H NMR or GC-MS experiments. The utilities of NMR-based proton signal characteristics as new analytical tools to understand the signature peaks and relative abundance of different fatty acids and monitoring the refining process of fish oil have been demonstrated. Phosphoric acid (1%) was found to be an effective degumming reagent to obtain oil with the lowest FFA, PV, pAV, TOTOX, and TBARS values and highest color reduction. Significant reduction in the contents of hydrocarbon functionalities as shown by the decrease in proton integral in the characteristic (1)H NMR region was demonstrated by using 1% H3PO4 during the course of the degumming process. A combination (1.25:3.75%) of activated charcoal and Fuller's earth at 3% concentration for a stirring time of 40 min was found to be effective in bleaching the sardine oil. This study demonstrated that unfavorable odor-causing components, particularly low molecular weight carbonyl compounds, could successfully be removed by the refining process. The alkane-dienals/alkanes, which cause unfavorable fishy odors, were successfully removed by distillation (100 °C) under vacuum with aqueous acetic acid solution (0.25 N) to obtain greater quality of refined sardine oil, a rich source of essential fatty acids and improved oxidative stability. The present study demonstrated that the four-stage refinement process of sardine oil resulted in a significant improvement in quality characteristics and nutritional values, particularly n-3 PUFAs, with improved fish oil characteristics for use in the pharmaceutical and functional food industries. PMID:25547196

  4. 30 CFR 1208.4 - Royalty oil sales to eligible refiners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Royalty oil sales to eligible refiners. 1208.4 Section 1208.4 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE SALE OF FEDERAL ROYALTY OIL General Provisions § 1208.4 Royalty oil sales to eligible refiners. (a) Determination to...

  5. Novel Bioplastics and biocomposites from Vegetable Oils

    SciTech Connect

    Henna, Phillip H.

    2008-01-01

    there are three degrees of unsaturation. In addition, the double bonds are not in conjugation. Table 1 gives the fatty acid make-up of linseed oil. It can be seen that linseed oil has an average of 6.0 double bonds per triglyceride. Its fatty acid content consists of 5.4% palmitic acid (C16:0), 3.5% stearic acid (C18:0), 19% oleic acid (C18:1), 24 % linoleic acid (C18:2) and 47% linolenic (C18:3). Table 1 also gives the fatty acid composition and varying degrees of unsaturation for various other naturally-occurring natural vegetable oils. The regions of unsaturation in natural oils allow for interesting polymer chemistry to take place. Some of this interesting polymer science, however, involves chemical modification of the regions of unsaturation. Acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) is prepared by epoxidation of the double bonds, followed by ring opening with acrylic acid. The resulting oil has both acrylate groups and hydroxyl groups. Wool and colleagues have further reacted the hydroxyl groups within the oil with maleic anhydride to produce maleated acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (MAESO). The MAESO has been copolymerized with styrene free radically to produce promising thermosetting sheet molding resins. Petrovi? and co-workers have directly ring opened the epoxidized oil to produce polyols that produce promising polyurethanes through condensation polymerization with diisocyanates. Our group's work initially focused on direct cationic copolymerization of the double bonds or conjugated double bonds of natural oils with monomers, such as styrene and divinylbenzene, to produce promising thermosetting resins. The only modification of the oils that was carried out in these studies was conjugation of the double bonds to enhance the reactivity of the oil. This work has been expanded recently with the incorporation of glass fiber to produce promising composites. We have also explored thermal polymerization techniques to make novel thermosets. This dissertation is

  6. Viscosity of Common Seed and Vegetable Oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wes Fountain, C.; Jennings, Jeanne; McKie, Cheryl K.; Oakman, Patrice; Fetterolf, Monty L.

    1997-02-01

    Viscosity experiments using Ostwald-type gravity flow viscometers are not new to the physical chemistry laboratory. Several physical chemistry laboratory texts (1 - 3) contain at least one experiment studying polymer solutions or other well-defined systems. Several recently published articles (4 - 8) indicated the continued interest in using viscosity measurements in the teaching lab to illustrate molecular interpretation of bulk phenomena. Most of these discussions and teaching experiments are designed around an extensive theory of viscous flow and models of molecular shape that allow a full data interpretation to be attempted. This approach to viscosity experiments may not be appropriate for all teaching situations (e.g., high schools, general chemistry labs, and nonmajor physical chemistry labs). A viscosity experiment is presented here that is designed around common seed and vegetable oils. With the importance of viscosity to foodstuffs (9) and the importance of fatty acids to nutrition (10), an experiment using these common, recognizable oils has broad appeal.

  7. Thiol-ene Reaction of Vegetable Oils with Butanethiol: Sulfide Derivatized Vegetable Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils and their FA, renewable raw materials, are firmly established components in many industrial products, and their use continues to be of interest to many researchers. The development of new approaches to functionalize fatty ester compounds and to derive novel oleochemicals with unique ...

  8. Vegetable oil or diesel fuel-a flexible option

    SciTech Connect

    Suda, K.J.

    1984-01-01

    Vegetable oils provide diesel engine performance similar to that obtained with diesel fuel, and this has been documented in many prior publications. Because they are potentially interchangeable with diesel fuel, interest has focused on vegetable oils as short-range alternate fuels. However, engine durability when burning vegetable oils may be adversely affected depending on the type of combustion system employed. Laboratory and field experimental tests have identified the prechamber engine as having the greatest short-range potential for using vegetable oil fuels.

  9. Green processing for commercial production of feruloylated vegetable oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Covalent incorporation of ferulic acid into vegetable oils produces a desirable product for cosmetic applications. Current practice involves the biocatalytic transesterification of ethyl ferulate with soybean oil, followed by a molecular distillation step to remove unconsumed ethyl ferulate and the...

  10. Gas chromatographic characterization of vegetable oil deodorization distillate.

    PubMed

    Verleyen, T; Verhe, R; Garcia, L; Dewettinck, K; Huyghebaert, A; De Greyt, W

    2001-07-01

    Because of its complex nature, the analysis of deodorizer distillate is a challenging problem. Deodorizer distillate obtained from the deodorization process of vegetable oils consists of many components including free fatty acids, tocopherols, sterols, squalene and neutral oil. A gas chromatographic method for the analysis of deodorizer distillate without saponification of the sample is described. After a concise sample preparation including derivatization and silylation, distillate samples were injected on column at 60 degrees C followed by a gradual increase of the oven temperature towards 340 degrees C. The temperature profile of the oven was optimized in order to obtain a baseline separation of the different distillate components including free fatty acids, tocopherols, sterols, squalene and neutral oil. Good recoveries for delta-tocopherol, alpha-tocopherol, stigmasterol and cholesteryl palmitate of 97, 94.4, 95.6 and 92%, respectively were obtained. Repeatability of the described gas chromatographic method was evaluated by analyzing five replicates of a soybean distillate. Tocopherols and sterols had low relative standard deviations ranging between 1.67 and 2.25%. Squalene, mono- and diacylglycerides had higher relative standard deviations ranging between 3.33 and 4.12%. Several industrial deodorizer distillates obtained from chemical and physical refining of corn, canola, sunflower and soybean have been analyzed for their composition. PMID:11471811

  11. Modified vegetable oils for environmentally friendly lubricant applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synthetic lubricant base oils offer improved stability and performance characteristics over refined petroleum oils, but at a price. Most of the biodegradable synthetic oils are chemical esters that offer superior thermal and oxidative stability [8.9]. Prices for these niche products are higher tha...

  12. Sedimentation Of Oil-MIneral Aggregates For Remediation Of Vegetable Oil Spills

    EPA Science Inventory

    A response alternative for floating vegetable oil spills based on sedimentation of negatively buoyant oil-mineral aggregrates followed by anaerobic biodegradation in the sediments is under investigation. Sedimentation of floating canola oil by interaction with montmorillonite wa...

  13. Detection of Adulterated Vegetable Oils Containing Waste Cooking Oils Based on the Contents and Ratios of Cholesterol, β-Sitosterol, and Campesterol by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haixiang; Wang, Yongli; Xu, Xiuli; Ren, Heling; Li, Li; Xiang, Li; Zhong, Weike

    2015-01-01

    A simple and accurate authentication method for the detection of adulterated vegetable oils that contain waste cooking oil (WCO) was developed. This method is based on the determination of cholesterol, β-sitosterol, and campesterol in vegetable oils and WCO by GC/MS without any derivatization. A total of 148 samples involving 12 types of vegetable oil and WCO were analyzed. According to the results, the contents and ratios of cholesterol, β-sitosterol, and campesterol were found to be criteria for detecting vegetable oils adulterated with WCO. This method could accurately detect adulterated vegetable oils containing 5% refined WCO. The developed method has been successfully applied to multilaboratory analysis of 81 oil samples. Seventy-five samples were analyzed correctly, and only six adulterated samples could not be detected. This method could not yet be used for detection of vegetable oils adulterated with WCO that are used for frying non-animal foods. It provides a quick method for detecting adulterated edible vegetable oils containing WCO. PMID:26651578

  14. Upgrading and Refining of Crude Oils and Petroleum Products by Ionizing Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zaikin, Yuriy A; Zaikina, Raissa F

    2016-06-01

    A general trend in the oil industry is a decrease in the proven reserves of light crude oils so that any increase in future oil exploration is associated with high-viscous sulfuric oils and bitumen. Although the world reserves of heavy oil are much greater than those of sweet light oils, their exploration at present is less than 12 % of the total oil recovery. One of the main constraints is very high expenses for the existing technologies of heavy oil recovery, upgrading, transportation, and refining. Heavy oil processing by conventional methods is difficult and requires high power inputs and capital investments. Effective and economic processing of high viscous oil and oil residues needs not only improvements of the existing methods, such as thermal, catalytic and hydro-cracking, but the development of new technological approaches for upgrading and refining of any type of problem oil feedstock. One of the perspective approaches to this problem is the application of ionizing irradiation for high-viscous oil processing. Radiation methods for upgrading and refining high-viscous crude oils and petroleum products in a wide temperature range, oil desulfurization, radiation technology for refining used oil products, and a perspective method for gasoline radiation isomerization are discussed in this paper. The advantages of radiation technology are simple configuration of radiation facilities, low capital and operational costs, processing at lowered temperatures and nearly atmospheric pressure without the use of any catalysts, high production rates, relatively low energy consumption, and flexibility to the type of oil feedstock. PMID:27573274

  15. Friction and wear behavior of thioether hydroxy vegetable oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This work describes the tribochemical evaluation of vegetable oil based antiwear additive obtained through chemical modification. The sulfur was incorporated using a chemical reaction of epoxidized vegetable oil and common thiols, resulting in formation of a hydroxy thioether derivative of vegetabl...

  16. Vegetable-oil-based polymers as future polymeric biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Miao, Shida; Wang, Ping; Su, Zhiguo; Zhang, Songping

    2014-04-01

    Vegetable oils are one of the most important classes of bio-resources for producing polymeric materials. The main components of vegetable oils are triglycerides - esters of glycerol with three fatty acids. Several highly reactive sites including double bonds, allylic positions and the ester groups are present in triglycerides from which a great variety of polymers with different structures and functionalities can be prepared. Vegetable-oil-based polyurethane, polyester, polyether and polyolefin are the four most important classes of polymers, many of which have excellent biocompatibilities and unique properties including shape memory. In view of these characteristics, vegetable-oil-based polymers play an important role in biomaterials and have attracted increasing attention from the polymer community. Here we comprehensively review recent developments in the preparation of vegetable-oil-based polyurethane, polyester, polyether and polyolefin, all of which have potential applications as biomaterials. PMID:24012607

  17. 76 FR 72675 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status, Valero Refining Company-California, (Oil Refinery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... been given in the Federal Register (76 FR 10329, 2-24-2011) and the application has been processed... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Grant of Authority for Subzone Status, Valero Refining Company-- California... special-purpose subzone at the oil refining facilities of Valero Refining Company--California, located...

  18. 76 FR 5107 - Regulation of Oil-Bearing Hazardous Secondary Materials From the Petroleum Refining Industry...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... From the Petroleum Refining Industry Processed in a Gasification System To Produce Synthesis Gas..., ``Regulation of Oil-Bearing ] Hazardous Secondary Materials from the Petroleum Refining Industry Processed in a... Refining Industry Processed in a Gasification System to Produce Synthesis Gas'' (Gasification Rule)....

  19. 30 CFR 1208.4 - Royalty oil sales to eligible refiners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... have been determined for that oil pursuant to 30 CFR part 1206 had the royalties been paid in value... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Royalty oil sales to eligible refiners. 1208.4... RESOURCES REVENUE SALE OF FEDERAL ROYALTY OIL General Provisions § 1208.4 Royalty oil sales to...

  20. 30 CFR 1208.4 - Royalty oil sales to eligible refiners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... have been determined for that oil pursuant to 30 CFR part 1206 had the royalties been paid in value... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Royalty oil sales to eligible refiners. 1208.4... RESOURCES REVENUE SALE OF FEDERAL ROYALTY OIL General Provisions § 1208.4 Royalty oil sales to...

  1. Influence of deep frying on the unsaponifiable fraction of vegetable edible oils enriched with natural antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Mara I; Priego-Capote, Feliciano; Luque de Castro, Maria D

    2011-07-13

    The influence of deep frying, mimicked by 20 heating cycles at 180 °C (each cycle from ambient temperature to 180 °C maintained for 5 min), on the unsaponifiable fraction of vegetable edible oils represented by three characteristic families of compounds (namely, phytosterols, aliphatic alcohols, and triterpenic compounds) has been studied. The target oils were extra virgin olive oil (with intrinsic content of phenolic antioxidants), refined sunflower oil enriched with antioxidant phenolic compounds isolated from olive pomace, refined sunflower oil enriched with an autoxidation inhibitor (dimethylpolysiloxane), and refined sunflower oil without enrichment. Monitoring of the target analytes as a function of both heating cycle and the presence of natural antioxidants was also evaluated by comparison of the profiles after each heating cycle. Identification and quantitation of the target compounds were performed by gas cromatography-mass spectrometry in single ion monitoring mode. Analysis of the heated oils revealed that the addition of natural antioxidants could be an excellent strategy to decrease degradation of lipidic components of the unsaponifiable fraction with the consequent improvement of stability. PMID:21644588

  2. Control system for an n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone refining unit receiving light sweet charge oil

    SciTech Connect

    Barger, F.L.; Sequeira, A.J.

    1980-11-04

    A refining unit treats light sweet charge oil with an n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone solvent, hereafter referred to as mp, in a refining tower to yield raffinate and extract mix. The mp is recovered from the raffinate and from the extract mix and returned to the refining tower. A system controlling the refining unit includes a gravity analyzer, a sulfur analyzer, and viscosity analyzers; all analyzing the light sweet charge oil and providing corresponding signals, sensors sense the flow rates of the charge oil and the mp flowing into the refining tower and the temperature of the extract mix and provide corresponding signals. One of the flow rates of the light sweet charge oil and the mp flow rates is controlled in accordance with the signals from all the analyzers and all the sensors, while the other flow rate of the light sweet charge oil and the mp flow rates is constant.

  3. Control system for an n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone refining unit receiving heavy sweet charge oil

    SciTech Connect

    Barger, F.L.; Sequeira, A.J.

    1980-09-23

    A refining unit treats heavy sweet charge oil with a methyl-2pyrrolidone solvent, hereafter referred to as mp, in a refining tower to yield raffinate and extract mix. The mp is recovered from the raffinate and from the extract mix and returned to the refining tower. A system controlling the refining unit includes a gravity analyzer, a refractometer, a sulfur analyzer and viscosity analyzers; all sampling the heavy sweet charge oil and providing corresponding signals. Sensors sense the flow rates of the charge oil and the mp flowing into the refining tower and the temperature of the extract mix and provide corresponding signals. One of the flow rates of the heavy sweet charge oil and the mp flow rates is controlled in accordance with the signals from all the analyzers, the refractometer and all the sensors, while the other flow rate of the heavy sweet charge oil and the mp flow rates is constant.

  4. Performance of vegetable oils as a heat treat quenchant

    SciTech Connect

    Honary, L.A.T.

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to establish as a reference the base line performance of several vegetable oils as a quench medium. Furthermore, the project was funded by the Iowa Soybean Promotion Board to investigate the potential use of soybean oil as a quench medium. Several commodity and genetically modified seed oils (high oleic) were first tested in a {open_quotes}quenchalizer{close_quotes}. Also, 300 pieces of SAE 1524 steel bars were heat treated and quenched in a chemically modified (partially hydrogenated) soybean oil and in a control (paraffin) oil. Results included changes in the oil in terms of viscosity and cooling rate and in the steel in terms of hardness. Vegetable oils can perform as quench media, but they would require treatment to improve oxidative stability among others. Advantages of vegetable-based quenchants include: renewability, environmental-friendliness and potential benefits in terms of human safety and higher flash point.

  5. Production of Lipase and Oxygenated Fatty Acids from Vegetable Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils such as soybean oil and corn oil are cheap raw materials. Various value-added oxygenated fatty acids have been produced from unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic and linoleic acid by biotransformation. Lipase from the non-pathogenic yeast Candida cylindracea is another important va...

  6. Elastohydrodynamic study of vegetable oil-polyalphaolefin blends

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two polyalphaolefins (PAOs), of higher and lower viscosity than vegetable oils, were used to make binary blends of varying compositions with soybean and canola oils. The pure oils and the blends were used in viscosity and film thickness investigations. The effect of composition and temperature on ...

  7. Newcastle disease oil emulsion vaccines prepared with animal, vegetable, and synthetic oils.

    PubMed

    Stone, H D

    1997-01-01

    Animal, vegetable, and synthetic oils were tested as potential replacements for mineral oil in Newcastle disease oil emulsion vaccines. Emulsifying surfactants of seed oil origin comprised 10% of the the oil phase that was used to prepare water-in-oil emulsion vaccines that contained a final concentration of 20% aqueous antigen. The hemagglutination inhibition responses of chickens inoculated with 46 of the newly formulated oil vaccines were, in most cases, not significantly different from those of control chickens inoculated with mineral oil vaccine. Tissue reactions associated with animal, vegetable, and synthetic oil vaccines were less severe than those associated with mineral oil vaccines. Viscosity of the mineral oil formulations ranged from 1/2 to 3 1/2 times that of the mineral oil control vaccines. These findings indicate that any of several oils may be more suitable than mineral oil for preparation of immune adjuvants for poultry vaccines. PMID:9356704

  8. One-pot synthesis of chemically modified vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Brajendra K; Liu, Zengshe; Adhvaryu, Atanu; Erhan, Sevim Z

    2008-05-14

    Vegetable oils are promising candidates as substitutes for petroleum base oils in lubricant applications, such as total loss lubrication, military applications, and outdoor activities. Although vegetable oils have some advantages, they also have poor oxidation and low temperature stability. One of the ways to address these issues is chemical modification of fatty acid chain of triglyceride. We report a one-pot synthesis of a novel class of chemically modified vegetable oils from epoxidized triacylglycerols and various anhydrides. In an anhydrous solvent, boron trifluoride etherate is used as catalyst to simultaneously open the oxirane ring and activate the anhydride. The reaction was monitored and products confirmed by NMR, FTIR, GPC, and TGA analysis. Experimental conditions were optimized for research quantity and laboratory scale-up (up to 4 lbs). The resultant acyl derivatives of vegetable oil, having diester substitution at the sites of unsaturation, have potential in formulation of industrial fluids such as hydraulic fluids, lubricants, and metal working fluids. PMID:18399638

  9. [FREQUENTLY USED VEGETABLE OILS IN SOUTH AMERICA: FEATURES AND PROPERTIES].

    PubMed

    Durán Agüero, Samuel; Torres García, Jairo; Sanhueza Catalán, Julio

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, the consumption of vegetable oils has increased in our society, being an important part of the diet worldwide. South America is a major producer of an important variety of vegetable oils. The composition of vegetable oils is not standard as it varies greatly in the amount of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, and particularly in the amounts of omega-6 and omega-3, which are associated with the source either plant species, seed, plant or fruit, providing different nutritional benefits. The purpose of this article is to review and update the data and evidence about the consumption of oils produced and commercialized in South America, such as soybean oil, corn, palm, sunflower, canola and olive oils, and also to determine health effects from studies related with the topic. PMID:26262691

  10. Effect of the refining process on Moringa oleifera seed oil quality.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Machado, Dalia I; López-Cervantes, Jaime; Núñez-Gastélum, José A; Servín de la Mora-López, Gabriela; López-Hernández, Julia; Paseiro-Losada, Perfecto

    2015-11-15

    We evaluated the physicochemical properties and oxidative stability of the oil extracted from the seeds of Moringa oleifera during its refining process. Refining is accomplished in three stages: neutralization, degumming, and bleaching. Four samples were analyzed, corresponding to each step of the processed and crude oil. Increases in the density, viscosity, saponification value and oxidation of the oil were detected during the refining, while the peroxide value and carotenoid content diminished. Moreover, the refractive index and iodine content were stable throughout the refining. Nine fatty acids were detected in all four samples, and there were no significant differences in their composition. Oleic acid was found in the largest amount, followed by palmitic acid and behenic acid. The crude, neutralized, and degummed oils showed high primary oxidation stability, while the bleached oil had a low incidence of secondary oxidation. PMID:25976997

  11. Control system for an mp refining unit receiving medium sweet charge oil

    SciTech Connect

    Barger, F.L.; Sequeira, A.J.

