Science.gov

Sample records for reflected infrared light

  1. Differences in visible and near-infrared light reflectance between orange fruit and leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gausman, H. W.; Escobar, D. E.; Berumen, A.

    1975-01-01

    The objective was to find the best time during the season (April 26, 1972 to January 8, 1973) to distinguish orange fruit from leaves by spectrophotometrically determining at 10-day intervals when the difference in visible (550- and 650-nm wavelengths) and near-infrared (850-nm wavelength) light reflectance between fruit and nearby leaves was largest. December 5 to January 8 was the best time to distinguish fruit from leaves. During this period the fruit's color was rapidly changing from green to yellow, and the difference in visible light reflectance between fruit and leaves was largest. The difference in near-infrared reflectance between leaves and fruit remained essentially constant during ripening when the difference in visible light reflectance between leaves and fruit was largest.

  2. Recognition of Banknote Fitness Based on a Fuzzy System Using Visible Light Reflection and Near-infrared Light Transmission Images

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Seung Yong; Pham, Tuyen Danh; Park, Kang Ryoung; Jeong, Dae Sik; Yoon, Sungsoo

    2016-01-01

    Fitness classification is a technique to assess the quality of banknotes in order to determine whether they are usable. Banknote classification techniques are useful in preventing problems that arise from the circulation of substandard banknotes (such as recognition failures, or bill jams in automated teller machines (ATMs) or bank counting machines). By and large, fitness classification continues to be carried out by humans, and this can cause the problem of varying fitness classifications for the same bill by different evaluators, and requires a lot of time. To address these problems, this study proposes a fuzzy system-based method that can reduce the processing time needed for fitness classification, and can determine the fitness of banknotes through an objective, systematic method rather than subjective judgment. Our algorithm was an implementation to actual banknote counting machine. Based on the results of tests on 3856 banknotes in United States currency (USD), 3956 in Korean currency (KRW), and 2300 banknotes in Indian currency (INR) using visible light reflection (VR) and near-infrared light transmission (NIRT) imaging, the proposed method was found to yield higher accuracy than prevalent banknote fitness classification methods. Moreover, it was confirmed that the proposed algorithm can operate in real time, not only in a normal PC environment, but also in an embedded system environment of a banknote counting machine. PMID:27294940

  3. Recognition of Banknote Fitness Based on a Fuzzy System Using Visible Light Reflection and Near-infrared Light Transmission Images.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Seung Yong; Pham, Tuyen Danh; Park, Kang Ryoung; Jeong, Dae Sik; Yoon, Sungsoo

    2016-01-01

    Fitness classification is a technique to assess the quality of banknotes in order to determine whether they are usable. Banknote classification techniques are useful in preventing problems that arise from the circulation of substandard banknotes (such as recognition failures, or bill jams in automated teller machines (ATMs) or bank counting machines). By and large, fitness classification continues to be carried out by humans, and this can cause the problem of varying fitness classifications for the same bill by different evaluators, and requires a lot of time. To address these problems, this study proposes a fuzzy system-based method that can reduce the processing time needed for fitness classification, and can determine the fitness of banknotes through an objective, systematic method rather than subjective judgment. Our algorithm was an implementation to actual banknote counting machine. Based on the results of tests on 3856 banknotes in United States currency (USD), 3956 in Korean currency (KRW), and 2300 banknotes in Indian currency (INR) using visible light reflection (VR) and near-infrared light transmission (NIRT) imaging, the proposed method was found to yield higher accuracy than prevalent banknote fitness classification methods. Moreover, it was confirmed that the proposed algorithm can operate in real time, not only in a normal PC environment, but also in an embedded system environment of a banknote counting machine. PMID:27294940

  4. Digital infrared fundus reflectance.

    PubMed

    Packer, S; Schneider, K; Lin, H Z; Feldman, M

    1980-06-01

    An infrared sensor was inserted at the film plane of a fundus camera. The signal was visualized on an oscilloscope. In this manner we measured infrared reflectance from the surface of the fundus. The purpose was to characterize choroidal malignant melanomas more reliably than is done with infrared color translation photography. Control lesions were choroidal nevi, metastatic tumors, and disciform macular degenerations. Correlations were made with radioactive phosphorus (32P) uptake, fluorescein angiography, and histopathologic findings. Several cases are presented, one in which this new method of infrared detection was the first diagnostic test to detect the spread of a choroidal melanoma. The simplicity of this technique and its increased accuracy justify the needed further refinements. PMID:7413142

  5. Electrically actuated phase-change pixels for transmissive and reflective spatial light modulators in the near and mid infrared.

    PubMed

    Hendrickson, Joshua; Liang, Haibo; Soref, Richard; Mu, Jianwei

    2015-12-20

    Transmissive and reflective spatial light modulators have been designed and simulated for the 1.55 to 2.10 μm spectral region. An electrically actuated layer of phase-change material (PCM) was employed as the electro-optical medium for two-state self-holding "light-to-dark" intensity modulation of free-space light beams. The PCM was sandwiched between transparent conductive N-doped Si or indium tin oxide contact layers in a simple planar structure. A 100 to 500 nm PCM layer of Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) was employed for optimum performance at 1.55 μm where the transmissive-modulator insertion loss was around 4.5 dB. The GST light-dark contrast was found to be 32 dB. For the GST reflection device, an included metal film (Ag) improved the 1.55 μm performance metrics to 0.7 dB of insertion loss with a contrast around 26 dB. The calculated performance for both types of spatial light modulators was robust to changes in the input incidence angle near normal incidence. Applications include infrared scene generation and signal processing. PMID:26837038

  6. Direct observation of surface plasmons in YBCO by attenuated total reflection of light in the infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walmsley, D. G.; Smyth, C. C.; Sellai, A.; McCafferty, P. G.; Dawson, P.; Morrow, T.; Graham, W. G.

    1994-02-01

    Surface plasmons have been observed directly in YBCO films in an Otto-geometry attenuated total reflection measurement at a wavelength of 3.392 μm. The laser deposited films are c-axis oriented on an MgO substrate. This observation confirms theoretical deductions from complex dielectric function data. Measured data have been fitted to a theoretical model and are compared with the optical constants determined by Bozovic [1]. The investigations have been extended to films with other orientations to investigate whether material anisotropy is reflected in the results and non-metallic behaviour is found.

  7. Built-in hyperspectral camera for smartphone in visible, near-infrared and middle-infrared lights region (second report): sensitivity improvement of Fourier-spectroscopic imaging to detect diffuse reflection lights from internal human tissues for healthcare sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Natsumi; Hosono, Satsuki; Ishimaru, Ichiro

    2016-05-01

    We proposed the snapshot-type Fourier spectroscopic imaging for smartphone that was mentioned in 1st. report in this conference. For spectroscopic components analysis, such as non-invasive blood glucose sensors, the diffuse reflection lights from internal human skins are very weak for conventional hyperspectral cameras, such as AOTF (Acousto-Optic Tunable Filter) type. Furthermore, it is well known that the spectral absorption of mid-infrared lights or Raman spectroscopy especially in long wavelength region is effective to distinguish specific biomedical components quantitatively, such as glucose concentration. But the main issue was that photon energies of middle infrared lights and light intensities of Raman scattering are extremely weak. For improving sensitivity of our spectroscopic imager, the wide-field-stop & beam-expansion method was proposed. Our line spectroscopic imager introduced a single slit for field stop on the conjugate objective plane. Obviously to increase detected light intensities, the wider slit width of the field stop makes light intensities higher, regardless of deterioration of spatial resolutions. Because our method is based on wavefront-division interferometry, it becomes problems that the wider width of single slit makes the diffraction angle narrower. This means that the narrower diameter of collimated objective beams deteriorates visibilities of interferograms. By installing the relative inclined phaseshifter onto optical Fourier transform plane of infinity corrected optical systems, the collimated half flux of objective beams derived from single-bright points on objective surface penetrate through the wedge prism and the cuboid glass respectively. These two beams interfere each other and form the infererogram as spatial fringe patterns. Thus, we installed concave-cylindrical lens between the wider slit and objective lens as a beam expander. We successfully obtained the spectroscopic characters of hemoglobin from reflected lights from

  8. Shining new light on old principles: localization of evanescent field interactions at infrared-attenuated total reflection sensing interfaces.

    PubMed

    Dobbs, Gary T; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2006-06-01

    A combined experimental and spectral ray tracing approach for identifying and evaluating evanescent field interactions with discrete surface deposits along a horizontal attenuated total reflection (HATR) element is presented. By experimentally depositing poly(styrene-co-butadiene) (PSCB) residues at fixed intervals along the measurement surface of a HATR crystal, distinct regions of evanescent field interaction with the surface deposits along the multi-reflection waveguide are visualized via infrared absorption features of PSCB. The infrared-attenuated total reflection (IR-ATR) measurements were confirmed by spectral ray tracing analysis simulating transmission-absorption spectra after modeling the polymeric surface deposits as thin-film IR absorbing cylinders. The presented analytical procedures and simulations provide a generic strategy for identifying and evaluating "active" sensing regions along ATR elements. Additionally, the simulated ATR setup along with the presented spectral ray tracing procedures provide a virtual platform aiding the development, optimization, and integration of deep-sea IR-ATR sensor probes with submersible mid-infrared spectrometers for in situ marine monitoring applications, which was the initial motivation for these studies. PMID:16808857

  9. Effects of surface contamination on the infrared emissivity and visible-light scattering of highly reflective surfaces at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viehmann, W.; Eubanks, A. G.

    1972-01-01

    A technique is described for the simultaneous in situ measurement of film thickness, refractive index, total normal emissivity, visible-light scattering, and reflectance of contaminant films on a highly reflective liquid-nitrogen cooled, stainless steel substrate. Emissivities and scattering data are obtained for films of water, carbon dioxide, silicone oil, and a number of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons as a function of film thickness between zero and 20 microns. Of the contaminants investigated, water has by far the greatest effect on emissivity, followed by silicone oil, aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide. The emissivity increases more rapidly with film thickness between zero and 2.5 microns than at thicknesses greater than 2.5 microns. Scattering of visible light changes very little below 2 microns thickness but increases rapidly with thickness beyond 2 to 3 microns. The effect of contaminant films on passive radiation coolers is discussed.

  10. Near infrared leaf reflectance modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    Near infrared leaf reflectance modeling using Fresnel's equation (Kumar and Silva, 1973) and Snell's Law successfully approximated the spectral curve for a 0.25-mm turgid oak leaf lying on a Halon background. Calculations were made for ten interfaces, air-wax, wax-cellulose, cellulose-water, cellulose-air, air-water, and their inverses. A water path of 0.5 mm yielded acceptable results, and it was found that assignment of more weight to those interfaces involving air versus water or cellulose, and less to those involving wax, decreased the standard deviation of the error for all wavelengths. Data suggest that the air-cell interface is not the only important contributor to the overall reflectance of a leaf. Results also argue against the assertion that the near infrared plateau is a function of cell structure within the leaf.

  11. A new experimental setup for in situ infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy studies of atmospheric corrosion on metal surfaces considering the influence of ultraviolet light.

    PubMed

    Wiesinger, R; Kleber, Ch; Frank, J; Schreiner, M

    2009-04-01

    The knowledge available regarding the influence of ultraviolet (UV) light on the atmospheric corrosion of materials is very rudimentary. Therefore, a new experimental setup consisting of a cell for studying in situ reactions occurring at the metal/atmosphere interface by simultaneously applying infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements was designed and built. The cell presented consists of an acrylic glass body with a UV-light-transparent window mounted in such a way that the sample can be irradiated and weathered under controlled atmospheric conditions under a grazing angle of incidence of the IR beam. This new setup was tested by using a specimen of polycrystalline silver, where the growth of Ag(2)CO(3) and AgOH as basic silver carbonate on the surface could be observed. The weathering tests were carried out in synthetic air containing 90% relative humidity (RH) and 250 ppm CO(2), with and without UV light. The results obtained from the IRRAS spectra could be perfectly correlated with the in situ QCM data. PMID:19366514

  12. Lights, Camera, Reflection!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mourlam, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    There are many ways to critique teaching, but few are more effective than video. Personal reflection through the use of video allows one to see what really happens in the classrooms--good and bad--and provides a visual path forward for improvement, whether it be in one's teaching, work with a particular student, or learning environment. This…

  13. Infrared hollow optical fiber probes for reflectance spectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chenhui; Kino, Saiko; Katagiri, Takashi; Matsuura, Yuji

    2015-05-10

    Systems for infrared reflectance imaging are built with an FT-IR spectrometer, hollow optical fibers, and a high-speed infrared camera. To obtain reflectance images of biological samples, an optical fiber probe equipped with a light source at the distal end and a hybrid fiber probe composed of fibers for beam radiation and ones for image detection have been developed. By using these systems, reflectance spectral images of lipid painted on biomedical hard tissue, which provides reflectance of around 4%, are successfully acquired. PMID:25967522

  14. Variable area light reflecting assembly

    DOEpatents

    Howard, T.C.

    1986-12-23

    Device is described for tracking daylight and projecting it into a building. The device tracks the sun and automatically adjusts both the orientation and area of the reflecting surface. The device may be mounted in either a wall or roof of a building. Additionally, multiple devices may be employed in a light shaft in a building, providing daylight to several different floors. The preferred embodiment employs a thin reflective film as the reflecting device. One edge of the reflective film is fixed, and the opposite end is attached to a spring-loaded take-up roller. As the sun moves across the sky, the take-up roller automatically adjusts the angle and surface area of the film. Additionally, louvers may be mounted at the light entrance to the device to reflect incoming daylight in an angle perpendicular to the device to provide maximum reflective capability when daylight enters the device at non-perpendicular angles. 9 figs.

  15. Variable area light reflecting assembly

    DOEpatents

    Howard, Thomas C.

    1986-01-01

    Device for tracking daylight and projecting it into a building. The device tracks the sun and automatically adjusts both the orientation and area of the reflecting surface. The device may be mounted in either a wall or roof of a building. Additionally, multiple devices may be employed in a light shaft in a building, providing daylight to several different floors. The preferred embodiment employs a thin reflective film as the reflecting device. One edge of the reflective film is fixed, and the opposite end is attached to a spring-loaded take-up roller. As the sun moves across the sky, the take-up roller automatically adjusts the angle and surface area of the film. Additionally, louvers may be mounted at the light entrance to the device to reflect incoming daylight in an angle perpendicular to the device to provide maximum reflective capability when daylight enters the device at non-perpendicular angles.

  16. Improved Spatial Resolution For Reflection Mode Infrared Spectromicroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel, Hans A; Martin, Michael C.; May, T. E.; Lerch, Philippe

    2009-08-13

    Standard commercial infrared microscopes operating in reflection mode use a mirror to direct the reflected light from the sample to the detector. This mirror blocks about half of the incident light, however, and thus degrades the spatial resolution by reducing the numerical aperture of the objective. Here, we replace the mirror with a 50% beamsplitter to allow full illumination of the objective and retain a way to direct the reflected light to the detector. The improved spatial resolution is demonstrated using a microscope coupled to a synchrotron source.

  17. Virtual reflected-light microscopy.

    PubMed

    Harrison, A P; Wong, C M; Joseph, D

    2011-12-01

    Research on better methods to digitally represent microscopic specimens has increased over recent decades. Opaque specimens, such as microfossils and metallurgic specimens, are often viewed using reflected light microscopy. Existing 3D surface estimation techniques for reflected light microscopy do not model reflectance, restricting the representation to only one illumination condition and making them an imperfect recreation of the experience of using an actual microscope. This paper introduces a virtual reflected-light microscopy (VRLM) system that estimates both shape and reflectance from a set of specimen images. When coupled with anaglyph creation, the system can depict both depth information and illumination cues under any desired lighting configuration. Digital representations are compact and easily viewed in an online setting. A prototype used to construct VRLM representations is comprised only of a microscope, a digital camera, a motorized stage and software. Such a system automatically acquires VRLM representations of large batches of specimens. VRLM representations are then disseminated in an interactive online environment, which allows users to change the virtual light source direction and type. Experiments demonstrate high quality VRLM representations of 500 microfossils. PMID:21919903

  18. The near-infrared continuum emission of visual reflection nebulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellgren, K.

    1984-01-01

    In the past, reflection nebulae have provided an astrophysical laboratory well suited for the study of the reflection properties of interstellar dust grains at visual and ultraviolet wavelengths. The present investigation is concerned with observations which were begun with the objective to extend to near-infrared wavelengths the study of grains in reflection. Observations of three classical visual reflection nebulae were conducted in the wavelength range from 1.25 to 2.2 microns, taking into account NGC 7023, 2023, and 2068. All three nebulae were found to have similar near-infrared colors, despite widely different colors of their illuminating stars. The brightness level shown by two of the nebulae at 2.2 microns was too high to be easily accounted for on the basis of reflected light. Attention is given to a wide variety of possible emission mechanisms.

  19. Infrared reflection nebulae in Orion molecular cloud 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendleton, Y.; Werner, M. W.; Capps, R.; Lester, D.

    1986-01-01

    New obervations of Orion Molecular Cloud-2 have been made from 1-100 microns using the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility and the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. An extensive program of polarimetry, photometry and spectrophotometry has shown that the extended emission regions associated with two of the previously known near infrared sources, IRS1 and IRS4, are infrared reflection nebulae, and that the compact sources IRS1 and IRS4 are the main luminosity sources in the cloud. The constraints from the far infrared observations and an analysis of the scattered light from the IRS1 nebula show that OMC-2/IRS1 can be characterized by L less than or equal to 500 Solar luminosities and T approx. 1000 K. The near infrared (1-5) micron albedo of the grains in the IRS1 nebula is greater than 0.08.

  20. Infrared reflection nebulae in Orion Molecular Cloud 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendleton, Yvonne; Werner, M. W.; Capps, R.; Lester, D.

    1986-01-01

    New observations of Orion Molecular Cloud 2 have been made from 1 to 100 microns using the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility and the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. An extensive program of polarimetry, photometry, and spectrophotometry has shown that the extended emission regions associated with two of the previously known near-infrared sources, IRS 1 and IRS 4, are infrared reflection nebulae, and that the compact sources IRS 1 and IRS 4 are the main luminosity sources in the cloud. The constraints from the far-infrared observations and an analysis of the scattered light from the IRS 1 nebula show that OMC-2/IRS 1 can be characterized by L of 500 solar luminosities or less and T of roughly 1000 K. The near-infrared albedo of the grains in the IRS 1 nebula is greater than 0.08.

  1. Reflective coherent spatial light modulator

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, John T.; Richards, Roger K.; Hutchinson, Donald P.; Simpson, Marcus L.

    2003-04-22

    A reflective coherent spatial light modulator (RCSLM) includes a subwavelength resonant grating structure (SWS), the SWS including at least one subwavelength resonant grating layer (SWL) have a plurality of areas defining a plurality of pixels. Each pixel represents an area capable of individual control of its reflective response. A structure for modulating the resonant reflective response of at least one pixel is provided. The structure for modulating can include at least one electro-optic layer in optical contact with the SWS. The RCSLM is scalable in both pixel size and wavelength. A method for forming a RCSLM includes the steps of selecting a waveguide material and forming a SWS in the waveguide material, the SWS formed from at least one SWL, the SWL having a plurality of areas defining a plurality of pixels.

  2. Value of Reflected Light Microscopy in Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasteris, Jill Dill

    1983-01-01

    Briefly reviews some optical and other physical properties of minerals that can be determined in reflected/incident light. Topics include optical properties of minerals, reflectance, internal reflections, color, bireflectance and reflection pleochroism, anisotropism, zonation, and reflected light microscopy as a teaching tool in undergraduate…

  3. Studies of dust grain properties in infrared reflection nebulae.

    PubMed

    Pendleton, Y J; Tielens, A G; Werner, M W

    1990-01-20

    We have developed a model for reflection nebulae around luminous infrared sources embedded in dense dust clouds. The aim of this study is to determine the sizes of the scattering grains. In our analysis, we have adopted an MRN-like power-law size distribution (Mathis, Rumpl, and Nordsieck) of graphite and silicate grains, but other current dust models would give results which were substantially the same. In the optically thin limit, the intensity of the scattered light is proportional to the dust column density, while in the optically thick limit, it reflects the grain albedo. The results show that the shape of the infrared spectrum is the result of a combination of the scattering properties of the dust, the spectrum of the illuminating source, and foreground extinction, while geometry plays a minor role. Comparison of our model results with infrared observations of the reflection nebula surrounding OMC-2/IRS 1 shows that either a grain size distribution like that found in the diffuse interstellar medium, or one consisting of larger grains, can explain the observed shape of the spectrum. However, the absolute intensity level of the scattered light, as well as the observed polarization, requires large grains (approximately 5000 angstroms). By adding water ice mantles to the silicate and graphite cores, we have modeled the 3.08 micrometers ice band feature, which has been observed in the spectra of several infrared reflection nebulae. We show that this ice band arises naturally in optically thick reflection nebulae containing ice-coated grains. We show that the shape of the ice band is diagnostic of the presence of large grains, as previously suggested by Knacke and McCorkle. Comparison with observations of the BN/KL reflection nebula in the OMC-1 cloud shows that large ice grains (approximately 5000 angstroms) contribute substantially to the scattered light. PMID:11538693

  4. Extended near infrared emission from visual reflection nebulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellgren, K.; Werner, M. W.; Dinerstein, H. L.

    1982-01-01

    Extended near infrared (2 to 5 microns) emission was observed from three visual reflection nebulae, NGC 7023, 2023, and 2068. The emission from each nebula consists of a smooth continuum, which can be described by a greybody with a color temperature of 1000 K, and emission features at 3.3 and 3.4 microns. The continuum emission cannot be explained by free-free emission, reflected light, or field stars, or by thermal emission from grains, with commonly accepted ratios of infrared to ultraviolet emissivities, which are in equilibrium with the stellar radiation field. A possible explanation is thermal emission from grains with extremely low ratios of infrared to ultraviolet emissivities, or from grains with a temperature determined by mechanisms other than equilibrium radiative heating. Another possibility is continuum fluorescence.

  5. Extended near-infrared emission from visual reflection nebulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellgren, K.; Werner, M. W.; Dinerstein, H. L.

    1983-01-01

    Extended near infrared (2 to 5 microns) emission was observed from three visual reflection nebulae, NGC 7023, 2023, and 2068. The emission from each nebula consists of a smooth continuum, which can be described by a greybody with a color temperature of 1000 K, and emission features at 3.3 and 3.4 microns. The continuum emission cannot be explained by free-free emission, reflected light, or field stars, or by thermal emission from grains, with commonly accepted ratios of infrared to ultraviolet emissivities, which are in equilibrium with the stellar radiation field. A possible explanation is thermal emission from grains with extremely low ratios of infrared to ultraviolet emissivities, or from grains with a temperature determined by mechanisms other than equilibrium radiative heating. Another possibility is continuum fluorescence. Previously announced in STAR N83-25629

  6. Improved Spatial Resolution for Reflection Mode Infrared Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel, Hans A.; Martin, Michael C.; May, T.E.; Lerch, Philippe

    2009-10-09

    Standard commercial infrared microscopes operating in reflection mode use a mirror to direct the reflected light from the sample to the detector. This mirror blocks about half of the incident light, however, and thus degrades the spatial resolution by reducing the umerical aperture of the objective. Here, we replace the mirror with a 50% beamsplitter to allow full illumination of the objective and retain a way to direct the reflected light to the detector. The improved spatial resolution is demonstrated using two different microscopes apable of diffraction-limited resolution: the first microscope is coupled to a synchrotron source and utilizes a single point detector, whereas the second microscope has a standard blackbody source and uses a focal planetarray (FPA) detector.

  7. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    DOEpatents

    Berdahl, P.H.

    1998-09-22

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer ({micro}m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 {micro}m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 {micro}m to about 16 {micro}m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 {micro}m to about 2 {micro}m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments. 4 figs.

  8. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    DOEpatents

    Berdahl, Paul H.

    1998-01-01

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer (.mu.m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 .mu.m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 .mu.m to about 16 .mu.m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 .mu.m to about 2 .mu.m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments.

  9. Infrared reflectance spectra: Effects of particle size, provenance and preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Yin-Fong; Myers, Tanya L.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Blake, Thomas A.; Forland, Brenda M.; Szecsody, James E.; Johnson, Timothy J.

    2014-09-22

    We have recently developed methods for making more accurate infrared total and diffuse directional - hemispherical reflectance measurements using an integrating sphere. We have found that reflectance spectra of solids, especially powders, are influenced by a number of factors including the sample preparation method, the particle size and morphology, as well as the sample origin. On a quantitative basis we have investigated some of these parameters and the effects they have on reflectance spectra, particularly in the longwave infrared. In the IR the spectral features may be observed as either maxima or minima: In general, upward-going peaks in the reflectance spectrum result from strong surface scattering, i.e. rays that are reflected from the surface without bulk penetration, whereas downward-going peaks are due to either absorption or volume scattering, i.e. rays that have penetrated or refracted into the sample interior and are not reflected. The light signals reflected from solids usually encompass all such effects, but with strong dependencies on particle size and preparation. This paper measures the reflectance spectra in the 1.3 – 16 micron range for various bulk materials that have a combination of strong and weak absorption bands in order to observe the effects on the spectral features: Bulk materials were ground with a mortar and pestle and sieved to separate the samples into various size fractions between 5 and 500 microns. The median particle size is demonstrated to have large effects on the reflectance spectra. For certain minerals we also observe significant spectral change depending on the geologic origin of the sample. All three such effects (particle size, preparation and provenance) result in substantial change in the reflectance spectra for solid materials; successful identification algorithms will require sufficient flexibility to account for these parameters.

  10. Infrared studies of dust grains in infrared reflection nebulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendleton, Yvonne J.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Werner, Michael W.

    1989-01-01

    IR reflection nebulae, regions of dust which are illuminated by nearby embedded sources, were observed in several regions of ongoing star formation. Near IR observation and theoretical modelling of the scattered light form IR reflection nebulae can provide information about the dust grain properties in star forming regions. IR reflection nebulae were modelled as plane parallel slabs assuming isotropically scattering grains. For the grain scattering properties, graphite and silicate grains were used with a power law grain size distribution. Among the free parameters of the model are the stellar luminosity and effective temperature, the optical depth of the nebula, and the extinction by foreground material. The typical results from this model are presented and discussed.

  11. Infrared spectroscopy with visible light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalashnikov, Dmitry A.; Paterova, Anna V.; Kulik, Sergei P.; Krivitsky, Leonid A.

    2016-02-01

    Spectral measurements in the infrared optical range provide unique fingerprints of materials, which are useful for material analysis, environmental sensing and health diagnostics. Current infrared spectroscopy techniques require the use of optical equipment suited for operation in the infrared range, components of which face challenges of inferior performance and high cost. Here, we develop a technique that allows spectral measurements in the infrared range using visible-spectral-range components. The technique is based on nonlinear interference of infrared and visible photons, produced via spontaneous parametric down conversion. The intensity interference pattern for a visible photon depends on the phase of an infrared photon travelling through a medium. This allows the absorption coefficient and refractive index of the medium in the infrared range to be determined from the measurements of visible photons. The technique can substitute and/or complement conventional infrared spectroscopy and refractometry techniques, as it uses well-developed components for the visible range.

  12. Monitoring hemodynamic and morphologic responses to closed head injury in a mouse model using orthogonal diffuse near-infrared light reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abookasis, David; Shochat, Ariel; Mathews, Marlon S.

    2013-04-01

    The authors' aim is to assess and quantitatively measure brain hemodynamic and morphological variations during closed-head injury (CHI) in mice using orthogonal diffuse near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (o-DRS). CHI is a type of injury to the head that does not penetrate the skull. Usually, it is caused by mechanical blows to the head and frequently occurs in traffic accidents, falls, and assaults. Measurements of brain optical properties, namely absorption and reduced scattering coefficients in the wavelength range from 650 to 1000 nm were carried out by employing different source-detector distance and locations to provide depth sensitivity on an intact scalp over the duration of the whole experiment. Furthermore, alteration in both cortical hemodynamics and morphologic markers, i.e., scattering power and amplitude properties were derived. CHI was induced in anesthetized male mice by a weight-drop model using ˜50 g cylindrical metal falling from a height of 90 cm onto the intact scalp producing an impact of 4500 g cm. With respect to baseline, difference in brain physiological properties was observed following injury up to 1 h post-trauma. Additionally, the reduced scattering spectral shapes followed Mie scattering theory was quantified and clearly shows changes in both scattering amplitude and power from baseline indicating structural variations likely from evolving cerebral edema during CHI. We further demonstrate high correlation between scattering amplitude and scattering power, with more than 20% difference in slope in comparison to preinjury. This result indicates the possibility of using the slope also as a marker for detection of structural changes. Finally, experiments investigating brain function during the first 20 min postinjury were conducted and changes in chromophore concentrations and scattering were observed. Overall, our experiments demonstrate the potential of using the proposed technique as a valuable quantitative noninvasive tool for

  13. Photovoltaic module with light reflecting backskin

    DOEpatents

    Gonsiorawski, Ronald C.

    2007-07-03

    A photovoltaic module comprises electrically interconnected and mutually spaced photovoltaic cells that are encapsulated by a light-transmitting encapsulant between a light-transparent front cover and a back cover, with the back cover sheet being an ionomer/nylon alloy embossed with V-shaped grooves running in at least two directions and coated with a light reflecting medium so as to provide light-reflecting facets that are aligned with the spaces between adjacent cells and oriented so as to reflect light falling in those spaces back toward said transparent front cover for further internal reflection onto the solar cells, whereby substantially all of the reflected light will be internally reflected from said cover sheet back to the photovoltaic cells, thereby increasing the current output of the module. The internal reflector improves power output by as much as 67%.

  14. The Influence of Particle Size on Infrared Reflectance Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, Tanya L.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Su, Yin-Fong; Blake, Thomas A.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Richardson, Robert L.

    2014-06-13

    Reflectance spectra of solids are influenced by the absorption coefficient as well as the particle size and morphology. In the infrared, spectral features may be observed as either maxima or minima: in general, the upward-going peaks in the reflectance spectrum result from surface scattering, which are rays that have reflected from the surface without penetration, whereas downward-going peaks result from either absorption or volume scattering, i.e. rays that have penetrated into the sample or refracted into the sample interior and are not reflected. The light signal reflected from solids usually encompasses all these effects which include dependencies on particle size, morphology and sample density. This paper measures the reflectance spectra in the 1.3 – 16 micron range for various bulk materials that have a combination of strong and weak absorption bands in order to understand the effects on the spectral features as a function of the mean grain size of the sample. The bulk materials were ground with a mortar and pestle and then sieved to separate the samples into various size fractions: 0-45, 45-90, 90-180, 180-250, 250-500, and >500 microns. The directional-hemispherical spectra were recorded using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer equipped with an integrating sphere to measure the reflectance for all of the particle-size fractions. We have studied both organic and inorganic materials, but this paper focuses on inorganic salts, NaNO3 in particular. Our studies clearly show that particle size has an enormous influence on the measured reflectance spectra for bulk materials and that successful identification requires sufficient representative reflectance data so as to include the particle size(s) of interest. Origins of the effects are discussed.

