Topological Phononic Crystals with One-Way Elastic Edge Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Pai; Lu, Ling; Bertoldi, Katia
2015-09-01
We report a new type of phononic crystals with topologically nontrivial band gaps for both longitudinal and transverse polarizations, resulting in protected one-way elastic edge waves. In our design, gyroscopic inertial effects are used to break the time-reversal symmetry and realize the phononic analogue of the electronic quantum (anomalous) Hall effect. We investigate the response of both hexagonal and square gyroscopic lattices and observe bulk Chern numbers of 1 and 2, indicating that these structures support single and multimode edge elastic waves immune to backscattering. These robust one-way phononic waveguides could potentially lead to the design of a novel class of surface wave devices that are widely used in electronics, telecommunication, and acoustic imaging.
Li, Zhen; Wu, Rui-xin; Li, Qing-Bo; Lin, Zhi-fang; Poo, Yin; Liu, Rong-Juan; Li, Zhi-Yuan
2015-04-20
We experimentally demonstrate a broadband one-way transmission by merging the operating bands of two types of one-way edge modes that are associated with Bragg scattering and magnetic surface plasmon (MSP) resonance, respectively. By tuning the configuration of gyromagnetic photonic crystals and applied bias magnetic field, the fused bandwidth of unidirectional propagation is up to 2 GHz in microwave frequency range, much larger than either of the individual one-way bandwidth associated with Bragg scattering or MSP resonance. Our scheme for broadband one-way transmission paves the way for the practical applications of one-way transmission. PMID:25969002
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
González-Rodríguez, Pedro; Ilan, Boaz; Kim, Arnold D.
2016-06-01
We introduce the one-way radiative transfer equation (RTE) for modeling the transmission of a light beam incident normally on a slab composed of a uniform forward-peaked scattering medium. Unlike the RTE, which is formulated as a boundary value problem, the one-way RTE is formulated as an initial value problem. Consequently, the one-way RTE is much easier to solve. We discuss the relation of the one-way RTE to the Fokker-Planck, small-angle, and Fermi pencil beam approximations. Then, we validate the one-way RTE through systematic comparisons with RTE simulations for both the Henyey-Greenstein and screened Rutherford scattering phase functions over a broad range of albedo, anisotropy factor, optical thickness, and refractive index values. We find that the one-way RTE gives very good approximations for a broad range of optical property values for thin to moderately thick media that have moderately to sharply forward-peaked scattering. Specifically, we show that the error made by the one-way RTE decreases monotonically as the anisotropic factor increases and as the albedo increases. On the other hand, the error increases monotonically as the optical thickness increases and the refractive index mismatch at the boundary increases.
Optimization of one-way wave equations.
Lee, M.W.; Suh, S.Y.
1985-01-01
The theory of wave extrapolation is based on the square-root equation or one-way equation. The full wave equation represents waves which propagate in both directions. On the contrary, the square-root equation represents waves propagating in one direction only. A new optimization method presented here improves the dispersion relation of the one-way wave equation. -from Authors
One-way unlocalizable quantum discord
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xi, Zhengjun; Fan, Heng; Li, Yongming
2012-05-01
In this paper, we present the concept of the one-way unlocalizable quantum discord and investigate its properties. We provide a polygamy inequality for it in a tripartite pure quantum system of arbitrary dimension. Several tradeoff relations between the one-way unlocalizable quantum discord and other correlations are given. If the von Neumann measurement is made on a part of the system, we give two expressions of the one-way unlocalizable quantum discord in terms of partial distillable entanglement and quantum disturbance. Finally, we also provide a lower bound for bipartite shareability of quantum correlation beyond entanglement in a tripartite system.
One-way transformation of information
Cooper, James A.
1989-01-01
Method and apparatus are provided for one-way transformation of data according to multiplication and/or exponentiation modulo a prime number. An implementation of the invention permits the one way residue transformation, useful in encryption and similar applications, to be implemented by n-bit computers substantially with no increase in difficulty or complexity over a natural transformation thereby, using a modulus which is a power of two.
Multimode one-way waveguides of large Chern numbers.
Skirlo, Scott A; Lu, Ling; Soljačić, Marin
2014-09-12
Current experimental realizations of the quantum anomalous Hall phase in both electronic and photonic systems have been limited to a Chern number of one. In photonics, this corresponds to a single-mode one-way edge waveguide. Here, we predict quantum anomalous Hall phases in photonic crystals with large Chern numbers of 2, 3, and 4. These new topological phases were found by simultaneously gapping multiple Dirac and quadratic points. We demonstrate a continuously tunable power splitter as a possible application of multimode one-way waveguides. All our findings are readily realizable at microwave frequencies. PMID:25259982
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barrington-Cook, J. I.
1991-01-01
Logica has recently produced the main 'collection and forwarding' element for a comprehensive one-way VSAT system. The system is designed to utilize the extra bandwidth available from direct-to-home broadcasts using the MAC/packet television standard, in order to provide point-to-multipoint data transmission via satellite. The expectation of very large volumes of supply for standard decoders, together with the large amount of bandwidth available, suggest that extremely low cost data transmission may become available. The system is designed to provide the necessary infrastructure to allow this bulk data, low cost approach to be offered for small scale and ad-hoc data transmission.
One-Way Quantum Deficit for 2 ⊗ d Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Biao-Liang; Fei, Shao-Ming
2016-08-01
We investigate one-way quantum deficit for 2 ⊗ d systems. Analytical expressions of one-way quantum deficit under both von Neumann measurement and weak measurement are presented. As an illustration, qubit-qutrit systems are studied in detail. It is shown that there exists non-zero one-way quantum deficit even quantum entanglement vanishes. Moreover, one-way quantum deficit via weak measurement turns out to be weaker than that via von Neumann measurement. The dynamics of entanglement and one-way quantum deficit under dephasing channels is also investigated.
Multipartite distribution property of one way discord beyond measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Si-Yuan; Zhang, Yu-Ran; Yang, Wen-Li; Fan, Heng
2015-03-01
We investigate the distribution property of one way discord in the multipartite system by introducing the concept of polygamy deficit for one way discord. The difference between one way discord and quantum discord is analogue to the one between entanglement of assistance and entanglement of formation. For tripartite pure states, two kinds of polygamy deficits are presented with the equivalent expressions and physical interpretations regardless of measurement. For four-partite pure states, we provide a condition which makes one way discord polygamy satisfied. In addition, we generalize these results to the case for N-partite pure states. Those results can be applicable to multipartite quantum systems and are complementary to our understanding of the shareability of quantum correlations.
Improved technique for one-way transformation of information
Cooper, J.A.
1987-05-11
Method and apparatus are provided for one-way transformation of data according to multiplication and/or exponentiation modulo a prime number. An implementation of the invention permits the one way residue transformation, useful in encryption and similar applications, to be implemented by n-bit computers substantially with no increase in difficulty or complexity over a natural transformation thereby, using a modulus which is a power of two. 9 figs.
One-way electromagnetic waveguide using multiferroic Fibonacci superlattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Zhenghua; Lei, Dajun; Huang, Jianquan; Jin, Gui; Qiu, Feng; Yan, Wenyan
2015-12-01
The multiferroic Fibonacci superlattices (MFSs) are composed of single-phase multiferroic domains with polarization and magnetization according to the rule of Fibonacci sequence. We propose to construct a one-way electromagnetic waveguide by the MFSs. The forbidden band structures of the MFSs for the forward and backward electromagnetic waves are not completely overlapped, and an obvious translation between them occurs around the fixed point ω bar = 1 with broken time-reversal and space inversion symmetries (TRSIS), which indicates the existence of one-way electromagnetic modes in the MFSs. Transmission spectrum is utilized to present this property and to indicate further one-way electromagnetic modes lying within the polaritonic band gap. The maximum forbidden bandwidth (divided by midgap frequency) of 5.4% for the backward electromagnetic wave (BEW) is found, in which the forward electromagnetic wave (FEW) can pass. The functions of one-way propagation modes and polaritonic band gap integrated into the MFSs can miniaturize the one-way photonic devices. The properties can also be applied to construct compact microwave isolators.
Cooling atoms with a moving one-way barrier
Schoene, Elizabeth A.; Thorn, Jeremy J.; Steck, Daniel A.
2010-08-15
We implement and demonstrate the effectiveness of a cooling scheme using a moving, all-optical, one-way barrier to cool a sample of {sup 87}Rb atoms, achieving nearly a factor of 2 reduction in temperature. The one-way barrier, composed of two focused, Gaussian laser beams, allows atoms incident on one side to transmit, while reflecting atoms incident on the other. The one-way barrier is adiabatically swept through a sample of atoms contained in a far-off-resonant, single-beam, optical dipole trap that forms a nearly harmonic trapping potential. As the barrier moves longitudinally through the potential, atoms become trapped to one side of the barrier with reduced kinetic energy. The adiabatic translation of the barrier leaves the atoms at the bottom of the trapping potential, only minimally increasing their kinetic energy.
One-way quantum computation with circuit quantum electrodynamics
Wu Chunwang; Han Yang; Chen Pingxing; Li Chengzu; Zhong Xiaojun
2010-03-15
In this Brief Report, we propose a potential scheme to implement one-way quantum computation with circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED). Large cluster states of charge qubits can be generated in just one step with a superconducting transmission line resonator (TLR) playing the role of a dispersive coupler. A single-qubit measurement in the arbitrary basis can be implemented using a single electron transistor with the help of one-qubit gates. By examining the main decoherence sources, we show that circuit QED is a promising architecture for one-way quantum computation.
Noisy one-way quantum computations: The role of correlations
Chaves, Rafael; Melo, Fernando de
2011-08-15
A scheme to evaluate computation fidelities within the one-way model is developed and explored to understand the role of correlations in the quality of noisy quantum computations. The formalism is promptly applied to many computation instances and unveils that a higher amount of entanglement in the noisy resource state does not necessarily imply a better computation.
Detail of one way mirror, mail slot, and electrical box ...
Detail of one way mirror, mail slot, and electrical box at sentry post no. 3, top of east stairs near the end of second floor corridor - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA
The Mars Observer differential one-way range demonstration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kroger, P. M.; Border, J. S.; Nandi, S.
1994-01-01
Current methods of angular spacecraft positioning using station differenced range data require an additional observation of an extragalactic radio source (quasar) to estimate the timing offset between the reference clocks at the two Deep Space Stations. The quasar observation is also used to reduce the effects of instrumental and media delays on the radio metric observable by forming a difference with the spacecraft observation (delta differential one-way range, delta DOR). An experiment has been completed using data from the Global Positioning System satellites to estimate the station clock offset, eliminating the need for the quasar observation. The requirements for direct measurement of the instrumental delays that must be made in the absence of a quasar observation are assessed. Finally, the results of the 'quasar-free' differential one-way range, or DOR, measurements of the Mars Observer spacecraft are compared with those of simultaneous conventional delta DOR measurements.
One-way Ponderomotive Barrier in a Uniform Magnetic Field
I.Y. Dodin; N.J. Fisch
2005-02-14
The possibility of an asymmetric ponderomotive barrier in a nonuniform dc magnetic field by high-frequency radiation near the cyclotron resonance for selected plasma species was contemplated in Physics of Plasmas 11 (November 2004) 5046-5064. Here we show that a similar one-way barrier, which reflects particles incident from one side while transmitting those incident from the opposite side, can be produced also in a uniform magnetic field, entirely due to inhomogeneity of high-frequency drive.
A fault-tolerant one-way quantum computer
Raussendorf, R. . E-mail: rraussendorf@perimeterinstitute.ca; Harrington, J.; Goyal, K.
2006-09-15
We describe a fault-tolerant one-way quantum computer on cluster states in three dimensions. The presented scheme uses methods of topological error correction resulting from a link between cluster states and surface codes. The error threshold is 1.4% for local depolarizing error and 0.11% for each source in an error model with preparation-, gate-, storage-, and measurement errors.
One-way spatial integration of hyperbolic equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Towne, Aaron; Colonius, Tim
2015-11-01
In this paper, we develop and demonstrate a method for constructing well-posed one-way approximations of linear hyperbolic systems. We use a semi-discrete approach that allows the method to be applied to a wider class of problems than existing methods based on analytical factorization of idealized dispersion relations. After establishing the existence of an exact one-way equation for systems whose coefficients do not vary along the axis of integration, efficient approximations of the one-way operator are constructed by generalizing techniques previously used to create nonreflecting boundary conditions. When physically justified, the method can be applied to systems with slowly varying coefficients in the direction of integration. To demonstrate the accuracy and computational efficiency of the approach, the method is applied to model problems in acoustics and fluid dynamics via the linearized Euler equations; in particular we consider the scattering of sound waves from a vortex and the evolution of hydrodynamic wavepackets in a spatially evolving jet. The latter problem shows the potential of the method to offer a systematic, convergent alternative to ad hoc regularizations such as the parabolized stability equations.
One-way glass for microwaves using nonreciprocal metamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Degiron, A.; Smith, D. R.
2014-05-01
We introduce a class of nonreciprocal metamaterials based on composite assemblies of metallic and biased ferrimagnetic elements. We show that such structures act as ultrathin one-way glasses due to the competition between two modes at the surface of the ferrimagnetic elements—a low-loss surface wave that transmits the signal on the other side of the structure and a surface spin-wave resonance that produces strong isolation levels. These findings can be adapted to existing metamaterial geometries, offering a blueprint to achieve unidirectional propagation in a variety of artificial media at radio, microwave, and millimeter wave frequencies.
Universal linear Bogoliubov transformations through one-way quantum computation
Ukai, Ryuji; Yoshikawa, Jun-ichi; Iwata, Noriaki; Furusawa, Akira; Loock, Peter van
2010-03-15
We show explicitly how to realize an arbitrary linear unitary Bogoliubov (LUBO) transformation on a multimode quantum state through homodyne-based one-way quantum computation. Any LUBO transformation can be approximated by means of a fixed, finite-sized, sufficiently squeezed Gaussian cluster state that allows for the implementation of beam splitters (in form of three-mode connection gates) and general one-mode LUBO transformations. In particular, we demonstrate that a linear four-mode cluster state is a sufficient resource for an arbitrary one-mode LUBO transformation. Arbitrary-input quantum states including non-Gaussian states could be efficiently attached to the cluster through quantum teleportation.
Radiochromic leuko dye real time dosimeter, one way optical waveguide
Kronenberg, S.; McLaughlin, W.L.; Siebentritt, C.R.
1984-12-18
A radiochromic leuko dye dosimeter includes a plastic tube containing a solution of a radiochromic dye which is sensitive to ionizing radiation, one end of the tube being closed by a reflective surface, the opposite end of the tube being closed by a transparent plug to form a one-way optical waveguide. Light enters the tube through the transparent end thereof and is reflected back and exits through the transparent end. The intensity of the exiting light is measured to determine radiation induced absorption of the leuko dye.
One-way glass for microwaves using nonreciprocal metamaterials.
Degiron, A; Smith, D R
2014-05-01
We introduce a class of nonreciprocal metamaterials based on composite assemblies of metallic and biased ferrimagnetic elements. We show that such structures act as ultrathin one-way glasses due to the competition between two modes at the surface of the ferrimagnetic elements--a low-loss surface wave that transmits the signal on the other side of the structure and a surface spin-wave resonance that produces strong isolation levels. These findings can be adapted to existing metamaterial geometries, offering a blueprint to achieve unidirectional propagation in a variety of artificial media at radio, microwave, and millimeter wave frequencies. PMID:25353908
Radiochromic leuko dye real time dosimeter, one way optical waveguide
Kronenberg, S.
1982-11-15
This invention relates generally to nuclear radiation dosimetry, and more particularly to a radiochromic leuko dye dosimeter constructed and arranged to measure absorbed radiation doses, such as gamma rays, X-rays and fast neutrons, in real time; viz., as the dose is being delivered. A radiochromic leuko dye dosimeter includes a plastic tube containing a solution of a radiochromic dye which is sensitive to ionizing radiation, one end of the tube being closed by a reflective surface, the opposite end of the tube being closed by a transparent plug to form a one-way optical waveguide. Light enters the tube through the transparent end thereof and is reflected back and exists through the transparent end. The intensity of the existing light is measured to determine radiation induced absorption of the leuko dye.
One way Doppler Extractor. Volume 2: Digital VCO technique
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nossen, E. J.; Starner, E. R.
1974-01-01
A feasibility analysis and trade-offs for a one-way Doppler extractor using digital VCO techniques is presented. The method of Doppler measurement involves the use of a digital phase lock loop; once this loop is locked to the incoming signal, the precise frequency and hence the Doppler component can be determined directly from the contents of the digital control register. The only serious error source is due to internally generated noise. Techniques are presented for minimizing this error source and achieving an accuracy of 0.01 Hz in a one second averaging period. A number of digitally controlled oscillators were analyzed from a performance and complexity point of view. The most promising technique uses an arithmetic synthesizer as a digital waveform generator.
Finding flows in the one-way measurement model
Beaudrap, Niel de
2008-02-15
The one-way measurement model is a framework for universal quantum computation in which algorithms are partially described by a graph G of entanglement relations on a collection of qubits. A sufficient condition for an algorithm to perform a unitary embedding between two Hilbert spaces is for the graph G, together with input and output I, O vertices I,O is contained in V(G), to have a flow in the sense introduced by Danos and Kashefi [Phys. Rev. A 74, 052310 (2006)]. For the special case of |I|=|O|, using a graph-theoretic characterization, I show that such flows are unique when they exist. This leads to an efficient algorithm for finding flows by a reduction to solved problems in graph theory.
Gate sequence for continuous variable one-way quantum computation
Su, Xiaolong; Hao, Shuhong; Deng, Xiaowei; Ma, Lingyu; Wang, Meihong; Jia, Xiaojun; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi
2013-01-01
Measurement-based one-way quantum computation using cluster states as resources provides an efficient model to perform computation and information processing of quantum codes. Arbitrary Gaussian quantum computation can be implemented sufficiently by long single-mode and two-mode gate sequences. However, continuous variable gate sequences have not been realized so far due to an absence of cluster states larger than four submodes. Here we present the first continuous variable gate sequence consisting of a single-mode squeezing gate and a two-mode controlled-phase gate based on a six-mode cluster state. The quantum property of this gate sequence is confirmed by the fidelities and the quantum entanglement of two output modes, which depend on both the squeezing and controlled-phase gates. The experiment demonstrates the feasibility of implementing Gaussian quantum computation by means of accessible gate sequences.
Destination Mars: Colonization via Initial One-way Missions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schulze-Makuch, D.; Davies, P.
Earth is located in a dangerous part of the universe. Threats to life on Earth are manifold and range from asteroid impacts to supernova explosions and from supervolcano eruptions to human-induced disasters. If the survival of the human species is to be ensured for the long term, then life on Earth has to spread to other planetary bodies. Mars is the most Earth-like planet we currently know and is the second closest planet; further it possesses a moderate surface gravity, an atmosphere, abundant water and carbon dioxide, together with a range of essential minerals. Thus, Mars is ideally suited to be a first colonization target. Here we argue that the most practical way that this can be accomplished is via a series of initial one-way human missions.
One-way ANOVA based on interval information
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hesamian, Gholamreza
2016-08-01
This paper deals with extending the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to the case where the observed data are represented by closed intervals rather than real numbers. In this approach, first a notion of interval random variable is introduced. Especially, a normal distribution with interval parameters is introduced to investigate hypotheses about the equality of interval means or test the homogeneity of interval variances assumption. Moreover, the least significant difference (LSD method) for investigating multiple comparison of interval means is developed when the null hypothesis about the equality of means is rejected. Then, at a given interval significance level, an index is applied to compare the interval test statistic and the related interval critical value as a criterion to accept or reject the null interval hypothesis of interest. Finally, the method of decision-making leads to some degrees to accept or reject the interval hypotheses. An applied example will be used to show the performance of this method.
One way Doppler extractor. Volume 1: Vernier technique
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blasco, R. W.; Klein, S.; Nossen, E. J.; Starner, E. R.; Yanosov, J. A.
1974-01-01
A feasibility analysis, trade-offs, and implementation for a One Way Doppler Extraction system are discussed. A Doppler error analysis shows that quantization error is a primary source of Doppler measurement error. Several competing extraction techniques are compared and a Vernier technique is developed which obtains high Doppler resolution with low speed logic. Parameter trade-offs and sensitivities for the Vernier technique are analyzed, leading to a hardware design configuration. A detailed design, operation, and performance evaluation of the resulting breadboard model is presented which verifies the theoretical performance predictions. Performance tests have verified that the breadboard is capable of extracting Doppler, on an S-band signal, to an accuracy of less than 0.02 Hertz for a one second averaging period. This corresponds to a range rate error of no more than 3 millimeters per second.
Epidemic spreading on one-way-coupled networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Lingna; Sun, Mengfeng; Chen, Shanshan; Fu, Xinchu
2016-09-01
Numerous real-world networks (e.g., social, communicational, and biological networks) have been observed to depend on each other, and this results in interconnected networks with different topology structures and dynamics functions. In this paper, we focus on the scenario of epidemic spreading on one-way-coupled networks comprised of two subnetworks, which can manifest the transmission of some zoonotic diseases. By proposing a mathematical model through mean-field approximation approach, we prove the global stability of the disease-free and endemic equilibria of this model. Through the theoretical and numerical analysis, we obtain interesting results: the basic reproduction number R0 of the whole network is the maximum of the basic reproduction numbers of the two subnetworks; R0 is independent of the cross-infection rate and cross contact pattern; R0 increases rapidly with the growth of inner infection rate if the inner contact pattern is scale-free; in order to eradicate zoonotic diseases from human beings, we must simultaneously eradicate them from animals; bird-to-bird infection rate has bigger impact on the human's average infected density than bird-to-human infection rate.
Mathematical investigation of one-way transform matrix options.
Cooper, James Arlin
2006-01-01
One-way transforms have been used in weapon systems processors since the mid- to late-1970s in order to help recognize insertion of correct pre-arm information while maintaining abnormal-environment safety. Level-One, Level-Two, and Level-Three transforms have been designed. The Level-One and Level-Two transforms have been implemented in weapon systems, and both of these transforms are equivalent to matrix multiplication applied to the inserted information. The Level-Two transform, utilizing a 6 x 6 matrix, provided the basis for the ''System 2'' interface definition for Unique-Signal digital communication between aircraft and attached weapons. The investigation described in this report was carried out to find out if there were other size matrices that would be equivalent to the 6 x 6 Level-Two matrix. One reason for the investigation was to find out whether or not other dimensions were possible, and if so, to derive implementation options. Another important reason was to more fully explore the potential for inadvertent inversion. The results were that additional implementation methods were discovered, but no inversion weaknesses were revealed.
Criteria of backscattering in chiral one-way photonic crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Pi-Ju; Chang, Shu-Wei
2016-03-01
Optical isolators are important devices in photonic circuits. To reduce the unwanted reflection in a robust manner, several setups have been realized using nonreciprocal schemes. In this study, we show that the propagating modes in a strongly-guided chiral photonic crystal (no breaking of the reciprocity) are not backscattering-immune even though they are indeed insensitive to many types of scatters. Without the protection from the nonreciprocity, the backscattering occurs under certain circumstances. We present a perturbative method to calculate the backscattering of chiral photonic crystals in the presence of chiral/achiral scatters. The model is, essentially, a simplified analogy to the first-order Born approximation. Under reasonable assumptions based on the behaviors of chiral photonic modes, we obtained the expression of reflection coefficients which provides criteria for the prominent backscattering in such chiral structures. Numerical examinations using the finite-element method were also performed and the results agree well with the theoretical prediction. From both our theory and numerical calculations, we find that the amount of backscattering critically depends on the symmetry of scatter cross sections. Strong reflection takes place when the azimuthal Fourier components of scatter cross sections have an order l of 2. Chiral scatters without these Fourier components would not efficiently reflect the chiral photonic modes. In addition, for these chiral propagating modes, disturbances at the most significant parts of field profiles do not necessarily result in the most effective backscattering. The observation also reveals what types of scatters or defects should be avoided in one-way applications of chiral structures in order to minimize the backscattering.
One-way Quantum Deficit and Decoherence for Two-qubit X States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Biao-Liang; Wang, Yao-Kun; Fei, Shao-Ming
2016-04-01
We study one-way quantum deficit of two-qubit X states systematically from analytical derivations. An effective approach to compute one-way quantum deficit of two-qubit X states has been provided. Analytical results are presented as for detailed examples. Moreover, we demonstrate the decoherence of one-way quantum deficit under phase damping channel.
47 CFR 22.589 - One-way or two-way application requirements.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false One-way or two-way application requirements. 22... SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Paging and Radiotelephone Service One-Way Or Two-Way Mobile Operation § 22.589 One-way or two-way application requirements. In addition to information required by subparts B...
47 CFR 22.561 - Channels for one-way or two-way mobile operation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Channels for one-way or two-way mobile... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Paging and Radiotelephone Service One-Way Or Two-Way Mobile Operation § 22.561 Channels for one-way or two-way mobile operation. The following channels are...
49 CFR 232.403 - Design standards for one-way end-of-train devices.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design standards for one-way end-of-train devices. 232.403 Section 232.403 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... Design standards for one-way end-of-train devices. (a) General. A one-way end-of-train device shall...
47 CFR 22.561 - Channels for one-way or two-way mobile operation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Channels for one-way or two-way mobile... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Paging and Radiotelephone Service One-Way Or Two-Way Mobile Operation § 22.561 Channels for one-way or two-way mobile operation. The following channels are...
Numerical Analysis of Stress on Pump Blade by One-Way Coupled Fluid-Structure Simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kobayashi, Katsutoshi; Ono, Shigeyoshi; Harada, Ichiro; Chiba, Yoshimasa
A mixed-flow pump with an unshrouded impeller was computed by a one-way coupled fluid-structure simulation to evaluate a prediction accuracy of stress and analyze a flow pattern which caused the largest stress. The stress occurring around a blade root was predicted by a numerical simulation and compared with an experimental one. Five flow rates, Q/Qbep=0,40,70,100 and 120% were simulated and the predicted stresses at all flow rates agreed with the experimental ones within -11˜+6% accuracy. The largest stress occurred around a blade root on a pressure side of blade surface at all flow rates. The stress became largest at 70% flow rate. A flow pattern around the blade was analyzed to investigate how the largest stress occurred at 70% flow rate. It was found in this study that a flow separation occurred around a leading edge on a suction side of blade surface at 70% flow rate and the largest load was acting on an outside region of blade.