    1980-10-28

    An mp refining unit treats medium sweet charge oil with n-methyl -2-pyrrolidone solvent, hereafter referred to as mp, in a refining extractor to yield raffinate and extract mix. The mp is recovered from the raffinate and from the extract mix and returned to the extractor. A system controlling the refining unit includes a gravity analyzer, a refractometer and viscosity analyzer, all analyzing the medium sweet charge oil and providing corresponding signals, sensors sense the flow rates of the charge oil and the mp flowing into the refining tower and the temperature of the extract mix and provide corresponding signals. One of the flow rates of the medium sweet charge oil and the mp flow rates is controlled in accordance with the signals from all the analyzers and all the sensors, while the other flow rate of the medium sweet charge oil and the mp flow rates is constant.

  12. Vegetable oils: liquid coolants for solar heating and cooling applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ingley, H A

    1980-02-01

    It has been proposed that vegetable oils, renewable byproducts of agriculture processes, be investigated for possible use as liquid coolants. The major thrust of the project was to investigate several thermophysical properties of the four vegetable oils selected. Vapor pressures, specific heat, viscosity, density, and thermal conductivity were determined over a range of temperatures for corn, soybean, peanut, and cottonseed oil. ASTM standard methods were used for these determinations. In addition, chemical analyses were performed on samples of each oil. The samples were collected before and after each experiment so that any changes in composition could be noted. The tests included iodine number, fatty acid, and moisture content determination. (MHR)

  13. Thermal Effusivity of Vegetable Oils Obtained by a Photothermal Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervantes-Espinosa, L. M.; de L. Castillo-Alvarado, F.; Lara-Hernández, G.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Hernández-Aguilar, C.; Domínguez-Pacheco, A.

    2014-10-01

    Thermal properties of several vegetable oils such as soy, corn, and avocado commercial oils were obtained by using a photopyroelectric technique. The inverse photopyroelectric configuration was used in order to obtain the thermal effusivity of the oil samples. The theoretical equation for the photopyroelectric signal in this configuration, as a function of the incident light modulation frequency, was fitted to the experimental data in order to obtain the thermal effusivity of these samples. The obtained results are in good agreement with the thermal effusivity reported for other vegetable oils. All measurements were done at room temperature.

  14. 30 CFR 208.4 - Royalty oil sales to eligible refiners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Royalty Oil” required by 30 CFR 208.5. (b) Sale to eligible refiners. (1) Upon a determination by the... determined for that oil pursuant to 30 CFR part 206 had the royalties been paid in value rather than taken in...) Determination to take royalty oil in kind. The Secretary may evaluate crude oil market conditions from time...

  15. Implications of Increasing Light Tight Oil Production for U.S. Refining

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    EIA retained Turner, Mason & Company to provide analysis of the implications of increasing domestic light tight oil production for U.S. refining, focusing on regional crude supply/demand balances, refinery crude slates, operations, capital investment, product yields, crude oil exports/imports, petroleum product exports, infrastructure constraints and expansions, and crude oil price relationships.

  16. Photochemical behavior of sethoxydim in the presence of vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Hammami, Hossein; Rashed Mohassel, Mohammad Hassan; Parsa, Mehdi; Bannayan-Aval, Mohammad; Zand, Eskandar; Hassanzadeh-Khayyat, Mohammad; Nassirli, Horiyeh

    2014-07-01

    The photodecomposition of herbicides may be affected by adding vegetable oils to the spray tank. In this study nine vegetable oils were compared to assess the photodecomposition of sethoxydim under natural light conditions. The experiment was conducted as completely randomized factorial design with three replicates at the College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in 2013. Each herbicidal solution (with and without vegetable oil) was exposed to sunshine with time intervals of 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 60, 120, and 240 min. The results revealed that the half-life value was increased by adding castor bean and cottonseed oils to 1.39- and 1.18-fold, respectively, compared to nonvegetable oil. These values for turnip, olive, corn, soybean, sunflower, canola, and sesame oils were decreased down to 4.74-, 2.38-, 1.81-, 1.75-, 1.52-, 1.28-, and 1.11-fold, respectively. A positive relationship existed between the half-life of sethoxydim in the presence of vegetable oils and their viscosity. However, a negative relationship was monitored between unsaturated/saturated fatty acids ratio and the monounsaturated value with half-life. A positive relationship also existed between saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, palmitic acid, and linoleic acid with half-life. This study revealed that the amount of fatty acids in vegetable oils is a determining factor in preventing or facilitating the photodecomposition of sethoxydim. PMID:24932839

  17. Improved biobased lubricants from chemically modified vegetable oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils possess a number of desirable properties for lubricant application such as excellent boundary properties, high viscosity index, low volatility, low traction coefficient, renewability, and biodegradability. Unfortunately, they also have a number of weaknesses that make them less desira...

  18. Analysis of the Triglycerides of Some Vegetable Oils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farines, Marie; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explains that triglycerides consist of a mixture of different compounds, depending on the total number of fatty acid constituents. Details the method and instrumentation necessary for students to analyze a vegetable oil for its triglyceride content. Describes sample results. (CW)

  19. Epoxy thermoset networks derived from vegetable oils and their blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Chang; Ravalli, Matthew

    2015-03-01

    Epoxidized vegetable oils (EVOs), such as epoxidized soybean oil and linseed oils were prepared by the partial oxidation of the unsaturated double bonds in vegetable oils and used as monomers for preparing epoxy thermoset materials based on the cationic polymerization. These EVOs have been used to prepare epoxy thermosets of different network densities by cationic polymerization using onium salt catalyst. The crosslinked epoxy thermosets provide an ideal platform to study the structure-property-relationships of networked polymers. In particular, rheological studies on the epoxidized vegetable oil thermosets have been performed to measure the molecular weights between crosslinks (Mx) in the epoxy thermosets and to ultimately elucidate the role of functionality of epoxy groups in EVO on the mechanical and thermophysical properties of the epoxy thermoset materials. NSF DMR POLYMERS 1308617.

  20. [Fast discrimination of edible vegetable oil based on Raman spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiu-Jun; Dai, Lian-Kui; Li, Sheng

    2012-07-01

    A novel method to fast discriminate edible vegetable oils by Raman spectroscopy is presented. The training set is composed of different edible vegetable oils with known classes. Based on their original Raman spectra, baseline correction and normalization were applied to obtain standard spectra. Two characteristic peaks describing the unsaturated degree of vegetable oil were selected as feature vectors; then the centers of all classes were calculated. For an edible vegetable oil with unknown class, the same pretreatment and feature extraction methods were used. The Euclidian distances between the feature vector of the unknown sample and the center of each class were calculated, and the class of the unknown sample was finally determined by the minimum distance. For 43 edible vegetable oil samples from seven different classes, experimental results show that the clustering effect of each class was more obvious and the class distance was much larger with the new feature extraction method compared with PCA. The above classification model can be applied to discriminate unknown edible vegetable oils rapidly and accurately. PMID:23016334

  1. Potential of vegetable oils as a domestic heating fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Hayden, A.C.S.; Begin, E.; Palmer, C.E.

    1982-06-01

    The dependence on imported oil for domestic heating has led to the examination of other potential fuel substitutes. One potential fuel is some form of vegetable oil, which could be a yearly-renewable fuel. In Western Canada, canola has become a major oilseed crop; in Eastern Canada, sunflowers increasingly are becoming a source for a similar oil; for this reason, the Canadian Combustion Research Laboratory (CCRL) has chosen these oils for experimentation. Trials have been conducted in a conventional warm air oil furnace, fitted with a flame retention head burner. Performance has been measured with pure vegetable oils as well as a series of blends with conventional No. 2 oil. The effects of increased fuel pressure and fuel preheating are established. Emissions of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, unburned hydrocarbons and particulates are given for both steady state and cyclic operation. Canola oil cannot be fired in cyclic operation above 50:50 blends with No. 2 oil. At any level above a 10% blend, canola is difficult to burn, even with significant increased pressure and temperature. Sunflower oil is much easier to burn and can be fired as a pure fuel, but with high emissions of incomplete combustion products. An optimum blend of 50:50 sunflower in No. 2 oil yields emissions and performance similar to No. 2 oil. This blend offers potential as a means of reducing demand of imported crude oil for domestic heating systems.

  2. Production of biodiesel from winery waste: extraction, refining and transesterification of grape seed oil.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Carmen María; Ramos, María Jesús; Pérez, Angel; Rodríguez, Juan Francisco

    2010-09-01

    In regions with a large wine production the usage of their natural waste to make biodiesel can result an interesting alternative. In this work, different methods of extraction, refining and transesterification of grape seed oil were assayed. Two techniques of oil extraction were compared: solvent extraction and pressing. Two conventional transesterifications of the refined oil were carried out using methanol and bioethanol, being the methyl and ethyl ester contents higher than 97 wt.%. Finally, several in situ transesterifications were done. In situ transesterification did not reach either the oil yield extraction or the alkyl ester contents but the obtained biodiesel had better oxidation stability in comparison with the conventional process. PMID:20435475

  3. A New Approach to Prepare Vegetable Oil-Based Polymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polymers from vegetable oils, such as soybean oil, were prepared by cationic polymerization in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) medium. Boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (BF3.OEt2) was selected as catalyst. The resulting polymers have molecular weight ranging from 21,842 to 118,300 g/mol. Nu...

  4. Synthesis and characterization of sulfide modified vegetable oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Butanethiol was used in ultraviolet-initiated thiol-ene reaction with canola and corn oils to produce sulfide-modified vegetable oils (SMVO). The crude SMVO product was successfully purified by solvent extraction, vacuum evaporation, and silica gel chromatography. The SMVO products were characterize...

  5. MODIFICATION OF VEGETABLE OILS FOR USE AS INDUSTRIAL LUBRICANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There has been a lot of interest in using vegetable oils (particularly soybean oil) as renewable raw materials for new industrial products including lubricants. This emphasis on environmentally friendly lubricants is largely due to the rapid depletion of world fossil fuel reserves and increasing co...

  6. ENHANCEMENT OF BEAUVERIA BASSIANA AGAINST GRASSHOPPERS WITH VEGETABLE OIL CARRIERS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beauveria bassiana is registered in the U.S. for control of grasshoppers, but efficacious use rates and product costs have been serious deterrents of adoption. Canola and certain other vegetable oils contain the fatty acids that stimulate necrophily and necrophagy in grasshoppers. Using these oils ...

  7. Free Radical Addition of Butanethiol to Vegetable Oil Double Bonds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Butanethiol was used in ultraviolet-initiated thiol-ene reaction with canola and corn oils to produce sulfide modified vegetable oils (SMVO). The crude SMVO product was successfully purified by solvent extraction, vacuum evaporation and silica gel chromatography. The SMVO products were characteriz...

  8. Systems study of vegetable oils and animal fats for use as substitute and emergency diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinsky, E.S.; McClure, T.A.; Kresovich, S.; Otis, J.L.; Wagner, C.K.; Trayser, D.A.; Applebaum, H.R.

    1981-10-01

    The principal findings are described as follows: leading issues, economic considerations, production potential for oilseed crops, oilseed processing, energy balance, diesel fuel and engine considerations, vegetable oil emissions, and research and development needs. The following appendices are included: profiles of selected vegetable oils and animal fats, economic information on vegetable oils and animal fats, the production potential for selected oilseed crops, the economics of vegetable oil recovery, and diesel fuel specifications and vegetable oil properties.

  9. Thermoplastic Starch Films with Vegetable Oils of Brazilian Cerrado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlemmer, D.; Sales, M. J. A.

    2008-08-01

    Biodegradable polymers are one of the most promising ways to replace non-degradable polymers. TPS films were prepared by casting from cassava starch and three different vegetable oils of Brazilian Cerrado as plasticizer: buriti, macaúba and pequi. In this preliminary work it was investigated materials thermal characteristics by TG and TMA. Thermal properties of oils depends on their chemical structures. Starch and vegetable oils are natural resources that can be used how alternative to producing materials that cause minor environmental impact.

  10. Effect of vegetable oil (Brazil nut oil) and mineral oil (liquid petrolatum) on dental biofilm control.

    PubMed

    Filogônio, Cíntia de Fátima Buldrini; Soares, Rodrigo Villamarim; Horta, Martinho Campolina Rebello; Penido, Cláudia Valéria de Sousa Resende; Cruz, Roberval de Almeida

    2011-01-01

    Dental biofilm control represents a basic procedure to prevent caries and the occurrence of periodontal diseases. Currently, toothbrushes and dentifrices are used almost universally, and the employment of good oral hygiene allows for appropriate biofilm removal by both mechanical and chemical control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of adding vegetable or mineral oil to a commercially available dentifrice in dental biofilm control. A comparison using the Oral Hygiene Index Simplified (OHI-S) was performed in 30 individuals who were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 (G1) received a commercially available dentifrice; the composition of this dentifrice was modified by addition of mineral oil (Nujol®) for group 2 (G2) or a vegetable oil (Alpha Care®) for group 3 (G3) at 10% of the total volume, respectively. The two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (two-way ANOVA) was used to test the effect of group (G1, G2 and G3) or time (baseline, 45 days and 90 days) on the OHI-S index scores. Statistical analysis revealed a significant reduction in the OHI-S at day 90 in G2 (p < 0.05) and G3 (p < 0.0001) in comparison to G1. Therefore, the addition of a vegetable or a mineral oil to a commercially available dentifrice improved dental biofilm control, suggesting that these oils may aid in the prevention and/or control of caries and periodontal disease. PMID:22147238

  11. Vegetable oil or diesel fuel-a flexible option

    SciTech Connect

    Suda, K.J.

    1984-02-01

    Vegetable oils provide diesel engine performance similar to that obtained with diesel fuel, and this has been documented in many prior publications. Because they are potentially interchangeable with diesel fuel, interest has focused on vegetable oils as short-range alternate fuels. However, engine durability when burning vegetable oils may be adversely affected depending on the type of combustion system employed. Laboratory and field experimental tests have identified the prechamber engine as having the greatest short-range potential for using vegetable oil fuels. Performance and durability at low engine ratings are essentially the same as expected for operation on diesel fuel. However, at high engine ratings piston ring and cylinder linear wear are greater than expected for operation on diesel fuel. A laboratory program was successfully completed which resulted in a combustion system that would allow the higher rated prechamber engines to achieve normal life when burning 100% soybean oil. Fluid model tests utilizing high speed photography, single-cylinder engine tests utilizing fuel tracers, and a 200-hour multicylinder durability test were included. Extended endurance tests and experience with other vegetable oils are still required.

  12. Modelling consumer intakes of vegetable oils and fats

    PubMed Central

    Tennant, David; Gosling, John Paul

    2015-01-01

    Vegetable oils and fats make up a significant part of the energy intake in typical European diets. However, their use as ingredients in a diverse range of different foods means that their consumption is often hidden, especially when oils and fats are used for cooking. As a result, there are no reliable estimates of the consumption of different vegetable oils and fats in the diet of European consumers for use in, for example, nutritional assessments or chemical risk assessments. We have developed an innovative model to estimate the consumption of vegetable oils and fats by European Union consumers using the European Union consumption databases and elements of probabilistic modelling. A key feature of the approach is the assessment of uncertainty in the modelling assumptions that can be used to build user confidence and to guide future development. PMID:26160467

  13. Lubricant base stock potential of chemically modified vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Erhan, Sevim Z; Sharma, Brajendra K; Liu, Zengshe; Adhvaryu, Atanu

    2008-10-01

    The environment must be protected against pollution caused by lubricants based on petroleum oils. The pollution problem is so severe that approximately 50% of all lubricants sold worldwide end up in the environment via volatility, spills, or total loss applications. This threat to the environment can be avoided by either preventing undesirable losses, reclaiming and recycling mineral oil lubricants, or using environmentally friendly lubricants. Vegetable oils are recognized as rapidly biodegradable and are thus promising candidates as base fluids in environment friendly lubricants. Lubricants based on vegetable oils display excellent tribological properties, high viscosity indices, and flash points. To compete with mineral-oil-based lubricants, some of their inherent disadvantages, such as poor oxidation and low-temperature stability, must be corrected. One way to address these problems is chemical modification of vegetable oils at the sites of unsaturation. After a one-step chemical modification, the chemically modified soybean oil derivatives were studied for thermo-oxidative stability using pressurized differential scanning calorimetry and a thin-film micro-oxidation test, low-temperature fluid properties using pour-point measurements, and friction-wear properties using four-ball and ball-on-disk configurations. The lubricants formulated with chemically modified soybean oil derivatives exhibit superior low-temperature flow properties, improved thermo-oxidative stability, and better friction and wear properties. The chemically modified soybean oil derivatives having diester substitution at the sites of unsaturation have potential in the formulation of industrial lubricants. PMID:18783238

  14. Floral and vegetative cues in oil-secreting and non-oil-secreting Lysimachia species

    PubMed Central

    Schäffler, I.; Balao, F.; Dötterl, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Unrelated plants pollinated by the same group or guild of animals typically evolve similar floral cues due to pollinator-mediated selection. Related plant species, however, may possess similar cues either as a result of pollinator-mediated selection or as a result of sharing a common ancestor that possessed the same cues or traits. In this study, visual and olfactory floral cues in Lysimachia species exhibiting different pollination strategies were analysed and compared, and the importance of pollinators and phylogeny on the evolution of these floral cues was determined. For comparison, cues of vegetative material were examined where pollinator selection would not be expected. Methods Floral and vegetative scents and colours in floral oil- and non-floral oil-secreting Lysimachia species were studied by chemical and spectrophotometric analyses, respectively, compared between oil- and non-oil-secreting species, and analysed by phylogenetically controlled methods. Key Results Vegetative and floral scent was species specific, and variability in floral but not vegetative scent was lower in oil compared with non-oil species. Overall, oil species did not differ in their floral or vegetative scent from non-oil species. However, a correlation was found between oil secretion and six floral scent constituents specific to oil species, whereas the presence of four other floral compounds can be explained by phylogeny. Four of the five analysed oil species had bee-green flowers and the pattern of occurrence of this colour correlated with oil secretion. Non-oil species had different floral colours. The colour of leaves was similar among all species studied. Conclusions Evidence was found for correlated evolution between secretion of floral oils and floral but not vegetative visual and olfactory cues. The cues correlating with oil secretion were probably selected by Macropis bees, the specialized pollinators of oil-secreting Lysimachia species, and may have

  15. Vegetable oils: Precombustion characteristics and performance as diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Bagby, M.O.

    1986-03-01

    Vegetable oils show technical promise as alternative fuels for diesel engines and have good potential as emergency fuels. Realistically, vegetable oils cause a number of problems when used in direct-injection diesel engines, generally attributable to inefficient combustion. At least partially responsible for poor combustion of neat vegetable oils are their high viscosity and non-volatility. To improve combustion several somewhat empirical approaches involving both chemical and physical modifications have been investigated by endurance tests in a variety of engines. Using the EMA 200 h engine screening test, several fuels show technical promise. These include methyl, ethyl, and butyl esters; high-oleic oils:diesel blend (1:3); diesel:soybean oil:butanol:cetane improver (33:33:33:1); and microemulsion fuels (diesel:soybean oil:190 proff ethanol:butanol, 50:25:5:20) and (soybean oil:methanol:2-octanol:cetane improver, 53:13:33:1). Using a pressure vessel, fuel injection system, and high speed motion picture camera, fuel injection characteristics of vegetable oils, e.g., soybean, sunflower, cottonseed, and peanut, have been observed in a quiescent nitrogen atmosphere at 480/sup 0/C and 4.1MPa. Their injection and atomization characteristics are markedly different from those of petroleum derived diesel fuels. Heating the vegetable oils to lower their viscosities increased spray penetration rate, reduced spray cone angles, and resulted in spray characteristics resembling those of diesel fuel. Significant chemical changes occurred following injection. Samples collected at about 400 microseconds after the injection event consisted of appreciable quantities of C/sub 4/-C/sub 16/ hydrocarbons, and free carboxyl groups were present.

