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Sample records for reflects biological innovation

  1. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayley, Cheryl Ann

    Often students and educators view assessments as an obligation and finality for a unit. In the current climate of high-stakes testing and accountability, the balance of time, resources and emphasis on students' scores related to assessment have been slanted considerably toward the summative side. This tension between assessment for accountability and assessment to inform teaching strains instruction and educators' ability to use that information to design learning opportunities that help students develop deeper conceptual understanding. A substantive body of research indicates that formative and reflective assessment can significantly improve student learning. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum (BRAC) examines support provided for high school science students through assessment practices. This investigation incorporates the usage of reflective assessments as a guiding practice for differentiated instruction and student choice. Reflective assessment is a metacognitive strategy that promotes self-monitoring and evaluation. The goals of the curriculum are to promote self-efficacy and conceptual understanding in students learning biology through developing their metacognitive awareness. BRAC was implemented in a high school biology classroom. Data from assessments, metacognitive surveys, self-efficacy surveys, reflective journals, student work, a culminating task and field notes were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the curriculum. The results suggest that students who develop their metacognitive skills developed a deeper conceptual understanding and improved feelings of self-efficacy when they were engaged in a reflective assessment unit embedded with student choice. BRAC is a tool for teachers to use assessments to assist students in becoming metacognitive and to guide student choice in learning opportunities.

  2. Two-phase increase in the maximum size of life over 3.5 billion years reflects biological innovation and environmental opportunity

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Jonathan L.; Boyer, Alison G.; Brown, James H.; Finnegan, Seth; Kowalewski, Michał; Krause, Richard A.; Lyons, S. Kathleen; McClain, Craig R.; McShea, Daniel W.; Novack-Gottshall, Philip M.; Smith, Felisa A.; Stempien, Jennifer A.; Wang, Steve C.

    2009-01-01

    The maximum size of organisms has increased enormously since the initial appearance of life >3.5 billion years ago (Gya), but the pattern and timing of this size increase is poorly known. Consequently, controls underlying the size spectrum of the global biota have been difficult to evaluate. Our period-level compilation of the largest known fossil organisms demonstrates that maximum size increased by 16 orders of magnitude since life first appeared in the fossil record. The great majority of the increase is accounted for by 2 discrete steps of approximately equal magnitude: the first in the middle of the Paleoproterozoic Era (≈1.9 Gya) and the second during the late Neoproterozoic and early Paleozoic eras (0.6–0.45 Gya). Each size step required a major innovation in organismal complexity—first the eukaryotic cell and later eukaryotic multicellularity. These size steps coincide with, or slightly postdate, increases in the concentration of atmospheric oxygen, suggesting latent evolutionary potential was realized soon after environmental limitations were removed. PMID:19106296

  3. Methods to Enhance Reflective Behaviour in Innovation Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdonschot, Suzanne G. M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to trace methods that help to develop the reflective behaviour that is necessary for identifying and describing learning processes in organisations that focus on improvement and innovation. Design/methodology/approach: An extensive literature review results in the characteristics of reflection when reflection is used to…

  4. [Around biological evolution. Reflections of a physicist].

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Palencia, Evariste

    2016-01-01

    This text is the written version of a talk at the Société de Biologie on February 17, 2016. It contains reflections of a non-biologist scientist on general problems of biological evolution, including the kind of causality involved, the ideas emerging from it, in particular the constructive and structuring character of phenomena such as predation, the role of stability and attractors. This leads to a larger reflection on dialectics, the general framework of evolving processes, which overpasses formal logic and instantaneousness. PMID:27286580

  5. Reflection as a Facilitator of Teachers' Innovative Work Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messmann, Gerhard; Mulder, Regina H.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of reflection as a preparatory mechanism for employees' engagement in innovative work behaviour (IWB). This issue was explored in a study with 67 teachers at the highest level of German secondary education. Specifically, we investigated whether teachers who reflected on work tasks, the social…

  6. Reflective Practice in a Pluri-Disciplinary Innovative Design Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choulier, Denis; Picard, Fabienne; Weite, Pierre-Alain

    2007-01-01

    Reflective practice is an important vehicle for the apprenticeship of tacit and procedure-oriented knowledge. This article explores the development of reflective practice in the teaching of an innovative design course. Starting from a characterization of the "materials of a design situation" (problem-solution duality, methods and tools,…

  7. The virtue of innovation: innovation through the lenses of biological evolution

    PubMed Central

    Kell, Douglas B.; Lurie-Luke, Elena

    2015-01-01

    We rehearse the processes of innovation and discovery in general terms, using as our main metaphor the biological concept of an evolutionary fitness landscape. Incremental and disruptive innovations are seen, respectively, as successful searches carried out locally or more widely. They may also be understood as reflecting evolution by mutation (incremental) versus recombination (disruptive). We also bring a platonic view, focusing on virtue and memory. We use ‘virtue’ as a measure of efforts, including the knowledge required to come up with disruptive and incremental innovations, and ‘memory’ as a measure of their lifespan, i.e. how long they are remembered. Fostering innovation, in the evolutionary metaphor, means providing the wherewithal to promote novelty, good objective functions that one is trying to optimize, and means to improve one's knowledge of, and ability to navigate, the landscape one is searching. Recombination necessarily implies multi- or inter-disciplinarity. These principles are generic to all kinds of creativity, novel ideas formation and the development of new products and technologies. PMID:25505138

  8. The virtue of innovation: innovation through the lenses of biological evolution.

    PubMed

    Kell, Douglas B; Lurie-Luke, Elena

    2015-02-01

    We rehearse the processes of innovation and discovery in general terms, using as our main metaphor the biological concept of an evolutionary fitness landscape. Incremental and disruptive innovations are seen, respectively, as successful searches carried out locally or more widely. They may also be understood as reflecting evolution by mutation (incremental) versus recombination (disruptive). We also bring a platonic view, focusing on virtue and memory. We use 'virtue' as a measure of efforts, including the knowledge required to come up with disruptive and incremental innovations, and 'memory' as a measure of their lifespan, i.e. how long they are remembered. Fostering innovation, in the evolutionary metaphor, means providing the wherewithal to promote novelty, good objective functions that one is trying to optimize, and means to improve one's knowledge of, and ability to navigate, the landscape one is searching. Recombination necessarily implies multi- or inter-disciplinarity. These principles are generic to all kinds of creativity, novel ideas formation and the development of new products and technologies. PMID:25505138

  9. Technologically Reflective Individuals as Enablers of Social Innovation*

    PubMed Central

    Rau, Christiane; Gassmann, Oliver; van den Hende, Ellis

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies technologically reflective individuals and demonstrates their ability to develop innovations that benefit society. Technological reflectiveness (TR) is the tendency to think about the societal impact of an innovation, and those who display this capability in public are individuals who participate in online idea competitions focused on technical solutions for social problems (such as General Electric's eco‐challenge, the James Dyson Award, and the BOSCH Technology Horizon Award). However, technologically reflective individuals also reflect in private settings (e.g., when reading news updates), thus requiring a scale to identify them. This paper describes the systematic development of an easy‐to‐administer multi‐item scale to measure an individual's level of TR. Applying the TR scale in an empirical study on a health monitoring system confirmed that individuals' degree of TR relates positively to their ability to generate (1) more new product features and uses, (2) features with higher levels of societal impact, and (3) features that are more elaborated. This scale allows firms seeking to implement co‐creation in their new product development (NPD) process and sustainable solutions to identify such individuals. Thus, this paper indicates that companies wishing to introduce new technological products with a positive societal impact may profit from involving technologically reflective individuals in the NPD process. PMID:27134342

  10. Diffusion of innovations dynamics, biological growth and catenary function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guseo, Renato

    2016-12-01

    The catenary function has a well-known role in determining the shape of chains and cables supported at their ends under the force of gravity. This enables design using a specific static equilibrium over space. Its reflected version, the catenary arch, allows the construction of bridges and arches exploiting the dual equilibrium property under uniform compression. In this paper, we emphasize a further connection with well-known aggregate biological growth models over time and the related diffusion of innovation key paradigms (e.g., logistic and Bass distributions over time) that determine self-sustaining evolutionary growth dynamics in naturalistic and socio-economic contexts. Moreover, we prove that the 'local entropy function', related to a logistic distribution, is a catenary and vice versa. This special invariance may be explained, at a deeper level, through the Verlinde's conjecture on the origin of gravity as an effect of the entropic force.

  11. Creating Abundance, Biological Innovation and American Agricultural Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a book review of Creating Abundance (Olmtread and Rhode, 2009), which examines the history of US agriculture. The central theme of the book is that prior to the 1930s, American agriculture developed much more through biological innovations than through labor-saving mechanical innovations suc...

  12. Innovative Biological Water Treatment for the Removal of Elevated Ammonia

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this work was to demonstrate the effectiveness of an innovative and simple biological water treatment approach for removing 3.3 mg N/L ammonia and iron from water using a pilot study conducted at a utility in Iowa. Biological water treatment can be an effective a...

  13. [In search of biology. Reflections on evolution].

    PubMed

    Sandín, Máximo

    2009-01-01

    After 150 years conceiving and dealing with Nature in terms of competence, costs-benefits, exploitation of resources, strategies..., we have managed to make it enter into a "recession." This estrangement from reality and from natural phenomena, has seriously jeopardized the future of mankind on our planet and makes it necessary, even urgent, the search for a conception of biology based on scientific concepts and vocabulary that re-connects us with Nature before it is too late. PMID:21032943

  14. Biology Course Innovations: Remedial Science and Biology-at-Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hara, Leonard F.

    1980-01-01

    Examines the objectives of remedial science instruction and provides a comparison of remedial and general biology courses in terms of hours of instruction, course credits, text assignments, tests, and laboratory exercises. Describes a biology-at-home course, which provides a laboratory kit, course syllabus, and study guide. (JP)

  15. New Innovations in Biological Control of Mosquitoes.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological control of mosquitoes is a component of an integrated pest management strategy and includes general predators, parasites and pathogens. Pathogens of mosquitoes include bacteria, viruses, fungi and protists. The most successful group for applied mosquito control include the bacteria Baci...

  16. Reflections on Designing a Biology/Humanities Interdisciplinary Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, David; Battey, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses the reflections of a recent workshop on biology and the humanities subject areas to consider the potential for designing a first year interdisciplinary module that brings together teachers and learners in the Biosciences with their counterparts in English and History. It considers three building blocks of module design: aims and…

  17. Jet propulsion in animals: theoretical innovation and biological constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denny, Mark

    2010-11-01

    Jet propulsion is arguably the oldest and simplest form of animal locomotion, and simple hydrodynamic theory highlights the many possible ways in which animals might maximize speed and minimize metabolic cost while using jet propulsion to travel from one point to another. However, environmental and physiological reality constrains the potential for hydrodynamic innovation. We explore two heuristic examples: Antarctic scallops, in which ecological release from predation apparently constrains the evolution of improved locomotory capacity, and squids, in which the fundamental limitations of muscular contraction constrain the hydrodynamic efficiency of locomotion for all but a small range of sizes. Even simple forms of locomotion can be complex in a biological context.

  18. A Reflective Teaching Challenge to Motivate Educational Innovation

    PubMed Central

    Kirwin, Jennifer; Gonyeau, Michael; Matthews, S. James; Lancaster, Jason; DiVall, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To describe a teaching challenge intended to increase faculty use of evidence-based and student-centered instructional strategies in the demanding school of pharmacy context with technology-savvy students. Design. A teaching challenge was created that required faculty members to incorporate a “new-to-you” innovative teaching method in a class, course, or experiential activity. The method was linked to at least 1 of 7 evidence-based principles for effective teaching. Faculty members were exposed to colleagues' teaching strategies via brief voluntary presentations at department meetings. Assessment. A post-challenge survey provided assessment data about the challenge. Responses to a baseline survey provided additional information about what faculty members were already doing (52% response rate). Eighty-one percent of faculty respondents completed the challenge. A wide array of new strategies (13 categories such as flipped classrooms and social media) was implemented and 75% included the use of technology. Nearly all respondents (96%) thought that participation in the challenge was worth the effort and planned to participate again the following year. All faculty members intended to continue using their new strategy and 56% planned additional modifications with future implementations. The challenge demonstrated how multiple goals of curricular improvement, faculty development, and student-centered instruction could be achieved together. Conclusion. The teaching challenge motivated most of the faculty members to try something new to them. Links between evidence-based principles and day-to-day activities were strengthened. The new-to-you design placed the challenge within reach of faculty members regardless of their background, subject, or experience. PMID:24954943

  19. Dynamic Tensions: Early Reflections from MDRC's Evaluation of the Innovative Professional Development Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MDRC, 2015

    2015-01-01

    In the Innovative Professional Development (iPD) Challenge, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation has invested in helping school districts and networks redesign their instructional support systems to better support educators in increasing student success. This Issue Focus, the second in a series, presents early reflections from MDRC's evaluation…

  20. Unlocking reflective practice for nurses: innovations in working with master of nursing students in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Joyce-McCoach, Joanne T; Parrish, Dominique R; Andersen, Patrea R; Wall, Natalie

    2013-09-01

    Being reflective is well established as an important conduit of practice development, a desirable tertiary graduate quality and a core competency of health professional membership. By assisting students to be more effective in their ability to reflect, they are better able to formulate strategies to manage issues experienced within a professional context, which ultimately assists them to be better service providers. However, some students are challenged by the practice of reflection and these challenges are even more notable for international students. This paper presents a teaching initiative that focused specifically on enhancing the capacity of an international cohort of nursing students, to engage in reflective practice. The initiative centered on an evaluation of a reflective practice core subject, which was taught in a Master of Nursing programme delivered in Hong Kong. A learning-centered framework was used to evaluate the subject and identify innovative strategies that would better assist international students to develop reflective practices. The outcomes of curriculum and teaching analysis and proposed changes and innovations in teaching practice to support international students are presented and discussed. PMID:23232086

  1. Spaces of the possible: universal Darwinism and the wall between technological and biological innovation

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Andreas; Rosen, William

    2014-01-01

    Innovations in biological evolution and in technology have many common features. Some of them involve similar processes, such as trial and error and horizontal information transfer. Others describe analogous outcomes such as multiple independent origins of similar innovations. Yet others display similar temporal patterns such as episodic bursts of change separated by periods of stasis. We review nine such commonalities, and propose that the mathematical concept of a space of innovations, discoveries or designs can help explain them. This concept can also help demolish a persistent conceptual wall between technological and biological innovation. PMID:24850903

  2. The impact of different reference panels on spectral reflectance coefficients of some biological water pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenerowicz, Agnieszka; Walczykowski, Piotr

    2015-10-01

    Monitoring of water environment and ecosystem, detecting water contaminants and understanding water quality parameters are most important tasks in water management and protection of whole aquatic environment. Detection of biological contaminants play a very important role in preserving human health and water management. To obtain accurate and precise results of determination of the level of biological contamination and to distinguish its type it is necessary to determine precisely spectral reflectance coefficients of several water biological pollutants with inter alia spectroradiometer. This paper presents a methodology and preliminary results of acquisition of spectral reflectance coefficients with different reference panels (e.g. with 5%, 20%, 50%, 80% and 96% of reflectivity) of several biological pollutants. The authors' main task was to measure spectral reflectance coefficients of different biological water pollutants with several reference panels and to select optimal reference standard, which would allow for distinguish different types of several biological contaminants. Moreover it was necessary to indicate the spectral range in which it is possible to discriminate investigated samples of biological contaminants. By conducting many series of measurements of several samples of different types of biological pollutants, authors had concluded how the reflectivity of reference panel influences the accuracy of acquisition of spectral reflectance coefficients. This research was crucial in order to be able to distinguish several types of biological pollutants and to determine the useful spectral range for detection of different kinds of biological contaminants with multispectral and hyperspectral imagery.

  3. Reflections on different governance styles in regulating science: a contribution to 'Responsible Research and Innovation'.

    PubMed

    Landeweerd, Laurens; Townend, David; Mesman, Jessica; Van Hoyweghen, Ine

    2015-01-01

    In European science and technology policy, various styles have been developed and institutionalised to govern the ethical challenges of science and technology innovations. In this paper, we give an account of the most dominant styles of the past 30 years, particularly in Europe, seeking to show their specific merits and problems. We focus on three styles of governance: a technocratic style, an applied ethics style, and a public participation style. We discuss their merits and deficits, and use this analysis to assess the potential of the recently established governance approach of 'Responsible Research and Innovation' (RRI). Based on this analysis, we reflect on the current shaping of RRI in terms of 'doing governance'. PMID:26260065

  4. INNOVATIONS IN EQUIPMENT AND TECHNIQUES FOR THE BIOLOGY TEACHING LABORATORY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BARTHELEMY, RICHARD E.; AND OTHERS

    LABORATORY TECHNIQUES AND EQUIPMENT APPROPRIATE FOR TEACHING BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE CURRICULUM STUDY BIOLOGY ARE EMPHASIZED. MAJOR CATEGORIES INCLUDE (1) LABORATORY FACILITIES, (2) EQUIPMENT AND TECHNIQUES FOR CULTURE OF MICRO-ORGANISMS, (3) LABORATORY ANIMALS AND THEIR HOUSING, (4) TECHNIQUES FOR STUDYING PLANT GROWTH, (5) TECHNIQUES FOR STUDYING…

  5. A vision for the innovative study of fungal biology in China: Presidential address

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chengshu

    2015-01-01

    I am proud to be elected as the sixth president of the Mycological Society of China, and highly pleased to have a chance to share my personal opinion here with my fellow mycologists and students regarding the innovative performance of fungal biology studies in China. A stepwise buildup of knowledge and sharp scientific vision is the prerequisite for innovative studies. Taken together with the most advanced techniques and elegant experimental designs, the scholars would have a better chance to acquire novel and conceptual results rather than the “me too” stories by focusing on the mechanisms related with fungal unique biology. PMID:26000193

  6. Innovative biological approaches for monitoring and improving water quality

    PubMed Central

    Aracic, Sanja; Manna, Sam; Petrovski, Steve; Wiltshire, Jennifer L.; Mann, Gülay; Franks, Ashley E.

    2015-01-01

    Water quality is largely influenced by the abundance and diversity of indigenous microbes present within an aquatic environment. Physical, chemical and biological contaminants from anthropogenic activities can accumulate in aquatic systems causing detrimental ecological consequences. Approaches exploiting microbial processes are now being utilized for the detection, and removal or reduction of contaminants. Contaminants can be identified and quantified in situ using microbial whole-cell biosensors, negating the need for water samples to be tested off-site. Similarly, the innate biodegradative processes can be enhanced through manipulation of the composition and/or function of the indigenous microbial communities present within the contaminated environments. Biological contaminants, such as detrimental/pathogenic bacteria, can be specifically targeted and reduced in number using bacteriophages. This mini-review discusses the potential application of whole-cell microbial biosensors for the detection of contaminants, the exploitation of microbial biodegradative processes for environmental restoration and the manipulation of microbial communities using phages. PMID:26322034

  7. A systems biology approach to infectious disease research: innovating the pathogen-host research paradigm.

    PubMed

    Aderem, Alan; Adkins, Joshua N; Ansong, Charles; Galagan, James; Kaiser, Shari; Korth, Marcus J; Law, G Lynn; McDermott, Jason G; Proll, Sean C; Rosenberger, Carrie; Schoolnik, Gary; Katze, Michael G

    2011-01-01

    The twentieth century was marked by extraordinary advances in our understanding of microbes and infectious disease, but pandemics remain, food and waterborne illnesses are frequent, multidrug-resistant microbes are on the rise, and the needed drugs and vaccines have not been developed. The scientific approaches of the past-including the intense focus on individual genes and proteins typical of molecular biology-have not been sufficient to address these challenges. The first decade of the twenty-first century has seen remarkable innovations in technology and computational methods. These new tools provide nearly comprehensive views of complex biological systems and can provide a correspondingly deeper understanding of pathogen-host interactions. To take full advantage of these innovations, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases recently initiated the Systems Biology Program for Infectious Disease Research. As participants of the Systems Biology Program, we think that the time is at hand to redefine the pathogen-host research paradigm. PMID:21285433

  8. Zenon Environmental, Inc.: ZenoGem{trademark} biological and ultrafiltration technology. Innovative technology evaluation report; Superfund innovative technology evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    Zenon Environmental Inc. (Zenon), of Burlington, Ontario, Canada had developed an innovative wastewater treatment technology called the ZenoGem{trademark} technology. The ZenoGem{trademark} technology integrates biological treatment with membrane-based ultrafiltration to treat wastewater with high concentrations of organic contaminants that cause elevated concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD). The Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) demonstration occurred between September and December 1994 at the Nascolite Superfund site (Nascolite) in Millville, Cumberland County, New Jersey. During the SITE demonstration, critical and noncritical measurements were evaluated. Critical measurements consisted of sample analyses and process measurements that directly impacted meeting the project`s primary technical objective. Critical measurements included collection of liquid and air samples for MMA and VOC analyses; liquid samples to evaluate COD; and flow rate measurements of the influent and effluent liquid streams. Noncritical, or system condition measurements, provided information on operating ranges, reliability, variability, cost-effectiveness, and full-scale remediation potential of the technology.

  9. EVALUATION OF REAL-TIME INNOVATIVE BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL MONITORING SYSTEMS TO PROTECT SOURCE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of Real-Time Innovative Biological and Chemical Monitoring Systems
    To Protect Source Waters

    Drinking water supplies have in recent years come under increasing pressure from regulatory concerns regarding TMDL designations and restoration strategies as well ...