On small set of one-way LOCC indistinguishability of maximally entangled states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yan-Ling; Li, Mao-Sheng; Zheng, Zhu-Jun; Fei, Shao-Ming
2016-04-01
In this paper, we study the one-way local operations and classical communication (LOCC) problem. In {C}^d⊗ {C}^d with d≥ 4, we construct a set of 3lceil √{d}rceil -1 one-way LOCC indistinguishable maximally entangled states which are generalized Bell states. Moreover, we show that there are four maximally entangled states which cannot be perfectly distinguished by one-way LOCC measurements for any dimension d≥ 4.
Experimental demonstration of deterministic one-way quantum computation on a NMR quantum computer
Ju, Chenyong; Zhu Jing; Peng Xinhua; Chong Bo; Zhou Xianyi; Du Jiangfeng
2010-01-15
One-way quantum computing is an important and novel approach to quantum computation. By exploiting the existing particle-particle interactions, we report an experimental realization of the complete process of deterministic one-way quantum Deutsch-Josza algorithm in NMR, including graph state preparation, single-qubit measurements, and feed-forward corrections. The findings in our experiment may shed light on the future scalable one-way quantum computation.
One-way invisible cloak using parity-time symmetric transformation optics.
Zhu, Xuefeng; Feng, Liang; Zhang, Peng; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang
2013-08-01
We propose a one-way invisible cloak using transformation optics of parity-time (PT) symmetric optical materials. At the spontaneous PT-symmetry breaking point, light is scattered only for incidence along one direction since the phase-matching condition is unidirectionally satisfied, making the cloak one-way invisible. Moreover, optical scattering from the one-way cloak can be further engineered to realize more interesting effects, for example, creating a unidirectional optical illusion of the concealed object. PMID:23903152
47 CFR 90.490 - One-way paging operations in the private services.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false One-way paging operations in the private services. 90.490 Section 90.490 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Paging Operations § 90.490 One-way...
47 CFR 90.490 - One-way paging operations in the private services.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false One-way paging operations in the private services. 90.490 Section 90.490 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Paging Operations § 90.490 One-way...
On the Experimental Determination of the One-Way Speed of Light
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Perez, Israel
2011-01-01
In this paper the question of the isotropy of the one-way speed of light is addressed from an experimental perspective. In particular, we analyse two experimental methods commonly used in its determination. The analysis is aimed at clarifying the view that the one-way speed of light cannot be determined by techniques in which physical entities…
49 CFR 232.403 - Design standards for one-way end-of-train devices.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... Design standards for one-way end-of-train devices. (a) General. A one-way end-of-train device shall be... brake pipe pressure variations of ±1 psig; (2) Equipped with a “bleeder valve” that permits the release...) The front device shall have a means for entry of the unique identification code of the rear unit...
A note on one-way quantum deficit and quantum discord
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Biao-Liang; Fei, Shao-Ming
2016-01-01
One-way quantum deficit and quantum discord are two important measures of quantum correlations. We revisit the relationship between them in two-qubit systems. We investigate the conditions that both one-way quantum deficit and quantum discord have the same optimal measurement ensembles, and demonstrate that one-way quantum deficit can be derived from the quantum discord for a class of X states. Moreover, we give an explicit relation between one-way quantum deficit and entanglement of formation. We show that under phase damping channel both one-way quantum deficit and quantum discord evolve exactly in the same way for four parameter X states. Some examples are presented in details.
Signal transmission in a Y-shaped one-way chain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Xiaoming; Tang, Ming; Lü, Huaping
2013-12-01
It has been found that noise plays a key role to improve signal transmission in a one-way chain of bistable systems [Zhang et al., Phys. Rev. E 58, 2952 (1998)]. We here show that the signal transmission can be sharply improved without the aid of noise, if the one-way chain with a single source node is changed with two source nodes becoming a Y-shaped one-way chain. We further reveal that the enhanced signal transmission in the Y-shaped one-way chain is regulated by coupling strength, and that it is robust to noise perturbation and input signal irregularity. We finally analyze the mechanism of the enhanced signal transmission by the Y-shaped structure.
One-way helical electromagnetic wave propagation supported by magnetized plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Biao; Lawrence, Mark; Gao, Wenlong; Guo, Qinghua; Zhang, Shuang
2016-02-01
In this paper we reveal the presence of photonic one-way helical surface states in a simple natural system- magnetized plasma. The application of an external magnetic field to a bulk plasma body not only breaks time-reversal-symmetry but also leads to separation of Equi-Frequency Contour surfaces (EFCs) to form topologically nontrivial gaps in k space. Interestingly, these EFCs support topologically protected surface states. We numerically investigate an interface between magnetized plasma, using a realistic model for parameter dispersion, and vacuum, to confirm the existence of one-way scatter-immune helical surface states. Unlike previous proposals for achieving photonic one-way propagation, our scheme does not require the use of artificial structures and should therefore be simple to implement experimentally.
One-way helical electromagnetic wave propagation supported by magnetized plasma
Yang, Biao; Lawrence, Mark; Gao, Wenlong; Guo, Qinghua; Zhang, Shuang
2016-01-01
In this paper we reveal the presence of photonic one-way helical surface states in a simple natural system- magnetized plasma. The application of an external magnetic field to a bulk plasma body not only breaks time-reversal-symmetry but also leads to separation of Equi-Frequency Contour surfaces (EFCs) to form topologically nontrivial gaps in k space. Interestingly, these EFCs support topologically protected surface states. We numerically investigate an interface between magnetized plasma, using a realistic model for parameter dispersion, and vacuum, to confirm the existence of one-way scatter-immune helical surface states. Unlike previous proposals for achieving photonic one-way propagation, our scheme does not require the use of artificial structures and should therefore be simple to implement experimentally. PMID:26883883
On the relative performance of one-way and two-way grid nesting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harris, Lucas M.
Most mesoscale models can be run with either one-way ("parasitic") or two-way ("interactive") grid nesting. This paper presents results from a linear 1D shallow-water model and from 3D simulations of a multicell thunderstorm and of trapped lee waves to determine whether the choice of nesting method can have a significant impact on the solution. In the shallow-water model, two-way nesting was found to be generally superior to one-way nesting. The increased reflection for longer-wavelength disturbances in the one-way case is due to a phase difference between the coarse- and nested-grid solutions at the nested-grid boundary that accumulates because of the difference in numerical phase speeds between the grids. Reflections for two-way nesting may be estimated from the difference in numerical group velocities between the coarse and nested grids, which only becomes large for waves that are poorly-resolved on the coarse grid. The only situation in which one-way nesting performs better than two-way is when very poorly-resolved waves strike the nest boundary; in these cases, using a filter on the coarse-grid values within the sponge zone of an otherwise conventional sponge boundary condition can greatly reduce the reflections caused by two-way nesting. The results were more equivocal for the 3D simulations. Two-way nesting clearly produced smaller precipitation errors than did one-way nesting in the multicell simulations, due to the lack of mismatch errors between the coarse- and nested-grid solutions in the two-way simulations. In the trapped lee-wave simulations, two-way nesting produced lower overall errors than did one-way nesting when a simple interpolation BC was used, but larger errors when the sponge BC was used.
Bending self-collimated one-way light by using gyromagnetic photonic crystals
Li, Qing-Bo; Li, Zhen; Wu, Rui-xin
2015-12-14
We theoretically demonstrate that electromagnetic waves can self-collimate and propagate unidirectionally in photonic crystals fabricated using semicylindrical ferrite rods in magnetized states. The parity and time-reversal symmetries of such photonic crystals are broken, resulting in a self-collimated one-way body wave within the photonic crystals. By applying the bias magnetic field in a complex configuration, the self-collimated one-way wave beam can be bent into arbitrary trajectories within the photonic crystal, providing an avenue for controlling wave beams.
Teaching Principles of One-Way Analysis of Variance Using M&M's Candy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schwartz, Todd A.
2013-01-01
I present an active learning classroom exercise illustrating essential principles of one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) methods. The exercise is easily conducted by the instructor and is instructive (as well as enjoyable) for the students. This is conducive for demonstrating many theoretical and practical issues related to ANOVA and lends itself…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barrows, Russell D.
2007-01-01
A one-way ANOVA experiment is performed to determine whether or not the three standardization methods are statistically different in determining the concentration of the three paraffin analytes. The laboratory exercise asks students to combine the three methods in a single analytical procedure of their own design to determine the concentration of…
Perceptual shrinkage of a one-way motion path with high-speed motion
Nakajima, Yutaka; Sakaguchi, Yutaka
2016-01-01
Back-and-forth motion induces perceptual shrinkage of the motion path, but such shrinkage is hardly perceived for one-way motion. If the shrinkage is caused by temporal averaging of stimulus position around the endpoints, it should also be induced for one-way motion at higher motion speeds. In psychophysical experiments with a high-speed projector, we tested this conjecture for a one-way motion stimulus at various speeds (4–100 deg/s) along a straight path. Results showed that perceptual shrinkage of the motion path was robustly observed in higher-speed motion (faster than 66.7 deg/s). In addition, the amount of the forwards shift at the onset position was larger than that of the backwards shift at the offset position. These results demonstrate that high-speed motion can induce shrinkage, even for a one-way motion path. This can be explained by the view that perceptual position is represented by the integration of the temporal average of instantaneous position and the motion representation. PMID:27464844
Perceptual shrinkage of a one-way motion path with high-speed motion.
Nakajima, Yutaka; Sakaguchi, Yutaka
2016-01-01
Back-and-forth motion induces perceptual shrinkage of the motion path, but such shrinkage is hardly perceived for one-way motion. If the shrinkage is caused by temporal averaging of stimulus position around the endpoints, it should also be induced for one-way motion at higher motion speeds. In psychophysical experiments with a high-speed projector, we tested this conjecture for a one-way motion stimulus at various speeds (4-100 deg/s) along a straight path. Results showed that perceptual shrinkage of the motion path was robustly observed in higher-speed motion (faster than 66.7 deg/s). In addition, the amount of the forwards shift at the onset position was larger than that of the backwards shift at the offset position. These results demonstrate that high-speed motion can induce shrinkage, even for a one-way motion path. This can be explained by the view that perceptual position is represented by the integration of the temporal average of instantaneous position and the motion representation. PMID:27464844
A Note on Noncentrality Parameters for Contrast Tests in a One-Way Analysis of Variance
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Liu, Xiaofeng Steven
2010-01-01
The noncentrality parameter for a contrast test in a one-way analysis of variance is based on the dot product of 2 vectors whose geometric meaning in a Euclidian space offers mnemonic hints about its constituents. Additionally, the noncentrality parameters for a set of orthogonal contrasts sum up to the noncentrality parameter for the omnibus "F"…
Developing English and Spanish Literacy in a One-Way Spanish Immersion Program
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hollingsworth, Lindsay Kay
2013-01-01
This quantitative, causal-comparative study examined the possible cause and effect relationship between educational programming, specifically one-way Spanish immersion and traditional English-only, and native English-speaking fifth graders' vocabulary and reading comprehension. Archival data was used to examine students' reading achievement as…
Influence of the Packet Size on the One-Way Delay in 3G Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arlos, Patrik; Fiedler, Markus
We currently observe a rising interest in mobile broadband, which users expect to perform in a similar way as its fixed counterpart. On the other hand, the capacity allocation process on mobile access links is far less transparent to the user; still, its properties need to be known in order to minimize the impact of the network on application performance. This paper investigates the impact of the packet size on the minimal one-way delay for the uplink in third-generation mobile networks. For interactive and real-time applications such as VoIP, one-way delays are of major importance for user perception; however, they are challenging to measure due to their sensitivity to clock synchronisation. Therefore, the paper applies a robust and innovative method to assure the quality of these measurements. Results from measurements from several Swedish mobile operators show that applications can gain significantly in terms of one-way delay from choosing optimal packet sizes. We show that, in certain cases, an increased packet size can improve the one-way delay performance at best by several hundred milliseconds.
Non-linear dynamics of a one-way clutch in belt-pulley systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Farong; Parker, R. G.
2005-01-01
One-way clutches are frequently used in the serpentine belt accessory drives of automobiles and heavy vehicles. The clutch plays a role similar to a vibration absorber in order to reduce belt/pulley vibration and noise and increase belt life. This paper analyzes a two-pulley system where the driven pulley has a one-way clutch between the pulley and accessory shaft that engages only for positive relative displacement between these components. The belt is modelled with linear springs that transmit torque from the driving pulley to the accessory pulley. The one-way clutch is modelled as a piecewise linear spring with discontinuous stiffness that separates the driven pulley into two degrees of freedom. The harmonic balance method combined with arclength continuation is employed to illustrate the non-linear dynamic behavior of the one-way clutch and determine the stable and unstable periodic solutions for given parameters. The results are confirmed by numerical integration and the bifurcation software AUTO. At the first primary resonance, most of the responses are aperiodic, including quasiperiodic and chaotic solutions. At the second primary resonance, the peak bends to the left with classical softening non-linearity because clutch disengagement decouples the pulley and the accessory over portions of the response period. The dependence on clutch stiffness, excitation amplitude, and inertia ratio between the pulley and accessory is studied to characterize the non-linear dynamics across a range of conditions.
Distinguishing maximally entangled states by one-way local operations and classical communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Zhi-Chao; Feng, Ke-Qin; Gao, Fei; Wen, Qiao-Yan
2015-01-01
In this paper, we mainly study the local indistinguishability of mutually orthogonal bipartite maximally entangled states. We construct sets of fewer than d orthogonal maximally entangled states which are not distinguished by one-way local operations and classical communication (LOCC) in the Hilbert space of d ⊗d . The proof, based on the Fourier transform of an additive group, is very simple but quite effective. Simultaneously, our results give a general unified upper bound for the minimum number of one-way LOCC indistinguishable maximally entangled states. This improves previous results which only showed sets of N ≥d -2 such states. Finally, our results also show that previous conjectures in Zhang et al. [Z.-C. Zhang, Q.-Y. Wen, F. Gao, G.-J. Tian, and T.-Q. Cao, Quant. Info. Proc. 13, 795 (2014), 10.1007/s11128-013-0691-9] are indeed correct.
On the experimental determination of the one-way speed of light
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pérez, Israel
2011-07-01
In this paper the question of the isotropy of the one-way speed of light is addressed from an experimental perspective. In particular, we analyse two experimental methods commonly used in its determination. The analysis is aimed at clarifying the view that the one-way speed of light cannot be determined by techniques in which physical entities close paths. The procedure employed here will provide epistemological tools so that physicists understand that a direct measurement of the speed not only of light but of any physical entity is by no means trivial. Our results shed light on the physics behind the experiments which may be of interest for both physicists with an elemental knowledge in special relativity and philosophers of science.
Observation of Genuine One-Way Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Steering.
Wollmann, Sabine; Walk, Nathan; Bennet, Adam J; Wiseman, Howard M; Pryde, Geoff J
2016-04-22
Within the hierarchy of inseparable quantum correlations, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering is distinguished from both entanglement and Bell nonlocality by its asymmetry-there exist conditions where the steering phenomenon changes from being observable to not observable, simply by exchanging the role of the two measuring parties. While this one-way steering feature has been previously demonstrated for the restricted class of Gaussian measurements, for the general case of positive-operator-valued measures even its theoretical existence has only recently been settled. Here, we prove, and then experimentally observe, the one-way steerability of an experimentally practical class of entangled states in this general setting. As well as its foundational significance, the demonstration of fundamentally asymmetric nonlocality also has practical implications for the distribution of the trust in quantum communication networks. PMID:27152777
Observation of Genuine One-Way Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Steering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wollmann, Sabine; Walk, Nathan; Bennet, Adam J.; Wiseman, Howard M.; Pryde, Geoff J.
2016-04-01
Within the hierarchy of inseparable quantum correlations, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering is distinguished from both entanglement and Bell nonlocality by its asymmetry—there exist conditions where the steering phenomenon changes from being observable to not observable, simply by exchanging the role of the two measuring parties. While this one-way steering feature has been previously demonstrated for the restricted class of Gaussian measurements, for the general case of positive-operator-valued measures even its theoretical existence has only recently been settled. Here, we prove, and then experimentally observe, the one-way steerability of an experimentally practical class of entangled states in this general setting. As well as its foundational significance, the demonstration of fundamentally asymmetric nonlocality also has practical implications for the distribution of the trust in quantum communication networks.
One-Way Diffusion of Ionic Liquids in a Mixing Process with Water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oikawa, Noriko; Tahara, Daiki; Kurita, Rei
2016-09-01
In contrast to the usual diffusive mixing process between two miscible liquids, the ionic liquid [Cnmim][PF6] forms a droplet in water while mixing. The droplet retains a sharp interface with surface tension, gradually decreasing in size until completely mixed with water. This peculiar behavior in the mixing process accompanies one-way diffusion, in which ions diffuse in one direction only from the bulk IL droplet into the bulk continuum of water. The activation energy of the one-way diffusion at the [Cnmim][PF6]/water interface increases with increasing length of the hydrophobic alkyl chains attached to the cation molecules of [Cnmim][PF6]. It is considered that the hydrophobic nanoscale structure observed in [C4mim][PF6] plays an important role in the generation of the droplet and the mixing dynamics.
Semi-device-independent security of one-way quantum key distribution
Pawlowski, Marcin; Brunner, Nicolas
2011-07-15
By testing nonlocality, the security of entanglement-based quantum key distribution (QKD) can be enhanced to being ''device-independent.'' Here we ask whether such a strong form of security could also be established for one-way (prepare and measure) QKD. While fully device-independent security is impossible, we show that security can be guaranteed against individual attacks in a semi-device-independent scenario. In the latter, the devices used by the trusted parties are noncharacterized, but the dimensionality of the quantum systems used in the protocol is assumed to be bounded. Our security proof relies on the analogies between one-way QKD, dimension witnesses, and random-access codes.
One-Way Markov Process Approach to Repeat Times of Large Earthquakes in Faults
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tejedor, Alejandro; Gomez, Javier B.; Pacheco, Amalio F.
2012-11-01
One of the uses of Markov Chains is the simulation of the seismic cycle in a fault, i.e. as a renewal model for the repetition of its characteristic earthquakes. This representation is consistent with Reid's elastic rebound theory. We propose a general one-way Markovian model in which the waiting time distribution, its first moments, coefficient of variation, and functions of error and alarm (related to the predictability of the model) can be obtained analytically. The fact that in any one-way Markov cycle the coefficient of variation of the corresponding distribution of cycle lengths is always lower than one concurs with observations of large earthquakes in seismic faults. The waiting time distribution of one of the limits of this model is the negative binomial distribution; as an application, we use it to fit the Parkfield earthquake series in the San Andreas fault, California.
Periodic responses of a pulley-belt system with one-way clutch under inertia excitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, Hu
2015-09-01
The stable steady-state periodic response of a two-pulley belt drive system coupled with an accessory by a one-way clutch is presented. For the first time, the pulley-belt system is studied under double excitations. Specifically, the dual excitations consist of harmonic motion of the driving pulley and inertia excitation. The belt spans are modeled as axially moving viscoelastic beams by considering belt bending stiffness. Therefore, integro-partial-differential equations are derived for governing the transverse vibrations of the belt spans. Moreover, the transverse vibrations of the moving belt are coupled with the rotation vibrations of the pulleys by nonlinear dynamic tension. For describing the unidirectional decoupling function of the one-way device, rotation vibrations of the driven pulley and accessory are modeled as coupled piecewise ordinary differential equations. In order to eliminate the influence of the boundary of the belt spans, the non-trivial equilibriums of the pulley-belt system are numerically determined. Furthermore, A nonlinear piecewise discrete-continuous dynamical system is derived by introducing a coordinate transform. Coupled vibrations of the pulley-belt system are investigated via the Galerkin truncation. The natural frequencies of the coupled vibrations are obtained by using the fast Fourier transform. Moreover, frequency-response curves are abstracted from time histories. Therefore, resonance areas of the belt spans, the driven pulley and the accessory are presented. Furthermore, validity of the Galerkin method is examined by comparing with the differential and integral quadrature methods (DQM & IQM). By comparing the results with and without one-way device, significant damping effect of clutch on the dynamic response is discovered. Furthermore, the effects of the intensity of the driving pulley excitation and the inertia excitation are studied. Moreover, numerical results demonstrate that the two excitations interact on the steady
Matched Bipartite Digraph Representation of Generalized Dynamical System Formed by One-way Barriers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, John; Mahoney, John; Mitchell, Kevin; Tom Solomon Collaboration
2014-03-01
We studied a dynamical system with stable and unstable manifolds that behave as one-way barriers, instead of separatrices in traditional dynamical system that are two-way barriers. This asymmetry gives rise to a richer dynamical behavior such as the overlapping of basins of attraction. The recently developed Burning Invariant Manifold (BIM) theory took a dynamical system approach to understand front propagation in Advection-Reaction-Diffusion systems, which have BIMs as the one-way barriers. Through numerical simulations under BIM theory, we found that although both unstable and stable BIMs are one-way barriers, unstable BIMs are the ones that we can experimentally observe the fronts converging onto, and the stable BIMs act as the basin boundaries. We further hypothesized a duality relation between the stable and unstable BIMs. Under the duality hypothesis, we developed a mechanism of the behavior of the system by reducing it back to a traditional system based on topology, and we found a simplification of the system by to summarize the topological information into a Matched Bipartite directed graph (MB digraph). This work was supported by the US National Science Foundation under grant PHY-0748828 and NSF Fellowship DGE-0937362.
One-way-ness in the input-saving (Turing) machine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Castro, Alexandre
2014-12-01
Currently, a complexity-class problem is proving the existence of one-way permutations: one-to-one and onto maps that are computationally ‘easy’, while their inverses are computationally ‘hard’. In what follows, we make use of Bennett’s algorithm of the reversible Turing machine (quantum information heat engine) to perform a cascade of two controlled-NOT gates to physically create a permutation operation. We show that by running this input-saving (Turing) machine backwards the critical inequality of Landauer’s thermodynamic limit is reversed, which provokes the symmetry-breaking of the quantum circuit based on two successive controlled-NOT quantum gates. This finding reveals that a permutation of controlled-NOT gates becomes one-way, provided that adiabatically immersed in a heat bath, which determines the condition of existence of a thermodynamically non-invertible bijection in polynomial-time, that would otherwise be mathematically invertible. This one-way bijection can also be particularly important because it shows nonlinearities in quantum mechanics, which are detectable by watching that the mathematical reversibility of controlled-NOT gates does not work physically.
Well-posedness of one-way wave equations and absorbing boundary conditions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Trefethen, L. N.; Halpern, L.
1985-01-01
A one-way wave equation is a partial differential which, in some approximate sense, behaves like the wave equation in one direction but permits no propagation in the opposite one. The construction of such equations can be reduced to the approximation of the square root of (1-s sup 2) on -1, 1 by a rational function r(s) = p sub m (s)/q sub n(s). Those rational functions r for which the corresponding one-way wave equation is well-posed are characterized both as a partial differential equation and as an absorbing boundary condition for the wave equation. We find that if r(s) interpolates the square root of (1-s sup 2) at sufficiently many points in (-1,1), then well-posedness is assured. It follows that absorbing boundary conditions based on Pade approximation are well-posed if and only if (m, n) lies in one of two distinct diagonals in the Pade table, the two proposed by Engquist and Majda. Analogous results also hold for one-way wave equations derived from Chebyshev or least-squares approximation.
One-way acoustic mirror based on anisotropic zero-index media
Gu, Zhong-ming; Liang, Bin E-mail: jccheng@nju.edu.cn; Yang, Jing; Cheng, Jian-chun E-mail: jccheng@nju.edu.cn; Zou, Xin-ye; Li, Yong; Yang, Jun
2015-11-23
We have designed a one-way acoustic mirror comprising anisotropic zero-index media. For acoustic beam incident at a particular angle, the designed structure behaves like a high-efficient mirror that redirects almost all the incident energy into another direction predicted by the Snell's law, while becoming virtually transparent to beams propagating reversely along this output path. Furthermore, the mirror can be tailored to work at arbitrary incident angle by simply adjusting its geometry. Our design, with undirectional reflection functionality and flexible working angle, may offer possibilities in space isolations and have deep implication in various scenarios like ultrasound imaging or noise control.
Investigation of physical implementation of one-way quantum repeaters with multilevel systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muralidharan, Sreraman; Zou, Chang-Ling; Li, Linshu; Wen, Jianming; Jiang, Liang
Error correcting codes of multilevel systems have been shown to be resource efficient for the correction of erasure errors. One way quantum repeaters based on multilevel systems offer ultrafast key generation rates, while consuming lower resources than qubit based schemes (arXiv:1504.08054). On the other hand, they are technologically demanding. Here, we identify the key technological requirements needed for the implementation of quantum repeaters with multilevel systems and propose different experimental techniques that can be used to overcome the difficulties. We propose a generalized Duan-Kimble scheme for the generation of error correcting codes of multilevel systems with time-bin qudits.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Artoun, Ojenie; David-Rus, Diana; Emmett, Matthew; Fishman, Lou; Fital, Sandra; Hogan, Chad; Lim, Jisun; Lushi, Enkeleida; Marinov, Vesselin
2006-05-01
In this report we summarize an extension of Fourier analysis for the solution of the wave equation with a non-constant coefficient corresponding to an inhomogeneous medium. The underlying physics of the problem is exploited to link pseudodifferential operators and phase space path integrals to obtain a marching algorithm that incorporates the backward scattering into the evolution of the wave. This allows us to successfully apply single-sweep, one-way marching methods in inherently two-way environments, which was not achieved before through other methods for this problem.
Two-sample tests and one-way MANOVA for multivariate biomarker data with nondetects.