  15. Light reflection models for computer graphics.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, D P

    1989-04-14

    During the past 20 years, computer graphic techniques for simulating the reflection of light have progressed so that today images of photorealistic quality can be produced. Early algorithms considered direct lighting only, but global illumination phenomena with indirect lighting, surface interreflections, and shadows can now be modeled with ray tracing, radiosity, and Monte Carlo simulations. This article describes the historical development of computer graphic algorithms for light reflection and pictorially illustrates what will be commonly available in the near future. PMID:17835348

  16. Studies of the Reflection, Refraction and Internal Reflection of Light

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanchester, P. C.

    2014-01-01

    An inexpensive apparatus and associated experiments are described for studying the basic laws of reflection and refraction of light at an air-glass interface, and multiple internal reflections within a glass block. In order to motivate students and encourage their active participation, a novel technique is described for determining the refractive…

  17. Infrared light sources with semimetal electron injection

    DOEpatents

    Kurtz, Steven R.; Biefeld, Robert M.; Allerman, Andrew A.

    1999-01-01

    An infrared light source is disclosed that comprises a layered semiconductor active region having a semimetal region and at least one quantum-well layer. The semimetal region, formed at an interface between a GaAsSb or GalnSb layer and an InAsSb layer, provides electrons and holes to the quantum-well layer to generate infrared light at a predetermined wavelength in the range of 2-6 .mu.m. Embodiments of the invention can be formed as electrically-activated light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or lasers, and as optically-pumped lasers. Since the active region is unipolar, multiple active regions can be stacked to form a broadband or multiple-wavelength infrared light source.

  18. Infrared light sources with semimetal electron injection

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, S.R.; Biefeld, R.M.; Allerman, A.A.

    1999-11-30

    An infrared light source is disclosed that comprises a layered semiconductor active region having a semimetal region and at least one quantum-well layer. The semimetal region, formed at an interface between a GaAsSb or GaInSb layer and an InAsSb layer, provides electrons and holes to the quantum-well layer to generate infrared light at a predetermined wavelength in the range of 2--6 {mu}m. Embodiments of the invention can be formed as electrically-activated light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or lasers, and as optically-pumped lasers. Since the active region is unipolar, multiple active regions can be stacked to form a broadband or multiple-wavelength infrared light source.

  19. Selective reflection of obliquely incident polarised light

    SciTech Connect

    Fofanov, Ya A

    2009-06-30

    A series of reflection resonances formed by the hyperfine components of the D{sub 2}-lines in the spectrum of the natural mixture of rubidium isotopes is studied. Passages from resonantly frustrated total internal reflection to resonance Brewster reflection caused by the frequency tuning of the incident light are demonstrated experimentally. The contrast of the strongest refection resonances exceeds 500% at the moderate heating of reflecting cells. The intensity of the reflected light changes in this case by more than 20 times. A theory is developed which is based on a two-level model for resonance atoms and Fresnel formulas for reflection coefficients. Numerical calculations based on the proposed theory confirm main experimental results. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  20. Infrared-Bolometer Arrays with Reflective Backshorts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Timothy M.; Abrahams, John; Allen, Christine A.

    2011-01-01

    Integrated circuits that incorporate square arrays of superconducting-transition- edge bolometers with optically reflective backshorts are being developed for use in image sensors in the spectral range from far infrared to millimeter wavelengths. To maximize the optical efficiency (and, thus, sensitivity) of such a sensor at a specific wavelength, resonant optical structures are created by placing the backshorts at a quarter wavelength behind the bolometer plane. The bolometer and backshort arrays are fabricated separately, then integrated to form a single unit denoted a backshort-under-grid (BUG) bolometer array. In a subsequent fabrication step, the BUG bolometer array is connected, by use of single-sided indium bump bonding, to a readout device that comprises mostly a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) multiplexer circuit. The resulting sensor unit comprising the BUG bolometer array and the readout device is operated at a temperature below 1 K. The concept of increasing optical efficiency by use of backshorts at a quarter wavelength behind the bolometers is not new. Instead, the novelty of the present development lies mainly in several features of the design of the BUG bolometer array and the fabrication sequence used to implement the design. Prior to joining with the backshort array, the bolometer array comprises, more specifically, a square grid of free-standing molybdenum/gold superconducting-transition-edge bolometer elements on a 1.4- m-thick top layer of silicon that is part of a silicon support frame made from a silicon-on-insulator wafer. The backshort array is fabricated separately as a frame structure that includes support beams and contains a correspond - ing grid of optically reflective patches on a single-crystal silicon substrate. The process used to fabricate the bolometer array includes standard patterning and etching steps that result in the formation of deep notches in the silicon support frame. These notches are designed to

  1. Light Transmission Through Reflecting Cylindrical Tubes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, D. K.; Potts, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    Describes an experiment in which a point source of light, when viewed through a cylindrical tube having reflecting inner walls, appears as a series of sharply defined rings, due to the multiple reflections from the inner walls of the tube. ( GA)

  2. Reflections From Plasma Would Enhance Infrared Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maserjian, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    Quantum efficiency of proposed photoemission semiconductor detector of long-wavelength infrared radiation enhanced by multiple passes of radiation. Device has features of back-to-back heterojunction internal-photoemission (HIP) detector, and Fabry-Perot interferometer. Arrays of devices of this type incorporated into integrated-circuit infrared imaging devices.

  3. Reflectance of polytetrafluoroethylene for xenon scintillation light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, C.; Pinto da Cunha, J.; Pereira, A.; Chepel, V.; Lopes, M. I.; Solovov, V.; Neves, F.

    2010-03-01

    Gaseous and liquid xenon particle detectors are being used in a number of applications including dark matter search and neutrino-less double beta decay experiments. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is often used in these detectors both as electrical insulator and as a light reflector to improve the efficiency of detection of scintillation photons. However, xenon emits in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) wavelength region (λ ≃175 nm) where the reflecting properties of PTFE are not sufficiently known. In this work, we report on measurements of PTFE reflectance, including its angular distribution, for the xenon scintillation light. Various samples of PTFE, manufactured by different processes (extruded, expanded, skived, and pressed) have been studied. The data were interpreted with a physical model comprising both specular and diffuse reflections. The reflectance obtained for these samples ranges from about 47% to 66% for VUV light. Other fluoropolymers, namely, ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE), fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP), and perfluoro-alkoxyalkane (PFA) were also measured.

  4. Reflectance of polytetrafluoroethylene for xenon scintillation light

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, C.; Pinto da Cunha, J.; Pereira, A.; Chepel, V.; Lopes, M. I.; Solovov, V.; Neves, F.

    2010-03-15

    Gaseous and liquid xenon particle detectors are being used in a number of applications including dark matter search and neutrino-less double beta decay experiments. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is often used in these detectors both as electrical insulator and as a light reflector to improve the efficiency of detection of scintillation photons. However, xenon emits in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) wavelength region ({lambda}{approx_equal}175 nm) where the reflecting properties of PTFE are not sufficiently known. In this work, we report on measurements of PTFE reflectance, including its angular distribution, for the xenon scintillation light. Various samples of PTFE, manufactured by different processes (extruded, expanded, skived, and pressed) have been studied. The data were interpreted with a physical model comprising both specular and diffuse reflections. The reflectance obtained for these samples ranges from about 47% to 66% for VUV light. Other fluoropolymers, namely, ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE), fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP), and perfluoro-alkoxyalkane (PFA) were also measured.

  5. [Near infrared light irradiator using halogen lamp].

    PubMed

    Ide, Yasuo

    2012-07-01

    The practical electric light bulb was invented by Thomas Alva Edison in 1879. Halogen lamp is the toughest and brightest electric light bulb. With light filter, it is used as a source of near infrared light. Super Lizer and Alphabeam are made as near infrared light irradiator using halogen lamp. The light emmited by Super Lizer is linear polarized near infrared light. The wave length is from 600 to 1,600 nm and strongest at about 1,000 nm. Concerning Super Lizer, there is evidence of analgesic effects and normalization of the sympathetic nervous system. Super Lizer has four types of probes. SG type is used for stellate ganglion irradiation. B type is used for narrow area irradiation. C and D types are for broad area irradiation. The output of Alphabeam is not polarized. The wave length is from 700 to 1,600 nm and the strongest length is about 1,000nm. Standard attachment is used for spot irradiation. Small attachment is used for stellate ganglion irradiation. Wide attachment is used for broad area irradiation. The effects of Alphabeam are thought to be similar to that of Super Lizer. PMID:22860296

  6. Light distribution modulated diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Pin-Yuan; Chien, Chun-Yu; Sheu, Chia-Rong; Chen, Yu-Wen; Tseng, Sheng-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Typically, a diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) system employing a continuous wave light source would need to acquire diffuse reflectances measured at multiple source-detector separations for determining the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of turbid samples. This results in a multi-fiber probe structure and an indefinite probing depth. Here we present a novel DRS method that can utilize a few diffuse reflectances measured at one source-detector separation for recovering the optical properties of samples. The core of innovation is a liquid crystal (LC) cell whose scattering property can be modulated by the bias voltage. By placing the LC cell between the light source and the sample, the spatial distribution of light in the sample can be varied as the scattering property of the LC cell modulated by the bias voltage, and this would induce intensity variation of the collected diffuse reflectance. From a series of Monte Carlo simulations and phantom measurements, we found that this new light distribution modulated DRS (LDM DRS) system was capable of accurately recover the absorption and scattering coefficients of turbid samples and its probing depth only varied by less than 3% over the full bias voltage variation range. Our results suggest that this LDM DRS platform could be developed to various low-cost, efficient, and compact systems for in-vivo superficial tissue investigation. PMID:27375931

  7. Light distribution modulated diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pin-Yuan; Chien, Chun-Yu; Sheu, Chia-Rong; Chen, Yu-Wen; Tseng, Sheng-Hao

    2016-06-01

    Typically, a diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) system employing a continuous wave light source would need to acquire diffuse reflectances measured at multiple source-detector separations for determining the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of turbid samples. This results in a multi-fiber probe structure and an indefinite probing depth. Here we present a novel DRS method that can utilize a few diffuse reflectances measured at one source-detector separation for recovering the optical properties of samples. The core of innovation is a liquid crystal (LC) cell whose scattering property can be modulated by the bias voltage. By placing the LC cell between the light source and the sample, the spatial distribution of light in the sample can be varied as the scattering property of the LC cell modulated by the bias voltage, and this would induce intensity variation of the collected diffuse reflectance. From a series of Monte Carlo simulations and phantom measurements, we found that this new light distribution modulated DRS (LDM DRS) system was capable of accurately recover the absorption and scattering coefficients of turbid samples and its probing depth only varied by less than 3% over the full bias voltage variation range. Our results suggest that this LDM DRS platform could be developed to various low-cost, efficient, and compact systems for in-vivo superficial tissue investigation. PMID:27375931

  8. Forensic applications of microscopical infrared internal reflection spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tungol, Mary W.; Bartick, Edward G.; Reffner, John A.

    1994-01-01

    Applications of microscopical infrared internal reflection spectroscopy in forensic science are discussed. Internal reflection spectra of single fibers, hairs, paint chips, vehicle rubber bumpers, photocopy toners, carbon copies, writing ink on paper, lipstick on tissue, black electrical tape, and other types of forensic evidence have been obtained. The technique is convenient, non-destructive, and may permit smeared materials to be analyzed in situ.

  9. Cosmic Infrared Background Fluctuations and Zodiacal Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arendt, Richard G.; Kashlinsky, A.; Moseley, S. H.; Mather, J.

    2016-06-01

    We performed a specific observational test to measure the effect that the zodiacal light can have on measurements of the spatial fluctuations of the near-IR background. Previous estimates of possible fluctuations caused by zodiacal light have often been extrapolated from observations of the thermal emission at longer wavelengths and low angular resolution or from IRAC observations of high-latitude fields where zodiacal light is faint and not strongly varying with time. The new observations analyzed here target the COSMOS field at low ecliptic latitude where the zodiacal light intensity varies by factors of ˜2 over the range of solar elongations at which the field can be observed. We find that the white-noise component of the spatial power spectrum of the background is correlated with the modeled zodiacal light intensity. Roughly half of the measured white noise is correlated with the zodiacal light, but a more detailed interpretation of the white noise is hampered by systematic uncertainties that are evident in the zodiacal light model. At large angular scales (≳100″) where excess power above the white noise is observed, we find no correlation of the power with the modeled intensity of the zodiacal light. This test clearly indicates that the large-scale power in the infrared background is not being caused by the zodiacal light.

  10. Infrared reflectance spectra (4-12 micron) of lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, Douglas B.

    1991-01-01

    Presented here are infrared reflectance spectra of a typical set of Apollo samples to illustrate spectral character in the mid-infrared (4 to 12 microns) of lunar materials and how the spectra varies among three main forms: soil, breccia, and igneous rocks. Reflectance data, to a close approximation, are the inverse of emission spectra; thus, for a given material the spectral reflectance (R) at any given wavelength is related to emission (E) by 1 - R equals E. Therefore, one can use reflectance spectra of lunar samples to predict how emission spectra of material on the lunar surface will appear to spectrometers on orbiting spacecraft or earthbound telescopes. Spectra were measured in the lab in dry air using a Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer. Shown here is only the key portion (4 to 12 microns) of each spectrum relating to the principal spectral emission region for sunlit lunar materials and to where the most diagnostic spectral features occur.

  11. Measuring Light Reflectance of BGO Crystal Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Janecek, Martin; Moses, William

    2008-07-28

    A scintillating crystal's surface reflectance has to be well understood in order to accurately predict and optimize the crystal?s light collection through Monte Carlo simulations. In this paper, we measure the inner surface reflectance properties for BGO. The measurements include BGO crystals with a mechanically polished surface, rough-cut surface, and chemically etched surface, and with various reflectors attached, both air- coupled and with coupling compound. The measurements are performed with a laser aimed at the center of a hemispherical shaped BGO crystal. The hemispherical shape eliminates any non-perpendicular angles for light entering and exiting the crystal. The reflected light is collected with an array of photodiodes. The laser can be set at an arbitrary angle, and the photodiode array is rotated to fully cover 2? of solid angle. The current produced in the photodiodes is readout with a digital multimeter connected through a multiplexer. The two rows of photodiodes achieve 5-degree by 4-degree resolution, and the current measurement has a dynamic range of 10^5:1. The acquired data was not described by the commonly assumed linear combination of specular and diffuse (Lambertian) distributions, except for a very few surfaces. Surface roughness proved to be the most important parameter when choosing crystal setup. The reflector choice was of less importance and of almost no consequence for rough-cut surfaces. Pure specular reflection distribution for all incidence angles was measured for polished surfaces with VM2000 film, while the most Lambertian distribution for any surface finish was measured for titanium dioxide paint. The distributions acquired in this paper will be used to create more accurate Monte Carlo models for light reflection distribution within BGO crystals.

  12. Red and near-infrared spectral reflectance of snow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, H. W.; Munis, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    The spectral reflectance of snow in the range of 0.60 to 2.50 microns wavelengths was studied in a cold laboratory using natural snow and simulated preparations of snow. A white barium sulfate powder was used as the standard for comparison. The high reflectance (usually nearly 100%) of fresh natural snow in visible wavelengths declines rapidly at wavelengths longer than the visible, as the spectral absorption coefficients of ice increase. Aging snow becomes only somewhat less reflective than fresh snow in the visible region and usually retains a reflectance greater than 80%. In the near infrared, aging snow tends to become considerably less reflective than fresh snow.

  13. Capabilities and Limitations of Infrared Reflectance Microspectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klima, R. L.; Pieters, C. M.

    2005-01-01

    Technological improvements in IR microspectroscopy have made it an increasingly appealing tool for planetary mineralogy. Microspectroscopy presents the prospect of examining small samples nondestructively and acquiring spectra that can be related to remote sensing observations. However, complications are introduced as a target beam size is reduced, and it is critical that limitations are understood. We present the results of a series of well constrained spectroscopic measurements, linking microspectroscopic data to traditionally collected reflectance spectra and petrologic information for the same rock.

  14. Infrared reflectance of high altitude clouds.

    PubMed

    Hovis, W A; Blaine, L R; Forman, M L

    1970-03-01

    The spectral reflectance characteristics of cirrostratus, cirrus clouds, and a jet contrail, in the 0.68-2.4-micro spectral interval, are of interest for remote sensing of cloud types from orbiting satellites. Measurements made with a down-looking spectrometer from a high altitude aircraft show differences between the signatures of naturally formed ice clouds, a fresh jet contrail, and a snow covered surface. PMID:20076243

  15. Light reflecting apparatus including a multi-aberration light reflecting surface

    DOEpatents

    Sawicki, Richard H.; Sweatt, William

    1987-01-01

    A light reflecting apparatus including a multi-aberration bendable light reflecting surface is disclosed herein. This apparatus includes a structural assembly comprised of a rectangular plate which is resiliently bendable, to a limited extent, and which has a front side defining the multi-aberration light reflecting surface and an opposite back side, and a plurality of straight leg members rigidly connected with the back side of the plate and extending rearwardly therefrom. The apparatus also includes a number of different adjustment mechanisms, each of which is connected with specific ones of the leg members. These mechanisms are adjustably movable in different ways for applying corresponding forces to the leg members in order to bend the rectangular plate and light reflecting surface into different predetermined curvatures and which specifically include quadratic and cubic curvatures corresponding to different optical aberrations.

  16. A light reflecting apparatus including a multi-aberration light reflecting surface

    DOEpatents

    Sawicki, R.H.; Sweatt, W.

    1985-11-21

    A light reflecting apparatus including a multi-aberration bendable light reflecting surface is disclosed herein. This apparatus includes a structural assembly comprised of a rectangular plate which is resiliently bendable, to a limited extent, and which has a front side defining the multi-aberration light reflecting surface and an opposite back side, and a plurality of straight leg members rigidly connected with the back side of the plate and extending rearwardly therefrom. The apparatus also includes a number of different adjustment mechanisms, each of which is connected with specific ones of the leg members. These mechanisms are adjustably movable in different ways for applying corresponding forces to the leg members in order to bend the rectangular plate and light reflecting surface into different predetermined curvatures and which specifically include quadratic and cubic curvatures corresponding to different optical aberrations.

  17. Near infrared reflectance analysis by Gauss-Jordan linear algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honigs, D. E.; Freelin, J. M.; Hieftje, G. M.

    1983-02-01

    Near-infrared reflectance analysis (NIRA) is an analytical technique that uses the near-infrared diffuse reflectance of a sample at several discrete wavelengths to predict the concentration of one or more of the chemical species in that sample. However, because near-infrared bands from solid samples are both abundant and broad, the reflectance at a given wavelength usually contains contributions from several sample components, requiring extensive calculations on overlapped bands. In the present study, these calculations have been performed using an approach similar to that employed in multi-component spectrophotometry, but with Gauss-Jordan linear algebra serving as the computational vehicle. Using this approach, correlations for percent protein in wheat flour and percent benzene in hydrocarbons have been obtained and are evaluated. The advantages of a linear-algebra approach over the common one employing stepwise regression are explored.

  18. Venus in Violet and Near Infrared Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    These images of the Venus clouds were taken by Galileo's Solid State Imaging System February 13,1990, at a range of about 1 million miles. The smallest detail visible is about 20 miles. The two right images show Venus in violet light, the top one at a time six hours later than the bottom one. They show the state of the clouds near the top of Venus's cloud deck. A right to left motion of the cloud features is evident and is consistent with westward winds of about 230 mph. The two left images show Venus in near infrared light, at the same times as the two right images. Sunlight penetrates through the clouds more deeply at the near infrared wavelengths, allowing a view near the bottom of the cloud deck. The westward motion of the clouds is slower (about 150 mph) at the lower altitude. The clouds are composed of sulfuric acid droplets and occupy a range of altitudes from 30 to 45 miles. The images have been spatially filtered to bring out small scale details and de-emphasize global shading. The filtering has introduced artifacts (wiggly lines running north/south) that are faintly visible in the infrared image. The Galileo Project is managed for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory; its mission is to study Jupiter and its satellites and magnetosphere after multiple gravity assist flybys at Venus and Earth.

  19. Infrared spectra of lunar soil analogs. [spectral reflectance of minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aronson, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    The infrared spectra of analogs of lunar soils were investigated to further the development of methodology for interpretation of remotely measured infrared spectra of the lunar surface. The optical constants of dunite, bytownite, augite, ilmenite, and a mare glass analog were obtained. The infrared emittance spectra of powdered minerals were measured and compared with spectra calculated by the reflectance theory using a catalog of optical constants. The results indicate that the predictions of the theory closely simulate the experimental measurements if the optical constants are properly derived.

  20. Mid-Infrared Reflectance Imaging of Thermal-Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edlridge, Jeffrey I.; Martin, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    An apparatus for mid-infrared reflectance imaging has been developed as means of inspecting for subsurface damage in thermal-barrier coatings (TBCs). The apparatus is designed, more specifically, for imaging the progression of buried delamination cracks in plasma-sprayed yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings on turbine-engine components. Progression of TBC delamination occurs by the formation of buried cracks that grow and then link together to produce eventual TBC spallation. The mid-infrared reflectance imaging system described here makes it possible to see delamination progression that is invisible to the unaided eye, and therefore give sufficiently advanced warning before delamination progression adversely affects engine performance and safety. The apparatus (see figure) includes a commercial mid-infrared camera that contains a liquid-nitrogen-cooled focal plane indium antimonide photodetector array, and imaging is restricted by a narrow bandpass centered at wavelength of 4 microns. This narrow wavelength range centered at 4 microns was chosen because (1) it enables avoidance of interfering absorptions by atmospheric OH and CO2 at 3 and 4.25 microns, respectively; and (2) the coating material exhibits maximum transparency in this wavelength range. Delamination contrast is produced in the midinfrared reflectance images because the introduction of cracks into the TBC creates an internal TBC/air-gap interface with a high diffuse reflectivity of 0.81, resulting in substantially higher reflectance of mid-infrared radiation in regions that contain buried delamination cracks. The camera is positioned a short distance (.12 cm) from the specimen. The mid-infrared illumination is generated by a 50-watt silicon carbide source positioned to the side of the mid-infrared camera, and the illumination is collimated and reflected onto the specimen by a 6.35-cm-diameter off-axis paraboloidal mirror. Because the collected images are of a steady-state reflected intensity (in

  1. Broadband infrared meanderline reflective quarter-wave plate.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, Samuel L; Boreman, Glenn D

    2011-05-23

    We present a novel reflective quarter-wave plate comprised of subwavelength meanderline elements. The device is operational over the long-wave infrared (LWIR) spectrum, with significant spectral and angular bandwidths. Power reflection is approximately 70% over the majority of the LWIR. Efficient conversion from a 45° linear polarization state into circular polarization is demonstrated from finite-element electromagnetic simulations and from broadband polarimetric measurements. PMID:21643314

  2. Standard reference material 2036 near-infrared reflection wavelength standard.

    PubMed

    Choquette, Steven J; Duewer, David L; Hanssen, Leonard M; Early, Edward A

    2005-04-01

    Standard Reference Material 2036 (SRM 2036) is a certified transfer standard intended for the verification and calibration of the wavelength/wavenumber scale of near-infrared (NIR) spectrometers operating in diffuse or trans-reflectance mode. SRM 2036 Near-Infrared Wavelength/Wavenumber Reflection Standard is a combination of a rare earth oxide glass of a composition similar to that of SRM 2035 Near-Infrared Transmission Wavelength/Wavenumber Standard and SRM 2065 Ultraviolet-Visible-Near-Infrared Transmission Wavelength/Wavenumber Standard, but is in physical contact with a piece of sintered poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE). The combination of glass contacted with a nearly ideal diffusely reflecting backing provides reflection-absorption bands that range from 15% R to 40% R. SRM 2036 is certified for the 10% band fraction air wavelength centroid location, (10%)B, of seven bands spanning the spectral region from 975 nm to 1946 nm. It is also certified for the vacuum wavenumber (10%)B of the same seven bands in the spectral region from 10 300 cm(-1) to 5130 cm(-1) at 8 cm(-1) resolution. Informational values are provided for the locations of thirteen additional bands from 334 nm to 804 nm. PMID:15901335

  3. Infrared reflection and attenuated total reflection spectra in the Bi2Se3 topological insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikova, N. N.; Yakovlev, V. A.; Kucherenko, I. V.

    2015-08-01

    Infrared reflection and attenuated total reflection spectra are measured in the (111)Si/Bi2Se3 topological insulator film. The characteristic parameters of plasmons and phonons in the near-surface layers close to the Si-film interface are obtained from the dispersion analysis of the reflection spectra. It is found that the charge carrier density near the interface far exceeds that in the bulk. The dispersion laws for surface polaritons and waveguide modes are determined.

  4. Sombrero Galaxy (M104) in Infrared Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The razor sharp eye of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) easily resolves the Sombrero galaxy, Messier 104 (M104). 50,000 light-years across, the galaxy is located 28 million light-years from Earth at the southern edge of the rich Virgo cluster of galaxies. Equivalent to 800 billion suns, Sombrero is one of the most massive objects in that group. The hallmark of Sombrero is a brilliant white, bulbous core encircled by the thick dust lanes comprising the spiral structure of the galaxy. As seen from Earth, the galaxy is tilted nearly edge-on. We view it from just six degrees north of its equatorial plane. This rich system of globular clusters is estimated to be nearly 2,000 in number which is 10 times as many as in our Milky Way galaxy. Similar to the clusters in the Milky Way, the ages range from 10-13 billion years old. Embedded in the bright core of M104 is a smaller disk, which is tilted relative to the large disk. The HST paired with the Spitzer infrared telescope, offers this striking composite capturing the magnificence of the Sombrero galaxy. In the Hubble view, the galaxy resembles a broad-rimmed Mexican hat, whereas in the Spitzer striking infrared view, the galaxy looks more like a bulls eye. The full view provided by Spitzer shows the disk is warped, which is often the result of a gravitational encounter with another galaxy, and clumpy areas spotted in the far edges of the ring indicate young star forming regions. Spitzer detected infrared emission not only from the ring, but from the center of the galaxy as well, where there is a huge black hole believed to be a billion times more massive than our Sun. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST.

  5. Catheter based mid-infrared reflectance and reflectance generated absorption spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Holman, Hoi-Ying N

    2013-10-29

    A method of characterizing conditions in a tissue, by (a) providing a catheter that has a light source that emits light in selected wavenumbers within the range of mid-IR spectrum; (b) directing the light from the catheter to an area of tissue at a location inside a blood vessel of a subject; (c) collecting light reflected from the location and generating a reflectance spectra; and (d) comparing the reflectance spectra to a reference spectra of normal tissue, whereby a location having an increased number of absorbance peaks at said selected wavenumbers indicates a tissue inside the blood vessel containing a physiological marker for atherosclerosis.

  6. Remote sensing of vegetation water content using shortwave infrared reflectances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, E. Raymond, Jr.; Yilmaz, M. Tugrul

    2007-09-01

    Vegetation water content is an important biophysical parameter for estimation of soil moisture from microwave radiometers. One of the objectives of the Soil Moisture Experiments in 2004 (SMEX04) and 2005 (SMEX05) were to develop and test algorithms for a vegetation water content data product using shortwave infrared reflectances. SMEX04 studied native vegetation in Arizona, USA, and Sonora, Mexico, while SMEX05 studied corn and soybean in Iowa, USA. The normalized difference infrared index (NDII) is defined as (R 850 - R 1650)/(R 800 + R 1650), where R 850 is the reflectance in the near infrared and R1650 is the reflectance in the shortwave infrared. Simulations using the Scattering by Arbitrarily Inclined Leaves (SAIL) model indicated that NDII is sensitive to surface moisture content. From Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper and other imagery, NDII is linear with respect to foliar water content with R2 = 0.81. The regression standard error of the y estimate is 0.094 mm, which is equivalent to about a leaf area index of 0.5 m2 m -2. Based on modeling the dynamic water flow through plants, the requirement for detection of water stress is about 0.01 mm, so detection of water stress may not be possible. However, this standard error is accurate for input into the tau-omega model for soil moisture. Therefore, NDII may be a robust backup algorithm for MODIS as a standard data product.

  7. Spectral purification and infrared light recycling in extreme ultraviolet lithography sources.

    PubMed

    Bayraktar, Muharrem; van Goor, Fred A; Boller, Klaus J; Bijkerk, Fred

    2014-04-01

    We present the design of a novel collector mirror for laser produced plasma (LPP) light sources to be used in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. The design prevents undesired infrared (IR) drive laser light, reflected from the plasma, from reaching the exit of the light source. This results in a strong purification of the EUV light, while the reflected IR light becomes refocused into the plasma for enhancing the IR-to-EUV conversion. The dual advantage of EUV purification and conversion enhancement is achieved by incorporating an IR Fresnel zone plate pattern into the EUV reflective multilayer coating of the collector mirror. Calculations using Fresnel-Kirchhoff's diffraction theory for a typical collector design show that the IR light at the EUV exit is suppressed by four orders of magnitude. Simultaneously, 37% of the reflected IR light is refocused back the plasma. PMID:24718234

  8. Ganymede in Visible and Infrared Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This montage compares New Horizons' best views of Ganymede, Jupiter's largest moon, gathered with the spacecraft's Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) and its infrared spectrometer, the Linear Etalon Imaging Spectral Array (LEISA).

    LEISA observes its targets in more than 200 separate wavelengths of infrared light, allowing detailed analysis of their surface composition. The LEISA image shown here combines just three of these wavelengths -- 1.3, 1.8 and 2.0 micrometers -- to highlight differences in composition across Ganymede's surface. Blue colors represent relatively clean water ice, while brown colors show regions contaminated by dark material.

    The right panel combines the high-resolution grayscale LORRI image with the color-coded compositional information from the LEISA image, producing a picture that combines the best of both data sets.

    The LEISA and LORRI images were taken at 9:48 and 10:01 Universal Time, respectively, on February 27, 2007, from a range of 3.5 million kilometers (2.2 million miles). The longitude of the disk center is 38 degrees west. With a diameter of 5,268 kilometers (3,273 miles), Ganymede is the largest satellite in the solar system.