  10. Biological Functions of the Genes in the Mammaprint Breast Cancer Profile Reflect the Hallmarks of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Sun; Roepman, Paul; van’t Veer, Laura J; Bernards, Rene; de Snoo, Femke; Glas, Annuska M

    2010-01-01

    Background: MammaPrint was developed as a diagnostic tool to predict risk of breast cancer metastasis using the expression of 70 genes. To better understand the tumor biology assessed by MammaPrint, we interpreted the biological functions of the 70-genes and showed how the genes reflect the six hallmarks of cancer as defined by Hanahan and Weinberg. Results: We used a bottom-up system biology approach to elucidate how the cellular processes reflected by the 70-genes work together to regulate tumor activities and progression. The biological functions of the genes were analyzed using literature research and several bioinformatics tools. Protein-protein interaction network analyses indicated that the 70-genes form highly interconnected networks and that their expression levels are regulated by key tumorigenesis related genes such as TP53, RB1, MYC, JUN and CDKN2A. The biological functions of the genes could be associated with the essential steps necessary for tumor progression and metastasis, and cover the six well-defined hallmarks of cancer, reflecting the acquired malignant characteristics of a cancer cell along with tumor progression and metastasis-related biological activities. Conclusion: Genes in the MammaPrint gene signature comprehensively measure the six hallmarks of cancer-related biology. This finding establishes a link between a molecular signature and the underlying molecular mechanisms of tumor cell progression and metastasis. PMID:21151591

  11. A Systems Biology Approach to Infectious Disease Research: Innovating the Pathogen-Host Research Paradigm

    SciTech Connect

    Aderem, Alan; Adkins, Joshua N.; Ansong, Charles; Galagan, James; Kaiser, Shari; Korth, Marcus J.; Law, G. L.; McDermott, Jason E.; Proll, Sean; Rosenberger, Carrie; Schoolnik, Gary; Katze, Michael G.

    2011-02-01

    The 20th century was marked by extraordinary advances in our understanding of microbes and infectious disease, but pandemics remain, food and water borne illnesses are frequent, multi-drug resistant microbes are on the rise, and the needed drugs and vaccines have not been developed. The scientific approaches of the past—including the intense focus on individual genes and proteins typical of molecular biology—have not been sufficient to address these challenges. The first decade of the 21st century has seen remarkable innovations in technology and computational methods. These new tools provide nearly comprehensive views of complex biological systems and can provide a correspondingly deeper understanding of pathogen-host interactions. To take full advantage of these innovations, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases recently initiated the Systems Biology Program for Infectious Disease Research. As participants of the Systems Biology Program we think that the time is at hand to redefine the pathogen-host research paradigm.

  12. Reflections on Supporting a Visually Impaired Student Complete a Biological Psychology Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betts, Lucy R.; Cross, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    While there are a number of technologies that have been used, with varying levels of success, to support visually impaired students, the purpose of this article is to reflect upon the authors' experiences of supporting a visually impaired student through a nine-month level two undergraduate biological psychology module. The authors developed a…

  13. Innovators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NEA Today, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Describes various innovations that have been developed to enhance education. These innovations include: helping educators help at-risk students succeed; promoting high school journalism; ensuring quality online learning experiences; developing a student performing group that uses theater to address social issues; and having students design their…

  14. Innovation in the role of the Office of the Ombudsman of the Unified Health System (SUS) - reflections and potential benefits.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Fernando Manuel Bessa; Moreira, Marcelo Rasga; Ribeiro, José Mendes; Ouverney, Assis Mafort; Oliveira, Flávio José Fonseca de; Moro, Maria Francisca Abritta

    2016-08-01

    This article seeks to reflect on the potential of innovative practices in the design and work of the government bodies that comprise the National System of Offices of the Ombudsman of the Unified Health System. It is divided into two parts, seeking to answer the following question: How to think of and implement innovative practices - which include sustainability - when the people are voicing their urgent demands and these are being heard by the public authorities? These grievances are all the more urgent as they involve the area of Health and can they be promptly discussed, attended and resolved? In the first part, the article discusses the polysemic concept of innovation, focusing on its application in the three spheres of public administration, and highlights the importance of its close correlation with the different notions of information and knowledge in a society such as the one we live in. In the second, it develops a task-force of ideas for the office of the ombudsman and based on this, a draft operational concept of innovation in the role of the office of the ombudsman, considering the context of high speed change and transformations and the complexity inherent to contemporary life and the need for resource management and expertise development in information management. PMID:27557027

  15. Total-Internal-Reflection Platforms for Chemical and Biological Sensing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapsford, Kim E.

    Sensing platforms based on the principle of total internal reflection (TIR) represent a fairly mature yet still expanding and exciting field of research. Sensor development has mainly been driven by the need for rapid, stand-alone, automated devices for application in the fields of clinical diagnosis and screening, food and water safety, environmental monitoring, and chemical and biological warfare agent detection. The technologies highlighted in this chapter are continually evolving, taking advantage of emerging advances in microfabrication, lab-on-a-chip, excitation, and detection techniques. This chapter describes many of the underlying principles of TIR-based sensing platforms and additionally focusses on planar TIR fluorescence (TIRF)-based chemical and biological sensors.

  16. Research and development in drug innovation: reflections from the 2013 bioeconomy conference in China, lessons learned and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Changxiao; Constantinides, Panayiotis P.; Li, Yazhuo

    2014-01-01

    The enormous progress biotechnology, bioinformatics and nanotechnology made in recent years provides opportunities and scientific framework for development of biomedicine and constitutes a paradigm shift in pharmaceutical R&D and drug innovation. By analyzing the data and related information at R&D level over the past decades, developmental tendency and R&D patterns were summarized. We found that a growing number of biologics in the pipeline of pharma companies with successful products already in the market though, small molecular entities have primarily dominated drug innovation. Additionally, small/medium size companies will continue to play a key role in the development of small molecule drugs and biologics in a multi-channel integrated process. More importantly, modern and effective R&D strategies in biomedicine development to predict and evaluate efficacy and/or safety of 21st century therapeutics are urgently needed. To face new challenges, developmental strategies were proposed, in terms of molecular targeted medicine, generic drugs, new drug delivery system and protein-based drugs. Under the current circumstances, interdisciplinary cooperation mode and policy related to drug innovation in China were deeply discussed as well. PMID:26579372

  17. Innovation in Parent Education: Self-Reflection and Dialogue as Avenues of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Lorraine Kvistberg; Thomas, Ruth G.

    A constructivist approach to parent education that enabled parents to be active participants in reflection and dialogue processes was tested in a study. Instruction was designed to stimulate and support self-reflection and dialogue processes enabling parents to be active participants in constructing new meanings to their child rearing practices.…

  18. Reflections on the Local and the Global in Psychology: Innovation, Liberation and Testimonio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakker, Terri M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents some reflections on the process of creating research, from the point of view of a psychologist working in an academic environment in a developing country which is undergoing social transformation. It explores some tensions between global and local concerns in research, and reflects on the relation between research, art,…

  19. Commentary: Implementing Social-Emotional and Academic Innovations--Reflections, Reactions, and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Stephen N.; Kratochwill, Thomas R.; Roach, Andrew T.

    2003-01-01

    The article "Implementation, Sustainability, and Scaling Up of Social-Emotional and Academic Innovations in Public Schools" by Elias, Zins, Graczyk, and Weissberg (2003) is a thought-provoking contribution, and one that begs for more application. Some of the points the authors raise have been articulated in the school and clinical evidence-based…

  20. Raising the Profile of Innovative Teaching in Higher Education? Reflections on the EquATE Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Sue; Wall, Kate; Lofthouse, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology developed by members of the Research Centre for Learning and Teaching (RCfLAT) to collaborate with university teaching colleagues to produce theoretically- and pedagogically-based case studies of innovations in teaching and learning. The Equal Acclaim for Teaching Excellence (EquATE) project investigates…

  1. On Being "Head": Reflections on Leading an Educational Innovation Involving Computer Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albury, Rebecca

    The demand for innovative educational development is also a demand for new approaches to leadership in higher education. The assumption that the adoption of an institutional policy that encourages the use of learning technologies is all that is necessary for the successful implementation of the policy obscures the role of middle level leadership.…

  2. Technique for examining biological materials using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and the kubelka-munk function

    DOEpatents

    Alfano, Robert R.; Yang, Yuanlong

    2003-09-02

    Method and apparatus for examining biological materials using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and the Kubelka-Munk function. In one aspect, the method is used to determine whether a tissue sample is cancerous or not and comprises the steps of (a) measuring the diffuse reflectance from the tissue sample at a first wavelength and at a second wavelength, wherein the first wavelength is a wavelength selected from the group consisting of 255-265 nm and wherein the second wavelength is a wavelength selected from the group consisting of 275-285 nm; (b) using the Kubelka-Munk function to transform the diffuse reflectance measurement obtained at the first and second wavelengths; and (c) comparing a ratio or a difference of the transformed Kubelka-Munk measurements at the first and second wavelengths to appropriate standards determine whether or not the tissue sample is cancerous. One can use the spectral profile of KMF between 250 nm to 300 nm to determine whether or not the tissue sample is cancerous or precancerous. According to the value at the first and second wavelengths determine whether or not the malignant tissue is invasive or mixed invasive and in situ or carcinoma in situ.

  3. Interim Reflections on the Corporate University and SME Academy Business Development Innovation and Its Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dealtry, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to reflect on and inform about learning points from ECUANET, a two-year duration best practice action research and transnational networking project as it approaches its final stage. Design/methodology/approach: The paper explicates the key positive and obfuscating dynamics that the project team have had to,…

  4. Methods for open innovation on a genome-design platform associating scientific, commercial, and educational communities in synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Tetsuro

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic biology requires both engineering efficiency and compliance with safety guidelines and ethics. Focusing on the rational construction of biological systems based on engineering principles, synthetic biology depends on a genome-design platform to explore the combinations of multiple biological components or BIO bricks for quickly producing innovative devices. This chapter explains the differences among various platform models and details a methodology for promoting open innovation within the scope of the statutory exemption of patent laws. The detailed platform adopts a centralized evaluation model (CEM), computer-aided design (CAD) bricks, and a freemium model. It is also important for the platform to support the legal aspects of copyrights as well as patent and safety guidelines because intellectual work including DNA sequences designed rationally by human intelligence is basically copyrightable. An informational platform with high traceability, transparency, auditability, and security is required for copyright proof, safety compliance, and incentive management for open innovation in synthetic biology. GenoCon, which we have organized and explained here, is a competition-styled, open-innovation method involving worldwide participants from scientific, commercial, and educational communities that aims to improve the designs of genomic sequences that confer a desired function on an organism. Using only a Web browser, a participating contributor proposes a design expressed with CAD bricks that generate a relevant DNA sequence, which is then experimentally and intensively evaluated by the GenoCon organizers. The CAD bricks that comprise programs and databases as a Semantic Web are developed, executed, shared, reused, and well stocked on the secure Semantic Web platform called the Scientists' Networking System or SciNetS/SciNeS, based on which a CEM research center for synthetic biology and open innovation should be established. PMID:21601679

  5. Innovative acoustic reflection imaging techniques and application to clinical breast tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Steve P.

    Conventional ultrasound techniques use beam-formed, constant sound speed ray models for fast image reconstruction. However, these techniques are inadequate for the emerging new field of ultrasound tomography (UST). We present a new technique for reconstruction of reflection images from UST data. We have extended the planar Kirchhoff migration method used in geophysics, and combined it with sound speed and attenuation data obtained from the transmission signals to create reflection ultrasound images that are corrected for refractive and attenuative effects. The resulting techniques were applied to simulated numerical phantom data, physical phantom data and in-vivo breast data obtained with an experimental ring transducer prototype. Additionally, the ring transducer was customized to test compatibility with an existing ultrasound workstation. We were able to obtain independently recorded radio-frequency (RF) data for individual transmit-receive pair combinations for all 128 transducers. The signal data was then successfully reconstructed into reflection data using the Kirchhoff migration techniques. The results from the use of sound speed and attenuation corrections lead to significant improvements in image quality, particularly in dense tissues where the refractive and scattering effects are the greatest. The procedure was applied to a variety of breast densities and masses of different natures. The resulting reflection images successfully resolved boundaries and textures. The reflection characteristics of tomographic ultrasound maintain an indispensible position in the quantification of proper mass identification. The results of this project indicate the clinical significance of the invocation of properly compensated Kirchhoff based reconstruction method with the use of sound speed and attenuation parameters for the visualization and classification of masses and tissue.

  6. Secular change in chert distribution: a reflection of evolving biological participation in the silica cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maliva, R. G.; Knoll, A. H.; Siever, R.

    1989-01-01

    In the modern oceans, the removal of dissolved silica from sea water is principally a biological process carried out by diatoms, with lesser contributions from radiolaria, silicoflagellates, and sponges. Because such silica in sediments is often redistributed locally during diagenesis to from nodular or bedded chert, stratigraphic changes in the facies distribution of early diagenetic chert provide important insights into the development of biological participation in the silica cycle. The abundance of chert in upper Proterozoic peritidal carbonates suggests that at this time silica was removed from seawater principally by abiological processes operating in part of the margins of the oceans. With the evolution of demosponges near the beginning of the Cambrian Period, subtidal biogenetic cherts became increasingly common, and with the Ordovician rise of radiolaria to ecological and biogeochemical prominence, sedimented skeletons became a principal sink for oceanic silica. Cherts of Silurian to Cretaceous age share many features of facies distribution and petrography but they differ from Cenozoic siliceous deposits. These differences are interpreted to reflect the mid-Cretaceous radiation of diatoms and their subsequent rise to domination of the silica cycle. Biogeochemical cycles provide an important framework for the paleobiological interpretation of the organisms that participate in them.

  7. Confocal reflectance quantitative phase microscopy system for cell biology studies (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vijay Raj; So, Peter T. C.

    2016-03-01

    Quantitative phase microscopy (QPM), used to measure the refractive index, provides the optical path delay measurement at each point of the specimen under study and becomes an active field in biological science. In this work we present development of confocal reflection phase microscopy system to provide depth resolved quantitative phase information for investigation of intracellular structures and other biological specimen. The system hardware development is mainly divided into two major parts. First, creates a pinhole array for parallel confocal imaging of specimen at multiple locations simultaneously. Here a digital micro mirror device (DMD) is used to generate pinhole array by turning on a subset micro-mirrors arranged on a grid. Second is the detection of phase information of confocal imaging foci by using a common path interferometer. With this novel approach, it is possible to measure the nuclei membrane fluctuations and distinguish them from the plasma membrane fluctuations. Further, depth resolved quantitative phase can be correlated to the intracellular contents and 3D map of refractive index measurements.

  8. Secular change in chert distribution: a reflection of evolving biological participation in the silica cycle.

    PubMed

    Maliva, R G; Knoll, A H; Siever, R

    1989-01-01

    In the modern oceans, the removal of dissolved silica from sea water is principally a biological process carried out by diatoms, with lesser contributions from radiolaria, silicoflagellates, and sponges. Because such silica in sediments is often redistributed locally during diagenesis to from nodular or bedded chert, stratigraphic changes in the facies distribution of early diagenetic chert provide important insights into the development of biological participation in the silica cycle. The abundance of chert in upper Proterozoic peritidal carbonates suggests that at this time silica was removed from seawater principally by abiological processes operating in part of the margins of the oceans. With the evolution of demosponges near the beginning of the Cambrian Period, subtidal biogenetic cherts became increasingly common, and with the Ordovician rise of radiolaria to ecological and biogeochemical prominence, sedimented skeletons became a principal sink for oceanic silica. Cherts of Silurian to Cretaceous age share many features of facies distribution and petrography but they differ from Cenozoic siliceous deposits. These differences are interpreted to reflect the mid-Cretaceous radiation of diatoms and their subsequent rise to domination of the silica cycle. Biogeochemical cycles provide an important framework for the paleobiological interpretation of the organisms that participate in them. PMID:11539810

  9. 76 FR 27062 - Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009; Options for a User Fee Program for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... Register of December 8, 2010 (75 FR 76472) (December 2010 notice), FDA issued a notice to request that... associations representing such companies. (See 75 FR 61497, October 5, 2010.) Based on comments submitted to... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of...

  10. 75 FR 76472 - Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009; Meetings on User Fee Program for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... associations representing such companies. (See 75 FR 61497, October 5, 2010.) FDA is issuing this Federal... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009... groups, health care professionals, and scientific and academic experts, notify FDA of their intent...

  11. Innovative light collimator with afocal lens and total internal reflection lens for daylighting system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo-Jian; Chen, Yin-Ti; Ullah, Irfan; Chou, Chun-Han; Chan, Kai-Cyuan; Lai, Yi-Lung; Lin, Chia-Ming; Chang, Cheng-Ming; Whang, Allen Jong-Woei

    2015-10-01

    This research presents a novel design of the collimator, which uses total internal reflection (TIR), convex, and concave lenses for the natural light illumination system (NLIS). The concept of the NLIS is to illuminate building interiors with natural light, which saves energy consumption. The TIR lens is used to collimate the light, and convex and concave lenses are used to converge the light to the required area. The results have shown that the efficiency in terms of achieving collimated light using the proposed collimator at the output of the light collector is better than that of a previous system without a collimator. PMID:26479648

  12. Infrared attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy: an innovative strategy for analyzing mineral components in energy relevant systems.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christian Menno; Pejcic, Bobby; Esteban, Lionel; Delle Piane, Claudio; Raven, Mark; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2014-01-01

    The direct qualitative and quantitative determination of mineral components in shale rocks is a problem that has not been satisfactorily resolved to date. Infrared spectroscopy (IR) is a non-destructive method frequently used in mineral identification, yet challenging due to the similarity of spectral features resulting from quartz, clay, and feldspar minerals. This study reports on a significant improvement of this methodology by combining infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy (IR-ATR) with partial least squares (PLS) regression techniques for classifying and quantifying various mineral components present in a number of different shale rocks. The developed multivariate classification model was calibrated using pure component mixtures of the most common shale minerals (i.e., kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite, calcite, and quartz). Using this model, the IR spectra of 11 real-world shale samples were analyzed and evaluated. Finally, the performance of the developed IR-ATR method was compared with results obtained via X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. PMID:25358261

  13. Twenty Years of Growth and Innovation: A Reflection on PACKRAT's Impact on Physician Assistant Education.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, Kim; Lessard, Donovan; Britt, Zach

    2015-12-01

    In its 20th year, the Physician Assistant Clinical Knowledge Rating and Assessment Tool (PACKRAT) is a student self-assessment that can assist physician assistant (PA) students and PA program faculty in identifying strengths and areas in need of improvement in the didactic and clinical phases of PA education. In this reflection, we provide an overview of the history of PACKRAT and outline some of its benefits for students and PA programs, as well as its generative role in assessment within PA studies. Taking a broader view of PACKRAT's impact on assessment for the PA profession, we outline the research on its benefits and its use to maximize student performance, as well as how it has promoted the development of additional assessment tools. PMID:26599313

  14. Infrared Attenuated Total Reflectance Spectroscopy: An Innovative Strategy for Analyzing Mineral Components in Energy Relevant Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Christian Menno; Pejcic, Bobby; Esteban, Lionel; Piane, Claudio Delle; Raven, Mark; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2014-10-01

    The direct qualitative and quantitative determination of mineral components in shale rocks is a problem that has not been satisfactorily resolved to date. Infrared spectroscopy (IR) is a non-destructive method frequently used in mineral identification, yet challenging due to the similarity of spectral features resulting from quartz, clay, and feldspar minerals. This study reports on a significant improvement of this methodology by combining infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy (IR-ATR) with partial least squares (PLS) regression techniques for classifying and quantifying various mineral components present in a number of different shale rocks. The developed multivariate classification model was calibrated using pure component mixtures of the most common shale minerals (i.e., kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite, calcite, and quartz). Using this model, the IR spectra of 11 real-world shale samples were analyzed and evaluated. Finally, the performance of the developed IR-ATR method was compared with results obtained via X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis.

  15. Infrared Attenuated Total Reflectance Spectroscopy: An Innovative Strategy for Analyzing Mineral Components in Energy Relevant Systems

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Christian Menno; Pejcic, Bobby; Esteban, Lionel; Piane, Claudio Delle; Raven, Mark; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2014-01-01

    The direct qualitative and quantitative determination of mineral components in shale rocks is a problem that has not been satisfactorily resolved to date. Infrared spectroscopy (IR) is a non-destructive method frequently used in mineral identification, yet challenging due to the similarity of spectral features resulting from quartz, clay, and feldspar minerals. This study reports on a significant improvement of this methodology by combining infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy (IR-ATR) with partial least squares (PLS) regression techniques for classifying and quantifying various mineral components present in a number of different shale rocks. The developed multivariate classification model was calibrated using pure component mixtures of the most common shale minerals (i.e., kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite, calcite, and quartz). Using this model, the IR spectra of 11 real-world shale samples were analyzed and evaluated. Finally, the performance of the developed IR-ATR method was compared with results obtained via X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. PMID:25358261

  16. High resolution laser remote imaging innovative tools for preservation of painted surfaces: information from reflectance and fluorescence data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantoni, R.; Ferri de Collibus, M.; Francucci, M.; Fornetti, G.; Guarneri, M.; Caneve, L.; Colao, F.; Fiorani, L.; Palucci, A.; Spizzichino, V.

    2013-11-01

    Two innovative laser scanning prototypes have been developed at ENEA for diagnostics of large surfaces relevant to monumental cultural heritage. The first, based on amplitude modulation technique in the visible, is a trichromatic (Red /Green /Blue) imaging topologic radar (RGB-ITR) specialized to collect high resolution 3D models. After proper color calibration, it allows for hyper-realistic rendering of colored features on painted surfaces and for precise localization of irregularities. The second is a line scanning system, working either in reflectance or laser induced fluorescence mode, capable of fast 2D monochromatic images acquisition on up to 90 different spectral channels in the visible/UV range, which was developed to investigate the presence of different substances onto the painted surface. Data collected during former field campaigns on frescos by means each scanning system will be reported and discussed extracting information of interest to conservators by means of specific data processing methodologies and respective software tools. Recent results relevant to paints of the Assumption on slate and canvas by Scipione Pulzone named "il Gaetano" collected in two churches in Rome (San Silvestro al Quirinale, Bandini chapel; Santa Caterina dei Funari, Solano della Vetera Chapel) from the late XVI century are presented in order to demonstrate the increased diagnostic capabilities coming from data integration. From combination of reflectance data from both instruments, the first true remote differential colorimetry has been implemented, giving a chance to test the color quality in the future from the archived images.