  16. Analysis of vegetable oil production in central Iowa

    SciTech Connect

    Claar, P.W. II.; Colvin, T.S.; Marley, S.J.

    1982-01-01

    Vegetable oil can be used as an emergency substitute for diesel fuel for farming applications. This paper is an economic and energy analysis for vegetable oil production on a 180-ha (450-acre) central Iowa farm. The following data are presented as the basis for the economic analysis: (1) the yields of four varieties of sunflowers at three planting dates; (2) the measured sunflower harvesting losses-preharvest, header, threshing, and separating and cleaning for each variety and date of planting; and (3) the quantities of sunflower oil yielded from the pressing operation. Based on the data presented, it was concluded that even though a farmer could satisfatorily produce sunflowers, the on-farm processed sunflower oil does not compete with current diesel fuel prices. On-farm processed soybean oil has more potential as a substitute fuel from an economic standpoint in central Iowa. 8 tables.

  17. Rapid screening of biologically modified vegetable oils for fuel performance

    SciTech Connect

    Geller, D.P.; Goodrum, J.W.; Campbell, C.C.

    1999-08-01

    A process for the rapid screening of alternative diesel fuel performance was applied to analogues of genetically modified vegetable oils and a mixture with no. 2 diesel fuel. The oils examined contained 60 to 70% of low molecular weight, short-chain, saturated triglycerides compared to the 1 to 2% found in traditional vegetable oils. These oils have relatively low viscosity that is predicted to enhance their performance as alternative diesel fuels. The screening process utilizes an engine torque test sequence that accelerates the tendency of diesel fuels to coke fuel injectors, a key indicator of fuel performance. The results of the tests were evaluated using a computer vision system for the rapid quantification of injector coking. The results of the screen were compared to those using no. 2 diesel fuel as a baseline. Coke deposition from the modified vegetable oil analogues was not found to be significantly different than deposition from diesel fuel. Suggestions are made to guide further modification of vegetable oil biosynthesis for the production of alternative diesel fuel.

  18. Control system for an MP refining unit receiving heavy sour charge oil

    SciTech Connect

    Barger, F.L.; Sequeira, A.J.

    1980-09-23

    A refining unit treats heavy sour charge oil with n-methyl-2pyrrolidone solvent, hereafter referred to as MP, in a refining extractor to yield raffinate and extract mix. The MP is recovered from the raffinate and from the extract mix and returned to the refining extractor. A system controlling the refining unit includes a gravity analyzer, a sulfur analyzer and viscosity analyzers; all analyzing the heavy sour charge oil and providing corresponding signals, a refractometer samples the charge oil and provides a signal corresponding to the ri, sensors sense the flow rates of the charge oil and the MP flowing into the refining tower and the temperature of the extract mix and provide corresponding signals. One of the flow rates of the heavy sour charge oil and the MP flow rates is controlled in accordance with the signals from all the analyzers, the refractometer and all the sensors, while the other flow rate of the heavy sour charge oil and the MP flow rates is constant.

  19. Wet scrubbing of biomass producer gas tars using vegetable oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhoi, Prakashbhai Ramabhai

    The overall aims of this research study were to generate novel design data and to develop an equilibrium stage-based thermodynamic model of a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system for the removal of model tar compounds (benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene) found in biomass producer gas. The specific objectives were to design, fabricate and evaluate a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system and to optimize the design and operating variables; i.e., packed bed height, vegetable oil type, solvent temperature, and solvent flow rate. The experimental wet packed bed scrubbing system includes a liquid distributor specifically designed to distribute a high viscous vegetable oil uniformly and a mixing section, which was designed to generate a desired concentration of tar compounds in a simulated air stream. A method and calibration protocol of gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy was developed to quantify tar compounds. Experimental data were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedure. Statistical analysis showed that both soybean and canola oils are potential solvents, providing comparable removal efficiency of tar compounds. The experimental height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP) was determined as 0.11 m for vegetable oil based scrubbing system. Packed bed height and solvent temperature had highly significant effect (p0.05) effect on the removal of model tar compounds. The packing specific constants, Ch and CP,0, for the Billet and Schultes pressure drop correlation were determined as 2.52 and 2.93, respectively. The equilibrium stage based thermodynamic model predicted the removal efficiency of model tar compounds in the range of 1-6%, 1-4% and 1-2% of experimental data for benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene, respectively, for the solvent temperature of 30° C. The NRTL-PR property model and UNIFAC for estimating binary interaction parameters are recommended for modeling absorption of tar compounds in vegetable oils. Bench scale

  20. Biocatalytic Refining of Soybean Oil into Cosmeceutical Ingredients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our mission is to develop new, value-added uses for commodity crops and oils. We chose to fulfill this mission while adhering as closely as possible to the tenants of “green” chemistry. We have developed patented, all-natural oils called Feruloyl Soy Glycerols (FSG) from the biocatalytic transester...

  1. Biocatalytic Refining of Soybean Oil into Cosmeceutical Ingredients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our mission is to develop new, value-added uses for commodity crops and their oils. We strive to fulfill this mission with the self imposed responsibility of adhering as closely as possible to the tenants of “green” chemistry. We have developed patented, all-natural oils called Feruloyl Soy Glycer...

  2. Techno-economic evaluation of waste lube oil re-refining in Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, M.F.; Hamdan, A.J.; Rahman, F.

    1995-12-31

    About 80 million gallons of automotive lubricating oils are sold in Saudi Arabia. Much of this oil, after use, is actually contributing to the increased pollution of land because of indiscriminate dumping. Any scheme of secondary use of the waste lube oils would be of interest both for conservation of energy resources and for protection of environment. This paper discusses the secondary use for the used automotive lubricating oils. Process technology of Meinken, Mohawk and KTI were selected for the techno-economic feasibility study for refining used oil. Profitability analysis of each process is worked out and the results are compared.

  3. 21 CFR 172.736 - Glycerides and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... vegetable oils. 172.736 Section 172.736 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... oils. The food additive glycerides and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils may be safely used... hydrogenated vegetable oils and meets the following specifications: (1) Total ester content, greater than...

  4. Effect of an olive phenolic extract on the quality of vegetable oils during frying.

    PubMed

    Esposto, S; Taticchi, A; Di Maio, I; Urbani, S; Veneziani, G; Selvaggini, R; Sordini, B; Servili, M

    2015-06-01

    The potential of a phenolic extract (PE) from olive vegetation water (OVW) to limit the negative effects of frying was tested after adding it at different concentrations to a refined olive oil (RO). Its efficacy was also compared to ROs containing butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and an extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) with a high polyphenol content. Analyses of the oils collected after 30min, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12h of frying at 180°C, demonstrated that degradation of the polyphenols was proportional to the original content; at a concentration of at least 400mg/kg of polyphenols, PE was able to reduce oxidation of the tocopherols and the emission of low-molecular-weight aldehydes better than BHT and with similar results to the EVOO. In addition, secoiridoid oxidative compounds were examined by high-performance liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionisation. PMID:25624222

  5. Vegetable oil as an agricultural fuel for the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.L.; Auld, D.L.; Thomas, V.M.; Withers, R.V.; Smith, S.M.; Bettis, B.L.

    1981-02-01

    Five million barrels of liquid fuel are needed annually for the continued production of agricultural commoditiese on the 12.7 million cultivated acres in the Pacific Northwest Region. Because most energy intensive operations in the agricultural industry are done by diesel engines, the technology to produce a substitute for diesel must be developed and vegetable oil appears to hold great promise as an alternative fuel. The vegetable oils potential as an alternative liquid fuel in the region is described. Rapidly rising fuel costs could make this new fuel not only economically feasible but necessary to ensure the region's continued agriculture production.

  6. The efficacy of essential oils as natural preservatives in vegetable oil.

    PubMed

    Mahboubi, Mohaddese; Kazempour, Nastaran; Mahboubi, Atefeh

    2014-12-01

    The efforts for finding the natural preservatives with nontoxicity and nonirritancy have encouraged the scientists to research among the medicinal plants. The preservative efficacy of Daucus carota, Ferula gummosa, Eugenium caryophyllata, Oliveria decumbens, Pelargonium graveolens, Ziziphora tenuir, Acorus calamus, and Trachyspermum ammi essential oils on challenge test's pathogens and on pathogen's inoculated vegetable oil was evaluated by antimicrobial effectiveness test. Carotol (46%), β-pinene (62.7%), eugenol (78.4%), thymol (50.6%), cis-asarone (27.5%), thymol (50.1%), and α-terpineol (19.5%) were the primary main components of D. carota, F. gummosa, E. caryophyllata, T. ammi, A. calamus, O. decumbens, and Z. tenuir essential oils, respectively. A. niger was more sensitive microorganism to oils. The antimicrobial activity of O. decumbens oil was the highest. Different concentrations of essential oils were added to the vegetable oil. The results of test on the vegetable oil showed that the combination of O. decumbens and P. graveolens oils (0.5:0.5%) had enough efficacies as natural preservative in vegetable oil. PMID:24552253

  7. Changes in 4-vinylsyringol and other phenolics during rapeseed oil refining.

    PubMed

    Kraljić, Klara; Škevin, Dubravka; Barišić, Lidija; Kovačević, Monika; Obranović, Marko; Jurčević, Ivana

    2015-11-15

    The aim of the present study was to examine changes in phenolic compounds during refining of rapeseed oil. In crude rapeseed oil, 4-vinylsyringol (canolol) is the dominant phenolic compound, accounting for 85% of total phenolics. Refining decreased the total amount of phenolic compounds by 90%. NMR and MS analyses of edible rapeseed oil phenolic extracts identified 4-vinylsyringol dimer as the dominant phenolic compound. This phenolic compound appears to form through acid-catalyzed dimerization-aromatic substitution of 4-vinylsyringol monomers. Analysis of rapeseed oils from different stages of the refining process suggest that 4-vinylsyringol dimer forms during the neutralization phase, when H3PO4 acts as a catalyst, or during bleaching, when acid-activated bleaching earth acts as the catalyst. Whether 4-vinylsyringol forms during one or the other phase appears to depend on the phospholipid content of the crude oil. These insights may be useful for designing rapeseed oil refining processes that maximize levels of 4-vinylsyringol dimer. PMID:25977022

  8. Differential scanning calorimetry study--assessing the influence of composition of vegetable oils on oxidation.

    PubMed

    Qi, Baokun; Zhang, Qiaozhi; Sui, Xiaonan; Wang, Zhongjiang; Li, Yang; Jiang, Lianzhou

    2016-03-01

    The thermal oxidation of eight different vegetable oils was studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) under non-isothermal conditions at five different heating rates (5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, and 15°C/min), in a temperature range of 100-400°C. For all oils, the activation energy (Ea) values at Tp were smaller than that at Ts and Ton. Among all the oils, refined palm oil (RPO) exhibited the highest Ea values, 126.06kJ/mol at Ts, 134.7kJ/mol at Ton, and 91.88kJ/mol at Tp. The Ea and reaction rate constant (k) values at Ts, Ton, and Tp were further correlated with oil compositions (fatty acids and triacylglycerols) using Pearson correlation analysis. The rate constant (k) and Ea of all oils exhibited varying correlations with FAs and TAGs, indicating that the thermal oxidation behaviors were affected by oil compositions. PMID:26471598

  9. Margarine from organogel of healthy vegetable oils and plant wax

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organogelator that can turn vegetable oil into a gel with a small quantity has drawn a lot of interests as a potential alternative for saturated fats and trans fat-containing solid fats in margarine and spread products. However, it is not practically used in those products yet. This research shows...

  10. Research on Biodiesel and Vegetable Oil Fuels - Then and Now

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A vegetable oil was used as diesel fuel for the first time in 1900 and the first biodiesel dates from the 1930's. Significant insights into fuel properties were already gained in those times. This article briefly discusses such results and relates the author's own recent work on biodiesel fuel pro...

  11. Production and applications of ferulate-modified vegetable oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concerns have been raised about the potential adverse health and ecological effects of the commonly used sunscreen active ingredients. A sunscreen active ingredient can be derived from two natural plant components, ferulic acid and vegetable oil triglycerides. Transesterification of ferulic acid e...

  12. 21 CFR 180.30 - Brominated vegetable oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Brominated vegetable oil. 180.30 Section 180.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD OR IN CONTACT WITH FOOD ON AN INTERIM BASIS PENDING ADDITIONAL STUDY...

  13. Other Alternative Diesel Fuels from Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The energy crises of the 1970’s and early 1980’s provided impetus for developing alternative diesel fuels from vegetable oils and animal fats. Other driving forces may be derived from the Clean Air Act and its amendments and farmers desire to develop new uses for surplus agricultural commodities. ...

  14. Lipids for Health and Beauty: Enzymatic Modification of Vegetable Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ferulic acid has been extensively investigated for its potential as a cosmetic and pharmaceutical agent. We have prepared lipophilic derivatives of ferulic acid by a simple, enzyme-catalyzed transesterification reaction of ethyl ferulate with vegetable oils. Immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B...

  15. Cationic Polymerization of Vegetable Oils in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polymers derived from vegetable oils have been prepared in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) medium by cationic polymerization. Boron trifluoride diethyl etherate BF3.O(C2H2)2 are used as initiator. Influences of polymerization temperature, initiator amount, and carbon dioxide pressure on the m...

  16. Reprint of "heated vegetable oils and cardiovascular disease risk factors".

    PubMed

    Ng, Chun-Yi; Leong, Xin-Fang; Masbah, Norliana; Adam, Siti Khadijah; Kamisah, Yusof; Jaarin, Kamsiah

    2014-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It may result from the interactions between multiple genetic and environmental factors including sedentary lifestyle and dietary habits. The quality of dietary oils and fats has been widely recognised to be inextricably linked to the pathogenesis of CVD. Vegetable oil is one of the essential dietary components in daily food consumption. However, the benefits of vegetable oil can be deteriorated by repeated heating that leads to lipid oxidation. The practice of using repeatedly heated cooking oil is not uncommon as it will reduce the cost of food preparation. Thermal oxidation yields new functional groups which may be potentially hazardous to cardiovascular health. Prolonged consumption of the repeatedly heated oil has been shown to increase blood pressure and total cholesterol, cause vascular inflammation as well as vascular changes which predispose to atherosclerosis. The harmful effect of heated oils is attributed to products generated from lipid oxidation during heating process. In view of the potential hazard of oxidation products, therefore this review article will provide an insight and awareness to the general public on the consumption of repeatedly heated oils which is detrimental to health. PMID:24846858

  17. Heated vegetable oils and cardiovascular disease risk factors.

    PubMed

    Ng, Chun-Yi; Leong, Xin-Fang; Masbah, Norliana; Adam, Siti Khadijah; Kamisah, Yusof; Jaarin, Kamsiah

    2014-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It may result from the interactions between multiple genetic and environmental factors including sedentary lifestyle and dietary habits. The quality of dietary oils and fats has been widely recognised to be inextricably linked to the pathogenesis of CVD. Vegetable oil is one of the essential dietary components in daily food consumption. However, the benefits of vegetable oil can be deteriorated by repeated heating that leads to lipid oxidation. The practice of using repeatedly heated cooking oil is not uncommon as it will reduce the cost of food preparation. Thermal oxidation yields new functional groups which may be potentially hazardous to cardiovascular health. Prolonged consumption of the repeatedly heated oil has been shown to increase blood pressure and total cholesterol, cause vascular inflammation as well as vascular changes which predispose to atherosclerosis. The harmful effect of heated oils is attributed to products generated from lipid oxidation during heating process. In view of the potential hazard of oxidation products, therefore this review article will provide an insight and awareness to the general public on the consumption of repeatedly heated oils which is detrimental to health. PMID:24632108

  18. Techno-economic evaluation of waste lube oil re-refining in Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, F.M.; Hamdan, A.J.; Rahman, F.

    1995-12-31

    About 80 million gallons of automotive lubricating oils are sold in Saudi Arabia. Much of this oil, after use, is actually contributing to the increased pollution of land because of indiscriminate dumping. Any scheme of secondary use of the waste lube oils would be of interest both for conservation of energy resources and for protection of environment. This paper discusses the secondary use for the used automotive lubricating oils. Process technology of Meinken, Mohawk and KTI were selected for the techno-economic feasibility study for re-refining used oil. Profitability analysis for each process is worked out and the results are compared. In many countries, the re-refining of used oils has become an important industry. The objective of recovering high quality raffinates is attained through the use of widely differing techniques. The processes concerned can be classified according to the chemical or physical method of used-oil pretreatment selected. Meinken process is based on chemical pretreatment, whereas both Mohawk and KTI processes employ physical methods involving distillation and eliminate the use of sulfuric acid, thus providing a facility for safer operation than Meinken. The plant capacity of two existing units in Jeddah are 10,000 TPA and 80,000 TPA re-refining of waste oil. We selected a plant of 50,000 TPA waste oil re-refining for economic study of these three processes. The authors wish to acknowledge the support from King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals and King Abdulaziz City for Science & Technology for this work.

  19. Authentication of vegetable oils by chromatographic techniques.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, R; Aparicio-Ruíz, R

    2000-06-01

    Food authentication has been evolving continually to situations that were basically governed by a global market trend. Analytical techniques have been developed or modified to give plausible solutions to the devious adulterations at each moment. Classical tests have largely been replaced with newer technical procedures, most of which are based on gas chromatography, with some being based on high-performance liquid chromatography. Determination of trans-fatty acid and sterolic composition, together with sterol-dehydration products, have been used most frequently used to detect contamination and adulteration. Sophisticated new adulterations, e.g., olive oil with hazelnut oil, represent a new challenge for the next millennium, although suggestive proposals for detecting these kinds of adulterations are emerging with the contribution of databases and mathematical algorithms. PMID:10905696

  20. Single-cylinder diesel engine study of four vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobus, M.J.; Geyer, S.M.; Lestz, S.S.; Risby, T.M.; Taylor, W.D.

    1983-10-01

    A single-cylinder, 0.36l, D.I. Diesel engine was operated on Diesel fuel, sunflowerseed oil, cottonseed oil, soybean oil, and peanut oil. The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed comparison of performance and emissions data and to characterize the biological activity of the particulate soluble organic fraction for each fuel using the Ames Salmonella typhimurium test. In addition, exhaust gas aldehyde samples were collected using the DNPH method. These samples were analyzed gravimetrically and separated into components from formaldehyde to heptaldehyde with a gas chromatograph. Results comparing the vegetable oils to Diesel fuel generally show slight improvements in thermal efficiency and indicated specific energy consumption; equal or higher gas-phase emissions; lower indicated specific revertant emissions; and significantly higher aldehyde emissions, including an increased percentage of formaldehyde.

  1. Catalytic applications in the production of biodiesel from vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Sivasamy, Arumugam; Cheah, Kien Yoo; Fornasiero, Paolo; Kemausuor, Francis; Zinoviev, Sergey; Miertus, Stanislav

    2009-01-01

    The predicted shortage of fossil fuels and related environmental concerns have recently attracted significant attention to scientific and technological issues concerning the conversion of biomass into fuels. First-generation biodiesel, obtained from vegetable oils and animal fats by transesterification, relies on commercial technology and rich scientific background, though continuous progress in this field offers opportunities for improvement. This review focuses on new catalytic systems for the transesterification of oils to the corresponding ethyl/methyl esters of fatty acids. It also addresses some innovative/emerging technologies for the production of biodiesel, such as the catalytic hydrocracking of vegetable oils to hydrocarbons. The special role of the catalyst as a key to efficient technology is outlined, together with the other important factors that affect the yield and quality of the product, including feedstock-related properties and various system conditions. PMID:19360707

  2. Nonlinear joint dynamics between prices of crude oil and refined products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Ma, Guofeng; Liu, Guangsheng

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the relationships between crude oil and refined product prices. We find that nonlinear correlations are stronger in the long-term than in the short-term. Crude oil and product prices are cointegrated and financial crisis in 2007-2008 caused a structural break of the cointegrating relationship. Moreover, different from the findings in most studies, we reveal that the relationships are almost symmetric based on a threshold error correction model. The so-called 'asymmetric relationships' are caused by some outliers and financial crisis. Most of the time, crude oil prices play the major role in the adjustment process of the long-term equilibrium. However, refined product prices dominated crude oil prices during the period of financial crisis. Important policy and risk management implications can be learned from the empirical findings.

  3. ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF VEGETABLE OIL AND ITS METABOLIC INTERMEDIATES IN OIL-ENRICHED FRESHWATER SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anaerobic biodegradation of vegetable oil in freshwater sediments is strongly inhibited by high concentrations of oil, but the presence of ferric hydroxide relieves the inhibition. The effect of ferric hydroxide is not due to physical or chemical interactions with long-chain fatt...