Thulin, M
2016-09-10
Testing whether the mean vector of a multivariate set of biomarkers differs between several populations is an increasingly common problem in medical research. Biomarker data is often left censored because some measurements fall below the laboratory's detection limit. We investigate how such censoring affects multivariate two-sample and one-way multivariate analysis of variance tests. Type I error rates, power and robustness to increasing censoring are studied, under both normality and non-normality. Parametric tests are found to perform better than non-parametric alternatives, indicating that the current recommendations for analysis of censored multivariate data may have to be revised. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26999657
Demonstration of active feedforward one-way quantum computing with photon-matter hyperentanglement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Xiao-Fan; Bao, Xiao-Hui; Pan, Jian-Wei
2012-11-01
We report an optical one-way quantum computing experiment with stationary quantum memory involved. First we create a hybrid four-qubit cluster state with two qubits propagating as photons and the other two stationary and stored in a laser-cooled atomic-ensemble quantum memory, and characterize it with entanglement witnesses and quantum state tomography. Then, by making use of this cluster state and fast operations of electro-optic modulators, we realize memory-assisted feedforward operations and demonstrate deterministic single-qubit rotation as an example.
One way and two way VHF ranging system performance for tracking and data relay applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bryan, J. W.; Filippi, C. A.
1972-01-01
The trajectory of an orbiting spacecraft is determined from an orbit determination program. Two inputs to this program, among others, are the range and range rate relative to some known location. The arithmetic and measurement errors in the determinations of the range, range rate, and range differences were identified and evaluated. These uncertainties are tabulated for one way and two way systems. A comparison of the measurement error contributions illustrate the predominance of thermal noise effects under low power budget conditions, with the other error sources becoming relevent for the high power budget case. The evaluated uncertainties are summarized as root sum squared noise and bias errors.
Multifunctional magneto-metasurface for terahertz one-way transmission and magnetic field sensing.
Chen, Sai; Fan, Fei; He, Xiaotong; Chen, Meng; Chang, Shengjiang
2015-11-01
A magneto-metasurface is demonstrated for one-way transmission of terahertz (THz) waves and magnetic field sensing. Due to the magneto-optical effect and the asymmetric structure of the transmission system, magnetoplasmon mode splitting for forward and backward THz waves and one-way transmission has been observed in this magneto-metasurface. Significantly, the resonance of the magneto-metasurface has been found that can remain at 0.750 THz at a temperature of 218 K, performing as a stable isolator with an isolation of larger than 30 dB within a magnetic field disturbance from 0.23 to 0.35 T. Also, since the resonance of the magneto-metasurface can be tuned by the different external magnetic fields at a temperature that is higher or lower than 218 K, the magneto-metasurface can work as a highly sensitive magnetic field sensor. The sensitivity of this device reaches S=513.05 GHz·T(-1) when T=230 K. This multifunctional magneto-metasurface has broad potential in THz application systems. PMID:26560571
Derivation of a one-way radiative transfer equation in random media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borcea, Liliana; Garnier, Josselin
2016-02-01
We derive from first principles a one-way radiative transfer equation for the wave intensity resolved over directions (Wigner transform of the wave field) in random media. It is an initial value problem with excitation from a source which emits waves in a preferred, forward direction. The equation is derived in a regime with small random fluctuations of the wave speed but long distances of propagation with respect to the wavelength, so that cumulative scattering is significant. The correlation length of the medium and the scale of the support of the source are slightly larger than the wavelength, and the waves propagate in a wide cone with an opening angle less than 180∘, so that the backward and evanescent waves are negligible. The scattering regime is a bridge between that of radiative transfer, where the waves propagate in all directions, and the paraxial regime, where the waves propagate in a narrow angular cone. We connect the one-way radiative transfer equation with the equations satisfied by the Wigner transform of the wave field in these regimes.
Seasonal Ventilation of the Stratosphere: Robust Diagnostics from One-Way Flux Distributions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Orbe, Clara; Holzer, Mark; Polvani, Lorenzo M.; Waugh, Darryn W.; Li, Feng; Oman, Luke D.; Newman, Paul A.
2014-01-01
We present an analysis of the seasonally varying ventilation of the stratosphere using one-way flux distributions. Robust transport diagnostics are computed using GEOSCCM subject to fixed present-day climate forcings. From the one-way flux, we determine the mass of the stratosphere that is in transit since entry through the tropical tropopause to its exit back into the troposphere, partitioned according to stratospheric residence time and exit location. The seasonalities of all diagnostics are quantified with respect to the month of year (a) when air enters the stratosphere, (b) when the mass of the stratosphere is partitioned, and (c) when air exits back into the troposphere. We find that the return flux, within 3 months since entry, depends strongly on when entry occurred: (34 +/- 10)% more of the air entering the stratosphere in July leaves poleward of 45 deg N compared to air that enters in January. The month of year when the air mass is partitioned is also found to be important: The stratosphere contains about six times more air of tropical origin during late summer and early fall that will leave poleward of 45 deg within 6 months since entering the stratosphere compared to during late winter to late spring. When the entire mass of the air that entered the stratosphere at the tropics regardless of its residence time is considered, we find that (51 +/- 1)% and (39 +/- 2)% will leave poleward of 10 deg in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) and Southern Hemisphere (SH), respectively.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bauer, S.; Hussmann, H.; Oberst, J.; Dirkx, D.; Mao, D.; Neumann, G. A.; Mazarico, E.; Torrence, M. H.; McGarry, J. F.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.
2016-09-01
We used one-way laser ranging data from International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) ground stations to NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) for a demonstration of orbit determination. In the one-way setup, the state of LRO and the parameters of the spacecraft and all involved ground station clocks must be estimated simultaneously. This setup introduces many correlated parameters that are resolved by using a priori constraints. Moreover the observation data coverage and errors accumulating from the dynamical and the clock modeling limit the maximum arc length. The objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of the arc length, the dynamical and modeling accuracy and the observation data coverage on the accuracy of the results. We analyzed multiple arcs using lengths of 2 and 7 days during a one-week period in Science Mission phase 02 (SM02, November 2010) and compared the trajectories, the post-fit measurement residuals and the estimated clock parameters. We further incorporated simultaneous passes from multiple stations within the observation data to investigate the expected improvement in positioning. The estimated trajectories were compared to the nominal LRO trajectory and the clock parameters (offset, rate and aging) to the results found in the literature. Arcs estimated with one-way ranging data had differences of 5-30 m compared to the nominal LRO trajectory. While the estimated LRO clock rates agreed closely with the a priori constraints, the aging parameters absorbed clock modeling errors with increasing clock arc length. Because of high correlations between the different ground station clocks and due to limited clock modeling accuracy, their differences only agreed at the order of magnitude with the literature. We found that the incorporation of simultaneous passes requires improved modeling in particular to enable the expected improvement in positioning. We found that gaps in the observation data coverage over 12 h (≈6 successive LRO orbits
Acoustic one-way metasurfaces: Asymmetric Phase Modulation of Sound by Subwavelength Layer
Jiang, Xue; Liang, Bin; Zou, Xin-ye; Yang, Jing; Yin, Lei-lei; Yang, Jun; Cheng, Jian-chun
2016-01-01
We theoretically design and numerically demonstrate an acoustic one-way metasurface, which is a planar and acoustically subwavelength layer behaving like a nearly-reflectionless surface with arbitrary wave-steering capability for incident wave impinging on one side, while virtually blocking the reversed wave. The underlying mechanism is based on an asymmetric phase modulation by coupling a phase array and a near-zero-index medium. We exemplify a metastructure-based implementation by combining the hybrid metastuctures and labyrinthine structures. Moreover, the performance of the proposed implementation is demonstrated via three distinct phenomena of anomalous refraction, wave splitting and conversion of propagation wave to surface wave. Our findings may offer more possibilities for sound manipulation and improve the application potential of acoustic artificial devices in situations such as ultrasonic imaging and therapy. PMID:27305973
A one way Doppler tracking system for satellite to satellite tracking
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bryan, J. W.; Lynn, J. J.
1973-01-01
An S-band tracking system employing one way Doppler applicable to the tracking and data relay system (TDRS) was evaluated. This evaluation is limited to the measurement system parameters. The analysis assumes state-of-the-art components such as spacecraft oscillator long term stability of one part in 10 to the 8th power and ground station oscillator stability of one part in 10 to the 11th power. Signal characteristics comparable with the present ranging systems are utilized in the analysis. Predicated upon measurement system parameters, position uncertainties for the low orbiting spacecraft vary from 5 meters to 2 kilometers along track, 4 meters to 1 kilometer cross track, and 1 meter to 180 meters radially depending upon the tracking geometry and the high satellite position and velocity error assumptions.
Vangel, M G; Rukhin, A L
1999-03-01
This article presents results for the maximum likelihood analysis of several groups of measurements made on the same quantity. Following Cochran (1937, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society 4(Supple), 102-118; 1954, Biometrics 10, 101-129; 1980, in Proceedings of the 25th Conference on the Design of Experiments in Army Research, Development and Testing, 21-33) and others, this problem is formulated as a one-way unbalanced random-effects ANOVA with unequal within-group variances. A reparametrization of the likelihood leads to simplified computations, easier identification and interpretation of multimodality of the likelihood, and (through a non-informative-prior Bayesian approach) approximate confidence regions for the mean and between-group variance. PMID:11318146
Acoustic one-way metasurfaces: Asymmetric Phase Modulation of Sound by Subwavelength Layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Xue; Liang, Bin; Zou, Xin-Ye; Yang, Jing; Yin, Lei-Lei; Yang, Jun; Cheng, Jian-Chun
2016-06-01
We theoretically design and numerically demonstrate an acoustic one-way metasurface, which is a planar and acoustically subwavelength layer behaving like a nearly-reflectionless surface with arbitrary wave-steering capability for incident wave impinging on one side, while virtually blocking the reversed wave. The underlying mechanism is based on an asymmetric phase modulation by coupling a phase array and a near-zero-index medium. We exemplify a metastructure-based implementation by combining the hybrid metastuctures and labyrinthine structures. Moreover, the performance of the proposed implementation is demonstrated via three distinct phenomena of anomalous refraction, wave splitting and conversion of propagation wave to surface wave. Our findings may offer more possibilities for sound manipulation and improve the application potential of acoustic artificial devices in situations such as ultrasonic imaging and therapy.
One-way quantum key distribution: Simple upper bound on the secret key rate
Moroder, Tobias; Luetkenhaus, Norbert; Curty, Marcos
2006-11-15
We present a simple method to obtain an upper bound on the achievable secret key rate in quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols that use only unidirectional classical communication during the public-discussion phase. This method is based on a necessary precondition for one-way secret key distillation; the legitimate users need to prove that there exists no quantum state having a symmetric extension that is compatible with the available measurements results. The main advantage of the obtained upper bound is that it can be formulated as a semidefinite program, which can be efficiently solved. We illustrate our results by analyzing two well-known qubit-based QKD protocols: the four-state protocol and the six-state protocol.
An energy-conserving one-way coupled mode propagation model.
Abawi, Ahmad T
2002-01-01
The equations of motion for pressure and displacement fields in a waveguide have been used to derive an energy-conserving, one-way coupled mode propagation model. This model has three important properties: First, since it is based on the equations of motion, rather than the wave equation, instead of two coupling matrices, it only contains one coupling matrix. Second, the resulting coupling matrix is anti-symmetric, which implies that the energy among modes is conserved. Third, the coupling matrix can be computed using the local modes and their depth derivatives. The model has been applied to two range-dependent cases: Propagation in a wedge, where range dependence is due to variations in water depth and propagation through internal waves, where range dependence is due to variations in water sound speed. In both cases the solutions are compared with those obtained from the parabolic equation (PE) method. PMID:11831790
Strong entanglement causes low gate fidelity in inaccurate one-way quantum computation
Morimae, Tomoyuki
2010-06-15
We study how entanglement among the register qubits affects the gate fidelity in the one-way quantum computation if a measurement is inaccurate. We derive an inequality that shows that the mean gate fidelity is upper bounded by a decreasing function of the magnitude of the error of the measurement and the amount of the entanglement between the measured qubit and other register qubits. The consequence of this inequality is that, for a given amount of entanglement, which is theoretically calculated once the algorithm is fixed, we can estimate from this inequality how small the magnitude of the error should be in order not to make the gate fidelity below a threshold, which is specified by a technical requirement in a particular experimental setup or by the threshold theorem of the fault-tolerant quantum computation.
Transport properties of MOPhC/metal one-way waveguide
Eyderman, Sergey; Kuzmiak, Vladimir
2011-10-03
We have demonstrated numerically that the interface between metal and uniformly magnetized 2D photonic crystal(PC) fabricated from a transparent dielectric magneto-optic(MO) material possesses a one-way frequency range where only a forward propagating surface plasmon polariton mode is allowed to propagate. By using a simple theoretical model we have shown that nonreciprocity is introduced by the MO properties of the PC. Transport properties of the structures within this frequency range have been investigated by FDTD method which enables to calculating propagation of EM waves through media with full tensorial MO permittivity. We found that in the presence of a time-dependent external magnetic field interesting features associated with the redistribution of the EM field appear.
Acoustic one-way metasurfaces: Asymmetric Phase Modulation of Sound by Subwavelength Layer.
Jiang, Xue; Liang, Bin; Zou, Xin-Ye; Yang, Jing; Yin, Lei-Lei; Yang, Jun; Cheng, Jian-Chun
2016-01-01
We theoretically design and numerically demonstrate an acoustic one-way metasurface, which is a planar and acoustically subwavelength layer behaving like a nearly-reflectionless surface with arbitrary wave-steering capability for incident wave impinging on one side, while virtually blocking the reversed wave. The underlying mechanism is based on an asymmetric phase modulation by coupling a phase array and a near-zero-index medium. We exemplify a metastructure-based implementation by combining the hybrid metastuctures and labyrinthine structures. Moreover, the performance of the proposed implementation is demonstrated via three distinct phenomena of anomalous refraction, wave splitting and conversion of propagation wave to surface wave. Our findings may offer more possibilities for sound manipulation and improve the application potential of acoustic artificial devices in situations such as ultrasonic imaging and therapy. PMID:27305973
Surface plasmon polaritons one-way mode converter based on parity-time symmetry broken system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Xiang-An; Liu, Hanchen; Zhu, Changjun
2016-03-01
In this paper, we have proposed a novel periodic surface plasmon polariton (SPP) waveguide to realize a one-way mode converter which is based on a parity-time (PT) symmetry broken system, and it converts the fundamental TM mode to the first-order TM mode in only forward direction. Periodic gain potentials are put in place to construct the system mentioned in periodic SPP waveguide. Further, as the mode converter contains gain and loss material, light signals will be amplified when it propagates forward, and they will be attenuated toward when they propagate backward. The unidirectional mode converter has wide applications in nonlinearity induced isolation, mode insensitive element and on-chip mode locked laser.
Demonstration of a controlled-phase gate for continuous-variable one-way quantum computation.
Ukai, Ryuji; Yokoyama, Shota; Yoshikawa, Jun-ichi; van Loock, Peter; Furusawa, Akira
2011-12-16
We experimentally demonstrate a controlled-phase gate for continuous variables using a cluster-state resource of four optical modes. The two independent input states of the gate are coupled with the cluster in a teleportation-based fashion. As a result, one of the entanglement links present in the initial cluster state appears in the two unmeasured output modes as the corresponding entangling gate acting on the input states. The genuine quantum character of this gate becomes manifest and is verified through the presence of entanglement at the output for a product two-mode coherent input state. By combining our gate with the recently reported module for single-mode Gaussian operations [R. Ukai et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 240504 (2011)], it is possible to implement any multimode Gaussian operation as a fully measurement-based one-way quantum computation. PMID:22243056
An experiment to measure the one-way velocity of propagation of electromagnetic radiation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kolen, P.; Torr, D. G.
1982-01-01
An experiment involving commercially available instrumentation to measure the velocity of the earth with respect to absolute space is described. The experiment involves the measurement of the one-way propagation velocity of electromagnetic radiation down a high-quality coaxial cable. It is demonstrated that the experiment is both physically meaningful and exceedingly simple in concept and in implementation. It is shown that with currently available commercial equipment one might expect to detect a threshold value for the component of velocity of the earth's motion with respect to absolute space in the equatorial plane of approximately 10 km/s, which greatly exceeds the velocity resolution required to detect the motion of the solar system with respect to the center of the galaxy.
An attack aimed at active phase compensation in one-way phase-encoded QKD systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Zhao-Yue; Yu, Ning-Na; Wei, Zheng-Jun; Wang, Jin-Dong; Zhang, Zhi-Ming
2014-08-01
Phase drift is an inherent problem in one-way phase-encoded quantum key distribution (QKD) systems. Although combining passive with active phase compensation (APC) processes can effectively compensate for the phase drift, the security problems brought about by these processes are rarely considered. In this paper, we point out a security hole in the APC process and put forward a corresponding attack scheme. Under our proposed attack, the quantum bit error rate (QBER) of the QKD can be close to zero for some conditions. However, under the same conditions the ratio r of the key "0" and the key "1" which Bob (the legal communicators Alice and Bob) gets is no longer 1:1 but 2:1, which may expose Eve (the eavesdropper). In order to solve this problem, we modify the resend strategy of the attack scheme, which can force r to reach 1 and the QBER to be lower than the tolerable QBER.
Integratable quarter-wave plates enable one-way angular momentum conversion.
Liang, Yao; Zhang, Fengchun; Gu, Jiahua; Huang, Xu Guang; Liu, Songhao
2016-01-01
Nanophotonic waveguides are the building blocks of integrated photonics. To date, while quarter-wave plates (QWPs) are widely used as common components for a wide range of applications in free space, there are almost no reports of Integratable QWPs being able to manipulate the angular momentum (AM) of photons inside nanophotonic waveguides. Here, we demonstrate two kinds of Integratable QWPs respectively based on the concept of abrupt phase change and birefringence effect. The orientation of the equivalent optical axis of an Integratable QWP is designable. Remarkably, a combination of two integratable QWPs with different equivalent optical axes leads to an integrated system that performances one-way AM conversion. Moreover, this system can be used as a point source that can excite different patterns on a metal surface via directional excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPP). These results allow for the control of AM of light in nanophotonic waveguides, which are crucial for various applications with limited physical space, such as on-chip bio-sensing and integrated quantum information processing. PMID:27102332
Integratable quarter-wave plates enable one-way angular momentum conversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Yao; Zhang, Fengchun; Gu, Jiahua; Huang, Xu Guang; Liu, Songhao
2016-04-01
Nanophotonic waveguides are the building blocks of integrated photonics. To date, while quarter-wave plates (QWPs) are widely used as common components for a wide range of applications in free space, there are almost no reports of Integratable QWPs being able to manipulate the angular momentum (AM) of photons inside nanophotonic waveguides. Here, we demonstrate two kinds of Integratable QWPs respectively based on the concept of abrupt phase change and birefringence effect. The orientation of the equivalent optical axis of an Integratable QWP is designable. Remarkably, a combination of two integratable QWPs with different equivalent optical axes leads to an integrated system that performances one-way AM conversion. Moreover, this system can be used as a point source that can excite different patterns on a metal surface via directional excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPP). These results allow for the control of AM of light in nanophotonic waveguides, which are crucial for various applications with limited physical space, such as on-chip bio-sensing and integrated quantum information processing.
Two-factor authentication system based on optical interference and one-way hash function
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Wenqi; Peng, Xiang; Meng, Xiangfeng; Liu, Xiaoli
2012-10-01
We present a two-factor authentication method to verify the personal identification who tries to access an optoelectronic system. This method is based on the optical interference principle and the traditional one-way Hash function (e.g. MD5). The authentication process is straightforward, the phase key and the password-controlled phase lock of one user are loading on two Spatial Light Modulators (SLMs) in advance, by which two coherent beams are modulated and then interference with each other at the output plane leading to an output image. By comparing the output image with all the standard certification images in the database, the system can thus verify the user's identity. However, the system designing process involves an iterative Modified Phase Retrieval Algorithm (MPRA). For an uthorized user, a phase lock is first created based on a "Digital Fingerprint (DF)", which is the result of a Hash function on a preselected user password. The corresponding phase key can then be determined by use of the phase lock and a designated standard certification image. Note that the encode/design process can only be realized by digital means while the authentication process could be achieved digitally or optically. Computer simulations were also given to validate the proposed approach.
One-way approximation for the simulation of weak shock wave propagation in atmospheric flows.
Gallin, Louis-Jonardan; Rénier, Mathieu; Gaudard, Eric; Farges, Thomas; Marchiano, Régis; Coulouvrat, François
2014-05-01
A numerical scheme is developed to simulate the propagation of weak acoustic shock waves in the atmosphere with no absorption. It generalizes the method previously developed for a heterogeneous medium [Dagrau, Rénier, Marchiano, and Coulouvrat, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 130, 20-32 (2011)] to the case of a moving medium. It is based on an approximate scalar wave equation for potential, rewritten in a moving time frame, and separated into three parts: (i) the linear wave equation in a homogeneous and quiescent medium, (ii) the effects of atmospheric winds and of density and speed of sound heterogeneities, and (iii) nonlinearities. Each effect is then solved separately by an adapted method: angular spectrum for the wave equation, finite differences for the flow and heterogeneity corrections, and analytical method in time domain for nonlinearities. To keep a one-way formulation, only forward propagating waves are kept in the angular spectrum part, while a wide-angle parabolic approximation is performed on the correction terms. The numerical process is validated in the case of guided modal propagation with a shear flow. It is then applied to the case of blast wave propagation within a boundary layer flow over a flat and rigid ground. PMID:24815240
One-way water permeable valve via water-based superhydrophobic coatings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mates, Joseph E.; Megaridis, Constantine M.
2013-11-01
Spray-cast superhydrophobic coatings have shown promise in commercial applications for fluid management due to their intrinsic low-cost, large-area capabilities and substrate independence (Schutzius et al. 2011). A technique of applying a light (< 2 gsm) water-based superhydrophobic coating on inherently hydrophilic cellulosic substrates to generate a preferred directionality for water absorption and transmission is presented. The mechanism described allows water to pass through a thin treated porous substrate in one direction under negligible pressure, but does not allow water to return from the opposite direction unless much greater pressure is applied. This pressure disparity ``window'' effectively creates a one-way fluid valve, with envisioned applications ranging from personal hygiene products, to oil-water separation and filtration. Combining SEM imaging with theoretical robustness factors (Tuteja et al. 2008), the penetration pressures are found to be tunable for application-specific designs by choosing a substrate based on limiting factors of fiber diameter and spacing. The process can also be modified with the addition of functionalized (e.g. antibacterial, conductive) nanoparticle fillers suited for the desired application.
One-way membrane trafficking of SOS in receptor-triggered Ras activation.
Christensen, Sune M; Tu, Hsiung-Lin; Jun, Jesse E; Alvarez, Steven; Triplet, Meredith G; Iwig, Jeffrey S; Yadav, Kamlesh K; Bar-Sagi, Dafna; Roose, Jeroen P; Groves, Jay T
2016-09-01
SOS is a key activator of the small GTPase Ras. In cells, SOS-Ras signaling is thought to be initiated predominantly by membrane recruitment of SOS via the adaptor Grb2 and balanced by rapidly reversible Grb2-SOS binding kinetics. However, SOS has multiple protein and lipid interactions that provide linkage to the membrane. In reconstituted-membrane experiments, these Grb2-independent interactions were sufficient to retain human SOS on the membrane for many minutes, during which a single SOS molecule could processively activate thousands of Ras molecules. These observations raised questions concerning how receptors maintain control of SOS in cells and how membrane-recruited SOS is ultimately released. We addressed these questions in quantitative assays of reconstituted SOS-deficient chicken B-cell signaling systems combined with single-molecule measurements in supported membranes. These studies revealed an essentially one-way trafficking process in which membrane-recruited SOS remains trapped on the membrane and continuously activates Ras until being actively removed via endocytosis. PMID:27501536
Integratable quarter-wave plates enable one-way angular momentum conversion
Liang, Yao; Zhang, Fengchun; Gu, Jiahua; Huang, Xu Guang; Liu, Songhao
2016-01-01
Nanophotonic waveguides are the building blocks of integrated photonics. To date, while quarter-wave plates (QWPs) are widely used as common components for a wide range of applications in free space, there are almost no reports of Integratable QWPs being able to manipulate the angular momentum (AM) of photons inside nanophotonic waveguides. Here, we demonstrate two kinds of Integratable QWPs respectively based on the concept of abrupt phase change and birefringence effect. The orientation of the equivalent optical axis of an Integratable QWP is designable. Remarkably, a combination of two integratable QWPs with different equivalent optical axes leads to an integrated system that performances one-way AM conversion. Moreover, this system can be used as a point source that can excite different patterns on a metal surface via directional excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPP). These results allow for the control of AM of light in nanophotonic waveguides, which are crucial for various applications with limited physical space, such as on-chip bio-sensing and integrated quantum information processing. PMID:27102332
Manipulating one-way space wave and its refraction by time-reversal and parity symmetry breaking
Poo, Yin; He, Cheng; Xiao, Chao; Lu, Ming-Hui; Wu, Rui-Xin; Chen, Yan-Feng
2016-01-01
One-way transmission and negative refraction are the exotic wave properties founded in photonic crystals which attract a great attention due to their promising applications in photonic devices. How to integrate such two phenomena in one material or device is interesting and valuable. In this work, we theoretically and experimentally demonstrate that one-way electromagnetic space wave can be realized by means of two-dimensional magnetic photonic crystals. Simultaneously breaking the time-reversal and parity symmetries of the magnetic photonic crystals designed, we observe oblique incident space wave propagating one-way in the magnetic photonic crystals with positive or negative refraction occurring at interfaces, which can be manipulated upon the incident angle and operating frequency. Our work may offer a potential platform to realize some exotic photoelectronic and microwave devices such as one-way imaging and one-way cloaking. PMID:27387438
Manipulating one-way space wave and its refraction by time-reversal and parity symmetry breaking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poo, Yin; He, Cheng; Xiao, Chao; Lu, Ming-Hui; Wu, Rui-Xin; Chen, Yan-Feng
2016-07-01
One-way transmission and negative refraction are the exotic wave properties founded in photonic crystals which attract a great attention due to their promising applications in photonic devices. How to integrate such two phenomena in one material or device is interesting and valuable. In this work, we theoretically and experimentally demonstrate that one-way electromagnetic space wave can be realized by means of two-dimensional magnetic photonic crystals. Simultaneously breaking the time-reversal and parity symmetries of the magnetic photonic crystals designed, we observe oblique incident space wave propagating one-way in the magnetic photonic crystals with positive or negative refraction occurring at interfaces, which can be manipulated upon the incident angle and operating frequency. Our work may offer a potential platform to realize some exotic photoelectronic and microwave devices such as one-way imaging and one-way cloaking.