  17. Science Café Course: An Innovative Means of Improving Communication Skills of Undergraduate Biology Majors

    PubMed Central

    Goldina, Anna; Weeks, Ophelia I.

    2014-01-01

    To help bridge the increasing gap between scientists and the public, we developed an innovative two-semester course called Science Café. In this course, undergraduate biology majors learn to develop communication skills to be better able to explain science concepts and current developments in science to non-scientists. Students develop and host outreach events on various topics relevant to the community, thereby increasing interactions between budding scientists and the public. Such a Science Café course emphasizes development of science communication skills early, at the undergraduate level, and empowers students to use their science knowledge in everyday interactions with the public to increase science literacy, get involved in the local community and engage the public in a dialogue on various pressing science issues. We believe that undergraduate science majors can be great ambassadors for science and are often overlooked since many aspire to go on to medical/veterinary/pharmacy schools. However, science communication skills are especially important for these types of students because when they become healthcare professionals, they will interact with the public as part of their everyday jobs and can thus be great representatives for the field. PMID:24839510

  18. UCSF Small Molecule Discovery Center: innovation, collaboration and chemical biology in the Bay Area.

    PubMed

    Arkin, Michelle R; Ang, Kenny K H; Chen, Steven; Davies, Julia; Merron, Connie; Tang, Yinyan; Wilson, Christopher G M; Renslo, Adam R

    2014-05-01

    The Small Molecule Discovery Center (SMDC) at the University of California, San Francisco, works collaboratively with the scientific community to solve challenging problems in chemical biology and drug discovery. The SMDC includes a high throughput screening facility, medicinal chemistry, and research labs focused on fundamental problems in biochemistry and targeted drug delivery. Here, we outline our HTS program and provide examples of chemical tools developed through SMDC collaborations. We have an active research program in developing quantitative cell-based screens for primary cells and whole organisms; here, we describe whole-organism screens to find drugs against parasites that cause neglected tropical diseases. We are also very interested in target-based approaches for so-called "undruggable", protein classes and fragment-based lead discovery. This expertise has led to several pharmaceutical collaborations; additionally, the SMDC works with start-up companies to enable their early-stage research. The SMDC, located in the biotech-focused Mission Bay neighborhood in San Francisco, is a hub for innovative small-molecule discovery research at UCSF. PMID:24661212

  19. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and optical polarization imaging of in-vivo biological tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora-Núñez, A.; Castillejos, Y.; García-Torales, G.; Martínez-Ponce, G.

    2013-11-01

    A number of optical techniques have been reported in the scientific literature as accomplishable methodologies to diagnose diseases in biological tissue, for instance, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and optical polarization imaging (OPI). The skin is the largest organ in the body and consists of three primary layers, namely, the epidermis (the outermost layer exposed to the world), the dermis, and the hypodermis. The epidermis changes from to site to site, mainly because of difference in hydration. A lower water content increase light scattering and reduce the penetration depth of radiation. In this work, two hairless mice have been selected to evaluate their skin features by using DRS and OPI. Four areas of the specimen body were chosen to realize the comparison: back, abdomen, tail, and head. From DRS, it was possible to distinguish the skin nature because of different blood irrigation at dermis. In the other hand, OPI shows pseudo-depolarizing regions in the measured Mueller images related to a spatially varying propagation of the scattered light. This provides information about the cell size in the irradiated skin.

  20. Student, teaching assistant, and faculty learning during innovation in an introductory biology course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, Lesley Mae

    This study examined the dynamics of student, teaching assistant (TA), and faculty learning in relationship to implementation of a genetic technologies project in a university introductory biology course. Research focused on the types of learning that occurred and the various factors impacting that learning. Study participants included 25 undergraduate non-science majors, five graduate TAs, and two faculty, including the researcher participant. Qualitative methodologies were employed to address the exploratory nature of the research questions, and included a wide variety of data collection techniques. Variables related to learning were identified and categorized to develop a hypothesis of learning in the studied course. Students, TAs, and faculty demonstrated developing diverse and remarkably similar cognitive outcomes, learning strategies, and changes within the affective domain. Differences existed in the temporal displacement of learning, as well as breadth and depth of skills and understandings. Similar internal and external factors also impacted student, TA, and faculty learning. Interactions among the three subject groups were frequent, related to common topics of interest and corrections of curricular inadequacies, and were initiated by members of each group. Emerging categories of data were developed into a hypothesis of learning which incorporated (1) the combination of pre-existing subject and situational conditions with (2) characteristics of innovation, and (3) the resulting learning community. Shifting what was being learned and how it was being taught created opportunities for conflict and uncertainty. Through resolution of these concerns, distinctions between course teachers and learners became blurred. This study suggests that all participants, with their widely varying backgrounds, interests, and abilities, contributed to development of the learning community when both content and instruction were being altered. Factors such as large class size

  1. The Use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to Encourage Reflection, Interaction and Collaboration for Innovation and Professional Growth in Higher and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szecsy, Elsie M.; Danzig, Arnold B.; Gonzalez, Josue M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory case study is to describe efforts made to encourage reflection, interaction, and collaboration for educational innovation and professional growth in three contexts where interactive information and communication technology (ICT) was introduced. The study is framed in adult learning theory (Knowles, 1980; Merriam,…

  2. Inverse Algorithm Optimization for Determining Optical Properties of Biological Materials from Spatially-Resolved Diffuse Reflectance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Optical characterization of biological materials is useful in many scientific and industrial applications like biomedical diagnosis and nondestructive quality evaluation of food and agricultural products. However, accurate determination of the optical properties from intact biological materials base...

  3. Innovations in preclinical biology: ex vivo engineering of a human kidney tissue microperfusion system

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Kidney disease is a public health problem that affects more than 20 million people in the US adult population, yet little is understood about the impact of kidney disease on drug disposition. Consequently there is a critical need to be able to model the human kidney and other organ systems, to improve our understanding of drug efficacy, safety, and toxicity, especially during drug development. The kidneys in general, and the proximal tubule specifically, play a central role in the elimination of xenobiotics. With recent advances in molecular investigation, considerable information has been gathered regarding the substrate profiles of the individual transporters expressed in the proximal tubule. However, we have little knowledge of how these transporters coupled with intracellular enzymes and influenced by metabolic pathways form an efficient secretory and reabsorptive mechanism in the renal tubule. Proximal tubular secretion and reabsorption of xenobiotics is critically dependent on interactions with peritubular capillaries and the interstitium. We plan to robustly model the human kidney tubule interstitium, utilizing an ex vivo three-dimensional modular microphysiological system with human kidney-derived cells. The microphysiological system should accurately reflect human physiology, be usable to predict renal handling of xenobiotics, and should assess mechanisms of kidney injury, and the biological response to injury, from endogenous and exogenous intoxicants. PMID:24564863

  4. Implementation of an Explicit and Reflective Pedagogy in Introductory Biology Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bautista, Nazan Uludag; Schussler, Elisabeth E.

    2010-01-01

    Students need to reflect on the practice of science to fully understand the nature of science (NOS), which is an important component of scientific literacy. In this paper, the authors describe how to implement an explicit and reflective pedagogy in college science laboratories and share examples from their implementation in a multiple-section…

  5. The abdominal compartment syndrome: review, experience report and description of an innovative biological mesh application.

    PubMed

    Parmeggiani, Domenico; Gubitosi, Adelmo; Ruggiero, Roberto; Docimo, Giovanni; Atelli, Pietro Francesco; Avenia, Nicola

    2011-12-01

    fascia extremities, to solve the IAP. The employment of ample muscle edges represents the ideal solution in the reconstruction of the abdominal walls after laparotomic operations, offering a valid dynamic support preferable in comparison with the employment of alloplastic material. In consideration of the limits of this technique in the enormous parietal disaster-ACS treatment, we describe a new kind of innovative mesh application (Permacol(®)), most often used for parietal disaster or enormous incisional hernias, which can easily be preferred to dual mesh prosthesis, having a better biological profile and no capacity to produce intestinal adherences. PMID:21710331

  6. Finding Clarity by Fostering Confusion: Reflections on Teaching an Undergraduate Integrated Biological Systems Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Kirsten H.

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduate biology programs in smaller liberal arts colleges are increasingly becoming focused on health science fields. This narrowing of focus potentially decreases opportunities for these students to explore other sub-fields of biology. This perspectives article highlights how one small university in Connecticut decided to institute a…

  7. The First Cut Is the Deepest: Reflections on the State of Animal Dissection in Biology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Villiers, Rian; Monk, Martin

    2005-01-01

    In biology education, the study of structure has traditionally involved the use of dissection. Animal-rights campaigners have caused biology educators and learners to question the necessity of dissections. This study reviews the research evidence for the efficacy of alternatives to dissection and then turns to research evidence on attitudes to…

  8. An Innovative Biology Course for First-Year University Students in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsay, H. P.; Wood, A. E.

    1979-01-01

    Describes "Biology of Mankind," a first-year biology course offered at the University of New South Wales in which biological principles are taught in the context of the evolution of man in relation to his environment. Outlined are aims, course content, and course evaluation methods. (CS)

  9. Planar solar concentrator featuring alignment-free total-internal-reflection collectors and an innovative compound tracker.

    PubMed

    Teng, Tun-Chien; Lai, Wei-Che

    2014-12-15

    This study proposed a planar solar concentrator featuring alignment-free total-internal-reflection (TIR) collectors and an innovative compound tracker. The compound tracker, combining a mechanical single-axis tracker and scrollable prism sheets, can achieve a performance on a par with dual-axis tracking while reducing the cost of the tracking system and increasing its robustness. The alignment-free TIR collectors are assembled on the waveguide without requiring alignment, so the planar concentrator is relatively easily manufactured and markedly increases the feasibility for use in large concentrators. Further, the identical TIR collector is applicable to various-sized waveguide slab without requiring modification, which facilitates flexibility regarding the size of the waveguide slab. In the simulation model, the thickness of the slab was 2 mm, and its maximal length reached 6 m. With an average angular tolerance of ±0.6°, and after considering both the Fresnel loss and the angular spread of the sun, the simulation indicates that the waveguide concentrator of a 1000-mm length provides the optical efficiencies of 62-77% at the irradiance concentrations of 387-688, and the one of a 2000-mm length provides the optical efficiencies of 52-64.5% at the irradiance concentrations of 645-1148. Alternatively, if a 100-mm horizontally staggered waveguide slab is collocated with the alignment-free TIR collectors, the optical efficiency would be greatly improved up to 91.5% at an irradiance concentration of 1098 (C(geo) = 1200X). PMID:25607496

  10. Effects on biological systems of reflected light from a satellite power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, M.

    1981-01-01

    Light reflection produced by the satellite power system and the possible effects of that light on the human eye, plants, and animals were studied. For the human eye, two cases of reflected light, might cause eye damage if viewed for too long. These cases are: (1) if, while in low Earth orbit, the orbital transfer vehicle is misaligned to reflect the Sun to Earth there exists a maximum safe fixation time for the naked eye of 42.4 secs; (2) reflection from the aluminum paint on the back of the orbital transfer vehicle, while in or near low Earth orbit, can be safely viewed by the naked eye for 129 sec. For plants and animals the intensity and timing of light are not a major problem. Ways for reducing and/or eliminating the irradiances are proposed.

  11. A Reflection on the Fate of Chiral 1,2,4-Triazole Fungicides in Biological Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    In biological systems, stereoisomers of chiral compounds can exhibit significantly different pharmacokinetics (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination) and pharmacodynamics (physiological effects). Pharmacokinetic processes (i.e., what the body does to the chemical)...

  12. Synthetic biology and the Golem of Prague: philosophical reflections on a suggestive metaphor.

    PubMed

    Charpa, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Not only the public debate about science but even the way scientists conceive their own work is to some extent determined by cultural images. In the case of synthetic biology, literary figures like the Golem of Prague and its successors, such as Frankenstein's monster, seem to suggest themselves. This article reconstructs some cognitive structures underlying the surface of metaphorical thinking and shows how talking about synthetic biology as similar to Golem-making obscures important ontological, pragmatic, and ethical differences. PMID:23502564

  13. Molecular dynamics simulations and neutron reflectivity as an effective approach to characterize biological membranes and related macromolecular assemblies.

    PubMed

    Darré, L; Iglesias-Fernandez, J; Kohlmeyer, A; Wacklin, H; Domene, C

    2015-10-13

    In combination with other spectroscopy, microscopy, and scattering techniques, neutron reflectivity is a powerful tool to characterize biological systems. Specular reflection of neutrons provides structural information at the nanometer and subnanometer length scales, probing the composition and organization of layered materials. Currently, analysis of neutron reflectivity data involves several simplifying assumptions about the structure of the sample under study, affecting the extraction and interpretation of information from the experimental data. Computer simulations can be used as a source of structural and dynamic data with atomic resolution. We present a novel tool to compare the structural properties determined by neutron reflectivity experiments with those obtained from molecular simulations. This tool allows benchmarking the ability of molecular dynamics simulations to reproduce experimental data, but it also promotes unbiased interpretation of experimentally determined quantities. Two application examples are presented to illustrate the capabilities of the new tool. The first example is the generation of reflectivity profiles for a 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) lipid bilayer from molecular dynamics simulations using data from both atomistic and coarse-grained models, and comparison with experimentally measured data. The second example is the calculation of lipid volume changes with temperature and composition from all atoms simulations of single and mixed 1,2-di-palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) and 1,2-dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) bilayers. PMID:26574275

  14. Innovation, Innovation, Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuller, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Innovation, Universities and Skills. The new title of the department offers much food for thought. The title is indeed an intriguing and important one. Bringing the idea of innovation right to the fore is, to use an overworked term, challenging. Pinning down what innovation means is not at all easy. There are three different lines of argument. The…

  15. Learning Biology through Innovative Curricula: A Comparison of Game- and Nongame-Based Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Troy D.; Romine, William L.; Menon, Deepika; Ferdig, Richard E.; Annetta, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    This study explored student learning in the context of innovative biotechnology curricula and the effects of gaming as a central element of the learning experience. The quasi-experimentally designed study compared learning outcomes between two curricular approaches: One built around a computer-based game, and the other built around a narrative…

  16. Retrieving the optical parameters of biological tissues using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and Fourier series expansions. I. theory and application

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz Morales, Aarón A.; Vázquez y Montiel, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    The determination of optical parameters of biological tissues is essential for the application of optical techniques in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Diffuse Reflection Spectroscopy is a widely used technique to analyze the optical characteristics of biological tissues. In this paper we show that by using diffuse reflectance spectra and a new mathematical model we can retrieve the optical parameters by applying an adjustment of the data with nonlinear least squares. In our model we represent the spectra using a Fourier series expansion finding mathematical relations between the polynomial coefficients and the optical parameters. In this first paper we use spectra generated by the Monte Carlo Multilayered Technique to simulate the propagation of photons in turbid media. Using these spectra we determine the behavior of Fourier series coefficients when varying the optical parameters of the medium under study. With this procedure we find mathematical relations between Fourier series coefficients and optical parameters. Finally, the results show that our method can retrieve the optical parameters of biological tissues with accuracy that is adequate for medical applications. PMID:23082281

  17. Meaning Making: What Reflective Essays Reveal about Biology Students' Conceptions about Natural Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balgopal, Meena M.; Montplaisir, Lisa M.

    2011-01-01

    The process of reflective writing can play a central role in making meaning as learners process new information and connect it to prior knowledge. An examination of the written discourse can therefore be revealing of learners' cognitive understanding and affective (beliefs, feelings, motivation to learn) responses to concepts. Despite reflective…

  18. Journal of Biological Education: A Personal Reflection on Its First 50 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    In this commentary, Michael Reiss describes his time with the "Journal of Biology Education" ("JBE") dating back to 1984 when the journal published his first article (Reiss 1984). Over the years, Reiss has authored 31 "JBE" pieces (excluding reviews) including one in honor of the journal's 25th anniversary (Reiss…

  19. Study of the influence of glucose on diffuse reflection of ultrashort laser pulses from a medium simulating a biological tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Bykov, A V; Indukaev, A K; Priezzhev, A V; Myllylae, R

    2008-05-31

    The influence of glucose on the diffuse reflection of near-IR femtosecond laser radiation from single- and three-layer media simulating biological tissues is studied experimentally. Based on a 800-nm femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser emitting 40-fs pulses and a VUV Agat streak camera, a setup is built for time and spatially resolved detection of radiation diffusely reflected from the volume of a strongly scattering medium. A multichannel fibreoptic system is developed for detecting pulses simultaneously at several fixed distances between a radiation source and detector. It is shown that the peak intensity and total energy of detected pulses are sensitive to variations in the glucose concentration in the medium under study from 0 to 1000 mg dL{sup -1}. The relative sensitivity in our experiments achieved 0.030% mg dL{sup -1}. (biophotonics)

  20. Interdisciplinary Dialogue for Education, Collaboration, and Innovation: Intelligent Biology and Medicine In and Beyond 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Bing; Huang, Yufei; McDermott, Jason E.; Posey, Rebecca H.; Xu, Hua; Zhao, Zhongming

    2013-12-09

    The 2013 International Conference on Intelligent Biology and Medicine (ICIBM 2013) was held on August 11-13, 2013 in Nashville, Tennessee, USA. The conference included six scientific sessions, two tutorial sessions, one workshop, two poster sessions, and four keynote presentations that covered cutting-edge research topics in bioinformatics, systems biology, computational medicine, and intelligent computing. Here, we present a summary of the conference and an editorial report of the supplements to BMC Genomics and BMC Systems Biology that include 19 research papers selected from ICIBM 2013.

  1. Education, collaboration, and innovation: intelligent biology and medicine in the era of big data

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Here we present a summary of the 2014 International Conference on Intelligent Biology and Medicine (ICIBM 2014) and the editorial report of the supplement to BMC Genomics and BMC Systems Biology that includes 20 research articles selected from ICIBM 2014. The conference was held on December 4-6, 2014 at San Antonio, Texas, USA, and included six scientific sessions, four tutorials, four keynote presentations, nine highlight talks, and a poster session that covered cutting-edge research in bioinformatics, systems biology, and computational medicine. PMID:26099197

  2. ZENON ENVIRONMENTAL INC., ZENOGEM™ BIOLOGICAL AND ULTRAFILTRATION TECHNOLOGY; INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of a field demonstration conducted under the SITE Program. The technology which was demonstrated was a wastewater treatment technology developed by Zenon Environmental Inc. The process, named ZenoGem™, integrates biological treatment with memb...

  3. Computational modeling of skin reflectance spectra for biological parameter estimation through machine learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyas, Saurabh; Van Nguyen, Hien; Burlina, Philippe; Banerjee, Amit; Garza, Luis; Chellappa, Rama

    2012-06-01

    A computational skin re ectance model is used here to provide the re ectance, absorption, scattering, and transmittance based on the constitutive biological components that make up the layers of the skin. The changes in re ectance are mapped back to deviations in model parameters, which include melanosome level, collagen level and blood oxygenation. The computational model implemented in this work is based on the Kubelka- Munk multi-layer re ectance model and the Fresnel Equations that describe a generic N-layer model structure. This assumes the skin as a multi-layered material, with each layer consisting of specic absorption, scattering coecients, re ectance spectra and transmittance based on the model parameters. These model parameters include melanosome level, collagen level, blood oxygenation, blood level, dermal depth, and subcutaneous tissue re ectance. We use this model, coupled with support vector machine based regression (SVR), to predict the biological parameters that make up the layers of the skin. In the proposed approach, the physics-based forward mapping is used to generate a large set of training exemplars. The samples in this dataset are then used as training inputs for the SVR algorithm to learn the inverse mapping. This approach was tested on VIS-range hyperspectral data. Performance validation of the proposed approach was performed by measuring the prediction error on the skin constitutive parameters and exhibited very promising results.

  4. Physical and biological assessments of the innovative bilayered wound dressing made of silk and gelatin for clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Hasatsri, Sukhontha; Yamdech, Rungnapha; Chanvorachote, Pithi; Aramwit, Pornanong

    2015-04-01

    The physical and biological assessments of the innovative bilayered wound dressing made of silk and gelatin that we have developed previously were performed to evaluate its efficacy for clinical applications. The absorption ability and dehydration rate of the dressing were assessed using the split-thickness skin graft and leg ulcer wound bed models. The bioactivities of the bilayered wound dressing were evaluated. The bilayered dressing showed continuous absorption rate of wound exudate, providing the suitability for the wound with extended inflammation phase. The dehydration rate of the bilayered dressing was comparable to the commercially available dressing of which the moisture maintenance capability is claimed. The bilayered dressing showed good conformability, as can be seen by the homogeneous distribution pattern of bromophenol blue absorbed. In terms of biological activities, the bilayered dressing was less toxic to skin cells than the commercially available dressing. The bilayered dressing was also shown to promote cell migration and collagen production due to the bioactive protein components. We here concluded that the superior properties of the bilayered dressing over the commercially available dressing were the conformability and biological activities to accelerate the wound healing, while the other properties were comparable to those of commercially available dressing. The data obtained in this study would be very useful for the further evaluation of the bilayered dressing in clinical trial. PMID:25391444

  5. The MOOC and Learning Analytics Innovation Cycle (MOLAC): A Reflective Summary of Ongoing Research and Its Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drachsler, H.; Kalz, M.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the interplay between learning analytics and massive open online courses (MOOCs) and provides a conceptual framework to situate ongoing research in the MOOC and learning analytics innovation cycle (MOLAC framework). The MOLAC framework is organized on three levels: On the micro-level, the data collection and analytics…

  6. Preservice Teachers Reflections on Risk-Taking: The Dynamics of Practice and Experience While Experimenting with Innovation during Student Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwyn-Paquette, Caroline; Tochon, Francois Victor

    2003-01-01

    A study examined preservice teachers' professional "risk taking" during student teaching with regard to experimenting with cooperative learning. Classroom observations and interviews with 14 preservice teachers who were student teaching in Quebec high schools indicated that risk taking and innovation depended on support received during planning…

  7. Instructional Experiences of Graduate Assistants Implementing Explicit and Reflective Introductory Biology Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uludag Bautista, Nazan; Schussler, Elisabeth E.; Rybczynski, Stephen M.