  4. Pyrolysis bio-oils as additives for vegetable oil based lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Softwood and hardwood lignins, along with hardwood as such, were pyrolyzed to afford bio-oil distillates in which phenols were major products. Extraction with alkali gave a range of lignin-related phenols having molecular weights (MWs) from 110 to 344. Because vegetable oil based lubricants have dra...

  5. Comparison of diesel engine performance and emissions from neat and transesterified vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Geyer, S.M.; Jacobus, M.J.; Lestz, S.S.

    1984-01-01

    A single-cylinder, 0.36 L, D1 diesel engine was operated on a certified No. 2 diesel fuel, cottonseed oil, sunflowerseed oil, methyl ester of cottonseed oil, and methyl ester of sunflowerseed oil. The purpose of this study was to provide a comparison of performance and emission data when operating on net vegetable oils, transesterified vegetable oils, and diesel fuel. Results comparing the various vegetable oil fuels with No. 2 diesel fuel generally show slight improvements in thermal efficiency and higher exhaust gas temperatures when operating on vegetable oils; equal or higher gas-phase emissions with vegetable oils; lower indicated specific revertant emissions with vegetable oils; and significantly higher aldehyde emissions, including an increased percentage of formaldehyde. (Refs. 14).

  6. 21 CFR 172.736 - Glycerides and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... vegetable oils. 172.736 Section 172.736 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils. The food additive glycerides and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a)...

  7. 21 CFR 172.736 - Glycerides and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... vegetable oils. 172.736 Section 172.736 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils. The food additive glycerides and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a)...

  8. Optimization of biodiesel production process using recycled vegetable oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugo, Yarely

    Petro diesel toxic emissions and its limited resources have created an interest for the development of new energy resources, such as biodiesel. Biodiesel is traditionally produced by a transesterification reaction between vegetable oil and an alcohol in the presence of a catalyst. However, this process is slow and expensive due to the high cost of raw materials. Low costs feedstock oils such as recycled and animal fats are available but they cannot be transesterified with alkaline catalysts due to high content of free fatty acids, which can lead to undesirable reactions such as saponification. In this study, we reduce free fatty acids content by using an acid pre-treatment. We compare sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid and ptoluenesulfonic acid (PTSA) to pre-treat recycled vegetable oil. PTSA removes water after 60 minutes of treatment at room temperature or within 15 minutes at 50°C. The pretreatment was followed by a transesterification reaction using alkaline catalyst. To minimize costs and accelerate reaction, the pretreatment and transesterification reaction of recycle vegetable oil was conducted at atmospheric pressure in a microwave oven. Biodiesel was characterized using a GC-MS method.

  9. Recent developments in environmental regulation impacting oil and gas production and refining

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, D.E.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents an overview of the recent major legal and regulatory developments impacting oil and gas exploration, production, and refining activities. The focus is upon the federal laws governing air, water, and land pollution for the period 1994 to the present.

  10. [Benzo(a)pyrene contamination of vegetable oils].

    PubMed

    Jedra, Małgorzata; Starski, Andrzej; Gawarska, Halina; Sawilska-Rautenstrauch, Dorota

    2008-01-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) analysis was carried out with glass chromatographic column with alumina followed by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and spectrofluorometric detection. B(a)P level in 40 vegetable oils were as follow: from 0.11 to 0.38 microg/kg in olive; from 0.92 to 3.74 microg/kg in rape seed oils; from 0.11 to 2.25 microg/kg in sunflower oils and from 0.33 to 1.26 microg/kg in soya oils. In another investigated oils: arachide (peanut) corn, safflower, linen, hempen, sesame, pumpkin seeds, grape seeds---values from 0.10 to 1.44 microg/kg and 3.83 microg/kg in sea buckthorn oil were detected. B(a)P concentration in 4 from 40 investigated oils exceed the 2 ppb limit proposed by the European Commission. Heating of sample of oils: olive, rape, soya, linen, corn, sesame, peanut, in temp. 240 degrees C for 30 min. has not influence on decreased of B(a)P level. PMID:18807910

  11. North slope oil a bargain for lower 48 refiners

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, H.M.

    1980-04-21

    A discussion on the marketing of Prudhoe Bay crude, primarily by Atlantic Richfield Co., Exxon Co. U.S.A., and Standard Oil Co. Ohio, covers the high demand for this crude, estimated at up to 100,000 bbl/day above the 1.5 million bbl/day supply, despite its 1% sulfur content and low gravity (27/sup 0/API), because of its low price, currently $21/bbl but rising to an expected $30/bbl when decontrol is complete after Oct. 1981, and assured supply; the estimated 950,000 bbl/day consumed at refineries in California and Washington; shipment of Prudhoe Bay crude through the Panama Canal, using the Northville Industries Corp.

  12. A large-cavity zeolite with wide pore windows and potential as an oil refining catalyst.

    PubMed

    Corma, Avelino; Díaz-Cabañas, María J; Martínez-Triguero, Joaquín; Rey, Fernando; Rius, Jordi

    2002-08-01

    Crude oil is an important feedstock for the petrochemical industry and the dominant energy source driving the world economy, but known oil reserves will cover demand for no more than 50 years at the current rate of consumption. This situation calls for more efficient strategies for converting crude oil into fuel and petrochemical products. At present, more than 40% of oil conversion is achieved using catalysts based on faujasite; this zeolite requires extensive post-synthesis treatment to produce an ultrastable form, and has a large cavity accessible through four 0.74-nm-wide windows and thus limits the access of oil molecules to the catalytically active sites. The use of zeolites with better accessibility to their active sites should result in improved catalyst efficiency. To date, two zeolites with effective pore diameters exceeding that of faujasite have been reported, but their one-dimensional pore topology excludes use in oil refining. Similarly, zeolites with large pores and a three-dimensional pore topology have been reported, but in all these materials the pore openings are smaller than in faujasite. Here we report the synthesis of ITQ-21, a zeolite with a three-dimensional pore network containing 1.18-nm-wide cavities, each of which is accessible through six circular and 0.74-nm-wide windows. As expected for a zeolite with this structure, ITQ-21 exhibits high catalytic activity and selectivity for valuable products in preliminary oil refining tests. PMID:12152074

  13. Chain Transfer of Vegetable Oil Macromonomers in Acrylic Solution Copolymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Black, Micah; Messman, Jamie M; Rawlins, James

    2011-01-01

    Use of vegetable oil macromonomers (VOMMs) as comonomers in emulsion polymerization enables good film coalescence without the addition of solvents that constitute volatile organic compounds (VOCs). VOMMs are derived from renewable resources and offer the potential of post-application crosslinking via auto-oxidation. However, chain transfer reactions of VOMMs with initiator and/or polymer radicals during emulsion polymerization reduce the amount of allylic hydrogen atoms available for primary auto-oxidation during drying. Vegetable oils and derivatives were reacted in combination with butyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate via solution polymerization. The copolymerization was monitored using in situ infrared spectroscopy to determine the extent of chain transfer. 1H NMR spectroscopy was used to determine the loci of chain transfer and the molecular weight characteristics of the polymers were characterized by SEC. Solution polymerization was utilized to minimize temperature fluctuations and maintain polymer solubility during the initial characterization.

  14. Vegetable oil thermosets reinforced by tannin-lipid formulations.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chunhua; Grigsby, Warren J; Edmonds, Neil R; Al-Hakkak, Jafar

    2013-02-01

    Totally bio-based thermosetting polymers which are comparable to synthetic polyester thermosets have been prepared from copolymerization of condensed tannin-fatty acid esters with vegetable oils. Oxidative copolymerization of tannin linoleate/acetate mixed esters with linseed oil and tung oil produced polymer films ranging from soft rubbers to rigid thermosets. Tannin incorporation into the formulations was essential for the final product to achieve necessary mechanical strength. Films had ambient modulus values between 0.12 and 1.6 GPa, with glass transition temperatures ranging from 32 to 72 °C and calculated crosslink densities of 1020-57,700 mol m⁻³. Film stiffness, T(g) and crosslink density increase with greater tannin linoeate/acetate content due mainly to this tannin component providing rigidity through polyphenolic aromatic rings and unsaturated chains as crosslinking sites. PMID:22975626

  15. Gas-liquid chromatographic determination of nonpolar organochlorine pesticide residues in a crude vegetable oil and its refinery by-products.

    PubMed

    Young, S J; Kamps, L R

    1982-07-01

    A crude soybean oil, several of its refinery by-products (described as soapstock, deodorizer distillate, and clabber stock), and the completely refined oil were analyzed for pesticide residues. Fourteen organo-chlorine pesticides and pesticide metabolites were found in the deodorizer distillate; 5 of these were also found in the clabber stock. Levels in these by-products ranged from 0.3 to 8 ppm. Only endrin and dieldrin were detected in the crude oil at levels of 0.01 and 0.05 ppm, respectively. Forty to 150 times these levels were found in the deodorizer distillate and clabber stock. Pesticide residues were not detected in the refined oil or in the soapstock at limits of detection for dieldrin of about 0.01 and 0.1 ppm, respectively. The method used by the Food and Drug Administration to analyze fats and oils for multiple organohalogen pesticide residues was inadequate for the extraction of pesticide residues from vegetable oil refinery by-products. The method used to analyze the crude vegetable oil and the refinery by-products involved dissolution of the oil samples in ethyl acetate-toluene, filtration if necessary, cleanup by gel permeation chromatography, and then Florisil column chromatography. The oil was isolated from aqueous-oil mixtures by extraction with hexane before analysis. The crude soybean oil was fortified with 12 organohalogen pesticides and Aroclor 1254 at levels of 0.5-3.7 ppm. Recoveries ranged from 83 to 102%. PMID:6889594

  16. Control system for a furfural refining unit receiving heavy sweet charge oil

    SciTech Connect

    Barger, F.; Begnaud, J.; Sequeira, A.

    1980-07-08

    A control system is described for a furfural refining unit receiving heavy sweet charge oil and furfural solvent, one of which is maintained at a fixed rate while the flow rate of the other is controlled by the control system, wherein the system treats the received heavy sweet charge oil with the received furfural to yield extract mix and raffinate, comprising gravity analyzer means for sampling the heavy sweet charge oil and providing a signal API corresponding to the API gravity of the heavy sweet charge oil, flash point analyzer means for sampling the heavy sweet charge oil and providing a signal FL corresponding to the flash point temperature of the heavy sweet charge oil, viscosity analyzer means for sampling the heavy sweet charge oil and providing signals KV/sub 150/ and KV/sub 210/ corresponding to the kinematic viscosities, corrected to 150 and 210/sup 0/F, respectively, sulfur analyzer means for sampling the heavy sweet charge oil and providing a signal S corresponding to the sulfur content of the heavy sweet charge oil, flow rate sensing means for sensing the flow rates of the heavy sweet charge oil and of the furfural and providing signals chg and solv, corresponding to the charge oil flow rate and the furfural flow rate, respectively, temperature sensing means sensing the temperature of the extract mix and providing a corresponding signal t, and control means connected to all of the analyzer means, and to all the sensing means for controlling the other flow rate of the heavy sweet charge oil and the furfural flow rates in accordance with signals API, FL, KV/sub 150/, KV/sub 210/, S, T, CHG and SOLV; wherein said control means includes VI signal means connected to the viscosity analyzer means for providing a signal VI corresponding to the viscosity index of the heavy sweet charge oil in accordance with the kinematic viscosity signals KV/sub 150/, KV/sub 210/ and SUS/sub 210/.

  17. Efficacy of experimental animal and vegetable oil-emulsion vaccines for Newcastle disease and avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Stone, H D

    1993-01-01

    Acceptable oil-emulsion vaccines were sought to replace mineral oil-emulsion vaccines that, by regulations, require a 42-day minimum holding period for poultry between injection and slaughter for consumption. Water-in-oil emulsions were prepared using animal or vegetable oils in a ratio of 4 parts oil to 1 part Newcastle disease or avian influenza aqueous antigen. Beeswax particles suspended in the oil at the 5% or 10% level (wt:vol) served as the oil-phase surfactant. Hemagglutination-inhibition titers induced by mineral-oil vaccines were not significantly different from those induced by the most efficacious formulations prepared from animal and vegetable oils. Tissue reaction from injection of animal- and vegetable-oil vaccines was less than that induced by mineral-oil vaccines. An inactivated avian influenza vaccine formulated from peanut oil induced protection against morbidity and death when vaccinated chickens were challenged with a virulent isolate of avian influenza virus. PMID:8363505

  18. Lack of mutagenic activity of crude and refined oils in the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    SciTech Connect

    Vandermeulen, J.H.; Lee, R.W.

    1986-02-01

    Over the past several years, an increasing number of studies have presented evidence for the mutagenicity and/or carcinogenic potential of petroleum-derived hydrocarbons. These most usually were obtained with individual hydrocarbons, and using either specialized bacterial strains (e.g. Ames' strains) or mammalian tissue preparations. While providing important insights into mutagenic mechanisms involving xenobiotic compounds, the relevance of these studies to the natural aquatic environment is not always evident. This applies especially to the mutagenic potential of water-soluble fractions of hydrocarbon mixtures, as in whole oils or in complex distillate fractions, and involving typical marine biota. Accordingly, the authors have examined the mutagenic potential of the water-soluble fractions of four oils (two crude oils and two refined oils) using the unicellular haploid alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

  19. Field test of re-refined automotive engine oil in RCMP vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, J.

    1980-11-01

    A field test has been designed to isolate the performance characteristics of the virgin and re-refined base oils being studied. The conditions selected for the test are those normally experienced by Royal Canadian Mounted Police vehicles in similar service. All test and reference vehicles have been subjected to as equal treatment as possible, in both driving conditions and maintenance schedules. The primary conclusion that can be made with the data obtained to date is that there are statistically significant differences occurring in certain measured properties of used crankcase oil from the two test groups of vehicles. These differences are no doubt attributable, at least in part, to performance differences between the two finished oils, but other factors such as the observed differences in length of oil change interval and top-up requirements are also contributing to the responses being measured. Given the methods by which the test and reference oils were defined and chosen, it might be expected that differences in performance characteristics would be observed, and also that the reference oil might exhibit better performance characteristics than the test oil. However, the final magnitudes of any differences between the oils will not be known until the field test period is completed, and the real significance of these differences, in terms of their effect on the engines, cannot be determined until the engine examinations have been completed.

  20. Water plasmas for the revalorisation of heavy oils and cokes from petroleum refining.

    PubMed

    Hueso, José L; Rico, Víctor J; Cotrino, José; Jiménez-Mateos, J M; González-Elipe, Agustín R

    2009-04-01

    This work investigates the possibility of using plasmas to treat high boiling point and viscous liquids (HBPVL) and cokes resulting as secondary streams from the refining of oil. For their revalorisation, the use of microwave (MW) induced plasmas of water is proposed, as an alternative to more conventional processes (i.e., catalysis, pyrolysis, combustion, etc.). As a main result, this type of energetic cold plasma facilitates the conversion at room temperature of the heavy aromatic oils and cokes into linear hydrocarbons and synthesis gas, commonly defined as syngas (CO + H2 gas mixture). The exposure of the coke to this plasma also facilitates the removal of the sulfur present in the samples and leads to the formation on their surface of a sort of carbon fibers and rods network and new porous structures. Besides, optical emission measurements have provided direct evidence of the intermediates resulting from the fragmentation of the heavy oils and cokes during their exposure to the water plasma. Furthermore, the analysis of the mass spectra patterns suggests a major easiness to break the aromatic bonds mainly contained in the heavy oils. Therefore, an innovative method for the conversion of low value residues from oil-refining processes is addressed. PMID:19452916

  1. Benzo(a)pyrene in Brazilian vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Pupin, A M; Toledo, M C

    1996-01-01

    Samples of vegetable oils on the Brazilian market including rape seed, corn, soybean, sunflower, rice, palm and garlic were analysed for benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P). The analytical method involved liquid-liquid extraction, clean-up on silica gel column and determination by high performance liquid chromatography using fluorescence detection. The limit of detection was 0.5 microgram/kg. Benzo(a)pyrene was detected in almost all samples, at levels up to 58.9 micrograms/kg. The mean levels of B(a)P in rice, sunflower, soybean, corn and palm oils were 1.8, 0.2, 2.2, 10.8 and 2.1 micrograms/kg respectively. No B(a)P was detected in garlic and rape seed oils. The data indicate that the levels of B(a)P found in Brazilian corn oils are relatively higher than those published in the literature for European corn oils. PMID:8871121

  2. Vegetable Oil-Based Hyperbranched Thermosetting Polyurethane/Clay Nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The highly branched polyurethanes and vegetable oil-based polymer nanocomposites have been showing fruitful advantages across a spectrum of potential field of applications.Mesua ferreaL. seed oil-based hyperbranched polyurethane (HBPU)/clay nanocomposites were prepared at different dose levels by in situ polymerization technique. The performances of epoxy-cured thermosetting nanocomposites are reported for the first time. The partially exfoliated structure of clay layers was confirmed by XRD and TEM. FTIR spectra indicate the presence of H bonding between nanoclay and the polymer matrix. The present investigation outlines the significant improvement of tensile strength, scratch hardness, thermostability, water vapor permeability, and adhesive strength without much influencing impact resistance, bending, and elongation at break of the nanocomposites compared to pristine HBPU thermoset. An increment of two times the tensile strength, 6 °C of melting point, and 111 °C of thermo-stability were achieved by the formation of nanocomposites. An excellent shape recovery of about 96–99% was observed for the nanocomposites. Thus, the formation of partially exfoliated clay/vegetable oil-based hyperbranched polyurethane nanocomposites significantly improved the performance. PMID:20596546

  3. Refinement of the critical angle calculation for the contrast reversal of oil slicks under sunglint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yingcheng; Sun, Shaojie; Zhang, Minwei; Murch, Brock; Hu, Chuanmin

    2016-01-01

    It has long been observed that oil slicks under sunglint can reverse their optical contrast against nearby oil-free seawater. Such a phenomenon has been described through both empirical statistical analysis of the sunglint strength and modeled theoretically using a critical angle concept. The critical angle, in this model, is the angle at which the image pixels show no or negligible contrast between oiled and nonoiled seawater. Pixels away from this critical angle show either positive or negative contrast from the oil-free pixels. Although this concept has been fully demonstrated in the published literature, its calculation needs to be further refined to take into account: (1) the different refractive indices of oil slicks (from natural seeps) and seawater and (2) atmospheric effects in the sensor-measured radiance. Using measurements from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) over oil films in the Gulf of Mexico, we show improvement in the modeled and MODIS-derived reflectance over oil slicks originated from natural seeps after incorporating these two factors in the model. Specifically, agreement between modeled and measured sunglint reflectance is found for both negative and positive-contrasting oil slicks. These results indicate that surface roughness and reflectance from oil films can be estimated given any solar/viewing geometry and surface wind. Further, this model might be used to correct the sunglint effect on thick oil under similar illumination conditions. Once proven possible, it may allow existing laboratory-based models, which estimate oil thickness after such corrections, to be applied to remote sensing imagery.

  4. Comparison of oil refining and biodiesel production process between screw press and n-hexane techniques from beauty leaf feedstock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuiya, M. M. K.; Rasul, M. G.; Khan, M. M. K.; Ashwath, N.

    2016-07-01

    The Beauty Leaf Tree (Callophylum inophyllum) is regarded as an alternative source of energy to produce 2nd generation biodiesel due to its potentiality as well as high oil yield content in the seed kernels. The treating process is indispensable during the biodiesel production process because it can augment the yield as well as quality of the product. Oil extracted from both mechanical screw press and solvent extraction using n-hexane was refined. Five replications each of 25 gm of crude oil for screw press and five replications each of 25 gm of crude oil for n-hexane were selected for refining as well as biodiesel conversion processes. The oil refining processes consists of degumming, neutralization as well as dewaxing. The degumming, neutralization and dewaxing processes were performed to remove all the gums (phosphorous-based compounds), free fatty acids, and waxes from the fresh crude oil before the biodiesel conversion process carried out, respectively. The results indicated that up to 73% and 81% of mass conversion efficiency of the refined oil in the screw press and n-hexane refining processes were obtained, respectively. It was also found that up to 88% and 90% of biodiesel were yielded in terms of mass conversion efficiency in the transesterification process for the screw press and n-hexane techniques, respectively. While the entire processes (refining and transesterification) were considered, the conversion of beauty leaf tree (BLT) refined oil into biodiesel was yielded up to 65% and 73% of mass conversion efficiency for the screw press and n-hexane techniques, respectively. Physico-chemical properties of crude and refined oil, and biodiesel were characterized according to the ASTM standards. Overall, BLT has the potential to contribute as an alternative energy source because of high mass conversion efficiency.