Manipulating one-way space wave and its refraction by time-reversal and parity symmetry breaking.
Poo, Yin; He, Cheng; Xiao, Chao; Lu, Ming-Hui; Wu, Rui-Xin; Chen, Yan-Feng
2016-01-01
One-way transmission and negative refraction are the exotic wave properties founded in photonic crystals which attract a great attention due to their promising applications in photonic devices. How to integrate such two phenomena in one material or device is interesting and valuable. In this work, we theoretically and experimentally demonstrate that one-way electromagnetic space wave can be realized by means of two-dimensional magnetic photonic crystals. Simultaneously breaking the time-reversal and parity symmetries of the magnetic photonic crystals designed, we observe oblique incident space wave propagating one-way in the magnetic photonic crystals with positive or negative refraction occurring at interfaces, which can be manipulated upon the incident angle and operating frequency. Our work may offer a potential platform to realize some exotic photoelectronic and microwave devices such as one-way imaging and one-way cloaking. PMID:27387438
One-way-coupling simulation of cavitation accompanied by high-speed droplet impact
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kondo, Tomoki; Ando, Keita
2016-03-01
Erosion due to high-speed droplet impact is a crucial issue in industrial applications. The erosion is caused by the water-hammer loading on material surfaces and possibly by the reloading from collapsing cavitation bubbles that appear within the droplet. Here, we simulate the dynamics of cavitation bubbles accompanied by high-speed droplet impact against a deformable wall in order to see whether the bubble collapse is violent enough to give rise to cavitation erosion on the wall. The evolution of pressure waves in a single water (or gelatin) droplet to collide with a deformable wall at speed up to 110 m/s is inferred from simulations of multicomponent Euler flow where phase changes are not permitted. Then, we examine the dynamics of cavitation bubbles nucleated from micron/submicron-sized gas bubble nuclei that are supposed to exist inside the droplet. For simplicity, we perform Rayleigh-Plesset-type calculations in a one-way-coupling manner, namely, the bubble dynamics are determined according to the pressure variation obtained from the Euler flow simulation. In the simulation, the preexisting bubble nuclei whose size is either micron or submicron show large growth to submillimeters because tension inside the droplet is obtained through interaction of the pressure waves and the droplet interface; this supports the possibility of having cavitation due to the droplet impact. It is also found, in particular, for the case of cavitation arising from very small nuclei such as nanobubbles, that radiated pressure from the cavitation bubble collapse can overwhelm the water-hammer pressure directly created by the impact. Hence, cavitation may need to be accounted for when it comes to discussing erosion in the droplet impact problem.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kraczek, B.
2005-03-01
We present a means for coupling dynamic atomistic and continuum simulations via a spacetime discontinuous Galerkin (SDG) finite element method. Our scheme allows the SDG method to couple a general MD simulation using Verlet time-stepping through the flux conditions on the element boundaries at the interface. These flux conditions ensure weak balance of momentum and energy to achieve reflection-free transfer of disturbance across the interface. Our work is supported by the National Science Foundation (ITR grant DMR-0121695) on Process Simulation and Design and, in part, by the Materials Computation Center (FRG grant DMR-99-76550)
More than one way to see it: Individual heuristics in avian visual computation.
Ravignani, Andrea; Westphal-Fitch, Gesche; Aust, Ulrike; Schlumpp, Martin M; Fitch, W Tecumseh
2015-10-01
Comparative pattern learning experiments investigate how different species find regularities in sensory input, providing insights into cognitive processing in humans and other animals. Past research has focused either on one species' ability to process pattern classes or different species' performance in recognizing the same pattern, with little attention to individual and species-specific heuristics and decision strategies. We trained and tested two bird species, pigeons (Columba livia) and kea (Nestor notabilis, a parrot species), on visual patterns using touch-screen technology. Patterns were composed of several abstract elements and had varying degrees of structural complexity. We developed a model selection paradigm, based on regular expressions, that allowed us to reconstruct the specific decision strategies and cognitive heuristics adopted by a given individual in our task. Individual birds showed considerable differences in the number, type and heterogeneity of heuristic strategies adopted. Birds' choices also exhibited consistent species-level differences. Kea adopted effective heuristic strategies, based on matching learned bigrams to stimulus edges. Individual pigeons, in contrast, adopted an idiosyncratic mix of strategies that included local transition probabilities and global string similarity. Although performance was above chance and quite high for kea, no individual of either species provided clear evidence of learning exactly the rule used to generate the training stimuli. Our results show that similar behavioral outcomes can be achieved using dramatically different strategies and highlight the dangers of combining multiple individuals in a group analysis. These findings, and our general approach, have implications for the design of future pattern learning experiments, and the interpretation of comparative cognition research more generally. PMID:26113444
More than one way to see it: Individual heuristics in avian visual computation
Ravignani, Andrea; Westphal-Fitch, Gesche; Aust, Ulrike; Schlumpp, Martin M.; Fitch, W. Tecumseh
2015-01-01
Comparative pattern learning experiments investigate how different species find regularities in sensory input, providing insights into cognitive processing in humans and other animals. Past research has focused either on one species’ ability to process pattern classes or different species’ performance in recognizing the same pattern, with little attention to individual and species-specific heuristics and decision strategies. We trained and tested two bird species, pigeons (Columba livia) and kea (Nestor notabilis, a parrot species), on visual patterns using touch-screen technology. Patterns were composed of several abstract elements and had varying degrees of structural complexity. We developed a model selection paradigm, based on regular expressions, that allowed us to reconstruct the specific decision strategies and cognitive heuristics adopted by a given individual in our task. Individual birds showed considerable differences in the number, type and heterogeneity of heuristic strategies adopted. Birds’ choices also exhibited consistent species-level differences. Kea adopted effective heuristic strategies, based on matching learned bigrams to stimulus edges. Individual pigeons, in contrast, adopted an idiosyncratic mix of strategies that included local transition probabilities and global string similarity. Although performance was above chance and quite high for kea, no individual of either species provided clear evidence of learning exactly the rule used to generate the training stimuli. Our results show that similar behavioral outcomes can be achieved using dramatically different strategies and highlight the dangers of combining multiple individuals in a group analysis. These findings, and our general approach, have implications for the design of future pattern learning experiments, and the interpretation of comparative cognition research more generally. PMID:26113444
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wilcox, Rand R.
1989-01-01
Two methods of handling unequal variances in the two-way fixed effects analysis of variance (ANOVA) model are described. One is based on an improved Wilcox (1988) method for the one-way model, and the other is an extension of G. S. James' (1951) second order method. (TJH)
FORTRAN IV Program for One-Way Analysis of Variance with A Priori or A Posteriori Mean Comparisons
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fordyce, Michael W.
1977-01-01
A flexible Fortran program for computing one way analysis of variance is described. Requiring minimal core space, the program provides a variety of useful group statistics, all summary statistics for the analysis, and all mean comparisons for a priori or a posteriori testing. (Author/JKS)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Luh, Wei-Ming; Guo, Jiin-Huarng
2005-01-01
To deal with nonnormal and heterogeneous data for the one-way fixed effect analysis of variance model, the authors adopted a trimmed means method in conjunction with Hall's invertible transformation into a heteroscedastic test statistic (Alexander-Govern test or Welch test). The results of simulation experiments showed that the proposed technique…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zazzali, Christian
2003-01-01
Even experienced project managers can t anticipate every potential problem. Part of planning ahead should include allowing oneself the flexibility to rethink the plan and improvise if necessary. Unique solutions to problems sometimes create a set of new problems unique in nature as well. In dealing with sudden changes in planning, try to consider what other elements of the project will be affected, but don t second guess yourself into a state of inaction because you can t anticipate every contingency.
Lai, Kueifu; Ma, Tsuhsuang; Bo, Xiao; Anlage, Steven; Shvets, Gennady
2016-01-01
Electromagnetic (EM) waves propagating through an inhomogeneous medium are generally scattered whenever the medium’s electromagnetic properties change on the scale of a single wavelength. This fundamental phenomenon constrains how optical structures are designed and interfaced with each other. Recent theoretical work indicates that electromagnetic structures collectively known as photonic topological insulators (PTIs) can be employed to overcome this fundamental limitation, thereby paving the way for ultra-compact photonic structures that no longer have to be wavelength-scale smooth. Here we present the first experimental demonstration of a photonic delay line based on topologically protected surface electromagnetic waves (TPSWs) between two PTIs which are the EM counterparts of the quantum spin-Hall topological insulators in condensed matter. Unlike conventional guided EM waves that do not benefit from topological protection, TPSWs are shown to experience multi-wavelength reflection-free time delays when detoured around sharply-curved paths, thus offering a unique paradigm for compact and efficient wave buffers and other devices. PMID:27345575
Lai, Kueifu; Ma, Tsuhsuang; Bo, Xiao; Anlage, Steven; Shvets, Gennady
2016-01-01
Electromagnetic (EM) waves propagating through an inhomogeneous medium are generally scattered whenever the medium's electromagnetic properties change on the scale of a single wavelength. This fundamental phenomenon constrains how optical structures are designed and interfaced with each other. Recent theoretical work indicates that electromagnetic structures collectively known as photonic topological insulators (PTIs) can be employed to overcome this fundamental limitation, thereby paving the way for ultra-compact photonic structures that no longer have to be wavelength-scale smooth. Here we present the first experimental demonstration of a photonic delay line based on topologically protected surface electromagnetic waves (TPSWs) between two PTIs which are the EM counterparts of the quantum spin-Hall topological insulators in condensed matter. Unlike conventional guided EM waves that do not benefit from topological protection, TPSWs are shown to experience multi-wavelength reflection-free time delays when detoured around sharply-curved paths, thus offering a unique paradigm for compact and efficient wave buffers and other devices. PMID:27345575
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lai, Kueifu; Ma, Tsuhsuang; Bo, Xiao; Anlage, Steven; Shvets, Gennady
2016-06-01
Electromagnetic (EM) waves propagating through an inhomogeneous medium are generally scattered whenever the medium’s electromagnetic properties change on the scale of a single wavelength. This fundamental phenomenon constrains how optical structures are designed and interfaced with each other. Recent theoretical work indicates that electromagnetic structures collectively known as photonic topological insulators (PTIs) can be employed to overcome this fundamental limitation, thereby paving the way for ultra-compact photonic structures that no longer have to be wavelength-scale smooth. Here we present the first experimental demonstration of a photonic delay line based on topologically protected surface electromagnetic waves (TPSWs) between two PTIs which are the EM counterparts of the quantum spin-Hall topological insulators in condensed matter. Unlike conventional guided EM waves that do not benefit from topological protection, TPSWs are shown to experience multi-wavelength reflection-free time delays when detoured around sharply-curved paths, thus offering a unique paradigm for compact and efficient wave buffers and other devices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Yi; Huang, Yong
2015-10-01
We analyze the post-fit residuals of one-way Doppler tracking data from the Mars Express (MEX) spacecraft to test possible violations of local Lorentz invariance (LLI) and local position invariance (LPI). These one-way Doppler observations were carried out on 2011 August 7 for about 20 minutes at Sheshan Station of Shanghai Astronomical Observatory in China. These downlink signals were sent by MEX for telemetry at X-band. Because we are not able to decode the data in the form of telemetry and separate them from the carrier frequency, this makes the post-fit residuals of the Doppler data degrade to the level of 0.1 m s-1. Even so, the residuals can still impose upper bounds on LLI and LPI at 10-1, which is consistent with the prediction based on our analysis of the detectability. Although the upper bounds given by three-way Doppler tracking of MEX are better than those obtained in the present work, one-way Doppler measurements still provide a unique chance to test possible violations of LLI and LPI far from the ground stations.
Xu Fangxing; Zhang Yang; Zhou Zheng; Chen Wei; Han Zhengfu; Guo Guangcan
2009-12-15
In a practical quantum-key-distribution system, photon source and small operational errors cause intensity fluctuations inevitably, which cannot be ignored for a precise estimation on the single-photon fraction. In this paper, we demonstrated an efficient three-intensity decoy method scheme on top of the one-way Faraday-Michelson Interferometric system, combining an active monitoring with existing commercial apparatus to inspect fluctuations instantly. With this faithful detection for the upper bound of the fluctuation, the secure quantum key distribution is unconditionally realized with whatever type of intensity errors, which declares the utility and potential of decoy theory and active monitoring for quantum key distribution in practical use.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Behrooz, Majid; Gordaninejad, Faramarz
2016-09-01
This paper presents a three-dimensional study of a controllable flexible magnetically-activated micropump. The tubular micropump employs magnetically induced deformation of magnetorheological elastomer and one-way flexible conical valves for fluid transport. Three-dimensional magneto–fluid–solid interaction analysis is employed to investigate the performance of the system. The effects of key material, geometric, and magnetic parameters on the effectiveness of the system are examined. It is demonstrated that the proposed system can propel the fluid unidirectionally, and the volume of the transported fluid is significantly affected by some of the design parameters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, John; Mahoney, John; Mitchell, Kevin; Solomon, Tom
2013-11-01
The recently developed Burning Invariant Manifold (BIM) theory took a dynamical system approach to understand front propagation in Advection-Reaction-Diffusion systems and successfully predicted both the short-term and asymptotic front behavior by finding the unstable BIMs which act as barriers to front propagation. Unlike separatrices in traditional dynamical system being two-way barriers, the BIMs are one-way barriers. This asymmetry gives rise to a much richer dynamical behavior than traditional dynamical systems. Through numerical simulations, we found that the stable BIMs are the basin boundaries. Based on the properties of BIM theory, we further derived a theory to investigate a dynamical system consists of one-way barriers and the cooperative behavior of these barriers. This theory reveals the global structure of both stable and unstable BIMs by first using a systematic algorithm to convert the flow to a bipartite digraph and then extracting information of the steady states of fronts and corresponding basins of attraction from the digraph. This work was supported by the US National Science Foundation under grant PHY-0748828 and NSF Fellowship DGE-0937362.
Boche, H. Janßen, G.
2014-08-01
We consider one-way quantum state merging and entanglement distillation under compound and arbitrarily varying source models. Regarding quantum compound sources, where the source is memoryless, but the source state an unknown member of a certain set of density matrices, we continue investigations begun in the work of Bjelaković et al. [“Universal quantum state merging,” J. Math. Phys. 54, 032204 (2013)] and determine the classical as well as entanglement cost of state merging. We further investigate quantum state merging and entanglement distillation protocols for arbitrarily varying quantum sources (AVQS). In the AVQS model, the source state is assumed to vary in an arbitrary manner for each source output due to environmental fluctuations or adversarial manipulation. We determine the one-way entanglement distillation capacity for AVQS, where we invoke the famous robustification and elimination techniques introduced by Ahlswede. Regarding quantum state merging for AVQS we show by example that the robustification and elimination based approach generally leads to suboptimal entanglement as well as classical communication rates.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Givati, Amir; Gochis, David; Rummler, Thomas; Kunstmann, Harald; Yu, Wei
2016-04-01
A pair of hydro-meteorological modeling systems were calibrated and evaluated for the Ayalon basin in central Israel to assess the advantages and limitations of one-way versus two-way coupled modeling systems for flood prediction. The models used included the Hydrological Engineering Center-Hydrological Modeling System (HEC-HMS) model and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Hydro modeling system. The models were forced by observed, interpolated precipitation from rain-gauges within the basin, and with modeled precipitation from the WRF atmospheric model. Detailed calibration and evaluation was carried out for two major winter storms in January and December 2013. Then both modeling systems were executed and evaluated in an operational mode for the full 2014/2015 rainy season. Outputs from these simulations were compared to observed measurements from hydrometric stations at the Ayalon basin outlet. Various statistical metrics were employed to quantify and analyze the results: correlation, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and the Nash-Sutcliffe (NS) efficiency coefficient. Foremost, the results presented in this study highlight the sensitivity of hydrological responses to different sources of precipitation data, and less so, to hydrologic model formulation. With observed precipitation data both calibrated models closely simulated the observed hydrographs. The two-way coupled WRF/WRF-Hydro modeling system produced improved both the precipitation and hydrological simulations as compared to the one-way WRF simulations. Findings from this study suggest that the use of two-way atmospheric-hydrological coupling has the potential to improve precipitation and, therefore, hydrological forecasts for early flood warning applications. However more research needed in order to better understand the land-atmosphere coupling mechanisms driving hydrometeorological processes on a wider variety precipitation and terrestrial hydrologic systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Angus, Douglas A.
A finite-difference narrow-angle one-way wave equation is implemented and is applied to various wave propagation problems to verify the method as well as to study frequency-dependent three-component waveform effects. The narrow-angle wave equation is the most approximate, yet most computationally practical, of the one-way wave equations derived by Thomson (1999). Although the vector narrow-angle wave equation is limited to a certain propagation distance, it is still a viable and powerful modelling approach to wave propagation in three-dimensional elastic media. A FORTRAN finite-difference code is developed that is second-order accurate in the lateral and forward propagation direction and requires only three extrapolation planes to be stored during each propagation step. Numerical analysis of the finite-difference algorithm indicates that the scheme is stable for appropriate initial conditions and, for the propagation path-lengths of interest, angular range of forward propagation and source-pulse spectral content, numerical grid-anisotropy is minimal. The narrow-angle propagator is sufficiently accurate for angles up to +/-15° to the preferred direction of propagation and is stable within singular regions of slowness space. For reasonable velocity gradients, the travel-times and amplitudes of transmitted and converted body-waves are in good agreement with an exact reference solution. The conical-point singularity is the main focus of the homogeneous, anisotropic wave propagation examples, because it represents the most extreme anisotropic singularity and poses the greatest difficulty for ray-based methods. The results of wave propagation along the acoustic axis display characteristic and potentially diagnostic waveform effects, such as wavefront folding and tearing, merging and splitting pulses, growth of anomalous components and bipolar waveforms. The results of wave propagation in isotropic heterogeneous media are consistent with various published results. Some
A one-way coupled, Euler-Lagrangian simulation of bubble coalescence in a turbulent pipe flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mattson, Michael; Mahesh, Krishnan
2011-11-01
A bubble coalescence model is developed using an Euler-Lagrangian approach for unstructured grids. The Eulerian carrier fluid is solved using large-eddy simulation (LES) and the Lagrangian particle motion is solved using one-way coupled equations relating the turbulent motion of the carrier fluid to the forces on each discrete bubble. The collision process is deterministic; bubble-bubble collisions are assumed to be binary and are modeled using a hard-sphere approach. A stochastic approach is used to model coalescence, with the probability of coalescence being a function of the bubble-bubble interaction timescale and the time to drain fluid between the colliding bubbles. Coalescence in a bubbly, turbulent pipe flow without buoyancy is simulated with conditions similar to a microgravity experiment by Colin, Fabre and Dukler [Int. J. Multiphase Flow (1991) 17:533-544] and excellent agreement of bubble size distribution is obtained between simulation and experiment. With increasing downstream distance, the number density of bubbles decreases due to coalescence and the average probability of coalescence decreases slightly due to an increase in overall bubble size. Supported by the U.S. Office of Naval Research under ONR Grant N00014-07-1-0420.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Herrick, Gregory P.
2014-01-01
Concerns regarding noise, propulsive efficiency, and fuel burn are inspiring aircraft designs wherein the propulsive turbomachines are partially (or fully) embedded within the airframe; such designs present serious concerns with regard to aerodynamic and aeromechanic performance of the compression system in response to inlet distortion. Previously, a preliminary design of a forward-swept high-speed fan exhibited flutter concerns in cleaninlet flows, and the present author then studied this fan further in the presence of off-design distorted in-flows. Continuing this research, a three-dimensional, unsteady, Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics code is again applied to analyze and corroborate fan performance with clean inlet flow and now with a simplified, sinusoidal distortion of total pressure at the aerodynamic interface plane. This code, already validated in its application to assess aerodynamic damping of vibrating blades at various flow conditions using a one-way coupled energy-exchange approach, is modified to include a two-way coupled time-marching aeroelastic simulation capability. The two coupling methods are compared in their evaluation of flutter stability in the presence of distorted in-flows.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Honarvar, Mohammad; Konh, Bardia; Hutapea, Parsaoran
2015-04-01
Due to its outstanding properties of Nitinol, known as shape memory and superelasticity, Nitinol wires have been used as actuators in many medical devices. For the medical applications, it is critical to have a consistent strain response of Nitinol wires. This work focuses on studying the effect of parameters such as biased stress, maximum temperature, and wire diameters that influence the strain response of Nitinol wires. Specifically, Nitinol phase transformations were studied from microstructural point of view. The crystal structures of one-way shape memory Nitinol wires of various diameters under different thermomechanical loading conditions were studied using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) method. The location and intensity of characteristic peaks were determined prior and after the thermomechanical loading cycles. It was observed that Nitinol wires of diameters less than 0.19 mm exhibit unrecovered strain while heated to the range of 70ºC to 80ºC in a thermal cycle, whereas no unrecovered strains were found in larger wires. The observation was supported by the XRD patterns where the formation of R-phase crystal structure was showed in wire diameters less than 0.19 mm at room temperature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Zhiyong; Wu, Juan; Lu, Guihua
2015-11-01
Coupled hydrological and atmospheric modeling is an effective tool for providing advanced flood forecasting. However, the uncertainties in precipitation forecasts are still considerable. To address uncertainties, a one-way coupled atmospheric-hydrological modeling system, with a combination of high-resolution and ensemble precipitation forecasting, has been developed. It consists of three high-resolution single models and four sets of ensemble forecasts from the THORPEX Interactive Grande Global Ensemble database. The former provides higher forecasting accuracy, while the latter provides the range of forecasts. The combined precipitation forecasting was then implemented to drive the Chinese National Flood Forecasting System in the 2007 and 2008 Huai River flood hindcast analysis. The encouraging results demonstrated that the system can clearly give a set of forecasting hydrographs for a flood event and has a promising relative stability in discharge peaks and timing for warning purposes. It not only gives a deterministic prediction, but also generates probability forecasts. Even though the signal was not persistent until four days before the peak discharge was observed in the 2007 flood event, the visualization based on threshold exceedance provided clear and concise essential warning information at an early stage. Forecasters could better prepare for the possibility of a flood at an early stage, and then issue an actual warning if the signal strengthened. This process may provide decision support for civil protection authorities. In future studies, different weather forecasts will be assigned various weight coefficients to represent the covariance of predictors and the extremes of distributions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Herrick, Gregory P.
2014-01-01
Concerns regarding noise, propulsive efficiency, and fuel burn are inspiring aircraft designs wherein the propulsive turbomachines are partially (or fully) embedded within the airframe; such designs present serious concerns with regard to aerodynamic and aeromechanic performance of the compression system in response to inlet distortion. Previously, a preliminary design of a forward-swept high-speed fan exhibited flutter concerns in clean-inlet flows, and the present author then studied this fan further in the presence of off-design distorted in-flows. Continuing this research, a three-dimensional, unsteady, Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics code is again applied to analyze and corroborate fan performance with clean inlet flow and now with a simplified, sinusoidal distortion of total pressure at the aerodynamic interface plane. This code, already validated in its application to assess aerodynamic damping of vibrating blades at various flow conditions using a one-way coupled energy-exchange approach, is modified to include a two-way coupled timemarching aeroelastic simulation capability. The two coupling methods are compared in their evaluation of flutter stability in the presence of distorted in-flows.
Serebryannikov, Andriy E; Beruete, Miguel; Mutlu, Mehmet; Ozbay, Ekmel
2015-05-18
Multiband one-way polarization conversion and strong asymmetry in transmission inspired by it are demonstrated in ultrathin sandwiched structures that comprise two twisted aperture-type arrays of complementary split-ring resonators (CSRRs), metallic mesh, and dielectric layers. The basic features of the resulting mechanism originate from the common effect of chirality and tunneling. The emphasis is put on the (nearly) perfect polarization conversion of linear incident polarization into the orthogonal one and related diodelike asymmetric transmission within multiple narrow bands. Desired polarization conversion can be obtained at several resonances for one of the two opposite incidence directions, whereas transmission is fully blocked for the other one. The resonances, at which the (nearly) perfect conversion takes place, are expected to be inherited from similar structures with parallel, i.e., not rotated CSRR arrays that do not enable chirality and, thus, polarization conversion. It is found that the basic transmission and polarization conversion features and, thus, the dominant physics are rather general, enabling efficient engineering of such structures. The lowest-frequency resonance can be obtained in structures made of conventional materials with total thickness less than λ/50 and up to ten such resonances can correspond to thickness less than λ/20. PMID:26074599
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Zhiyong; Wu, Juan; Lu, Guihua
2016-09-01
Coupled hydrological and atmospheric modeling is an effective tool for providing advanced flood forecasting. However, the uncertainties in precipitation forecasts are still considerable. To address uncertainties, a one-way coupled atmospheric-hydrological modeling system, with a combination of high-resolution and ensemble precipitation forecasting, has been developed. It consists of three high-resolution single models and four sets of ensemble forecasts from the THORPEX Interactive Grande Global Ensemble database. The former provides higher forecasting accuracy, while the latter provides the range of forecasts. The combined precipitation forecasting was then implemented to drive the Chinese National Flood Forecasting System in the 2007 and 2008 Huai River flood hindcast analysis. The encouraging results demonstrated that the system can clearly give a set of forecasting hydrographs for a flood event and has a promising relative stability in discharge peaks and timing for warning purposes. It not only gives a deterministic prediction, but also generates probability forecasts. Even though the signal was not persistent until four days before the peak discharge was observed in the 2007 flood event, the visualization based on threshold exceedance provided clear and concise essential warning information at an early stage. Forecasters could better prepare for the possibility of a flood at an early stage, and then issue an actual warning if the signal strengthened. This process may provide decision support for civil protection authorities. In future studies, different weather forecasts will be assigned various weight coefficients to represent the covariance of predictors and the extremes of distributions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mantha, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Satyamurthy, P.