  9. Characterizing Cool Giant Planets in Reflected Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marley, Mark

    2016-01-01

    While the James Webb Space Telescope will detect and characterize extrasolar planets by transit and direct imaging, a new generation of telescopes will be required to detect and characterize extrasolar planets by reflected light imaging. NASA's WFIRST space telescope, now in development, will image dozens of cool giant planets at optical wavelengths and will obtain spectra for several of the best and brightest targets. This mission will pave the way for the detection and characterization of terrestrial planets by the planned LUVOIR or HabEx space telescopes. In my presentation I will discuss the challenges that arise in the interpretation of direct imaging data and present the results of our group's effort to develop methods for maximizing the science yield from these planned missions.

  10. Nondestructive evaluation of aircraft coatings with infrared diffuse reflectance spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korth, Hans G.; Wilson, Kody A.; Gross, Kevin C.; Hawks, Michael R.; Zens, Timothy W. C.

    2015-05-01

    Aircraft coatings degrade over time, but aging can be difficult to detect before failure and delamination. We present a method to evaluate aircraft coatings in situ using infrared diffuse reflectance spectra. This method can detect and classify coating degradation much earlier than visual inspection. The method has been tested on two different types of coatings that were artificially aged in an autoclave. Spectra were measured using a hand-held diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectrometer (DRIFTS). One set of 72 samples can be classified as either aged or unaged with 100% accuracy. A second sample set contained samples that had been artificially aged for 0, 24, 48 or 96 hours. Several classification methods are compared, with accuracy better than 98% possible.

  11. Spectral infrared hemispherical reflectance measurements for LDEF tray clamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, B. K.; Shepherd, S. D.; Pender, C. W.; Wood, B. E.

    1993-01-01

    Infrared hemispherical reflectance measurements that were made on 58 chromic acid anodized tray clamps from LDEF are described. The measurements were made using a hemiellipsoidal mirror reflectometer with interferometer for wavelengths between 2-15 microns. The tray clamps investigated were from locations about the entire spacecraft and provided the opportunity for comparing the effects of atomic oxygen at each location. Results indicate there was essentially no dependence on atomic oxygen fluence for the surfaces studied, but there did appear to be a slight dependence on solar radiation exposure. The reflectances of the front sides of the tray clamps consistently were slightly higher than for the protected rear tray clamp surfaces.

  12. Terahertz and mid-infrared reflectance of epitaxial graphene.

    PubMed

    Santos, Cristiane N; Joucken, Frédéric; De Sousa Meneses, Domingos; Echegut, Patrick; Campos-Delgado, Jessica; Louette, Pierre; Raskin, Jean-Pierre; Hackens, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    Graphene has emerged as a promising material for infrared (IR) photodetectors and plasmonics. In this context, wafer scale epitaxial graphene on SiC is of great interest in a variety of applications in optics and nanoelectronics. Here we present IR reflectance spectroscopy of graphene grown epitaxially on the C-face of 6H-SiC over a broad optical range, from terahertz (THz) to mid-infrared (MIR). Contrary to the transmittance, reflectance measurements are not hampered by the transmission window of the substrate, and in particular by the SiC Reststrahlen band in the MIR. This allows us to present IR reflectance data exhibiting a continuous evolution from the regime of intraband to interband charge carrier transitions. A consistent and simultaneous analysis of the contributions from both transitions to the optical response yields precise information on the carrier dynamics and the number of layers. The properties of the graphene layers derived from IR reflection spectroscopy are corroborated by other techniques (micro-Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies, transport measurements). Moreover, we also present MIR microscopy mapping, showing that spatially-resolved information can be gathered, giving indications on the sample homogeneity. Our work paves the way for a still scarcely explored field of epitaxial graphene-based THz and MIR optical devices. PMID:27102827

  13. Terahertz and mid-infrared reflectance of epitaxial graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Cristiane N.; Joucken, Frédéric; de Sousa Meneses, Domingos; Echegut, Patrick; Campos-Delgado, Jessica; Louette, Pierre; Raskin, Jean-Pierre; Hackens, Benoit

    2016-04-01

    Graphene has emerged as a promising material for infrared (IR) photodetectors and plasmonics. In this context, wafer scale epitaxial graphene on SiC is of great interest in a variety of applications in optics and nanoelectronics. Here we present IR reflectance spectroscopy of graphene grown epitaxially on the C-face of 6H-SiC over a broad optical range, from terahertz (THz) to mid-infrared (MIR). Contrary to the transmittance, reflectance measurements are not hampered by the transmission window of the substrate, and in particular by the SiC Reststrahlen band in the MIR. This allows us to present IR reflectance data exhibiting a continuous evolution from the regime of intraband to interband charge carrier transitions. A consistent and simultaneous analysis of the contributions from both transitions to the optical response yields precise information on the carrier dynamics and the number of layers. The properties of the graphene layers derived from IR reflection spectroscopy are corroborated by other techniques (micro-Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies, transport measurements). Moreover, we also present MIR microscopy mapping, showing that spatially-resolved information can be gathered, giving indications on the sample homogeneity. Our work paves the way for a still scarcely explored field of epitaxial graphene-based THz and MIR optical devices.

  14. Terahertz and mid-infrared reflectance of epitaxial graphene

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Cristiane N.; Joucken, Frédéric; De Sousa Meneses, Domingos; Echegut, Patrick; Campos-Delgado, Jessica; Louette, Pierre; Raskin, Jean-Pierre; Hackens, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    Graphene has emerged as a promising material for infrared (IR) photodetectors and plasmonics. In this context, wafer scale epitaxial graphene on SiC is of great interest in a variety of applications in optics and nanoelectronics. Here we present IR reflectance spectroscopy of graphene grown epitaxially on the C-face of 6H-SiC over a broad optical range, from terahertz (THz) to mid-infrared (MIR). Contrary to the transmittance, reflectance measurements are not hampered by the transmission window of the substrate, and in particular by the SiC Reststrahlen band in the MIR. This allows us to present IR reflectance data exhibiting a continuous evolution from the regime of intraband to interband charge carrier transitions. A consistent and simultaneous analysis of the contributions from both transitions to the optical response yields precise information on the carrier dynamics and the number of layers. The properties of the graphene layers derived from IR reflection spectroscopy are corroborated by other techniques (micro-Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies, transport measurements). Moreover, we also present MIR microscopy mapping, showing that spatially-resolved information can be gathered, giving indications on the sample homogeneity. Our work paves the way for a still scarcely explored field of epitaxial graphene-based THz and MIR optical devices. PMID:27102827

  15. Far-infrared reflectance spectra of optical black coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.

    1983-01-01

    Far-infrared specular reflectance spectra of six optically black coatings near normal incidence are presented. The spectra were obtained using nine bandpass transmission filters in the wavelength range between 12 and 300 microns. Data on the construction, thickness, and rms surface roughness of the coatings are also presented. The chemical composition of two coatings can be distinguished from that of the others by a strong absorption feature between 20 and 40 microns which is attributed to amorphous silicate material. Inverse relationships between these spectra and coating roughness and thickness are noted and lead to development of a reflecting-layer model for the measured reflectance. The model is applied to the spectra of several coatings whose construction falls within its constraints.

  16. Visible and near infrared reflectances measured from laboratory ice clouds.

    PubMed

    Barkey, Brian; Liou, K N

    2008-05-01

    We present laboratory results of the 0.68 microm visible (VIS) and 1.617 microm near infrared (NIR) reflectances typically used for inferring optical depth and ice crystal size from satellite radiometers, from ice clouds generated in a temperature controlled column cloud chamber. Two types of ice crystals were produced in this experiment: small columns and dendrites with mean maximum dimensions of about 17 and 35 microm. Within experimental uncertainty, the measured reflectances from ice clouds at both wavelengths agree reasonably well with the theoretical results computed from the plane-parallel adding-doubling method for radiative transfer using the measured ice particle morphology. We demonstrate that laboratory scattering and reflectance data for thin ice clouds with optical depths less than 0.4 can be used for validation of the thin cirrus optical depth and ice crystal size that have been routinely retrieved from the satellite VIS-NIR two channel pair. PMID:18449323

  17. Diffuse Reflection of Laser Light From Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahalan, R. F.; Davis, A.; McGill, M.

    1999-01-01

    Laser light reflected from an aqueous suspension of particles or "cloud" with known thickness and particle size distribution defines the "cloud radiative Green's function", G. G is sensitive to cloud thickness, allowing retrieval of that important quantity. We describe a laboratory simulation of G, useful in design of an offbeam Lidar instrument for remote sensing of cloud thickness. Clouds of polystyrene microspheres suspended in water are analogous to real clouds of water droplets suspended in air. The size distribution extends from 0.5 microns to 25 microns, roughly lognormal, similar to real clouds. Density of suspended spheres is adjusted so photon mean-free-path is about 10 cm, 1000 times smaller than in real clouds. The light source is a Nd:YAG laser at 530 nm. Detectors are flux and photon-counting PMTs, with a glass probe for precise positioning. A Labview 5 VI controls position and data acquisition, via an NI Motion Control board connected to a stepper motor driving an Edmund linear slider,and a 16-channel 16-bit NI-DAQ board. The stepper motor is accurate to 10 microns. Step size is selectable. Far from the beam, the rate of exponential increase in the beam direction scales as expected from diffusion theory, linearly with cloud thickness, and inversely as the square root of the reduced optical thickness, independent of particle size. Nearer the beam the signal increases faster than exponential and depends on particle size. Results verify 3D Monte Carlo simulations that demonstrate detectability of remotely sensed offbeam returns, without filters at night, with narrow bandpass filter in day.

  18. Apparatus for and method of correcting for astigmatism in a light beam reflected off of a light reflecting surface

    DOEpatents

    Sawicki, R.H.; Sweatt, W.

    1985-11-21

    A technique for adjustably correcting for astigmatism in a light beam is disclosed herein. This technique defines a flat, rectangular light reflecting surface having opposite reinforced side edges and which is resiliently bendable, to a limited extent, into different concave and/or convex cylindrical curvatures about a particular axis and provides for adjustably bending the light reflecting surface into one of different curvatures depending upon the astigmatism to be corrected and for fixedly maintaining the curvature selected. In the embodiment disclosed, the light reflecting surface is adjustably bendable into the selected cylindrical curvature by application of a particular bending moment to the reinforced side edges of the light reflecting surface.

  19. Raman and infrared reflection spectroscopy in black phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugai, S.; Shirotani, I.

    1985-03-01

    The symmetry and energies of all optically active phonon modes in black phosphorous are determined by polarized Raman scattering and infrared reflection spectroscopy at room temperature. The obtained energies are; 365 and 470 cm -1 for A g modes, 197 for B lg, 442 for B 2g, 223 and 440 for B 3g, 136 (TO) and 138 (LO) for B lu, and 468 (TO) and 470 (LO) for B 2u, respectively. The small TO-LO splitting is related to the charge transfer between phosphorus atoms induced by the atomic displacement.

  20. Surface roughness and gloss study of prints: application of specular reflection at near infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silfsten, P.; Dutta, R.; Pääkkönen, P.; Tåg, C.-M.; Gane, P. A. C.; Peiponen, K.-E.

    2012-12-01

    Absolute reflectance data were measured with a spectrophotometer in the visible and near infrared (NIR) spectral range. The specular reflectance data in the NIR were used for the assessment of the surface roughness of magenta, yellow, cyan and black prints on paper. In addition, surface roughness data obtained from the prints with a mechanical diamond stylus, an optical profiling system and the spectrophotometer are compared with each other. The surface roughness obtained with the aid of the spectrophotometer data suggests a smoother surface than when measured with the diamond stylus and the optical profiling system. The gloss of the prints can be obtained from the absolute specular reflectance spectra in the spectral region of visible light. It is shown that specular reflection data at a fixed wavelength in the NIR are useful also in the interpretation of gloss in the visible spectral range, but using an unconventional grazing angle of incidence.

  1. Far-infrared emissivity measurements of reflective surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, J.; Lange, A. E.; Bock, J. J.

    1996-01-01

    An instrument developed to measure the emissivity of reflective surfaces by comparing the thermal emission of a test sample to that of a reference surface is reported. The instrument can accurately measure the emissivity of mirrors made from lightweight thermally insulating materials such as glass and metallized carbon fiber reinforced plastics. Far infrared measurements at a wavelength of 165 micrometers are reported. The instrument has an absolute accuracy of Delta epsilon = 9 x 10(exp -4) and can reproducibly measure an emissivity of as small as 2 x 10(exp -4) between flat reflective surfaces. The instrument was used to measure mirror samples for balloon-borne and spaceborne experiments. An emissivity of (6.05 +/- 1.24) x 10(exp -3) was measured for gold evaporated on glass, and (6.75 +/- 1.17) x 10(exp -3) for aluminum evaporated on glass.

  2. Photo-induced reflectivity in the mid and far infrared

    SciTech Connect

    Haar, P.; Harrington, K.J.; Schwettman, H.A.

    1995-12-31

    Interest in switching FEL beams has motivated studies of photo-induced reflectivity in the mid and far infrared. We are particularly interested in Ge{sup 4}, GaAs, and Si{sup 5}, materials that can be pumped with a visible or near-IR conventional laser and which together cover the wavelengths from 3-100{mu}m. We have made quantitative measurements to determine the induced reflectivity, carrier lifetime, and transient absorption of these materials at several wavelengths across this range using a variety of pump laser wavelengths and pulse lengths. These measurements allow us to determine the feasibility of single pulse selection and cavity dumping with our FELs at high repetition rates.

  3. Narrowband Mid-infrared reflectance filters using guided mode resonance

    PubMed Central

    Kodali, Anil K.; Schulmerich, Matthew; Ip, Jason; Yen, Gary; Cunningham, Brian T.; Bhargava, Rohit

    2010-01-01

    There is a need to develop mid-infrared (IR) spectrometers for applications in which the absorbance of only a few vibrational mode (optical) frequencies needs to be recorded; unfortunately, there are limited alternatives for the same. The key requirement is the development of a means to access discretely a small set of spectral positions from the wideband thermal sources commonly used for spectroscopy. We present here the theory, design and practical realization of a new class of filters in the mid-infrared (IR) spectral regions based on using guided mode resonances (GMR) for narrowband optical reflection. A simple, periodic surface-relief configuration is chosen to enable both a spectral response and facile fabrication. A theoretical model based on rigorous coupled wave analysis is developed, incorporating anomalous dispersion of filter materials in the mid-IR spectral region. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, a set of four filters for a spectral region around the C-H stretching mode (2600–3000 cm−1) are fabricated and responses compared to theory. The reflectance spectra were well-predicted by the developed theory and results were found to be sensitive to the angle of incidence and dispersion characteristics of the material. In summary, the work reported here forms the basis for a rational design of filters that can prove useful for IR absorption spectroscopy. PMID:20527738

  4. Spectral infrared hemispherical reflectance measurements for LDEF tray clamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Bobby E.; Cromwell, Brian K.; Pender, Charles W.; Shepherd, Seth D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes infrared hemispherical reflectance measurements (2-15 microns) that were made on 58 chromic acid anodized tray clamps retrieved from the LDEF spacecraft. These clamps were used for maintaining the experiments in place and were located at various locations about the spacecraft. Changes in reflectance of the tray clamps at these locations were compared with atomic oxygen fluxes at the same locations. A decrease in absorption band depth was seen for the surfaces exposed to space indicating that there was some surface layer erosion. In all of the surfaces measured, little evidence of contamination was observed and none of the samples showed evidence of the brown nicotine stain that was so prominent in other experiments. Total emissivity values were calculated for both exposed and unexposed tray clamp surfaces. Only small differences, usually less than 1 percent, were observed. The spectral reflectances were measured using a hemi-ellipsoidal mirror reflectometer matched with an interferometer spectrometer. The rapid scanning capability of the interferometer allowed the reflectance measurements to be made in a timely fashion. The ellipsoidal mirror has its two foci separated by 2 inches and located on the major axis. A blackbody source was located at one focus while the tray clamp samples were located at the conjugate focus. The blackbody radiation was modulated and then focused by the ellipsoid onto the tray clamps. Radiation reflected from the tray clamp was sampled by the interferometer by viewing through a hole in the ellipsoid. A gold mirror (reflectance approximately 98 percent) was used as the reference surface.

  5. NASA SOFIA International Year of Light (IYL) Event: Infrared Light: Hanging out in the Stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Coral; Backman, Dana E.; Harman, Pamela; Veronico, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    As an International Year of Light committee endorsed event, Infrared Light: Hanging out in the Stratosphere will engage learners around the world, linking participants with scientists at work on board NASA SOFIA, the world's largest flying observatory. This major event will showcase science-in-action, interviews, live data, and observations performed both aboard the aircraft and at partner centers on land.SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy) is an 80% - 20% partnership of NASA and the German Aerospace Center (DLR) consisting of an extensively modified Boeing 747SP aircraft carrying a reflecting telescope with an effective diameter of 2.5 meters. SOFIA is a program in NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Astrophysics Division. Science investigators leverage SOFIA's unique capabilities to study the universe at infrared wavelengths by making observations that are impossible for even the largest and highest ground-based telescopes. SOFIA received Full Operating Capacity status in May, 2014, and astrophysicists will continue to utilize the observatory and upgraded instruments to study astronomical objects and phenomena, including star birth and death; planetary system formation; identification of complex molecules in space; planets, comets, and asteroids in our solar system; and nebulae and dust in galaxies.This landmark event will reflect and build on the ProjectLink. In October 1995, SOFIA's predecessor, the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), performed the first satellite links from an airplane to the ground. The KAO downlinked to the Exploratorium museum (SF, CA), where over 200 students watched the webcast, conversed, and participated in simultaneous observations at the world-renowned science museum. SOFIA will now take this concept into the 21st century, utilizing internet technologies to engage and inspire 100,000+ learners of all ages through simultaneous presentations and appearances by over 70 SOFIA Educators at schools and informal learning

  6. Thermal infrared reflectance and emission spectroscopy of quartzofeldspathic glasses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byrnes, J.M.; Ramsey, M.S.; King, P.L.; Lee, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    This investigation seeks to better understand the thermal infrared (TIR) spectral characteristics of naturally-occurring amorphous materials through laboratory synthesis and analysis of glasses. Because spectra of glass phases differ markedly from their mineral counterparts, examination of glasses is important to accurately determine the composition of amorphous surface materials using remote sensing datasets. Quantitatively characterizing TIR (5-25 ??m) spectral changes that accompany structural changes between glasses and mineral crystals provides the means to understand natural glasses on Earth and Mars. A suite of glasses with compositions analogous to common terrestrial volcanic glasses was created and analyzed using TIR reflectance and emission techniques. Documented spectral characteristics provide a basis for comparison with TIR spectra of other amorphous materials (glasses, clays, etc.). Our results provide the means to better detect and characterize glasses associated with terrestrial volcanoes, as well as contribute toward understanding the nature of amorphous silicates detected on Mars. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Analysis of silage composition by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, James B., III; Blosser, Timothy H.; Colenbrander, V. F.

    1991-02-01

    Two studies were performed to investigate the feasibility of using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) with undried silages. In the first study silages were analyzed for major components (e. g. dry matter crude protein and other forms of nitrogen fiber and in vitro digestible dry matter) and short chain fatty acids (SCFA). NIRS was found to operate satisfactorily except for some forms of nitrogen and SCFA. In study two various methods of grinding spectral regions and sample presentation were examined. Undried Wiley ground samples in a rectangular cell gave the best overall results for non-dry ice undried grinds with wavelengths between 1100 and 2498 nm. Silages scanned after drying however produced the best results. Intact samples did not perform as well as ground samples and wavelengths below 1100 nm were of little use. 2 .

  8. Aerosol collection and analysis using diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuels, Alan C.; Wong, Diane M.; Meyer, Gerald J.; Roelant, Geoffrey J.; Williams, Barry R.; Miles, Ronald W., Jr.; Manning, Christopher J.

    2004-08-01

    Infrared spectroscopy is routinely employed for the identification of organic molecules and, more recently, for the classification of biological materials. We have developed a sample collection method that facilitates infrared analysis of airborne particulates using a diffuse reflectance (DR) technique. Efforts are underway to extend the method to include simultaneous analysis of vapor phase organics by using adsorbent substrates compatible with the DR technique. This series of laboratory results provides proof-of-principle for both the sample collection and data collection processes. Signal processing of the DR spectra is shown to provide rapid qualitative identification of representative aerosol materials, including particulate matter commonly found in the environment. We compare the results for such materials as bacterial spores, pollens and molds, clays and dusts, smoke and soot. Background correction analysis is shown to be useful for differentiation and identification of these constituents. Issues relating to complex mixtures of environmental samples under highly variable conditions are considered. Instrumentation development and materials research are now underway with the aim of constructing a compact sampling system for near real-time monitoring of aerosol and organic pollutants. A miniature, tilt-compensated Fourier transform spectrometer will provide spectroscopic interrogation. A series of advanced digital signal processing methods are also under development to enhance the sensor package. The approach will be useful for industrial applications, chemical and biological agent detection, and environmental monitoring for chemical vapors, hazardous air pollutants, and allergens.

  9. Studies of dust grain properties in infrared reflection nebulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendleton, Y. J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Werner, M. W.

    1990-01-01

    A model has been developed for reflection nebulae around luminous IR sources embedded in dense dust clouds. The shape of the IR spectrum is shown to be the result of a combination of the scattering properties of the dust, the spectrum of the illuminating source, and foreground extinction, while geometry plays a minor role. Comparison of the model results with IR observations of the reflection nebula surrounding OMC-2/IRS 1 shows that either a grain size distribution like that found in the diffuse ISM, or consisting of larger grains, can explain the observed shape of the spectrum. However, the absolute intensity level of the scattered light, as well as the observed polarization, requires large grains. By adding water-ice mantles to the silicate and graphite cores, the 3.08 micron ice-band feature observed in the spectra of several IR reflection nebulae has been modeled. It is shown that this ice band arises naturally in optically thick reflection nebulae containing ice-coated grains.

  10. Detection of cracks on tomatoes using hyperspectral near-infrared reflectance imaging system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of hyperspectral near-infrared (NIR) reflectance imaging techniques for detection of cuticle cracks on tomatoes. A hyperspectral near-infrared reflectance imaging system in the region of 1000-1700 nm was used to obtain hyperspectral reflectance ima...

  11. Design, fabrication, and measured performance of anti-reflecting surface textures in infrared transmitting materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, Douglas S.; MacLeod, Bruce D.

    2005-05-01

    Rugged infrared transmitting materials have a high refractive index, which leads to large reflection losses. Multi-layer thin-film coatings designed for anti-reflection (AR), exhibit good performance, but have limited bandwidths, narrow acceptance angles, polarization effects, high costs, and short lifetimes in harsh environments. Many aerospace and military applications requiring high optical transmission, durability, survivability, and radiation resistance, are inadequately addressed by thin-film coating technology. Surface relief microstructures have been shown to be an effective alternative to thin-film AR coatings in many infrared and visible-band applications. These microstructures, etched directly into the window surface and commonly referred to as "Motheye" textures, impart an optical function that minimizes surface reflections without compromising the inherent durability of the window material. Reflection losses are reduced to a minimum for broad-band light incident over a wide angular range. For narrow-band applications such as laser communications, a simpler type of AR surface structure called a sub-wavelength, or "SWS" surface, is used. In general, both the Motheye and SWS surface textures will exhibit the same characteristics as the bulk material with respect to durability, thermal issues, and radiation resistance. The problems associated with thin-film coating adhesion and stress, are thus eliminated by design. Optical performance data for AR structures fabricated in fused silica, sapphire, Clear ZnS, ZnSe, cadmium zinc telluride (CZT), silicon, and germanium, will be presented.

  12. Determination of in vivo skin moisture level by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saknite, Inga; Spigulis, Janis

    2015-03-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy has a potential for noninvasive determination of skin moisture level due to high water absorption. In this study, diffuse reflectance spectra of in vivo skin were acquired in the spectral range of 900 nm to 1700 nm by using near-infrared spectrometer, optical fiber and halogen bulb light source. Absorption changes after applying skin moisturizers were analyzed over time at different body sites. Results show difference in absorption when comparing dry and normal skin. Comparison of absorption changes over time after applying moisturizer at different body sites is analyzed and discussed. Some patterns of how skin reacts to different skin moisturizers are shown, although no clear pattern can be seen due to signal noise.

  13. Apparatus for and method of correcting for astigmatism in a light beam reflected off of a light reflecting surface

    DOEpatents

    Sawicki, Richard H.; Sweatt, William

    1987-01-01

    A technique for adjustably correcting for astigmatism in a light beam is disclosed herein. This technique utilizes first means which defines a flat, rectangular light reflecting surface having opposite reinforced side edges and which is resiliently bendable, to a limited extent, into different concave and/or convex cylindrical curvatures about a particular axis and second means acting on the first means for adjustably bending the light reflecting surface into a particular selected one of the different curvatures depending upon the astigmatism to be corrected for and for fixedly maintaining the curvature selected. In the embodiment disclosed, the light reflecting surface is adjustably bendable into the selected cylindrical curvature by application of a particular bending moment to the reinforced side edges of the light reflecting surface.

  14. Infrared light emission from semiconductor devices

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, D.L.; Tangyunyong, P.; Soden, J.M.; Liang, A.Y.; Low, F.J.; Zaplatin, A.N.; Shivanandan, K.; Donohoe, G.

    1996-10-01

    We present results using near-infrared (NIR) cameras to study emission of common defect classes for integrated circuits. The cameras are based on a liquid nitrogen cooled HgCdTe imaging array with high quantum efficiency and very low read noise. The array was developed for infrared astronomy and has high quantum efficiency in the wavelength range from 0.8 to 2.5 {mu}m. For comparison, the same set of samples used to characterize the performance of the NIR camera were studied using a non-intensified, liquid-nitrogen-cooled, slow scan CCD camera (with a spectral range 400-1100 nm). Results show that the NIR camera images all of the defect classes studied here with much shorter integration times than the cooled CCD, suggesting that photon emission beyond 1 {mu}m is significantly stronger than at shorter wavelengths.

  15. Investigation of Latent Traces Using Infrared Reflectance Hyperspectral Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Till; Wenzel, Susanne; Roscher, Ribana; Stachniss, Cyrill

    2016-06-01

    The detection of traces is a main task of forensics. Hyperspectral imaging is a potential method from which we expect to capture more fluorescence effects than with common forensic light sources. This paper shows that the use of hyperspectral imaging is suited for the analysis of latent traces and extends the classical concept to the conservation of the crime scene for retrospective laboratory analysis. We examine specimen of blood, semen and saliva traces in several dilution steps, prepared on cardboard substrate. As our key result we successfully make latent traces visible up to dilution factor of 1:8000. We can attribute most of the detectability to interference of electromagnetic light with the water content of the traces in the shortwave infrared region of the spectrum. In a classification task we use several dimensionality reduction methods (PCA and LDA) in combination with a Maximum Likelihood classifier, assuming normally distributed data. Further, we use Random Forest as a competitive approach. The classifiers retrieve the exact positions of labelled trace preparation up to highest dilution and determine posterior probabilities. By modelling the classification task with a Markov Random Field we are able to integrate prior information about the spatial relation of neighboured pixel labels.

  16. Method of Detecting Coliform Bacteria from Reflected Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of detecting coliform bacteria in water from reflected light, and also includes devices for the measurement, calculation and transmission of data relating to that method.

  17. Pluto-Charon: Infrared Reflectance from 3.6 to 8.0 Micrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.; Emery, Joshua P.; Stansberry, John A.; VanCleve, Jeffrey E.

    2004-01-01

    We have measured the spectral reflectance of the Pluto-Charon pair at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 micrometers with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) (G. G. Fazzio et al. Ap.J.Supp. 154, 10-17, 2004) on the Spitzer Space Telescope (STS), at eight different longitudes that cover a full rotation of the planet. STS does not have sufficient resolution to separate the light from the planet and the satellite. The image of the Pluto-Charon pair is clearly visible at each of the four wavelengths. We will discuss the spectral reflectance in terms of models that include the known components of Pluto and Charon s surfaces, and evidence for diurnal variations.

  18. Red and infrared light distribution in blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Magalhães, Ana Carolina; Yoshimura, Elisabeth M.

    2013-02-01

    Low level laser therapy (LLLT) is used in several applications, including the reduction of inflammatory processes. It might be used to prevent the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), which some patients develop after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) surgery. The objectives of this study were to investigate light distribution inside blood, in order to implement the LLLT during CPB, and, through this study, to determine the best wavelength and the best way to perform the treatment. The blood, diluted to the same conditions of CPB procedure was contained inside a cuvette and an optical fiber was used to collect the scattered light. Two wavelengths were used: 632.8 nm and 820 nm. Light distribution in blood inside CPB tubes was also evaluated. Compared to the 820 nm light, the 632.8 nm light is scattered further away from the laser beam, turning it possible that a bigger volume of blood be treated. The blood should be illuminated through the smallest diameter CPB tube, using at least four distinct points around it, in only one cross section, because the blood is kept passing through the tube all the time and the whole volume will be illuminated.

  19. Light Reflection from Water Surfaces Perturbed by Falling Rain Droplets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molesini, Giuseppe; Vannoni, Maurizio

    2009-01-01

    An account of peculiar light patterns produced by reflection in a pool under falling rain droplets was recently reported by Molesini and Vannoni (2008 Eur. J. Phys. 29 403-11). The mathematical approach, however, only covered the case of a symmetrical location of a light source and the observer's eyes with respect to the vertical of the falling…

  20. Studying infrared light therapy for treating Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Mengmeng; Wang, Qiyan; Zeng, Yuhui; Meng, Qingqiang; Zhang, Jun; Wei, Xunbin

    2016-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an extensive neurodegenerative disease. It is generally believed that there are some connections between AD and amyloid protein plaques in the brain. AD is a chronic disease that usually starts slowly and gets worse over time. The typical symptoms are memory loss, language disorders, mood swings and behavioral issues. Gradual losses of somatic functions eventually lead patients to death. Currently, the main therapeutic method is pharmacotherapy, which may temporarily reduce symptoms, but has many side effects. No current treatment can reverse AD's deterioration. Infrared (IR) light therapy has been studied in a range of single and multiple irradiation protocols in previous studies and was found beneficial for neuropathology. In our research, we have verified the effect of infrared light on AD through Alzheimer's disease mouse model. This transgenic mouse model is made by co-injecting two vectors encoding mutant amyloid precursor protein (APP) and mutant presenilin-1 (PSEN1). We designed an experimental apparatus for treating mice, which primarily includes a therapeutic box and a LED array, which emits infrared light. After the treatment, we assessed the effects of infrared light by testing cognitive performance of the mice in Morris water maze. Our results show that infra-red therapy is able to improve cognitive performance in the mouse model. It might provide a novel and safe way to treat Alzheimer's disease.