  5. Natural (Mineral, Vegetable, Coconut, Essential) Oils and Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Verallo-Rowell, Vermén M; Katalbas, Stephanie S; Pangasinan, Julia P

    2016-07-01

    Natural oils include mineral oil with emollient, occlusive, and humectant properties and the plant-derived essential, coconut, and other vegetable oils, composed of triglycerides that microbiota lipases hydrolyze into glycerin, a potent humectant, and fatty acids (FAs) with varying physico-chemical properties. Unsaturated FAs have high linoleic acid used for synthesis of ceramide-I linoleate, a barrier lipid, but more pro-inflammatory omega-6:-3 ratios above 10:1, and their double bonds form less occlusive palisades. VCO FAs have a low linoleic acid content but shorter and saturated FAs that form a more compact palisade, more anti-inflammatory omega-6:-3 ratio of 2:1, close to 7:1 of olive oil, which disrupts the skin barrier, otherwise useful as a penetration enhancer. Updates on the stratum corneum illustrate how this review on the contrasting actions of NOs provide information on which to avoid and which to select for barrier repair and to lower inflammation in contact dermatitis genesis. PMID:27373890

  6. [Effect of five kinds of vegetable seed oil on serum lipid and lipid peroxidation in rats].

    PubMed

    Guo, Y; Cai, X; Zhao, X; Shi, R

    2001-01-01

    The effects of vegetable seed oil on hyperlipidemia induced by high lipid diet in rats. Male adult Wistar rats were fed on the test diet containing 94% high lipid diet and 6% lard pinon seed oil, perilla seed oil, blackcurrent seed oil, borage seed oil and evening primrose seed oil respectively for 3 weeks. The results showed that the vale of trilyceride(TG), total cholesterol(TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), LDL-C/HDL-C(high density lipoprotein cholesterol) ratio increased and the vale of HDL-C/TC ratio and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase(LCAT) activity decreased in the groups with vegetable seed oil were less than that of the control group. The results suggested that all the five kinds of vegetable seed oil had the effect of regulating lipid metabolism of hyperlipidemia rats to some extent. Pinon seed oil and borage seed oil may be well suited for the prevention of atherosclerosis. PMID:11255765

  7. Oil Secretory System in Vegetative Organs of Three Arnica Taxa: Essential Oil Synthesis, Distribution and Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Kromer, Krystyna; Kreitschitz, Agnieszka; Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N; Szumny, Antoni

    2016-05-01

    Arnica, a genus including the medicinal species A. montana, in its Arbo variety, and A. chamissonis, is among the plants richest in essential oils used as pharmaceutical materials. Despite its extensive use, the role of anatomy and histochemistry in the internal secretory system producing the essential oil is poorly understood. Anatomical sections allowed differentiation between two forms of secretory structures which differ according to their distribution in plants. The first axial type is connected to the vascular system of all vegetative organs and forms canals lined with epithelial cells. The second cortical type is represented by elongated intercellular spaces filled with oil formed only between the cortex cells of roots and rhizomes at maturity, with canals lacking an epithelial layer.Only in A. montana rhizomes do secretory structures form huge characteristic reservoirs. Computed tomography illustrates their spatial distribution and fusiform shape. The axial type of root secretory canals is formed at the interface between the endodermis and cortex parenchyma, while, in the stem, they are located in direct contact with veinal parenchyma. The peripheral phloem parenchyma cells are arranged in strands around sieve tube elements which possess a unique ability to accumulate large amounts of oil bodies. The cells of phloem parenchyma give rise to the aforementioned secretory structures while the lipid components (triacylglycerols) stored there support the biosynthesis of essential oils by later becoming a medium in which these oils are dissolved. The results indicate the integrity of axial secretory structures forming a continuous system in vegetative plant organs. PMID:26936790

  8. Delivery of Vegetable Oil Suspensions in a Shear Thinning Fluid for Enhanced Bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Lirong; Truex, Michael J.; Kananizadeh, Negin; Li, Yusong; Lea, Alan S.; Yan, Xiulan

    2015-04-01

    In situ anaerobic biological processes are widely applied for dechlorination of chlorinated solvents in groundwater. A wide range of organic substrates have been tested and applied to support the dechlorination processes. Vegetable oils are a promising substrate and have been shown to induce effective dechlorination, have limited geochemical impacts, and good longevity. Distribution of vegetable oil in the subsurface, because it is a non-aqueous phase material, has typically been addressed by creating emulsified oil solutions. In this study, inexpensive waste vegetable oils were suspended in a xanthan gum solution, a shear-thinning fluid, as an alternative oil delivery mechanism. The stability, oil droplet size and distribution, and rheological behavior of the oil suspensions that are created in the xanthan solutions were studied in batch experiments. The injectability of the suspensions and oil distribution in porous medium were evaluated in column tests. Numerical modeling of the oil droplet transport and distribution in porous media was conducted to help interpret the column-test data. Batch studies showed that simple mixing of vegetable oil and xanthan solution produced stable suspensions of the oil as micron-size droplets. The mixture rheology retains shear-thinning properties that facilitate improved uniformity of substrate distribution in heterogeneous aquifers. Column tests demonstrated successful injection of the vegetable oil suspension into porous medium. This study provided evidence that vegetable oil suspensions in xanthan are a potential substrate to support in situ anaerobic bioremediation with favorable injection properties.

  9. On the Mineral and Vegetal Oils Used as Electroinsulation in Transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şerban, Mariana; Sângeorzan, Livia; Helerea, Elena

    Due to the relatively large availability and reduced price, the mineral transformer oils are widely used as electrical insulating liquids. However, mineral oil drastically degrades over time in service. New efforts were made to improve mineral oils characteristics, and other types of liquids like vegetal oils are proposed. This paper deals with new comparative tests on mineral and vegetal oils using as indicator the electric strength. The samples of non-additive mineral oil type TR 30 and vegetal oils of rape, sunflower and corn have been tested with increasing voltage of 60 Hz using different electrodes. The obtained data have been statistical processed. The analyze shows different average values of electrical strength for the different type of sample. New method of testing through electrical breakdown is proposed. Experimental data confirms that it is possible to use as electroinsulation organic vegetal oils in power transformers.

  10. Method for determination of organohalogen pesticide residues in vegetable oil refinery by-products.

    PubMed

    Young, S; Clower, M; Roach, J A

    1984-01-01

    A method using gel permeation and Florisil column chromatographic cleanup techniques is described for determination of residues of nonpolar organohalogen pesticides and pesticide alteration products in vegetable oils and their refinery by-products. Supplemental Florisil separation and alkali cleanup techniques are used to facilitate determinations. Residues are determined with a 63Ni electron capture gas chromatographic detection system used in conjunction with 3 different gas chromatographic columns. Residue identities are confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Recoveries of 7 organohalogen pesticides, ranging from 90 to 103%, were determined by the supplemental Florisil separation technique to augment previously reported recovery data determined for initial GPC and Florisil cleanup steps. Soybean, peanut, and cottonseed deodorizer distillates and crude and refined oil, as well as additional refinery by-products, were analyzed. Nine to 13 organohalogen residues ranging from 0.5 to 6.3 ppm were determined in the 2 soybean deodorizer distillate samples used to develop and test the method. Identities of residues present at greater than or equal to 0.3 ppm were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. An intralaboratory trial of the method provided additional recovery and residue determination data as follows: Recoveries ranging from 102 to 116% were obtained for 4 pesticides added to peanut oil deodorizer distillate. Residues determined in 1 soybean deodorizer distillate sample supported previously obtained data for this sample. PMID:6698936

  11. Detection and quantification of adulteration of sesame oils with vegetable oils using gas chromatography and multivariate data analysis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Dan; Bi, Yanlan; Ren, Xiaona; Yang, Guolong; Sun, Shangde; Wang, Xuede

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to develop a hierarchical approach for detection and quantification of adulteration of sesame oil with vegetable oils using gas chromatography (GC). At first, a model was constructed to discriminate the difference between authentic sesame oils and adulterated sesame oils using support vector machine (SVM) algorithm. Then, another SVM-based model is developed to identify the type of adulterant in the mixed oil. At last, prediction models for sesame oil were built for each kind of oil using partial least square method. To validate this approach, 746 samples were prepared by mixing authentic sesame oils with five types of vegetable oil. The prediction results show that the detection limit for authentication is as low as 5% in mixing ratio and the root-mean-square errors for prediction range from 1.19% to 4.29%, meaning that this approach is a valuable tool to detect and quantify the adulteration of sesame oil. PMID:26041212

  12. Complex role of monoacylglycerols in the oxidation of vegetable oils: different behaviors of soybean monoacylglycerols in different oils.

    PubMed

    Paradiso, Vito Michele; Caponio, Francesco; Bruno, Giuseppina; Pasqualone, Antonella; Summo, Carmine; Gomes, Tommaso

    2014-11-01

    The relationship between fatty acid composition of oils and their oxidative stability in the presence of monoacylglycerols was investigated. Purified vegetable oils were added at increasing amounts (0.5, 1, 2, and 3%) of monoacylglycerols obtained from purified soybean oil and submitted to an oven test (60 °C for 18 days). The obtained results showed a generally antioxidant effect of monoacylglycerols, with remarkable differences among oils. The antioxidant effect was significantly higher in less unsaturated oils, such as palm and olive oils. Among the more unsaturated vegetable oils, peanut and sunflower oils showed an almost linear slowdown of oxidation, slightly less pronounced in sunflower oil, which was the most susceptible to oxidation due to its high content of linoleic acid. A peculiar trend was highlighted for soybean oil, where the antioxidant effect of high amounts of monoacylglycerols was opposed to a pro-oxidant effect observed up to 1%. PMID:25310182

  13. Fuel and lubricant additives from acid treated mixtures of vegetable oil derived amides and esters

    SciTech Connect

    Bonazza, B.R.; Devault, A.N.

    1981-05-26

    Vegetable oils such as corn oil, peanut oil, and soy oil are reacted with polyamines to form a mixture containing amides, imides, half esters, and glycerol with subsequent treatment with a strong acid such as sulfonic acid to produce a product mix that has good detergent properties in fuels and lubricants.

  14. Controlling the frying stability of vegetable oils with tocopherols and phytosterols

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyunsaturated vegetable oils are usually oxidatively stable for salad oils; however, in high stability applications such as frying, these oils are not resistant to the deteriorative processes of oxidation, hydrolysis and polymerization. To solve this problem in the past, oils were hydrogenated an...

  15. 90-Day feeding and genotoxicity studies on a refined arachidonic acid-rich oil.

    PubMed

    Casterton, P L; Curry, L L; Lina, B A R; Wolterbeek, A P M; Kruger, C L

    2009-10-01

    The safety of a refined arachidonic acid-rich oil (RAO) was evaluated for reverse mutation, chromosome aberration and gene mutation, and in a 90-day Wistar rat feeding study with in utero exposure. The results of the genotoxicity assays were all negative. The in utero phase of the 90-day study involved dietary exposure to 0.5%, 1.5% and 5% RAO and two controls diets, a standard feed low-fat diet and a high-fat diet supplemented with 5% corn oil. This exposure covered four-weeks prior to mating, through mating, gestation and lactation until offspring (F(1)) weaning. A subsequent 90-day feeding study in the F(1) rats evaluated the same test and control diets. Statistically significant effects were seen for selected histopathology, clinical chemistry and organ weight endpoints; however, other than increased absolute and relative monocytes seen in both sexes of high-dose rats, the observations were not attributed to treatment for one or more reasons. Based on these findings, no adverse treatment-related effects for RAO were seen at up to 5% in the diet, equivalent to an overall average RAO intake of 3170 mg/kg bwt/day. These and similar findings for other refined ARA-rich oils establish a strong body of evidence for the safety of this RAO. PMID:19576260

  16. Preventive effect of cinnamon essential oil on lipid oxidation of vegetable oil

    PubMed Central

    Keshvari, Mahtab; Asgary, Sedigheh; Jafarian-dehkordi, Abbas; Najafi, Somayeh; Ghoreyshi-Yazdi, Seyed Mojtaba

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lipid oxidation is the main deterioration process that occurs in vegetable oils. This process was effectively prevented by natural antioxidants. Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Cinnamon) is rich with antioxidants. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of cinnamon on malondialdehyde (MDA) rate production in two high consumption oils in Iranian market. METHODS Chemical composition of cinnamon essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). 200 µl each oil, 50 µl tween 20, and 2 ml of 40 Mm AAPH solutions were mixed and the prepared solution was divided into four glass vials. Respectively, 50 µl of 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm of cinnamon essential oil were added to three glass vials separately and one of the glass vials was used as the control. All of the glass vials were incubated at 37° C water bath. Rate of MDA production was measured by thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test at the baseline and after the 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 5 hours. RESULTS Compounds of cinnamon essential oil by GC-MS analysis such as cinnamaldehyde (96.8%), alpha-capaene (0.2%), alpha-murolene (0.11%), para-methoxycinnamaldehyde (0.6%) and delta-cadinen (0.4%) were found to be the major compounds. For both oils, maximum rate of MDA production was achieved in 5th hours of heating. Every three concentrations of cinnamon essential oil significantly decreased MDA production (P < 0.05) in comparison with the control. CONCLUSION Essential oil of cinnamon considerably inhibited MDA production in studied oils and can be used with fresh and heated oils for reduction of lipid peroxidation and adverse free radicals effects on body. PMID:24302936

  17. Biodegradation and toxicity of vegetable oils in contaminated aquatic environments: Effect of antioxidants and oil composition.

    PubMed

    Salam, Darine A; Suidan, Makram T; Venosa, Albert D

    2016-03-15

    Antioxidants may affect the oxidative rate of vegetable oils determining their fate and impact in contaminated aquatic media. In previous studies, we demonstrated the effectiveness of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), one of the most used antioxidants in edible oils, in enhancing the biodegradation of glyceryl trilinoleate, a pure triacylglycerol of cis,cis-9,12-octadecadienoic acid (C18:2 delta), through retarding its oxidative polymerization relatively to the oil with no added antioxidant. In this study, the effect of BHT on the biodegradation and toxicity of purified canola oil, a mixed-acid triacylglycerol with high C18:1 content, was investigated in respirometric microcosms and by use of the Microtox® assay. Investigations were carried out in the absence and presence (200 mg kg(-1)) of the antioxidant, and at an oil loading of 0.31 L m(-2) (333 gal acre(-1)). Substantial oil mineralization was achieved after 16 weeks of incubation (>77%) and was not significantly different (p>0.05) between the two BHT treatments, demonstrating an important role of the oil fatty acid composition in determining the potency of antioxidants and, consequently, the fate of spilled vegetable oils. Furthermore, for both treatments, toxicity was measured at early stages of the experiments and disappeared at a later stage of incubation. The observed transient toxicity was associated with the combined effect of toxic biodegradation intermediates and autoxidation products. These results were supported by the gradual disappearance of BHT in the microcosms initially supplemented with the antioxidant, reaching negligible amounts after only 2 weeks of incubation. PMID:26780134

  18. Sea transport of animal and vegetable oils and its environmental consequences.

    PubMed

    Bucas, Gwenaelle; Saliot, Alain

    2002-12-01

    The increasing production-and therefore sea traffic--of vegetable oils has regularly led to spillages during the past 40 years. The accident of Allegra, on October,lst, 1997, in the English Channel gave rise to a spillage of 900 tonnes of palm nut oil. The drift of this solid vegetable oil was followed by aerial observations. Samples of oil were collected in order to analyse its chemical evolution. This study, associated with several bibliographic cases of pollution by non-petroleum oils, shows that drifting oils can mix with floating material to sink or form a crust. They can also be oxidized or disperse and/or be degraded by bacteria. They may also polymerise. The coating properties of vegetable oils act as crude oils to affect sea life, tourism and yachting. As a result, it is necessary to quickly collect the oil after a spillage, using usual equipment (booms and pumps). PMID:12523544

  19. [Application of fluorescence spectra and parallel factor analysis in the classification of edible vegetable oils].

    PubMed

    Wu, Xi-jun; Pan, Zhao; Zhao, Yan-peng; Liu, Hai-long; Zheng, Long-jiang

    2014-08-01

    The fluorescence spectra of 22 samples of 8 kinds of edible vegetable oils (soybean oil, maize oil, olive oil, rice oil, peanut oil, walnut oil, sunflower oil and sesame oil) were measured with FS920 fluorescence spectrometer and the fluorescence matrixs (EEMs) were analyzed with parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis model. To synthesize the capabilities of material characterization and component identification, fluorescence spectra combined with PARAFAC fulfill the classification of vegetable oils. The map feature (peak position, peak value and peak number) was obtained by analyzing three dimensional spectra and con tour maps in the range of emission wavelength from 260 to 750 nm, and excitation wavelengths from 250 to 550 nm. The fluorescent substances (unsaturated fatty acids, vitamin E and its derivatives, chlorophyll and carotenoid) corresponding to spectrum peaks were determined. The factor-number was selected and the components (vitamin E and its derivatives, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, fatty acid oxidation products, vegetable oil oxidation products) corresponding to each factor were ascertained. The four-factor excitation and emission profiles and projection score plots of PARAFAC model were plotted. Different vegetable oils can be characterized and distinguished with the map features of fluorescence spectra and sample projection plots of PARAFAC model. The results demonstrate the capability of the combination of fluorescence spectra technology and four-factor PARAFAC model for differentiating and characterizing vegetable oils. PMID:25474950

  20. Heat Transfer Properties of a Series of Oxidized and Unoxidized Vegetable Oils in Comparison with Petroleum Oil-Based Quenchants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, Ester Carvalho; Canale, Lauralice C. F.; Sarmiento, G. Sánchez; Agaliotis, Eliana; Carrara, Juan C.; Schicchi, Diego S.; Totten, George E.

    2013-07-01

    Vegetable oils, especially soybean oil, exhibit substantially poorer thermal-oxidative stability than commercially available petroleum oil quenchant formulations. Therefore, to achieve any commercially interesting performance, vegetable oils must be stabilized by the addition of antioxidant inhibitors. This work describes the ability of two commercially available antioxidants, Irganox L 57 and Irganox L 109, to stabilize soybean oil against thermal-oxidative degradation. In addition, the effect of antioxidant stabilization on quenching performance was evaluated by determining the profile of heat transfer coefficient variation throughout the quenching process at different times after being subjected to an accelerated thermal-oxidation aging test. The results of this work are discussed here.

  1. Effects of vegetable oils on biochemical and biophysical properties of membrane retinal pigment epithelium cells.

    PubMed

    Said, Toihiri; Tremblay-Mercier, Jennifer; Berrougui, Hicham; Rat, Patrice; Khalil, Abdelouahed

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vegetable oil enrichment of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells on their biochemical and biophysical properties. For this, RPE cells were incubated with 4 different vegetables oils (olive oil, corn oil, argan oil, and camelina oil). The cytotoxicity of these vegetable oils was assessed in vivo on 8-week-old mice and in vitro by using the neutral red and YO-PRO-1 tests. Membrane fluidity was evaluated by fluorescence anisotropy using the fluorescent probe diphenylhexatriene, and membrane fatty acid composition was assessed by gas chromatography. None of the oils tested displayed cytotoxic effects. In vitro, omega-3 rich oils improved membrane fluidity by 47% compared with the control cells. The omega-3 PUFA content within membranes decreased by 38% to 55% when cells were incubated separately with olive oil, corn oil, or argan oil, and increased when cells were incubated with a mixture of those oils, or with camelina oil alone (50% and 103% increase, respectively). Our results show that the fatty acids in vegetable oil incorporate into retinal cells and increase the plasma membrane fluidity. PMID:24144052

  2. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    DOEpatents

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.

    2016-03-15

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids. The methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin with an internal olefin in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin esters are formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having olefin esters.

  3. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Snead, Thomas E; Cohen, Steven A; Gildon, Demond L

    2015-04-07

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids. The methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin with an internal olefin in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin esters are formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having olefin esters.

  4. A novel quantitative analysis method of three-dimensional fluorescence spectra for vegetable oils contents in edible blend oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jing; Wang, Yu-Tian; Liu, Xiao-Fei

    2015-04-01

    Edible blend oil is a mixture of vegetable oils. Eligible blend oil can meet the daily need of two essential fatty acids for human to achieve the balanced nutrition. Each vegetable oil has its different composition, so vegetable oils contents in edible blend oil determine nutritional components in blend oil. A high-precision quantitative analysis method to detect the vegetable oils contents in blend oil is necessary to ensure balanced nutrition for human being. Three-dimensional fluorescence technique is high selectivity, high sensitivity, and high-efficiency. Efficiency extraction and full use of information in tree-dimensional fluorescence spectra will improve the accuracy of the measurement. A novel quantitative analysis is proposed based on Quasi-Monte-Carlo integral to improve the measurement sensitivity and reduce the random error. Partial least squares method is used to solve nonlinear equations to avoid the effect of multicollinearity. The recovery rates of blend oil mixed by peanut oil, soybean oil and sunflower are calculated to verify the accuracy of the method, which are increased, compared the linear method used commonly for component concentration measurement.