2007-02-01
BARC has recently proposed a one-way coupled ADS reactor. This reactor requires typically 1 GeV proton beam with 2 mA of current. Approximately 8 kW of heat is deposited in the window of the target. Circulating liquid metal target (lead/lead-bismuth{eutectic) has to extract this heat and this is a critical R&D problem to be solved. At present there are very few accelerators, which can give few mA and high-energy proton beam. However, accelerators with low energy and hundreds of micro-ampere current are commercially available. In view of this, it is proposed in this paper to simulate beam window heating of 8 kW in the target with low-energy proton beam. Detailed thermal analysis in the spallation and window region has been carried out to study the capability of heat extraction by circulating LBE for a typical target loop with a proton beam of 30 MeV energy and current of 0.267 mA. The heat deposition study is carried out using FLUKA code and flow analysis by CFD code. The detailed analysis of this work is presented in this paper.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McEntee, Marie; Mortimer, Claire
2013-01-01
This article examines two large-scale public communication campaigns to explore the appropriateness and effectiveness of using one-way communication in contentious environmental issues. The findings show while one-way communication can be successfully employed in contentious issues, it is not appropriate for all contexts and may contribute to…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Shan; Li, Laurent; Le Treut, Hervé
2016-04-01
In the 21st century, the estimated surface temperature warming projected by General Circulation Models (GCMs) is between 0.3 and 4.8 °C, depending on the scenario considered. GCMs exhibit a good representation of climate on a global scale, but they are not able to reproduce regional climate processes with the same level of accuracy. Society and policymakers need model projections to define climate change adaptation and mitigation policies on a global, regional and local scale. Climate downscaling is mostly conducted with a regional model nested into the outputs of a global model. This one-way nesting approach is generally used in the climate community without feedbacks from Regional Climate Models (RCMs) to GCMs. This lack of interaction between the two models may affect regional modes of variability, in particular those with a boundary conflict. The objective of this study is to evaluate a two-way nesting configuration that makes an interactive coupling between the RCM and the GCM, an approach against the traditional configuration of one-way nesting system. An additional aim of this work is to examine if the two-way nesting system can improve the RCM performance. The atmospheric component of the IPSL integrated climate model (LMDZ) is configured at both regional (LMDZ-regional) and global (LMDZ-global) scales. The two models have the same configuration for the dynamical framework and the physical forcings. The climatology values of sea surface temperature (SST) are prescribed for the two models. The stretched-grid of LMDZ-global is applied to a region defined by Europe, the Mediterranean, North Africa and Western North Atlantic. To ensure a good statistical significance of results, all simulations last at least 80 years. The nesting process of models is performed by a relaxation procedure of a time scale of 90 minutes. In the case of two-way nesting, the exchange between the two models is every two hours. The relaxation procedure induces a boundary conflict
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dunham, J. B.; Nemesure, M.; Teles, J.; Brown-Conwell, E. R.; Jackson, J. A.; Reamy, V. L.; Maher, M. J.; Elrod, B. D.
1990-01-01
The principal objectives of the USO experiment on the COBE spacecraft are defined, and results of space qualification studies for the COBE USO experiment are summarized. The principal objectives of the experiment are: (1) to determine flight performance of the USO coupled to the second-generation TDRSS transponder; (2) space qualify TDRSS noncoherent one-way return-link Doppler tracking; and (3) analyze algorithms for one-way navigation with real data. The three objectives of the experiment have been met in the first stage of the experiment analysis.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kirman, Joseph M.; Goldberg, Jack
This study compared teachers instructed in use of Landsat satellite maps through one-way television and simultaneous telephone group conferencing to another teacher group instructed directly. Thirty teachers of intermediate children in Edmonton and Sherwood Park, Alberta, received 5 hours of instruction about Landsat maps over a 2-week period;…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ličer, M.; Smerkol, P.; Fettich, A.; Ravdas, M.; Papapostolou, A.; Mantziafou, A.; Strajnar, B.; Cedilnik, J.; Jeromel, M.; Jerman, J.; Petan, S.; Malačič, V.; Sofianos, S.
2015-07-01
We study the performances of (a) fully two-way coupled atmosphere-ocean modeling system and (b) one-way coupled ocean model (forced by the atmospheric model hourly output), as compared to the available in situ (mooring and CTD) measurements during and after an strong Bora wind event in February 2012, which led to extreme air-sea interactions and record breaking seawater cooling and dense water formation in Northern Adriatic. The simulations span the period between January and March 2012. The models used were ALADIN (4.4 km resolution) on the atmospheric side and Adriatic setup of POM (1°/30 × 1°/30 angular resolution) on the ocean side. The atmosphere-ocean coupling was implemented using the OASIS3-MCT model coupling toolkit. We show, using in situ seawater temperature measurements, that the two-way atmosphere-ocean coupling improves the ocean response to Bora because it captures transient Bora-induced cooling better than the one-way coupled version of the ocean model. We show that this difference stems mainly from an underestimation of air-sea temperature difference in one-way coupled system during the Bora episode, leading to an underestimation of sensible heat losses from the ocean in the one-way coupled system. We show these losses exhibit significant impact on baroclinic circulation on synoptic timescales. We use CTD observations in the Gulf of Trieste to show that when compared to the one-way setup, the two-way coupled system produces a similar estimation of salinities and density anomalies before the Bora episode, but a significantly better estimation of these quantities afterwards.
Davoyan, Arthur R; Engheta, Nader
2013-12-20
We study propagation of transverse-magnetic electromagnetic waves in the bulk and at the surface of a magnetized epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) medium in a Voigt configuration. We reveal that in a certain range of material parameters novel regimes of wave propagation emerge; we show that the transparency of the medium can be altered with the magnetization leading either to magnetically induced Hall opacity or Hall transparency of the ENZ. In our theoretical study, we demonstrate that surface waves at the interface between either a transparent or an opaque Hall medium and a homogeneous medium may, under certain conditions, be predominantly one way. Moreover, we predict that one-way photonic surface states may exist at the interface of an opaque Hall ENZ and a regular metal, giving rise to the possibility for backscattering immune wave propagation and isolation. PMID:24483756
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davoyan, Arthur R.; Engheta, Nader
2013-12-01
We study propagation of transverse-magnetic electromagnetic waves in the bulk and at the surface of a magnetized epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) medium in a Voigt configuration. We reveal that in a certain range of material parameters novel regimes of wave propagation emerge; we show that the transparency of the medium can be altered with the magnetization leading either to magnetically induced Hall opacity or Hall transparency of the ENZ. In our theoretical study, we demonstrate that surface waves at the interface between either a transparent or an opaque Hall medium and a homogeneous medium may, under certain conditions, be predominantly one way. Moreover, we predict that one-way photonic surface states may exist at the interface of an opaque Hall ENZ and a regular metal, giving rise to the possibility for backscattering immune wave propagation and isolation.
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2015-08-03
Edge Bioinformatics is a developmental bioinformatics and data management platform which seeks to supply laboratories with bioinformatics pipelines for analyzing data associated with common samples case goals. Edge Bioinformatics enables sequencing as a solution and forward-deployed situations where human-resources, space, bandwidth, and time are limited. The Edge bioinformatics pipeline was designed based on following USE CASES and specific to illumina sequencing reads. 1. Assay performance adjudication (PCR): Analysis of an existing PCR assay in amore » genomic context, and automated design of a new assay to resolve conflicting results; 2. Clinical presentation with extreme symptoms: Characterization of a known pathogen or co-infection with a. Novel emerging disease outbreak or b. Environmental surveillance« less
Lo, Chien-Chi
2015-08-03
Edge Bioinformatics is a developmental bioinformatics and data management platform which seeks to supply laboratories with bioinformatics pipelines for analyzing data associated with common samples case goals. Edge Bioinformatics enables sequencing as a solution and forward-deployed situations where human-resources, space, bandwidth, and time are limited. The Edge bioinformatics pipeline was designed based on following USE CASES and specific to illumina sequencing reads. 1. Assay performance adjudication (PCR): Analysis of an existing PCR assay in a genomic context, and automated design of a new assay to resolve conflicting results; 2. Clinical presentation with extreme symptoms: Characterization of a known pathogen or co-infection with a. Novel emerging disease outbreak or b. Environmental surveillance
Chen, Huifang; Xie, Lei
2014-01-01
Self-healing group key distribution (SGKD) aims to deal with the key distribution problem over an unreliable wireless network. In this paper, we investigate the SGKD issue in resource-constrained wireless networks. We propose two improved SGKD schemes using the one-way hash chain (OHC) and the revocation polynomial (RP), the OHC&RP-SGKD schemes. In the proposed OHC&RP-SGKD schemes, by introducing the unique session identifier and binding the joining time with the capability of recovering previous session keys, the problem of the collusion attack between revoked users and new joined users in existing hash chain-based SGKD schemes is resolved. Moreover, novel methods for utilizing the one-way hash chain and constructing the personal secret, the revocation polynomial and the key updating broadcast packet are presented. Hence, the proposed OHC&RP-SGKD schemes eliminate the limitation of the maximum allowed number of revoked users on the maximum allowed number of sessions, increase the maximum allowed number of revoked/colluding users, and reduce the redundancy in the key updating broadcast packet. Performance analysis and simulation results show that the proposed OHC&RP-SGKD schemes are practical for resource-constrained wireless networks in bad environments, where a strong collusion attack resistance is required and many users could be revoked. PMID:25529204
Tan, Amanda; Tan, Say Hoon; Vyas, Dhaval; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Gumert, Michael D.
2015-01-01
We explored variation in patterns of percussive stone-tool use on coastal foods by Burmese long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis aurea) from two islands in Laem Son National Park, Ranong, Thailand. We catalogued variation into three hammering classes and 17 action patterns, after examining 638 tool-use bouts across 90 individuals. Hammering class was based on the stone surface used for striking food, being face, point, and edge hammering. Action patterns were discriminated by tool material, hand use, posture, and striking motion. Hammering class was analyzed for associations with material and behavioural elements of tool use. Action patterns were not, owing to insufficient instances of most patterns. We collected 3077 scan samples from 109 macaques on Piak Nam Yai Island’s coasts, to determine the proportion of individuals using each hammering class and action pattern. Point hammering was significantly more associated with sessile foods, smaller tools, faster striking rates, smoother recoil, unimanual use, and more varied striking direction, than were face and edge hammering, while both point and edge hammering were significantly more associated with precision gripping than face hammering. Edge hammering also showed distinct differences depending on whether such hammering was applied to sessile or unattached foods, resembling point hammering for sessile foods and face hammering for unattached foods. Point hammering and sessile edge hammering compared to prior descriptions of axe hammering, while face and unattached edge hammering compared to pound hammering. Analysis of scans showed that 80% of individuals used tools, each employing one to four different action patterns. The most common patterns were unimanual point hammering (58%), symmetrical-bimanual face hammering (47%) and unimanual face hammering (37%). Unimanual edge hammering was relatively frequent (13%), compared to the other thirteen rare action patterns (<5%). We compare our study to other stone
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ličer, M.; Smerkol, P.; Fettich, A.; Ravdas, M.; Papapostolou, A.; Mantziafou, A.; Strajnar, B.; Cedilnik, J.; Jeromel, M.; Jerman, J.; Petan, S.; Malačič, V.; Sofianos, S.
2016-01-01
We have studied the performances of (a) a two-way coupled atmosphere-ocean modeling system and (b) one-way coupled ocean model (forced by the atmosphere model), as compared to the available in situ measurements during and after a strong Adriatic bora wind event in February 2012, which led to extreme air-sea interactions. The simulations span the period between January and March 2012. The models used were ALADIN (Aire Limitée Adaptation dynamique Développement InterNational) (4.4 km resolution) on the atmosphere side and an Adriatic setup of Princeton ocean model (POM) (1°/30 × 1°/30 angular resolution) on the ocean side. The atmosphere-ocean coupling was implemented using the OASIS3-MCT model coupling toolkit. Two-way coupling ocean feedback to the atmosphere is limited to sea surface temperature. We have compared modeled atmosphere-ocean fluxes and sea temperatures from both setups to platform and CTD (conductivity, temperature, and depth) measurements from three locations in the northern Adriatic. We present objective verification of 2 m atmosphere temperature forecasts using mean bias and standard deviation of errors scores from 23 meteorological stations in the eastern part of Italy. We show that turbulent fluxes from both setups differ up to 20 % during the bora but not significantly before and after the event. When compared to observations, two-way coupling ocean temperatures exhibit a 4 times lower root mean square error (RMSE) than those from one-way coupled system. Two-way coupling improves sensible heat fluxes at all stations but does not improve latent heat loss. The spatial average of the two-way coupled atmosphere component is up to 0.3 °C colder than the one-way coupled setup, which is an improvement for prognostic lead times up to 20 h. Daily spatial average of the standard deviation of air temperature errors shows 0.15 °C improvement in the case of coupled system compared to the uncoupled. Coupled and uncoupled circulations in the northern
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khe, A. K.; Cherevko, A. A.; Chupakhin, A. P.; Bobkova, M. S.; Krivoshapkin, A. L.; Orlov, K. Yu
2016-06-01
In this paper a computer simulation of a blood flow in cerebral vessels with a giant saccular aneurysm at the bifurcation of the basilar artery is performed. The modelling is based on patient-specific clinical data (both flow domain geometry and boundary conditions for the inlets and outlets). The hydrodynamic and mechanical parameters are calculated in the frameworks of three models: rigid-wall assumption, one-way FSI approach, and full (two-way) hydroelastic model. A comparison of the numerical solutions shows that mutual fluid- solid interaction can result in qualitative changes in the structure of the fluid flow. Other characteristics of the flow (pressure, stress, strain and displacement) qualitatively agree with each other in different approaches. However, the quantitative comparison shows that accounting for the flow-vessel interaction, in general, decreases the absolute values of these parameters. Solving of the hydroelasticity problem gives a more detailed solution at a cost of highly increased computational time.
Hassani Gangaraj, S. Ali; Nemilentsau, Andrei; Hanson, George W.
2016-01-01
We have investigated one-way surface plasmon-polaritons (SPPs) at the interface of a continuum magnetoplasma material and metal, in the presence of three-dimensional surface defects. Bulk electromagnetic modes of continuum materials have Chern numbers, analogous to those of photonic crystals. This can lead to the appearance of topologically-protected surface modes at material interfaces, propagating at frequencies inside the bandgap of the bulk materials. Previous studies considered two-dimensional structures; here we consider the effect of three-dimensional defects, and show that, although backward propagation/reflection cannot occur, side scattering does take place and has significant effect on the propagation of the surface mode. Several different waveguiding geometries are considered for reducing the effects of side-scattering, and we also consider the effects of metal loss. PMID:27444542
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hassani Gangaraj, S. Ali; Nemilentsau, Andrei; Hanson, George W.
2016-07-01
We have investigated one-way surface plasmon-polaritons (SPPs) at the interface of a continuum magnetoplasma material and metal, in the presence of three-dimensional surface defects. Bulk electromagnetic modes of continuum materials have Chern numbers, analogous to those of photonic crystals. This can lead to the appearance of topologically-protected surface modes at material interfaces, propagating at frequencies inside the bandgap of the bulk materials. Previous studies considered two-dimensional structures; here we consider the effect of three-dimensional defects, and show that, although backward propagation/reflection cannot occur, side scattering does take place and has significant effect on the propagation of the surface mode. Several different waveguiding geometries are considered for reducing the effects of side-scattering, and we also consider the effects of metal loss.
Hassani Gangaraj, S Ali; Nemilentsau, Andrei; Hanson, George W
2016-01-01
We have investigated one-way surface plasmon-polaritons (SPPs) at the interface of a continuum magnetoplasma material and metal, in the presence of three-dimensional surface defects. Bulk electromagnetic modes of continuum materials have Chern numbers, analogous to those of photonic crystals. This can lead to the appearance of topologically-protected surface modes at material interfaces, propagating at frequencies inside the bandgap of the bulk materials. Previous studies considered two-dimensional structures; here we consider the effect of three-dimensional defects, and show that, although backward propagation/reflection cannot occur, side scattering does take place and has significant effect on the propagation of the surface mode. Several different waveguiding geometries are considered for reducing the effects of side-scattering, and we also consider the effects of metal loss. PMID:27444542
Fraile-Garcia, Esteban; Ferreiro-Cabello, Javier; Martinez-Camara, Eduardo; Jimenez-Macias, Emilio
2015-11-15
The European Committee for Standardization (CEN) through its Technical Committee CEN/TC-350 is developing a series of standards for assessing the building sustainability, at both product and building levels. The practical application of the selection (decision making) of structural alternatives made by one-way slabs leads to an intermediate level between the product and the building. Thus the present study addresses this problem of decision making, following the CEN guidelines and incorporating relevant aspects of architectural design into residential construction. A life cycle assessment (LCA) is developed in order to obtain valid information for the decision making process (the LCA was developed applying CML methodology although Ecoindicator99 was used in order to facilitate the comparison of the values); this information (the carbon footprint values) is contrasted with other databases and with the information from the Environmental Product Declaration (EPD) of one of the lightening materials (expanded polystyrene), in order to validate the results. Solutions of different column disposition and geometries are evaluated in the three pillars of sustainable construction on residential construction: social, economic and environmental. The quantitative analysis of the variables used in this study enables and facilitates an objective comparison in the design stage by a responsible technician; the application of the proposed methodology reduces the possible solutions to be evaluated by the expert to 12.22% of the options in the case of low values of the column index and to 26.67% for the highest values. - Highlights: • Methodology for selection of structural alternatives in buildings with one-way slabs • Adapted to CEN guidelines (CEN/TC-350) for assessing the building sustainability • LCA is developed in order to obtain valid information for the decision making process. • Results validated comparing carbon footprint, databases and Env. Product Declarations
Tao, Xiaojuan; Gao, Peiyi; Jing, Lina; Lin, Yan; Sui, Binbin
2015-01-01
Background Hemodynamics play an important role in the development and progression of carotid atherosclerosis, and may be important in the assessment of plaque vulnerability. The aim of this study was to develop a system to assess the hemodynamics of carotid atherosclerotic plaques using subject-specific fluid-structure interaction (FSI) models based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Material/Methods Models of carotid bifurcations (n=86 with plaques from 52 patients, n=14 normal carotids from 12 participants) were obtained at the Department of Radiology, Beijing Tian Tan Hospital between 2010 and 2013. The maximum von Mises stress, minimum pressure, and flow velocity values were assessed at the most stenotic site in patients, or at the carotid bifurcations in healthy volunteers. Results of one-way FSI were compared with fully-coupled FSI for the plaques of 19 randomly selected models. Results The maximum von Mises stress and the minimum pressure and velocity were significantly increased in the stenosis group compared with controls based on one-way FSI (all P<0.05). The maximum von Mises stress and the minimum pressure were significantly higher and the velocity was significantly lower based on fully coupled FSI compared with on-way FSI (all P<0.05). Although there were differences in numerical values, both methods were equivalent. The maximum von Mises stress of vulnerable plaques was significantly higher than stable plaques (P<0.001). The maximum von Mises stress of the group with fibrous cap defect was significantly higher than the group without fibrous cap defect (P=0.001). Conclusions The hemodynamics of atherosclerotic plaques can be assessed noninvasively using subject-specific models of FSI based on MRI. PMID:26510514
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Chuanfei
This dissertation presents numerical simulation results of the solar wind interaction with the Martian upper atmosphere by using three comprehensive 3-D models: the Mars Global Ionosphere Thermosphere Model (M-GITM), the Mars exosphere Monte Carlo model Adaptive Mesh Particle Simulator (M-AMPS), and the BATS-R-US Mars multi-fluid MHD (MF-MHD) model. The coupled framework has the potential to provide improved predictions for ion escape rates for comparison with future data to be returned by the MAVEN mission (2014-2016) and thereby improve our understanding of present day escape processes. Estimates of ion escape rates over Mars history must start from properly validated models that can be extrapolated into the past. This thesis aims to build a model library for the NASA Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission, which will thus enhance the science return from the MAVEN mission. In this thesis, we aim to address the following four main scientific questions by adopting the one-way coupled framework developed here: (1) What are the Martian ion escape rates at the current epoch and ancient times? (2) What controls the ion escape processes at the current epoch? How are the ion escape variations connected to the solar cycle, crustal field orientation and seasonal variations? (3) How do the variable 3-D cold neutral thermosphere and hot oxygen corona affect the solar wind-Mars interaction? (4) How does the Martian atmosphere respond to extreme variations (e.g., ICMEs) in the solar wind and its interplanetary environment? These questions are closely related to the primary scientific goals of NASA's MAVEN mission and European Space Agency's Mars Express (MEX) mission. We reasonably answer all these four questions at the end of this thesis by employing the one-way coupled framework and comparing the simulation results with both MEX and MAVEN observational data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mao, D.; Sun, X.; Skillman, D. R.; Mcgarry, J.; Hoffman, E.; Neumann, G. A.; Torrence, M. H.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.
2014-12-01
Satellite laser ranging (SLR) has long been used to measure the distance from a ground station to an Earth-orbiting satellite in order to determine the spacecraft position in orbit, and to conduct other geodetic measurements such as plate motions. This technique can also be used to transfer time between the station and satellite, and between remote SLR sites, as recently demonstrated by the Time Transfer by Laser Link (T2L2) project by the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiaes (CNES) and Observatorire de la Cote d'Azur (OCA) as well as the Laser Time Transfer (LTT) project by the Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, where two-way and one-way measurements were obtained at the same time. Here we report a new technique to transfer time between distant SLR stations via simultaneous one-way laser ranging (LR) to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft at lunar distance. The major objectives are to establish accurate ground station times and to improve LRO orbit determination via these measurements. The results of these simultaneous LR measurements are used to compare the SLR station times or transfer time from one to the other using times-of-flight estimated from conventional radio frequency tracking of LRO. The accuracy of the time transfer depends only on the difference of the times-of-flight from each ground station to the spacecraft, and is expected to be at sub-nano second level. The technique has been validated by both a ground-based experiment and an experiment that utilized LRO. Here we present the results to show that sub-nanosecond precision and accuracy are achievable. Both experiments were carried out between the primary LRO-LR station, The Next Generation Satellite Laser Ranging (NGSLR) station, and its nearby station, Mobile Laser System (MOBLAS-7), both at Greenbelt, Maryland. The laser transmit time from both stations were recorded by the same event timer referenced to a Hydrogen maser. The results have been compared to data from a common All
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tehrani, Mohammad Hadikhan; Khoshnoudian, Faramarz
2014-09-01
Performance based design becomes an effective method for estimating seismic demands of buildings. In asymmetric plan tall building the effects of higher modes and torsion are crucial. The consecutive modal pushover (CMP) procedure is one of the procedures that consider these effects. Also in previous studies the influence of soil-structure interaction (SSI) in pushover analysis is ignored. In this paper the CMP procedure is modified for one-way asymmetric plan mid and high-rise buildings considering SSI. The extended CMP (ECMP) procedure is proposed in order to overcome some limitations of the CMP procedure. In this regard, 10, 15 and 20 story buildings with asymmetric plan are studied considering SSI assuming three different soil conditions. Using nonlinear response history analysis under a set of bidirectional ground motion; the exact responses of these buildings are calculated. Then the ECMP procedure is evaluated by comparing the results of this procedure with nonlinear time history results as an exact solution as well as the modal pushover analysis procedure and FEMA 356 load patterns. The results demonstrate the accuracy of the ECMP procedure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Chuanfei; Bougher, Stephen W.; Ma, Yingjuan; Toth, Gabor; Nagy, Andrew F.; Najib, Dalal
2014-04-01
The 3-D multifluid Block Adaptive Tree Solar-wind Roe Upwind Scheme (BATS-R-US) MHD code (MF-MHD) is coupled with the 3-D Mars Thermospheric general circulation model (MTGCM). The ion escape rate from the Martian upper atmosphere is investigated by using a one-way coupling approach, i.e., the MF-MHD model incorporates the effects of 3-D neutral atmosphere profiles from the MTGCM model. The calculations are carried out for two cases with different solar cycle conditions. The calculated total ion escape flux (the sum of three major ionospheric species, O+, O2+, and CO2+) for solar cycle maximum conditions (6.6×1024 s-1) is about 2.6 times larger than that of solar cycle minimum conditions (2.5×1024 s-1). Our simulation results show good agreement with recent observations of 2-3×1024 s-1 (O+, O2+, and CO2+) measured near solar cycle minimum conditions by Mars Express. An extremely high solar wind condition is also simulated which may mimic the condition of coronal mass ejections or corotating interaction regions passing Mars. Simulation results show that it can lead to a significant value of the escape flux as large as 4.3×1025s-1.