  1. Development of an ultra-compact mid-infrared attenuated total reflectance spectrophotometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong Soo; Lee, Tae-Ro; Yoon, Gilwon

    2014-07-01

    Mid-infrared spectroscopy has been an important tool widely used for qualitative analysis in various fields. However, portable or personal use is size and cost prohibitive for either Fourier transform infrared or attenuated total reflectance (ATR) spectrophotometers. In this study, we developed an ultra-compact ATR spectrophotometer whose frequency band was 5.5-11.0 μm. We used miniature components, such as a light source fabricated by semiconductor technology, a linear variable filter, and a pyro-electric array detector. There were no moving parts. Optimal design based on two light sources, a zippered configuration of the array detector and ATR optics could produce absorption spectra that might be used for qualitative analysis. A microprocessor synchronized the pulsed light sources and detector, and all the signals were processed digitally. The size was 13.5×8.5×3.5 cm3 and the weight was 300 grams. Due to its low cost, our spectrophotometer can replace many online monitoring devices. Another application could be for a u-healthcare system installed in the bathroom or attached to a smartphone for monitoring substances in body fluids.

  2. Mid- Versus Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy for On-Site Determination of Soil Carbon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research has demonstrated that the determination of soil C diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) is often more accurate and produces more robust calibrations than near-infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) when analyzing ground, dry soils. DRIFTS is also not ...

  3. Near- and Mid-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy for the Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Agricultural Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For several decades near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) has been used to determine the composition of a variety of agricultural products. More recently, diffuse reflectance Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) has similarly been shown to be able to determine the co...

  4. Cholesteric liquid crystals with a broad light reflection band.

    PubMed

    Mitov, Michel

    2012-12-11

    The cholesteric-liquid-crystalline structure, which concerns the organization of chromatin, collagen, chitin, or cellulose, is omnipresent in living matter. In technology, it is found in temperature and pressure sensors, supertwisted nematic liquid crystal displays, optical filters, reflective devices, or cosmetics. A cholesteric liquid crystal reflects light because of its helical structure. The reflection is selective - the bandwidth is limited to a few tens of nanometers and the reflectance is equal to at most 50% for unpolarized incident light, which is a consequence of the polarization-selectivity rule. These limits must be exceeded for innovative applications like polarizer-free reflective displays, broadband polarizers, optical data storage media, polarization-independent devices, stealth technologies, or smart switchable reflective windows to control solar light and heat. Novel cholesteric-liquid-crystalline architectures with the related fabrication procedures must therefore be developed. This article reviews solutions found in living matter and laboratories to broaden the bandwidth around a central reflection wavelength, do without the polarization-selectivity rule and go beyond the reflectance limit. PMID:23090724

  5. Study and Development of near-Infrared Reflective and Absorptive Materials for Energy Saving Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yu Xing

    Near-Infrared (NIR) materials find applications in the field of energy saving. Both NIR reflective and absorptive materials can be used as energy saving materials with different working principles. The reflective materials can reflect the NIR light preventing it from being transmitted. Silver thin films are the best option as reflective films based on its reflectivity and cost. On the other hand, NIR absorptive materials can effectively convert the absorbed NIR light from sunlight to heat or electric energy. The first part of this research explored methods of preparing silver thin films that could be processed at low cost. The second part involved the design, synthesis and characterization of nickel coordination polymers as NIR absorptive materials. In part 1, different solution based methods of preparing silver thin films were studied. A silver nanoparticles solution was used to make thin film by a spray-pyrolysis process. Another method involved the surface activation with a fluoro-compound or silver nanoparticles followed by electroless silver plating on different substrates. Both methods could be processed at low cost. The obtained silver films showed NIR reflection of 50˜90% with transmission of 15-28% in the visible region. In part 2, two Nickel coordination polymers were explored. Tetraamino compounds were used as bridging ligands to increase the scope of electronic delocalization and metal-ligand orbital overlap which would reduce the energy gap to the NIR region. As a result, both polymers showed broad NIR absorption with maximum of 835 and 880 nm, respectively. In addition, the polymer showed NIR halochromism. This ground study pointed out both Ni coordination polymers as NIR absorptive materials with NIR halochromism.

  6. Design and realization of a contact-less interaction system based on infrared reflection photoelectric detection array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fei; Lei, Bing; Feng, Ying

    2015-10-01

    Due to the good performance of high sensitivity, quick response and low cost, infrared reflection detection technology is widely used in various fields. In this work, we present a novel contact-less interaction system which is based on infrared reflection detection technology. The system is mainly composed of a Micro Controller Unit (MCU), upper computer and photoelectric detection module. The MCU is utilized to control the photoelectric detection module and to make sure that the sensing unit is lighted one by one in a given order. When the interactive object appears upon the infrared reflection photoelectric detection array, its position information will be ensured and sent to the upper computer through MCU. In this system, every sensing unit is lighted for 1ms, and the detection array includes 8×8 units. It means that the photoelectric detection array will scan 15.6 times per-second. The experimental research results indicate that the factors affecting the detection range including the working current of transmitting diode, modulation frequency, and the reflectivity of the interactive object. When the working current is 10mA, and the modulation frequency is 80 KHz, the system has a detection range of 20 cm. Moreover, efficient modulation and demodulation of optical signal is quite necessary to remove the influence of surrounding light.

  7. Self-assembled flower-like antimony trioxide microstructures with high infrared reflectance performance

    SciTech Connect

    Ge, Shengsong; Yang, Xiaokun; Shao, Qian; Liu, Qingyun; Wang, Tiejun; Wang, Lingyun; Wang, Xiaojie

    2013-04-15

    A simple hydrothermal process was adopted to self-assembly prepare high infrared reflective antimony trioxide with three-dimensional flower-like microstructures. The morphologies of antimony trioxide microstructures were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) respectively. It is also found that experimental parameters, such as NaOH concentration, surfactant concentration and volume ratio of ethanol–water played crucial roles in controlling the morphologies of Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} microstructures. A possible growth mechanism of flower-like Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} microstructure was proposed based on the experimental data. UV–vis–NIR spectra verified that the near infrared reflectivity of the obtained flower-like microstructures could averagely achieve as 92% with maximum reflectivity of 98%, obviously higher than that of other different morphologies of antimony trioxide microstructures. It is expected that the flower-like Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructures have some applications in optical materials and heat insulation coatings. - Graphical abstract: Flower-like Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} microstructures that composed of nanosheets with thickness of ca. 100 nm exhibit high reflectivity under UV–vis–NIR spectra. Highlights: ► Uniform flower-like microstructures were synthesized via simple hydrothermal reaction. ► The flower-like Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} microstructures exhibited higher reflectivity than other morphologies under the UV–vis–NIR light. ► Influencing parameters on the Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} morphologies have been discussed in detail. ► Possible mechanism leading to flower-like microstructures was proposed.

  8. Measuring Snow Grain Size with the Near-Infrared Emitting Reflectance Dome (NERD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, A. M.; Flanner, M.

    2014-12-01

    Because of its high visible albedo, snow plays a large role in Earth's surface energy balance. This role is a subject of intense study, but due to the wide range of snow albedo, variations in the characteristics of snow grains can introduce radiative feedbacks in a snow pack. Snow grain size, for example, is one property which directly affects a snow pack's absorption spectrum. Previous studies model and observe this spectrum, but potential feedbacks induced by these variations are largely unknown. Here, we implement a simple and inexpensive technique to measure snow grain size in an instrument we call the Near-infrared Emitting Reflectance Dome (NERD). A small black styrene dome (~17cm diameter), fitted with two narrowband light-emitting diodes (LEDs) centered around 1300nm and 1550nm and three near-infrared reverse-biased photodiodes, is placed over the snow surface enabling a multi-spectral measurement of the hemispheric directional reflectance factor (HDRF). We illuminate the snow at each wavelength, measure directional reflectance, and infer grain size from the difference in HDRFs measured on the same snow crystals at fixed viewing angles. We validate measurements from the NERD using two different reflectance standards, materials designed to be near perfect Lambertian reflectors, having known, constant reflectances (~99% and ~55%) across a wide range of wavelengths. Using a 3D Monte Carlo model simulating photon pathways through a pack of spherical snow grains, we calculate the difference in HDRFs at 1300nm and 1550nm to predict the calibration curve for a wide range of grain sizes. This theoretically derived curve gives a relationship between effective radius and the difference in HDRFs and allows us to approximate grain sizes using the NERD in just a few seconds. Further calibration requires knowledge of truth values attainable using a previously validated instrument or measurements from an inter-comparison workshop.

  9. A system for simultaneous near-infrared reflectance and transillumination imaging of occlusal carious lesions

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Jacob C.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Clinicians need technologies to improve the diagnosis of questionable occlusal carious lesions (QOC’s) and determine if decay has penetrated to the underlying dentin. Assessing lesion depth from near-infrared (NIR) images holds great potential due to the high transparency of enamel and stain to NIR light at λ=1300–1700-nm, which allows direct visualization and quantified measurements of enamel demineralization. Unfortunately, NIR reflectance measurements alone are limited in utility for approximating occlusal lesion depth >200-μm due to light attenuation from the lesion body. Previous studies sought to combine NIR reflectance and transillumination measurements taken at λ=1300-nm in order to estimate QOC depth and severity. The objective of this study was to quantify the change in lesion contrast and size measured from multispectral NIR reflectance and transillumination images of natural occlusal carious lesions with increasing lesion depth and severity in order to determine the optimal multimodal wavelength combinations for estimating QOC depth. Extracted teeth with varying amounts of natural occlusal decay were measured using a multispectral-multimodal NIR imaging system at prominent wavelengths within the λ=1300–1700-nm spectral region. Image analysis software was used to calculate lesion contrast and area values between sound and carious enamel regions. PMID:27006524

  10. A system for simultaneous near-infrared reflectance and transillumination imaging of occlusal carious lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Jacob C.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    Clinicians need technologies to improve the diagnosis of questionable occlusal carious lesions (QOC's) and determine if decay has penetrated to the underlying dentin. Assessing lesion depth from near-infrared (NIR) images holds great potential due to the high transparency of enamel and stain to NIR light at λ=1300-1700-nm, which allows direct visualization and quantified measurements of enamel demineralization. Unfortunately, NIR reflectance measurements alone are limited in utility for approximating occlusal lesion depth >200-μm due to light attenuation from the lesion body. Previous studies sought to combine NIR reflectance and transillumination measurements taken at λ=1300-nm in order to estimate QOC depth and severity. The objective of this study was to quantify the change in lesion contrast and size measured from multispectral NIR reflectance and transillumination images of natural occlusal carious lesions with increasing lesion depth and severity in order to determine the optimal multimodal wavelength combinations for estimating QOC depth. Extracted teeth with varying amounts of natural occlusal decay were measured using a multispectral-multimodal NIR imaging system at prominent wavelengths within the λ=1300-1700-nm spectral region. Image analysis software was used to calculate lesion contrast and area values between sound and carious enamel regions.

  11. Bio-inspired, subwavelength surface structures to control reflectivity, transmission, and scattering in the infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lora Gonzalez, Federico

    Controlling the reflection of visible and infrared (IR) light at interfaces is extremely important to increase the power efficiency and performance of optics, electro-optical and (thermo)photovoltaic systems. The eye of the moth has evolved subwavelength protuberances that increase light transmission into the eye tissue and prevent reflection. The subwavelength protuberances effectively grade the refractive index from that of air (n=1) to that of the tissue (n=1.4), making the interface gradual, suppressing reflection. In theory, the moth-eye (ME) structures can be implemented with any material platform to achieve an antireflectance effect by scaling the pitch and size of protuberances for the wavelength range of interest. In this work, a bio-inspired, scalable and substrate-independent surface modification protocol was developed to realize broadband antireflective structures based on the moth-eye principle. Quasi-ordered ME arrays were fabricated in IR relevant materials using a colloidal lithography method to achieve highly efficient, omni-directional transmission of mid and far infrared (IR) radiation. The effect of structure height and aspect ratio on transmittance and scattering is explored, with discussion on experimental techniques and effective medium theory (EMT). The highest aspect ratio structures (AR = 9.4) achieved peak single-side transmittance of 98%, with >85% transmission for lambda = 7--30 microns. A detailed photon balance constructed by transmission, forward scattering, specular reflection and diffuse reflection measurements to quantify optical losses due to near-field effects will be discussed. In addition, angle-dependent transmission measurements showed that moth-eye structures provide superior antireflective properties compared to unstructured interfaces over a wide angular range (0--60° incidence). Finally, subwavelength ME structures are incorporated on a Si substrate to enhance the absorption of near infrared (NIR) light in PtSi films to

  12. Laboratory Infrared Optical Constants and Reflectance Spectra of Silicon Carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitman, Karly M.; Hofmeister, A. M.; Speck, A. K.

    2006-12-01

    The observed SiC features in astronomical IR spectra of carbon stars (C-stars) correlate with thin-film IR absorption spectra of β-SiC, the polytype most commonly found as presolar grains in meteorites. Comparison between spectra of astronomical sources and laboratory compounds alone is also not sufficient to assess the relative contributions of different minerals to a given observed spectrum: radiative transfer modeling must be performed (cf. Thompson et al. 2006, ApJ, 652, in press). For C-star spectra, radiative transfer modeling is impeded by the lack of trustworthy SiC optical constants for both β and α polytypes. To address the need for improved dust composition parameters, we measured midand far-infrared room temperature reflectance spectra for several polytypes and orientations (E perpendicular to c, E parallel to c) of commercially manufactured SiC: semiconductor grade purity 3C (β-)SiC, several colors of 6H (α-SiC), and synthetic moissanite (α-SiC). The extremely high reflectivity was connected with discrepancies existing among previous absorption laboratory spectra from thin films, crystallites, and powders. We extracted the real and imaginary parts of the complex refractive index (m(λ) = n(λ) + ik(λ)) from these data using classical dispersion analyses [Spitzer et al. 1962] and supplied these results to 1-D radiative transfer models (DUSTY; Ivezic & Elitzur 1995; Nenkova et al. 2000) to determine how the emerging spectrum should change in response to our n(λ) and k(λ) and other dust shell parameters (effective stellar temperature, inner dust shell temperature, optical depth). The results of this work have direct application to carbon-rich AGB stellar outflows, novae, supernovae, and potentially proto-planetary nebulae and may further our understanding of the contribution of SiC to carbon star spectra and the lack of SiC features in the ISM. Work supported by NASA APRA04-000-0041, NSF-AST 0607418, and performed under contract to NASA.

  13. Brain tumour differentiation: rapid stratified serum diagnostics via attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hands, James R; Clemens, Graeme; Stables, Ryan; Ashton, Katherine; Brodbelt, Andrew; Davis, Charles; Dawson, Timothy P; Jenkinson, Michael D; Lea, Robert W; Walker, Carol; Baker, Matthew J

    2016-05-01

    The ability to diagnose cancer rapidly with high sensitivity and specificity is essential to exploit advances in new treatments to lead significant reductions in mortality and morbidity. Current cancer diagnostic tests observing tissue architecture and specific protein expression for specific cancers suffer from inter-observer variability, poor detection rates and occur when the patient is symptomatic. A new method for the detection of cancer using 1 μl of human serum, attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and pattern recognition algorithms is reported using a 433 patient dataset (3897 spectra). To the best of our knowledge, we present the largest study on serum mid-infrared spectroscopy for cancer research. We achieve optimum sensitivities and specificities using a Radial Basis Function Support Vector Machine of between 80.0 and 100 % for all strata and identify the major spectral features, hence biochemical components, responsible for the discrimination within each stratum. We assess feature fed-SVM analysis for our cancer versus non-cancer model and achieve 91.5 and 83.0 % sensitivity and specificity respectively. We demonstrate the use of infrared light to provide a spectral signature from human serum to detect, for the first time, cancer versus non-cancer, metastatic cancer versus organ confined, brain cancer severity and the organ of origin of metastatic disease from the same sample enabling stratified diagnostics depending upon the clinical question asked. PMID:26874961

  14. Long-Term Reduction in Infrared Autofluorescence Caused by Infrared Light Below the Maximum Permissible Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Masella, Benjamin D.; Williams, David R.; Fischer, William S.; Rossi, Ethan A.; Hunter, Jennifer J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Many retinal imaging instruments use infrared wavelengths to reduce the risk of light damage. However, we have discovered that exposure to infrared illumination causes a long-lasting reduction in infrared autofluorescence (IRAF). We have characterized the dependence of this effect on radiant exposure and investigated its origin. Methods. A scanning laser ophthalmoscope was used to obtain IRAF images from two macaques before and after exposure to 790-nm light (15-450 J/cm2). Exposures were performed with either raster-scanning or uniform illumination. Infrared autofluorescence images also were obtained in two humans exposed to 790-nm light in a separate study. Humans were assessed with direct ophthalmoscopy, Goldmann visual fields, multifocal ERG, and photopic microperimetry to determine whether these measures revealed any effects in the exposed locations. Results. A significant decrease in IRAF after exposure to infrared light was seen in both monkeys and humans. In monkeys, the magnitude of this reduction increased with retinal radiant exposure. Partial recovery was seen at 1 month, with full recovery within 21 months. Consistent with a photochemical origin, IRAF decreases caused by either raster-scanning or uniform illumination were not significantly different. We were unable to detect any effect of the light exposure with any measure other than IRAF imaging. We cannot exclude the possibility that changes could be detected with more sensitive tests or longer follow-up. Conclusions. This long-lasting effect of infrared illumination in both humans and monkeys occurs at exposure levels four to five times below current safety limits. The photochemical basis for this phenomenon remains unknown. PMID:24845640

  15. Reflection of femtosecond laser light in multipulse ablation of metals

    SciTech Connect

    Vorobyev, A. Y.; Guo Chunlei

    2011-08-15

    The shot-to-shot reflectance of high-intensity laser light is studied as a function of both the number of laser shots and laser fluence in multipulse ablation of a metal when the irradiated surface undergoes structural changes from an initially smooth surface to a deep crater. Our study shows that the reflectance of the irradiated surface significantly decreases due to the high intensity of laser pulses and the laser-induced surface structures in ablation regimes typically used for femtosecond laser processing of materials. The high-intensity effect dominates in the reflection reduction at low numbers of laser shots when laser-induced surface structures do not cause the reflectance to decrease noticeably. With increasing the number of laser shots, the structural effect comes into play, and both high-intensity and structural effects quickly reduce the reflectance of the sample to a low value.

  16. Determination of plant silicon content with near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Smis, Adriaan; Ancin Murguzur, Francisco Javier; Struyf, Eric; Soininen, Eeva M.; Herranz Jusdado, Juan G.; Meire, Patrick; Bråthen, Kari Anne

    2014-01-01

    Silicon (Si) is one of the most common elements in the earth bedrock, and its continental cycle is strongly biologically controlled. Yet, research on the biogeochemical cycle of Si in ecosystems is hampered by the time and cost associated with the currently used chemical analysis methods. Here, we assessed the suitability of Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS) for measuring Si content in plant tissues. NIR spectra depend on the characteristics of the present bonds between H and N, C and O, which can be calibrated against concentrations of various compounds. Because Si in plants always occurs as hydrated condensates of orthosilicic acid (Si(OH)4), linked to organic biomolecules, we hypothesized that NIRS is suitable for measuring Si content in plants across a range of plant species. We based our testing on 442 samples of 29 plant species belonging to a range of growth forms. We calibrated the NIRS method against a well-established plant Si analysis method by using partial least-squares regression. Si concentrations ranged from detection limit (0.24 ppmSi) to 7.8% Si on dry weight and were well predicted by NIRS. The model fit with validation data was good across all plant species (n = 141, R2 = 0.90, RMSEP = 0.24), but improved when only graminoids were modeled (n = 66, R2 = 0.95, RMSEP = 0.10). A species specific model for the grass Deschampsia cespitosa showed even slightly better results than the model for all graminoids (n = 16, R2 = 0.93, RMSEP = 0.015). We show for the first time that NIRS is applicable for determining plant Si concentration across a range of plant species and growth forms, and represents a time- and cost-effective alternative to the chemical Si analysis methods. As NIRS can be applied concurrently to a range of plant organic constituents, it opens up unprecedented research possibilities for studying interrelations between Si and other plant compounds in vegetation, and for addressing the role of Si in ecosystems across a range of Si

  17. Light reflection from a sea-ice cover during the onset of summer melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perovich, Donald K.; Govoni, John W.

    1992-12-01

    A knowledge of the reflection of light from a sea ice cover is important for both the interpretation of remote sensing imagery at visible and near-infrared wavelengths and for climatological studies involving the energy balance of the polar regions. Spectral measurements of albedo, bidirectional reflectance function (BDRF), and polarized reflectance were made for sea ice conditions found during the onset of melt in the Canadian Arctic. The wavelength region studied was from the ultraviolet to the near infrared (370 - 1000 nm). Results for five surface types are presented: (1) dry snow, (2) dry snow with a glazed surface, (3) bare ice, (4) blue ice, and (5) a melt pond. Results indicate that spectral albedos decrease at all wavelengths as the melt season progresses and the surface conditions evolve from (1) through (5), and that the decrease is most pronounced at longer wavelengths. Reflectance data suggest that (1) at most angles reflectance has the same spectral shape as albedo, (2) at 30 degree(s) elevation reflectance is for the most part azimuthally isotropic and (3) at 60 degree(s) elevation a significant specular component was evident at 0 degree(s) azimuth, especially for the bare ice case.

  18. Strong transmittance above the light line in mid-infrared two-dimensional photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraeh, Christian; Martinez-Hurtado, J. L.; Zeitlmair, Martin; Popescu, Alexandru; Hedler, Harry; Finley, Jonathan J.

    2015-06-01

    The mid-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum between 3 and 8 μm hosts absorption lines of gases relevant for chemical and biological sensing. 2D photonic crystal structures capable of guiding light in this region of the spectrum have been widely studied, and their implementation into miniaturized sensors has been proposed. However, light guiding in conventional 2D photonic crystals is usually restricted to a frequency range below the light line, which is the dispersion relation of light in the media surrounding the structures. These structures rely on total internal reflection for confinement of the light in z-direction normal to the lattice plane. In this work, 2D mid-infrared photonic crystals consisting of microtube arrays that mitigate these limitations have been developed. Due to their high aspect ratios of ˜1:30, they are perceived as semi-infinite in the z-direction. Light transmission experiments in the 5-8 μm range reveal attenuations as low as 0.27 dB/100 μm, surpassing the limitations for light guiding above the light line in conventional 2D photonic crystals. Fair agreement is obtained between these experiments, 2D band structure and transmission simulations.

  19. Strong transmittance above the light line in mid-infrared two-dimensional photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Kraeh, Christian; Martinez-Hurtado, J. L.; Zeitlmair, Martin; Finley, Jonathan J.; Popescu, Alexandru; Hedler, Harry

    2015-06-14

    The mid-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum between 3 and 8 μm hosts absorption lines of gases relevant for chemical and biological sensing. 2D photonic crystal structures capable of guiding light in this region of the spectrum have been widely studied, and their implementation into miniaturized sensors has been proposed. However, light guiding in conventional 2D photonic crystals is usually restricted to a frequency range below the light line, which is the dispersion relation of light in the media surrounding the structures. These structures rely on total internal reflection for confinement of the light in z-direction normal to the lattice plane. In this work, 2D mid-infrared photonic crystals consisting of microtube arrays that mitigate these limitations have been developed. Due to their high aspect ratios of ∼1:30, they are perceived as semi-infinite in the z-direction. Light transmission experiments in the 5–8 μm range reveal attenuations as low as 0.27 dB/100 μm, surpassing the limitations for light guiding above the light line in conventional 2D photonic crystals. Fair agreement is obtained between these experiments, 2D band structure and transmission simulations.

  20. Attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) imaging of tissues and live cells.

    PubMed

    Andrew Chan, K L; Kazarian, Sergei G

    2016-03-29

    FTIR spectroscopic imaging is a label-free, non-destructive and chemically specific technique that can be utilised to study a wide range of biomedical applications such as imaging of biopsy tissues, fixed cells and live cells, including cancer cells. In particular, the use of FTIR imaging in attenuated total reflection (ATR) mode has attracted much attention because of the small, but well controlled, depth of penetration and corresponding path length of infrared light into the sample. This has enabled the study of samples containing large amounts of water, as well as achieving an increased spatial resolution provided by the high refractive index of the micro-ATR element. This review is focused on discussing the recent developments in FTIR spectroscopic imaging, particularly in ATR sampling mode, and its applications in the biomedical science field as well as discussing the future opportunities possible as the imaging technology continues to advance. PMID:26488803

  1. Light Reflection in a Pool under Falling Rain Droplets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molesini, Giuseppe; Vannoni, Maurizio

    2008-01-01

    The observation of peculiar light patterns produced by reflection from a water surface perturbed by falling droplets is reported. The phenomenon is analysed in some detail, with a simplified model of a surface wave packet. A simple experiment reproducing the phenomenon in the laboratory is presented, also showing evidence of pattern distortions…

  2. Reflected light imaging of ON and OFF responses in frog retina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Xin-Cheng; Liu, Lei; Li, Yang-Guo

    2009-02-01

    Using a near infrared (NIR) light flood-illumination imager equipped with a high-speed CCD camera, we demonstrated reflected light imaging of stimulus-evoked retinal ON and OFF responses in isolated, but intact, frog eye. Both fast and slow transient intrinsic optical signals (IOSs) were observed. Fast optical response occurred immediately after the stimulus onset, and correlated tightly with the ON and OFF edges of the visible light stimulus. High resolution images revealed both positive (increasing) and negative (decreasing) IOSs, and dynamic optical change at individual CCD pixels could often exceed 10% of the background light intensity. Our experiment on isolated eye suggests that further development of fast, high resolution fundus imager will allow robust detection of fast IOSs in vivo, and thus allow noninvasive, three-dimensional evaluation of retinal neural function.

  3. Far-Infrared Beamline at the Canadian Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billinghurst, Brant E.; May, Tim E.

    2014-06-01

    The far-infrared beamline at the Canadian Light Source is a state of the art user facility, which offers significantly more far-infrared brightness than conventional globar sources. The infrared radiation is collected from a bending magnet through a 55 X 37 mrad2 port to a Bruker IFS 125 HR spectrometer, which is equipped with a nine compartment scanning arm, allowing it to achieve spectral resolution better than 0.001 cm-1. Currently the beamline can achieve signal to noise ratios up to 8 times that which can be achieved using a traditional thermal source. This talk will provide an overview of the the beamline, and the capabilities available to users, recent and planned improvements including the addition of a Glow Discharge cell and advances in Coherent Synchrotron Radiation. Furthermore, the process of acquiring access to the facility will be covered.

  4. The Far-Infrared Beamline at the Canadian Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billinghurst, Brant; May, Tim

    2009-06-01

    The far-infrared beamline at the Canadian Light Source. is a state of the art facility, which offers significantly more far-infrared brightness than conventional globar sources. While there is the potential to direct this advantage to many research areas, to date most of the effort has been directed toward high-resolution gas phase studies. The infrared radiation is collected from a bending magnet through a 55 X 37 mrad^{2} port to a Bruker IFS 125 HR spectrometer, which is equipped with a nine compartment scanning arm, allowing it to achieve spectral resolution better than 0.001 cm^{-1}. Currently the beamline can achieve signal to noise ratios up to 8 times that which can be achieved using a traditional thermal source. Data from the recently completed commissioning experiments will be presented along with a general overview of the beamline.

  5. Asymmetric light reflectance from metal nanoparticle arrays on dielectric surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Huang, K.; Pan, W.; Zhu, J. F.; Li, J. C.; Gao, N.; Liu, C.; Ji, L.; Yu, E. T.; Kang, J.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Asymmetric light reflectance associated with localized surface plasmons excited in metal nanoparticles on a quartz substrate is observed and analyzed. This phenomenon is explained by the superposition of two waves, the wave reflected by the air/quartz interface and that reflected by the metal nanoparticles, and the resulting interference effects. Far field behavior investigation suggests that zero reflection can be achieved by optimizing the density of metal nanoparticles. Near field behavior investigation suggests that the coupling efficiency of localized surface plasmon can be additionally enhanced by separating the metal NPs from substrates using a thin film with refractive index smaller than the substrate. The latter behavior is confirmed via surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy studies using metal nanoparticles on Si/SiO2 substrates. PMID:26679353

  6. Infrared supernova light curves and asymmetric stellar mass loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emmering, Robert T.; Chevalier, Roger A.

    1988-01-01

    Infrared dust emission echos from Type II supernovae are a natural consequence of the heating of circumstellar dust by the supernova light. Red supergiants, the likely progenitors of most Type II supernovae, are known in some cases to have asymmetric circumstellar envelopes. It is noted that an asymmetric dust distribution can have a substantial effect on the evolution of an infrared echo and results are presented for an ellipsoidal dust distribution. The angle between the symmetry axis and the line of sight is unknown in any particular case so that detailed observations of a number of supernovae will be necessary to test for asymmetries. Asymmetries may also be observable in the radio structure of supernovae and in a possible scattered-light echo.

  7. High Efficiency Near Infrared Spectrometer for Zodiacal Light Spectral Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutyrea, A. S.

    2008-01-01

    We are developing a near infrared spectrometer for measuring solar absorption lines in the zodiacal light in the near infrared region. R. Reynolds at el. (2004, ApJ 61 2, 1206) demonstrated that observing single Fraunhofer line can be a powerful tool for extracting zodiacal light parameters based on their measurements of the profile of the Mg I lneat 5 184 A. We are extending this technique to the near infrared with the primary goal of measuring the absolute intensity of the zodiacal light. This measurement will provide the crucial information needed to accurately subtract zodiacal emission from the DIRBE measurements to get a much higher quality measurement of the extragalactic IR background. The instrument design is based on a dual Fabry-Perot interferometer with a narrow band filter. Its double etalon design allows to achieve high spectral contrast to reject the bright out of band telluric OH emission. High spectral contrast is absolutely necessary to achieve detection limits needed to accurately measure the intensity of the absorption line. We present the design, estimated performance of the instrument with the expected results of the observing program.

  8. New formulation of the laws of reflection of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Ángel Luis; Martínez, Guadalupe; Suero, María. Isabel

    2013-11-01

    A new formulation of the laws of reflection of light based on the particle model is presented, and it is shown the equivalence between the new and the classic formulations. The proposed formulation has a significant educational value, as it allows drawing analogies between the phenomena of light reflection and elastic collisions, which are very well known by students. The proposed formulation is: "If at one point on a surface whose orientation in space is defined by a unit vector k, strikes an incident ray corresponding to a plane wave (propagating through a homogeneous and isotropic medium) whose direction of propagation coincides with that from a unit vector ui [expressed in terms of its components with respect to an orthonormal coordinate system, with one of its axis coinciding with the direction of k (ui = uix i + uiy j + uiz k)], it will be reflected so that the unit vector whose direction coincides with that from the reflected ray, ur, will only differ from the unit vector whose direction coincides with that from the incident ray, in the change of the sign of the component in the direction of k (ur = uix i + uiy j - uiz k)". Stated in everyday language, is equivalent of saying that the reflection of light occurs as if the photons underwent perfectly elastic collisions with the surface in question. As an example, this formulation is applied for the resolution of the classic reflection problem of the three plane mirrors forming a trirectangular trihedron.