    2014-05-01

    Science education reform documents identify nature of science (NOS) as a critical component of scientific literacy and call for universities, colleges, and K-12 schools to explicitly integrate NOS learning into science curricula. In response to these calls, this study investigated the classroom practices of nine graduate assistants (GAs) who taught expository and inquiry laboratories that implemented an explicit and reflective (ER) pedagogy to teach NOS. The purpose of this qualitative study was to better understand the experiences that enabled or inhibited GA implementation of an ER strategy in a college setting. The findings revealed that achieving quality implementation in this setting was very difficult. Factors such as GAs' ability to foster meaningful classroom discussions, laboratory logistics (e.g. lack of time and supplies), and the value undergraduates and GAs saw in learning about NOS were identified by GAs and observed by the researchers as barriers to the technique maximizing its potential. Thus, for meaningful infusion of NOS into science curricula, pedagogical support for GAs to manage meaningful classroom discussions in support of NOS or other complex topics is recommended for an ER approach to NOS learning to be successful in college settings.

  8. Innovation in biological production and upgrading of methane and hydrogen for use as gaseous transport biofuel.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ao; Cheng, Jun; Murphy, Jerry D

    2016-01-01

    Biofuels derived from biomass will play a major role in future renewable energy supplies in transport. Gaseous biofuels have superior energy balances, offer greater greenhouse gas emission reductions and produce lower pollutant emissions than liquid biofuels. Biogas derived through fermentation of wet organic substrates will play a major role in future transport systems. Biogas (which is composed of approximately 60% methane/hydrogen and 40% carbon dioxide) requires an upgrading process to reduce the carbon dioxide content to less than 3% before it is used as compressed gas in transport. This paper reviews recent developments in fermentative biogas production and upgrading as a transport fuel. Third generation gaseous biofuels may be generated using marine-based algae via two-stage fermentation, cogenerating hydrogen and methane. Alternative biological upgrading techniques, such as biological methanation and microalgal biogas upgrading, have the potential to simultaneously upgrade biogas, increase gaseous biofuel yield and reduce carbon dioxide emission. PMID:26724182

  9. The constitutional protection of trade secrets and patents under the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Richard A

    2011-01-01

    The Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009 ("Biosimilars Act") is for the field of pharmaceutical products the single most important legislative development since passage of the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984 ("Hatch-Waxman Act"), on which portions of the Biosimilars Act are clearly patterned. Congress revised section 351 of the Public Health Service Act (PHSA) to create a pathway for FDA approval of "biosimilar" biological products. Each biosimilar applicant is required to cite in its application a "reference product" that was approved on the basis of a full application containing testing data and manufacturing information, which is owned and was submitted by another company and much of which constitutes trade secret information subject to constitutional protection. Because the Biosimilars Act authorizes biosimilar applicants to cite these previously approved applications, the implementation of the new legislative scheme raises critical issues under the Fifth Amendment of the Constitution, pursuant to which private property--trade secrets included--may not be taken for public use, without "just compensation." FDA must confront those issues as it implements the scheme set out in the Biosimilars Act. This article will discuss these issues, after providing a brief overview of the Biosimilars Act and a more detailed examination of the law of trade secrets. PMID:24505851

  10. Characterization and biological abatement of diffuse methane emissions and odour in an innovative wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Barcón, Tamara; Hernández, Jerónimo; Gómez-Cuervo, Santiago; Garrido, Juan M; Omil, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    An innovative and patented process for medium-high strength sewage which comprises an anaerobic step followed by a hybrid anoxic-aerobic chamber and a final ultrafiltration stage was characterized in terms of methane fugitive emissions as well as odours. The operation at ambient temperature implies higher methane content in the liquid anaerobic effluent, which finally causes concentrations around 0.01-2.4% in the off-gas released in the anoxic-aerobic chamber (1.25% average). Mass balances indicate that these emissions account for up to 30-35% of the total methane generated in the anaerobic reactor. A conventional biofilter (BF) operated at an empty bed residence time of 4 min was used to treat these emissions for 70 d. In spite of the fluctuations in the methane inlet concentrations derived from the operation of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), it was possible to operate at pseudo-steady-state conditions, achieving average removal efficiencies of 76.5% and maximum elimination capacities of 30.1 g m(-3) h(-1). Odour removal was quantified as 99.1%. Fluorescence in situ hybridization probes as well as metabolic activity assays demonstrated the suitability of the biomass developed in the WWTP as inoculum to start up the BF due to the presence of methanotrophic bacteria. PMID:25749282

  11. Functional proteomic analysis revealed ground-base ion radiations cannot reflect biological effects of space radiations of rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Sun, Yeqing; Zhao, Qian; Han, Lu

    2016-07-01

    Highly ionizing radiation (HZE) in space is considered as main factor causing biological effects. Radiobiological studies during space flights are unrepeatable due to the variable space radiation environment, ground-base ion radiations are usually performed to simulate of the space biological effect. Spaceflights present a low-dose rate (0.1˜~0.3mGy/day) radiation environment inside aerocrafts while ground-base ion radiations present a much higher dose rate (100˜~500mGy/min). Whether ground-base ion radiation can reflect effects of space radiation is worth of evaluation. In this research, we compared the functional proteomic profiles of rice plants between on-ground simulated HZE particle radiation and spaceflight treatments. Three independent ground-base seed ionizing radiation experiments with different cumulative doses (dose range: 2˜~20000mGy) and different liner energy transfer (LET) values (13.3˜~500keV/μμm) and two independent seed spaceflight experiments onboard Chinese 20th satellite and SZ-6 spacecraft were carried out. Alterations in the proteome were analyzed by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) with MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry identifications. 45 and 59 proteins showed significant (p<0.05) and reproducible quantitative differences in ground-base ion radiation and spaceflight experiments respectively. The functions of ground-base radiation and spaceflight proteins were both involved in a wide range of biological processes. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis further revealed that ground-base radiation responsive proteins were mainly involved in removal of superoxide radicals, defense response to stimulus and photosynthesis, while spaceflight responsive proteins mainly participate in nucleoside metabolic process, protein folding and phosphorylation. The results implied that ground-base radiations cannot truly reflect effects of spaceflight radiations, ground-base radiation was a kind of indirect effect to rice causing

  12. Multi-target screening of biological samples using LC-MS/MS: focus on chromatographic innovations.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Isabelle; Guillarme, Davy

    2014-05-01

    Multi-target screening of biological fluids is a key tool in clinical and forensic toxicology. A complete toxicological analysis encompasses the sample preparation, the chromatographic separation and the detection. The present review briefly covers the new trends in sample preparation and detection and mainly focuses on the chromatographic stage, since a lot of technical improvements have been proposed over the last years. Among them, columns packed with sub-2 μm fully porous particles and sub-3 μm core-shell particles allow for significant improvements of resolution and higher throughput. Even if reversed-phase LC remains the most widely used chromatographic mode for toxicological screening, hydrophilic interaction chromatography and supercritical fluid chromatography appear as promising alternatives for attaining orthogonal selectivity, retention of polar compounds, and enhanced MS sensitivity. PMID:24946925

  13. Systems biology approaches to develop innovative strategies for lung cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Viktorsson, K; Lewensohn, R; Zhivotovsky, B

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer (LC) is a number one killer of cancer-related death among men and women worldwide. Major advances have been made in the diagnosis, staging and use of surgery for LC, but systemic chemotherapy and radiotherapy alone or in combination with some targeted agents remains the core treatment of advanced LC. Unfortunately, in spite of improved diagnosis, surgical methods and new treatments, mortality is still extremely high among LC patients. To understand the precise functioning of signaling pathways associated with resistance to current treatments in LC, as well as to identify novel treatment regimens, a holistic approach to analyze signaling networks should be applied. Here, we describe systems biology-based approaches to generate biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets in LC, as well as how this may contribute to personalized treatment for this malignancy. PMID:24874732

  14. Innovative High Gas Pressure Microscopy Chamber Designed for Biological Cell Observation.

    PubMed

    Ragon, Mélanie; Nguyen Thi Minh, Hue; Guyot, Stéphane; Loison, Pauline; Burgaud, Gaëtan; Dupont, Sébastien; Beney, Laurent; Gervais, Patrick; Perrier-Cornet, Jean-Marie

    2016-02-01

    An original high-pressure microscopy chamber has been designed for real-time visualization of biological cell growth during high isostatic (gas or liquid) pressure treatments up to 200 MPa. This new system is highly flexible allowing cell visualization under a wide range of pressure levels as the thickness and the material of the observation window can be easily adapted. Moreover, the design of the observation area allows different microscope objectives to be used as close as possible to the observation window. This chamber can also be temperature controlled. In this study, the resistance and optical properties of this new high-pressure chamber have been tested and characterized. The use of this new chamber was illustrated by a real-time study of the growth of two different yeast strains - Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida viswanathii - under high isostatic gas pressure (30 or 20 MPa, respectively). Using image analysis software, we determined the evolution of the area of colonies as a function of time, and thus calculated colony expansion rates. PMID:26810277

  15. Integration of an innovative biological treatment with physical or chemical disinfection for wastewater reuse.

    PubMed

    De Sanctis, Marco; Del Moro, Guido; Levantesi, Caterina; Luprano, Maria Laura; Di Iaconi, Claudio

    2016-02-01

    In the present paper, the effectiveness of a Sequencing Batch Biofilter Granular Reactor (SBBGR) and its integration with different disinfection strategies (UV irradiation, peracetic acid) for producing an effluent suitable for agricultural use was evaluated. The plant treated raw domestic sewage, and its performances were evaluated in terms of the removal efficiency of a wide group of physical, chemical and microbiological parameters. The SBBGR resulted really efficient in removing suspended solids, COD and nitrogen with an average effluent concentration of 5, 32 and 10 mg/L, respectively. Lower removal efficiency was observed for phosphorus with an average concentration in the effluent of 3 mg/L. Plant effluent was also characterized by an average electrical conductivity and sodium adsorption ratio of 680 μS/cm and 2.9, respectively. Therefore, according to these gross parameters, the SBBGR effluent was conformed to the national standards required in Italy for agricultural reuse. Moreover, disinfection performances of the SBBGR was higher than that of conventional municipal wastewater treatment plants and met the quality criteria suggested by WHO (Escherichia coli<1000 CFU/100 mL) for agricultural reuse. In particular, the biological treatment by SBBGR removed 3.8±0.4 log units of Giardia lamblia, 2.8±0.8 log units of E. coli, 2.5±0.7 log units of total coliforms, 2.0±0.3 log units of Clostridium perfringens, 2.0±0.4 log units of Cryptosporidium parvum and 1.7±0.7 log units of Somatic coliphages. The investigated disinfection processes (UV and peracetic acid) resulted very effective for total coliforms, E. coli and somatic coliphages. In particular, a UV radiation and peracetic acid doses of 40 mJ/cm(2) and 1 mg/L respectively reduced E. coli content in the effluent below the limit for agricultural reuse in Italy (10 CFU/100 mL). Conversely, they were both ineffective on C.perfringens spores. PMID:26584070

  16. Biological membrane modeling with a liquid/liquid interface. Probing mobility and environment with total internal reflection excited fluorescence.

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, L E; Weber, G

    1987-01-01

    Total internal reflection of exciting light, in combination with fluorescence intensity and polarization measurements, was used to selectively study fluorescent compounds adsorbed to the interface region between two immiscible liquids. A fluorometer was constructed which provided excitation at variable angles of incidence and allowed sensitive detection of polarized fluorescence emitted from the interface. The compound 4,4'-bis-1-phenylamino-8-naphthalenesulfonate (bis-ANS) was examined at a decalin/water interface and was found to possess remarkable affinity for the interface region with the bulk of the adsorbed molecule residing in the decalin phase. The adsorbed fluorophore displayed an apparent hindered rotation in the plane of the interface with a rotational diffusion coefficient 3- to 12-fold lower than that expected for bis-ANS in solution. While other dyes examined were not found to be significantly surface active, the addition of cationic surfactant sufficed to induce adsorption of the anionic fluorophore 1-aminonaphthalene-3,6,8-trisulfonic acid. This fluoropore was found to reside in an aqueous environment when bound to the interface, and it also exhibited hindered rotation in the plane of the interface. As the concentrations of the dyes were increased, both adsorbed dyes exhibited polarization reductions consistent with excitation energy transfer. Adsorption of bis-ANS was reversed by addition of bovine serum albumin. The membrane protein cytochrome b5 was found not to bind at the decalin/water interface, indicating that interaction with lipid is required for its adherence to biological membranes. PMID:3651556

  17. Analogical reflection as a source for the science of life: Kant and the possibility of the biological sciences.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Dalia

    2016-08-01

    In contrast to the previously widespread view that Kant's work was largely in dialogue with the physical sciences, recent scholarship has highlighted Kant's interest in and contributions to the life sciences. Scholars are now investigating the extent to which Kant appealed to and incorporated insights from the life sciences and considering the ways he may have contributed to a new conception of living beings. The scholarship remains, however, divided in its interest: historians of science are concerned with the content of Kant's claims, and the ways in which they may or may not have contributed to the emerging science of life, while historians of philosophy focus on the systematic justifications for Kant's claims, e.g., the methodological and theoretical underpinnings of Kant's statement that living beings are mechanically inexplicable. My aim in this paper is to bring together these two strands of scholarship into dialogue by showing how Kant's methodological concerns (specifically, his notion of reflective judgment) contributed to his conception of living beings and to the ontological concern with life as a distinctive object of study. I argue that although Kant's explicit statement was that biology could not be a science, his implicit and more fundamental claim was that the study of living beings necessitates a distinctive mode of thought, a mode that is essentially analogical. I consider the implications of this view, and argue that it is by developing a new methodology for grasping organized beings that Kant makes his most important contribution to the new science of life. PMID:27474186

  18. The "What Is a System" Reflection Interview as a Knowledge Integration Activity for High School Students' Understanding of Complex Systems in Human Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tripto, Jaklin; Ben-Zvi Assaraf, Orit; Snapir, Zohar; Amit, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the reflection interview as a tool for assessing and facilitating the use of "systems language" amongst 11th grade students who have recently completed their first year of high school biology. Eighty-three students composed two concept maps in the 10th grade--one at the beginning of the school year and one at its end.…

  19. Transforming beliefs and practices: Elementary teacher candidates' development through shared authentic teaching and reflection experiences within an innovative science methods course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naidoo, Kara

    Elementary teachers are criticized for failing to incorporate meaningful science instruction in their classrooms or avoiding science instruction altogether. The lack of adequate science instruction in elementary schools is partially attributed to teacher candidates' anxiety, poor content and pedagogical preparation, and low science teaching self-efficacy. The central premise of this study was that many of these issues could be alleviated through course modifications designed to address these issues. The design tested and presented here provided prospective elementary educators' authentic science teaching experiences with elementary students in a low-stakes environment with the collaboration of peers and science teacher educators. The process of comprehensive reflection was developed for and tested in this study. Comprehensive reflection is individual and collective, written and set in dialogic discourse, focused on past and future behavior, and utilizes video recordings from shared teaching experiences. To test the central premise, an innovative science methods course was designed, implemented and evaluated using a one-group mixed-method design. The focus of the analysis was on changes in self-efficacy, identity and teaching practices as a function of authentic science teaching experiences and comprehensive reflection. The quantitative tools for analysis were t-tests and repeated-measures ANOVA on the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument-B (STEBI-B) and weekly self-rating on confidence as a learner and a teacher of science, respectively. The tools used to analyze qualitative data included thematic analysis and interpretative phenomenological analysis. In addition, theoretically grounded tools were developed and used in a case study to determine the ways one prospective educator's science teaching identity was influenced by experiences in the course. The innovative course structure led the development of teacher candidates' science teaching identity

  20. Cultural inter-population differences do not reflect biological distances: an example of interdisciplinary analysis of populations from Eastern Adriatic coast

    PubMed Central

    Bašić, Željana; Fox, Ayano R; Anterić, Ivana; Jerković, Ivan; Polašek, Ozren; Anđelinović, Šimun; Holland, Mitchell M; Primorac, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Aim To compare the population group from the Šopot graveyard with population groups from traditional Croatian medieval graveyards by using anthropological, craniometrics, and mitochondrial (mtDNA) analysis and to examine if the cultural differences between population groups reflect biological differences. Methods We determined sex, age at death, pathological, and traumatic changes of skeletal remains from the Šopot graveyard and compared them with a cumulative medieval sample from the same region. We also performed principal component analysis to compare skeletal remains from Šopot with those from Ostrovica and other Central European samples according to 8 cranial measurements. Finally, we compared 46 skeletons from Šopot with medieval (Ostrovica) and contemporary populations using mDNA haplogroup profiling. Results The remains from Šopot were similar to the cumulative sample in lifestyle and quality of life markers. Principal component analysis showed that they were closely related to Eastern Adriatic coast sites (including Ostrovica and Šopot) in terms of cranial morphology, indicating similar biological makeup. According to mDNA testing, Šopot population showed no significant differences in the haplogroup prevalence from either medieval or contemporary populations. Conclusion This study shows that the Šopot population does not significantly differ from other medieval populations from this area. Besides similar quality of life markers, these populations also had similar biological markers. Substantial archeological differences can therefore be attributed to apparent cultural influences, which in this case do not reflect biological differences. PMID:26088847

  1. Discovery of Innovative Therapies for Rare Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Diseases via Off-Label Prescription of Biologics: The Case of IL-6 Receptor Blockade in Castleman's Disease.

    PubMed

    Musters, Anne; Assaf, Amira; Gerlag, Danielle M; Tak, Paul P; Tas, Sander W

    2015-01-01

    Biologics have revolutionized the field of clinical immunology and proven to be both effective and safe in common immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel diseases, and various hematological disorders. However, in patients with rare, severe IMIDs failing on standard therapies, it is virtually impossible to conduct randomized controlled trials. Therefore, biologics are usually prescribed off-label in these often severely ill patients. Unfortunately, off-label prescription is sometimes hampered in these diseases due to a lack of reimbursement that is often based on a presumed lack of evidence for effectiveness. In the present article, we will discuss that off-label prescription of biologics can be a good way to discover new treatments for rare diseases. This will be illustrated using a case of multicentric Castleman's disease, an immune-mediated lymphoproliferative disorder, in which off-label tocilizumab (humanized anti-IL-6 receptor blocking antibody) treatment resulted in remarkable clinical improvement. Furthermore, we will give recommendations for monitoring efficacy and safety of biologic treatment in rare IMIDs, including the use of registries. In conclusion, we put forward that innovative treatments for rare IMIDs can be discovered via off-label prescription of biologicals, provided that this is based on rational arguments including knowledge of the pathophysiology of the disease. PMID:26697019

  2. Optimization of the Inverse Algorithm for Estimating the Optical Properties of Biological Materials Using Spatially-resolved Diffuse Reflectance Technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determination of the optical properties from intact biological materials based on diffusion approximation theory is a complicated inverse problem, and it requires proper implementation of inverse algorithm, instrumentation, and experiment. This work was aimed at optimizing the procedure of estimatin...

  3. Analysing Vee Diagram Reflections to Explore Pre-Service Science Teachers' Understanding the Nature of Science in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savran-Gencer, Ayse

    2014-01-01

    Vee diagrams have been a metacognitive tool to help in learning the nature and structure of knowledge by reflecting on the scientific process and making knowledge much more explicit to learners during the practical work. This study aimed to assess pre-service science teachers' understanding some aspects of NOS by analyzing their reflections…

  4. A Community College Instructor's Reflective Journey Toward Developing Pedagogical Content Knowledge for Nature of Science in a Non-majors Undergraduate Biology Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krajewski, Sarah J.; Schwartz, Renee

    2014-08-01

    Research supports an explicit-reflective approach to teaching about nature of science (NOS), but little is reported on teachers' journeys as they attempt to integrate NOS into everyday lessons. This participatory action research paper reports the challenges and successes encountered by an in-service teacher, Sarah, implementing NOS for the first time throughout four units of a community college biology course (genetics, molecular biology, evolution, and ecology). Through the action research cycles of planning, implementing, and reflecting, Sarah identified areas of challenge and success. This paper reports emergent themes that assisted her in successfully embedding NOS within the science content. Data include weekly lesson plans and pre/post reflective journaling before and after each lesson of this lecture/lab combination class that met twice a week. This course was taught back to back semesters, and this study is based on the results of a year-long process. Developing pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) for NOS involves coming to understand the overlaps and connections between NOS, other science subject matter, pedagogical strategies, and student learning. Sarah found that through action research she was able to grow and assimilate her understanding of NOS within the biology content she was teaching. A shift in orientation toward teaching products of science to teaching science processes was a necessary shift for NOS pedagogical success. This process enabled Sarah's development of PCK for NOS. As a practical example of putting research-based instructional recommendations into practice, this study may be very useful for other teachers who are learning to teach NOS.

  5. Broadening of effective photonic band gaps in biological chiral structures: From intrinsic narrow band gaps to broad band reflection spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, W. E.; Hernández-Jiménez, M.; Libby, E.; Azofeifa, D. E.; Solis, Á.; Barboza-Aguilar, C.

    2015-09-01

    Under normal illumination with non-polarized light, reflection spectra of the cuticle of golden-like and red Chrysina aurigans scarabs show a structured broad band of left-handed circularly polarized light. The polarization of the reflected light is attributed to a Bouligand-type left-handed chiral structure found through the scarab's cuticle. By considering these twisted structures as one-dimensional photonic crystals, a novel approach is developed from the dispersion relation of circularly polarized electromagnetic waves traveling through chiral media, to show how the broad band characterizing these spectra arises from an intrinsic narrow photonic band gap whose spectral position moves through visible and near-infrared wavelengths.