  5. New Bio-Based Materials From Vegetable Oil: Amination and Click Reactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For some time we have been interested in utilizing vegetable oils as cheap and bio-renewable raw materials. We have found derivatization reactions with nitrogen-containing reagents to be good pathways to achieve a range of new vegetable oil-based products. One of our approaches is to derivatize ep...

  6. Current Uses of Vegetable Oil in the Surfactant, Fuel, and Lubrication Industries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New developments in the surfactant, bio-diesel, and lubricant industries are discussed in a review with 46 references on the recent use of vegetable oil for non-food applications. Highlighted in the surfactant section, is the development of a glycerol and vegetable oil based surfactant which disp...

  7. Properties of cookies made with natural wax-vegetable oil organogels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organogels prepared with a natural wax and a vegetable oil were examined as alternatives to a commercial margarine in cookie. To investigate effects of wax and vegetable oil on properties of cookie dough and cookies, organogels prepared from four different waxes including sunflower wax, rice bran wa...

  8. Vegetable oils as an on the farm diesel fuel substitute: the North Carolina situation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Harwood, H.J.

    1981-06-01

    The state-of-the-art of using vegetable oil as a diesel fuel alternative is reviewed. Particular emphasis has been placed on using vegetable oil in farm vehicles as an emergency fuel which may be produced on-farm. The following are reviewed: the mechanical feasibility, on-farm fuel production, and economic analysis.

  9. Acute toxicity of selected crude and refined shale oil derived and petroleum-derived substances

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.H.; Haschek, W.M.; Witschi, H.

    1980-01-01

    General information was obtained on the toxicity of selected samples of crude Paraho shale oil and some of its derivatives, some crude petroleums, and 3 refined petroleum products. Five tests were used to determine the acute toxicity of these substances: acute lethality in mice following oral or intraperitoneal administration of a single dose; acute dermal toxicity of a single dose in rats; delayed-type allergic contact hypersensitivity in guinea pigs; primary eye irritation and primary skin irritation of a single dose in rabbits. Histopathologic changes induced in mice following intraperitoneal injection of a single large dose of crude shale oil and two of its hydrotreated derivatives were examined. Studies also have been initiated to examine the tumor inducing potential of selected samples. The test system used was the mouse lung adenoma bioassay. The present report describes our findings and shows that all compounds tested have very low or no acute toxic effects in laboratory animals.

  10. Methods of refining natural oils, and methods of producing fuel compositions

    DOEpatents

    Firth, Bruce E.; Kirk, Sharon E.

    2015-10-27

    A method of refining a natural oil includes: (a) providing a feedstock that includes a natural oil; (b) reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a metathesized product that includes olefins and esters; (c) passivating residual metathesis catalyst with an agent that comprises nitric acid; (d) separating the olefins in the metathesized product from the esters in the metathesized product; and (e) transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product and/or hydrogenating the olefins to form a fully or partially saturated hydrogenated product. Methods for suppressing isomerization of olefin metathesis products produced in a metathesis reaction, and methods of producing fuel compositions are described.

  11. Methods of refining natural oils and methods of producing fuel compositions

    DOEpatents

    Firth, Bruce E; Kirk, Sharon E; Gavaskar, Vasudeo S

    2015-11-04

    A method of refining a natural oil includes: (a) providing a feedstock that includes a natural oil; (b) reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a metathesized product that includes olefins and esters; (c) passivating residual metathesis catalyst with an agent selected from the group consisting of phosphorous acid, phosphinic acid, and a combination thereof; (d) separating the olefins in the metathesized product from the esters in the metathesized product; and (e) transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product and/or hydrogenating the olefins to form a fully or partially saturated hydrogenated product. Methods for suppressing isomerization of olefin metathesis products produced in a metathesis reaction, and methods of producing fuel compositions are described.

  12. Physicochemical and sensory characterization of refined and deodorized tuna (Thunnus albacares) by-product oil obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Dayse A S B; Minozzo, Marcelo G; Licodiedoff, Silvana; Waszczynskyj, Nina

    2016-09-15

    In this study, the effects of chemical refining and deodorization on fatty acid profiles and physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the tuna by-product oil obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis were evaluated. Enzymatic extraction was conducted for 120 min at 60 °C and pH 6.5 using Alcalase at an enzyme-substrate ratio of 1:200 w/w. The chemical refining of crude oil consisted of degumming, neutralization, washing, drying, bleaching, and deodorization; deodorization was conducted at different temperatures and processing times. Although chemical refining was successful, temperature and chemical reagents favored the removal of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from the oil. Aroma attributes of fishy odor, frying odor, and rancid odor predominantly contributed to the sensory evaluation of the product. Deodorization conditions of 160 °C for 1h and 200 °C for 1h were recommended for the tuna by-product oil, which is rich in PUFA. PMID:27080896

  13. Electrocoagulation of vegetable oil refinery wastewater using aluminum electrodes.

    PubMed

    Tezcan Un, Umran; Koparal, A Savas; Bakir Ogutveren, Ulker

    2009-01-01

    Electrocoagulation with aluminum electrodes was used to treat the vegetable oil refinery wastewater (VORW) in a batch reactor. The effects of operating parameters such as pH, current density, PAC (poly aluminum chloride) dosage and Na(2)SO(4) dosage on the removal of organics and COD removal efficiency have been investigated. It has been shown that the removal efficiency of COD increased with the increasing applied current density and increasing PAC and Na(2)SO(4) dosage and the most effective removal capacity was achieved at the pH 7. The results indicate that electrocoagulation is very efficient and able to achieve 98.9% COD removal in 90 min at 35 mAcm(-2) with a specific electrical energy consumption of 42 kWh(kgCOD(removed))(-1). The effluent was very clear and its quality exceeded the direct discharge standard. PMID:18222028

  14. The effect of pan frying on thermooxidative stability of refined rapeseed oil and professional blend.

    PubMed

    Aniołowska, Magda; Zahran, Hamdy; Kita, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    The pan fryings of frozen pre-fried French fries in refined rapeseed oil (RO) and professional blend (PB) were of 8 h duration. Initially, while fresh, and after every 1 h of frying, the oils were analyzed for acid and anisidine values, colour, refractive index, fatty acid composition (by GC), polar fraction content and composition (by high pressure size exclusion chromatography). Additionally the fat content and fatty acid composition of French fries were determined. Hydrolytic and oxidative changes in the frying media varied with oil composition and increased with frying time. The pace of oxidation in RO was three times higher than in PB. The loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids (sum of C18:2 and C18:3) after 8 h of frying was 7 % in PB and 20 % in RO. The polar fraction content was two times lower in PB, but did not exceed 25 % in either of the frying media. The predominant fraction in RO was oxidized triacylglycerols, while in PB - diacylglycerols. During frying the proportions of triacylglycerol polymers and dimers increased in both oils, reaching 32 % in RO and 23 % in PB. PMID:26787991

  15. Evaluation of Palm Oil as a Suitable Vegetable Oil for Vitamin A Fortification Programs.

    PubMed

    Pignitter, Marc; Hernler, Natalie; Zaunschirm, Mathias; Kienesberger, Julia; Somoza, Mark Manuel; Kraemer, Klaus; Somoza, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    Fortification programs are considered to be an effective strategy to mitigate vitamin A deficiency in populations at risk. Fortified vegetable oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids were shown to be prone to oxidation, leading to limited vitamin A stability. Thus, it was hypothesized that fortified oils consisting of mainly saturated fatty acids might enhance the stability of vitamin A. Mildly (peroxide value: 1.0 meq O₂/kg) and highly (peroxide value: 7.5 meq O₂/kg) oxidized palm oil was stored, after fortification with 60 International Units/g retinyl palmitate, in 0.5 L transparent polyethylene terephthalate bottles under cold fluorescent lighting (12 h/day) at 32 °C for 57 days. An increase of the peroxide value by 15 meq O₂/kg, which was also reflected by a decrease of α-tocopherol congener by 15%-18%, was determined independent of the initial rancidity. The oxidative deterioration of the highly oxidized palm oil during storage was correlated with a significant 46% decline of the vitamin A content. However, household storage of mildly oxidized palm oil for two months did not induce any losses of vitamin A. Thus, mildly oxidized palm oil may be recommended for vitamin A fortification programs, when other sources of essential fatty acids are available. PMID:27338464

  16. Evaluation of Palm Oil as a Suitable Vegetable Oil for Vitamin A Fortification Programs

    PubMed Central

    Pignitter, Marc; Hernler, Natalie; Zaunschirm, Mathias; Kienesberger, Julia; Somoza, Mark Manuel; Kraemer, Klaus; Somoza, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    Fortification programs are considered to be an effective strategy to mitigate vitamin A deficiency in populations at risk. Fortified vegetable oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids were shown to be prone to oxidation, leading to limited vitamin A stability. Thus, it was hypothesized that fortified oils consisting of mainly saturated fatty acids might enhance the stability of vitamin A. Mildly (peroxide value: 1.0 meq O2/kg) and highly (peroxide value: 7.5 meq O2/kg) oxidized palm oil was stored, after fortification with 60 International Units/g retinyl palmitate, in 0.5 L transparent polyethylene terephthalate bottles under cold fluorescent lighting (12 h/day) at 32 °C for 57 days. An increase of the peroxide value by 15 meq O2/kg, which was also reflected by a decrease of α-tocopherol congener by 15%–18%, was determined independent of the initial rancidity. The oxidative deterioration of the highly oxidized palm oil during storage was correlated with a significant 46% decline of the vitamin A content. However, household storage of mildly oxidized palm oil for two months did not induce any losses of vitamin A. Thus, mildly oxidized palm oil may be recommended for vitamin A fortification programs, when other sources of essential fatty acids are available. PMID:27338464

  17. Determination of lipid oxidation products in vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements

    PubMed Central

    Halvorsen, Bente Lise; Blomhoff, Rune

    2011-01-01

    Background There is convincing evidence that replacing dietary saturated fats with polyunsaturated fats (PUFA) decreases risk of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, PUFA rich foods such as vegetable oils, fatty fish, and marine omega-3 supplements are recommended. However, PUFA are easily oxidizable and there is concern about possible negative health effects from intake of oxidized lipids. Little is known about the degree of lipid oxidation in such products. Objective To assess the content of lipid oxidation products in a large selection of vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements available in Norway. Both fresh and heated vegetable oils were studied. Design A large selection of commercially available vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements was purchased from grocery stores, pharmacies, and health food stores in Norway. The content of lipid oxidation products were measured as peroxide value and alkenal concentration. Twelve different vegetable oils were heated for a temperature (225°C) and time (25 minutes) resembling conditions typically used during cooking. Results The peroxide values were in the range 1.04–10.38 meq/kg for omega-3 supplements and in the range 0.60–5.33 meq/kg for fresh vegetable oils. The concentration range of alkenals was 158.23–932.19 nmol/mL for omega-3 supplements and 33.24–119.04 nmol/mL for vegetable oils. After heating, a 2.9–11.2 fold increase in alkenal concentration was observed for vegetable oils. Conclusions The contents of hydroperoxides and alkenals in omega-3 supplements are higher than in vegetable oils. After heating vegetable oils, a large increase in alkenal concentration was observed. PMID:21691461

  18. Optimization of palm oil physical refining process for reduction of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) ester formation.

    PubMed

    Zulkurnain, Musfirah; Lai, Oi Ming; Tan, Soo Choon; Abdul Latip, Razam; Tan, Chin Ping

    2013-04-01

    The reduction of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) ester formation in refined palm oil was achieved by incorporation of additional processing steps in the physical refining process to remove chloroester precursors prior to the deodorization step. The modified refining process was optimized for the least 3-MCPD ester formation and acceptable refined palm oil quality using response surface methodology (RSM) with five processing parameters: water dosage, phosphoric acid dosage, degumming temperature, activated clay dosage, and deodorization temperature. The removal of chloroester precursors was largely accomplished by increasing the water dosage, while the reduction of 3-MCPD esters was a compromise in oxidative stability and color of the refined palm oil because some factors such as acid dosage, degumming temperature, and deodorization temperature showed contradictory effects. The optimization resulted in 87.2% reduction of 3-MCPD esters from 2.9 mg/kg in the conventional refining process to 0.4 mg/kg, with color and oil stability index values of 2.4 R and 14.3 h, respectively. PMID:23464796

  19. Dangerous and cancer-causing properties of products and chemicals in the oil refining and petrochemical industry: Part V--Asbestos-caused cancers and exposure of workers in the oil refining industry.

    PubMed

    Mehlman, M A

    1991-01-01

    In the oil refining and petrochemical industries exposure to cancer-causing asbestos particles, especially during equipment repair and maintenance, is very high. Up to 90% of workers in the oil refining industry had direct and/or indirect contact with asbestos, and more than half of this contact occurred without the use of any kind of precaution, thus these workers are in high risk of developing lung cancer and mesothelioma, both fatal diseases. The hazards include: inadequate health and safety training for both company personnel and workers, failure to inform about the dangers and diseases (cancers) resulting from exposure to asbestos; excessive use of large numbers of untrained and uninformed contract workers; lack of use of protective equipment; and archaeological approaches and responses to repairing asbestos breaks and replacement of asbestos in oil refining facilities. For a better understanding of practices and policies in the oil refining industry, refer to Rachel Scott's Muscle and Blood, in particular the chapter "Oil" (E.P. Dutton, New York, 1974), as well as to an editorial which appeared in the Oil and Gas Journal, April, 1968. PMID:1853354

  20. Vegetable oils and animal fats for diesel fuels: a systems study

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinsky, E.S.; Kresovich, S.; Wagner, C.K.; Appelbaum, H.R.; McClure, T.A.; Otis, J.L.; Trayser, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    This paper provided some information on the possible use of vegetable oils and animal fats as substitute fuels and as emergency diesel fuels in the United States. This paper is confined to using triglyceride fuels in agricultural, automotive, and highway transportation applications. Satisfactory substitution of petroleum-based diesel fuels with triglyceride-based fuels requires the development of an integrated system for the production, processing, and end use of the new fuels on a basis that is both technically attractive and economically rewarding to all of the elements of the system. The three subsystems, the farms that produce oilseed crops, the production of triglycerides and protein, and the manufacturers of the diesel engines and the owners of the present stock of auto-ignition engines, are discussed. It was concluded that vegetable oils and animal fats have substantial prospects as long-term substitutes for diesel fuels. If special auto-ignition engines were developed to handle vegetable oils, on-farm production and use might succeed. In the absence of such engine development, it is likely that large, centralized facilities to manufacture vegetable oils and their methylesters will be the successful processing route. Vegetable oils are likely to succeed first in geographical areas with benign climates. Vegetable oils and animal fats have limited prospects as diesel fuels for acute emergencies. The high viscosity of vegetable oils and the necessity to make substantial capital investments to obtain oils from oilseeds render the system relatively inflexible. 4 tables. (DP)

  1. Economic implications for the potential development of a vegetable oil fuel industry

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J.R.; Schneeberger, K.C.

    1982-01-01

    The purposes in this paper were to (1) summarize the domestic and international oilseed situation with emphasis on trends which will affect the long-run supply and demand for oilseeds; (2) describe the existing oilseeds processing sector so as to focus on the existing linkage between food and potential fuel markets for vegetable oils; and (3) present a basic framework for analyzing the supply, demand, and price effects of significant use of vegetable oil as a fuel. The major determinants of demand worldwide for vegetable oils are price, incomes, and population. Government programs of taxes, quotas, or subsidies could affect vegetable oil supply and/or demand. International trade practices could change; altering the flow of oils between markets. The likely impact of a developing vegetable oils fuel market would be to increase vegetable oil prices. The size of the increase will depend on how large the fuel market demand ultimately becomes, and thus on the price of diesel fuel. It will also depend on how well oilseed production can be adapted, technologically, and in acreage, to meet the needs of a large fuels market while maintaining its critical role in the foods sector. There are many uncertainties in assessing the economic picture for vegetable oil use as a diesel fuel substitute. 1 figure, 3 tables. (DP)

  2. Physicochemical properties and potential food applications of Moringa oleifera seed oil blended with other vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Dollah, Sarafhana; Abdulkarim, Sabo Muhammad; Ahmad, Siti Hajar; Khoramnia, Anahita; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Blends (30:70, 50:50 and 70:30 w/w) of Moringa oleifera seed oil (MoO) with palm olein (PO), palm stearin (PS), palm kernel oil (PKO) and virgin coconut oil (VCO) were prepared. To determine the physicochemical properties of the blends, the iodine value (IV), saponication value (SV), fatty acid (FA) composition, triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, thermal behaviour (DSC) and solid fat content (SFC) tests were analysed. The incorporation of high oleic acid (81.73%) MoO into the blends resulted in the reduction of palmitic acid content of PO and PS from 36.38% to 17.17% and 54.66% to 14.39% and lauric acid content of PKO and VCO from 50.63% to 17.70% and 51.26% to 26.05% respectively while oleic acid and degree of unsaturation were increased in all blends. Changes in the FA composition and TAG profile have significantly affected the thermal behavior and solid fat content of the oil blends. In MoO/PO blends the melting temperature of MoO decreased while, in MoO/PS, MoO/PKO and MoO/VCO blends, it increased indicating produce of zero-trans harder oil blends without use of partial hydrogenation. The spreadability of PS, PKO and VCO in low temperatures was also increased due to incorporation of MoO. The melting point of PS significantly decreased in MoO/PS blends which proved to be suitable for high oleic bakery shortening and confectionary shortening formulation. The finding appears that blending of MoO with other vegetable oils would enable the initial properties of the oils to be modified or altered and provide functional and nutritional attributes for usage in various food applications, increasing the possibilities for the commercial use of these oils. PMID:25007749

  3. Delivery of vegetable oil suspensions in a shear thinning fluid for enhanced bioremediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, L.; Truex, M. J.; Kananizadeh, N.; Li, Y.; Lea, A. S.; Yan, X.

    2015-04-01

    In situ anaerobic biological processes are widely applied for dechlorination of chlorinated solvents in groundwater. A wide range of organic substrates have been tested and applied to support the dechlorination processes. Vegetable oils are a promising type of substrate and have been shown to induce effective dechlorination, have limited geochemical impacts, and maintain good longevity. Because they are non-aqueous phase liquids, distribution of vegetable oils in the subsurface has typically been approached by creating emulsified oil solutions for injection into the aquifer. In this study, inexpensive waste vegetable oils were suspended in a shear-thinning xanthan gum solution as an alternative approach for delivery of vegetable oil to the subsurface. The stability, oil droplet size distribution, and rheological behavior of the oil suspensions that are created in the xanthan solutions were studied in batch experiments. The injectability of the suspensions and the oil distribution in a porous medium were evaluated in column tests. Numerical modeling of oil droplet transport and distribution in porous media was conducted to help interpret the column-test data. Batch studies showed that simple mixing of vegetable oil with xanthan solution produced stable suspensions of the oil as micron-size droplets. The mixture rheology retains shear-thinning properties that facilitate improved uniformity of substrate distribution in heterogeneous aquifers. Column tests demonstrated successful injection of the vegetable oil suspension into a porous medium. This study provides evidence that vegetable oil suspensions in xanthan gum solutions have favorable injection properties and are a potential substrate for in situ anaerobic bioremediation.

  4. Gourmet and health-promoting specialty oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gourmet vegetable oils are characterized by their aroma and taste, mainly resulting from the fact that they are not refined. The most popular gourmet oil is olive oil with annual international production of about 2.75 million tons. Although the fatty acid composition of vegetable oils is often the...

  5. 33 CFR 154.1240 - Specific requirements for animal fats and vegetable oils facilities that could reasonably be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... fats and vegetable oils facilities that could reasonably be expected to cause substantial harm to the... Animal Fats and Vegetable Oils Facilities § 154.1240 Specific requirements for animal fats and vegetable oils facilities that could reasonably be expected to cause substantial harm to the environment. (a)...

  6. 33 CFR 154.1240 - Specific requirements for animal fats and vegetable oils facilities that could reasonably be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... fats and vegetable oils facilities that could reasonably be expected to cause substantial harm to the... Animal Fats and Vegetable Oils Facilities § 154.1240 Specific requirements for animal fats and vegetable oils facilities that could reasonably be expected to cause substantial harm to the environment. (a)...