  9. Stray-light suppression in a reflecting white-light coronagraph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romoli, Marco; Weiser, Heinz; Gardner, Larry D.; Kohl, John L.

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of stray-light suppression in the white-light channel of the Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer experiment for the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory is reported. The white-light channel consists of a reflecting telescope with external and internal occultation and a polarimeter section. Laboratory tests and analytical methods are used to perform the analysis. The various stray-light contributions are classified in two main categories: the contribution from sunlight that passes directly through the entrance aperture and the contribution of sunlight that is diffracted by the edges of the entrance aperture. Values of the stray-light contributions from various sources and the total stray-light level for observations at heliocentric heights from 1.4 to 5 solar radii are derived. Anticipated signal-to-stray-light ratios are presented together with the effective stray-light rejection by the polarimeter, demonstrating the efficacy of the stray-light suppression design.

  10. Spectral confocal reflection microscopy using a white light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, M.; Juškaitis, R.; Wilson, T.

    2008-08-01

    We present a reflection confocal microscope incorporating a white light supercontinuum source and spectral detection. The microscope provides images resolved spatially in three-dimensions, in addition to spectral resolution covering the wavelength range 450-650nm. Images and reflection spectra of artificial and natural specimens are presented, showing features that are not normally revealed in conventional microscopes or confocal microscopes using discrete line lasers. The specimens include thin film structures on semiconductor chips, iridescent structures in Papilio blumei butterfly scales, nacre from abalone shells and opal gemstones. Quantitative size and refractive index measurements of transparent beads are derived from spectral interference bands.

  11. Tree Canopy Characterization for EO-1 Reflective and Thermal Infrared Validation Studies: Rochester, New York

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Jerrell R., Jr.; Smith, James A.

    2002-01-01

    The tree canopy characterization presented herein provided ground and tree canopy data for different types of tree canopies in support of EO-1 reflective and thermal infrared validation studies. These characterization efforts during August and September of 2001 included stem and trunk location surveys, tree structure geometry measurements, meteorology, and leaf area index (LAI) measurements. Measurements were also collected on thermal and reflective spectral properties of leaves, tree bark, leaf litter, soil, and grass. The data presented in this report were used to generate synthetic reflective and thermal infrared scenes and images that were used for the EO-1 Validation Program. The data also were used to evaluate whether the EO-1 ALI reflective channels can be combined with the Landsat-7 ETM+ thermal infrared channel to estimate canopy temperature, and also test the effects of separating the thermal and reflective measurements in time resulting from satellite formation flying.

  12. Characterization and Application of a Grazing Angle Objective for Quantitative Infrared Reflection Microspectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepper, Stephen V.

    1995-01-01

    A grazing angle objective on an infrared microspectrometer is studied for quantitative spectroscopy by considering the angular dependence of the incident intensity within the objective's angular aperture. The assumption that there is no angular dependence is tested by comparing the experimental reflectance of Si and KBr surfaces with the reflectance calculated by integrating the Fresnel reflection coefficient over the angular aperture under this assumption. Good agreement was found, indicating that the specular reflectance of surfaces can straight-forwardly be quantitatively integrated over the angular aperture without considering non-uniform incident intensity. This quantitative approach is applied to the thickness determination of dipcoated Krytox on gold. The infrared optical constants of both materials are known, allowing the integration to be carried out. The thickness obtained is in fair agreement with the value determined by ellipsometry in the visible. Therefore, this paper illustrates a method for more quantitative use of a grazing angle objective for infrared reflectance microspectroscopy.

  13. OBSERVATIONS OF THE NEAR-INFRARED SPECTRUM OF THE ZODIACAL LIGHT WITH CIBER

    SciTech Connect

    Tsumura, K.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Wada, T.; Battle, J.; Bock, J.; Zemcov, M.; Cooray, A.; Hristov, V.; Levenson, L. R.; Mason, P.; Sullivan, I.; Keating, B.; Renbarger, T.; Lee, D. H.; Nam, U. W.; Suzuki, K.

    2010-08-10

    Interplanetary dust (IPD) scatters solar radiation which results in the zodiacal light that dominates the celestial diffuse brightness at optical and near-infrared wavelengths. Both asteroid collisions and cometary ejections produce the IPD, but the relative contribution from these two sources is still unknown. The low resolution spectrometer (LRS) onboard the Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment (CIBER) observed the astrophysical sky spectrum between 0.75 and 2.1 {mu}m over a wide range of ecliptic latitude. The resulting zodiacal light spectrum is redder than the solar spectrum, and shows a broad absorption feature, previously unreported, at approximately 0.9 {mu}m, suggesting the existence of silicates in the IPD material. The spectral shape of the zodiacal light is isotropic at all ecliptic latitudes within the measurement error. The zodiacal light spectrum, including the extended wavelength range to 2.5 {mu}m using Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS) data, is qualitatively similar to the reflectance of S-type asteroids. This result can be explained by the proximity of S-type asteroidal dust to Earth's orbit, and the relatively high albedo of asteroidal dust compared with cometary dust.

  14. Accurate diffuse reflection measurements in the infrared spectral range.

    PubMed

    Richter, W; Erb, W

    1987-11-01

    A sphere arrangement for directional-hemispherical reflectance measurements in the 1-15-microm wavelength range is tested for its accuracy. Comparative measurements with the fundamental PTB sphere reflectometer in the overlapping spectral range between 1.0 and 1.1 microm indicate no systematic measurement uncertainties of the new device. The uncertainty of the reflectance measured by it is therefrom deduced to be +/-0.01 for the 1-5.6-microm wavelength range. PMID:20523415

  15. The Effect of Incident Light Polarization on Vegetation Bidirectional Reflectance Factor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgiev, Georgi T.; Thome, Kurt; Ranson, Kurtis J.; King, Michael D.; Butler, James J.

    2010-01-01

    The Laboratory-based Bidirectional Reflectance Factor (BRF) polarization study of vegetation is presented in this paper. The BRF was measured using a short-arc Xenon lamp/monochromator assembly producing an incoherent, tunable light source with a well-defined spectral bandpass at visible and near-infrared wavelengths of interest at 470 nm and 870 nm and coherent light source at 1.656 microns. All vegetation samples were measured using P and S linearly polarized incident light over a range of incident and scatter angles. By comparing these results, we quantitatively examine how the BRF of the samples depends on the polarization of the incident light. The differences are significant, depend strongly on the incident and scatter angles, and can be as high as 120% at 67 deg incident and 470nm. The global nature of Earth's processes requires consistent long-term calibration of all instruments involved in data retrieval. The BRF defines the reflection characteristics of Earth surface. It provides the reflectance of a target in a specific direction as a function of illumination and viewing geometry. The BRF is a function of wavelength and reflects the structural and optical properties of the surface. Various space and airborne radiometric and imaging remote sensing instruments are used in the remote sensing characterization of vegetation canopies and soils, oceans, or especially large pollution sources. The satellite data is validated through comparison with airborne, ground-based and laboratory-based data in an effort to fully understand the vegetation canopy reflectance, The Sun's light is assumed to be unpolarized at the top of the atmosphere; however it becomes polarized to some degree due to atmospheric effects by the time it reaches the vegetation canopy. Although there are numerous atmospheric correction models, laboratory data is needed for model verification and improvement.

  16. Spectroscopic direct detection of reflected light from extrasolar planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, J. H. C.; Figueira, P.; Santos, N. C.; Lovis, C.

    2013-12-01

    At optical wavelengths, an exoplanet's signature is essentially reflected light from the host star - several orders of magnitude fainter. Since it is superimposed on the star spectrum its detection has been a difficult observational challenge. However, the development of a new generation of instruments like Echelle Spectrograph for Rocky Exoplanets and Stable Spectroscopic Observations (ESPRESSO) and next-generation telescopes like the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) put us in a privileged position to detect these planets' reflected light as we will have access to extremely high signal-to-noise ratio spectra. With this work, we propose an alternative approach for the direct detection of the reflected light of an exoplanet. We simulated observations with ESPRESSO at Very Large Telescope (VLT) and high-resolution spectrograph (HIRES) at E-ELT of several star+planet systems, encompassing 10 h of the most favourable orbital phases. To the simulated spectra we applied the cross-correlation function to operate in a much higher signal-to-noise ratio domain than when compared with the spectra. The use of the cross-correlation function permitted us to recover the simulated planet signals at a level above 3σnoise significance on several prototypical (e.g. Neptune-type planet with a 2 d orbit with the VLT at 4.4σnoise significance) and real planetary systems (e.g. 55 Cnc e with the E-ELT at 4.9σnoise significance). Even by using a more pessimistic approach to the noise level estimation, where systematics in the spectra increase the noise 2-3 times, the detection of the reflected light from large close-orbit planets is possible. We have also shown that this kind of study is currently within reach of current instruments and telescopes (e.g. 51 Peg b with the VLT at 5.2σnoise significance), although at the limit of their capabilities.

  17. Selective reflection of light from Rb2 molecular vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shmavonyan, Svetlana; Khanbekyan, Aleksandr; Gogyan, Anahit; Movsisyan, Marina; Papoyan, Aram

    2015-07-01

    We report the first observation of selective reflection of light from an interface of a dielectric window and molecular vapor of Rb2 dimers formed in all-sapphire sealed-off rubidium vapor cell (temperature up to 520 °C, atomic and molecular densities up to 1018 and 3 × 1016 cm-3, respectively). The selective reflection signals were recorded on various rovibronic components of 1(X) 1 Σg+ - 1(A) 1 Σu+ bound-bound electronic transition of Rb2 by scanning a diode laser frequency in a spectral range of 851-854 nm. Mainly selective reflection signals corresponding to groups of several rovibronic transitions have been recorded, which was attributed to high spectral density, large collisional broadening, and low oscillator strength of individual rovibronic transitions.

  18. Qualitative flow visualization using colored lights and reflective flakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoroddsen, S. T.; Bauer, J. M.

    1999-07-01

    We present a novel flow-visualization technique utilizing reflective flakes in combination with color illumination. Three differently colored columated light beams are used to illuminate the flow, each color being directed from a separate direction. In this way, the color of the light reflected from the flakes gives an indication of the local flake orientation. The flake orientation in complex three-dimensional (3-D) flow is in general a complicated function of the local velocity gradient tensor, but can be calculated if the underlying velocity field is known. This has recently been demonstrated by Gauthier et al. [Phys. Fluids. 10, 2147 (1998)] using monochome light. In complex flow fields the distribution of flakes may, however, be rearranged by the motion, thus making the local intensity of reflection depend on both orientation and flake concentration. The color is, however, immune to the local number density of flakes inside the flow, making quantitative information possible. This technique is demonstrated by visualizing the finer details of vortices in a Taylor-Couette device.

  19. Infrared light gated MoS₂ field effect transistor.

    PubMed

    Fang, Huajing; Lin, Ziyuan; Wang, Xinsheng; Tang, Chun-Yin; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Fan; Chai, Yang; Li, Qiang; Yan, Qingfeng; Chan, H L W; Dai, Ji-Yan

    2015-12-14

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂) as a promising 2D material has attracted extensive attentions due to its unique physical, optical and electrical properties. In this work, we demonstrate an infrared (IR) light gated MoS₂ transistor through a device composed of MoS₂ monolayer and a ferroelectric single crystal Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O₃-PbTiO₃ (PMN-PT). With a monolayer MoS₂ onto the top surface of (111) PMN-PT crystal, the drain current of MoS₂ channel can be modulated with infrared illumination and this modulation process is reversible. Thus, the transistor can work as a new kind of IR photodetector with a high IR responsivity of 114%/Wcm⁻². The IR response of MoS₂ transistor is attributed to the polarization change of PMN-PT single crystal induced by the pyroelectric effect which results in a field effect. Our result promises the application of MoS₂ 2D material in infrared optoelectronic devices. Combining with the intrinsic photocurrent feature of MoS₂ in the visible range, the MoS₂ on ferroelectric single crystal may be sensitive to a broadband wavelength of light. PMID:26698982

  20. Comments on a peak of AlxGa1-xN observed by infrared reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, G.; Engelbrecht, J. A. A.; Lee, M. E.; Wagener, M. C.; Henry, A.

    2016-05-01

    AlxGa1-xN epilayers, grown on c-plane oriented sapphire substrates by metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD), were evaluated using FTIR infrared reflectance spectroscopy. A peak at ∼850 cm-1 in the reflectance spectra, not reported before, was observed. Possible origins for this peak are considered and discussed.

  1. NEAR-INFRARED TRANSMISSION AND REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY FOR DETERMINATION OF DIETARY FIBER IN BARLEY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Near-infrared (NIR) transmission and reflectance spectroscopy were investigated as rapid screening tools to evaluate the total dietary fiber content of barley. The Foss Grainspec Rice Analyzer and the NIR Systems 6500 monochromator were used to obtain transmission and reflectance spectra, respectiv...

  2. Application of representative layer theory to near-infrared reflectance spectra of powdered samples.

    PubMed

    Cairós, Carlos; Coello, Jordi; Maspoch, Santiago

    2008-12-01

    The diffuse reflectance near-infrared (NIR) spectrum of a powdered sample includes the contribution of specular and diffuse reflectance, which is a function of absorbance and scattering. The fraction of light scattered depends in a complex manner on the physical properties of the sample such as particle size, refraction index, etc. Several theories to study the dependence of NIR spectra on the particle size have been proposed. The best known is the Kubelka-Munk model, an approach based on continuous mathematics. Recently Dahm and Dahm put forward an alternative method, the representative layer theory (RLT), which uses discontinuous mathematics as a basis. This approach can be used to identify and disentangle the scattering and absorbance signals as well as their dependence on the particle size. The scattering and absorption coefficient of NaCl (a nonabsorbing material) and of potassium hydrogen phthalate, KHP (a strong absorber), have been estimated through the application of the representative layer theory, working on a particle size range from 63 to 450 microm. In both samples, the absorption coefficient of the sample (K) remains constant and practically independent of the particle size, while the scattering coefficient of the sample (S) decreases when the particle diameter increases, becoming stable around a diameter of 250 microm. PMID:19094396

  3. The Infrared Reflection Nebula Around the Protostellar System in S140

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harker, D.; Bregman, J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Temi, P.; Rank, D.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We have studied the protostellar system in S140 at 2.2, 3.1 and 3.45 microns using a 128x128 InSb array at the Lick Observatory 3m telescope. Besides the protostellar sources, the data reveal a bright infrared reflection nebula. We have developed a simple model of this region and derived the physical conditions. IRSI is surrounded by a dense dusty disk viewed almost edge-on. Photons leaking out through the poles illuminate almost directly north and south the inner edge of a surrounding shell of molecular gas, Analysis of the observed colors and intensities of the NIR light, using Mie scattering theory, reveal that the dust grains in the molecular cloud are somewhat larger than in the general diffuse interstellar medium. Moreover, the incident light has a "cool" color temperature, approximately equals 800K, and likely originates from a dust photosphere close to the protostar. Finally, we find little H2O ice associated with the dusty disk around IRSI. Most of the 3.1 micron ice extinction arises instead from cool intervening molecular cloud material. We have compared our infrared dust observations with millimeter and radio observations of molecular gas associated with this region. The large scale structure observable in the molecular gas is indicative of the interaction between the protostellar wind and the surrounding molecular cloud rather than the geometry of the protostellar disk. We conclude that S140 is a young blister formed by this outflow on the side of a molecular cloud and viewed edge-on.

  4. Optical diffuse reflectance accessory for measurements of skin tissue by near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marbach, R.; Heise, H. M.

    1995-02-01

    An optimized accessory for measuring the diffuse reflectance spectra of human skin tissue in the near-infrared spectral range is presented. The device includes an on-axis ellipsoidal collecting mirror with efficient illumination optics for small sampling areas of bulky body specimens. The optical design is supported by the results of a Monte Carlo simulation study of the reflectance characteristics of skin tissue. Because the results evolved from efforts to measure blood glucose noninvasively, the main emphasis is placed on the long-wavelength near-infrared range where sufficient penetration depth for radiation into tissue is still available. The accessory is applied for in vivo diffuse reflectance measurements.

  5. Chemical Imaging of Biological Tissue with Synchrotron Infrared Light

    SciTech Connect

    Miller,L.; Dumas, P.

    2006-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared micro-spectroscopy (FTIRM) and imaging (FTIRI) have become valuable techniques for examining the chemical makeup of biological materials by probing their vibrational motions on a microscopic scale. Synchrotron infrared (S-IR) light is an ideal source for FTIRM and FTIRI due to the combination of its high brightness (i.e., flux density), also called brilliance, and broadband nature. Through a 10-{mu}m pinhole, the brightness of a synchrotron source is 100-1000 times higher than a conventional thermal (globar) source. Accordingly, the improvement in spatial resolution and in spectral quality to the diffraction limit has led to a plethora of applications that is just being realized. In this review, we describe the development of synchrotron-based FTIRM, illustrate its advantages in many applications to biological systems, and propose some potential future directions for the technique.

  6. Generation of infrared entangled light in asymmetric semiconductor quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Xin-You; Wu, Jing; Zheng, Li-Li; Huang, Pei

    2010-12-01

    We proposed a scheme to achieve two-mode CV entanglement with the frequencies of entangled modes in the infrared range in an asymmetric semiconductor double-quantum-wells (DQW), where the required quantum coherence is obtained by inducing the corresponding intersubband transitions (ISBTs) with a classical field. By numerically simulating the dynamics of system, we show that the entanglement period can be prolonged via enhancing the intensity of classical field, and the generation of entanglement doesn't depend intensively on the initial condition of system in our scheme. Moreover, we also show that a bipartite entanglement amplifier can be realized in our scheme. The present research provides an efficient approach to achieve infrared entangled light in the semiconductor nanostructure, which may have significant impact on the progress of solid-state quantum information theory.

  7. Polarized infrared emissivity of one-dimensional Gaussian sea surfaces with surface reflections.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongkun; Pinel, Nicolas; Bourlier, Christophe

    2011-08-10

    Surface reflection is an important phenomenon that must be taken into account when studying sea surface infrared emissivity, especially at large observation angles. This paper models analytically the polarized infrared emissivity of one-dimensional sea surfaces with shadowing effect and one surface reflection, by assuming a Gaussian surface slope distribution. A Monte Carlo ray-tracing method is employed as a reference. It is shown that the present model agrees well with the reference method. The emissivity calculated by the present model is then compared with measurements. The comparisons show that agreements are greatly improved by taking one surface reflection into account. The Monte Carlo ray-tracing results of sea surface infrared emissivity with two and three reflections are also determined. Their contributions are shown to be negligible. PMID:21833139

  8. The spatial distribution of infrared radiation from visible reflection nebulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luan, Ling; Werner, Michael W.; Dwek, Eli; Sellgren, Kris

    1989-01-01

    The emission at IRAS 12 and 25 micron bands of reflection nebulae is far in excess of that expected from the longer wavelength equilibrium thermal emission. The excess emission in the IRAS 12 micron band is a general phenomenon, seen in various components of interstellar medium such as IR cirrus clouds, H II regions, atomic and molecular clouds, and also normal spiral galaxies. This excess emission has been attributed to UV excited fluorescence in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules or to the effect of temperature fluctuations in very small grains. Results are presented of studies of IRAS data on reflection nebulae selected from the van den Bergh reflection nebulae sample. Detailed scans of flux ratio and color temperature across the nebulae were obtained in order to study the spatial distribution of IR emission. A model was used to predict the spatial distribution of IR emission from dust grains illuminated by a B type star. The model was also used to explore the excitation of the IRAS 12 micron band emission as a function of stellar temperature. The model predictions are in good agreement with the analysis of reflection nebulae, illuminated by stars with stellar temperature ranging from 21,000 down to 3,000 K.

  9. Using near infrared light for deep sea mining observation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Huimin; Li, Yujie; Li, Xin; Yang, Jianmin; Serikawa, Seiichi

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we design a novel deep-sea near infrared light based imaging equipment for deep-sea mining observation systems. The spectral sensitivity peaks are in the red region of the invisible spectrum, ranging from 750nm to 900nm. In addition, we propose a novel underwater imaging model that compensates for the attenuation discrepancy along the propagation path. The proposed model fully considered the effects of absorption, scattering and refraction. We also develop a locally adaptive Laplacian filtering for enhancing underwater transmission map after underwater dark channel prior estimation. Furthermore, we propose a spectral characteristic-based color correction algorithm to recover the distorted color. In water tank experiments, we made a linear scale of eight turbidity steps ranging from clean to heavily scattered by adding deep sea soil to the seawater (from 500 to 2000 mg/L). We compared the results of different turbidity underwater scene, illuminated alternately with near infrared light vs. white light. Experiments demonstrate that the enhanced NIR images have a reasonable noise level after the illumination compensation in the dark regions and demonstrates an improved global contrast by which the finest details and edges are significantly enhanced. We also demonstrate that the effective distance of the designed imaging system is about 1.5 meters, which can meet the requirement of micro-terrain observation around the deep-sea mining systems. Remotely Operated Underwater Vehicle (ROV)-based experiments also certified the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  10. Simulating Scintillator Light Collection Using Measured Optical Reflectance

    SciTech Connect

    Janecek, Martin; Moses, William

    2010-01-28

    To accurately predict the light collection from a scintillating crystal through Monte Carlo simulations, it is crucial to know the angular distribution from the surface reflectance. Current Monte Carlo codes allow the user to set the optical reflectance to a linear combination of backscatter spike, specular spike, specular lobe, and Lambertian reflections. However, not all light distributions can be expressed in this way. In addition, the user seldom has the detailed knowledge about the surfaces that is required for accurate modeling. We have previously measured the angular distributions within BGO crystals and now incorporate these data as look-up-tables (LUTs) into modified Geant4 and GATE Monte Carlo codes. The modified codes allow the user to specify the surface treatment (ground, etched, or polished), the attached reflector (Lumirror(R), Teflon(R), ESR film, Tyvek(R), or TiO paint), and the bonding type (air-coupled or glued). Each LUT consists of measured angular distributions with 4o by 5o resolution in theta and phi, respectively, for incidence angles from 0? to 90? degrees, in 1o-steps. We compared the new codes to the original codes by running simulations with a 3 x 10 x 30 mm3 BGO crystal coupled to a PMT. The simulations were then compared to measurements. Light output was measured by counting the photons detected by the PMT with the 3 x 10, 3 x 30, or 10 x 30 mm2 side coupled to the PMT, respectively. Our new code shows better agreement with the measured data than the current Geant4 code. The new code can also simulate reflector materials that are not pure specular or Lambertian reflectors, as was previously required. Our code is also more user friendly, as no detailed knowledge about the surfaces or light distributions is required from the user.

  11. Visible and near-infrared reflectivity of solid and liquid methane: application to spectroscopy of Titan's hydrocarbon lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, K.; Jacobsen, S. D.; Liu, Z.; Somayazulu, M.; Thomas, S.; Jurdy, D. M.

    2011-12-01

    Reflectance spectroscopy provides one of the few direct observations of outer solar system bodies for interpreting their surface compositions. At Titan, the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) on board the Cassini spacecraft revealed dark patches on the surface through the narrow 2 and 5 μm windows of Titan's atmosphere, which have been interpreted as hydrocarbon lakes forming seasonally through a methane cycle. Whereas the composition of planetary materials in the solar system has been inferred from characteristic absorption bands, the need to identify phase states (liquid versus solid) on dynamic planetary surfaces requires laboratory reflectance ratio measurements at relevant temperatures. Using visible and near-infrared radiation from the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), we will present confocal reflectance ratio measurements of solid (single crystal) and liquid CH4 at temperatures from 50-100 K. Although the position and shape of the six characteristic methane absorption bands at around 1.7 and 2.3 μm are insensitive to temperature or phase state from 50-100 K, the broad-spectrum reflectance between 0.5-2 μm decreases upon melting by about 25% at 87-94 K. Transition from solid CH4-I to liquid states at ~90 K displays a reflectance ratio (sold/liquid) of about 1.3 at 2 μm. Darkening of CH4 upon melting is similar at visible wavelengths, and consistent with VIMS observations of hydrocarbon lakes in the far northern and southern latitudes of Titan.

  12. Thermal Emission and Reflected Light Spectra of Super Earths with Flat Transmission Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morley, Caroline V.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Marley, Mark S.; Zahnle, Kevin; Line, Michael; Kempton, Eliza; Lewis, Nikole; Cahoy, Kerri

    2015-12-01

    Planets larger than Earth and smaller than Neptune are some of the most numerous in the galaxy, but observational efforts to understand this population have proved challenging because optically thick clouds or hazes at high altitudes obscure molecular features. We present models of super Earths that include thick clouds and hazes and predict their transmission, thermal emission, and reflected light spectra. Very thick, lofted clouds of salts or sulfides in high metallicity (1000× solar) atmospheres create featureless transmission spectra in the near-infrared. Photochemical hazes with a range of particle sizes also create featureless transmission spectra at lower metallicities. Cloudy thermal emission spectra have muted features more like blackbodies, and hazy thermal emission spectra have emission features caused by an inversion layer at altitudes where the haze forms. Close analysis of reflected light from warm (˜400-800 K) planets can distinguish cloudy spectra, which have moderate albedos (0.05-0.20), from hazy models, which are very dark (0.0-0.03). Reflected light spectra of cold planets (˜200 K) accessible to a space-based visible light coronagraph will have high albedos and large molecular features that will allow them to be more easily characterized than the warmer transiting planets. We suggest a number of complementary observations to characterize this population of planets, including transmission spectra of hot (≳ 1000 K) targets, thermal emission spectra of warm targets using the James Webb Space Telescope, high spectral resolution (R ˜ 105) observations of cloudy targets, and reflected light spectral observations of directly imaged cold targets. Despite the dearth of features observed in super Earth transmission spectra to date, different observations will provide rich diagnostics of their atmospheres.

  13. Measurement of leaf relative water content by infrared reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, E. Raymond, Jr.; Rock, Barrett N.; Nobel, Park S.

    1987-01-01

    From basic considerations and Beer's law, a leaf water content index incorporating reflectances of wavelengths from 0.76 to 0.90 microns and from 1.55 to 1.75 microns was developed that relates leaf reflectance to leaf relative water content. For the leaf succulent, Agave deserti, the leaf water content index was not significantly different from the relative water content for either individual leaves or an entire plant. Also, the relative water contents of intact plants of Encelia farinosa and Hilaria rigida in the field were estimated by the leaf water content index; variations in the proportion of living to dead leaf area could cause large errors in the estimate of relative water content. Thus, the leaf water content index may be able to estimate average relative water content of canopies when TM4 and TM5 are measured at a known relative water content and fraction of dead leaf material.

  14. A search for the near-infrared extragalactic background light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, T.; Akiba, M.; Murakami, H.

    1988-09-01

    The diffuse celestial light at 1 - 5 μm was observed over a large portion of the sky including the Galactic pole with a rocket-borne infrared telescope cooled by solid nitrogen. After subtracting the foreground components, there still remains an appreciable amount of isotropic diffuse radiation with complex spectral feature. A part of this isotropic radiation may be contaminated by the environmental emission due to rocket engine exhaust; however, the 2.2 μm data is free from contamination and possibly attributed to an extragalactic origin.

  15. Detecting Phycocynanin-Pigmented Microbes in Reflected Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, Robert K.

    2008-01-01

    A recently invented method of measuring concentrations of phycocynanin-pigmented algae and bacteria in water is based on measurement of the spectrum of reflected sunlight. When present in sufficiently high concentrations, phycocynanin-pigmented microorganisms can be hazardous to the health of humans who use, and of animals that depend on, an affected body of water. The present method is intended to satisfy a need for a rapid, convenient means of detecting hazardous concentrations of phycocynanin-pigmented microorganisms. Rapid detection will speed up the issuance of public health warnings and performance of corrective actions. The method involves the measurement of light reflected from a body of water in at least two, but preferably five wavelength bands. In one version of the method, the five wavelength bands are bands 1, 3, 4, 5, and 7 of the Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral imaging instrument aboard the Landsat-7 satellite (see table). In principle, other wavelength bands indicative of phycocynanin could be used alternatively or in addition to these five. Moreover, although the method was originally intended specifically for processing Landsat- 7 TM data, it is equally applicable to processing of data from other satellite-borne instruments or from airborne, hand-held, buoy-mounted, tower-mounted, or otherwise mounted instruments that measure radiances of light reflected from water in the wavelength bands of interest.

  16. Three-dimensional light trap for reflective particles

    DOEpatents

    Neal, Daniel R.

    1999-01-01

    A system for containing either a reflective particle or a particle having an index of refraction lower than that of the surrounding media in a three-dimensional light cage. A light beam from a single source illuminates an optics system and generates a set of at least three discrete focussed beams that emanate from a single exit aperture and focus on to a focal plane located close to the particle. The set of focal spots defines a ring that surrounds the particle. The set of focussed beams creates a "light cage" and circumscribes a zone of no light within which the particle lies. The surrounding beams apply constraining forces (created by radiation pressure) to the particle, thereby containing it in a three-dimensional force field trap. A diffractive element, such as an aperture multiplexed lens, or either a Dammann grating or phase element in combination with a focusing lens, may be used to generate the beams. A zoom lens may be used to adjust the size of the light cage, permitting particles of various sizes to be captured and contained.

  17. Three-dimensional light trap for reflective particles

    DOEpatents

    Neal, D.R.

    1999-08-17

    A system is disclosed for containing either a reflective particle or a particle having an index of refraction lower than that of the surrounding media in a three-dimensional light cage. A light beam from a single source illuminates an optics system and generates a set of at least three discrete focused beams that emanate from a single exit aperture and focus on to a focal plane located close to the particle. The set of focal spots defines a ring that surrounds the particle. The set of focused beams creates a ``light cage`` and circumscribes a zone of no light within which the particle lies. The surrounding beams apply constraining forces (created by radiation pressure) to the particle, thereby containing it in a three-dimensional force field trap. A diffractive element, such as an aperture multiplexed lens, or either a Dammann grating or phase element in combination with a focusing lens, may be used to generate the beams. A zoom lens may be used to adjust the size of the light cage, permitting particles of various sizes to be captured and contained. 10 figs.

  18. Infrared sensitive liquid crystal light valve with semiconductor substrate.

    PubMed

    Shcherbin, Konstantin; Gvozdovskyy, Igor; Evans, Dean R

    2016-02-10

    A liquid crystal light valve (LCLV) is an optically controlled spatial light modulator that allows recording of dynamic holograms. Almost all known LCLVs operate in the visible range of the spectrum. In the present work we demonstrate a LCLV operating in the infrared. The interaction of signal and pump waves is studied for different applied voltages, grating spacings, and intensities of the recording beams. A fourfold amplification of the weak signal beam is achieved. The amplitude of the refractive index modulation Δn=0.007 and nonlinear coupling constant n₂=-1  cm²/W are estimated from the experimental results. External phase modulation of one of the recording beams is used for a further transient increase of the signal beam gain. PMID:26906379

  19. Exact simulation of polarized light reflectance by particle deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramezan Pour, B.; Mackowski, D. W.