  6. Biological differences reflect host preference in two parasitoids attacking the bark beetle Ips typographus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Hougardy, E; Grégoire, J-C

    2004-08-01

    The basic reproductive biology of two ectoparasitoids developing on the late larval instars of the scolytid Ips typographus Linnaeus, a pest of spruce forests in Eurasia, was studied with the purpose of explaining which biological features allow the two species to share the same host. The anautogenous braconid Coeloides bostrichorum Giraud had a longer pre-oviposition period (5.1 vs. 3.3 days), a greater egg load (8.1 vs. 6.1 eggs), survived longer and emerged later than the pteromalid Rhopalicus tutela (Walker). In contrast, R. tutela was autogenous and tended to be more fecund under constrained conditions (9.7 vs. 5.1 total offspring per female). The longer pre-oviposition period of the specialist C. bostrichorum, coupled with its greater longevity, afforded the opportunity of better synchronization of ovipositing females with late instar larvae of I. typographus. By contrast, the polyphagous R. tutela matured rapidly, allowing parasitism of both younger and older larval instars of I. typographus in addition to other species. These small differences favoured the co-occurrence of the two parasitoid species on the same attacked trees. PMID:15301699

  7. On the renormalisation of the diffusion asymptotics in the problem of reflection of a narrow optical beam from a biological medium

    SciTech Connect

    Appanov, A Yu; Barabanenkov, Yu N

    2005-12-31

    An analytic hybrid method is considered for solving the stationary radiation transfer equation in the problem on reflection of a narrow laser beam from biological media such as the 2% aqueous solution of intralipid and erythrocyte suspension with the volume concentration (hematocrit) H=0.41. The method is based on the reciprocity of the Green function in the radiation transfer theory and on the iteration solution of the integral equation for this function. As a result, the ray intensity is represented as a sum of two terms. The first of them describes the contribution of finite-order scattering to the intensity of a beam diffusely reflected from the medium. The second term contains the explicit analytic expression for a spatially distributed effective source of diffuse radiation emerging from the deep layers of the medium to the surface. This approach substantially improves the diffusion approximation for the problem under study and allows one to obtain the uniform asymptotics of the reflection coefficient at the specified interval of distances between the radiation source and detector on the medium surface with the relative error within {+-}6% for the 2% intralipid emulsion and erythrocyte suspension (H=0.41). (radiation scattering)

  8. A non-invasive diffuse reflectance calibration-free method for absolute determination of exogenous biochemicals concentration in biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lappa, Alexander V.; Kulikovskiy, Artem N.; Busarov, Oleg G.

    2014-03-01

    The paper presents a new method for distant non-destructive determination of concentration of light absorbing admixtures in turbid media. In particular, it is intended for non-invasive in vivo control of accumulation in patient tissues of various biochemicals introduced to the patients for chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy or diagnostics. It is require that the admixture absorption spectrum should have a clearly marked peak in the wavelength region where the pure medium one varies regularly. Fluorescence of admixtures is not required. The method uses the local diffuse reflectance spectroscopy with optical fiber probe including one emitting and two reading There are several features in the method: the value to be determined is absolute concentration of admixtures; the method needs no calibration measurements on phantoms; it needs no reference measurements on sample with zero admixture concentration; it uses a two parametric kinetic light propagation model and original algorithms to resolve direct and inverse tasks of radiation transport theory. Experimental testing passed with tissue equivalent phantoms and different admixtures, including a chlorine photosensitizer, showed accuracy under 10% in all cases.

  9. The Need for Innovative Methods of Teaching and Learning Chemistry in Higher Education--Reflections from a Project of the European Chemistry Thematic Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eilks, Ingo; Byers, Bill

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes the work and conclusions of a working group established by the European Chemistry Thematic Network (ECTN). The aim of the working group was to identify potential areas for innovative approaches to the teaching and learning of chemistry in Higher Education, and to survey good practice throughout the EU. The paper starts by…

  10. The `What is a system' reflection interview as a knowledge integration activity for high school students' understanding of complex systems in human biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripto, Jaklin; Ben-Zvi Assaraf, Orit; Snapir, Zohar; Amit, Miriam

    2016-03-01

    This study examined the reflection interview as a tool for assessing and facilitating the use of 'systems language' amongst 11th grade students who have recently completed their first year of high school biology. Eighty-three students composed two concept maps in the 10th grade-one at the beginning of the school year and one at its end. The first part of the interview is dedicated to guiding the students through comparing their two concept maps and by means of both explicit and non-explicit teaching. Our study showed that the explicit guidance in comparing the two concept maps was more effective than the non-explicit, eliciting a variety of different, more specific, types of interactions and patterns (e.g. 'hierarchy', 'dynamism', 'homeostasis') in the students' descriptions of the human body system. The reflection interview as a knowledge integration activity was found to be an effective tool for assessing the subjects' conceptual models of 'system complexity', and for identifying those aspects of a system that are most commonly misunderstood.

  11. Use of high-intensity sonication for pre-treatment of biological tissues prior to multielemental analysis by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Calle, Inmaculada De; Costas, Marta; Cabaleiro, Noelia; Lavilla, Isela; Bendicho, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    In this work, two ultrasound-based procedures are developed for sample preparation prior to determination of P, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se and Sr in biological tissues by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Ultrasound-assisted extraction by means of a cup-horn sonoreactor and ultrasonic-probe slurry sampling were compared with a well-established procedure such as magnetic agitation slurry sampling. For that purpose, seven certified reference materials and different real samples of animal tissue were used. Similar accuracy and precision is obtained with the three sample preparation approaches tried. Limits of detection were dependent on both the sample matrix and the sample pre-treatment used, best values being achieved with ultrasound-assisted extraction. Advantages of ultrasound-assisted extraction include reduced sample handling, decreased contamination risks (neither addition of surfactants nor use of foreign objects inside the extraction vial), simpler background (no solid particles onto the sample carrier) and improved recovery for some elements such as P. A mixture of 10% v/v HNO3 + 20-40% v/v HCl was suitable for extraction from biological tissues.

  12. Propolis Standardized Extract (EPP-AF®), an Innovative Chemically and Biologically Reproducible Pharmaceutical Compound for Treating Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Berretta, Andresa Aparecida; Nascimento, Andresa Piacezzi; Bueno, Paula Carolina Pires; de Oliveira Lima Leite Vaz, Mirela Mara; Marchetti, Juliana Maldonado

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a formulation, containing the propolis standardized extract (EPP-AF®), which can assist in the healing of skin lesions. To achieve this objective the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of the propolis extract was determined. The final product was subjected to in vitro and in vivo pre-clinical evaluation. The broth macrodilution method was used to determine the antimicrobial activity of the extracts and formulations against the microorganisms most commonly found in burns, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Wistar rats with puncture wounded skin were used to evaluate the wound healing properties of propolis. The results of chemical and biological characterization demonstrated the batch-to-batch reproducibility of the standardized extract which is an unprecedented result. The antimicrobial and wound healing activity of the pharmaceutical studied showed the best results when samples contain 3.6% propolis, suggesting that this is the most promising composition. PMID:22457606

  13. Reflecting Reflective Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galea, Simone

    2012-01-01

    This paper demystifies reflective practice on teaching by focusing on the idea of reflection itself and how it has been conceived by two philosophers, Plato and Irigaray. It argues that reflective practice has become a standardized method of defining the teacher in teacher education and teacher accreditation systems. It explores how practices of…

  14. Innovation in san francisco.

    PubMed

    Travis, J

    1992-08-01

    In San Francisco 2 weeks ago, AAAS and Science sponsored a new meeting, Science Innovation '92. The unusual gathering focused not on research results but on new techniques and instruments, particularly for biomedical science. As seen in the stories below, some of the most eye-catching innovations emerged at the intersection of physics and biology. PMID:17736460

  15. EBP2R - an innovative enhanced biological nutrient recovery activated sludge system to produce growth medium for green microalgae cultivation.

    PubMed

    Valverde-Pérez, Borja; Ramin, Elham; Smets, Barth F; Plósz, Benedek Gy

    2015-01-01

    Current research considers wastewater as a source of energy, nutrients and water and not just a source of pollution. So far, mainly energy intensive physical and chemical unit processes have been developed to recover some of these resources, and less energy and resource demanding alternatives are needed. Here, we present a modified enhanced biological phosphorus removal and recovery system (referred to as EBP2R) that can produce optimal culture media for downstream micro-algal growth in terms of N and P content. Phosphorus is recovered as a P-stream by diversion of some of the effluent from the upstream anaerobic reactor. By operating the process at comparably low solids retention times (SRT), the nitrogen content of wastewater is retained as free and saline ammonia, the preferred form of nitrogen for most micro-algae. Scenario simulations were carried out to assess the capacity of the EBP2R system to produce nutrient rich organic-carbon depleted algal cultivation media of target composition. Via SRT control, the quality of the constructed cultivation media can be optimized to support a wide range of green micro-algal growth requirements. Up to 75% of the influent phosphorus can be recovered, by diverting 30% of the influent flow as a P-stream at an SRT of 5 days. Through global sensitivity analysis we find that the effluent N-to-P ratio and the P recovered are mainly dependent on the influent quality rather than on biokinetics or stoichiometry. Further research is needed to demonstrate that the system performance predicted through the model-based design can be achieved in reality. PMID:25480432

  16. Earlybird in South Staffordshire: Reflections on an Innovative Model of Interagency Working to Deliver an Intervention for Families of Preschool Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpin, Julia; Pitt, Sally; Dodd, Emma

    2011-01-01

    In this article three education and health services professionals, Julia Halpin, Sally Pitt and Emma Dodd, describe and reflect upon the way in which a small group of professionals from health and education services worked in collaboration to meet the need to inform and empower parents of preschool children with a diagnosis of autistic spectrum…

  17. Effect of mineralogical, geochemical and biological properties on soils reflectance to assess temporal and spatial dynamics of BSCs in Sahelian ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourguignon, A.; Cerdan, O.; Desprats, J. F.; Marin, B.; Malam Issa, O.; Valentin, C.; Rajot, J. L.

    2012-04-01

    Land degradation and desertification are among the major environmental problems, resulting in reduced productivity and development of bare surfaces in arid and semi-arid areas of the world. One important factor that acts to increase soil stability and nutrient content, and thus to prevent water and wind erosion and enhance soil productivity of arid environment, is the presence of biological soil crusts (BSCs). They are the dominant ground cover and a key component of arid environments built up mainly by cyanobacteria. They enhance degraded soil quality by providing a stable and water-retaining substratum and increasing fertility by N and C fixations. The BioCrust project, funded by ANR (VMCS 2008), focuses on BSCs in the Sahelian zone of West Africa (Niger), a highly vulnerable zone facing soil degradation due to the harsh climatic conditions, with variable rainfall, and high anthropic pressure on land use. Unlike arid areas of developed countries (USA, Australia and Israel) or China where BSCs have been extensively studied, studies from Sahelian zone (Africa) are limited (neither the inventory of their different form nor the estimation of their spatial extension has been carried out). The form, structure and composition of BSCs vary depending on characteristics related to soils and biological composition. This study focuses on the soils characterisation using ground-based spectroradiometry. An extensive database was built included spectral measurements on BSCs, bare soils and vegetation that occur in the same area, visual criteria, in situ and laboratory measurements on the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of BSCs and their substratum. The work is carried out on geo-statistical processing of data acquired in sites along a north-south climatic gradient and three types of representative land uses. The investigated areas are highly vulnerable zone facing soil degradation due to the harsh climatic conditions, with variable rainfall, and high anthropic

  18. Reflective Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Thomas S. C.

    2013-01-01

    Thomas Farrell's "Reflective Teaching" outlines four principles that take teachers from just doing reflection to making it a way of being. Using the four principles, Reflective Practice Is Evidence Based, Reflective Practice Involves Dialogue, Reflective Practice Links Beliefs and Practices, and Reflective Practice Is a Way of Life,…

  19. Re-evaluating Russia's biological weapons policy, as reflected in the Criminal Code and Official Admissions: insubordination leading to a president's subordination.

    PubMed

    Knoph, Jan T; Westerdahl, Kristina S

    2006-01-01

    Half-heartedly acknowledged by the Russian Federation, the Soviet Union ran the world's largest offensive program for biological weapons, breaching the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention. Russia criminalized biological weapons in 1993 only to decriminalize them in 1996, but in 2003 president Putin partly recriminalized them. None of these changes were declared within the Convention. Several well-known official statements, when reviewed in their context, turned out to admit to neither an offensive program nor a breach of the Convention. Thus, the Russian biological weapons policy is more ambiguous than usually depicted, and various policy shapers can be discerned. PMID:16610333

  20. Innovation in the personal care industry.

    PubMed

    Knaggs, Helen

    2010-09-01

    When considering opportunities to develop novel, eye-catching and consumer-relevant personal care (PC) products, it is important to understand and reflect on how science has changed over the last two decades and how this has generated a new body of data from which to draw ideas and technologies. This article outlines some advances in scientific technologies and new ways of thinking in science, which lead to new insights into skin biology. How these innovations may impact and be leveraged into the development of new products in PC is also discussed. For example, fundamental discoveries in skin biology and the advancement of scientific methodologies are enabling step changes in technology in PC. Two examples of areas where we have seen much advancement are discussed. This article is based on and summarizes a presentation given at the HBA in Sep 2009 as part of a session entitled "Emerging Technologies and New Opportunities in Antiaging in PC." PMID:20883304

  1. Reflection Coefficients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses and provides an example of reflectivity approximation to determine whether reflection will occur. Provides a method to show thin-film interference on a projection screen. Also applies the reflectivity concepts to electromagnetic wave systems. (MVL)

  2. Summary Report: Pilot Study of an Innovative Biological Treatment Process for the Removal of Ammonia from a Small Drinking Water System

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of biologically active filtration to oxidize ammonia as a full-scale drinking water treatment process has not been thoroughly considered in the United States. A number of concerns with biological water treatment exist including the potential release of excessive numbers o...

  3. Schooling Redesigned: Towards Innovative Learning Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Istance, David

    2015-01-01

    What does redesigning schools and schooling through innovation mean in practice? How might it be brought about? These questions have inspired an influential international reflection on "Innovative Learning Environments" (ILE) led by the OECD. This reflection has already resulted in publications on core design principles and frameworks…

  4. A day of systems and synthetic biology for non-experts: reflections on day 1 of the EMBL/EMBO joint conference on Science and Society.

    PubMed

    Moore, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    From understanding ageing to the creation of artificial membrane-bounded 'organisms', systems biology and synthetic biology are seen as the latest revolutions in the life sciences. They certainly represent a major change of gear, but paradigm shifts? This is open to debate, to say the least. For scientists they open up exciting ways of studying living systems, of formulating the 'laws of life', and the relationship between the origin of life, evolution and artificial biological systems. However, the ethical and societal considerations are probably indistinguishable from those of human genetics and genetically modified organisms. There are some tangible developments just around the corner for society, and as ever, our ability to understand the consequences of, and manage, our own progress lags far behind our technological abilities. Furthermore our educational systems are doing a bad job of preparing the next generation of scientists and non-scientists. PMID:19153995

  5. Innovative Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barsi, Louis M.; Kaebnick, Gweneth W.

    1989-01-01

    The phenomenon of innovation within the university is examined, noting the possibility of innovation as a key to college vitality. A study was conducted using a group of institutions that demonstrated recent innovative spirit. Members of the American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU), each has been recognized in an annual…

  6. A Community College Instructor's Reflective Journey toward Developing Pedagogical Content Knowledge for Nature of Science in a Non-Majors Undergraduate Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krajewski, Sarah J.; Schwartz, Renee

    2014-01-01

    Research supports an explicit-reflective approach to teaching about nature of science (NOS), but little is reported on teachers' journeys as they attempt to integrate NOS into everyday lessons. This participatory action research paper reports the challenges and successes encountered by an in-service teacher, Sarah, implementing NOS for the…

  7. The Reflective Learning Continuum: Reflecting on Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltier, James W.; Hay, Amanda; Drago, William

    2005-01-01

    The importance of reflection to marketing educators is increasingly recognized. However, there is a lack of empirical research that considers reflection within the context of both the marketing and general business education literature. This article describes the use of an instrument that can be used to measure four identified levels of a…

  8. Bringing about Curriculum Innovations. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 82

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karkkainen, Kiira

    2012-01-01

    Innovation is essential for the education sector. The ways in which curriculum decision making is organised reflects different implicit approaches on how educational systems pertain to promote innovation in education. Curriculum holds an outstanding place when seeking to promote innovation in education, as it reflects the vision for education by…

  9. Trends in IT Innovation to Build a Next Generation Bioinformatics Solution to Manage and Analyse Biological Big Data Produced by NGS Technologies.

    PubMed

    de Brevern, Alexandre G; Meyniel, Jean-Philippe; Fairhead, Cécile; Neuvéglise, Cécile; Malpertuy, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Sequencing the human genome began in 1994, and 10 years of work were necessary in order to provide a nearly complete sequence. Nowadays, NGS technologies allow sequencing of a whole human genome in a few days. This deluge of data challenges scientists in many ways, as they are faced with data management issues and analysis and visualization drawbacks due to the limitations of current bioinformatics tools. In this paper, we describe how the NGS Big Data revolution changes the way of managing and analysing data. We present how biologists are confronted with abundance of methods, tools, and data formats. To overcome these problems, focus on Big Data Information Technology innovations from web and business intelligence. We underline the interest of NoSQL databases, which are much more efficient than relational databases. Since Big Data leads to the loss of interactivity with data during analysis due to high processing time, we describe solutions from the Business Intelligence that allow one to regain interactivity whatever the volume of data is. We illustrate this point with a focus on the Amadea platform. Finally, we discuss visualization challenges posed by Big Data and present the latest innovations with JavaScript graphic libraries. PMID:26125026

  10. Trends in IT Innovation to Build a Next Generation Bioinformatics Solution to Manage and Analyse Biological Big Data Produced by NGS Technologies

    PubMed Central

    de Brevern, Alexandre G.; Meyniel, Jean-Philippe; Fairhead, Cécile; Neuvéglise, Cécile; Malpertuy, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Sequencing the human genome began in 1994, and 10 years of work were necessary in order to provide a nearly complete sequence. Nowadays, NGS technologies allow sequencing of a whole human genome in a few days. This deluge of data challenges scientists in many ways, as they are faced with data management issues and analysis and visualization drawbacks due to the limitations of current bioinformatics tools. In this paper, we describe how the NGS Big Data revolution changes the way of managing and analysing data. We present how biologists are confronted with abundance of methods, tools, and data formats. To overcome these problems, focus on Big Data Information Technology innovations from web and business intelligence. We underline the interest of NoSQL databases, which are much more efficient than relational databases. Since Big Data leads to the loss of interactivity with data during analysis due to high processing time, we describe solutions from the Business Intelligence that allow one to regain interactivity whatever the volume of data is. We illustrate this point with a focus on the Amadea platform. Finally, we discuss visualization challenges posed by Big Data and present the latest innovations with JavaScript graphic libraries. PMID:26125026

  11. The Integrated Library System: From Innovation to Relegation to Innovation Again

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Primich, Tracy; Richardson, Caroline

    2006-01-01

    The Integrated Library System remains a true innovation that forms the baseline of service provided by the contemporary library. The purpose of this paper is to take a moment and reflect upon this innovation, and also to comment about ways to boost and revive innovative endeavors that can further develop the ILS. (Contains 1 table.)

  12. Innovation @ NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Juan A.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the activities National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is doing to encourage innovation across the agency. All information provided is available publicly.

  13. Systems Biology for Smart Crops and Agricultural Innovation: Filling the Gaps between Genotype and Phenotype for Complex Traits Linked with Robust Agricultural Productivity and Sustainability.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anil; Pathak, Rajesh Kumar; Gupta, Sanjay Mohan; Gaur, Vikram Singh; Pandey, Dinesh

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, rapid developments in several omics platforms and next generation sequencing technology have generated a huge amount of biological data about plants. Systems biology aims to develop and use well-organized and efficient algorithms, data structure, visualization, and communication tools for the integration of these biological data with the goal of computational modeling and simulation. It studies crop plant systems by systematically perturbing them, checking the gene, protein, and informational pathway responses; integrating these data; and finally, formulating mathematical models that describe the structure of system and its response to individual perturbations. Consequently, systems biology approaches, such as integrative and predictive ones, hold immense potential in understanding of molecular mechanism of agriculturally important complex traits linked to agricultural productivity. This has led to identification of some key genes and proteins involved in networks of pathways involved in input use efficiency, biotic and abiotic stress resistance, photosynthesis efficiency, root, stem and leaf architecture, and nutrient mobilization. The developments in the above fields have made it possible to design smart crops with superior agronomic traits through genetic manipulation of key candidate genes. PMID:26484978

  14. Developing Materials for Biology Teaching. Asian Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) Report of a Sub-Regional Workshop (Bangkok, Thailand, August 3-12, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    The major purposes of this workshop were to develop teaching and learning materials on certain selected key biology concepts relevant to environmental, genetic, and agricultural aspects, and to develop exemplary training materials on certain teacher competencies relating to laboratory and field techniques. Chapter One reports on the status and…

  15. Comparison of narrow-band reflectance spectroscopy and tristimulus colorimetry for measurements of skin and hair color in persons of different biological ancestry.