  7. 33 CFR 154.1240 - Specific requirements for animal fats and vegetable oils facilities that could reasonably be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... fats and vegetable oils facilities that could reasonably be expected to cause substantial harm to the... Animal Fats and Vegetable Oils Facilities § 154.1240 Specific requirements for animal fats and vegetable oils facilities that could reasonably be expected to cause substantial harm to the environment. (a)...

  8. 33 CFR 154.1240 - Specific requirements for animal fats and vegetable oils facilities that could reasonably be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... fats and vegetable oils facilities that could reasonably be expected to cause substantial harm to the... Animal Fats and Vegetable Oils Facilities § 154.1240 Specific requirements for animal fats and vegetable oils facilities that could reasonably be expected to cause substantial harm to the environment. (a)...

  9. 33 CFR 154.1240 - Specific requirements for animal fats and vegetable oils facilities that could reasonably be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... fats and vegetable oils facilities that could reasonably be expected to cause substantial harm to the... Animal Fats and Vegetable Oils Facilities § 154.1240 Specific requirements for animal fats and vegetable oils facilities that could reasonably be expected to cause substantial harm to the environment. (a)...

  10. Production of Oxygenated Fatty Acids from Vegetable Oils by Flavobacterium sp. Strain DS5

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavobacterium sp. strain DS5 (NRRL B-14859) was used to convert two vegetable oils, olive oil and soybean oil, directly to oxygenated fatty acids such as 10-ketostearic acid (10-KSA) and 10-hydroxystearic acid (10-HSA). Lipase addition to the culture was required because strain DS5 did not induce ...

  11. Synthesis and applications of vegetable oil-based fluorocarbon water repellent agents on cotton fabrics.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tao; Zheng, Junzhi; Sun, Gang

    2012-06-01

    Vegetable oil-based fluorocarbon water repellent agents were prepared by chemical modifications of different vegetable oils - soybean and linseed oils through several reactions, including saponification, acidification, acylation of vegetable oil and trans-esterification with 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol and 2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropanol. The resulted fluorocarbon agents were then copolymerized with styrene. The structures of the vegetable oil based agents were characterized by FT-IR and NMR. By evaluating water contact angle and time of water disappearance on cotton fabrics, as well as whiteness and breaking strength of cotton fabrics that were treated by these agents, optimum fabric finishing conditions were explored. The cotton fabrics finished with the vegetable oil-based fluorocarbon agents showed excellent water repellency, while other properties of the cotton fabrics declined to certain level. The linseed oil-based tetrafluoropropanol water repellent agent displayed the highest water repellency among all modified oils. All the treated fabrics exhibited good durability of water repellency. The linseed oil-based tetrafluoropropanol water repellent agent demonstrated the best durability among all repellent agents. PMID:24750623

  12. Polysulfide and bio-based EP additive performance in vegetable vs. paraffinic base oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twist compression test (TCT) and 4-ball extreme pressure (EP) methods were used to investigate commercial polysulfide (PS) and bio-based polyester (PE) EP additives in paraffinic (150N) and refined soybean (SOY) base oils of similar viscosity. Binary blends of EP additive and base oil were investiga...

  13. Lipase pre-hydrolysis enhance anaerobic biodigestion of soap stock from an oil refining industry.

    PubMed

    Cherif, Slim; Aloui, Fathi; Carrière, Frédéric; Sayadi, Sami

    2014-01-01

    A novel alcalophilic Staphylococcus haemolyticus strain with the lipolytic activity was used to perform enzymatic hydrolysis pretreatment of soap stock: a lipid rich solid waste from an oil refining industry. The culture liquid of the selected bacteria and an enzymatic preparation obtained by precipitation with ammonium sulphate from a filtrate of the same culture liquid were used for enzymatic pretreatment. The hydrolysis was carried with different incubation concentrations (10, 20 and 30%) of soap stock and the pretreatment efficiency was verified by running comparative biodegradability tests (crude and treated lipid waste). All pretreated assays showed higher reaction rate compared to crude lipid waste, which was confirmed by the increased levels of biogas production. The pretreatment of solutions containing 10% emulsified soap stock was optimized for 24 h hydrolysis time, enabling high-biogaz formation (800 ml). The use of enzymatic pre-treatment seemed to be a very promising alternative for treating soap stock having high fat contents. PMID:24500101

  14. Refiner/marketer uses futures to manage inventory exposure, procure oil

    SciTech Connect

    Zanussi, D.E.

    1989-01-23

    The concept of hedging using future markets is not as new for agricultural businesses as it is for the petroleum business. Farmer's Union Central Exchange Inc. (Cenex) is involved in both agricultural and petroleum markets. And Cenex management recognizes the economic function of futures markets through years of manufacturing and merchandising livestock feed using the futures markets in Chicago. The integration of the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) and Cenex's petroleum business to reduce price risk is a necessary business function. As an integrated refiner and wholesale marketer, Cenex uses petroleum futures primarily to manage its inventory exposure, procure crude oil, and on a limited basis, to help exploration and production operations enhance or maintain a revenue stream over the short run.

  15. Methods of refining and producing isomerized fatty acid esters and fatty acids from natural oil feedstocks

    DOEpatents

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.; Beltran, Leslie V.; Kunz, Linda A.; Pals, Tessa M.; Quinn, Jordan R; Behrends, Jr., Raymond T.; Bernhardt, Randal J.

    2016-07-05

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing isomerized esters and acids. The methods comprise providing a C4-C18 unsaturated fatty ester or acid, and isomerizing the fatty acid ester or acid in the presence of heat or an isomerization catalyst to form an isomerized fatty ester or acid. In some embodiments, the methods comprise forming a dibasic ester or dibasic acid prior to the isomerizing step. In certain embodiments, the methods further comprise hydrolyzing the dibasic ester to form a dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin is formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having unsaturated esters.

  16. Experimental study on the performance characteristics and emission analysis of a diesel engine using vegetable oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Anup; Ehite, Ekramul Haque; Alam, M. M.

    2016-07-01

    In this research, Vegetable oils derived from Sesame Seed and Rice Bran were used and experimented upon. Using Kerosene as the solvent in varying proportions (30%, 50%, 70% by volume) with the vegetables oils, different blends of Sesame and Rice Bran Oils were produced. The important characteristic properties were found by experimentation and compared with those of Straight Run Diesel. Subsequently, Straight Run Diesel, vegetable oils and their blends were used to run a diesel engine one-by-one and the performance analysis was conducted, followed by an investigation of the exhaust emissions. From the comparative performance analysis, it was found that Rice Bran oil showed better performance as a fuel than Sesame with regards to power production and specific fuel consumption and also resulted in less Carbon Monoxide (CO) emission than Sesame oil blends.

  17. Formation and reduction of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol esters in peanut oil during physical refining.

    PubMed

    Li, Chang; Li, Linyan; Jia, Hanbing; Wang, Yuting; Shen, Mingyue; Nie, Shaoping; Xie, Mingyong

    2016-05-15

    In the present study, lab-scale physical refining processes were investigated for their effects on the formation of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) esters. The potential precursors, partial acylglycerols and chlorines were determined before each refining step. 3-MCPD esters were not detected in degummed and bleached oil when the crude oils were extracted by solvent. While in the hot squeezed crude oils, 3-MCPD esters were detected with low amounts. 3-MCPD esters were generated with maximum values in 1-1.5h at a certain deodorizing temperature (220-260°C). Chlorine seemed to be more effective precursor than partial acylglycerol. By washing bleached oil before deodorization with ethanol solution, the precursors were removed partially and the content of 3-MCPD esters decreased to some extent accordingly. Diacetin was found to reduce 3-MCPD esters effectively. PMID:26776014

  18. Species-specific identification of seven vegetable oils based on suspension bead array.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanyuan; Wu, Yajun; Han, Jianxun; Wang, Bin; Ge, Yiqiang; Chen, Ying

    2012-03-01

    Species adulteration of vegetable oils has become a main form of adulteration in vegetable oils, severely violating consumer rights and causing disorder in the market. A reliable method of species authentication of vegetable oils is desirable. This paper reports a novel method for identification of seven species of vegetable oils based on suspension bead array. One pair of universal primers and seven species-specific probes were designed targeting rbcl gene of the chloroplast. Each probe was coupled to a unique color-coded microsphere. Biotinylated PCR amplicons of seven oils were hybridized to the complementary probes on microsphere sets. Bound amplicons were detected fluorometrically using a reporter dye, streptavidin-R-phycoeryt hrin (SA-PE). A sample could be analyzed less than 1 h after PCR amplification. With the exception of olive probe, all probes showed no cross-reactivity with other species. Absolute detection limit of the seven probes ranged from 0.01 ng/μL to 0.0001 ng/μL. Detection limit in DNA mixture was from 10% to 5%. Detection of vegetable oils validated the effectiveness of the method. The suspension bead array as a rapid, sensitive, and high-throughput technology has potential to identify more species of vegetable oils with increased species of probes. PMID:22324365

  19. Wetland Vegetation Monitoring within Barataria Basin, Louisiana Following Exposure to Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steyer, G.; Piazza, S.; Kokaly, R. F.; Patton, B.; Heckman, D.

    2011-12-01

    Following the Deepwater Horizon explosion and subsequent oil spill in April 2010 coastal wetlands in Louisiana were directly oiled, exposing vegetation and marsh soils to petroleum hydrocarbons. Oiling was observed at the marsh/water interface as well as within coastal marshes. The physical and chemical effects of oil spills can have both short and long term effects on wetland vegetation. These effects can include reductions in primary productivity and direct plant mortality. Even in the absence of this oiling event, the coastal landscape of Louisiana experiences high rates of land loss resulting from natural and anthropogenic causes. This additional stress has the potential to further reduce the extent and health of coastal marshes in this fragile ecosystem. We conducted a field study to document the impact of oiling on above and belowground vegetation biomass, plant species composition, and vegetation cover at sites within Barataria Basin, Louisiana. Six sampling sites were established, three within obviously oiled marshes and three where oiling was not readily apparent. Four sampling events occurred between October 2010 and October 2011. The preliminary results of the field study will be presented along with how these data helped validate remotely sensed data observations (AVIRIS) and calibrate ground reflectance in oiled and non-oiled marshes.

  20. Mixtures of Vegetable Oil and Xanthan as a Substrate for Biological Dechlorination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, L.; Macbeth, T.; Truex, M. J.; Yan, X.

    2012-12-01

    In situ anaerobic biological processes are widely applied for dechlorination of chlorinated solvents in groundwater. A wide range of organic substrates have been tested and applied to support the dechlorination processes. Key factors considered in substrate selection are the induced dechlorination kinetics, geochemical impacts such as pH decreases, longevity of the substrate, and ability to distribute the substrate in the subsurface. Vegetable oils are a promising substrate and have been shown to induce effective dechlorination, have limited geochemical impacts, and good longevity. Distribution of vegetable oil in the subsurface, because it is a non-aqueous phase material, has typically been addressed by creating emulsified oil solutions. In this study, inexpensive waste vegetable oils were tested in laboratory microcosm experiments and induced dechlorination reactions with minor geochemical impacts and good longevity. Additional testing showed that mixtures of waste vegetable oil and Xanthan, a biopolymer with shear-thinning properties, produced stable suspensions of the oil as micron-scale droplets. The mixture rheology retains shear-thinning properties that would facilitate improved uniformity of substrate distribution in heterogeneous aquifers. Soil column tests were conducted as a first step in quantifying the transport of the oil droplets in the mixture through porous media. Results show that the mixture of vegetable oil and Xanthan is a potential substrate for supporting in situ anaerobic bioremediation for some subsurface settings.

  1. Photolysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans dissolved in vegetable oils: influence of oil quality.

    PubMed

    Isosaari, Pirjo; Laine, Olli; Tuhkanen, Tuula; Vartiainen, Terttu

    2005-03-20

    Sunlight or ultraviolet light irradiation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the presence of vegetable oil offers a potential method for the cleanup of contaminated soil. In this study, the effects of different types of vegetable oils on the photochemical degradation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran and heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF/HpCDD) were investigated in the laboratory. Using a blacklight lamp as a source of ultraviolet light, 93-100% of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF degraded in 60 min in rapeseed oil, extra virgin olive oil and olive oil. Less degradation occurred in palm oil (59%), toluene (39%) and hexane (20%). The better degradation in vegetable oils in comparison with organic solvents was attributed to the photooxidation of lipids producing hydrogen for PCDD/F dechlorination. In addition to the hydrogen donor capacity, permeability of ultraviolet light was involved in the differences between vegetable oils. alpha-Tocopherol and chlorophyll did not influence the performance of oil at concentrations normally present in vegetable oils, whereas beta-carotene had an inhibitory effect on the degradation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF. Up to 28% of the degradation products of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF were formed via the dechlorination pathway. Products included both toxic (2,3,7,8-chlorinated) and non-toxic PCDD/Fs, the toxic PCDD/Fs being more stable. Irradiation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD yielded only non-toxic dechlorination products. Polychlorinated hydroxybiphenyls (OH-PCBs), polychlorinated dihydroxybiphenyls (DOH-PCBs) and polychlorinated hydroxydiphenylethers (OH-PCDEs) containing one to seven chlorine atoms were not detected in irradiated HpCDF/HpCDD samples. PMID:15752488

  2. Fatty acid esters of monochloropropanediol (MCPD) and glycidol in refined edible oils.

    PubMed

    Craft, B D; Chiodini, A; Garst, J; Granvogl, M

    2013-01-01

    Recently, fatty acid esters of monochloropropanediol (MCPD) and that of glycidol have been reported in refined edible oils. Since then a wealth of research has been published on the factors influencing the formation of these contaminants in foods. It can be noted that the predominant precursors in a given matrix will not necessarily be the same as in other matrices. Further, proven relationships in the past between precursors responsible for free MCPD or free glycidol formation will not necessarily be valid for their fatty acid-esterified counterparts. This review attempts to summarise the current status of the literature as it pertains to the reasons surrounding the manifestation of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters in oils and fats. Recent efforts to mitigate the levels of these contaminants were highlighted and put into the context of their respective reaction matrices. As more accurate occurrence data for MCPD esters and glycidyl esters in other foods are collected, more targeted mitigation experiments can be formulated with respect to the reaction matrices under investigation. PMID:23020600

  3. The carcinogenic initiating and promoting properties of a lightly refined paraffinic oil.

    PubMed

    McKee, R H; Plutnick, R T; Przygoda, R T

    1989-05-01

    The dermal carcinogenic potential of some petroleum-derived liquids is related to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content. However, repeated application of middle distillates (MDs), e.g., kerosene, diesel fuel, and heating oil, produced tumors in mouse skin. This result was unexpected since the MDs typically contain very low levels of biologically active PAHs. The present study examined the tumorigenic mechanism of a lightly refined paraffinic oil (LRPO), an MD shown to be active in mouse skin. The LRPO was separated into saturated and aromatic fractions. Whole LRPO and various fractions were tested for mutagenic activity in the Salmonella assay and for carcinogenic initiating and promoting activity. There was no evidence that any of the samples examined were mutagenic in bacteria or carcinogenic initiating agents in mouse skin. Thus no support was provided for the hypothesis that the complete tumorigenic activity of LRPO was in any way related to the presence of low levels of PAHs or to an interaction between initiating and promoting constituents. There was evidence that LRPO was a weak promoter of dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA)-initiated mouse skin. It was also found that repeated application of LRPO produced chronic irritation and hyperplasia, and this may have been responsible for the promotional effects. Based on these data, it seemed likely that the complete carcinogenic activity of this class of products is also the result of an epigenetic process related to skin irritation. PMID:2663578

  4. Refining Field Measurements of Methane Flux Rates from Abandoned Oil and Gas Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagron, C. S.; Kang, M.; Riqueros, N. S.; Jackson, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies in Pennsylvania demonstrate the potential for significant methane emissions from abandoned oil and gas wells. A subset of tested wells was high emitting, with methane flux rates up to seven orders of magnitude greater than natural fluxes (up to 105 mg CH4/hour, or about 2.5LPM). These wells contribute disproportionately to the total methane emissions from abandoned oil and gas wells. The principles guiding the chamber design have been developed for lower flux rates, typically found in natural environments, and chamber design modifications may reduce uncertainty in flux rates associated with high-emitting wells. Kang et al. estimate errors of a factor of two in measured values based on previous studies. We conduct controlled releases of methane to refine error estimates and improve chamber design with a focus on high-emitters. Controlled releases of methane are conducted at 0.05 LPM, 0.50 LPM, 1.0 LPM, 2.0 LPM, 3.0 LPM, and 5.0 LPM, and at two chamber dimensions typically used in field measurements studies of abandoned wells. As most sources of error tabulated by Kang et al. tend to bias the results toward underreporting of methane emissions, a flux-targeted chamber design modification can reduce error margins and/or provide grounds for a potential upward revision of emission estimates.

  5. Manufacturing vegetable oil based biodiesel: An engineering management perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    According to the USDA, 6.45 million tons of cottonseed was produced in 2007. Each ton will yield approximately 44 to 46 gallons unrefined oil. Cottonseed oil bio-diesel could have the potential to create a more competitive oil market for oil mills. The proposed cost model is based on an existing cot...

  6. First results with Mercedes-Benz DI diesel engines running on monoesters of vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Ventura, L.M.; Nascimento, A.C.; Bandel, W.

    1982-01-01

    In their pure form the vegetable oils are not suitable for the use in modern DI diesel engines, due to the excessive carbon deposit on the injection nozzles and in the combustion chamber. Nevertheless, these oils are promising candidates as raw materials for alternative diesel fuels. Processes are being developed to transform the long vegetable oil molecules into smaller molecules in order to fulfill the fuel requirements of DI diesel engines. Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids e.g. obtained by transesterification of vegetable oils through their catalytic reaction with methanol and ethanol, have shown a typical diesel fuel behaviour in conventional DI engines without excessive deposit formation. Problems concerning lubricating oil contamiation, and possibile remedial measures to avoid it, are being examined. There are also problems to be solved in relation to white smoke formation and the odor of exhaust gases. 10 figures.

  7. Production of biodiesel fuel by transesterification of different vegetable oils with methanol using Al₂O₃ modified MgZnO catalyst.

    PubMed

    Olutoye, M A; Hameed, B H

    2013-03-01

    An active heterogeneous Al2O3 modified MgZnO (MgZnAlO) catalyst was prepared and the catalytic activity was investigated for the transesterification of different vegetable oils (refined palm oil, waste cooking palm oil, palm kernel oil and coconut oil) with methanol to produce biodiesel. The catalyst was characterized by using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectra, thermo gravimetric and differential thermal analysis to ascertain its versatility. Effects of important reaction parameters such as methanol to oil molar ratio, catalyst dosage, reaction temperature and reaction time on oil conversion were examined. Within the range of studied variability, the suitable transesterification conditions (methanol/oil ratio 16:1, catalyst loading 3.32 wt.%, reaction time 6h, temperature 182°C), the oil conversion of 98% could be achieved with reference to coconut oil in a single stage. The catalyst can be easily recovered and reused for five cycles without significant deactivation. PMID:23395762

  8. Preparation of margarines from organogels of sunflower wax and vegetable oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It was previously reported that sunflower wax (SW) had high potential as an organogelator for soybean oil-based margarine and spread products. In this study twelve other vegetable oils were evaluated in a margarine formulation to test feasibility of utilization of SW as an alternative to solid fats ...

  9. Biodegradable Photo-Crosslinked Thin Polymer Networks Based on Vegetable Oil Hydroxyfatty Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Novel crosslinked thin polymer networks based on vegetable oil hydroxyfatty acids (HFAs) were prepared by UV photopolymerization and their mechanical properties were evaluated. Two raw materials, castor oil and 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic acid (DOD) were used as sources of mono- and di-HFAs, r...

  10. Feruloylated vegetable oils: synthesis and applications of UV-absorbing/antioxidative lipids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In an effort to produce higher value uses for vegetable oils, we have developed an environmentally “green” process to transesterify soybean oil with the phenylpropanoid, ferulic acid. Ferulic acid is a natural plant component that absorbs light within the UVB and UVA regions (290 to 370 nm) and pos...

  11. Glycerol Tri-Ester Derivatives as Diluents to Improve Low Temperature Properties of Vegetable Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large-scale production of biodiesel has led to a surplus of glycerol, so new commercial uses of this co-product are being sought. Twenty four vegetable oils were screened using glycerol tris (2-ethylhexanoate) [GTEH] as a diluent to improve the low temperature properties. Epoxidized soybean oil (E...