    2015-12-01

    The use of polarimetric light reflection measurements as a means of identifying the physical and chemical characteristics of particulate materials obviously relies on an accurate model of predicting the effects of particle size, shape, concentration, and refractive index on polarized reflection. The research examines two methods for prediction of reflection from plane parallel layers of wavelength—sized particles. The first method is based on an exact superposition solution to Maxwell's time harmonic wave equations for a deposit of spherical particles that are exposed to a plane incident wave. We use a FORTRAN-90 implementation of this solution (the Multiple Sphere T Matrix (MSTM) code), coupled with parallel computational platforms, to directly simulate the reflection from particle layers. The second method examined is based upon the vector radiative transport equation (RTE). Mie theory is used in our RTE model to predict the extinction coefficient, albedo, and scattering phase function of the particles, and the solution of the RTE is obtained from adding—doubling method applied to a plane—parallel configuration. Our results show that the MSTM and RTE predictions of the Mueller matrix elements converge when particle volume fraction in the particle layer decreases below around five percent. At higher volume fractions the RTE can yield results that, depending on the particle size and refractive index, significantly depart from the exact predictions. The particle regimes which lead to dependent scattering effects, and the application of methods to correct the vector RTE for particle interaction, will be discussed.

  20. Exoplanet Reflections: the light from 51 Peg b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, J. H. C.; Santos, N.; Figueira, P.; Melo, C.

    2015-10-01

    The direct detection of reflected light from an exoplanet is, even in the most favourable cases, a herculean task, close to the detection limit of current observing facilities. To surpass this problem, we made used of a technique (Martins et al. 2013, MNRAS, 436, 1215) that uses the power of the Cross Correlation Function to recover the minute reflected signal from 51 Pegasi b with a 3-σ+ significance. This allowed us to conclude that this prototypical hot-Jupiter is most likely a highly inflated planet with a high albedo. These results were presented in the OHP2015: Twenty years of giant exoplanets conference and published in Martins et al. 2015, A&A, 576, A134.

  1. POLARIZED LIGHT REFLECTED AND TRANSMITTED BY THICK RAYLEIGH SCATTERING ATMOSPHERES

    SciTech Connect

    Natraj, Vijay; Hovenier, J. W.

    2012-03-20

    Accurate values for the intensity and polarization of light reflected and transmitted by optically thick Rayleigh scattering atmospheres with a Lambert surface underneath are presented. A recently reported new method for solving integral equations describing Chandrasekhar's X- and Y-functions is used. The results have been validated using various tests and techniques, including the doubling-adding method, and are accurate to within one unit in the eighth decimal place. Tables are stored electronically and expected to be useful as benchmark results for the (exo)planetary science and astrophysics communities. Asymptotic expressions to obtain Stokes parameters for a thick layer from those of a semi-infinite atmosphere are also provided.

  2. Reflectives: Phosphors and lasers - shedding light on rare earths

    SciTech Connect

    Tonneson, L.C.; Fox, G.J.

    1996-04-01

    The first powder electroluminescent phosphor was introduced in 1936. Today, phosphors, particularly those made of high-purity rare earths, have found their way into a variety of products: industrial, commercial, and consumer, alike. The fluorescent lamp industry which remains the leading market for the use of high-purity rare earths, lit the way for the future of rare earths in the optical, x-ray, and display screen applications. Light combined with rare earth materials is also a successful recipe for reflectivity needed in filtering applications such as optics, lasers, and conductors. This article discusses the applications and markets for phosphors and rare earths.

  3. Infrared reflectivity spectra of GaS 1-xSe x mixed crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riede, V.; Neumann, H.; Sobotta, H.; Lévy, F.

    1980-04-01

    Infrared reflectivity spectra of GaS 1- xSe x mixed crystals are measured for E ‖ c in the wavenumber range from 180 to 4000 cm -1. Two-mode behaviour is found for the infrared active optical modes. The composition dependence of the mode frequencies can be described by the MREI model if a nonlinear change of the force constants with composition is assumed.

  4. Determination of styrene-butadiene rubber composition by attenuated total internal reflection infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlov, A. S.; Kiselev, S. A.; Kiseleva, E. A.; Budeeva, A. V.; Mashukov, V. I.

    2013-03-01

    A rapid method for determining the composition of styrene-butadiene rubber using attenuated total internal reflection infrared spectroscopy was proposed. PMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy and infrared transmission spectroscopy were used as absolute techniques for determining the compositions of calibration samples. It was shown that the method was applicable to a wide range of styrene-butadiene rubbers, did not require additional sample preparation, and was easily reproducible.

  5. Surface temperature correction for active infrared reflectance measurements of natural materials.

    PubMed

    Snyder, W C; Wan, Z

    1996-05-01

    Land surface temperature algorithms for the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer satellite instrument will require the spectral bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of natural surfaces in the thermal infrared. We designed the spectral infrared bidirectional reflectance and emissivity instrument to provide such measurements by the use of a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. A problem we encountered is the unavoidable surface heating caused by the source irradiance. For our system, the effects of the heating can cause a 30% error in the measured BRDF The error caused by heating is corrected by temporally curve fitting the radiance signal. This curve-fitting technique isolates the radiance caused by reflected irradiance. With this correction, other factors dominate the BRDF error. It is now ~5% and can be improved further. The method is illustrated with measurements of soil BRDF. PMID:21085353

  6. Reflective liquid crystal light valve with hybrid field effect mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boswell, Donald D. (Inventor); Grinberg, Jan (Inventor); Jacobson, Alexander D. (Inventor); Myer, Gary D. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    There is disclosed a high performance reflective mode liquid crystal light valve suitable for general image processing and projection and particularly suited for application to real-time coherent optical data processing. A preferred example of the device uses a CdS photoconductor, a CdTe light absorbing layer, a dielectric mirror, and a liquid crystal layer sandwiched between indium-tin-oxide transparent electrodes deposited on optical quality glass flats. The non-coherent light image is directed onto the photoconductor; this reduces the impedance of the photoconductor, thereby switching the AC voltage that is impressed across the electrodes onto the liquid crystal to activate the device. The liquid crystal is operated in a hybrid field effect mode. It utilizes the twisted nematic effect to create a dark off-state (voltage off the liquid crystal) and the optical birefringence effect to create the bright on-state. The liquid crystal thus modulates the polarization of the coherent read-out or projection light responsively to the non-coherent image. An analyzer is used to create an intensity modulated output beam.

  7. Isoconversion effective activation energy profiles by variable temperature diffuse reflection infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    White, Daniel R; White, Robert L

    2008-01-01

    Thermal process characterization based on calculating effective activation energies from variable temperature diffuse reflection infrared spectroscopy (VT-DRIFTS) measurements is demonstrated. Experimental factors that affect the accuracies of activation energy values are outlined. Infrared radiation scattering efficiency, thermal conductivity, and inertness towards chemical reactions are factors that should be considered when selecting an appropriate diluent for preparing samples. The Kubelka-Munk representation is superior to apparent absorbance when baseline variations in spectra measured at different temperatures can be minimized. Variable-temperature infrared spectral features, such as integrated absorption band area, can be used to compute isoconversion effective activation energies, provided that measured quantities are proportional to species concentrations. PMID:18230216

  8. Using diffuse near-infrared light to characterize tissue optical and physiologic properties for medical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Tuan Hoai

    2001-05-01

    Methods based on near-infrared (NIR) diffuse reflectance offer novel and functional approaches to medical diagnostics. NIR diffuse reflectance techniques are well suited for non-invasive, quantitative characterization of tissue optical properties, namely macroscopic absorption (μa) and reduced scattering (μs') coefficient. Tissue optical properties, in turn, provide unique and clinically relevant functional and structural information about tissues. Needless to say, understanding light- tissue interactions and light transport in multiply scattering (turbid) media is essential in order to fully capitalize on the useful features of NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. This thesis addresses the practical and, to a limited extent, the theoretical issues of NIR diffuse light spectroscopy. The goals of the thesis are two folds: (1)to investigate, from an instrumental and analytical perspectives, the accuracy and limitation of the various diffuse reflectance techniques in quantifying the optical properties of homogenous and layered turbid media, and (2)to evaluate the feasibility and applicability of using NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to quantify in vivo tissue optical and physiologic properties during pathophysiologic processes. With respect to the first objective, we conducted validation studies to assess the accuracy of the frequency-domain and spatially-resolved techniques in quantifying μa and μs' of homogenous turbid media. Similarly, frequency-domain and time-domain approaches were used to characterize the optical properties and thickness of two-layered turbid media. For the second objective, frequency-domain system was used to quantify the changes in the in vivo optical and physiologic properties secondary to cancerous transformation, cardiovascular dysfunction, and photodynamic therapy of tumors. In summary, studies results clearly indicate that NIR diffuse reflectance techniques accurately quantify the in vivo tissue optical and physiologic

  9. [Application of near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to the detection and identification of transgenic corn].

    PubMed

    Rui, Yu-kui; Luo, Yun-bo; Huang, Kun-lun; Wang, Wei-min; Zhang, Lu-da

    2005-10-01

    With the rapid development of the GMO, more and more GMO food has been pouring into the market. Much attention has been paid to GMO labeling under the controversy of GMO safety. Transgenic corns and their parents were scanned by continuous wave of near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy range of 12000-4000 cm(-1); the resolution was 4 cm(-1); scanning was carried out for 64 times; BP algorithm was applied for data processing. The GMO food was easily resolved. Near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy is unpolluted and inexpensive compared with PCR and ELISA, so it is a very promising detection method for GMO food. PMID:16395887

  10. Light shift from ultraviolet to near infrared light: Cerenkov luminescence with gold nanocluster - near infrared (AuNc-NIR) conjugates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Su Woong; Mun, Hyoyoung; Oh, Gyungseok; Ryu, Youngjae; Kim, Min-Gon; Chung, Euiheon

    2015-03-01

    Cerenkov luminescence (CL) is generated when a charged particle moves faster than the speed of light in dielectric media. Recently CL imaging becomes an emerging technique with the use of radioisotopes. However, due to relatively weak blue light production and massive tissue attenuation, CL has not been applied widely. Therefore, we attempted to shift the CL emission to more near infrared (NIR) spectrum for better tissue penetration by using Cerenkov Radiation Energy Transfer (CRET). Gold nanoclusters were conjugated with NIR dye molecules (AuNc-IR820 and AuNc-ICG) to be activated with ultraviolet light. We found optimal conjugate concentrations of AuNc-NIR conjugates by spectroscopy system to generate maximal photon emission. When exposed by ultraviolet light, the emission of NIR light from the conjugates were verified. In quantitative analysis, AuNc-NIR conjugates emit brighter light signal than pure AuNc. This result implies that NIR fluorescent dyes (both IR820 and ICG) can be excited by the emission from AuNc. Following the above baseline experiment, we mixed F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) radioisotope to the AuNc- NIR conjugates, to confirm NIR emission induced from Cerenkov radiation. Long pass filter was used to block Cerenkov luminescence and to collect the emission from AuNc-NIR conjugates. Instead of one long exposure imaging with CCD, we used multiple frame scheme to eliminate gamma radiation strike in each frame prior to combination. In summary, we obtained NIR emission light from AuNc-NIR conjugated dyes that is induced from CL. We plan to perform in vivo small animal imaging with these conjugates to assess better tissue penetration.

  11. Near Infrared 45°/0° Reflectance Factor of Pressed Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) Powder

    PubMed Central

    Nadal, Maria E.; Barnes, P. Yvonne

    1999-01-01

    Pressed polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) powder is commonly used as a reflectance standard for bidirectional and hemispherical geometries. The wavelength dependence of the reflectance factor of PTFE is presented for the near-infrared spectral region (800 nm to 1600 nm) for the 45°/0° geometry, as well as in the visible spectral region (380 nm to 800 nm) for comparison with previously published results.

  12. A Multi-Wavelength Thermal Infrared and Reflectance Scene Simulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, J. R., Jr.; Smith, J. A.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Several theoretical calculations are presented and our approach discussed for simulating overall composite scene thermal infrared exitance and canopy bidirectional reflectance of a forest canopy. Calculations are performed for selected wavelength bands of the DOE Multispectral Thermal Imagery and comparisons with atmospherically corrected MTI imagery are underway. NASA EO-1 Hyperion observations also are available and the favorable comparison of our reflective model results with these data are reported elsewhere.

  13. Porphyrin-phospholipid liposomes permeabilized by near-infrared light.

    PubMed

    Carter, Kevin A; Shao, Shuai; Hoopes, Matthew I; Luo, Dandan; Ahsan, Bilal; Grigoryants, Vladimir M; Song, Wentao; Huang, Haoyuan; Zhang, Guojian; Pandey, Ravindra K; Geng, Jumin; Pfeifer, Blaine A; Scholes, Charles P; Ortega, Joaquin; Karttunen, Mikko; Lovell, Jonathan F

    2014-01-01

    The delivery of therapeutic compounds to target tissues is a central challenge in treating disease. Externally controlled drug release systems hold potential to selectively enhance localized delivery. Here we describe liposomes doped with porphyrin-phospholipid that are permeabilized directly by near-infrared light. Molecular dynamics simulations identified a novel light-absorbing monomer esterified from clinically approved components predicted and experimentally demonstrated to give rise to a more stable porphyrin bilayer. Light-induced membrane permeabilization is enabled with liposomal inclusion of 10 molar % porphyrin-phospholipid and occurs in the absence of bulk or nanoscale heating. Liposomes reseal following laser exposure and permeability is modulated by varying porphyrin-phospholipid doping, irradiation intensity or irradiation duration. Porphyrin-phospholipid liposomes demonstrate spatial control of release of entrapped gentamicin and temporal control of release of entrapped fluorophores following intratumoral injection. Following systemic administration, laser irradiation enhances deposition of actively loaded doxorubicin in mouse xenografts, enabling an effective single-treatment antitumour therapy. PMID:24699423

  14. Porphyrin–phospholipid liposomes permeabilized by near-infrared light

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Kevin A.; Shao, Shuai; Hoopes, Matthew I.; Luo, Dandan; Ahsan, Bilal; Grigoryants, Vladimir M.; Song, Wentao; Huang, Haoyuan; Zhang, Guojian; Pandey, Ravindra K.; Geng, Jumin; Pfeifer, Blaine A.; Scholes, Charles P.; Ortega, Joaquin; Karttunen, Mikko; Lovell, Jonathan F.

    2014-01-01

    The delivery of therapeutic compounds to target tissues is a central challenge in treating disease. Externally controlled drug release systems hold potential to selectively enhance localized delivery. Here we describe liposomes doped with porphyrin–phospholipid that are permeabilized directly by near-infrared light. Molecular dynamics simulations identified a novel light-absorbing monomer esterified from clinically approved components predicted and experimentally demonstrated to give rise to a more stable porphyrin bilayer. Light-induced membrane permeabilization is enabled with liposomal inclusion of 10 molar % porphyrin–phospholipid and occurs in the absence of bulk or nanoscale heating. Liposomes reseal following laser exposure and permeability is modulated by varying porphyrin–phospholipid doping, irradiation intensity or irradiation duration. Porphyrin–phospholipid liposomes demonstrate spatial control of release of entrapped gentamicin and temporal control of release of entrapped fluorophores following intratumoral injection. Following systemic administration, laser irradiation enhances deposition of actively loaded doxorubicin in mouse xenografts, enabling an effective single-treatment antitumour therapy. PMID:24699423

  15. Non-invasive neuroimaging using near-infrared light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangman, Gary; Boas, David A.; Sutton, Jeffrey P.

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews diffuse optical brain imaging, a technique that employs near-infrared light to non-invasively probe the brain for changes in parameters relating to brain function. We describe the general methodology, including types of measurements and instrumentation (including the tradeoffs inherent in the various instrument components), and the basic theory required to interpret the recorded data. A brief review of diffuse optical applications is included, with an emphasis on research that has been done with psychiatric populations. Finally, we discuss some practical issues and limitations that are relevant when conducting diffuse optical experiments. We find that, while diffuse optics can provide substantial advantages to the psychiatric researcher relative to the alternative brain imaging methods, the method remains substantially underutilized in this field.

  16. Portable multichannel multiwavelength near-infrared diffusive light imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Nan Guang; Xia, Hongjun; Piao, Daqing; Zhu, Quing

    2003-07-01

    We have developed a near infrared optical tomography system features fast optical switching, three-wavelength excitations, and avalanche photodiode (APD) detectors with a high dynamic range. Pigtailed laser diodes at 660, 780, and 830 nm are used as light sources and their outputs are distributed sequentially to one of nine source fibers. The crosstalk between source channels is around 65 dB, equivalent to 130 dB in opto-electrical signals. 10 Silicon APD"s detect diffusive photon density waves simultaneously. The dynamic range of an APD is several orders higher than that of a photomultiplier tube (PMT), which eliminates the need of multi-step system gain control. However, the internal gain of the APD we are using is about 3 orders lower than an ordinary PMT. Efforts have been made to suppress the feed through interferences from the transmission part to the reception part so as to reduce the errors in amplitude and phase measurements.

  17. Plasmonic light harvesting for multicolor infrared thermal detection.

    PubMed

    Mao, Feilong; Xie, Jinjin; Xiao, Shiyi; Komiyama, Susumu; Lu, Wei; Zhou, Lei; An, Zhenghua

    2013-01-14

    Here we combined experiments and theory to study the optical properties of a plasmonic cavity consisting of a perforated metal film and a flat metal sheet separated by a semiconductor spacer. Three different types of optical modes are clearly identified-the propagating and localized surface plasmons on the perforated metal film and the Fabry-Perot modes inside the cavity. Interactions among them lead to a series of hybridized eigenmodes exhibiting excellent spectral tunability and spatially distinct field distributions, making the system particularly suitable for multicolor infrared light detections. As an example, we design a two-color detector protocol with calculated photon absorption efficiencies enhanced by more than 20 times at both colors, reaching ~42.8% at f1 = 20.0THz (15μm in wavelength) and ~46.2% at f2 = 29.5THz (~10.2μm) for a 1μm total thickness of sandwiched quantum wells. PMID:23388923

  18. Combined optical and near infrared reflectance measurements of vasomotion in both skin and underlying muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorn, Clare E.; Shore, Angela C.; Matcher, Stephen J.

    2007-02-01

    The cardiovascular system is designed to deliver oxygen to every cell in the body through the microcirculation. Optical Reflectance Spectroscopy (ORS) is a powerful tool used to study oxygen delivery through vessels less than 50 μm in diameter. Depth analysis can be achieved by varying the geometry of the incident light source and the detector of the back-scattered light. A fibre optic probe has been designed with spacings to study the capillary loops and microvessels of the skin. Similarly, Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) can directly measure haemodynamics in muscle. A combined study of ORS and NIRS is currently investigating the relationship of vasomotion in the skin and underlying muscle. Vasomotion is usually defined as rhythmic changes in the diameter of the small blood vessels and has been linked to both endothelial and sympathetic activity. It has been suggested that vasomotion in the muscle preserves nutritive perfusion not only in the muscle itself but also to neighbouring tissue i.e. skin. ORS and NIRS can provide a direct measure of these changes in blood volume. At frequencies linked with endothelial and sympathetic activity, rhythmical oscillations in blood volume of the same magnitude, were demonstrated in both skin and muscle, 15.3(4.0)% skin vs 16.3(5.3)% muscle for endothelial frequencies, (mean(SD), t-test, p=0.633) and 10.9(3.8)% skin and 12.4(5.5)% muscle for sympathetic frequencies (p=0.354). These data demonstrate the potential of these optical techniques to enable simultaneous examination of microvascular haemodynamics in two tissue types.

  19. PRINCIPAL COMPONENT REGRESSION OF NEAR-INFRARED REFLECTANCE SPECTRA FOR BEEF TENDERNESS PREDICTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tenderness is the most important factor affecting consumer perception of eating quality of meat. In this paper, the development of the principal component regression (PCR) models to relate near-infrared (NIR) reflectance spectra of raw meat to Warner-Bratzler (WB) shear force measurement of cooked m...

  20. Near-infrared transmission and reflectance spectroscopy for the measurement of dietary fiber in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Near-infrared (NIR) transmission and reflectance spectroscopy were investigated as rapid screening tools to evaluate the total dietary fiber content of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars. A Foss Grainspec Rice Analyzer and an NIR Systems 6500 spectrometer were used to obtain transmission and ref...

  1. Near infrared reflectance-based tools for predicting soil chemical properties of Oklahoma grazinglands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) has potential to provide timely, and lower cost estimates of soil properties than current laboratory techniques. This study defined the capacity of NIRS to predict soil organic matter (SOM), total carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in native prairie (n=3) and c...

  2. Low-resolution mid-infrared reflection analysis for discernment of contaminants in seed cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contaminants often decrease cotton quality, which subsequently decrease cotton profitability. In this research, a low-resolution mid-infrared reflection instrument was designed and constructed by using only four different wavelengths to accomplish good separation of cotton samples from 14 contaminan...

  3. TETRACHLORODIBENZODIOXIN ISOMER DIFFERENTIATION BY MICRO DIFFUSE REFLECTANCE FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROMETRY AT THE LOW NANOGRAM LEVEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Infrared diffuse reflectance spectra were recorded for the 22 tetrachlorodibenzodioxin isomers (TCDDs). By use of micro-DRIFT techniques and signal averaging, identifiable spectra for each of the isomers were achieved at low nanogram levels. Spectral features in the 1200/cm to 16...

  4. Light scattering by a rough surface of human skin. 1. The luminance factor of reflected light

    SciTech Connect

    Barun, V V; Ivanov, A P

    2013-08-31

    Based on the analytical solution of Maxwell's equations, we have studied the angular structure of the luminance factor of light reflected by the rough skin surface with large-scale relief elements, illuminated by a directed radiation beam incident at an arbitrary angle inside or outside the medium. The parameters of the surface inhomogeneities are typical of human skin. The calculated angular dependences are interpreted from the point of view of the angular distribution function of micro areas. The results obtained can be used for solving direct and inverse problems in biomedical optics, in particular for determining the depth of light penetration into a biological tissue, for studying the light action spectra on tissue chromophores under the in vivo conditions, for developing diagnostic methods of structural and biophysical parameters of a medium, and for optimising the mechanisms of interaction of light with biological tissues under their noninvasive irradiation through skin. (biomedical optics)

  5. Durable silver mirror with ultra-violet thru far infra-red reflection

    DOEpatents

    Wolfe, Jesse D.

    2010-11-23

    A durable highly reflective silver mirror characterized by high reflectance in a broad spectral range of about 300 nm in the UV to the far infrared (.about.10000 nm), as well as exceptional environmental durability. A high absorptivity metal underlayer is used which prevents the formation of a galvanic cell with a silver layer while increasing the reflectance of the silver layer. Environmentally durable overcoat layers are provided to enhance mechanical and chemical durability and protect the silver layer from corrosion and tarnishing, for use in a wide variety of surroundings or climates, including harsh or extreme environments.

  6. Modeling thermal infrared (2-14 micrometer) reflectance spectra of frost and snow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wald, Andrew E.

    1994-01-01

    Existing theories of radiative transfer in close-packed media assume that each particle scatters independently of its neighbors. For opaque particles, such as are common in the thermal infrared, this assumption is not valid, and these radiative transfer theories will not be accurate. A new method is proposed, called 'diffraction subtraction', which modifies the scattering cross section of close-packed large, opaque spheres to account for the effect of close packing on the diffraction cross section of a scattering particle. This method predicts the thermal infrared reflectance of coarse (greater than 50 micrometers radius), disaggregated granular snow. However, such coarse snow is typically old and metamorphosed, with adjacent grains welded together. The reflectance of such a welded block can be described as partly Fresnel in nature and cannot be predicted using Mie inputs to radiative transfer theory. Owing to the high absorption coefficient of ice in the thermal infrared, a rough surface reflectance model can be used to calculate reflectance from such a block. For very small (less than 50 micrometers), disaggregated particles, it is incorrect in principle to treat diffraction independently of reflection and refraction, and the theory fails. However, for particles larger than 50 micrometers, independent scattering is a valid assumption, and standard radiative transfer theory works.

  7. Improving the light quantification of near infrared (NIR) diffused light optical tomography with ultrasound localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardeshirpour, Yasaman

    According to the statistics published by the American Cancer Society, currently breast cancer is the second most common cancer after skin cancer and the second cause of cancer death after lung cancer in the female population. Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) using near-infrared (NIR) light, guided by ultrasound localization, has shown great promise in distinguishing benign from malignant breast tumors and in assessing the response of breast cancer to chemotherapy. Our ultrasound-guided DOT system is based on reflection geometry, with patients scanned in supine position using a hand-held probe. For patients with chest-wall located at a depth shallower than 1 to 2cm, as in about 10% of our clinical cases, the semi-infinite imaging medium is not a valid assumption and the chest-wall effect needs to be considered in the imaging reconstruction procedure. In this dissertation, co-registered ultrasound images were used to model the breast-tissue and chest-wall as a two-layer medium. The effect of the chest wall on breast lesion reconstruction was systematically investigated. The performance of the two-layer model-based reconstruction, using the Finite Element Method, was evaluated by simulation, phantom experiments and clinical studies. The results show that the two-layer model can improve the accuracy of estimated background optical properties, the reconstructed absorption map and the total hemoglobin concentration of the lesion. For patients' data affected by chest wall, the perturbation, which is the difference between measurements obtained at lesion and normal reference sites, may include the information of background mismatch between these two sites. Because the imaging reconstruction is based on the perturbation approach, the effect of this mismatch between the optical properties at the two sites on reconstructed optical absorption was studied and a guideline for imaging procedure was developed to reduce these effects during data capturing. To reduce the artifacts

  8. Light reflection visualization to determine solute diffusion into clays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Minjune; Annable, Michael D.; Jawitz, James W.

    2014-06-01

    Light reflection visualization (LRV) experiments were performed to investigate solute diffusion in low-permeability porous media using a well-controlled two-dimensional flow chamber with a domain composed of two layers (one sand and one clay). Two different dye tracers (Brilliant Blue FCF and Ponceau 4R) and clay domains (kaolinite and montmorillonite) were used. The images obtained through the LRV technique were processed to monitor two-dimensional concentration distributions in the low-permeability zone by applying calibration curves that related light intensity to equilibrium concentrations for each dye tracer in the clay. One dimensional experimentally-measured LRV concentration profiles in the clay were found to be in very good agreement with those predicted from a one-dimensional analytical solution, with coefficient of efficiency values that exceeded 0.97. The retardation factors (R) for both dyes were relatively large, leading to slow diffusive penetration into the clays. At a relative concentration C/C0 = 0.1, Brilliant Blue FCF in kaolinite (R = 11) diffused approximately 10 mm after 21 days of source loading, and Ponceau 4R in montmorillonite (R = 7) diffused approximately 12 mm after 23 days of source loading. The LRV experimentally-measured two-dimensional concentration profiles in the clay were also well described by a simple analytical solution. The results from this study demonstrate that the LRV approach is an attractive non-invasive tool to investigate the concentration distribution of dye tracers in clays in laboratory experiments.

  9. Light reflection visualization to determine solute diffusion into clays.

    PubMed

    Yang, Minjune; Annable, Michael D; Jawitz, James W

    2014-06-01

    Light reflection visualization (LRV) experiments were performed to investigate solute diffusion in low-permeability porous media using a well-controlled two-dimensional flow chamber with a domain composed of two layers (one sand and one clay). Two different dye tracers (Brilliant Blue FCF and Ponceau 4R) and clay domains (kaolinite and montmorillonite) were used. The images obtained through the LRV technique were processed to monitor two-dimensional concentration distributions in the low-permeability zone by applying calibration curves that related light intensity to equilibrium concentrations for each dye tracer in the clay. One dimensional experimentally-measured LRV concentration profiles in the clay were found to be in very good agreement with those predicted from a one-dimensional analytical solution, with coefficient of efficiency values that exceeded 0.97. The retardation factors (R) for both dyes were relatively large, leading to slow diffusive penetration into the clays. At a relative concentration C/C0=0.1, Brilliant Blue FCF in kaolinite (R=11) diffused approximately 10 mm after 21 days of source loading, and Ponceau 4R in montmorillonite (R=7) diffused approximately 12 mm after 23 days of source loading. The LRV experimentally-measured two-dimensional concentration profiles in the clay were also well described by a simple analytical solution. The results from this study demonstrate that the LRV approach is an attractive non-invasive tool to investigate the concentration distribution of dye tracers in clays in laboratory experiments. PMID:24657742

  10. Near Infrared Light-Powered Janus Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticle Motors.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Mingjun; Wu, Zhiguang; Shao, Jingxin; Dai, Luru; Si, Tieyan; He, Qiang

    2016-05-25

    We describe fuel-free, near-infrared (NIR)-driven Janus mesoporous silica nanoparticle motors (JMSNMs) with diameters of 50, 80, and 120 nm. The Janus structure of the JMSNMs is generated by vacuum sputtering of a 10 nm Au layer on one side of the MSNMs. Upon exposure to an NIR laser, a localized photothermal effect on the Au half-shells results in the formation of thermal gradients across the JMSNMs; thus, the generated self-thermophoresis can actively drive the nanomotors to move at an ultrafast speed, for instance, up to 950 body lengths/s for 50 nm JMSNMs under an NIR laser power of 70.3 W/cm(2). The reversible "on/off" motion of the JMSNMs and their directed movement along the light gradient can be conveniently modulated by a remote NIR laser. Moreover, dynamic light scattering measurements are performed to investigate the coexisting translational and rotational motion of the JMSNMs in the presence of both self-thermophoretic forces and strong Brownian forces. These NIR-powered nanomotors demonstrate a novel strategy for overcoming the necessity of chemical fuels and exhibit a significant improvement in the maneuverability of nanomotors while providing potential cargo transportation in a biofriendly manner. PMID:27152728

  11. Simulation and measurement of transcranial near infrared light penetration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Lan; Monge, Manuel; Ozgur, Mehmet H.; Murphy, Kevin; Louie, Stan; Miller, Carol A.; Emami, Azita; Humayun, Mark S.