    PubMed

    Shriver, M D; Parra, E J

    2000-05-01

    We have used two modern computerized handheld reflectometers, the Photovolt ColorWalk colorimeter (a tristimulus colorimeter; Photovolt, UMM Electronics, Indianapolis, IN) and the DermaSpectrometer (a specialized narrow-band reflectometer; Cortex Technology, Hadsund, Denmark), to compare two methods for the objective determination of skin and hair color. These instruments both determine color by measuring the intensity of reflected light of particular wavelengths. The Photovolt ColorWalk instrument does so by shining a white light and sensing the intensity of the reflected light with a linear photodiode array. The ColorWalk results can then be expressed in terms of several standard color systems, most importantly, the Commission International d'Eclairage (CIE) Lab system, in which any color can be described by three values: L*, the lightness; a*, the amount of green or red; and b*, the amount of yellow or blue. Instead of a white light and photodiodes, the DermaSpectrometer uses two light-emitting diodes (LEDs), one green and one red, to illuminate a surface, and then it records the intensity of the reflected light. The results of these readings are expressed in terms of erythema (E) and melanin (M) indices. We measured the unexposed skin of the inner upper arm, the exposed skin of the forehead, and the hair, of 80 persons using these two instruments. Since it is important for the application of these measures in anthropology that we understand their relationship across a number of different pigmentation levels, we sampled persons from several different groups, namely, European Americans (n = 55), African Americans (n = 9), South Asians (n = 7), and East Asians (n = 9). In these subjects, there is a very high correlation between L* and the M index for the inner arm (R(2) = 0.928, P < 0.001), the forehead (R(2) = 0.822, P < 0.001), and the hair (R(2) = 0.827, P < 0.001). The relationship between a* and the E index is complex and dependent on the pigmentation level

  16. N,N prime -Dimethylthiourea dioxide formation from N,N prime -dimethylthiourea reflects hydrogen peroxide concentrations in simple biological systems

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, W.E.; Muldrow, M.E.; Parker, N.B.; Barkley, R.; Linas, S.L.; Repine, J.E. )

    1988-05-01

    The authors hypothesized that measurement of a specific product from reaction of N,N{prime}-dimethylthiourea (Me{sub 2}TU) and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} would provide a good indication of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} scavenging and protection seen after addition of Me{sub 2}TU to biological systems. They found that addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} to Me{sub 2}TU yielded a single stable product, Me{sub 2}TU dioxide. Me{sub 2}TU dioxide formation correlated with Me{sub 2}TU consumption as a function of added H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration and was prevented by simultaneous addition of catalase (but not boiled catalase), superoxide dismutase, dimethyl sulfoxide, mannitol, or sodium benzoate. Me{sub 2}TU dioxide formation, Me{sub 2}TU consumption, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration increases occurred in mixtures containing phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and normal human neutrophils but not in mixtures containing PMA and neutrophils from patients with chronic granulomatous disease or in mixtures containing PMA and normal neutrophils and catalase. Me{sub 2}TU dioxide formation also occurred in isolated rat lungs perfused with Me{sub 2}TU and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} but not in lungs perfused with Me{sub 2}TU and elastase, histamine, or oleic acid. In contrast, Me{sub 2}TU dioxide formation did not occur after exposure of Me{sub 2}TU to {sup 60}Co-generated hydroxyl radical or hypochlorous acid in the presence of catalase. The results indicate that reaction of Me{sub 2}TU with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} selectively forms Me{sub 2}TU may be useful for assessing the presence and significance of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in biological systems.

  17. Separation and enrichment of palladium and gold in biological and environmental samples, adapted to the determination by total reflection X-ray fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Messerschmidt, J; von Bohlen, A; Alt, F; Klockenkämper, R

    2000-03-01

    The reductive co-precipitation of trace and ultra-trace elements together with mercury followed by complete evaporation of the mercury makes it possible to determine palladium and gold by total reflection X-ray fluorescence. Both elements can be detected without interferences at optimal sensitivity in the pg range. Thus, detection limits of, e.g., 2.5 ng L-1 for palladium and 2.0 ng L-1 for gold, in urine, were obtained. The precision was determined to 0.04 at a palladium concentration of about 200 ng L-1 urine and to 0.19 at a gold concentration of only 18 ng L-1. The recovery for a urine sample spiked with known amounts of palladium and gold amounted to > 95%. Results of the combined procedure are given for the determination of palladium and gold in the urine of non-exposed and occupationally exposed persons and in some other environmentally relevant samples. PMID:10829339

  18. Reflected Glory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Colin

    2006-01-01

    The scientific model of how people see things is far removed from children's real-world experience. They know that light is needed in order to see an object, but may not know that light is reflected off the object and some of that light enters the eyes. In this article, the author explores children's understanding of reflection and how to develop…

  19. Innovative Partnerships

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szemraj, John

    2001-01-01

    A major responsibility of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is to ensure geospatial data availability. This includes the cooperative production of digital geospatial data through the National Mapping Program's Innovative Partnerships (IP) initiative, which began in October 1992.

  20. Innovation through developing consumers’ community. Part I: Innovation in action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gălăţanu (Avram, E.; Avasilcăi, S.

    2015-11-01

    Technological changes and need for innovation represents the main concerns for organizational growth and profitability. However the main priority is still about achieving high performance through product development and consumers' engagement activities. As implementation of open innovation applications increased and value co — creation became well known and major process, companies were engaged into value co — innovation activities. From this point of view the need for joint efforts with consumers in product development arose. Thus the primary condition for an organization to be consumer centric is to define clear the vision and mission which reflects the common efforts for co — creation and diffusion of innovation. As Research & Development processes evolved and interest for innovative concepts and products arose, companies started to implement the specific instruments for consumers' attraction and engagement into design and product development. The digitalized innovation became the main source for establishing the direct communication with the consumers. In order to achieve organization growth, profitability and recognition, the companies should be aware of the innovation importance and the need for internal change. From this point of view, there is necessary to assess the organizational structures, to implement new policies and to establish strategic targets. Basically it is justified the need for platform occurrence and development. Based on case study of BMW Group, recognised leader in automotive industry for innovative concepts, there will be analysed main features within organizational context which promotes the innovation implementation. There will be provided the review of the BMW Group experience of innovation activities, main consumers' engagement strategies, the values which promote the consumer — centric product development, new opportunities assessment, major policies and concerns. The foreseen result is to understand how companies are

  1. Bioregulatory systems medicine: an innovative approach to integrating the science of molecular networks, inflammation, and systems biology with the patient's autoregulatory capacity?

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Alyssa W.; Burmeister, Yvonne; Cesnulevicius, Konstantin; Herbert, Martha; Kane, Mary; Lescheid, David; McCaffrey, Timothy; Schultz, Myron; Seilheimer, Bernd; Smit, Alta; St. Laurent, Georges; Berman, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Bioregulatory systems medicine (BrSM) is a paradigm that aims to advance current medical practices. The basic scientific and clinical tenets of this approach embrace an interconnected picture of human health, supported largely by recent advances in systems biology and genomics, and focus on the implications of multi-scale interconnectivity for improving therapeutic approaches to disease. This article introduces the formal incorporation of these scientific and clinical elements into a cohesive theoretical model of the BrSM approach. The authors review this integrated body of knowledge and discuss how the emergent conceptual model offers the medical field a new avenue for extending the armamentarium of current treatment and healthcare, with the ultimate goal of improving population health. PMID:26347656

  2. Initiating Innovation in Post-Secondary Institutions--Customizing Teaching and Learning Environments for the Twenty-First Century: Collective Reflections from the 2014 Cohort of 3M National Student Fellows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Heather; Chandrashekhar, Shwetha; Huang, Danny; Kim, David; Liu, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In light of the enormous changes unfolding in the higher education landscape, we don't have to look too far to recognize evidence of the transformation and redefinition of the construct of both teaching and learning in the information age. With a growing focus on teaching and learning at all levels of post-secondary institutions, innovation is…

  3. Building an innovation factory.

    PubMed

    Hargadon, A; Sutton, R I

    2000-01-01

    New ideas are the precious currency of the new economy, but generating them doesn't have to be a mysterious process. The image of the lone genius inventing from scratch is a romantic fiction. Businesses that constantly innovate have systematized the production and testing of new ideas, and the system can be replicated by practically any organization. The best innovators use old ideas as the raw materials for new ideas, a strategy the authors call knowledge brokering. The system for sustaining innovation is the knowledge brokering cycle, and the authors discuss its four parts. The first is capturing good ideas from a wide variety of sources. The second is keeping those ideas alive by playing with them, discussing them, and using them. Imagining new uses for old ideas is the third part--some knowledge brokers encourage cross-pollination by creating physical layouts that allow, or even force, people to interact with one another. The fourth is turning promising concepts into real services, products, processes, or business models. Companies can use all or part of the cycle. Large companies in particular desperately need to move ideas from one place to another. Some will want to build full-fledged consulting groups dedicated to internal knowledge brokering. Others can hire people who have faced problems similar to the companies' current problems. The most important lesson is that business leaders must change how they think about innovation, and they must change how their company cultures reflect that thinking. PMID:11183977

  4. High-throughput Multiplexed xMAP Luminex Array Panel for Detection of Twenty TWO Medically Important Mosquito-borne Arboviruses based on Innovations in Synthetic Biology

    PubMed Central

    Glushakova, Lyudmyla G.; Bradley, Andrea; Bradley, Kevin M.; Alto, Barry W.; Hoshika, Shuichi; Hutter, Daniel; Sharma, Nidhi; Yang, Zunyi; Kim, Myong-Jung; Benner, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Mosquito-borne arboviruses are emerging world-wide as important human and animal pathogens. This makes assays for their accurate and rapid identification essential for public health, epidemiological, ecological studies. Over the past decade, many mono- and multiplexed assays targeting arboviruses nucleic acids have been reported. None has become established for the routine identification of multiple viruses in a “single tube” setting. With increasing multiplexing, the detection of viral RNAs is complicated by noise, false positives and negatives. In this study, an assay was developed that avoids these problems by combining two new kinds of nucleic acids emerging from the field of synthetic biology. The first is a “self-avoiding molecular recognition system” (SAMRS), which enables high levels of multiplexing. The second is an “artificially expanded genetic information system” (AEGIS), which enables clean PCR amplification in nested PCR formats. A conversion technology was used to place AEGIS component into amplicon, improving their efficiency of hybridization on Luminex beads. When Luminex “liquid microarrays” are exploited for downstream detection, this combination supports single-tube PCR amplification assays that can identify 22 mosquito-borne RNA viruses from the genera Flavivirus, Alphavirus, Orthobunyavirus. The assay differentiates between closely-related viruses, as dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis, and the California serological group. The performance and the sensitivity of the assay were evaluated with dengue viruses and infected mosquitoes; as few as 6–10 dengue virions can be detected in a single mosquito. PMID:25680538

  5. Dispersing Waves: Innovation in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meade, Anne, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Early childhood education Centres of Innovation (COI) were established in 2002 as part of the 10-year plan for early childhood education, "Pathways to the Future/Nga Huarahi Arataki." In COI projects, innovative early childhood teaching teams reflect on and investigate their practices through action research, and share their findings with the…

  6. Gender, Innovation and Education in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Ingrid, Ed.; King, Linda, Ed.

    This document contains 19 papers on gender, innovation, and education in Latin America. The following papers are included: "Introduction" (Ingrid Jung); "Reflections on the Gender Perspective in Experiences of Non-Formal Education with Women" (Lilian Celiberti); "Gender and Innovation" (Graciela Messina); "Towards a Pedagogy of Education…

  7. Innovation Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyka, Andreas; Scharnhorst, Andrea

    The idea for this book started when we organized a topical workshop entitled "Innovation Networks - New Approaches in Modeling and Analyzing" (held in Augsburg, Germany in October 2005), under the auspices of Exystence, a network of excellence funded in the European Union's Fifth Framework Program. Unlike other conferences on innovation and networks, however, this workshop brought together scientists from economics, sociology, communication science, science and technology studies, and physics. With this book we aim to build further on a bridge connecting the bodies of knowledge on networks in economics, the social sciences and, more recently, statistical physics.

  8. Reflective Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents his study of parent participation at an international school in Spain offering the British curriculum. He used quantitative methods and administered questionnaires to gather data that reflected the views of a large proportion of the school's parent community. He administered semi-structured interviews to gain a…

  9. Small Business Innovations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The PER-Force Handcontroller was originally developed for the International Space Station under a Johnson Space Center Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. Produced by Cybernet Systems Corporation, the unit is a force-reflecting system that manipulates robots or objects by "feel." The Handcontroller moves in six degrees of freedom, with real and virtual reality forces simulated by a 3-D molecular modeling software package. It is used in molecular modeling in metallurgy applications, satellite docking research, and in research on military unmanned ground vehicles.

  10. Innovations: Scientific, Technological, and Social.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabor, Dennis

    Dr. Gabor, the inventor of holography (lenseless photography), defines "innovation" as a methodical creation of the human spirit, a novelty that once created can be usefully and repeatedly applied. He describes and evaluates 100 important technological and biological inventions that can probably be expected within the next 50 years. He also…

  11. Mathematical Innovation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Through Small Business Innovation Research funds from the Stennis Space Center, MathSoft, Inc., developed a system that can provide the building blocks for signal analysis and rapid prototyping. The product is the result of work to help NASA develop a complete understanding propulsion test data by using time frequency displays, automatic estimation and denoising, and data analysis plots for wavelet decomposition.

  12. Accelerating Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Week, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The word "innovation" seems to be in everyone's lexicon these days; it's even turning up as part of new education job titles in school districts and states. The ideas that undergird it are animating a growing movement that's spurring new policies, programs, and products that carry with them the potential to transform how students learn and how…

  13. It's not just about innovation

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, H. S.

    2008-03-01

    Last year, I was one of the reviewers of proposals to a newly created NIH program, the New Innovator Award. Its goal was to address a frequent criticism – that peer review is biased against innovation – and to fund exceptionally innovative, high impact research from new investigators. To encourage the submission of innovative ideas, preliminary data was not required. Nearly 2,200 applications were submitted, but only 30 awards were made, for a success rate of <1.4%. This suggests either that there are a lot of unfunded innovative ideas out there, or that the ability to submit a proposal without preliminary data was irresistible. Over the years, I have observed that very few innovative ideas are ever brought to the point where they have made a significant impact on biological research. Grant review panels implicitly understand this unpleasant truth. The defining characteristic of successful ideas are bright and preserving scientists who believe in their ideas and are willing to do whatever it takes to make them succeed. What Thomas Edison said about genius is equally applicable to innovation; it, too, is mostly about perspiration.

  14. Innovating Firms and Aggregate Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klette, Tor Jakob; Kortum, Samuel

    2004-01-01

    We develop a parsimonious model of innovation to confront firm-level evidence. It captures the dynamics of individual heterogeneous firms, describes the behavior of an industry with firm entry and exit, and delivers a general equilibrium model of technological change. While unifying the theoretical analysis of firms, industries, and the aggregate…

  15. Haitian reflections.

    PubMed

    Docrat, Fathima

    2010-08-01

    Natural disasters and acts of terrorism demonstrate a similar critical need for national preparedness. As one of a team of volunteers with a local South African NGO who recently went on a medical mission, I would like to share glimpses of our experience and reflect on the mistakes - and also to state the obvious: that we do not learn from our mistakes. A simple literature search has shown that the same mistakes happen repeatedly. 'Humanitarian disasters occur with frightening regularity, yet international responses remain fragmented, with organizations and responders being forced to "reinvent the wheel" with every new event'. This is the result of an obvious lack of preparedness. PMID:20822625

  16. Reflective Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The aluminized polymer film used in spacecraft as a radiation barrier to protect both astronauts and delicate instruments has led to a number of spinoff applications. Among them are aluminized shipping bags, food cart covers and medical bags. Radiant Technologies purchases component materials and assembles a barrier made of layers of aluminized foil. The packaging reflects outside heat away from the product inside the container. The company is developing new aluminized lines, express mailers, large shipping bags, gel packs and insulated panels for the building industry.

  17. Beyond Dissection: Innovative Tools for Biology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Sandra, Ed.

    This catalog lists resources available for classroom use in teaching about anatomy and physiology which are alternatives to dissection. The entries are provided under three main categories: (1) Whole Animal Dissection/Vivisection; (2) Animal Organ or System Anatomy and Physiology; and (3) Other, including animal behavior, biotechnology,…

  18. Reflected Glory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-02-01

    The nebula Messier 78 takes centre stage in this image taken with the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile, while the stars powering the bright display take a backseat. The brilliant starlight ricochets off dust particles in the nebula, illuminating it with scattered blue light. Igor Chekalin was the overall winner of ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 astrophotography competition with his image of this stunning object. Messier 78 is a fine example of a reflection nebula. The ultraviolet radiation from the stars that illuminate it is not intense enough to ionise the gas to make it glow - its dust particles simply reflect the starlight that falls on them. Despite this, Messier 78 can easily be observed with a small telescope, being one of the brightest reflection nebulae in the sky. It lies about 1350 light-years away in the constellation of Orion (The Hunter) and can be found northeast of the easternmost star of Orion's belt. This new image of Messier 78 from the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory is based on data selected by Igor Chekalin in his winning entry to the Hidden Treasures competition [1]. The pale blue tint seen in the nebula in this picture is an accurate representation of its dominant colour. Blue hues are commonly seen in reflection nebulae because of the way the starlight is scattered by the tiny dust particles that they contain: the shorter wavelength of blue light is scattered more efficiently than the longer wavelength red light. This image contains many other striking features apart from the glowing nebula. A thick band of obscuring dust stretches across the image from the upper left to the lower right, blocking the light from background stars. In the bottom right corner, many curious pink structures are also visible, which are created by jets of material being ejected from stars that have recently formed and are still buried deep in dust clouds. Two bright stars, HD 38563A and

  19. Reflected Glory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-02-01

    The nebula Messier 78 takes centre stage in this image taken with the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile, while the stars powering the bright display take a backseat. The brilliant starlight ricochets off dust particles in the nebula, illuminating it with scattered blue light. Igor Chekalin was the overall winner of ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 astrophotography competition with his image of this stunning object. Messier 78 is a fine example of a reflection nebula. The ultraviolet radiation from the stars that illuminate it is not intense enough to ionise the gas to make it glow - its dust particles simply reflect the starlight that falls on them. Despite this, Messier 78 can easily be observed with a small telescope, being one of the brightest reflection nebulae in the sky. It lies about 1350 light-years away in the constellation of Orion (The Hunter) and can be found northeast of the easternmost star of Orion's belt. This new image of Messier 78 from the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory is based on data selected by Igor Chekalin in his winning entry to the Hidden Treasures competition [1]. The pale blue tint seen in the nebula in this picture is an accurate representation of its dominant colour. Blue hues are commonly seen in reflection nebulae because of the way the starlight is scattered by the tiny dust particles that they contain: the shorter wavelength of blue light is scattered more efficiently than the longer wavelength red light. This image contains many other striking features apart from the glowing nebula. A thick band of obscuring dust stretches across the image from the upper left to the lower right, blocking the light from background stars. In the bottom right corner, many curious pink structures are also visible, which are created by jets of material being ejected from stars that have recently formed and are still buried deep in dust clouds. Two bright stars, HD 38563A and

  20. Biology and the Peasant Farmer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coverdale, G. M.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the importance of biological education in the rural development of under-developed countries. Argues that if the peasant farmer possessed even the most basic rudiments of biological knowledge he would be much more adaptable and amenable to technological innovation. Also describes how such an educational program might be implemented. (JR)

  1. Innovation: It's Academic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Carl

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the development of innovation and business incubators, including the stages of innovation typically addressed by such programs. Describes the efforts of the Thayer School, a graduate professional school at Dartmouth College, in establishing an innovation incubator. (TW)

  2. Reflections on Behavior Analysis and Evolutionary Biology: A Selective Review of Evolution Since Darwin—The First 150 Years. Edited by M. A. Bell, D. J. Futuyama, W. F. Eanes, & J. S. Levinton

    PubMed Central

    Donahoe, John W

    2012-01-01

    This review focuses on parallels between the selectionist sciences of evolutionary biology and behavior analysis. In selectionism, complex phenomena are interpreted as the cumulative products of relatively simple processes acting over time—natural selection in evolutionary biology and reinforcement in behavior analysis. Because evolutionary biology is the more mature science, an examination of the factors that led to the triumph of natural selection provides clues whereby reinforcement may achieve a similar fate in the science of behavior.

  3. Macrothermodynamics of Biological Evolution:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladyshev, Georgi P.

    The author sets forth general considerations pertaining to the thermodynamic theory of biological evolution and the aging of living organisms. It becomes much easier to comprehend the phenomenon of life scrutinizing the formation of structural hierarchies of biological matter applying different temporal scales. These scales are 'identified' by nature itself, and this is reflected in the law of temporal hierarchies. The author discusses some misunderstandings in thermodynamics and evolutionary biology. A simple physicochemical model of biological evolution and the development of living beings is proposed. The considered theory makes it possible to use physicochemical evaluations to develop effective anti-aging diets.

  4. Growth, innovation, scaling, and the pace of life in cities

    PubMed Central

    Bettencourt, Luís M. A.; Lobo, José; Helbing, Dirk; Kühnert, Christian; West, Geoffrey B.