  12. A technical evaluation of biodiesel from vegetable oils vs. algae. Will algae-derived biodiesel perform?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel, one of the most prominent renewable alternative fuels, can be derived from a variety of sources including vegetable oils, animal fats and used cooking oils as well as alternative sources such as algae. While issues such as land-use change, food vs. fuel, feedstock availability, and produc...

  13. Vegetable Oil-based Diesel Fuels From 1900 to the Present

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diesel engine, invented and developed by Rudolf Diesel in the 1890's, was displayed at the Paris World Exposition in 1900. At that occasion, one of the displayed diesel engines ran on peanut oil. This event marks the beginning of the use of vegetable oils and, later, derivatives thereof as die...

  14. Vegetable oil extraction using liquid CO/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrum, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    SC-CO/sub 2/ extraction of oil from peanuts is an alternative to hexane extraction or the mechanical oil press. Oil was successfully extracted using SC-CO/sub 2/ at temperatures of 25-120/sup 0/C and pressures of 140 -690 Bar. Pressure, temperature and particle size affected the extraction of oil. In the range studied, the highest values of temperature and pressure gave highest solubilities.

  15. Study on the thermal degradation of 3-MCPD esters in model systems simulating deodorization of vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Ermacora, Alessia; Hrncirik, Karel

    2014-05-01

    The establishment of effective strategies for the mitigation of 3-MCPD esters in refined vegetable oils is restricted by limited knowledge of their mechanisms of formation and decomposition. In order to gain better understanding on the thermal stability of these compounds, a model system for mimicking oil refining conditions was developed. Pure 3-MCPD esters (3-MCPD dipalmitate and 3-MCPD dilaurate) were subjected to thermal treatment (180-260°C) and the degradation products where monitored over time (0-24h). After 24h of treatment, both 3-MCPD esters showed a significant degradation (ranging from 30% to 70%), correlating with the temperature applied. The degradation pathway, similar for both compounds, was found to involve isomerisation (very rapid, equilibrium was reached within 2h at 260°C), dechlorination and deacylation reactions. The higher relative abundance of non-chlorinated compounds, namely acylglycerols, in the first stages of the treatment suggested that dechlorination is preferred over deacylation with the conditions applied in this study. PMID:24360433

  16. Projections of the impact of expansion of domestic heavy oil production on the U.S. refining industry from 1990 to 2010. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B.; Strycker, A.R.; Guariguata, G.; Salmen, F.G.

    1994-12-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity) production. This report provides a compendium of the United States refining industry and analyzes the industry by Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD) and by ten smaller refining areas. The refining capacity, oil source and oil quality are analyzed, and projections are made for the U.S. refining industry for the years 1990 to 2010. The study used publicly available data as background. A linear program model of the U.S. refining industry was constructed and validated using 1990 U.S. refinery performance. Projections of domestic oil production (decline) and import of crude oil (increases) were balanced to meet anticipated demand to establish a base case for years 1990 through 2010. The impact of additional domestic heavy oil production, (300 MB/D to 900 MB/D, originating in select areas of the U.S.) on the U.S. refining complex was evaluated. This heavy oil could reduce the import rate and the balance of payments by displacing some imported, principally Mid-east, medium crude. The construction cost for refining units to accommodate this additional domestic heavy oil production in both the low and high volume scenarios is about 7 billion dollars for bottoms conversion capacity (delayed coking) with about 50% of the cost attributed to compliance with the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990.

  17. Alternative diesel fuel study on four different types of vegetable oils of Turkish origin

    SciTech Connect

    Oezaktas, T.; Cigizoglu, K.B.; Karaosmanoglu, F.

    1997-02-01

    Four different types of vegetable oils of Turkish origin (sunflower, corn, soybean, and olive oil) were blended with grade 2-D diesel fuel at a ratio of 20/80 (v/v). Blends were investigated in a diesel engine with a precombustion chamber at speeds between 1,200 and 2,100 rpm. Vegetable oils, diesel fuel, and fuel blends were characterized according to standard test methods. It was found that for short-term use, the fuel blends have engine characteristics similar to the baseline diesel fuel. Fuel blends also display less smoke emissions than diesel fuel.

  18. Direct oxidation of waste vegetable oil in solid-oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Z. F.; Kumar, R.; Thakur, S. T.; Rudnick, L. R.; Schobert, H.; Lvov, S. N.

    Solid-oxide fuel cells with ceria, ceria-Cu, and ceria-Rh anode were demonstrated to generate stable electric power with waste vegetable oil through direct oxidation of the fuel. The only pre-treatment to the fuel was a filtration to remove particulates. The performance of the fuel cell was stable over 100 h for the waste vegetable oil without dilution. The generated power was up to 0.25 W cm -2 for ceria-Rh fuel cell. This compares favorably with previously studied hydrocarbon fuels including jet fuels and Pennsylvania crude oil.

  19. OPEC and lower oil prices: Impacts on production capacity, export refining, domestic demand and trade balances

    SciTech Connect

    Fesharaki, F.; Fridley, D.; Isaak, D.; Totto, L.; Wilson, T.

    1988-12-01

    The East-West Center has received a research grant from the US Department of Energy's Office of Policy, Planning, and Analysis to study the impact of lower oil prices on OPEC production capacity, on export refineries, and petroleum trade. The project was later extended to include balance-of-payments scenarios and impacts on OPEC domestic demand. As the study progressed, a number of preliminary presentations were made at the US Department of Energy in order to receive feedback from DOE officials and to refine the focus of our analysis. During one of the presentations on June 4, 1987, the then Director of Division of Oil and Gas, John Stanley-Miller, advised us to focus our work on the Persian Gulf countries, since these countries were of special interest to the United States Government. Since then, our team has visited Iran, the United Arab Emirates, and Saudi Arabia and obtained detailed information from other countries. The political turmoil in the Gulf, the Iran/Iraq war, and the active US military presence have all worked to delay the final submission of our report. Even in countries where the United States has close ties, access to information has been difficult. In most countries, even mundane information on petroleum issues are treated as national secrets. As a result of these difficulties, we requested a one-year no cost extension to the grant and submitted an Interim Report in May 1988. As part of our grant extension request, we proposed to undertake additional tasks which appear in this report. 20 figs., 21 tabs.

  20. Low carbon flower buildup, low smoke, and efficient diesel operation with vegetable oils by conversion to mono-esters and blending with diesel oil or alcohols

    SciTech Connect

    Nobukazu, T.; Itow, K.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the feasibility of rapeseed oil and palm oil for diesel fuel substitution in a naturally aspirated DI Diesel engine is evaluated. Means to reduce the carbon deposit buildup in vegetable oil combustion is found. In the experiments, the engine performance, exhaust gas emissions, and carbon deposits are measured for a number of fuels: rapeseed oil, palm oil, methylester of rapeseed oil, and these fuels blended with ethanol or diesel fuel with different fuel temperatures. Both of the vegetable oil fuels generate an acceptable engine performance and exhaust gas emission levels for short term operation, but they cause carbon deposit buildups and sticking of piston rings after extended operation. Practical solutions to overcome the problems are: increasing the fuel temperature to over 200/sup 0/C, blending 25 vol % diesel fuel in the vegetable oil, blending 20 vol % ethanol in the fuel, or converting the vegetable oils into methylesters.

  1. A rapid method to authenticate vegetable oils through surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Lv, Ming Yang; Zhang, Xin; Ren, Hai Rui; Liu, Luo; Zhao, Yong Mei; Wang, Zheng; Wu, Zheng Long; Liu, Li Min; Xu, Hai Jun

    2016-01-01

    Vegetable oils are essential in our daily diet. Among various vegetable oils, the major difference lies in the composition of fatty acids, including unsaturated fatty acids (USFA) and saturated fatty acids (SFA). USFA include oleic acid (OA), linoleic acid (LA), and α-linolenic acid (ALA), while SFA are mainly palmitic acid (PA). In this study, the most typical and abundant USFA present with PA in vegetable oils were quantified. More importantly, certain proportional relationships between the integrated intensities of peaks centered at 1656 cm(-1) (S1656) in the surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectra of different USFA were confirmed. Therefore, the LA or ALA content could be converted into an equivalent virtual OA content enabling the characterization of the USFA content in vegetable oils using the equivalent total OA content. In combination with the S1656 of pure OA and using peanut, sesame, and soybean oils as examples, the ranges of S1656 corresponding to the National Standards of China were established to allow the rapid authentication of vegetable oils. Gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer analyses verified the accuracy of the method, with relative errors of less than 5%. Moreover, this method can be extended to other detection fields, such as diseases. PMID:26987802

  2. A rapid method to authenticate vegetable oils through surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Ming Yang; Zhang, Xin; Ren, Hai Rui; Liu, Luo; Zhao, Yong Mei; Wang, Zheng; Wu, Zheng Long; Liu, Li Min; Xu, Hai Jun

    2016-03-01

    Vegetable oils are essential in our daily diet. Among various vegetable oils, the major difference lies in the composition of fatty acids, including unsaturated fatty acids (USFA) and saturated fatty acids (SFA). USFA include oleic acid (OA), linoleic acid (LA), and α-linolenic acid (ALA), while SFA are mainly palmitic acid (PA). In this study, the most typical and abundant USFA present with PA in vegetable oils were quantified. More importantly, certain proportional relationships between the integrated intensities of peaks centered at 1656 cm‑1 (S1656) in the surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectra of different USFA were confirmed. Therefore, the LA or ALA content could be converted into an equivalent virtual OA content enabling the characterization of the USFA content in vegetable oils using the equivalent total OA content. In combination with the S1656 of pure OA and using peanut, sesame, and soybean oils as examples, the ranges of S1656 corresponding to the National Standards of China were established to allow the rapid authentication of vegetable oils. Gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer analyses verified the accuracy of the method, with relative errors of less than 5%. Moreover, this method can be extended to other detection fields, such as diseases.

  3. A rapid method to authenticate vegetable oils through surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Ming Yang; Zhang, Xin; Ren, Hai Rui; Liu, Luo; Zhao, Yong Mei; Wang, Zheng; Wu, Zheng Long; Liu, Li Min; Xu, Hai Jun

    2016-01-01

    Vegetable oils are essential in our daily diet. Among various vegetable oils, the major difference lies in the composition of fatty acids, including unsaturated fatty acids (USFA) and saturated fatty acids (SFA). USFA include oleic acid (OA), linoleic acid (LA), and α-linolenic acid (ALA), while SFA are mainly palmitic acid (PA). In this study, the most typical and abundant USFA present with PA in vegetable oils were quantified. More importantly, certain proportional relationships between the integrated intensities of peaks centered at 1656 cm−1 (S1656) in the surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectra of different USFA were confirmed. Therefore, the LA or ALA content could be converted into an equivalent virtual OA content enabling the characterization of the USFA content in vegetable oils using the equivalent total OA content. In combination with the S1656 of pure OA and using peanut, sesame, and soybean oils as examples, the ranges of S1656 corresponding to the National Standards of China were established to allow the rapid authentication of vegetable oils. Gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer analyses verified the accuracy of the method, with relative errors of less than 5%. Moreover, this method can be extended to other detection fields, such as diseases. PMID:26987802

  4. Characterization of ozonated vegetable oils by spectroscopic and chromatographic methods.

    PubMed

    Sadowska, Justyna; Johansson, Bjarne; Johannessen, Espen; Friman, Rauno; Broniarz-Press, Lubomira; Rosenholm, Jarl B

    2008-02-01

    In this work the effect of ozonation on olive oil, soybean oil, oleic-, linoleic- and linolenic acid was studied. The effects of ozonation time on the oils and acids were analyzed by 1H, 13C NMR. Further, the peroxide- and acid values, the viscosity and the molar mass were determined for pure and ozonated oils. The fatty chains in both ozonated oils showed a gradual decrease of unsaturation with the gradual increase of ozonation time. Reaction products were identified according to Criegee mechanism. The major product in the early stage of the reaction was ozonide. The disappearance of unsaturation and formation of ozonide was almost equal. Ozonation increased the peroxide and acid values for both oils, the increase being higher for soybean oil. After long ozonation times higher molar mass species, as well as low molar mass species were observed. These are interpreted as oligomeric ozonides and cross-ozonides, respectively. PMID:18023273

  5. Reflectance spectra of crude oils and refined petroleum products on a variety of common substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, C. Scott; Krekeler, Mark P. S.

    2010-04-01

    A variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products were applied to ten common terrestrial substrates with the goal of developing a set of representative reflectance spectra for hydrocarbon-substrate combinations. Similar to previous studies, each hydrocarbon darkened the substrates and produced hydrocarbon absorption features near 1200, 1690-1770, and 2270-2400 nm, along with a host of other minor features in the VIS/NIR/SWIR portion of the spectrum. Some substrate absorption features interfered with hydrocarbon absorptions, complicating spectral signatures. The reflectance spectra varied directly with the amount of liquid on the substrate. Liquid-saturated samples were left to age and regularly re-measured, establishing a relationship between evaporative loss for volatile and semivolatile products and sample reflectance. The results outline temporal windows of opportunity and minimum detection thresholds for volatiles. They also provide a means for remotely distinguishing 1) water from petroleum products on some substrates and 2) some similar hydrocarbons from one another based on their volatility.

  6. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production using waste vegetable oil by Pseudomonas sp. strain DR2.

    PubMed

    Song, Jin Hwan; Jeon, Che Ok; Choi, Mun Hwan; Yoon, Sung Chul; Park, Woojun

    2008-08-01

    To produce polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) from inexpensive substrates by bacteria, vegetable-oil-degrading bacteria were isolated from a rice field using enrichment cultivation. The isolated Pseudomonas sp. strain DR2 showed clear orange or red spots of accumulated PHA granules when grown on phosphate and nitrogen limited medium containing vegetable oil as the sole carbon source and stained with Nile blue A. Up to 37.34% (w/w) of intracellular PHA was produced from corn oil, which consisted of three major 3-hydroxyalkanoates; octanoic (C8:0, 37.75% of the total 3-hydroxyalkanoate content of PHA), decanoic (C10:0, 36.74%), and dodecanoic (C12:0, 11.36%). Pseudomonas sp. strain DR2 accumulated up to 23.52% (w/w) of PHAMCL from waste vegetable oil. The proportion of 3- hydroxyalkanoate of the waste vegetable-oil-derived PHA [hexanoic (5.86%), octanoic (45.67%), decanoic (34.88%), tetradecanoic (8.35%), and hexadecanoic (5.24%)] showed a composition ratio different from that of the corn-oil-derived PHA. Strain DR2 used three major fatty acids in the same ratio, and linoleic acid was the major source of PHA production. Interestingly, the production of PHA in Pseudomonas sp. strain DR2 could not occur in either acetate- or butyrate-amended media. Pseudomonas sp. strain DR2 accumulated a greater amount of PHA than other well-studied strains (Chromobacterium violaceum and Ralstonia eutropha H16) when grown on vegetable oil. The data showed that Pseudomonas sp. strain DR2 was capable of producing PHA from waste vegetable oil. PMID:18756101

  7. Determination of vegetable oils and fats adulterants in diesel oil by high performance liquid chromatography and multivariate methods.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Luiz Filipe Paiva; Braga, Jez Willian Batista; Suarez, Paulo Anselmo Ziani

    2012-02-17

    The current legislation requires the mandatory addition of biodiesel to all Brazilian road diesel oil A (pure diesel) marketed in the country and bans the addition of vegetable oils for this type of diesel. However, cases of irregular addition of vegetable oils directly to the diesel oil may occur, mainly due to the lower cost of these raw materials compared to the final product, biodiesel. In Brazil, the situation is even more critical once the country is one of the largest producers of oleaginous products in the world, especially soybean, and also it has an extensive road network dependent on diesel. Therefore, alternatives to control the quality of diesel have become increasingly necessary. This study proposes an analytical methodology for quality control of diesel with intention to identify and determine adulterations of oils and even fats of vegetable origin. This methodology is based on detection, identification and quantification of triacylglycerols on diesel (main constituents of vegetable oils and fats) by high performance liquid chromatography in reversed phase with UV detection at 205nm associated with multivariate methods. Six different types of oils and fats were studied (soybean, frying oil, corn, cotton, palm oil and babassu) and two methods were developed for data analysis. The first one, based on principal component analysis (PCA), nearest neighbor classification (KNN) and univariate regression, was used for samples adulterated with a single type of oil or fat. In the second method, partial least square regression (PLS) was used for the cases where the adulterants were mixtures of up to three types of oils or fats. In the first method, the techniques of PCA and KNN were correctly classified as 17 out of 18 validation samples on the type of oil or fat present. The concentrations estimated for adulterants showed good agreement with the reference values, with mean errors of prediction (RMSEP) ranging between 0.10 and 0.22% (v/v). The PLS method was

  8. Effects of Oil-Contaminated Sediments on Submerged Vegetation: An Experimental Assessment of Ruppia maritima.

    PubMed

    Martin, Charles W; Hollis, Lauris O; Turner, R Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Oil spills threaten the productivity of ecosystems through the degradation of coastal flora and the ecosystem services these plants provide. While lab and field investigations have quantified the response of numerous species of emergent vegetation to oil, the effects on submerged vegetation remain uncertain. Here, we discuss the implications of oil exposure for Ruppia maritima, one of the most common species of submerged vegetation found in the region affected by the recent Deepwater Horizon oil spill. We grew R. maritima in a range of manipulated sediment oil concentrations: 0, 0.26, 0.53, and 1.05 mL oil /L tank volume, and tracked changes in growth (wet weight and shoot density/length), reproductive activity (inflorescence and seed production), root characteristics (mass, length, diameter, and area), and uprooting force of plants. While no statistical differences were detected in growth, plants exhibited significant changes to reproductive output, root morphology, and uprooting force. We found significant reductions in inflorescences and fruiting bodies at higher oil concentrations. In addition, the roots growing in the high oil were shorter and wider. Plants in medium and high oil required less force to uproot. A second experiment was performed to separate the effects of root morphology and oiled sediment properties and indicated that there were also changes to sediment cohesion that contributed to a reduction in uprooting forces in medium and high oil. Given the importance of sexual reproduction for these plants, oil contamination may have substantial population-level effects. Moreover, areas containing buried oil may be more susceptible to high energy storm events due to the reduction in uprooting force of foundation species such as R. maritima. PMID:26430971

  9. Effects of Oil-Contaminated Sediments on Submerged Vegetation: An Experimental Assessment of Ruppia maritima

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Charles W.; Hollis, Lauris O.; Turner, R. Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Oil spills threaten the productivity of ecosystems through the degradation of coastal flora and the ecosystem services these plants provide. While lab and field investigations have quantified the response of numerous species of emergent vegetation to oil, the effects on submerged vegetation remain uncertain. Here, we discuss the implications of oil exposure for Ruppia maritima, one of the most common species of submerged vegetation found in the region affected by the recent Deepwater Horizon oil spill. We grew R. maritima in a range of manipulated sediment oil concentrations: 0, 0.26, 0.53, and 1.05 mL oil /L tank volume, and tracked changes in growth (wet weight and shoot density/length), reproductive activity (inflorescence and seed production), root characteristics (mass, length, diameter, and area), and uprooting force of plants. While no statistical differences were detected in growth, plants exhibited significant changes to reproductive output, root morphology, and uprooting force. We found significant reductions in inflorescences and fruiting bodies at higher oil concentrations. In addition, the roots growing in the high oil were shorter and wider. Plants in medium and high oil required less force to uproot. A second experiment was performed to separate the effects of root morphology and oiled sediment properties and indicated that there were also changes to sediment cohesion that contributed to a reduction in uprooting forces in medium and high oil. Given the importance of sexual reproduction for these plants, oil contamination may have substantial population-level effects. Moreover, areas containing buried oil may be more susceptible to high energy storm events due to the reduction in uprooting force of foundation species such as R. maritima. PMID:26430971

  10. Detection of argan oil adulteration with vegetable oils by high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection.

    PubMed

    Salghi, Rachid; Armbruster, Wolfgang; Schwack, Wolfgang

    2014-06-15

    Triacylglycerol profiles were selected as indicator of adulteration of argan oils to carry out a rapid screening of samples for the evaluation of authenticity. Triacylglycerols were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection. Different peak area ratios were defined to sensitively detect adulteration of argan oil with vegetable oils such as sunflower, soy bean, and olive oil up to the level of 5%. Based on four reference argan oils, mean limits of detection and quantitation were calculated to approximately 0.4% and 1.3%, respectively. Additionally, 19 more argan oil reference samples were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography-refractive index detection, resulting in highly comparative results. The overall strategy demonstrated a good applicability in practise, and hence a high potential to be transferred to routine laboratories. PMID:24491744