    2015-03-01

    We are studying the transmission of LED array-emitted near-infrared (NIR) light through human tissues. Herein, we simulated and measured transcranial NIR penetration in highly scattering human head tissues. Using finite element analysis, we simulated photon diffusion in a multilayered 3D human head model that consists of scalp, skull, cerebral spinal fluid, gray matter and white matter. The optical properties of each layer, namely scattering and absorption coefficient, correspond to the 850 nm NIR light. The geometry of the model is minimally modified from the IEEE standard and the multiple LED emitters in an array were evenly distributed on the scalp. Our results show that photon distribution produced by the array exhibits little variation at similar brain depth, suggesting that due to strong scattering effects of the tissues, discrete spatial arrangements of LED emitters in an array has the potential to create a quasi-radially symmetrical illumination field. Measurements on cadaveric human head tissues excised from occipital, parietal, frontal and temporal regions show that illumination with an 850 nm LED emitter rendered a photon flux that closely follows simulation results. In addition, prolonged illumination of LED emitted NIR showed minimal thermal effects on the brain.

  12. Spectrum of reflected light by self-focusing of light in a laser plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Gorbunov, L.M.

    1983-05-01

    The spectrum of the radiation reflected by a laser-produced plasma is considered. In this situation, self-focusing occurs and a region of low density (caviton) is formed. It is shown that the process leads to a considerable broadening of the spectrum on the ''red'' side, and to the appearance of a line structure in the spectrum. The results can explain data for the reflected light spectrum (L. M. Gorbunov et al., FIAN Preprint No. 126 (1979)) as being due to the nonstationary self-focusing of light in a laser-produced plasma that has recently been observed (V. L. Artsimovich et al., FIAN Preprint No. 252 (1981); Sov. Phys. Doklady 27, 618 (1982)).

  13. [The research progress in determining lignocellulosic content by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy technology].

    PubMed

    Du, Juan; An, Dong; Xia, Tian; Huang, Yan-Hua; Li, Hong-Chao; Zhang, Yun-Wei

    2013-12-01

    Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy technology, as a new analytic method, can be used to determine the content of lignin, cellulose and hemi-cellulose which is faster, effective, easier to operate, and more accurate than the traditional wet chemical methods. Nowadays it has been widely used in measuring the composition of lignocelluloses in woody plant and herbaceous plant. The domestic and foreign research progress in determining the lignin, cellulose and hemi-cellulose content in woody plant ( wood and bamboo used as papermaking raw materials and wood served as potential biomass energy) and herbaceous plant (forage grass and energy grass) by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy technology is comprehensively summarized and the advances in method studies of measuring the composition of lignocelluloses by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy technology are summed up in three aspects, sample preparation, spectral data pretreatment and wavelength selection methods, and chemometric analysis respectively. Four outlooks are proposed combining the development statues of wood, forage grass and energy grass industry. First of all, the authors need to establish more feasible and applicable models for a variety of uses which can be used for more species from different areas, periods and anatomical parts. Secondly, comprehensive near infrared reflectance spectroscopy data base of grass products quality index needs to be improved to realize on-line quality and process control in grassproducts industry, which can guarantee the quality of the grass product. Thirdly, the near infrared reflectance spectroscopy quality index model of energy plant need to be built which can not only contribute to breed screening, but also improve the development of biomass industry. Besides, modeling approaches are required to be explored and perfected any further. Finally, the authors need to try our best to boost the advancement in the determination method of lignin, cellulose and hemi

  14. Unpolarized emissivity with shadow and multiple reflections from random rough surfaces with the geometric optics approximation: application to Gaussian sea surfaces in the infrared band.

    PubMed

    Bourlier, Christophe

    2006-08-20

    The emissivity from a stationary random rough surface is derived by taking into account the multiple reflections and the shadowing effect. The model is applied to the ocean surface. The geometric optics approximation is assumed to be valid, which means that the rough surface is modeled as a collection of facets reflecting locally the light in the specular direction. In particular, the emissivity with zero, single, and double reflections are analytically calculated, and each contribution is studied numerically by considering a 1D sea surface observed in the near infrared band. The model is also compared with results computed from a Monte Carlo ray-tracing method. PMID:16892130

  15. Spectral reflectance from plant canopies and optimum spectral channels in the near infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, W. A.; Gausman, H. W.; Wiegand, C. L.

    1970-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental aspects of the interaction of light with a typical plant canopy are considered. Both theoretical and experimental results are used to establish optimum electromagnetic wavelength channels for remote sensing in agriculture. The spectral range considered includes half of the visible and much of the near-infrared regions.

  16. Effects of Sample Preparation on the Infrared Reflectance Spectra of Powders

    SciTech Connect

    Brauer, Carolyn S.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Myers, Tanya L.; Su, Yin-Fong; Blake, Thomas A.; Forland, Brenda M.

    2015-05-22

    While reflectance spectroscopy is a useful tool in identifying molecular compounds, laboratory measurement of solid (particularly powder) samples often is confounded by sample preparation methods. For example, both the packing density and surface roughness can have an effect on the quantitative reflectance spectra of powdered samples. Recent efforts in our group have focused on developing standard methods for measuring reflectance spectra that accounts for sample preparation, as well as other factors such as particle size and provenance. In this work, the effect of preparation method on sample reflectivity was investigated by measuring the directional-hemispherical spectra of samples that were hand-packed as well as pressed into pellets using an integrating sphere attached to a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The results show that the methods used to prepare the sample have a substantial effect on the measured reflectance spectra, as do other factors such as particle size.

  17. Potential of remote visible and near-infrared spectral reflectance measurements for mapping thermal maturity variations

    SciTech Connect

    Rowan, L.C.; Pawlewicz, M.J.; Jones, O.D. )

    1989-09-01

    The visible and near-infrared (VNIR) spectral reflectance of rocks containing organic matter is related to thermal maturity because thermal alteration liberates hydrogen and forms highly absorbing carbon-rich polycondensed structures. To evaluate the usefulness of remote spectral reflectance measurements for mapping thermal maturity differences, Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images of the Eureka, Nevada, area were processed to produce a digital classification image maps that shows maturity in well-exposed, sparsely vegetated areas consisting of Chainman Shale. The relationship between spectral reflectance in TM bands and band ratios and maturity was confirmed through analysis of laboratory VNIR spectral reflectance and mean vitrinite reflectance (R{sub m}) measurements of 20 samples.

  18. Evaluation of thermal stability of indinavir sulphate using diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Singh, Parul; Premkumar, L; Mehrotra, Ranjana; Kandpal, H C; Bakhshi, A K

    2008-06-01

    Indinavir sulphate is a potent and specific protease inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It is used for the treatment of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). At elevated temperature the drug which otherwise remains crystalline undergoes a phase transition to an amorphous phase to form degradation products. In the present study, thermal stability of indinavir sulphate is evaluated using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy. Infrared spectra of the drug before and after the exposure to thermal radiation at different temperatures were acquired in the diffuse reflectance mode using a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometer. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies were used as complimentary techniques to adequately implement and assist the interpretation of the infrared spectroscopy results. The DRIFT spectra reveal that the drug remains stable up to 100 degrees C, degrades slightly at 125 degrees C and undergoes complete degradation at about 150 degrees C to produce degradation products. The degradation products can easily be characterized using the infrared spectra. PMID:18280078

  19. Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, M.

    2013-11-01

    techniques such as attenuated total reflectance [6]. The two final papers deal with what seem to be wholly different scientific fields [7, 8]. One paper describes SOFIA, an aeroplane-based astronomical observatory covering the whole IR range [7], while the other represents a small review of the quite new topic of terahertz physics at the upper end of the IR spectral range, from around 30 µm to 3 mm wavelength, and its many applications in science and industry [8]. Although artificially separated, all these fields use similar kinds of detectors, similar kinds of IR sources and similar technologies, while the instruments use the same physical principles. We are convinced that the field of infrared physics will develop over the next decade in the same dynamic way as during the last, and this special issue may serve as starting point for regular submissions on the topic. At any rate, it shines a light on this fascinating and many-faceted subject, which started more than 200 years ago. References [1] Mangold K, Shaw J A and Vollmer M 2013 The physics of near-infrared photography Eur. J. Phys. 34 S51-71 [2] Vollmer M and Möllmann K-P 2013 Characterization of IR cameras in student labs Eur. J. Phys. 34 S73-90 [3] Ibarra-Castanedo C, Tarpani J R and Maldague X P V 2013 Nondestructive testing with thermography Eur. J. Phys. 34 S91-109 [4] Shaw J A and Nugent P W 2013 Physics principles in radiometric infrared imaging of clouds in the atmosphere Eur. J. Phys. 34 S111-21 [5] Möllmann K-P and Vollmer M 2013 Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in physics laboratory courses Eur. J. Phys. 34 S123-37 [6] Heise H M, Fritzsche J, Tkatsch H, Waag F, Karch K, Henze K, Delbeck S and Budde J 2013 Recent advances in mid- and near-infrared spectroscopy with applications for research and teaching, focusing on petrochemistry and biotechnology relevant products Eur. J. Phys. 34 S139-59 [7] Krabbe A, Mehlert D, Röser H-P and Scorza C 2013 SOFIA, an airborne observatory for infrared astronomy

  20. Infrared reflectance measurements of the insulator-metal transition in solid hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, H. K.; Hemley, R. J.; Hanfland, M.

    1990-01-01

    Reflectance measurements on solid hydrogen to 177 GPa (1.77 Mbar) have been performed from near-infrared to ultraviolet wavelengths (0.5 to 3 eV). Above 150 GPa characteristic free-electron behavior in the infrared region is observed to increase sharply with increasing pressure. Analysis of volume dependence of the plasma frequency obtained from Drude-model fits to the spectra indicates that the pressure of the insulator-metal transition is 149 (+ or - 10) GPa at 295 K. The measurements are consistent with metallization by closure of an indirect gap in the molecular solid.

  1. A cryogenic dichroic mirror for separating visible light from wideband infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enya, K.; Fujishiro, N.; Haze, K.; Kotani, T.; Kaneda, H.; Oyabu, S.; Ishihara, D.; Oseki, S.

    2014-08-01

    We present the design, fabrication and test results for a dichroic mirror, which was primarily developed for the SPICA Coronagraph Instrument (SCI), but is potentially useful for various types of astronomical instrument. The dichroic mirror is designed to reflect near- and mid-infrared but to transmit visible light. Two designs, one with 3 layers and one with 5 layers on BK7 glass substrates, are presented. The 3-layer design, consisting of Ag and ZnS, is simpler, and the 5-layer design, consisting of Ag and TiO2 is expected to have better performance. Tape tests, evaluation of the surface figure, and measurements of the reflectivity and transmittance were carried out at ambient temperature in air. The reflectivity obtained from measurements made on mirrors with 5 layers were < 80 % for wavelengths, λ, from 1.2 to 22 μm and < 90 % for λ from 1.8 to 20 μm. The transmittance obtained from measurements made on mirrors with 5 layers were < 70 % for λ between 0.4 and 0.8 μm. Optical ghosting is estimated to be smaller than 10-4 at λ < 1.5 μm. A protective coating for preventing corrosion was applied and its influence on the reflectivity and transmittance evaluated. A study examining the trade-offs imposed by various configurations for obtaining a telescope pointing correction signal was also undertaken.

  2. Optimally designed narrowband guided-mode resonance reflectance filters for mid-infrared spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jui-Nung; Schulmerich, Matthew V.; Bhargava, Rohit; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2011-01-01

    An alternative to the well-established Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry, termed discrete frequency infrared (DFIR) spectrometry, has recently been proposed. This approach uses narrowband mid-infrared reflectance filters based on guided-mode resonance (GMR) in waveguide gratings, but filters designed and fabricated have not attained the spectral selectivity (≤ 32 cm−1) commonly employed for measurements of condensed matter using FT-IR spectroscopy. With the incorporation of dispersion and optical absorption of materials, we present here optimal design of double-layer surface-relief silicon nitride-based GMR filters in the mid-IR for various narrow bandwidths below 32 cm−1. Both shift of the filter resonance wavelengths arising from the dispersion effect and reduction of peak reflection efficiency and electric field enhancement due to the absorption effect show that the optical characteristics of materials must be taken into consideration rigorously for accurate design of narrowband GMR filters. By incorporating considerations for background reflections, the optimally designed GMR filters can have bandwidth narrower than the designed filter by the antireflection equivalence method based on the same index modulation magnitude, without sacrificing low sideband reflections near resonance. The reported work will enable use of GMR filters-based instrumentation for common measurements of condensed matter, including tissues and polymer samples. PMID:22109445

  3. Spectral matching factors between low-light-level and infrared fusion optoelectronic detector and objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Fan, Yinghao; Chang, Benkang

    2009-09-01

    According to the response of photoelectric device to a light source, the formula of spectral matching factor of low-lightlevel and infrared fusion optoelectronic detector-object combination is deduced. The spectral matching factors of photo cathode and infrared detector for green vegetation are calculated and compared. Through the analysis of results it shows that spectral matching factor has influence on the performance of low light level and infrared fusion night vision system.

  4. Use of visible and infrared reflectance and luminescence imaging spectroscopy to study illuminated manuscripts: pigment identification and visualization of underdrawings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricciardi, Paola; Delaney, John K.; Glinsman, Lisha; Thoury, Mathieu; Facini, Michelle; de la Rie, E. René

    2009-07-01

    Site specific, in situ techniques such as X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and Raman spectroscopy are commonly used to identify pigments on illuminated manuscripts. With both techniques, spectra are usually acquired on visually identified sites thought to be representative of the pigments and mixtures used for the illumination. Such visual inspection may not always ensure an adequate representation of the pigment diversity. Here we report on the application of multispectral (MSI) visible/infrared reflectance and luminescence imaging spectroscopy, along with fiber optics reflectance spectroscopy (FORS) to help determine and map the primary pigments in a late 14th century miniature on vellum, attributed to Niccolo da Bologna and representing the birth of John the Baptist. XRF analyses of visually selected sites found elements consistent with azurite, ultramarine, vermillion, lead white, "mosaic gold" and yellow earth pigments. Visible/infrared FORS analyses confirmed these assignments and showed evidence for the use of organic dyes. The spectral analysis of the MSI-reflectance images gave distribution maps for these pigments (i.e., regions of azurite, ultramarine, vermillion) along with some indication of pigment layering not identified visually. The luminescence image gave a probable map of the organic dye(s). Images acquired in the near- and shortwave-infrared (NIR and SWIR, 750 to 2400 nm) revealed preparatory sketches and illumination techniques. These results show, like those of a prior study carried out on another 14th century Italian miniature, that the combination of low light multi-spectral imaging spectroscopy with FORS provides improved in situ mapping and identification of pigments on illuminated manuscripts.

  5. [Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) and its application in the determination for the quality of animal feed and products].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Meng, Qing-Xiang; Ren, Li-Ping; Yang, Jian-Song

    2010-06-01

    Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) has been the most rapidly developing and noticeable spectrographic analytical technique in recent years. The determining principle and progresses of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy are presented briefly. It mainly includes the progresses in pre-processing technique and analyzing model of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Two pre-processing techniques, including differential coefficient-dealt with technique, the signal-smoothing technique, and four analyzing models of near-infrared spectroscopy, including the multiplied lined regression (MLR), principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares (PLS), and artificial nerve network (ANN). The application of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy to the first time. The investigation of reviewed papers shows that the near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy is widely applied in feed analysis and animal products analysis because of its rapidness, non-destruction and non-pollution. The near infrared reflectance spectroscopy has been used to determine the feed common ingredient, such as dry matter, crude protein, crude fiber, crude fat and so on, micro-components including amino acid, vitamin, and noxious components, and to determine the physical and chemical properties of animal products which including egg, mutton, beef and pork. Details of the analytical characteristics of feed and animal products described in the reviewed papers are given. New trends and limits to the application of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy in these fields are also discussed. PMID:20707134

  6. Polymer-cholesteric liquid-crystalline composites with a broad light reflection band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitov, Michel

    2016-05-01

    Cholesteric liquid crystals selectively reflect the light. The reflection bandgap is typically limited to 100 nm in the visible spectrum and, at the best, 50% of the unpolarized incident light is reflected. Solutions are found in biopolymers and polymer-liquid crystal composite materials to go beyond these limits.

  7. Reflective films and expression of light-regulated genes in field-grown apple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reflective films are used in orchard management to improve fruit coloration. Numerous physiological studies on the effects of application of these films have been conducted, including variation of angles of light incidence and reflection, spectral determination of reflected light and effects on pho...

  8. Total internal reflection and dynamic light scattering microscopy of gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregor, Brian F.

    Two different techniques which apply optical microscopy in novel ways to the study of biological systems and materials were built and applied to several samples. The first is a system for adapting the well-known technique of dynamic light scattering (DLS) to an optical microscope. This can detect and scatter light from very small volumes, as compared to standard DLS which studies light scattering from volumes 1000x larger. The small scattering volume also allows for the observation of nonergodic dynamics in appropriate samples. Porcine gastric mucin (PGM) forms a gel at low pH which lines the epithelial cell layer and acts as a protective barrier against the acidic stomach environment. The dynamics and microscopic viscosity of PGM at different pH levels is studied using polystyrene microspheres as tracer particles. The microscopic viscosity and microrheological properties of the commercial basement membrane Matrigel are also studied with this instrument. Matrigel is frequently used to culture cells and its properties remain poorly determined. Well-characterized and purely synthetic Matrigel substitutes will need to have the correct rheological and morphological characteristics. The second instrument designed and built is a microscope which uses an interferometry technique to achieve an improvement in resolution 2.5x better in one dimension than the Abbe diffraction limit. The technique is based upon the interference of the evanescent field generated on the surface of a prism by a laser in a total internal reflection geometry. The enhanced resolution is demonstrated with fluorescent samples. Additionally. Raman imaging microscopy is demonstrated using the evanescent field in resonant and non-resonant samples, although attempts at applying the enhanced resolution technique to the Raman images were ultimately unsuccessful. Applications of this instrument include high resolution imaging of cell membranes and macroscopic structures in gels and proteins. Finally, a third

  9. Crystal orientation dependence of polarized infrared reflectance response of hexagonal sapphire crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. C.; Ng, S. S.; Abu Hassan, H.; Hassan, Z.; Dumelow, T.

    2014-11-01

    Polarized infrared (IR) reflectance responses of c-, a- and r-plane sapphire crystals were investigated. The sapphire crystals with differently oriented surfaces exhibited different reststrahlen features. Except for c-plane sapphire, the polarized IR reflectance responses were sensitive to the orientation of the samples. The spectral features for a- and r-plane sapphire crystals were modulated by just rotating the samples about their surface normal. To analyze the observations, a theoretical model for the polarized IR reflectivity that considers the effects of crystal orientation of a hexagonal crystal system was employed. Overall, the theoretical predictions were in good agreement with experimental data. The crystal orientation information deduced from the polarized IR reflectance spectra is consistent with that acquired from X-ray diffraction measurements.

  10. A new optical head tracing reflected light for nanoprofiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuda, K.; Okita, K.; Tokuta, Y.; Kitayama, T.; Nakano, M.; Kudo, R.; Yamamura, K.; Endo, K.

    2014-09-01

    High accuracy optical elements are applied in various fields. For example, ultraprecise aspherical mirrors are necessary for developing third-generation synchrotron radiation and XFEL (X-ray Free Electron LASER) sources. In order to make such high accuracy optical elements, it is necessary to realize the measurement of aspherical mirrors with high accuracy. But there has been no measurement method which simultaneously achieves these demands yet. So, we develop the nanoprofiler that can directly measure the any surfaces figures with high accuracy. The nanoprofiler gets the normal vector and the coordinate of a measurement point with using LASER and the QPD (Quadrant Photo Diode) as a detector. And, from the normal vectors and their coordinates, the three-dimensional figure is calculated. In order to measure the figure, the nanoprofiler controls its five motion axis numerically to make the reflected light enter to the QPD's center. The control is based on the sample's design formula. We measured a concave spherical mirror with a radius of curvature of 400 mm by the deflection method which calculates the figure error from QPD's output, and compared the results with those using a Fizeau interferometer. The profile was consistent within the range of system error. The deflection method can't neglect the error caused from the QPD's spatial irregularity of sensitivity. In order to improve it, we have contrived the zero method which moves the QPD by the piezoelectric motion stage and calculates the figure error from the displacement.

  11. Evidence for Reflected Light from the Most Eccentric Exoplanet Known

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, Stephen R.; Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Hinkel, Natalie R.; Roy, Arpita; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Dragomir, Diana; Matthews, Jaymie M.; Henry, Gregory W.; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Boyajian, Tabetha S.; Wright, Jason T.; Ciardi, David R.; Fischer, Debra A.; Butler, R. Paul; Tinney, C. G.; Carter, Brad D.; Jones, Hugh R. A.; Bailey, Jeremy; O’Toole, Simon J.

    2016-04-01

    Planets in highly eccentric orbits form a class of objects not seen within our solar system. The most extreme case known among these objects is the planet orbiting HD 20782, with an orbital period of 597 days and an eccentricity of 0.96. Here we present new data and analysis for this system as part of the Transit Ephemeris Refinement and Monitoring Survey. We obtained CHIRON spectra to perform an independent estimation of the fundamental stellar parameters. New radial velocities from Anglo-Australian Telescope and PARAS observations during periastron passage greatly improve our knowledge of the eccentric nature of the orbit. The combined analysis of our Keplerian orbital and Hipparcos astrometry show that the inclination of the planetary orbit is \\gt 1\\_\\_AMP\\_\\_fdg;22, ruling out stellar masses for the companion. Our long-term robotic photometry show that the star is extremely stable over long timescales. Photometric monitoring of the star during predicted transit and periastron times using Microvariability and Oscillations of STars rule out a transit of the planet and reveal evidence of phase variations during periastron. These possible photometric phase variations may be caused by reflected light from the planet’s atmosphere and the dramatic change in star–planet separation surrounding the periastron passage.

  12. Reflected light microspectroscopy for single-nanoparticle biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patskovsky, Sergiy; Meunier, Michel

    2015-09-01

    Conventional and dark-field microscopy in the transmission mode is extensively used for single plasmonic nanoparticle (NP) imaging and spectral analysis. However, application of the transmission mode for real-time biosensing to single NP poses strict limitations on the size and material properties of the microfluidic system. This article proposes a simple optical technique based on reflected light microscopy to perform microspectroscopy of a single NP placed in a conventional, nontransparent liquid delivery system. The insertion of a variable spot diaphragm in the optical path reduces the interference effect that occurs at the NP-substrate interface and improves the signal-to-noise ratio in NP imaging. Using this method, we demonstrated spatial imaging and spectral analyses of 60-, 80-, and 100-nm single gold NPs. A single-NP sensor based on a 100-nm NP was used for real-time measurement of bulk refractive index changes in the microfluidic channel and for detection of fast dynamic poly(ethylene glycol) attachment to the NP surface. Finally, electrochemical single-particle microspectroscopy was demonstrated by using a methylene blue electroactive redox tag. The proposed optical approach is expected to significantly improve the miniaturization and multiplexing capabilities of high-throughput biosensing based on single NP.

  13. Cryo-Transmittance and -Reflectance of Filters and Beamsplitters for the SIRTF Infrared Array Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Kenneth P.; Quijada, Manuel A.a

    2000-01-01

    The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) uses two dichroic beamsplitters, four bandpass filters, and four detector arrays to acquire images in four channels at wavelengths between 3 and 10 micron. Accurate knowledge of the pass bands is necessary because, in order to meet the science objectives, IRAC is required to do 2% relative photometry in each band relative to the other bands. We report the in-band and out-of-band polarized transmittance and reflectance of these optical elements measured near the instrument operating temperature of 1.4 K. Details of the experimental apparatus, which include a continuous flow liquid helium optical cryostat and a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer are discussed.

  14. [Application of Fourier transform attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy in analysis of pulp and paper industry].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Cao, Chun-yu; Feng, Wen-ying; Xu, Ming; Su, Zhen-hua; Liu, Xiao-meng; Lü, Wei-jun

    2011-03-01

    As one of the most powerful tools to investigate the compositions of raw materials and the property of pulp and paper, infrared spectroscopy has played an important role in pulp and paper industry. However, the traditional transmission infrared spectroscopy has not met the requirements of the producing processes because of its disadvantages of time consuming and sample destruction. New technique would be needed to be found. Fourier transform attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) is an advanced spectroscopic tool for nondestructive evaluation and could rapidly, accurately estimate the production properties of each process in pulp and paper industry. The present review describes the application of ATR-FTIR in analysis of pulp and paper industry. The analysis processes will include: pulping, papermaking, environmental protecting, special processing and paper identifying. PMID:21595211

  15. Attenuated total reflectance powder cell for infrared analysis of hygroscopic samples.

    PubMed

    Lekgoathi, M D S; le Roux, J P

    2011-11-01

    An attenuated total reflectance (ATR) sample cell has been designed, manufactured and subsequently used for the mid-infrared analysis of hygroscopic samples. This sample cell was installed as a simple drop-in replacement for the cell supplied with our commercially available Harrick Mvp-Pro FTIR-ATR accessory. Calcium chloride, a well-known desiccant that has a propensity to absorb water into its crystal lattice, was selected as non-infrared active substrate to accentuate the efficacy of the cell in preserving the anhydrous state of the sample by straightforward monitoring of the water bands. In contrast, mid-infrared spectra are presented that qualitatively demonstrate the rapid rate at which atmospheric moisture is incorporated into the anhydrous sample when analyzed using the conventional ATR cell assembly. PMID:21835688

  16. Attenuated total reflectance powder cell for infrared analysis of hygroscopic samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekgoathi, M. D. S.; le Roux, J. P.

    2011-11-01

    An attenuated total reflectance (ATR) sample cell has been designed, manufactured and subsequently used for the mid-infrared analysis of hygroscopic samples. This sample cell was installed as a simple drop-in replacement for the cell supplied with our commercially available Harrick Mvp-Pro FTIR-ATR accessory. Calcium chloride, a well-known desiccant that has a propensity to absorb water into its crystal lattice, was selected as non-infrared active substrate to accentuate the efficacy of the cell in preserving the anhydrous state of the sample by straightforward monitoring of the water bands. In contrast, mid-infrared spectra are presented that qualitatively demonstrate the rapid rate at which atmospheric moisture is incorporated into the anhydrous sample when analyzed using the conventional ATR cell assembly.

  17. Infrared imaging of LED lighting tubes and fluorescent tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siikanen, Sami; Kivi, Sini; Kauppinen, Timo; Juuti, Mikko

    2011-05-01

    The low energy efficiency of conventional light sources is mainly caused by generation of waste heat. We used infrared (IR) imaging in order to monitor the heating of both LED tube luminaires and ordinary T8 fluorescent tubes. The IR images showed clearly how the surface temperatures of the fluorescent tube ends quickly rose up to about +50...+70°C, whereas the highest surface temperatures seen on the LED tubes were only about +30...+40°C. The IR images demonstrated how the heat produced by the individual LED chips can be efficiently guided to the supporting structure in order to keep the LED emitters cool and hence maintain efficient operation. The consumed electrical power and produced illuminance were also recorded during 24 hour measurements. In order to assess the total luminous efficacy of the luminaires, separate luminous flux measurements were made in a large integrating sphere. The currently available LED tubes showed efficacies of up to 88 lm/W, whereas a standard "cool white" T8 fluorescent tube produced ca. 75 lm/W. Both lamp types gave ca. 110 - 130 lx right below the ceiling-mounted luminaire, but the LED tubes consume only 40 - 55% of the electric power compared to fluorescent tubes.

  18. Near infrared light responsive hybrid nanoparticles for synergistic therapy.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yan; Gao, Wenxia; Peng, Xinyu; Deng, Xin; Sun, Changzhen; Wu, Huayue; He, Bin

    2016-09-01

    A near infrared (NIR) light responsive chromophore 7-(diethylamino)-4-(hydroxymethyl)-2H-chromen-2-one (DEACM) was synthesized and incorporated to β-cyclodextrins with cRGD functionalized poly(ethylene glycol), the amphiphiles were coordinated with Au nanorods or nanoparticles to load anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) for fabricating hybrid nanoparticles. The π-π stacking interaction between DEACM and DOX was formed in the hybrid nanoparticles, which contributed to the high drug loading content. The Au nanorods or nanoparticles enhanced the photosolvolysis of DEACM under the irradiation of NIR with 808 nm wavelength and triggered the accelerated drug release from the nanoparticles. The drug loaded hybrid nanoparticles with NIR irradiation exhibited efficient inhibition effect on the proliferation of 4T1 breast cancer cells in vitro. The in vivo anticancer activity study on breast cancer bearing mice revealed that the hybrid nanoparticles containing Au nanorods exhibited excellent anticancer activity under the irradiation of 808 nm wavelength NIR with 800 mW. PMID:27244691

  19. Near-infrared light penetration profile in the rodent brain

    PubMed Central

    Abdo, Ammar; Ersen, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Near-infrared (NIR) lasers find applications in neuro-medicine both for diagnostic and treatment purposes. Penetration depth and profile into neural tissue are critical parameters to be considered in these applications. Published data on the optical properties of rodent neural tissue are rare, despite the frequent use of rats as an animal model. The aim of this study was to measure the light intensity profile inside the rat brain using a direct method, while the medium is being illuminated by an NIR laser beam, and compare the results with in vitro measurements of transmittance in the rat brain slices. The intensity profile along the vertical axis had an exponential decline with multiple regions that could be approximated with different coefficients. The Monte Carlo method that was used to simulate light–tissue interactions and predict the scattering coefficient of brain tissue from the measurements suggested that more scattering occurred in deeper layers of the cortex. A single scattering coefficient of 125  cm−1 was estimated for cortical layers from 300 to 1500 μm and a gradually increasing value from 125 to 370  cm−1 for depths of 1500 to 3000 μm. The deviations of in vivo results from the in vitro transmittance measurements, as well as the postmortem in vivo results from the alive measurements were significant. PMID:23831713

  20. [Rapid determination of fatty acids in soybean oils by transmission reflection-near infrared spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Song, Tao; Zhang, Feng-ping; Liu, Yao-min; Wu, Zong-wen; Suo, You-rui

    2012-08-01

    In the present research, a novel method was established for determination of five fatty acids in soybean oil by transmission reflection-near infrared spectroscopy. The optimum conditions of mathematics model of five components (C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3) were studied, including the sample set selection, chemical value analysis, the detection methods and condition. Chemical value was analyzed by gas chromatography. One hundred fifty eight samples were selected, 138 for modeling set, 10 for testing set and 10 for unknown sample set. All samples were placed in sample pools and scanned by transmission reflection-near infrared spectrum after sonicleaning for 10 minute. The 1100-2500 nm spectral region was analyzed. The acquisition interval was 2 nm. Modified partial least square method was chosen for calibration mode creating. Result demonstrated that the 1-VR of five fatty acids between the reference value of the modeling sample set and the near infrared spectrum predictive value were 0.8839, 0.5830, 0.9001, 0.9776 and 0.9596, respectively. And the SECV of five fatty acids between the reference value of the modeling sample set and the near infrared spectrum predictive value were 0.42, 0.29, 0.83, 0.46 and 0.21, respectively. The standard error of the calibration (SECV) of five fatty acids between the reference value of testing sample set and the near infrared spectrum predictive value were 0.891, 0.790, 0.900, 0.976 and 0.942, respectively. It was proved that the near infrared spectrum predictive value was linear with chemical value and the mathematical model established for fatty acids of soybean oil was feasible. For validation, 10 unknown samples were selected for analysis by near infrared spectrum. The result demonstrated that the relative standard deviation between predict value and chemical value was less than 5.50%. That was to say that transmission reflection-near infrared spectroscopy had a good veracity in analysis of fatty acids of soybean oil

  1. [Tri-Level Infrared Spectroscopic Identification of Hot Melting Reflective Road Marking Paint].