    2007-01-01

    Humanity has just crossed a major landmark in its history with the majority of people now living in cities. Cities have long been known to be society's predominant engine of innovation and wealth creation, yet they are also its main source of crime, pollution, and disease. The inexorable trend toward urbanization worldwide presents an urgent challenge for developing a predictive, quantitative theory of urban organization and sustainable development. Here we present empirical evidence indicating that the processes relating urbanization to economic development and knowledge creation are very general, being shared by all cities belonging to the same urban system and sustained across different nations and times. Many diverse properties of cities from patent production and personal income to electrical cable length are shown to be power law functions of population size with scaling exponents, β, that fall into distinct universality classes. Quantities reflecting wealth creation and innovation have β ≈1.2 >1 (increasing returns), whereas those accounting for infrastructure display β ≈0.8 <1 (economies of scale). We predict that the pace of social life in the city increases with population size, in quantitative agreement with data, and we discuss how cities are similar to, and differ from, biological organisms, for which β<1. Finally, we explore possible consequences of these scaling relations by deriving growth equations, which quantify the dramatic difference between growth fueled by innovation versus that driven by economies of scale. This difference suggests that, as population grows, major innovation cycles must be generated at a continually accelerating rate to sustain growth and avoid stagnation or collapse. PMID:17438298

  5. A Reflective Look at Reflecting Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pender, Rebecca L.; Stinchfield, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    This article reviewed existing literature and research on the reflecting team process. There is a dearth of empirical research that explores the reflecting team process and the outcome of counseling that uses reflecting teams. Implications of using reflecting teams for counselors, counselor educators, and clients will be discussed. A call for…

  6. Collaborative and Reflective Professional Development: A Pilot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, John; Westwood, Jenny

    2006-01-01

    Seven experienced university teachers who already required reflective journal writing from their students undertook an innovative experiment in which they made the same demand of themselves, with their own continuing professional development (CPD) in mind. Six of them received and considered confidential facilitative comments upon each journal…

  7. Critical Reflective Work Behaviour: A Survey Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Woerkom, Marianne; Nijhof, Wim J.; Nieuwenhuis, Loek F. M.

    After a review of the literature, critical reflective work behavior (CRWB) was defined as: a set of connected, individual activities aimed at analyzing, optimizing, or innovating work practices on the individual, team, or organizational level. The combination of literature review and analysis of case studies led to the operationalization of CRWB…

  8. Designing synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Agapakis, Christina M

    2014-03-21

    Synthetic biology is frequently defined as the application of engineering design principles to biology. Such principles are intended to streamline the practice of biological engineering, to shorten the time required to design, build, and test synthetic gene networks. This streamlining of iterative design cycles can facilitate the future construction of biological systems for a range of applications in the production of fuels, foods, materials, and medicines. The promise of these potential applications as well as the emphasis on design has prompted critical reflection on synthetic biology from design theorists and practicing designers from many fields, who can bring valuable perspectives to the discipline. While interdisciplinary connections between biologists and engineers have built synthetic biology via the science and the technology of biology, interdisciplinary collaboration with artists, designers, and social theorists can provide insight on the connections between technology and society. Such collaborations can open up new avenues and new principles for research and design, as well as shed new light on the challenging context-dependence-both biological and social-that face living technologies at many scales. This review is inspired by the session titled "Design and Synthetic Biology: Connecting People and Technology" at Synthetic Biology 6.0 and covers a range of literature on design practice in synthetic biology and beyond. Critical engagement with how design is used to shape the discipline opens up new possibilities for how we might design the future of synthetic biology. PMID:24156739

  9. Reflected Ceiling Plan/Reflected Deck Plan 2009; Reflected Ceiling Plan/Reflected Deck ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Reflected Ceiling Plan/Reflected Deck Plan 2009; Reflected Ceiling Plan/Reflected Deck Plan 2010 - Gilpin's Falls Covered Bridge, Spanning North East Creek at Former (Bypassed) Section of North East Road (SR 272), North East, Cecil County, MD

  10. Biological Threats

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thunderstorms & Lightning Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Main Content Biological Threats Biological agents are organisms or toxins that ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . Before a Biological Threat Unlike an explosion, a biological attack may ...

  11. Peer consultation reflection exercise.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J. B.; Hogg, W.; Delva, D.; Nanchoff-Glatt, M.; Moore, L.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore participants' overall perception of the value of the Peer Consultation Reflection Exercise (PCRE); of barriers and facilitators to participation and learning during a PCRE; and of the transferability of the experience to participants' own settings. DESIGN: This study used the qualitative techniques of key informant interviews and a focus group. SETTING: Focus group and key informant interviews at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the College of Family Physicians of Canada's Section of Teachers. PARTICIPANTS: Family medicine teachers attending a PCRE. METHOD: Five key informant interviews and one focus group composed of five participants were conducted to explore participants' experience of participating and learning during a PCRE. MAIN FINDINGS: Participants viewed the PCRE as a valuable opportunity to interact and learn from colleagues a were especially impressed with the opportunity to listen. Confidentiality and the important role of the facilitator were identified as key components. The greatest perceived barrier was the formal structure of the PCRE. CONCLUSIONS: The PCRE is an innovative strategy for personal and professional development. It could be used in other settings. PMID:10386215

  12. The Teaching of Biochemistry: An Innovative Course Sequence Based on the Logic of Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubowski, Henry V.; Owen, Whyte G.

    1998-06-01

    An innovative course sequence for the teaching of biochemistry is offered, which more truly reflects the common philosophy found in biochemistry texts: that the foundation of biological phenomena can best be understood through the logic of chemistry. Topic order is chosen to develop an emerging understanding that is based on chemical principles. Preeminent biological questions serve as a framework for the course. Lipid and lipid-aggregate structures are introduced first, since it is more logical to discuss the intermolecular association of simple amphiphiles to form micelle and bilayer formations than to discuss the complexities of protein structure/folding. Protein, nucleic acid, and carbohydrate structures are studied next. Binding, a noncovalent process and the simplest expression of macromolecular function, follows. The physical (noncovalent) transport of solute molecules across a biological membrane is studied next, followed by the chemical transformation of substrates by enzymes. These are logical extensions of the expression of molecular function, first involving a simpler (physical transport) and second, a more complex (covalent transformation) process. The final sequence involves energy and signal transduction. This unique course sequence emerges naturally when chemical logic is used as an organizing paradigm for structuring a biochemistry course. Traditional order, which seems to reflect historic trends in research, or even an order derived from the central dogma of biology can not provide this logical framework.

  13. Biological and Pharmaceutical Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Challa S. S. R.

    2006-01-01

    This first comprehensive yet concise overview of all important classes of biological and pharmaceutical nanomaterials presents in one volume the different kinds of natural biological compounds that form nanomaterials or that may be used to purposefully create them. This unique single source of information brings together the many articles published in specialized journals, which often remain unseen by members of other, related disciplines. Covering pharmaceutical, nucleic acid, peptide and DNA-Chitosan nanoparticles, the book focuses on those innovative materials and technologies needed for the continued growth of medicine, healthcare, pharmaceuticals and human wellness. For chemists, biochemists, cell biologists, materials scientists, biologists, and those working in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries.

  14. Medical innovation laws: an unnecessary innovation.

    PubMed

    Richards, Bernadette

    2016-06-01

    Objective This paper aims to demonstrate that any suggestion that there is a need for specific innovation laws is flawed. Innovation is central to good medical practice and is adequately supported by current law. Methods The paper reviews the nature of medical innovation and outlines recent attempts in the UK to introduce specific laws aimed at 'encouraging' and 'supporting' innovation. The current legal framework is outlined and the role of the law in relation to medical innovation explored. Results The analysis demonstrates the cyclic relationship between medical advancement and the law and concludes that there is no requirement for specific innovation laws. Conclusions The law not only supports innovation and development in medical treatment but encourages it as central to a functioning medical system. There is no need to introduce specific laws aimed at medical innovation; to do so represents an unnecessary legal innovation and serves to complicate matters. What is known about the topic? Over recent months, there has been a great deal of discussion surrounding the law in the context of medical innovation. This was driven by the attempts in the UK to introduce specific laws in the Medical Innovation Bill. The general subject matter - negligence and the expected standard of care in the provision of treatment - is very well understood, but not in cases where the treatment can be described as innovative. The general rhetoric in both the UK and Australia around the Medical Innovation Bill demonstrates a lack of understanding of the position of the law with regards to innovative treatment. What does this paper add? This paper adds clarity to the debate. It presents the law and explains the manner in which the law can operate around innovative treatment. The paper asserts that medical innovation is both supported and encouraged by existing legal principles. What are the implications for practitioners? The paper presents an argument that can guide the policy position

  15. Challenging Narcissus, or Reflecting on Reflecting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achilles, C. M.

    The concept of reflective practice and teaching people to be reflective practitioners is examined. The document begins with a look at professional knowledge according to three prominent professionals in the educational administration field: Schon, Schein, and Achilles. "Reflective" strategies that could be incorporated into courses and seminars,…

  16. Hybrid Doctoral Program: Innovative Practices and Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvich, Dori; Manning, JoAnn; McCormick, Kathy; Campbell, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This paper reflects on how one mid-Atlantic University innovatively incorporated technology into the development of a hybrid doctoral program in educational leadership. The paper describes a hybrid doctoral degree program using a rigorous design; challenges of reworking a traditional syllabus of record to a hybrid doctoral program; the perceptions…

  17. Innovation in Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Riskin, Daniel J.; Longaker, Michael T.; Gertner, Michael; Krummel, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To describe the field of surgical innovation from a historical perspective, applying new findings from research in technology innovation. Background: While surgical innovation has a rich tradition, as a field of study it is embryonic. Only a handful of academic centers of surgical innovation exist, all of which have arisen within the last 5 years. To this point, the field has not been well defined, nor have future options to promote surgical innovation been thoroughly explored. It is clear that surgical innovation is fundamental to surgical progress and has significant health policy implications. A process of systematically evaluating and promoting innovation in surgery may be critical in the evolving practice of medicine. Methods: A review of the academic literature in technology innovation was undertaken. Articles and books were identified through technical, medical, and business sources. Luminaries in surgical innovation were interviewed to develop further relevance to surgical history. The concepts in technology innovation were then applied to innovation in surgery, using the historical example of surgical endoscopy as a representative area, which encompasses millennia of learning and spans multiple specialties of care. Results: The history of surgery is comprised largely of individual, widely respected surgeon innovators. While respecting individual accomplishments, surgeons as a group have at times hindered critical innovation to the detriment of our profession and patients. As a clinical discipline, surgery relies on a tradition of research and attracting the brightest young minds. Innovation in surgery to date has been impressive, but inconsistently supported. Conclusion: A body of knowledge on technology innovation has been developed over the last decade but has largely not been applied to surgery. New surgical innovation centers are working to define the field and identify critical aspects of surgical innovation promotion. It is our

  18. Orientations to Reflective Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellington, Bud; Austin, Patricia

    1996-01-01

    Delineates five orientations to reflective practice: immediate, technical, deliberative, dialectic, and transpersonal, each reflecting different social science bases and beliefs and values about education. Views them as interactive, interdependent, noncompeting, aspects of reflective practice. (SK)

  19. Innovating a way out

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-09-01

    The ongoing European Union fiscal crisis has taken its toll on research and innovation across several member states. A number of initiatives aim to boost technological innovation as a tool for increasing wealth.

  20. Innovation and STEM Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Julia Link

    2015-01-01

    How do schools with a focus on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fit in with state goals to increase innovation and to boost the economy? This article briefly discusses how educators can encourage creativity and innovation.

  1. The Impact of Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Banion, Terry; Weidner, Laura; Wilson, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    With funding from MetLife Foundation, the League for Innovation in the Community College engaged in a yearlong study in 2009 of the nature of innovation in the community college. Using recipients of the League's Innovation of the Year Award at 19 community colleges during the period from 1999 through 2008 as a data set, the authors used document…

  2. China's Innovation Paradox

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    China aims to become an innovation-led nation by 2020, but its leadership is generally sceptical--and oftentimes hostile--to the market forces, open exchange of ideas, and creative destruction that have unlocked innovation in other countries. Instead, Beijing hopes to promote innovation in China through a massive expansion in higher education,…

  3. Self-reflection, gender and science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoop, Kathleen A.

    Drawing on socio-cognitive learning theory, this study compared achievement scores of 134 male and female high school biology students randomly assigned to groups which either used self-reflection, used self-reflection and received feedback, or did not self-reflect. Following a pretest, the teacher provided self-reflection strategy instruction to students in the two intervention groups and then subsequently provided in-class self-reflection time for these groups. The posttest concluded the unit; the retention measure was five weeks later. A quasi-experimental 3 x 3 x 2 (time x intervention x gender) factorial repeated-measures control group design was used for this study; a repeated measures ANOVA and several one-way ANOVA's were used to answer the research questions. Results from the repeated-measures ANOVA revealed significant results for Time and Time x Intervention, with the reflection group demonstrating significantly lower gains from pretest to posttest than the other two groups. The ANOVA examining differences between those who reflected and those who reflected and received feedback provided significant results with similar results for the difference between the control group and the reflection group. For teachers and students this study provides several areas of practical significance. Primarily, teachers may find lower student achievement if students regularly self-reflect but do not receive feedback for their reflection.

  4. Telescope With Reflecting Baffle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linlor, W. I.

    1985-01-01

    Telescope baffle made from combination of reflecting surfaces. In contrast with previous ellipsoidal reflecting baffles, new baffle reflects skew rays more effectively and easier to construct. For infrared telescopes, reflecting baffles better than absorbing baffles because heat load reduced, and not necessary to contend with insufficiency of infrared absorption exhibited by black coatings.

  5. Benefits of Reflective Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Kathi

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses what she was able to learn from an exercise in self-reflection regarding her teaching. She also discusses the advantages of reflection for administrators: First, a reflective practice is data-driven, making it a more valid way to evaluate administrators' knowledge and skills. Second, a reflective practice…

  6. Collective Genius: Bridging the Gaps among Research, Innovation and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hair, Mary John

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses on bridging the gaps among research, innovation, and practice. First, the author reflects on historical perspectives involving the use of research to improve education and serve the public good. Second, the author explores the current climate as reflected by three national reports highlighting future roles of…

  7. Scintillator reflective layer coextrusion

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Jae-Chul; Para, Adam

    2001-01-01

    A polymeric scintillator has a reflective layer adhered to the exterior surface thereof. The reflective layer comprises a reflective pigment and an adhesive binder. The adhesive binder includes polymeric material from which the scintillator is formed. A method of forming the polymeric scintillator having a reflective layer adhered to the exterior surface thereof is also provided. The method includes the steps of (a) extruding an inner core member from a first amount of polymeric scintillator material, and (b) coextruding an outer reflective layer on the exterior surface of the inner core member. The outer reflective layer comprises a reflective pigment and a second amount of the polymeric scintillator material.

  8. Reflectivity, Reflexivity and Situated Reflective Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malthouse, Richard; Roffey-Barentsen, Jodi; Watts, Mike

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an aspect of reflective practice referred to as situated reflective practice. The overarching theory is derived from social theories of structuration and reflexivity. In particular, from Giddens' theory of structuration, which sees social life as an interplay of agency and structure. Discussion of the research reported…

  9. Biological Technicians

    MedlinePlus

    ... Biological technicians typically need a bachelor’s degree in biology or a closely related field. It is important ... Biological technicians typically need a bachelor’s degree in biology or a closely related field. It is important ...

  10. Teaching Secondary School Biology for Social Relevance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, G. Rex; And Others

    Since the 1960's biology teaching in secondary schools has been transformed from a formal approach reflecting the structure of the discipline and mirroring the concerns of the scientific community to a broad-based approach reflecting the concerns of society as a whole. The aim of biology education today is to heighten awareness, improve students'…

  11. Understanding reflective practice.

    PubMed

    Nicol, Jacqueline Sian; Dosser, Isabel

    2016-05-01

    The Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) requires that nurses and midwives use feedback as an opportunity for reflection and learning, to improve practice. The NMC revalidation process stipulates that practitioners provide examples of how they have achieved this. To reflect in a meaningful way, it is important to understand what is meant by reflection, the skills required, and how reflection can be undertaken successfully. Traditionally, reflection occurs after an event encountered in practice. The authors challenge this perception, suggesting that reflection should be undertaken before, during and after an event. This article provides practical guidance to help practitioners use reflective models to write reflective accounts. It also outlines how the reflective process can be used as a valuable learning tool in preparation for revalidation. PMID:27154119

  12. Teaching Biology for a Sustainable Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musante, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Students at Calvin College in Grand Rapids, Michigan, can now take an innovative biology course in which an integrated, interdisciplinary, problem-based approach is used--one that the scientific community itself is promoting. The first course in a four-semester sequence, Biology 123--The Living World: Concepts and Connections--explores real-world…

  13. Reflections in art

    PubMed Central

    CAVANAGH, PATRICK; CHAO, JESSICA; WANG, DINA

    2009-01-01

    When artists depict a mirror in a painting, it necessarily lacks the most obvious property of a mirror: as we move around the painting of the mirror, the reflections we see in it do not change. And yet representations of mirrors and other reflecting surfaces can be quite convincing in paintings. Here, we will examine the rules of reflection, the many ways that painters can break those rules without losing the impression of reflection and the rules that cannot be broken. The rules that govern the perception of reflection are a small subset of the physical rules of reflection. PMID:18534102

  14. The discipline of innovation.

    PubMed

    Drucker, P F

    1998-01-01

    Some innovations spring from a flash of genius. But as Peter Drucker points out in this HBR Classic, most result from a conscious, purposeful search for opportunities. For managers seeking innovation, engaging in disciplined work is more important than having an entrepreneurial personality. Writing originally in the May-June 1985 issue, Drucker describes the major sources of opportunities for innovation. Within a company or industry, opportunities can be found in unexpected occurrences, incongruities of various kinds, process needs, or changes in an industry or market. Outside a company, opportunities arise from demographic changes, changes in perception, or new knowledge. These seven sources overlap, and the potential for innovation may well lie in more than one area at a time. Innovations based on new knowledge, of course, tend to have the greatest effect on the marketplace. But it often takes decades before the ideas are translated into actual products, processes, or services. The other sources of innovation are easier and simpler to handle, yet they still require managers to look beyond established practices. Drucker emphasizes that in seeking opportunities, innovators need to look for simple, focused solutions to real problems. The greatest praise an innovation can receive is for people to say, "This is obvious!" Grandiose ideas designed to revolutionize an industry rarely work. Innovation, like any other endeavor, takes talent, ingenuity, and knowledge. But Drucker cautions that if diligence, persistence, and commitment are lacking, companies are unlikely to succeed at the business of innovation. PMID:10187245

  15. Reflection modeling in ultraviolet phototherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Grimes, David Robert; Robbins, Chris; Martin, Colin J.; Phanco, Graeme; Hare, Neil John O'

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: Ultraviolet phototherapy is a widely used treatment which has exceptional success with a variety of skin conditions. Over-exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) can however be detrimental and cause side effects such as erythema, photokeratisis, and even skin cancer. Quantifying patient dose is therefore imperative to ensure biologically effective treatment while minimizing negative repercussions. A dose model for treatment would be valuable in achieving these ends. Methods: Prior work by the authors concentrated on modeling the output of the lamps used in treatment and it was found a line source model described the output from the sources to a high degree. In practice, these lamps are surrounded by reflective anodized aluminum in patient treatment cabins and this work extends the model to quantify specular reflections from these planes on patient dose. Results: The extension of the model to allow for reflected images in addition to tube output shows a remarkably good fit to the actual data measured. Conclusions: The reflection model yields impressive accuracy and is a good basis for full UVR cabin modeling.

  16. Biological races in humans.

    PubMed

    Templeton, Alan R

    2013-09-01

    Races may exist in humans in a cultural sense, but biological concepts of race are needed to access their reality in a non-species-specific manner and to see if cultural categories correspond to biological categories within humans. Modern biological concepts of race can be implemented objectively with molecular genetic data through hypothesis-testing. Genetic data sets are used to see if biological races exist in humans and in our closest evolutionary relative, the chimpanzee. Using the two most commonly used biological concepts of race, chimpanzees are indeed subdivided into races but humans are not. Adaptive traits, such as skin color, have frequently been used to define races in humans, but such adaptive traits reflect the underlying environmental factor to which they are adaptive and not overall genetic differentiation, and different adaptive traits define discordant groups. There are no objective criteria for choosing one adaptive trait over another to define race. As a consequence, adaptive traits do not define races in humans. Much of the recent scientific literature on human evolution portrays human populations as separate branches on an evolutionary tree. A tree-like structure among humans has been falsified whenever tested, so this practice is scientifically indefensible. It is also socially irresponsible as these pictorial representations of human evolution have more impact on the general public than nuanced phrases in the text of a scientific paper. Humans have much genetic diversity, but the vast majority of this diversity reflects individual uniqueness and not race. PMID:23684745

  17. Biological Races in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    Races may exist in humans in a cultural sense, but biological concepts of race are needed to access their reality in a non-species-specific manner and to see if cultural categories correspond to biological categories within humans. Modern biological concepts of race can be implemented objectively with molecular genetic data through hypothesis-testing. Genetic data sets are used to see if biological races exist in humans and in our closest evolutionary relative, the chimpanzee. Using the two most commonly used biological concepts of race, chimpanzees are indeed subdivided into races but humans are not. Adaptive traits, such as skin color, have frequently been used to define races in humans, but such adaptive traits reflect the underlying environmental factor to which they are adaptive and not overall genetic differentiation, and different adaptive traits define discordant groups. There are no objective criteria for choosing one adaptive trait over another to define race. As a consequence, adaptive traits do not define races in humans. Much of the recent scientific literature on human evolution portrays human populations as separate branches on an evolutionary tree. A tree-like structure among humans has been falsified whenever tested, so this practice is scientifically indefensible. It is also socially irresponsible as these pictorial representations of human evolution have more impact on the general public than nuanced phrases in the text of a scientific paper. Humans have much genetic diversity, but the vast majority of this diversity reflects individual uniqueness and not race. PMID:23684745

  18. The discipline of innovation.

    PubMed

    Drucker, P F

    1985-01-01

    As managers recognize the heightened importance of innovation to competitive success, they face an apparent paradox: the orderly and predictable decisions on which a business rests depend increasingly on the disorderly and unpredictable process of innovation. How can managers expect to plan for--or count on--a process that is itself so utterly dependent on creativity, inspiration, and old-fashioned luck? Drawing on his many years' experience studying innovative and entrepreneurial companies, the author argues that this paradox is apparent only, not real. Most of what happens in successful innovations is not the happy occurrence of a blinding flash of insight but, rather, the careful implementation of an unspectacular but systematic management discipline. At the heart of that discipline lies the knowledge of where to look for innovation opportunities and how to identify them. It is to this study of the sources of innovation that Mr. Drucker here addresses himself. PMID:10272260

  19. The wheel of innovation

    SciTech Connect

    Herbig, P.; Golden, J.E.