Lu, Lu; Li, Guoqiang
2016-06-15
Reversible elongation by cooling and contraction by heating, without the need for repeated programming, is well-known as the two-way shape-memory effect (2W-SME). This behavior is contrary to the common physics-contraction when cooling and expansion when heating. Materials with such behavior may find many applications in real life, such as self-sufficient grippers, fastening devices, optical gratings, soft actuators, and sealant. Here, it is shown that ionomer Surlyn 8940, a 50-year old polymer, exhibits both one-way multishape-memory effects and tunable two-way reversible actuation. The required external tensile stress to trigger the tunable 2W-SME is very low when randomly jumping the temperatures within the melting transition window. With a proper one-time programming, "true" 2W-SME (i.e., 2W-SME without the need for an external tensile load) is also achieved. A long training process is not needed to trigger the tunable 2W-SME. Instead, a proper one-time tensile programming is sufficient to trigger repeated and tunable 2W-SME. Because the 2W-SME of the ionomer Surlyn is driven by the thermally reversible network, here crystallization and melting transitions of the semicrystalline poly(ethylene-co-methacrylic acid), it is believed that a class of thermally reversible polymers should also exhibit tunable 2W-SMEs. PMID:27191832
Feldman, C R; Durso, A M; Hanifin, C T; Pfrender, M E; Ducey, P K; Stokes, A N; Barnett, K E; Brodie, E D; Brodie, E D
2016-01-01
Convergent evolution of tetrodotoxin (TTX) resistance, at both the phenotypic and genetic levels, characterizes coevolutionary arms races between amphibians and their snake predators around the world, and reveals remarkable predictability in the process of adaptation. Here we examine the repeatability of the evolution of TTX resistance in an undescribed predator-prey relationship between TTX-bearing Eastern Newts (Notophthalmus viridescens) and Eastern Hog-nosed Snakes (Heterodon platirhinos). We found that that local newts contain levels of TTX dangerous enough to dissuade most predators, and that Eastern Hog-nosed Snakes within newt range are highly resistant to TTX. In fact, these populations of Eastern Hog-nosed Snakes are so resistant to TTX that the potential for current reciprocal selection might be limited. Unlike all other cases of TTX resistance in vertebrates, H. platirhinos lacks the adaptive amino acid substitutions in the skeletal muscle sodium channel that reduce TTX binding, suggesting that physiological resistance in Eastern Hog-nosed Snakes is conferred by an alternate genetic mechanism. Thus, phenotypic convergence in this case is not due to parallel molecular evolution, indicating that there may be more than one way for this adaptation to arise, even among closely related species. PMID:26374236
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alley, C. O.; Kiess, T. E.; Nelson, R. A.; Sergienko, A. V.; Shih, Y. H.; Wang, B. C.; Yang, F. M.
1993-01-01
The preceding paper describes the results so far (interrupted in the Spring of 1989 because of lack of funds) of an experiment comparing the one-way light propagation times on the surface of the rotating Earth. For the 20 Km path length component in the East-West direction the predicted difference between the opposite sense propagation times would be 160 ps, if the approximately 360 Km/s surface speed of the Earth gives effective light speeds of 3 x 10(exp 8) m/s +/- 360 m/s. This could lead to a prediction of the difference between the clock transport and the light pulse synchronization methods described in the preceding paper: delta(T) = 0.5 (160) = 80 ps. The current upper bound of approximately 100 ps for delta(T) is limited by poorly understood systematic errors. The most important seems to be intensity-dependent time delays in the remote light pulse avalanche photo-diode detector. This will be replaced by a continuously operating circular scan streak camera having single photon sensitivity and a time resolution of approximately 5 ps. (This camera has recently been developed by the Xian Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics in the P.R.C.). Better isolation from shocks and vibration for the Sigma-Tau hydrogen maser during transport will be provided. It is hoped that delta(T) is less than 20 ps can be achieved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hildreth, E. C.
1985-09-01
For both biological systems and machines, vision begins with a large and unwieldly array of measurements of the amount of light reflected from surfaces in the environment. The goal of vision is to recover physical properties of objects in the scene such as the location of object boundaries and the structure, color and texture of object surfaces, from the two-dimensional image that is projected onto the eye or camera. This goal is not achieved in a single step: vision proceeds in stages, with each stage producing increasingly more useful descriptions of the image and then the scene. The first clues about the physical properties of the scene are provided by the changes of intensity in the image. The importance of intensity changes and edges in early visual processing has led to extensive research on their detection, description and use, both in computer and biological vision systems. This article reviews some of the theory that underlies the detection of edges, and the methods used to carry out this analysis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Peng; Tang, Jingshi; Hou, Xiyun; Liu, Lin
Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is a technique that allows determination of angular position for distant radio sources by measuring the geometric time delay between received radio signals at two geographically separated stations. An application of VLBI is spacecraft navigation in space missions where delay measurements of a spacecraft radio signal are compared against similar delay measurements of angularly nearby quasar radio signals. In the case where the spacecraft measurements are obtained from the phases of tones emitted from the spacecraft, first detected separately at each station, and then differenced, this application of VLBI is known as Delta Differential One-Way Ranging (Delta-DOR). Even though data acquisition and processing are not identical for the spacecraft and quasar, they have similar information content and similar sensitivity to sources of error. Consequently, the Delta-DOR can be used in conjunction with Doppler and ranging data to improve spacecraft navigation by more efficiently determining spacecraft angular position in the plane-of-sky. Over the decades, human exploration of Mars have never been stopped. As we know, Delta-DOR began to serve its purpose for Mars Odyssey spacecraft in 2001. In the following years, Delta-DOR was used from Mars Exploration Rover (MER) in 2003-2004 to Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) in 2011, all with excellent results. At present, human exploration of Mars using Delta-DOR technique mainly depends on the Earth-based ground stations. As we know, the differential time delay between the spacecraft and quasar is given approximately by begin{math}Deltatau=-frac{1}{c}BsinTheta_{1}(DeltaTheta_{B}) , the accuracy of the determination of angular separation begin{math}DeltaTheta_{B} improves as the measurement error in the observable begin{math}Deltatau decreases. Further, begin{math}DeltaTheta_{B} accuracy improves as the baseline length B increases. Therefore, the introduction of special libration points, i
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Voisin, N.; Liu, L.; Hejazi, M.; Tesfa, T.; Li, H.; Huang, M.; Liu, Y.; Leung, L. R.
2013-11-01
An integrated model is being developed to advance our understanding of the interactions between human activities, terrestrial system and water cycle, and to evaluate how system interactions will be affected by a changing climate at the regional scale. As a first step towards that goal, a global integrated assessment model, which includes a water-demand model driven by socioeconomics at regional and global scales, is coupled in a one-way fashion with a land surface hydrology-routing-water resources management model. To reconcile the scale differences between the models, a spatial and temporal disaggregation approach is developed to downscale the annual regional water demand simulations into a daily time step and subbasin representation. The model demonstrates reasonable ability to represent the historical flow regulation and water supply over the US Midwest (Missouri, Upper Mississippi, and Ohio river basins). Implications for future flow regulation, water supply, and supply deficit are investigated using climate change projections with the B1 and A2 emission scenarios, which affect both natural flow and water demand. Although natural flow is projected to increase under climate change in both the B1 and A2 scenarios, there is larger uncertainty in the changes of the regulated flow. Over the Ohio and Upper Mississippi river basins, changes in flow regulation are driven by the change in natural flow due to the limited storage capacity. However, both changes in flow and demand have effects on the Missouri River Basin summer regulated flow. Changes in demand are driven by socioeconomic factors, energy and food demands, global markets and prices with rainfed crop demand handled directly by the land surface modeling component. Even though most of the changes in supply deficit (unmet demand) and the actual supply (met demand) are driven primarily by the change in natural flow over the entire region, the integrated framework shows that supply deficit over the Missouri River
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2006-01-01
6 April 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the edge (running diagonally from the lower left to the upper right) of a trough, which is part of a large pit crater complex in Noachis Terra. This type of trough forms through the collapse of surface materials into the subsurface, and often begins as a series of individual pit craters. Over time, continued collapse increases the diameter of individual pits until finally, adjacent pits merge to form a trough such as the one captured in this image. The deep shadowed area is caused in part by an overhang; layered rock beneath this overhang is less resistant to erosion, and thus has retreated tens of meters backward, beneath the overhang. A person could walk up inside this 'cave' formed by the overhanging layered material.
Location near: 47.0oS, 355.7oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2007-06-18
UEDGE is an interactive suite of physics packages using the Python or BASIS scripting systems. The plasma is described by time-dependent 2D plasma fluid equations that include equations for density, velocity, ion temperature, electron temperature, electrostatic potential, and gas density in the edge region of a magnetic fusion energy confinement device. Slab, cylindrical, and toroidal geometries are allowed, and closed and open magnetic field-line regions are included. Classical transport is assumed along magnetic field lines,more » and anomalous transport is assumed across field lines. Multi-charge state impurities can be included with the corresponding line-radiation energy loss. Although UEDGE is written in Fortran, for efficient execution and analysis of results, it utilizes either Python or BASIS scripting shells. Python is easily available for many platforms (http://www.Python.org/). The features and availability of BASIS are described in Basis Manual Set by P.F. Dubois, Z.C. Motteler, et al., Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory report UCRL-MA-1 18541, June, 2002 and http://basis.llnl.gov. BASIS has been reviewed and released by LLNL for unlimited distribution. The Python version utilizes PYBASIS scripts developed by D.P. Grote, LLNL. The Python version also uses MPPL code and MAC Perl script, available from the public-domain BASIS source above. The Forthon version of UEDGE uses the same source files, but utilizes Forthon to produce a Python-compatible source. Forthon has been developed by D.P. Grote at LBL (see http://hifweb.lbl.gov/Forthon/ and Grote et al. in the references below), and it is freely available. The graphics can be performed by any package importable to Python, such as PYGIST.« less
2007-06-18
UEDGE is an interactive suite of physics packages using the Python or BASIS scripting systems. The plasma is described by time-dependent 2D plasma fluid equations that include equations for density, velocity, ion temperature, electron temperature, electrostatic potential, and gas density in the edge region of a magnetic fusion energy confinement device. Slab, cylindrical, and toroidal geometries are allowed, and closed and open magnetic field-line regions are included. Classical transport is assumed along magnetic field lines, and anomalous transport is assumed across field lines. Multi-charge state impurities can be included with the corresponding line-radiation energy loss. Although UEDGE is written in Fortran, for efficient execution and analysis of results, it utilizes either Python or BASIS scripting shells. Python is easily available for many platforms (http://www.Python.org/). The features and availability of BASIS are described in Basis Manual Set by P.F. Dubois, Z.C. Motteler, et al., Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory report UCRL-MA-1 18541, June, 2002 and http://basis.llnl.gov. BASIS has been reviewed and released by LLNL for unlimited distribution. The Python version utilizes PYBASIS scripts developed by D.P. Grote, LLNL. The Python version also uses MPPL code and MAC Perl script, available from the public-domain BASIS source above. The Forthon version of UEDGE uses the same source files, but utilizes Forthon to produce a Python-compatible source. Forthon has been developed by D.P. Grote at LBL (see http://hifweb.lbl.gov/Forthon/ and Grote et al. in the references below), and it is freely available. The graphics can be performed by any package importable to Python, such as PYGIST.
Wang, Chenyu; Nair, Sithara S; Veeravalli, Sharon; Moseh, Patricia; Wynne, Kenneth J
2016-06-01
-temperature end (slippery surface) but became pinned at the low-temperature end (sticky surface) and did not move when the slide was rotated 180°. The surface was therefore a "one-way street" for water droplet flow. Theory provides fundamental understanding for slippery/sticky behavior for gradient S-PDMS and Pt-PDMS coatings. A model for network formation is based on hydrosilylation at high temperature and condensation curing of Si-OH from autoxidation of Si-H at low temperatures. In summary, network formation conditions strongly affect receding contact angles and water adhesion for Sylgard 184 and the filler-free mimic Pt-PDMS. These findings suggest careful control of curing conditions is important to silicones used in microfluidic devices or as biomedical materials. Network-forming conditions also impact bulk mechanical properties for Sylgard 184, but the range that can be obtained has not been critically examined for specific applications. PMID:27175918
Zhang, Xiuyun; Xin, John; Ding, Feng
2013-04-01
The edge of two dimensional (2D) graphene, as the surface of a three dimensional (3D) crystal, plays a crucial role in the determination of its physical, electronic and chemical properties and thus has been extensively studied recently. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in the study of graphene edges, including edge formation energy, edge reconstruction, method of graphene edge synthesis and the recent progress on metal-passivated graphene edges and the role of edges in graphene CVD growth. We expect this review to provide a guideline for readers to gain a clear picture of graphene edges from several aspects, especially the catalyst-passivated graphene edges and their role in graphene CVD growth. PMID:23420074
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xiuyun; Xin, John; Ding, Feng
2013-03-01
The edge of two dimensional (2D) graphene, as the surface of a three dimensional (3D) crystal, plays a crucial role in the determination of its physical, electronic and chemical properties and thus has been extensively studied recently. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in the study of graphene edges, including edge formation energy, edge reconstruction, method of graphene edge synthesis and the recent progress on metal-passivated graphene edges and the role of edges in graphene CVD growth. We expect this review to provide a guideline for readers to gain a clear picture of graphene edges from several aspects, especially the catalyst-passivated graphene edges and their role in graphene CVD growth.
Microfluidic one-way streets for algae
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dunkel, Jorn; Kantsler, Vasily; Polin, Marco; Goldstein, Raymond E.
2012-02-01
Controlling locomotion and transport of microorganisms is a key challenge in the development of future biotechnological applications. Here, we demonstrate the use of optimized microfluidic ratchets to rectify the mean swimming direction in suspensions of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which is a promising candidate for the photosynthetic production of hydrogen. To assess the potential of microfluidic barriers for the manipulation of algal swimming, we studied first the scattering of individual C. reinhardtii from solid boundaries. High-speed imaging reveals the surprising result that these quasi-spherical ``puller''-type microswimmers primarily interact with surfaces via direct flagellar contact, whereas hydrodynamic effects play a subordinate role. A minimal theoretical model, based on run-and-turn motion and the experimentally measured surface-scattering law, predicts the existence of optimal wedge-shaped ratchets that maximize rectification of initially uniform suspensions. We confirm this prediction in experimental measurements with different geometries. Since the mechano-elastic properties of eukaryotic flagella are conserved across many genera, we expect that our results and methods are applicable to a broad class of biflagellate microorganisms.
One Way--Frustrating, but Rewarding!
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yencer, Dick
1979-01-01
Describes the experiences of a vocational agriculture teacher who worked for four years with rice farmers in Indonesia. Suggests reasons why changes in farming practices are hard to bring about in developing nations. (LRA)
Threading One's Way Through the Geographic Region.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thomas, Paul F.
1982-01-01
Designed for students in grades 7 through 12, the paper presents illustrative resource materials for teaching concepts related to geographic regions. Emphasis is on giving students an understanding of the interrelationship between regional characteristics and human behavior. The paper introduces students to the following notions: environmental…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Olszewski, A. D., Jr.; Wilcox, T. P.; Beckman, Mark
1996-01-01
Many spacecraft are launched today with only an omni-directional (omni) antenna and do not have an onboard Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) transponder that is capable of coherently returning a carrier signal through TDRS. Therefore, other means of tracking need to be explored and used to adequately acquire the spacecraft. Differenced One-Way Doppler (DOWD) tracking data are very useful in eliminating the problems associated with the instability of the onboard oscillators when using strictly one-way Doppler data. This paper investigates the TDRS DOWD tracking data received by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) during the launch and early orbit phases for the the Interplanetary Physics Laboratory (WIND) and the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-J missions. In particular FDF personnel performed an investigation of the data residuals and made an assessment of the acquisition capabilities of DOWD-based solutions. Comparisons of DOWD solutions with existing data types were performed and analyzed in this study. The evaluation also includes atmospheric editing of the DOWD data and a study of the feasibility of solving for Doppler biases in an attempt to minimize error. Furthermore, by comparing the results from WIND and NOAA-J, an attempt is made to show the limitations involved in using DOWD data for the two different mission profiles. The techniques discussed in this paper benefit the launches of spacecraft that do not have TDRS transponders on board, particularly those launched into a low Earth orbit. The use of DOWD data is a valuable asset to missions which do not have a stable local oscillator to enable high-quality solutions from the one-way/return-link Doppler tracking data.
Supersonic Leading Edge Receptivity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maslov, Anatoly A.
1998-01-01
This paper describes experimental studies of leading edge boundary layer receptivity for imposed stream disturbances. Studies were conducted in the supersonic T-325 facility at ITAM and include data for both sharp and blunt leading edges. The data are in agreement with existing theory and should provide guidance for the development of more complete theories and numerical computations of this phenomena.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Edge, 1999
1999-01-01
"The Edge" is a Canadian publication for youth. The mandate of the Edge is to support and celebrate all career journeys embraced by youth. This issue contains career profile articles covering three jobs: crane operator, indoor climbing instructor, and product certification tester. Career trends and the state of today's workplace are also…
Raquez, Jean-Marie; Vanderstappen, Sophie; Meyer, Franck; Verge, Pierre; Alexandre, Michael; Thomassin, Jean-Michel; Jérôme, Christine; Dubois, Philippe
2011-08-29
Cross-linked poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)-based polyesterurethane (PUR) systems have been synthesized through Diels-Alder reactions by reactive extrusion. The Diels-Alder and retro-Diels-Alder reactions proved to be useful for enhancing the molecular motion of PCL-based systems, and therefore their crystallization ability, in the design of cross-linked semicrystalline polymers with one-way and two-way shape-memory properties. Successive reactions between α,ω-diol PCL (PCL(2) ), furfuryl alcohol, and methylene diphenyl 4,4'-diisocyanate straightforwardly afforded the α,ω-furfuryl PCL-based PUR systems, and subsequent Diels-Alder reactions with N,N-phenylenedimaleimide afforded the thermoreversible cycloadducts. The cross-linking density could be modulated by partially replacing PCL-diol with PCL-tetraol. Interestingly, the resulting PUR systems proved to be semicrystalline cross-linked polymers, the melting temperature of which (close to 45 °C) represented the switching temperature for their shape-memory properties. Qualitative and quantitative measurements demonstrated that these PUR systems exhibited one-way and two-way shape-memory properties depending on their cross-linking density. PMID:21744399
Powell, M.
1996-08-01
Edge finishing processes have seemed like ideal candidates for automation. Most edge finishing processes are unpleasant, dangerous, tedious, expensive, not repeatable and labor intensive. Estimates place the cost of manual edge finishing processes at 12% of the total cost of fabricating precision parts. For small, high precision parts, the cost of hand finishing may be as high as 305 of the total part cost. Up to 50% of this cost could be saved through automation. This cost estimate includes the direct costs of edge finishing: the machining hours required and the 30% scrap and rework rate after manual finishing. Not included in these estimates are the indirect costs resulting from cumulative trauma disorders and retraining costs caused by the high turnover rate for finishing jobs.. Despite the apparent economic advantages, edge finishing has proven difficult to automate except in low precision and/or high volume production environments. Finishing automation systems have not been deployed successfully in Department of Energy defense programs (DOE/DP) production, A few systems have been attempted but have been subsequently abandoned for traditional edge finishing approaches: scraping, grinding, and filing the edges using modified dental tools and hand held power tools. Edge finishing automation has been an elusive but potentially lucrative production enhancement. The amount of time required for reconfiguring workcells for new parts, the time required to reprogram the workcells to finish new parts, and automation equipment to respond to fixturing errors and part tolerances are the most common reasons cited for eliminating automation as an option for DOE/DP edge finishing applications. Existing automated finishing systems have proven to be economically viable only where setup and reprogramming costs are a negligible fraction of overall production costs.
Edge detection: a tutorial review
Kunt, M.
1982-01-01
Major edge detection methods are reviewed from the signal processing and artificial intelligence point of views. In the first class, images are processed first to enhance edges. Then a decision is made to label each picture point as edge or not edge. In the second class edges are viewed as the border-lines of regions whose points share a common property. 21 references.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Agosta, Roxana; Bilbija, Dushan; Deutsch, Marc; Gallant, David; Rose, Don; Shreve, Gene; Smario, David; Suffredini, Brian
1992-01-01
As intercontinental business and tourism volumes continue their rapid expansion, the need to reduce travel times becomes increasingly acute. The Edge Supersonic Transport Aircraft is designed to meet this demand by the year 2015. With a maximum range of 5750 nm, a payload of 294 passengers and a cruising speed of M = 2.4, The Edge will cut current international flight durations in half, while maintaining competitive first class, business class, and economy class comfort levels. Moreover, this transport will render a minimal impact upon the environment, and will meet all Federal Aviation Administration Part 36, Stage III noise requirements. The cornerstone of The Edge's superior flight performance is its aerodynamically efficient, dual-configuration design incorporating variable-geometry wingtips. This arrangement combines the benefits of a high aspect ratio wing at takeoff and low cruising speeds with the high performance of an arrow-wing in supersonic cruise. And while the structural weight concerns relating to swinging wingtips are substantial, The Edge looks to ever-advancing material technologies to further increase its viability. Heeding well the lessons of the past, The Edge design holds economic feasibility as its primary focus. Therefore, in addition to its inherently superior aerodynamic performance, The Edge uses a lightweight, largely windowless configuration, relying on a synthetic vision system for outside viewing by both pilot and passengers. Additionally, a fly-by-light flight control system is incorporated to address aircraft supersonic cruise instability. The Edge will be produced at an estimated volume of 400 aircraft and will be offered to airlines in 2015 at $167 million per transport (1992 dollars).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zisk, Stanley H.; Wittels, Norman
1988-02-01
Edge location is an important machine vision task. Machine vision systems perform mathematical operations on rectangular arrays of numbers that are intended to faithfully represent the spatial distribution of scene luminance. The numbers are produced by periodic sampling and quantization of the camera's video output. This sequence can cause artifacts to appear in the data with a noise spectrum that is high in power at high spatial frequencies. This is a problem because most edge detection algorithms are preferentially sensitive to the high-frequency content in an image. Solid state cameras can introduce errors because of the spatial periodicity of their sensor elements. This can result in problems when image edges are aligned with camera pixel boundaries: (a) some cameras introduce transients into the video signal while switching between sensor elements; (b) most cameras use analog low-pass filters to minimize sampling artifacts and these introduce video phase delays that shift the locations of edges. The problems compound when the vision system samples asynchronously with the camera's pixel rate. Moire patterns (analogous to beat frequencies) can result. In this paper, we examine and model quantization effects in a machine vision system with particular emphasis on edge detection performance. We also compare our models with experimental measurements.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prokop, Norman F (Inventor)
2016-01-01
Analog circuits for detecting edges in pixel arrays are disclosed. A comparator may be configured to receive an all pass signal and a low pass signal for a pixel intensity in an array of pixels. A latch may be configured to receive a counter signal and a latching signal from the comparator. The comparator may be configured to send the latching signal to the latch when the all pass signal is below the low pass signal minus an offset. The latch may be configured to hold a last negative edge location when the latching signal is received from the comparator.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prokop, Norman F (Inventor)
2015-01-01
Analog circuits for detecting edges in pixel arrays are disclosed. A comparator may be configured to receive an all pass signal and a low pass signal for a pixel intensity in an array of pixels. A latch may be configured to receive a counter signal and a latching signal from the comparator. The comparator may be configured to send the latching signal to the latch when the all pass signal is below the low pass signal minus an offset. The latch may be configured to hold a last negative edge location when the latching signal is received from the comparator.
Kubo, S; Nakata, H; Miyasyo, K; Yoshimine, T
2000-10-01
The authors report a case of ruptured aneurysm in a patient in her 90's who was treated by clipping and returned to her independent life after discharge. A 91-year-old woman with a diagnosis of SAH of Hunt & Kosnik Grade III was treated using a conventional clipping operation with cisternal drainage. The cisternal drainage was assembled as a closed system using a newly developed one-way ball valve to regulate the CSF outflow. With this system the patient was able to take any posture and do any movement she wished, not being obligned to stay in bed. Early postoperative rehabilitation was able to be started to prevent pneumonia and muscular atrophy. The drainage was stopped on the 27th postoperative day when the CSF became clear. During the period of drainage, neither valve obstruction nor meningitis was noted. This valve system allows patients under cisternal drainage to move freely. It would be useful, especially when dealing with the elderly, to prevent unwanted complications often caused by postoperative restraint imposed by confinement to bed. PMID:11070911
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Popham, W. James
2004-01-01
Many U.S. educators now wonder whether they're teachers or targets. This mentality stems from the specter of their school being sanctioned for failing the state accountability tests mandated under No Child Left Behind (NCLB). According to this author, most of those tests are like blunt-edged swords: They function badly in two directions. While…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buckmaster, J.; Zhang, Yi
1999-09-01
It has been known for some years that when a near-limit flame spreads over a liquid pool of fuel, the edge of the flame can oscillate. It is also known that when a near-asphyxiated candle-flame burns in zero gravity, the edge of the (hemispherical) flame can oscillate violently prior to extinction. We propose that these oscillations are nothing more than a manifestation of the large Lewis number instability well known in chemical reactor studies and in combustion studies, one that is exacerbated by heat losses. As evidence of this we examine an edge-flame confined within a fuel-supply boundary and an oxygen-supply boundary, anchored by a discontinuity in data at the fuel-supply boundary. We show that when the Lewis number of the fuel is 2, and the Lewis number of the oxidizer is 1, oscillations of the edge occur when the Damköhler number is reduced below a critical value. During a single oscillation period there is a short premixed propagation stage and a long diffusion stage, behaviour that has been observed in flame spread experiments. Oscillations do not occur when both Lewis numbers are equal to 1.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ferebee, Ann; Carpenter, Edward K.
1974-01-01
In this article, renewal of the inner urban edge is discussed. Norfolk (Virginia) is attempting to blur the difference between old and new neighbor hoods through zoning and architectural controls. Cincinnati (Ohio) is developing an environmentally sound hillside design. Reading (Pennsylvania) is utilizing old railyards for greenbelts of hiking and…
Superpixel edges for boundary detection
Moya, Mary M.; Koch, Mark W.
2016-07-12
Various embodiments presented herein relate to identifying one or more edges in a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image comprising a plurality of superpixels. Superpixels sharing an edge (or boundary) can be identified and one or more properties of the shared superpixels can be compared to determine whether the superpixels form the same or two different features. Where the superpixels form the same feature the edge is identified as an internal edge. Where the superpixels form two different features, the edge is identified as an external edge. Based upon classification of the superpixels, the external edge can be further determined to form part of a roof, wall, etc. The superpixels can be formed from a speckle-reduced SAR image product formed from a registered stack of SAR images, which is further segmented into a plurality of superpixels. The edge identification process is applied to the SAR image comprising the superpixels and edges.