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Ma, Fang; Sun, Su-qin

    2015-12-01

    In order to detect the road marking paint from the trace evidence in traffic accident scene, and to differentiate their brands, we use Tri-level infrared spectroscopic identification, which employs the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), the second derivative infrared spectroscopy(SD-IR), two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy(2D-IR) to identify three different domestic brands of hot melting reflective road marking paints and their raw materials in formula we Selected. The experimental results show that three labels coatings in ATR and FTIR spectrograms are very similar in shape, only have different absorption peak wave numbers, they have wide and strong absorption peaks near 1435 cm⁻¹, and strong absorption peak near 879, 2955, 2919, 2870 cm⁻¹. After enlarging the partial areas of spectrograms and comparing them with each kind of raw material of formula spectrograms, we can distinguish them. In the region 700-970 and 1370-1 660 cm⁻¹ the spectrograms mainly reflect the different relative content of heavy calcium carbonate of three brands of the paints, and that of polyethylene wax (PE wax), ethylene vinyl acetate resin (EVA), dioctyl phthalate (DOP) in the region 2800-2960 cm⁻¹. The SD-IR not only verify the result of the FTIR analysis, but also further expand the microcosmic differences and reflect the different relative content of quartz sand in the 512-799 cm-1 region. Within the scope of the 1351 to 1525 cm⁻¹, 2D-IR have more significant differences in positions and numbers of automatically peaks. Therefore, the Tri-level infrared spectroscopic identification is a fast and effective method to distinguish the hot melting road marking paints with a gradually improvement in apparent resolution. PMID:26964206

  2. Infrared reflectance and photoemission spectroscopy studies across the phase transition boundary in thin film vanadium dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Ruzmetov, Dmitry; Zawilski, Kevin; Senanayake, Sanjaya D; Narayanamurti, Venkatesh; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2008-01-01

    Optical properties and valence band density of states near the Fermi level of high-quality VO2 thin films have been investigated by mid-infrared reflectometry and hard-UV (h = 150 eV) photoemission spectroscopy. An exceptionally large change in reflectance from 2 to 94% is found upon the thermally driven metal insulator transition (MIT). The infrared dispersion spectra of the reflectance across the MIT are presented and evidence for the percolative nature of the MIT is pointed out. The discrepancy between the MIT temperatures defined from the electrical and optical properties is found and its origin is discussed. The manifestation of the MIT is observed in the photoemission spectra of the V 3d levels. The analysis of the changes of the V 3d density of states is done and the top valence band shift upon the MIT is measured to be 0.6 eV.

  3. Prepreg cure monitoring using diffuse reflectance-FTIR. [Fourier Transform Infrared Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, P. R.; Chang, A. C.

    1984-01-01

    An in situ diffuse reflectance-Fourier transform infrared technique was developed to determine infrared spectra of graphite fiber prepregs as they were being cured. A bismaleimide, an epoxy, and addition polyimide matrix resin prepregs were studied. An experimental polyimide adhesive was also examined. Samples were positioned on a small heater at the focal point of diffuse reflectance optics and programmed at 15 F/min while FTIR spectra were being scanned, averaged, and stored. An analysis of the resulting spectra provided basic insights into changes in matrix resin molecular structure which accompanied reactions such as imidization and crosslinking. An endo-exothermal isomerization involving reactive end-caps was confirmed for the addition polyimide prepregs. The results of this study contribute to a fundamental understanding of the processing of composites and adhesives. Such understanding will promote the development of more efficient cure cycles.

  4. Near-infrared reflectance spectra-applications to problems in asteroid-meteorite relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfadden, Lucy A.; Chamberlin, Alan; Vilas, Faith

    1991-01-01

    Near-infrared spectral reflectance data were collected at the Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) at Mauna Kea Observatories in 1985 and 1986 for the purpose of searching the region near the 3:1 Kirkwood gap for asteroids with the spectral signatures of ordinary chondrite parent bodies. Twelve reflectance spectra are observed. The presence of ordinary chondrite parent bodies among this specific set of observed asteroids is not obvious, though the sample is biased towards the larger asteroids in the region due to limitations imposed by detector sensitivity. The data set, which was acquired with the same instrumentation used for the 52-color asteroid survey (Bell et al., 1987), also presents some additional findings. The range of spectral characteristics that exist among asteroids of the same taxonomic type is noted. Conclusions based on the findings are discussed.

  5. Modeling the attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrum of apatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aufort, Julie; Ségalen, Loïc; Gervais, Christel; Brouder, Christian; Balan, Etienne

    2016-06-01

    Attenuated total reflectance (ATR) infrared spectra were measured on a synthetic and a natural fluorapatite sample. A modeling approach based on the computation of the Fresnel reflection coefficient between the ATR crystal and the powder sample was used to analyze the line shape of the spectra. The dielectric properties of the samples were related to those of pure fluorapatite using an effective medium approach, based on Maxwell-Garnett and Bruggeman models. The Bruggeman effective medium model leads to a very good agreement with the experimental data recorded on the synthetic fluorapatite sample. The poorer agreement observed on the natural sample suggests a more significant heterogeneity of the sample at a characteristic length scale larger than the mid-infrared characteristic wavelength, i.e., about 10 micrometers. The results demonstrate the prominent role of macroscopic electrostatic effects over fine details of the microscopic structure in determining the line shape of strong ATR bands.

  6. Optical constants of silver and copper indium ternary sulfides from infrared reflectivity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasanly, N. M.

    2016-03-01

    Infrared reflection spectra are obtained in the frequency range of 50-2000 cm-1 for AgIn5S8 and CuIn5S8 single crystals grown by Bridgman method. All four infrared-active modes are detected, which are in full agreement with the prediction of group-theoretical analysis. Spectral dependence of optical parameters; real and imaginary parts of the dielectric function, the function of energy losses, refractive index, absorption index and absorption coefficient were calculated from reflectivity experiments. The frequencies of transverse and longitudinal optical modes and oscillator strengths were also determined. The bands detected in IR spectra of studied crystals were assigned to various vibration types (valence and valence-deformation) on the basis of the symmetrized displacements of atoms obtained employing the Melvin projection operators.

  7. Large-Area Reflective Infrared Filters for Millimeter/Sub-mm Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Z.; Grayson, J. A.; Thompson, K. L.; Kuo, C.-L.; Brooks, G.; Pothoven, T.

    2014-09-01

    Ground-based millimeter and sub-millimeter telescopes are attempting to image the sky with ever-larger cryogenically-cooled bolometer arrays, but face challenges in mitigating the infrared loading accompanying large apertures. Absorptive infrared filters supported by mechanical coolers scale insufficiently with aperture size. Reflective metal-mesh filters placed behind the telescope window provide a scalable solution in principle, but have been limited by photolithography constraints to diameters under 300 mm. We present laser etching as an alternate technique to photolithography for fabrication of large-area reflective filters, and show results from lab tests of 500-mm-diameter filters. Filters with up to 700-mm diameter can be fabricated using laser etching with existing capability.

  8. Aircraft observations of Venus' near-infrared reflection spectrum - Implications for cloud composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, J. B.; Erickson, E. F.; Witteborn, F. C.; Chackerian, C., Jr.; Summers, A. L.; Van Camp, W.; Baldwin, B. J.; Augason, G. C.; Caroff, L. J.

    1974-01-01

    A comparison of aircraft-based measurement data on Venus' near-infrared (1.2- to 4.1-micron) reflection spectrum with computer generated spectra of a number of cloud candidates shows a 75-% or more concentrated water solution of sulfuric acid to give the only acceptable match to the profile of Venus' strong 3-micron absorption feature. However, the measurement data obtained also show a modest decline in reflectivity from 2.3-micron to 1.2-micron wavelength, which is inconsistent with the flat spectrum of sulfuric acid in this spectral region. It is hypothesized that this decline is due to impurities in the sulfuric acid droplets.

  9. Infrared reflectance spectroscopy and thermographic investigations of the Shroud of Turin.

    PubMed

    Accetta, J S; Baumgart, J S

    1980-06-15

    In this paper we present the results of the IR investigations of the controversial Turin Shroud. Reflectance spectroscopy in the 3-5- and 8-14-microm bands was attempted in situ using commercial equipment with moderate success. Spectral comparisons are made between laboratory reflectance data and selected Shroud features. Infrared thermographic imaging was accomplished with an enhanced contrast technique using external illumination. Due to the spectral similarities of most features observed, we show that the results are inconclusive. The IR imagery yielded results that are consistent with expectations with no anomalies observed. PMID:20221156

  10. Measuring near infrared spectral reflectance changes from water stressed conifer stands with AIS-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riggs, George; Running, Steven W.

    1987-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer-2 (AIS-2) data was acquired over two paired conifer stands for the purpose of detecting differences in spectral reflectance between stressed and natural canopies. Water stress was induced in a stand of Norway spruce and white pine by severing the sapwood near the ground. Water stress during the AIS flights was evaluated through shoot water potential and relative water content measurements. Preliminary analysis with raw AIS-2 data using SPAM indicates that there were small, inconsistent differences in absolute spectral reflectance in the near infrared 0.97 to 1.3 micron between the stressed and natural canopies.

  11. Label-free near-infrared reflectance microscopy as a complimentary tool for two-photon fluorescence brain imaging

    PubMed Central

    Mascaro, Anna Letizia Allegra; Costantini, Irene; Margoni, Emilia; Iannello, Giulio; Bria, Alessandro; Sacconi, Leonardo; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2015-01-01

    In vivo two-photon imaging combined with targeted fluorescent indicators is currently extensively used for attaining critical insights into brain functionality and structural plasticity. Additional information might be gained from back-scattered photons from the near-infrared (NIR) laser without introducing any exogenous labelling. Here, we describe a complimentary and versatile approach that, by collecting the reflected NIR light, provides structural details on axons and blood vessels in the brain, both in fixed samples and in live animals under a cranial window. Indeed, by combining NIR reflectance and two-photon imaging of a slice of hippocampus from a Thy1-GFPm mouse, we show the presence of randomly oriented axons intermingled with sparsely fluorescent neuronal processes. The back-scattered photons guide the contextualization of the fluorescence structure within brain atlas thanks to the recognition of characteristic hippocampal structures. Interestingly, NIR reflectance microscopy allowed the label-free detection of axonal elongations over the superficial layers of mouse cortex under a cranial window in vivo. Finally, blood flow can be measured in live preparations, thus validating label free NIR reflectance as a tool for monitoring hemodynamic fluctuations. The prospective versatility of this label-free technique complimentary to two-photon fluorescence microscopy is demonstrated in a mouse model of photothrombotic stroke in which the axonal degeneration and blood flow remodeling can be investigated. PMID:26601011

  12. Label-free near-infrared reflectance microscopy as a complimentary tool for two-photon fluorescence brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Allegra Mascaro, Anna Letizia; Costantini, Irene; Margoni, Emilia; Iannello, Giulio; Bria, Alessandro; Sacconi, Leonardo; Pavone, Francesco S

    2015-11-01

    In vivo two-photon imaging combined with targeted fluorescent indicators is currently extensively used for attaining critical insights into brain functionality and structural plasticity. Additional information might be gained from back-scattered photons from the near-infrared (NIR) laser without introducing any exogenous labelling. Here, we describe a complimentary and versatile approach that, by collecting the reflected NIR light, provides structural details on axons and blood vessels in the brain, both in fixed samples and in live animals under a cranial window. Indeed, by combining NIR reflectance and two-photon imaging of a slice of hippocampus from a Thy1-GFPm mouse, we show the presence of randomly oriented axons intermingled with sparsely fluorescent neuronal processes. The back-scattered photons guide the contextualization of the fluorescence structure within brain atlas thanks to the recognition of characteristic hippocampal structures. Interestingly, NIR reflectance microscopy allowed the label-free detection of axonal elongations over the superficial layers of mouse cortex under a cranial window in vivo. Finally, blood flow can be measured in live preparations, thus validating label free NIR reflectance as a tool for monitoring hemodynamic fluctuations. The prospective versatility of this label-free technique complimentary to two-photon fluorescence microscopy is demonstrated in a mouse model of photothrombotic stroke in which the axonal degeneration and blood flow remodeling can be investigated. PMID:26601011

  13. Selecting the Right Tool: Comparison of the Analytical Performance of Infrared Attenuated Total Reflection Accessories.

    PubMed

    Schädle, Thomas; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2016-06-01

    The analytical performance of four commercially available infrared attenuated total reflection (IR-ATR) accessories with various ATR waveguide materials has been analyzed and evaluated using acetate, CO2, and CO3 (2-) solutions. Calibration functions have been established to determine and compare analytically relevant parameters such as sensitivity, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and efficiency. The obtained parameters were further analyzed to support conclusions on the differences in performance of the individual IR-ATR accessories. PMID:27091901

  14. Influence of Si doping on the infrared reflectance characteristics of GaN grown on sapphire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Y. T.; Feng, Z. C.; Chua, S. J.; Li, M. F.; Akutsu, N.; Matsumoto, K.

    1999-11-01

    Si-doped GaN films grown on sapphire are investigated by infrared reflectance. A damping behavior of the interference fringes is observed, and interpreted to be due to the presence of an interface layer between the film and the substrate. A theoretical calculation using a two-layer model to take into account the interface layer resulted in this damping in agreement with the experiment. The damping behavior and an improvement of interface properties by Si incorporation are demonstrated.

  15. Improved calibration technique of the infrared imaging bolometer using ultraviolet light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Drapiko, E; Peterson, B; Alekseev, A; Seo, D C

    2010-10-01

    The technique used until recently utilizing the Ne-He laser for imaging bolometer foils calibration [B. J. Peterson et al., J. Plasma Fusion Res. 2, S1018 (2007)] has showed several issues. The method was based on irradiation of 1 cm spaced set of points on a foil by the laser beam moved by set of mirrors. Issues were the nonuniformity of laser power due to the vacuum window transmission nonuniformity and high reflection coefficient for the laser. Also, due to the limited infrared (IR) window size, it was very time consuming. The new methodology uses a compact ultraviolet (uv) light-emitting diodes installed inside the vacuum chamber in a fixed position and the foil itself will be moved in the XY directions by two vacuum feedthroughs. These will help to avoid the above mentioned issues due to lack of a vacuum window, fixed emitters, higher uv power absorption, and a fixed IR camera position. PMID:21033981

  16. High reflected cubic cavity as long path absorption cell for infrared gas sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jia; Gao, Qiang; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2014-10-01

    One direct and efficient method to improve the sensitivity of infrared gas sensors is to increase the optical path length of gas cells according to Beer-Lambert Law. In this paper, cubic shaped cavities with high reflected inner coating as novel long path absorption cells for infrared gas sensing were developed. The effective optical path length (EOPL) for a single cubic cavity and tandem cubic cavities were investigated based on Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) measuring oxygen P11 line at 763 nm. The law of EOPL of a diffuse cubic cavity in relation with the reflectivity of the coating, the port fraction and side length of the cavity was obtained. Experimental results manifested an increase of EOPL for tandem diffuse cubic cavities as the decrease of port fraction of the connecting aperture f', and the EOPL equaled to the sum of that of two single cubic cavities at f'<0.01. The EOPL spectra at infrared wavelength range for different inner coatings including high diffuse coatings and high reflected metallic thin film coatings were deduced.

  17. Graphical Approach to Fresnel's Equations for Reflection and Refraction of Light.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, William T.

    1980-01-01

    Develops a coordinate-free approach to Fresnel's equations for the reflection and refraction of light at a plane interface. Describes a graphical construction for finding the vector amplitudes of the reflected and transmitted waves. (Author/CS)

  18. Comparison of Diffuse Reflectance Fourier Transform Mid-Infrared and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy with Grating-Based Near-Infrared for the Determination of Fatty Acids in Forages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diffuse reflectance Fourier transform mid-infrared (FTMIR) and near infrared spectroscopy (FTNIR) were compared to scanning monochromator-grating-based near infrared spectroscopy (SMNIR), for their ability to quantify fatty acids (FA) in forages. Thirteen different forage cultivars belonging to 11 d...

  19. Lights, Camera, Action: Facilitating PETE Students' Reflection through Film

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Okseon; Ravizza, Dean; Lee, Myung-Ah

    2009-01-01

    Preparing teacher candidates to be reflective professionals is a critical component of physical education teacher education programs. Although many specific strategies have been developed to facilitate post-lesson reflection, strategies for reflecting on future work and professional life have not been widely explored. As a way to facilitate…

  20. The use of visible and near-infrared reflectance spectra for estimating organic matter thermal maturity

    SciTech Connect

    Rowan, L.C.; Poole, F.G.; Pawlewicz, M.J.

    1995-10-01

    Measurements of visible and near-infrared spectral reflectance of 41 samples of mudstone, silt-stone, and carbonate rocks representing two major depositional settings in Nevada were compared to vitrinite reflectance (R{sub o}) and hydrogen index (HI) measurements to determine the relation between spectral reflectance and organic matter (OM) maturity. The samples range in age from Devonian to Paleogene and have highly variable total organic carbon (TOC) contents, recycled OM contents, and kerogen compositions. Visible and near-infrared spectral reflectance of the samples changes systematically as OM maturity increases from submature to supermature (R{sub o} range of 0.28 to 4.32); therefore, spectral reflectance generally can be used to estimate the thermal maturity of the contained OM. The sum of several ratios (compound ratio) used to express spectral changes in the visible and near-infrared wavelength region is high for most submature samples, decreases rapidly with increasing R{sub o} into the mature range, and then decreases less rapidly through the remaining mature range and the supermature range. A similar trend is displayed in the plot of HI vs. compound ratio. Some spectra are affected by iron absorption features and the presence of recycled OM. Iron absorption generally causes the compound ratio values to be anomalously high relative to the OM maturity, whereas recycled OM results in unusually low ratio values. Spectra affected by recycled OM were identified by using a pair of ratios that expresses the difference in spectral shape between these spectra and spectra of supermature samples, which they resemble. Samples containing recycled kerogen are much more numerous from the Mississippian prodelta basin of the Antler foreland basin than from the Antler orogene; this difference indicates derivation of much of the kerogen from the orogene.

  1. Health Monitoring of Thermal Barrier Coatings by Mid-Infrared Reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldridge, J. I.; Spuckler, C. M.; Nesbitt, J. A.; Street, K. W.

    2002-01-01

    Mid-infrared (MIR) reflectance is shown to be a powerful tool for monitoring the integrity of 8wt% yttria-stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). Because of the translucent nature of plasma-sprayed 8YSZ TBCs, particularly at MIR wavelengths (3 to 5 microns), measured reflectance does not only originate from the TBC surface, but contains strong contributions from internal scattering within the coating as well as reflectance from the underlying TBC/substrate interface. Therefore, changes in MIR reflectance measurements can be used to monitor the progression of TBC delamination. In particular, MIR reflectance is shown to reproducibly track the progression of TBC delamination produced by repeated thermal cycling (to 1163 C) of plasma-sprayed 8YSZ TBCs on Rene N5 superalloy substrates. To understand the changes in MIR reflectance with the progression of a delamination crack network, a four-flux scattering model is used to predict the increase in MIR reflectance produced by the introduction of these cracks.

  2. Health Monitoring of Thermal Barrier Coatings by Mid-Infrared Reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldridge, J. I.; Spuckler, C. M.; Nesbitt, J. A.; Street, K. W.

    2002-01-01

    Mid-infrared (MIR) reflectance is shown to be a powerful tool for monitoring the integrity of 8wt% yttria-stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). Because of the translucent nature of plasma-sprayed 8YSZ TBCs at MIR wavelengths (3 to 5 pm), measured reflectance does not only originate from the TBC surface, but contains strong contributions from internal scattering within the coating as well as reflectance from the underlying TBC/substrate interface. Therefore, changes in MIR reflectance measurements can be used to monitor the progression of TBC delamination. In particular, MIR reflectance is shown to reproducibly track the progression of TBC delamination produced by repeated thermal cycling (to 1163 C) of plasma-sprayed 8YSZ TBCs on Rene N5 superalloy substrates. To understand the changes in MIR reflectance with the progression of a delamination crack network, a four-flux scattering model is used to predict the increase in MIR reflectance produced by the introduction of these cracks.

  3. Detection of Cracks on Tomatoes Using a Hyperspectral Near-Infrared Reflectance Imaging System

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hoonsoo; Kim, Moon S.; Jeong, Danhee; Delwiche, Stephen R.; Chao, Kuanglin; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of hyperspectral near-infrared (NIR) reflectance imaging techniques for detecting cuticle cracks on tomatoes. A hyperspectral NIR reflectance imaging system that analyzed the spectral region of 1000–1700 nm was used to obtain hyperspectral reflectance images of 224 tomatoes: 112 with and 112 without cracks along the stem-scar region. The hyperspectral images were subjected to partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) to classify and detect cracks on the tomatoes. Two morphological features, roundness (R) and minimum-maximum distance (D), were calculated from the PLS-DA images to quantify the shape of the stem scar. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and a support vector machine (SVM) were then used to classify R and D. The results revealed 94.6% and 96.4% accuracy for classifications made using LDA and SVM, respectively, for tomatoes with and without crack defects. These data suggest that the hyperspectral near-infrared reflectance imaging system, in addition to traditional NIR spectroscopy-based methods, could potentially be used to detect crack defects on tomatoes and perform quality assessments. PMID:25310472

  4. Quantitative analysis of sulfathiazole polymorphs in ternary mixtures by attenuated total reflectance infrared, near-infrared and Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yun; Erxleben, Andrea; Ryder, Alan G; McArdle, Patrick

    2010-11-01

    The simultaneous quantitative analysis of sulfathiazole polymorphs (forms I, III and V) in ternary mixtures by attenuated total reflectance-infrared (ATR-IR), near-infrared (NIR) and Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis is reported. To reduce the effect of systematic variations, four different data pre-processing methods; multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), standard normal variate (SNV), first and second derivatives, were applied and their performance was evaluated using their prediction errors. It was possible to derive a reliable calibration model for the three polymorphic forms, in powder ternary mixtures, using a partial least squares (PLS) algorithm with SNV pre-processing, which predicted the concentration of polymorphs I, III and V. Root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) for ATR-IR spectra were 5.0%, 5.1% and 4.5% for polymorphs I, III and V, respectively, while NIR spectra had a RMSEP of 2.0%, 2.9%, and 2.8% and Raman spectra had a RMSEP of 3.5%, 4.1%, and 3.6% for polymorphs I, III and V, respectively. NIR spectroscopy exhibits the smallest analytical error, higher accuracy and robustness. When these advantages are combined with the greater convenience of NIR's "in glass bottle" sampling method both ATR-IR and Raman methods appear less attractive. PMID:20605386

  5. Study on the activation of styrene-based shape memory polymer by medium-infrared laser light

    SciTech Connect

    Leng Jinsong; Yu Kai; Lan Xin; Zhang Dawei; Liu Yanju

    2010-03-15

    This paper demonstrates the feasibility of shape memory polymer (SMP) activation by medium-infrared laser light. Medium-infrared light is transmitted by an optical fiber embedded in the SMP matrix, and the shape recovery process and temperature distribution are recorded by an infrared camera. Light-induced SMP exhibits potential applications in biomedicines and flexible displays.

  6. Cryogenic Infrared Reflectance Spectra of Organic Ices and Their Relevance to the Surface Composition of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curchin, John; Clark, R. N.; Hoefen, T. M.

    2006-09-01

    In order to properly interpret reflectance spectra of Titan's surface, laboratory spectra of candidate materials for comparative analysis is needed. Although the common cosmochemical species (H2O, CO2, CO, NH3, and CH4) are well represented in the spectroscopic literature, comparatively little reflectance work has been done on organics at cryotemperatures at visible to near infrared wavelengths. Measurement of reflectance is required for characterizing weak features not seen in transmittance. Such features may be important in remote sensing of planetary surfaces. The USGS Spectroscopy Laboratory uses Nicolet FT-IR and ASD field spectrometers in combination with cryogenic chambers to acquire reflectance spectra of organic ices at approximately 80-90 ºK in a wavelength range of 0.35 to 15.5 microns. This region encompasses the fundamental absorptions and many overtones and combinations of major organic molecules including those with hydrogen-carbon, carbon-carbon (single, double and triple bonds), carbon-oxygen, oxygen-hydrogen, carbon-nitrogen, and nitrogen-hydrogen bonds. Because most organic compounds belong to families with similar structure and composition, individual species identification within a narrow wavelength range may be ambiguous. Only by measuring spectral reflectance of the pure laboratory ices from the visible through the near and mid-infrared can absorption bands unique to each be observed, cataloged and compared to planetary reflectance data. We present here spectra of organic ices belonging to eight families, the alkanes, cycloalkanes, alkenes, alkynes, aromatics, nitriles, amines, and cyanides. Many of these compounds are predicted to coat the surface of Titan and indeed, a number of atmospheric windows, particularly at 5 microns, have allowed their identification with VIMS (Clark et al., DPS 2006, this volume). The spectral properties of these materials have applications to other solar system surfaces and remote sensing of terrestrial

  7. Assessment of diffuse transmission and reflection modes in near-infrared quantification, part 2: DIFFuse reflection information depth.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Muhanned; Probst, Leila; Betz, Gabriele

    2011-03-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy offers tremendous advantages for pharmaceutical manufacturing as a fast and nondestructive method of quantitative and qualitative analysis. Content uniformity (end-product analytics) and process analytics are two important applications of the method. Diffuse reflection (DR) information depth (vertical sampling span) assessment is of equal importance in content prediction applications and to understand the effect of inhomogeneities in the sample. Three experiments were conducted: (a) 0.5 to 10.0 mm incremental thickness MCC tablets with constant porosity, (b) MCC/phenylbutazone (PBZ) double-layered (DL) tablets (PBZ layer 0%-100% in 0.5 mm steps), and (c) Comparison of placebo and 30% caffeine tablet cores with incremental film coating (film thickness of 0-0.35 mm). Incremental thickness and cluster analysis of DL tablets showed that DR information depth was <0.5 mm, whereas the data fitting from incremental coating showed that signal drop reached 50% at 0.05 to 0.07 mm, depending on the wavenumber and 90% signal drop (10% information content) can be seen between 0.20 and 0.25 mm without extrapolation. These results mean that DR mode for pharmaceutical tablets obtains spectral information from the very surface, and radiation is barely reflected back from beyond thin-film coatings, making it less useful than diffuse transmission mode for core content analysis, especially for thick-coated, multilayer, multicore, or highly inhomogeneous tablets. PMID:20862671

  8. Light-Induced Infrared Difference Spectroscopy in the Investigation of Light Harvesting Complexes.

    PubMed

    Mezzetti, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Light-induced infrared difference spectroscopy (IR-DS) has been used, especially in the last decade, to investigate early photophysics, energy transfer and photoprotection mechanisms in isolated and membrane-bound light harvesting complexes (LHCs). The technique has the definite advantage to give information on how the pigments and the other constituents of the biological system (proteins, membranes, etc.) evolve during a given photoreaction. Different static and time-resolved approaches have been used. Compared to the application of IR-DS to photosynthetic Reaction Centers (RCs), however, IR-DS applied to LHCs is still in an almost pioneering age: very often sophisticated techniques (step-scan FTIR, ultrafast IR) or data analysis strategies (global analysis, target analysis, multivariate curve resolution) are needed. In addition, band assignment is usually more complicated than in RCs. The results obtained on the studied systems (chromatophores and RC-LHC supercomplexes from purple bacteria; Peridinin-Chlorophyll-a-Proteins from dinoflagellates; isolated LHCII from plants; thylakoids; Orange Carotenoid Protein from cyanobacteria) are summarized. A description of the different IR-DS techniques used is also provided, and the most stimulating perspectives are also described. Especially if used synergically with other biophysical techniques, light-induced IR-DS represents an important tool in the investigation of photophysical/photochemical reactions in LHCs and LHC-containing systems. PMID:26151118

  9. Nondestructive Evaluation of Thermal Barrier Coatings by Mid-infrared Reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I; Spuckler, Charles M.; Nesbitt, James A.; Martin, Richard E.

    2005-01-01

    The application of mid-infrared reflectance (MIR) imaging to monitor damage in thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) has been extended from a previously demonstrated area-averaged spectroscopic analysis tool to become a practical imaging tool that provides the spatial resolution needed to quickly identify localized regions of TBC damage by visual inspection, Illumination optics and image collection procedures were developed to produce illumination-normalized flatfield reflectance images after subtraction of the background thermal emission. MIR reflectance images were collected with a bandpass filter centered at a wavelength of 4 microns, which provided the optimum balance between good sensitivity to buried cracks and coating erosion, but with a desirable sensitivity to TBC sintering and absorption from ambient gases. Examples are presented of the application of MIR reflectance imaging to monitor damage progression in plasma-sprayed 8wt% yttria-stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) TBCs subjected to either furnace cycling or alumina particle jet erosion. These results show that MIR reflectance imaging can reliably track the progression of buried delamination cracks produced by thermal cycling and can also be used to determine when any local section of the TBC has eroded beyond an acceptable limit. Modeling of the effects of buried cracks and erosion on reflectance will be presented to show the dependence of damage sensitivity to TBC thickness.

  10. Development of a realistic photonic modeling for the evaluation of infrared reflections in the metallic environment of ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Aumeunier, M.-H.; Travere, J.-M.

    2010-10-15

    In nuclear fusion experiments, the plasma facing components are exposed to high heat fluxes and infrared (IR) imaging diagnostics are routinely used for surveying their surface temperature for preventing damages. However the future use of metallic components in the ITER tokamak adds complications in temperature estimation. Indeed, low and variable emissivity of the observed surface and the multiple reflections of the light coming from hot regions will have to be understood and then taken into account. In this paper, a realistic photonic modeling based on Monte Carlo ray-tracing codes is used to predict the global response of the complete IR survey system. This also includes the complex vessel geometry and the thermal and optical surface properties using the bidirectional reflectivity distribution function that models the photon-material interactions. The first results of this simulation applied to a reference torus are presented and are used as a benchmark to investigate the validity of the global model. Finally the most critical key model parameters in the reflected signals are identified and their contribution is discussed.