Edge detection by nonlinear dynamics
Wong, Yiu-fai
1994-07-01
We demonstrate how the formulation of a nonlinear scale-space filter can be used for edge detection and junction analysis. By casting edge-preserving filtering in terms of maximizing information content subject to an average cost function, the computed cost at each pixel location becomes a local measure of edgeness. This computation depends on a single scale parameter and the given image data. Unlike previous approaches which require careful tuning of the filter kernels for various types of edges, our scheme is general enough to be able to handle different edges, such as lines, step-edges, corners and junctions. Anisotropy in the data is handled automatically by the nonlinear dynamics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parsons, Mark; Grindrod, Peter
2012-06-01
We introduce a model for a pair of nonlinear evolving networks, defined over a common set of vertices, subject to edgewise competition. Each network may grow new edges spontaneously or through triad closure. Both networks inhibit the other's growth and encourage the other's demise. These nonlinear stochastic competition equations yield to a mean field analysis resulting in a nonlinear deterministic system. There may be multiple equilibria; and bifurcations of different types are shown to occur within a reduced parameter space. This situation models competitive communication networks such as BlackBerry Messenger displacing SMS; or instant messaging displacing emails.
Hagland, M; Lumsdon, K; Montague, J; Serb, C
1995-08-01
With managed care payment becoming the norm, employers actively pursuing keener benefits management, health care markets evolving at warp speed, and clinical and information technologies spawning new capabilities every day, the cutting edge in health care keeps slicing ever-deeper. With that in mind, we at Hospitals & Health Networks have developed a browser's compendium of some of the leading people, places (organizations and programs) and technologies that are helping move the field forward into the next stage. Each entry is unique; what they all share is an innovative quality that others will emulate. PMID:7627230
Topological number of edge states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hashimoto, Koji; Kimura, Taro
2016-05-01
We show that the edge states of the four-dimensional class A system can have topological charges, which are characterized by Abelian/non-Abelian monopoles. The edge topological charges are a new feature of relations among theories with different dimensions. From this novel viewpoint, we provide a non-Abelian analog of the TKNN number as an edge topological charge, which is defined by an SU(2) 't Hooft-Polyakov BPS monopole through an equivalence to Nahm construction. Furthermore, putting a constant magnetic field yields an edge monopole in a noncommutative momentum space, where D-brane methods in string theory facilitate study of edge fermions.
Kamm, James R.; Love, Edward; Robinson, Allen C.; Young, Joseph G.; Ridzal, Denis
2013-12-01
We review the edge element formulation for describing the kinematics of hyperelastic solids. This approach is used to frame the problem of remapping the inverse deformation gradient for Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) simulations of solid dynamics. For hyperelastic materials, the stress state is completely determined by the deformation gradient, so remapping this quantity effectively updates the stress state of the material. A method, inspired by the constrained transport remap in electromagnetics, is reviewed, according to which the zero-curl constraint on the inverse deformation gradient is implicitly satisfied. Open issues related to the accuracy of this approach are identified. An optimization-based approach is implemented to enforce positivity of the determinant of the deformation gradient. The efficacy of this approach is illustrated with numerical examples.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2007-08-01
Peering at Uranus's Rings as they Swing Edge-on to Earth for the First Time Since their Discovery in 1977 As Uranus coasts through a brief window of time when its rings are edge-on to Earth - a view of the planet we get only once every 42 years - astronomers peering at the rings with ESO's Very Large Telescope and other space or ground-based telescopes are getting an unprecedented view of the fine dust in the system, free from the glare of the bright rocky rings. They may even find a new moon or two. ESO PR Photo 37/07 ESO PR Photo 37/07 The Uranus System "ESO's VLT took data at the precise moment when the rings were edge-on to Earth," said Imke de Pater, of University of California, Berkeley who coordinated the worldwide campaign. She worked with two team members observing in Chile: Daphne Stam of the Technical University Delft in the Netherlands and Markus Hartung of ESO. The observations were done with NACO, one of the adaptive optics instruments installed at the VLT. With adaptive optics, it is possible to obtain images almost free from the blurring effect of the atmosphere. It is as if the 8.2-m telescope were observing from space. Observations were also done with the Keck telescope in Hawaii, the Hubble Space Telescope, and at the Palomar Observatory. "Using different telescopes around the world allows us to observe as much of the changes during the ring-plane crossing as possible: when Uranus sets as seen from the VLT, it can still be observed by the Keck," emphasised Stam. Uranus orbits the Sun in 84 years. Twice during a Uranian year, the rings appear edge-on to Earth for a brief period. The rings were discovered in 1977, so this is the first time for a Uranus ring-crossing to be observed from Earth. The advantage of observations at a ring-plane crossing is that it becomes possible to look at the rings from the shadowed or dark side. From that vantage point, the normally bright outer rings grow fainter because their centimetre- to metre-sized rocks obscure
Edge phonons in black phosphorus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ribeiro, H. B.; Villegas, C. E. P.; Bahamon, D. A.; Muraca, D.; Castro Neto, A. H.; de Souza, E. A. T.; Rocha, A. R.; Pimenta, M. A.; de Matos, C. J. S.
2016-07-01
Black phosphorus has recently emerged as a new layered crystal that, due to its peculiar and anisotropic crystalline and electronic band structures, may have important applications in electronics, optoelectronics and photonics. Despite the fact that the edges of layered crystals host a range of singular properties whose characterization and exploitation are of utmost importance for device development, the edges of black phosphorus remain poorly characterized. In this work, the atomic structure and behaviour of phonons near different black phosphorus edges are experimentally and theoretically studied using Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. Polarized Raman results show the appearance of new modes at the edges of the sample, and their spectra depend on the atomic structure of the edges (zigzag or armchair). Theoretical simulations confirm that the new modes are due to edge phonon states that are forbidden in the bulk, and originated from the lattice termination rearrangements.
Edge phonons in black phosphorus.
Ribeiro, H B; Villegas, C E P; Bahamon, D A; Muraca, D; Castro Neto, A H; de Souza, E A T; Rocha, A R; Pimenta, M A; de Matos, C J S
2016-01-01
Black phosphorus has recently emerged as a new layered crystal that, due to its peculiar and anisotropic crystalline and electronic band structures, may have important applications in electronics, optoelectronics and photonics. Despite the fact that the edges of layered crystals host a range of singular properties whose characterization and exploitation are of utmost importance for device development, the edges of black phosphorus remain poorly characterized. In this work, the atomic structure and behaviour of phonons near different black phosphorus edges are experimentally and theoretically studied using Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. Polarized Raman results show the appearance of new modes at the edges of the sample, and their spectra depend on the atomic structure of the edges (zigzag or armchair). Theoretical simulations confirm that the new modes are due to edge phonon states that are forbidden in the bulk, and originated from the lattice termination rearrangements. PMID:27412813
Edge phonons in black phosphorus
Ribeiro, H. B.; Villegas, C. E. P.; Bahamon, D. A.; Muraca, D.; Castro Neto, A. H.; de Souza, E. A. T.; Rocha, A. R.; Pimenta, M. A.; de Matos, C. J. S.
2016-01-01
Black phosphorus has recently emerged as a new layered crystal that, due to its peculiar and anisotropic crystalline and electronic band structures, may have important applications in electronics, optoelectronics and photonics. Despite the fact that the edges of layered crystals host a range of singular properties whose characterization and exploitation are of utmost importance for device development, the edges of black phosphorus remain poorly characterized. In this work, the atomic structure and behaviour of phonons near different black phosphorus edges are experimentally and theoretically studied using Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. Polarized Raman results show the appearance of new modes at the edges of the sample, and their spectra depend on the atomic structure of the edges (zigzag or armchair). Theoretical simulations confirm that the new modes are due to edge phonon states that are forbidden in the bulk, and originated from the lattice termination rearrangements. PMID:27412813
Rareş, Andrei; Reinders, Marcel J T; Biemond, Jan
2005-10-01
In this paper, we propose a new image inpainting algorithm that relies on explicit edge information. The edge information is used both for the reconstruction of a skeleton image structure in the missing areas, as well as for guiding the interpolation that follows. The structure reconstruction part exploits different properties of the edges, such as the colors of the objects they separate, an estimate of how well one edge continues into another one, and the spatial order of the edges with respect to each other. In order to preserve both sharp and smooth edges, the areas delimited by the recovered structure are interpolated independently, and the process is guided by the direction of the nearby edges. The novelty of our approach lies primarily in exploiting explicitly the constraint enforced by the numerical interpretation of the sequential order of edges, as well as in the pixel filling method which takes into account the proximity and direction of edges. Extensive experiments are carried out in order to validate and compare the algorithm both quantitatively and qualitatively. They show the advantages of our algorithm and its readily application to real world cases. PMID:16238052
Edge conduction in vacuum glazing
Simko, T.M.; Collins, R.E.; Beck, F.A.; Arasteh, D.
1995-03-01
Vacuum glazing is a form of low-conductance double glazing using in internal vacuum between the two glass sheets to eliminate heat transport by gas conduction and convection. An array of small support pillars separates the sheets; fused solder glass forms the edge seal. Heat transfer through the glazing occurs by radiation across the vacuum gap, conduction through the support pillars, and conduction through the bonded edge seal. Edge conduction is problematic because it affects stresses in the edge region, leading to possible failure of the glazing; in addition, excessive heat transfer because of thermal bridging in the edge region can lower overall window thermal performance and decrease resistance to condensation. Infrared thermography was used to analyze the thermal performance of prototype vacuum glazings, and, for comparison, atmospheric pressure superwindows. Research focused on mitigating the edge effects of vacuum glazings through the use of insulating trim, recessed edges, and framing materials. Experimentally validated finite-element and finite-difference modeling tools were used for thermal analysis of prototype vacuum glazing units and complete windows. Experimental measurements of edge conduction using infrared imaging were found to be in good agreement with finite-element modeling results for a given set of conditions. Finite-element modeling validates an analytic model developed for edge conduction.
The Facilitator's Edge: Group Sessions for Edge-ucators.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Handcock, Helen
The Facilitator's Edge is a workshop series based on the life/work messages of The Edge magazine. The workshops are deigned to help educators, youth workers, and their career practitioners facilitate conscious career building. This manual consists of five group sessions, each focusing on a different career-building theme. "Megatrends and Making it…
Giant edge state splitting at atomically precise graphene zigzag edges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Shiyong; Talirz, Leopold; Pignedoli, Carlo A.; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus; Fasel, Roman; Ruffieux, Pascal
2016-05-01
Zigzag edges of graphene nanostructures host localized electronic states that are predicted to be spin-polarized. However, these edge states are highly susceptible to edge roughness and interaction with a supporting substrate, complicating the study of their intrinsic electronic and magnetic structure. Here, we focus on atomically precise graphene nanoribbons whose two short zigzag edges host exactly one localized electron each. Using the tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope, the graphene nanoribbons are transferred from the metallic growth substrate onto insulating islands of NaCl in order to decouple their electronic structure from the metal. The absence of charge transfer and hybridization with the substrate is confirmed by scanning tunnelling spectroscopy, which reveals a pair of occupied/unoccupied edge states. Their large energy splitting of 1.9 eV is in accordance with ab initio many-body perturbation theory calculations and reflects the dominant role of electron-electron interactions in these localized states.
Edge-edge interactions in stacked graphene nanoplatelets
Cruz Silva, Eduardo; Terrones Maldonado, Humberto; Terrones Maldonado, Mauricio; Jia, Xiaoting; Sumpter, Bobby G; Dresselhaus, M; Meunier, V.
2013-01-01
High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) studies show the dynamics of small graphene platelets on larger graphene layers. The platelets move nearly freely to eventually lock in at well-defined positions close to the edges of the larger underlying graphene sheet. While such movement is driven by a shallow potential energy surface described by an interplane interaction, the lock-in position occurs by via edge-edge interactions of the platelet and the graphene surface located underneath. Here we quantitatively study this behavior using van der Waals density functional calculations. Local interactions at the open edges are found to dictate stacking configurations that are different from Bernal (AB) stacking. These stacking configurations are known to be otherwise absent in edge-free two-dimensional (2D) graphene. The results explain the experimentally observed platelet dynamics and provide a detailed account of the new electronic properties of these combined systems.
Giant edge state splitting at atomically precise graphene zigzag edges
Wang, Shiyong; Talirz, Leopold; Pignedoli, Carlo A.; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus; Fasel, Roman; Ruffieux, Pascal
2016-01-01
Zigzag edges of graphene nanostructures host localized electronic states that are predicted to be spin-polarized. However, these edge states are highly susceptible to edge roughness and interaction with a supporting substrate, complicating the study of their intrinsic electronic and magnetic structure. Here, we focus on atomically precise graphene nanoribbons whose two short zigzag edges host exactly one localized electron each. Using the tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope, the graphene nanoribbons are transferred from the metallic growth substrate onto insulating islands of NaCl in order to decouple their electronic structure from the metal. The absence of charge transfer and hybridization with the substrate is confirmed by scanning tunnelling spectroscopy, which reveals a pair of occupied/unoccupied edge states. Their large energy splitting of 1.9 eV is in accordance with ab initio many-body perturbation theory calculations and reflects the dominant role of electron–electron interactions in these localized states. PMID:27181701
Giant edge state splitting at atomically precise graphene zigzag edges.
Wang, Shiyong; Talirz, Leopold; Pignedoli, Carlo A; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus; Fasel, Roman; Ruffieux, Pascal
2016-01-01
Zigzag edges of graphene nanostructures host localized electronic states that are predicted to be spin-polarized. However, these edge states are highly susceptible to edge roughness and interaction with a supporting substrate, complicating the study of their intrinsic electronic and magnetic structure. Here, we focus on atomically precise graphene nanoribbons whose two short zigzag edges host exactly one localized electron each. Using the tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope, the graphene nanoribbons are transferred from the metallic growth substrate onto insulating islands of NaCl in order to decouple their electronic structure from the metal. The absence of charge transfer and hybridization with the substrate is confirmed by scanning tunnelling spectroscopy, which reveals a pair of occupied/unoccupied edge states. Their large energy splitting of 1.9 eV is in accordance with ab initio many-body perturbation theory calculations and reflects the dominant role of electron-electron interactions in these localized states. PMID:27181701
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meyer, Stephan S.; Cheng, Edward S.; Cottingham, David A.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Knox, Lloyd; Silverberg, Robert F.; Timbie, Peter T.; Wilson, Grant
2003-02-01
EDGE is a Long Duration Balloon (LDB) borne instrument designed to measure the large-scale anisotropy of the Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB). The goal is to use this signal as a new observational tool to measure the character of the spatial distribution of galaxies at the largest spatial scales. With a 6\\arcmin\\ beam mapping more than 400 square degrees of sky at 8 frequency bands between 250GHz and 1.5 THz the experiment can determine the variation of galaxy density on spatial scales ranging from >200h-1 Mpc, where dark matter variations are determined directly from Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) anisotropy, to <5h-1 Mpc where the distribution of dark matter and galaxies is determined from galaxy redshift surveys and the underlying dynamics of structure growth is non-linear. The instrument consists of a 1-meter class off-axis telescope and a Frequency Selective Bolometer (FSB) array radiometer. The FSB design provides the compact, multi-chromatic, high sensitivity focal plane needed for this measurement.
Rock Segmentation through Edge Regrouping
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burl, Michael
2008-01-01
Rockster is an algorithm that automatically identifies the locations and boundaries of rocks imaged by the rover hazard cameras (hazcams), navigation cameras (navcams), or panoramic cameras (pancams). The software uses edge detection and edge regrouping to identify closed contours that separate the rocks from the background.
The Robotic Edge Finishing Laboratory
Loucks, C.S.; Selleck, C.B.
1990-08-01
The Robotic Edge Finishing Laboratory at Sandia National Laboratories is developing four areas of technology required for automated deburring, chamfering, and blending of machined edges: (1) the automatic programming of robot trajectories and deburring processes using information derived from a CAD database, (2) the use of machine vision for locating the workpiece coupled with force control to ensure proper tool contact, (3) robotic deburring, blending, and machining of precision chamfered edges, and (4) in-process automated inspection of the formed edge. The Laboratory, its components, integration, and results from edge finishing experiments to date are described here. Also included is a discussion of the issues regarding implementation of the technology in a production environment. 24 refs., 17 figs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1999-01-01
NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has imaged an unusual edge-on galaxy, revealing remarkable details of its warped dusty disc and showing how colliding galaxies trigger the birth of new stars.
The image, taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2), is online at http://heritage.stsci.edu and http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc. The camera was designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. During observations of the galaxy, the camera passed a milestone, taking its 100,000th image since shuttle astronauts installed it in Hubble in 1993.
The dust and spiral arms of normal spiral galaxies, like our Milky Way, look flat when seen edge- on. The new image of the galaxy ESO 510-G13 shows an unusual twisted disc structure, first seen in ground-based photographs taken at the European Southern Observatory in Chile. ESO 510-G13 lies in the southern constellation Hydra, some 150 million light-years from Earth. Details of the galaxy's structure are visible because interstellar dust clouds that trace its disc are silhouetted from behind by light from the galaxy's bright, smooth central bulge.
The strong warping of the disc indicates that ESO 510-G13 has recently collided with a nearby galaxy and is in the process of swallowing it. Gravitational forces distort galaxies as their stars, gas, and dust merge over millions of years. When the disturbances die out, ESO 510-G13 will be a single galaxy.
The galaxy's outer regions, especially on the right side of the image, show dark dust and bright clouds of blue stars. This indicates that hot, young stars are forming in the twisted disc. Astronomers believe star formation may be triggered when galaxies collide and their interstellar clouds are compressed.
The Hubble Heritage Team used WFPC2 to observe ESO 510-G13 in April 2001. Pictures obtained through blue, green, and red filters were combined to make this color-composite image, which emphasizes the contrast between the dusty
Helicopter rotor trailing edge noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schlinker, R. H.; Amiet, R. K.
1981-01-01
An experimental and theoretical study was conducted to assess the importance of trailing edge noise as a helicopter main rotor broadband noise source. The noise mechanism was isolated by testing a rotor blade segment in an open jet acoustic wind tunnel at close to full scale Reynolds numbers. Boundary layer data and acoustic data were used to develop scaling laws and assess a first principles trailing edge noise theory. Conclusions from the isolated blade study were analytically transformed to the rotating frame coordinate system to develop a generalized rotor noise prediction. Trailing edge noise was found to contribute significantly to the total helicopter noise spectrum at high frequencies.
Helicopter rotor trailing edge noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schlinker, R. H.; Amiet, R. K.
1981-10-01
An experimental and theoretical study was conducted to assess the importance of trailing edge noise as a helicopter main rotor broadband noise source. The noise mechanism was isolated by testing a rotor blade segment in an open jet acoustic wind tunnel at close to full scale Reynolds numbers. Boundary layer data and acoustic data were used to develop scaling laws and assess a first principles trailing edge noise theory. Conclusions from the isolated blade study were analytically transformed to the rotating frame coordinate system to develop a generalized rotor noise prediction. Trailing edge noise was found to contribute significantly to the total helicopter noise spectrum at high frequencies.
Reduction of airfoil trailing edge noise by trailing edge blowing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerhard, T.; Erbslöh, S.; Carolus, T.
2014-06-01
The paper deals with airfoil trailing edge noise and its reduction by trailing edge blowing. A Somers S834 airfoil section which originally was designed for small wind turbines is investigated. To mimic realistic Reynolds numbers the boundary layer is tripped on pressure and suction side. The chordwise position of the blowing slot is varied. The acoustic sources, i.e. the unsteady flow quantities in the turbulent boundary layer in the vicinity of the trailing edge, are quantified for the airfoil without and with trailing edge blowing by means of a large eddy simulation and complementary measurements. Eventually the far field airfoil noise is measured by a two-microphone filtering and correlation and a 40 microphone array technique. Both, LES-prediction and measurements showed that a suitable blowing jet on the airfoil suction side is able to reduce significantly the turbulence intensity and the induced surface pressure fluctuations in the trailing edge region. As a consequence, trailing edge noise associated with a spectral hump around 500 Hz could be reduced by 3 dB. For that a jet velocity of 50% of the free field velocity was sufficient. The most favourable slot position was at 90% chord length.
Fast tracking using edge histograms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rokita, Przemyslaw
1997-04-01
This paper proposes a new algorithm for tracking objects and objects boundaries. This algorithm was developed and applied in a system used for compositing computer generated images and real world video sequences, but can be applied in general in all tracking systems where accuracy and high processing speed are required. The algorithm is based on analysis of histograms obtained by summing along chosen axles pixels of edge segmented images. Edge segmentation is done by spatial convolution using gradient operator. The advantage of such an approach is that it can be performed in real-time using available on the market hardware convolution filters. After edge extraction and histograms computation, respective positions of maximums in edge intensity histograms, in current and previous frame, are compared and matched. Obtained this way information about displacement of histograms maximums, can be directly converted into information about changes of target boundaries positions along chosen axles.
Aerodynamic behavior of an airfoil with morphing trailing edge for wind turbine applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wolff, T.; Ernst, B.; Seume, J. R.
2014-06-01
The length of wind turbine rotor blades has been increased during the last decades. Higher stresses arise especially at the blade root because of the longer lever arm. One way to reduce unsteady blade-root stresses caused by turbulence, gusts, or wind shear is to actively control the lift in the blade tip region. One promising method involves airfoils with morphing trailing edges to control the lift and consequently the loads acting on the blade. In the present study, the steady and unsteady behavior of an airfoil with a morphing trailing edge is investigated. Two-dimensional Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations are performed for a typical thin wind turbine airfoil with a morphing trailing edge. Steady-state simulations are used to design optimal geometry, size, and deflection angles of the morphing trailing edge. The resulting steady aerodynamic coefficients are then analyzed at different angles of attack in order to determine the effectiveness of the morphing trailing edge. In order to investigate the unsteady aerodynamic behavior of the optimal morphing trailing edge, time- resolved RANS-simulations are performed using a deformable grid. In order to analyze the phase shift between the variable trailing edge deflection and the dynamic lift coefficient, the trailing edge is deflected at four different reduced frequencies for each different angle of attack. As expected, a phase shift between the deflection and the lift occurs. While deflecting the trailing edge at angles of attack near stall, additionally an overshoot above and beyond the steady lift coefficient is observed and evaluated.
Edge equilibrium code for tokamaks
Li, Xujing; Drozdov, Vladimir V.
2014-01-15
The edge equilibrium code (EEC) described in this paper is developed for simulations of the near edge plasma using the finite element method. It solves the Grad-Shafranov equation in toroidal coordinate and uses adaptive grids aligned with magnetic field lines. Hermite finite elements are chosen for the numerical scheme. A fast Newton scheme which is the same as implemented in the equilibrium and stability code (ESC) is applied here to adjust the grids.
Edge instabilities of topological superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hofmann, Johannes S.; Assaad, Fakher F.; Schnyder, Andreas P.
2016-05-01
Nodal topological superconductors display zero-energy Majorana flat bands at generic edges. The flatness of these edge bands, which is protected by time-reversal and translation symmetry, gives rise to an extensive ground-state degeneracy. Therefore, even arbitrarily weak interactions lead to an instability of the flat-band edge states towards time-reversal and translation-symmetry-broken phases, which lift the ground-state degeneracy. We examine the instabilities of the flat-band edge states of dx y-wave superconductors by performing a mean-field analysis in the Majorana basis of the edge states. The leading instabilities are Majorana mass terms, which correspond to coherent superpositions of particle-particle and particle-hole channels in the fermionic language. We find that attractive interactions induce three different mass terms. One is a coherent superposition of imaginary s -wave pairing and current order, and another combines a charge-density-wave and finite-momentum singlet pairing. Repulsive interactions, on the other hand, lead to ferromagnetism together with spin-triplet pairing at the edge. Our quantum Monte Carlo simulations confirm these findings and demonstrate that these instabilities occur even in the presence of strong quantum fluctuations. We discuss the implications of our results for experiments on cuprate high-temperature superconductors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hosokawa, K.; Taguchi, S.; Ogawa, Y.
2016-04-01
On the night of 4 December 2013, a sequence of polar cap patches was captured by an all-sky airglow imager (ASI) in Longyearbyen, Norway (78.1°N, 15.5°E). The 630.0 nm airglow images from the ASI of 4 second exposure time, oversampled the emission of natural lifetime (with quenching) of at least ˜30 sec, introduce no observational blurring effects. By using such high-quality ASI images, we succeeded in visualizing an asymmetry in the gradients between the leading/trailing edges of the patches in a 2-D fashion. The gradient in the leading edge was found to be 2-3 times steeper than that in the trailing edge. We also identified fingerlike structures, appearing only along the trailing edge of the patches, whose horizontal scale size ranged from 55 to 210 km. These fingers are considered to be manifestations of plasma structuring through the gradient-drift instability (GDI), which is known to occur only along the trailing edge of patches. That is, the current 2-D observations visualized, for the first time, how GDI stirs the patch plasma and such a mixing process makes the trailing edge more gradual. This result strongly implies a close connection between the GDI-driven plasma stirring and the asymmetry in the large-scale shape of patches and then suggests that the fingerlike structures can be used as markers to estimate the fine-scale structure in the plasma flow within patches.
One-way nesting for a primitive equation ocean model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blake, D. W.
1991-01-01
Prognostic numerical models for atmospheric and oceanic circulations require initial fields, boundary conditions, and forcing functions in addition to a consistent set of partial differential equations, including a state relation and equations expressing conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. Depending on the horizontal domain to be modeled, the horizontal boundary conditions are either physically obvious or extremely difficult to specify consistently. If the entire atmosphere is modeled, periodic horizontal boundary conditions are appropriate. On the other hand, the physical horizontal boundaries on the entire ocean are solid walls. Obviously, the normal velocity at a solid wall is zero while the specification of the tangential velocity depends on the mathematical treatment of the horizontal viscous terms. Limitations imposed by computer capacity and cost, as well as research interests, have led to the use of limited area models to study flows in the atmosphere and ocean. The limited area models do not have physical horizontal boundaries, merely numerical ones. Correctly determining these open boundary conditions for limited-area numerical models has both intrigued and frustrated numerical modelers for decades. One common approach is to use the closed or solid wall boundary conditions for a limited-area model. The argument given for this approach is that the boundary conditions affect flow near the walls but that none of these effects are propagated into the interior. Therefore, one chooses a big enough domain that the central region of interest is not corrupted by the boundary flow. Research in progress to model the North Atlantic circulation vividly illustrates the pitfalls of this approach. Two model runs are compared: (1) the southern boundary at 20S between latitudes 0 and 40W is artificially closed; and (2) the same boundary is specified as open with an inward transport of 15 Sv (determined from a global model with the same physics) uniformly spread across the boundary. A comparison of both runs is presented.
One Way or Return? The Journey from Practitioner to Researcher
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Buoro, Ivano
2015-01-01
The journey from VET practitioner to academic researcher is not an easy one, especially for VET teachers whose educational research training in action and ethnographic research have been inculcated through years of practice. This paper discusses the highlights of the journey from practitioner to practitioner researcher including a discussion of…
One Way or Another, 'Your' Curriculum Flows from the Potomac
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brody, Judith A.
1977-01-01
The federal government has exercised considerable influence over local school programs because of legislation and money. Examples of the federal role are given and the increasing desire of citizens to have influence in education is noted. (Author/IRT)
Continuous Progress/Ungraded Schooling: One Way To Individualize Learning.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Synthesis, 1992
1992-01-01
This newsletter examines the continuous progress (CP) curriculum, the primary characteristic of which is flexible pacing for the student. The newsletter notes some of the practical concerns limiting implementation of CP curricula, and how some schools have overcome them. It then discusses four issues that schools must address to employ a…
Ants can learn to forage on one-way trails.
Ribeiro, Pedro Leite; Helene, André Frazão; Xavier, Gilberto; Navas, Carlos; Ribeiro, Fernando Leite
2009-01-01
The trails formed by many ant species between nest and food source are two-way roads on which outgoing and returning workers meet and touch each other all along. The way to get back home, after grasping a food load, is to take the same route on which they have arrived from the nest. In many species such trails are chemically marked by pheromones providing orientation cues for the ants to find their way. Other species rely on their vision and use landmarks as cues. We have developed a method to stop foraging ants from shuttling on two-way trails. The only way to forage is to take two separate roads, as they cannot go back on their steps after arriving at the food or at the nest. The condition qualifies as a problem because all their orientation cues -- chemical, visual or any other -- are disrupted, as all of them cannot but lead the ants back to the route on which they arrived. We have found that workers of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa can solve the problem. They could not only find the alternative way, but also used the unidirectional traffic system to forage effectively. We suggest that their ability is an evolutionary consequence of the need to deal with environmental irregularities that cannot be negotiated by means of excessively stereotyped behavior, and that it is but an example of a widespread phenomenon. We also suggest that our method can be adapted to other species, invertebrate and vertebrate, in the study of orientation, memory, perception, learning and communication. PMID:19337369
"At Least One" Way to Add Value to Conferences
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wilson, Warren J.
2005-01-01
In "EDUCAUSE Quarterly," Volume 25, Number 3, 2002, Joan Getman and Nikki Reynolds published an excellent article about getting the most from a conference. They listed 10 strategies that a conference attendee could use to maximize the conference's yield in information and motivation: (1) Plan ahead; (2) Set realistic expectations; (3) Use e-mail…
Science Shorts: More than One Way to Investigate
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Coskie, Tracy L.; Davis, Kimberly J.
2007-01-01
An exciting element of science fairs is that they give students the opportunity to explore various interests through scientific investigation. Many students, however, mistakenly think that all investigations are experiments. This lesson can help broaden students' conceptions of science. (Contains 1 resource.)
Mapping the Chapter: One Way to Tackle the CTE Textbook
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Laverick DeFelice, Catherine
2010-01-01
This reading specialist has come up with a strategy to help other CTE instructors map the CTE textbook, so that students can better comprehend the information in them and discover a joy of reading. CTE textbooks present a particular challenge because they are packed with information and can be quite different in structure than texts student have…
Guns and Fear: A One-Way Street?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hauser, Will; Kleck, Gary
2013-01-01
Surveys show that more than one half of gun owners report owning their firearm for self-protection. Although research has examined the effect of fear of crime on gun ownership, the issue of reciprocity and temporal order has been largely ignored. Furthermore, the effect of firearm acquisition and relinquishment on fear has not been evaluated…
Is There Only One Way To Evaluate Students?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gifford, Ann Porter
2002-01-01
Suggests there are many ways to assess students' progress in understanding the elements of a story. Discusses how to stimulate students' ability to analyze how adding another character, changing the setting or twisting the plot can create new and interesting versions of a the common folktale, "The Three Little Pigs." Includes a 37-item annotated…
One Hundred and One Ways to Infinity: Part 2.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gardiner, A.
1980-01-01
Part 2 considers the limit of a sequence and extends this to include ideas such as continuity, derivative, and integral. The discussion concludes with an example of a finite or "counted completely" set, the Fermat primes. (MK)
Alternatives to incineration: There's more than one way to remediate
Pellerin, C.
1994-10-01
Hazardous waste is everywhere. It comes from paints, motor oil, hair spray, household cleaners, automotive chemicals, and all kinds of toxic medical, industrial and military products. Most industrial processes - from which come cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, computers and garden pesticides - generate wastes that the EPA, acting under the Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA), says can harm human health or the environment if not properly managed. As a waste-disposal technology, incineration has been around for about 500,000 years - an interesting spinoff of that timely Homo erectus discovery, fire. For millennia, incineration looked like a pretty good way to turn big piles of hazardous waste into air emissions, smaller piles of ash, and sometimes energy. And it's still a good idea. The EPA, for one, calls high-temperature incineration the best available technology for disposing of most hazardous waste. But incineration has drawbacks. When hazardous waste goes into an incinerator, it comes out as potentially harmful air emissions, although these emissions are strictly controlled, and ash ash that's treated to meet EPA standards and then disposed of in an authorized landfill. It doesn't just vanish into thin air.
Decay patterns of edge states at reconstructed armchair graphene edges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Changwon; Ihm, Jisoon; Kim, Gunn
Density functional theory calculations are used to investigate the electronic structures of localized states at reconstructed armchair graphene edges. We consider graphene nanoribbons with two different edge types and obtain the energy band structures and charge densities of the edge states. By examining the imaginary part of the wave vector in the forbidden energy region, we reveal the decay behavior of the wave functions in graphene. The complex band structures of graphene in the armchair and zigzag directions are presented in the first-principles framework. G.K. acknowledges the support of the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Ministry of Education (Grant No. 2013R1A1A2009131) and the Priority Research Center Program (Grant No. 2010-0020207).
On the Edge: Haptic Discrimination of Edge Sharpness
Skinner, Andy L.; Kent, Christopher; Rossiter, Jonathan M.; Benton, Christopher P.; Groen, Martin G. M.; Noyes, Jan M.
2013-01-01
The increasing ubiquity of haptic displays (e.g., smart phones and tablets) necessitates a better understanding of the perceptual capabilities of the human haptic system. Haptic displays will soon be capable of locally deforming to create simple 3D shapes. This study investigated the sensitivity of our haptic system to a fundamental component of shapes: edges. A novel set of eight high quality shape stimuli with test edges that varied in sharpness were fabricated in a 3D printer. In a two alternative, forced choice task, blindfolded participants were presented with two of these shapes side by side (one the reference, the other selected randomly from the remaining set of seven) and after actively exploring the test edge of each shape with the tip of their index finger, reported which shape had the sharper edge. We used a model selection approach to fit optimal psychometric functions to performance data, and from these obtained just noticeable differences and Weber fractions. In Experiment 1, participants performed the task with four different references. With sharpness defined as the angle at which one surface meets the horizontal plane, the four JNDs closely followed Weber’s Law, giving a Weber fraction of 0.11. Comparisons to previously reported Weber fractions from other haptic manipulations (e.g. amplitude of vibration) suggests we are sufficiently sensitive to changes in edge sharpness for this to be of potential utility in the design of future haptic displays. In Experiment 2, two groups of participants performed the task with a single reference but different exploration strategies; one was limited to a single touch, the other unconstrained and free to explore as they wished. As predicted, the JND in the free exploration condition was lower than that in the single touch condition, indicating exploration strategy affects sensitivity to edge sharpness. PMID:24023852
Continued Growth on Graphene Edges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Zhengtang
Previously, we have shown that the large-size single crystal graphene can be obtained by suppressing the nucleation density during Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) growth. Here we demonstrate that the graphene single crystal can be amplified by a continued growth method. In this process, we used a mild oxidation step after the first-growth, which lead to the observed fromation of oxides at the vicinity of graphene edges, which allows the graphene growth at seed edges due to reduced activation energy. Consequently, we successful grown a secondary single-crystal graphene structures with the same lattice structure, orientation on the graphene edges. This amplification method would enable the production of graphene electronics with controlled properties.
Edges and Corners With Shearlets.
Duval-Poo, Miguel A; Odone, Francesca; De Vito, Ernesto
2015-11-01
Shearlets are a relatively new and very effective multi-scale framework for signal analysis. Contrary to the traditional wavelets, shearlets are capable to efficiently capture the anisotropic information in multivariate problem classes. Therefore, shearlets can be seen as the valid choice for multi-scale analysis and detection of directional sensitive visual features like edges and corners. In this paper, we start by reviewing the main properties of shearlets that are important for edge and corner detection. Then, we study algorithms for multi-scale edge and corner detection based on the shearlet representation. We provide an extensive experimental assessment on benchmark data sets which empirically confirms the potential of shearlets feature detection. PMID:26353351
Edge shape and comfort of rigid lenses.
La Hood, D
1988-08-01
One of the main factors determining the comfort of a rigid contact lens is the shape of the edge. The comfort of four different contact lens edge shapes was assessed with four unadapted subjects in a randomized masked trial. Lenses with well rounded anterior edge profiles were found to be significantly more comfortable than lenses with square anterior edges. There was no significant difference in subjective comfort between a rounded and square posterior edge profile. The results suggest that the interaction of the edge with the eyelid is more important in determining comfort than edge effects on the cornea, when lenses are fitted according to a corneal alignment philosophy. PMID:3177585
Shape-dependent canny edge detector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panetta, Karen A.; Agaian, Sos S.; Nercessian, Shahan C.; Almunstashri, Ali A.
2011-08-01
Edges characterize the boundaries of objects in images and are informative structural cues for computer vision and target/object detection and recognition systems. The Canny edge detector is widely regarded as the edge detection standard. It is fairly adaptable to different environments, as its parametric nature attempts to tailor the detection of edges based on image-dependent characteristics or the particular requirements of a given implementation. Though it has been used in a myriad of image processing tasks, the Canny edge detector is still vulnerable to edge losses, localization errors, and noise sensitivity. These issues are largely due to the key tradeoff made in the scale and size of the edge detection filters used by the algorithm. Small-scaled filters are sensitive to edges but also to noise, whereas large-scaled filters are robust to noise but could filter out fine details. In this paper, novel edge detection kernel generalizations and a shape-dependent edge detector are introduced to alleviate these shortcomings. While most standard edge detection algorithms are based on convolving the input image with fixed size square kernels, this paper will illustrate the benefits of different filter sizes, and more importantly, different kernel shapes for edge detection. Moreover, new edge fusion methods are introduced to more effectively combine the individual edge responses. Existing edge detectors, including the Canny edge detector, can be obtained from the generalized edge detector by specifying corresponding parameters and kernel shapes. The proposed representations and edge detector have been qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated on several different types of image data. Computer simulations demonstrate that nonsquare kernel approaches can outperform square kernel approaches such as Canny, Sobel, Prewitt, Roberts, and others, providing better tradeoffs between noise rejection, accurate edge localization, and resolution. Where possible, Pratt's figure of
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Faatz, Judith A.
1998-01-01
Describes a field study in a local ecosystem which allows high school students to investigate the edge effect, where a meadow and a forest meet. Students measure soil moisture content, soil temperature, air temperature, relative humidity, wind intensity, and illumination level. Teachers can help students apply their findings to understand problems…
Helicopter rotor trailing edge noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schlinker, R. H.; Amier, R. K.
1981-11-01
A two dimensional section of a helicopter main rotor blade was tested in an acoustic wind tunnel at close to full-scale Reynolds numbers to obtain boundary layer data and acoustic data for use in developing an acoustic scaling law and testing a first principles trailing edge noise theory. Results were extended to the rotating frame coordinate system to develop a helicopter rotor trailing edge noise prediction. Comparisons of the calculated noise levels with helicopter flyover spectra demonstrate that trailing edge noise contributes significantly to the total helicopter noise spectrum at high frequencies. This noise mechanism is expected to control the minimum rotor noise. In the case of noise radiation from a local blade segment, the acoustic directivity pattern is predicted by the first principles trailing edge noise theory. Acoustic spectra are predicted by a scaling law which includes Mach number, boundary layer thickness and observer position. Spectrum shape and sound pressure level are also predicted by the first principles theory but the analysis does not predict the Strouhal value identifying the spectrum peak.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Ecological edge effects are sensitive to landscape context. In particular, edge effects can be altered by matrix type and by the presence of other nearby edges. We experimentally altered patch configurations in an African savanna to determine how edge density and matrix type influence edge effect de...
Saddle-node dynamics for edge detection
Wong, Y.F.
1994-09-01
The author demonstrates how the formulation of a nonlinear scale-space filter can be used for edge detection and junction analysis. By casting edge-preserving filtering in terms of maximizing information content subject to an average cost function, the computed cost at each pixel location becomes a local measure of edgeness. This computation depends on a single scale parameter and the given image data. Unlike previous approaches which require careful tuning of the filter kernels for various types of edges, this scheme is general enough to be able to handle different edges, such as lines, step edges, corners and junctions. Anisotropy in the data is handled automatically by the nonlinear dynamics.
Linear array optical edge sensor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bejczy, Antal K. (Inventor); Primus, Howard C. (Inventor)
1987-01-01
A series of independent parallel pairs of light emitting and detecting diodes for a linear pixel array, which is laterally positioned over an edge-like discontinuity in a workpiece to be scanned, is disclosed. These independent pairs of light emitters and detectors sense along intersecting pairs of separate optical axes. A discontinuity, such as an edge in the sensed workpiece, reflects a detectable difference in the amount of light from that discontinuity in comparison to the amount of light that is reflected on either side of the discontinuity. A sequentially sychronized clamping and sampling circuit detects that difference as an electrical signal which is recovered by circuitry that exhibits an improved signal-to-noise capability for the system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kasparova, A.; Katkov, I.; Chilingarian, I.; Silchenko, O.; Moiseev, A.; Borisov, S.
2016-06-01
Although thick stellar discs are detected in nearly all edge-on disc galaxies, their formation scenarios still remain a matter of debate. Due to observational difﬁculties, there is a lack of information about their stellar populations. Using the Russian 6-m telescope BTA we collected deep spectra of thick discs in three edge-on early-type disc galaxies located in different environments: NGC4111 in a dense group, NGC4710 in the Virgo cluster, and NGC5422 in a sparse group. We see intermediate age (4 ‑ 5 Gyr) metal rich ([Fe/H] ~ ‑0.2 ‑ 0.0 dex) stellar populations in NGC4111 and NGC4710. On the other hand, NGC5422 does not harbour young stars, its only disc is thick and old (10 Gyr) and its α-element abundance suggests a long formation epoch implying its formation at high redshift. Our results prove the diversity of thick disc formation scenarios.
Gyrosheath near the tokamak edge
Hazeltine, R.D.; Xiao, H.; Valanju, P.M.
1993-03-01
A new model for the structure of the radial electric field profile in the edge during the H-mode is proposed. Charge separation caused by the difference between electron and ion gyromotion, or more importantly in a tokamak, the banana motion (halo effect) can self-consistently produce an electric dipole moment that causes the sheared radial electric field. The calculated results based on the model are consistent with D-III D and TEXTOR experimental results.
Topological edge states in pnictides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Youmans, Cody; Ghaemi, Pouyan; Kargarian, Mehdi
In some members of the ferro-pnictides, non-trivial topology in the bulk band-structure is related to potentially observable gapless edge states. We study these states numerically and analytically for a range of parameters, with and without superconductivity and antiferromagnetic SDW ordering, and their relation to the symmetries and topologically non-trivial aspects of our model Hamiltonian. Support was provided by the Doctoral Student Research Grant program at the Graduate Center, CUNY.
Etching Of Semiconductor Wafer Edges
Kardauskas, Michael J.; Piwczyk, Bernhard P.
2003-12-09
A novel method of etching a plurality of semiconductor wafers is provided which comprises assembling said plurality of wafers in a stack, and subjecting said stack of wafers to dry etching using a relatively high density plasma which is produced at atmospheric pressure. The plasma is focused magnetically and said stack is rotated so as to expose successive edge portions of said wafers to said plasma.
Edge effects and delamination failures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Herakovich, C. T.
1989-01-01
The fundamental relationship between the morphology of a composite laminate and the resulting free edge effects is explored and related to delamination failures. Cross-ply, angle-ply, and quasi-isotropic laminates are discussed in detail. It is shown that the local mismatch in elastic properties of adjacent layers and the global stacking sequence of a laminate both have a significant influence on the interlaminar stresses and delamination failures.
Edge-driven microplate kinematics
Schouten, Hans; Klitgord, Kim D.; Gallo, David G.
1993-01-01
It is known from plate tectonic reconstructions that oceanic microplates undergo rapid rotation about a vertical axis and that the instantaneous rotation axes describing the microplate's motion relative to the bounding major plates are frequently located close to its margins with those plates, close to the tips of propagating rifts. We propose a class of edge-driven block models to illustrate how slip across the microplate margins, block rotation, and propagation of rifting may be related to the relative motion of the plates on either side. An important feature of these edge-driven models is that the instantaneous rotation axes are always located on the margins between block and two bounding plates. According to those models the pseudofaults or traces of disrupted seafloor resulting from the propagation of rifting between microplate and major plates may be used independently to approximately trace the continuous kinematic evolution of the microplate back in time. Pseudofault geometries and matching rotations of the Easter microplate show that for most of its 5 m.y. history, block rotation could be driven by the drag of the Nazca and Pacific plates on the microplate's edges rather than by a shear flow of mantle underneath.
Flap--edge flowfield measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pye, John D.; Cantwell, Brian J.
1997-11-01
Recent studies of airframe noise suggest that the wing and flap trailing--edges as well as the flap side--edge are areas of significant noise generation. To identify the fluid dynamic processes associated with these noise sources, we are examining the flow--field around a NACA 63--215 Mod B main element airfoil configured with a half--span Fowler flap. The tests are performed in a low--speed wind tunnel at a Reynolds number of ~ 6.0×10^5. A hot wire traverse system is used to map the mean velocities and turbulence intensities in the near wake region of the flow. Measurements of the pressure fluctuations along the flap side--edge and in the cove of the airfoil configuration are made with pressure transducers mounted inside the airfoil. The experimental data are in good qualitative agreement with the numerical simulation of a slightly higher Reynolds number flow ( ~ 1.5×10^6) around a geometrically similar airfoil configuration.
Smectic Edge Dislocations under Shear
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Peilong; Lu, Chun-Yi David
2011-09-01
Layer structures around an edge dislocation in a smectic phase under shear are studied with both phase field and order parameter models. It is shown that, contrast to a crystal solid, the conventional picture of the Peach--Koehler force experienced by dislocations when the sample is under a shear stress cannot be readily applied to the smectic phases. Under a uniform shear flow, we obtain the phase field and order parameter solutions around an edge dislocation. The solutions elucidate properties such as the layer distortion range around the dislocation and scaling of inter-dislocation interaction on dislocation separation. Calculations on energy dissipation indicate the extreme shear-thinning behavior that an edge dislocation induces a shear stress independent of the shear rate. Finally in a bulk sample with dislocation forming loops and networks, we argue that the uniform flow component around the dislocation is important to the energy dissipation and we show that its scaling exponent with the shear rate is very close to results from many previous rheology measurements.
Chemistry at the Edge of Graphene.
Bellunato, Amedeo; Arjmandi Tash, Hadi; Cesa, Yanina; Schneider, Grégory F
2016-03-16
The selective functionalization of graphene edges is driven by the chemical reactivity of its carbon atoms. The chemical reactivity of an edge, as an interruption of the honeycomb lattice of graphene, differs from the relative inertness of the basal plane. In fact, the unsaturation of the pz orbitals and the break of the π conjugation on an edge increase the energy of the electrons at the edge sites, leading to specific chemical reactivity and electronic properties. Given the relevance of the chemistry at the edges in many aspects of graphene, the present Review investigates the processes and mechanisms that drive the chemical functionalization of graphene at the edges. Emphasis is given to the selective chemical functionalization of graphene edges from theoretical and experimental perspectives, with a particular focus on the characterization tools available to investigate the chemistry of graphene at the edge. PMID:26693841
Edge localized mode control with an edge resonant magnetic perturbation
Moyer, R.A.; Boedo, J.A.; Rudakov, D.L.; Evans, T.E.; Osborne, T.H.; Gohil, P.; Groebner, R.J.; Jackson, G.L.; La Haye, R.J.; Leonard, A.W.; Schaffer, M.J.; Snyder, P.B.; West, W.P.; Thomas, P.R.; Becoulet, M.; Harris, J.; Finken, K.-H.; Doyle, E.J.; Rhodes, T.L.; Wang, G.
2005-05-15
A low amplitude ({delta}b{sub r}/B{sub T}=1 part in 5000) edge resonant magnetic field perturbation with toroidal mode number n=3 and poloidal mode numbers between 8 and 15 has been used to suppress most large type I edge localized modes (ELMs) without degrading core plasma confinement. ELMs have been suppressed for periods of up to 8.6 energy confinement times when the edge safety factor q{sub 95} is between 3.5 and 4. The large ELMs are replaced by packets of events (possibly type II ELMs) with small amplitude, narrow radial extent, and a higher level of magnetic field and density fluctuations, creating a duty cycle with long 'active' intervals of high transport and short 'quiet' intervals of low transport. The increased transport associated with these events is less impulsive and slows the recovery of the pedestal profiles to the values reached just before the large ELMs without the n=3 perturbation. Changing the toroidal phase of the perturbation by 60 deg. with respect to the best ELM suppression case reduces the ELM amplitude and frequency by factors of 2-3 in the divertor, produces a more stochastic response in the H-mode pedestal profiles, and displays similar increases in small scale events, although significant numbers of large ELMs survive. In contrast to the best ELM suppression case where the type I ELMs are also suppressed on the outboard midplane, the midplane recycling increases until individual ELMs are no longer discernable. The ELM response depends on the toroidal phase of the applied perturbation because intrinsic error fields make the target plasma nonaxisymmetric, and suggests that at least some of the variation in ELM behavior in a single device or among different devices is due to differences in the intrinsic error fields in these devices. These results indicate that ELMs can be suppressed by small edge resonant magnetic field perturbations. Extrapolation to next-step burning plasma devices will require extending the regime of operation to
APPROXIMATION ALGORITHMS FOR DISTANCE-2 EDGE COLORING.
BARRETT, CHRISTOPHER L; ISTRATE, GABRIEL; VILIKANTI, ANIL KUMAR; MARATHE, MADHAV; THITE, SHRIPAD V
2002-07-17
The authors consider the link scheduling problem for packet radio networks which is assigning channels to the connecting links so that transmission may proceed on all links assigned the same channel simultaneously without collisions. This problem can be cast as the distance-2 edge coloring problem, a variant of proper edge coloring, on the graph with transceivers as vertices and links as edges. They present efficient approximation algorithms for the distance-2 edge coloring problem for various classes of graphs.
Densified edge seals for fuel cell components
DeCasperis, Anthony J.; Roethlein, Richard J.; Breault, Richard D.
1982-01-01
A porous fuel cell component, such as an electrode substrate, has a densified edge which forms an improved gas seal during operation when soaked with electrolyte. The edges are made from the same composition as the rest of the component and are made by compressing an increased thickness of this material along the edges during the fabrication process.
Sprinkle, J.K.; Hansen, W.J.
1993-02-11
In 1979, a K-edge densitometer (KED) was installed by the Safeguards Assay group from Los Alamos National Laboratory in the PNC reprocessing plant at Tokai-mura, Japan. It uses an active nondestructive assay technique, KED, to measure the plutonium concentration of the product solution. The measurement uncertainty of an assay depends on the count time chosen, but can be 0.5% or better. The computer hardware and software were upgraded in 1992. This manual describes the operation of the instrument, with an emphasis on the user interface to the software.
Bosonic edge states in gapped honeycomb lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Huaiming; Niu, Yuekun; Chen, Shu; Feng, Shiping
2016-03-01
By quantum Monte Carlo simulations of bosons in gapped honeycomb lattices, we show the existence of bosonic edge states. For a single layer honeycomb lattice, bosonic edge states can be controlled to appear, cross the gap, and merge into bulk states by an on-site potential applied on the outermost sites of the boundary. On a bilayer honeycomb lattice, A bosonic edge state traversing the gap at half filling is demonstrated. The topological origin of the bosonic edge states is discussed with pseudo Berry curvature. The results will simulate experimental studies of these exotic bosonic edge states with ultracold bosons trapped in honeycomb optical lattices.
Extraction of edge feature in cardiovascular image
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Jianrong; Chen, Dongqing; Yu, Daoyin; Liu, Xiaojun
2001-09-01
Extraction of edge feature and accurate measurement of vascular diameter in cardiovascular image are the bases for labeling the coronary hierarchy, 3D refined reconstruction of the coronary arterial tree and accurate fusion between the calculated 3D vascular trees and other views. In order to extract vessels from the image, the grayscale minimization of the circle template and differential edge detection are put forward. Edge pixels of the coronary artery are set according to maximization of the differential value. The edge lines are determined after the edge pixels are smoothed by B-Spline function. The assessment of feature extraction is demonstrated by the excellent performance in computer simulation and actual application.
An Efficient Ant-Based Edge Detector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aydın, Doğan
An efficient ant-based edge detector is presented. It is based on the distribution of ants on an image, ants try to find possible edges by using a state transition function based on 5x5 edge structures. Visual comparisons show that the proposed method gives finer details and thinner edges at lesser computational times when compared to earlier ant-based approaches. When compared to standard edge detectors, it shows robustness to Gaussian and Salt & Pepper noise and provides finer details than others with same parameter set in both clear and noisy images.