    1993-11-01

    The wheel of innovation refers to the concept whereby those very same forces that create an innovative hot spot eventually provide the seeds for the hot spot`s decline. An innovative hot spot creates economic prosperity. An increasing demand for economic entitlements within the hot spot creates negative structure that is not conductive to later entrepreneurs or new ventures. This tends to put a damper on further innovative activity within the maturing hot spot. This rags-to-riches-to-rags evolution of innovation hot spots is termed the wheel of innovation. This paper examines the phenomenon from a historical perspective and provide insights on how a country and a region can continue to succeed without falling victim to the phenomenon. 17 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  20. The Mayo Innovation Scholars Program: Undergraduates Explore the Science and Economics of Medical Innovations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrini, John J.; Jansen, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The Mayo Innovation Scholars Program introduces undergraduates to technology transfer in biomedical sciences by having teams of students from multiple disciplines (e.g., biology, chemistry, economics, and business) analyze inventions in development at the Mayo Clinic. Over 6 months, teams consult with inventors, intellectual property experts, and…

  1. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOEpatents

    Wood, James L.

    1992-01-01

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources.

  2. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOEpatents

    Wood, J.L.

    1992-12-01

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources. 2 figs.

  3. Illuminating Cell Biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Ames Research Center awarded Ciencia, Inc., a Small Business Innovation Research contract to develop the Cell Fluorescence Analysis System (CFAS) to address the size, mass, and power constraints of using fluorescence spectroscopy in the International Space Station's Life Science Research Facility. The system will play an important role in studying biological specimen's long-term adaptation to microgravity. Commercial applications for the technology include diverse markets such as food safety, in situ environmental monitoring, online process analysis, genomics and DNA chips, and non-invasive diagnostics. Ciencia has already sold the system to the private sector for biosensor applications.

  4. Display innovations through glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Lori L.

    2016-03-01

    Prevailing trends in thin, lightweight, high-resolution, and added functionality, such as touch sensing, continue to drive innovation in the display market. While display volumes grow, so do consumers’ need for portability, enhanced optical performance, and mechanical reliability. Technical advancements in glass design and process have enabled display innovations in these areas while supporting industry growth. Opportunities for further innovation remain open for glass manufacturers to drive new applications, enhanced functionality, and increased demand.

  5. Biological Filters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemetson, S. L.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. The review is concerned with biological filters, and it covers: (1) trickling filters; (2) rotating biological contractors; and (3) miscellaneous reactors. A list of 14 references is also presented. (HM)

  6. Biological Agents

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Z Index Contact Us FAQs What's New Biological Agents This page requires that javascript be enabled ... and Health Topics A-Z Index What's New Biological agents include bacteria, viruses, fungi, other microorganisms and ...

  7. Liberating Moral Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horell, Harold D.

    2013-01-01

    The author argues that if we are to foster life-giving and liberating moral reflection, we must first liberate moral reflection from distortions; specifically, from the distorting effects of moral insensitivity, destructive moral relativism, and confusions resulting from a failure to understand the dynamics of moral reflection. The author proposes…

  8. Teaching Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Despite long-standing commitment to the notion of critical reflection across the healthcare professions it is unusual for critical theory and practice to be taught as explicit subjects in healthcare higher education. There is evidence to show that reflective techniques such as critical portfolios and reflective diaries can help students to…

  9. Reflective Learning in Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockbank, Anne, Ed.; McGill, Ian, Ed.; Beech, Nic, Ed.

    This book contains 22 papers on reflective learning in practice. The following papers are included: "Our Purpose" (Ann Brockbank, Ian McGill, Nic Beech); "The Nature and Context of Learning" (Ann Brockbank, Ian McGill, Nic Beech); "Reflective Learning and Organizations" (Ann Brockbank, Ian McGill, Nic Beech); "Reflective Learning in Practice" (Ann…

  10. Revalidation and reflective practice.

    PubMed

    Finch, Alison

    2016-04-01

    From April 2016 nurses must meet the requirements of the new Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) revalidation process to maintain their registration. It is their responsibility to ensure they meet all revalidation requirements, but organisations and nurse leaders can support them to do so. Reflection is an important part of revalidation, and nurses are required to submit written reflective accounts and engage in reflective discussion. This article discusses how revalidation encourages a more conscious and active form of reflection. It also describes how leaders can help nurses to reflect on practice to identify improvements and become more familiar with the NMC Code. PMID:27032284

  11. [Biological weapons].

    PubMed

    Kerwat, K; Becker, S; Wulf, H; Densow, D

    2010-08-01

    Biological weapons are weapons of mass destruction that use pathogens (bacteria, viruses) or the toxins produced by them to target living organisms or to contaminate non-living substances. In the past, biological warfare has been repeatedly used. Anthrax, plague and smallpox are regarded as the most dangerous biological weapons by various institutions. Nowadays it seems quite unlikely that biological warfare will be employed in any military campaigns. However, the possibility remains that biological weapons may be used in acts of bioterrorism. In addition all diseases caused by biological weapons may also occur naturally or as a result of a laboratory accident. Risk assessment with regard to biological danger often proves to be difficult. In this context, an early identification of a potentially dangerous situation through experts is essential to limit the degree of damage. PMID:20717866

  12. Knowledge, Innovation and Internationalisation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Technology Policy Council of Finland, Helsinki.

    Finland is challenged to make the most of globalization by reinforcing its positive aspects. The 1990s taught that success in creating innovations is a key factor for success of business and societies. A precondition, high-level technological and business know-how, requires systematic input into producing social innovations that prevent societal…

  13. Innovation Incubator Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of DuPage, Glen Ellyn, IL.

    The document introduces a college program designed to encourage the initiation and evaluation of strategies to increase student learning through innovative teaching methods. It also contains reports on completed individual projects. The principal activity of the Innovation Incubator at the College of DuPage (Illinois) is to support specific…

  14. 2012 Innovators Awards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Meg; Raths, David; Namahoe, Kanoe

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors present the 2012 Campus Technology Innovators. These IT leaders have deployed extraordinary technology solutions to meet campus challenges. The authors also recognize the vendors and products involved in making these innovative projects a success. The 10 winners are: (1) University of Arizona (Student Systems and…

  15. ERM Ideas and Innovations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    England, Lenore

    2012-01-01

    Welcome to the new "Journal of Electronic Resources Librarianship" column entitled "ERM Ideas and Innovations," which will appear in each issue of JERL for the next 2 years, and possibly more, beginning with this issue. The overall focus of each column will be to introduce and expand ideas, discuss innovations, and ultimately encourage and foster…

  16. The Diffusion of Innovation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Earabino, Gerard J.; Heyl, G. Christopher; Percorini, Thomas J.

    1987-01-01

    New ideas encounter obstacles on way to becoming products. Report examines process by which new ideas become products, processes, or accepted standards. Sequence of events called "the diffusion of innovation." Focuses on development of material processing in low gravity as case study in diffusion of innovation.

  17. Second Life as Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guder, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    In terms of exploring the status of Second Life (SL) usage in libraries, it would be useful to not only look at how and why the virtual world is being used but also how SL compares to successfully implemented innovations of the past. Comparing and contrasting the characteristics of previously accepted innovations with those of SL will help…

  18. Innovation and the City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleiman, Neil; Forman, Adam; Ko, Jae; Giles, David; Bowles, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    With Washington trapped in budget battles and partisan gridlock, cities have emerged as the best source of government innovation. Nowhere is this more visible than in New York City. Since taking office in 2002, Mayor Bloomberg has introduced a steady stream of innovative policies, from a competition to recruit a new applied sciences campus and a…

  19. Calling All Innovators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Tony

    2012-01-01

    In a study of highly innovative young people in their 20s, the author found that although many people in the millennial generation want to do meaningful work and make a difference in the world, conventional high schools and colleges are not preparing their graduates to be innovators and entrepreneurs. This is a serious problem, he asserts, because…

  20. Morphomechanical Innovation Drives Explosive Seed Dispersal.

    PubMed

    Hofhuis, Hugo; Moulton, Derek; Lessinnes, Thomas; Routier-Kierzkowska, Anne-Lise; Bomphrey, Richard J; Mosca, Gabriella; Reinhardt, Hagen; Sarchet, Penny; Gan, Xiangchao; Tsiantis, Miltos; Ventikos, Yiannis; Walker, Simon; Goriely, Alain; Smith, Richard; Hay, Angela

    2016-06-30

    How mechanical and biological processes are coordinated across cells, tissues, and organs to produce complex traits is a key question in biology. Cardamine hirsuta, a relative of Arabidopsis thaliana, uses an explosive mechanism to disperse its seeds. We show that this trait evolved through morphomechanical innovations at different spatial scales. At the organ scale, tension within the fruit wall generates the elastic energy required for explosion. This tension is produced by differential contraction of fruit wall tissues through an active mechanism involving turgor pressure, cell geometry, and wall properties of the epidermis. Explosive release of this tension is controlled at the cellular scale by asymmetric lignin deposition within endocarp b cells-a striking pattern that is strictly associated with explosive pod shatter across the Brassicaceae plant family. By bridging these different scales, we present an integrated mechanism for explosive seed dispersal that links evolutionary novelty with complex trait innovation. VIDEO ABSTRACT. PMID:27264605

  1. Innovation in patient-centered care: lessons from a qualitative study of innovative health care organizations in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Growing interest in the promise of patient-centered care has led to numerous health care innovations, including the patient-centered medical home, shared decision-making, and payment reforms. How best to vet and adopt innovations is an open question. Washington State has been a leader in health care reform and is a rich laboratory for patient-centered innovations. We sought to understand the process of patient-centered care innovation undertaken by innovative health care organizations – from strategic planning to goal selection to implementation to maintenance. Methods We conducted key-informant interviews with executives at five health plans, five provider organizations, and ten primary care clinics in Washington State. At least two readers of each interview transcript identified themes inductively; final themes were determined by consensus. Results Innovation in patient-centered care was a strategic objective chosen by nearly every organization in this study. However, other goals were paramount: cost containment, quality improvement, and organization survival. Organizations commonly perceived effective chronic disease management and integrated health information technology as key elements for successful patient-centered care innovation. Inertia, resource deficits, fee-for-service payment, and regulatory limits on scope of practice were cited as barriers to innovation, while organization leadership, human capital, and adaptive culture facilitated innovation. Conclusions Patient-centered care innovations reflected organizational perspectives: health plans emphasized cost-effectiveness while providers emphasized health care delivery processes. Health plans and providers shared many objectives, yet the two rarely collaborated to achieve them. The process of innovation is heavily dependent on organizational culture and leadership. Policymakers can improve the pace and quality of patient-centered innovation by setting targets and addressing conditions for

  2. The Intersection of Structural and Chemical Biology - An Essential Synergy.

    PubMed

    Zuercher, William J; Elkins, Jonathan M; Knapp, Stefan

    2016-01-21

    The continual improvement in our ability to generate high resolution structural models of biological molecules has stimulated and supported innovative chemical biology projects that target increasingly challenging ligand interaction sites. In this review we outline some of the recent developments in chemical biology and rational ligand design and show selected examples that illustrate the synergy between these research areas. PMID:26933743

  3. Biology outside the Classroom: The SNAB Visit/Issue Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunkerton, John

    2007-01-01

    In September 2002, Salter's Nuffield Advanced Biology ("SNAB") began a three year pilot phase in schools, representing the first major innovation in UK biology education since the 1970s. One part of the AS level coursework was a report on an "Issue of Biological Interest". This could be based on an actual visit outside school or on a literature…

  4. Manage customer-centric innovation--systematically.

    PubMed

    Selden, Larry; MacMillan, Ian C

    2006-04-01

    No matter how hard companies try, their approaches to innovation often don't grow the top line in the sustained, profitable way investors expect. For many companies, there's a huge difference between what's in their business plans and the market's expectations for growth (as reflected in firms' share prices, market capitalizations, and P/E ratios). This growth gap springs from the fact that companies are pouring money into their insular R&D labs instead of working to understand what the customer wants and using that understanding to drive innovation. As a result, even companies that spend the most on R&D remain starved for both customer innovation and market-capitalization growth. In this article, the authors spell out a systematic approach to innovation that continuously fuels sustained, profitable growth. They call this approach customer-centric innovation, or CCI. At the heart of CCI is a rigorous customer R&D process that helps companies to continually improve their understanding of who their customers are and what they need. By so doing, they consistently create or improve their customer value proposition. Customer R&D also focuses on better ways of communicating value propositions and delivering the complete experience to real customers. Since so much of the learning about customers and so much of the experimentation with different segmentations, value propositions, and delivery mechanisms involve the people who regularly deal with customers, it is absolutely essential for frontline employees to be at the center of the CCI process. Simply put, customer R&D propels the innovation effort away from headquarters and the traditional R&D lab out to those closest to the customer. Using the example of the luggage manufacturer Tumi, the authors provide a step-by-step approach for achieving true customer-centric innovation. PMID:16579418

  5. Dynamics of human innovative behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ying-Ting; Han, Xiao-Pu; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2014-01-01

    How to promote the innovative activities is an important problem for modern society. In this paper, combining the evolutionary games with information spreading, we propose a lattice model to investigate dynamics of human innovative behaviors based on benefit-driven assumption. Simulations show several properties in agreement with peoples’ daily cognition on innovative behaviors, such as slow diffusion of innovative behaviors, gathering of innovative strategy on “innovative centers”, and quasi-localized dynamics. Furthermore, our model also emerges rich non-Poisson properties in the temporal-spatial patterns of the innovative status, including the scaling law in the interval time of innovation releases and the bimodal distributions on the spreading range of innovations, which would be universal in human innovative behaviors. Our model provides a basic framework on the study of the issues relevant to the evolution of human innovative behaviors and the promotion measurement of innovative activities.

  6. Promoting innovation in pediatric nutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Truly impactful innovation can only be recognized in retrospect. Moreover, almost by definition, developing algorithmic paths on roadmaps for innovation are likely to be unsuccessful because innovators do not generally follow established routes. Nonetheless, environments can be established within ...

  7. The innovation value chain.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Morten T; Birkinshaw, Julian

    2007-06-01

    The challenges of coming up with fresh ideas and realizing profits from them are different for every company. One firm may excel at finding good ideas but may have weak systems for bringing them to market. Another organization may have a terrific process for funding and rolling out new products and services but a shortage of concepts to develop. In this article, Hansen and Birkinshaw caution executives against using the latest and greatest innovation approaches and tools without understanding the unique deficiencies in their companies' innovation systems. They offer a framework for evaluating innovation performance: the innovation value chain. It comprises the three main phases of innovation (idea generation, conversion, and diffusion) as well as the critical activities performed during those phases (looking for ideas inside your unit; looking for them in other units; looking for them externally; selecting ideas; funding them; and promoting and spreading ideas companywide). Using this framework, managers get an end-to-end view of their innovation efforts. They can pinpoint their weakest links and tailor innovation best practices appropriately to strengthen those links. Companies typically succumb to one of three broad "weakest-link" scenarios. They are idea poor, conversion poor, or diffusion poor. The article looks at the ways smart companies - including Intuit, P&G, Sara Lee, Shell, and Siemens- modify the best innovation practices and apply them to address those organizations' individual needs and flaws. The authors warn that adopting the chain-based view of innovation requires new measures of what can be delivered by each link in the chain. The approach also entails new roles for employees "external scouts" and "internal evangelists," for example. Indeed, in their search for new hires, companies should seek out those candidates who can help address particular weaknesses in the innovation value chain. PMID:17580654

  8. Mapping your innovation strategy.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Scott D; Eyring, Matt; Gibson, Lib

    2006-05-01

    In the complex sport of American football, teams rely on playbooks as thick as the Manhattan phone directory. But when it comes to creating innovative growth businesses-which is at least as complicated as professional football--most companies have not developed detailed game plans. Indeed, many managers have concluded that a fog enshrouds the world of innovation, obscuring high-potential opportunities. The authors believe that companies can penetrate that fog by developing growth strategies based on disruptive innovations, as defined by Clayton Christensen. Such innovations conform to a pattern: They offer an entirely new solution; they perform adequately along traditional dimensions and much better along other dimensions that matter more to target customers; and they are not initially appealing to powerful incumbents. Companies can develop customized checklists, or playbooks, by combining this basic pattern with analysis of major innovations in their markets. The key early on is to focus not on detailed financial estimates--which will always guide companies toward the markets most hostile to disruptive innovations--but on how well the innovation fits the pattern of success. It's also crucial to encourage flexibility: Companies must be willing to kill projects that are going nowhere, exempt innovations from standard development processes, and avoid burdening project teams with extra financing, which can keep them heading in the wrong direction. Companies can create competitive advantage by becoming champions at defining the pattern of successful innovations and executing against it. But as that pattern becomes obvious--and others emerge-building a sustainable advantage on innovation competencies will again prove elusive. PMID:16649702

  9. Tandem resonator reflectance modulator

    DOEpatents

    Fritz, I.J.; Wendt, J.R.

    1994-09-06

    A wide band optical modulator is grown on a substrate as tandem Fabry-Perot resonators including three mirrors spaced by two cavities. The absorption of one cavity is changed relative to the absorption of the other cavity by an applied electric field, to cause a change in total reflected light, as light reflecting from the outer mirrors is in phase and light reflecting from the inner mirror is out of phase with light from the outer mirrors. 8 figs.

  10. Reflective diffraction grating

    DOEpatents

    Lamartine, Bruce C.

    2003-06-24

    Reflective diffraction grating. A focused ion beam (FIB) micromilling apparatus is used to store color images in a durable medium by milling away portions of the surface of the medium to produce a reflective diffraction grating with blazed pits. The images are retrieved by exposing the surface of the grating to polychromatic light from a particular incident bearing and observing the light reflected by the surface from specified reception bearing.

  11. Tandem resonator reflectance modulator

    DOEpatents

    Fritz, Ian J.; Wendt, Joel R.

    1994-01-01

    A wide band optical modulator is grown on a substrate as tandem Fabry-Perot resonators including three mirrors spaced by two cavities. The absorption of one cavity is changed relative to the absorption of the other cavity by an applied electric field, to cause a change in total reflected light, as light reflecting from the outer mirrors is in phase and light reflecting from the inner mirror is out of phase with light from the outer mirrors.

  12. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOEpatents

    Wood, James L.

    1992-01-01

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources. One layer of each set of bilayers consist of titanium, and the second layer of each set of bilayers consist of an alloy of nickel with carbon interstitially present in the nickel alloy.

  13. Systems Biology

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, H S.

    2006-06-01

    The biology revolution over the last 50 years has been driven by the ascendancy of molecular biology. This was enthusiastically embraced by most biologists because it took us into increasingly familiar territory. It took mysterious processes, such as the replication of genetic material and assigned them parts that could be readily understood by the human mind. When we think of ''molecular machines'' as being the underlying basis of life, we are using a paradigm derived from everyday experience. However, the price that we paid was a relentless drive towards reductionism and the attendant balkanization of biology. Now along comes ''systems biology'' that promises us a solution to the problem of ''knowing more and more about less and less''. Unlike molecular biology, systems biology appears to be taking us into unfamiliar intellectual territory, such as statistics, mathematics and computer modeling. Not surprisingly, systems biology has met with widespread skepticism and resistance. Why do we need systems biology anyway and how does this new area of research promise to change the face of biology in the next couple of decades?

  14. SwampLog: A Structured Journal for Reflection-in-Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicassio, Frank

    1992-01-01

    Describes "SwampLog," an action-research journal process useful for recording and reflecting upon ongoing experience, exploring and creating innovative approaches to education, and gauging the resultant effects upon organizational, instructional, and individual renewal. (PRA)

  15. Balancing innovation and evidence.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, Jobeth W

    2015-01-01

    Nurse educators are encouraged to use evidence to guide their teaching strategies. However, evidence is not always available. How can educators make decisions regarding strategies when data are limited or absent? Where do innovation and creativity fit? How can innovation be balanced with evidence? This article provides a discussion regarding other sources of evidence, such as extrapolations, theories and principles, and collective expertise. Readers are encouraged to review the options and then analyze how they might be applied to innovation in education. PMID:25790361

  16. NREL Spectrum of Innovation

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-05-29

    There are many voices calling for a future of abundant clean energy. The choices are difficult and the challenges daunting. How will we get there? The National Renewable Energy Laboratory integrates the entire spectrum of innovation including fundamental science, market relevant research, systems integration, testing and validation, commercialization and deployment. The innovation process at NREL is interdependent and iterative. Many scientific breakthroughs begin in our own laboratories, but new ideas and technologies come to NREL at any point along the innovation spectrum to be validated and refined for commercial use.

  17. [Hypersensitivity to innovations].

    PubMed

    Boutellier, R; Andereggen, S

    2009-04-15

    Innovation is an important source of our prosperity. Miniaturization that is behind the combination of modules into new products together with today's high technology acceptance lead us to a wave of innovations, of such dimension humanity has never seen in its whole history. However, new technologies are accompanied by risks that often emerge rather late. In compliance to this, man reacts sensitively to the insertion of new technologies. Restrictions and bans are the consequences. Today, we face the challenge of assisting innovation by assessing and limiting their risks at the same time. PMID:19373762

  18. Proteomics technology in systems biology.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jeffrey C; Figeys, Daniel

    2006-08-01

    It has now become apparent that a full understanding of a biological process (e.g. a disease state) is only possible if all biomolecular interactions are taken into account. Systems biology works towards understanding the intricacies of cellular life through the collaborative efforts of biologists, chemists, mathematicians and computer scientists and recently, a number of laboratories around the world have embarked upon such research agendas. The fields of genomics and proteomics are foundational in systems biology studies and a great deal of research is currently being conducted in each worldwide. Moreover, many technological advances (particularly in mass spectrometry) have led to a dramatic rise in the number of proteomic studies over the past two decades. This short review summarizes a selection of technological innovations in proteomics that contribute to systems biology studies. PMID:16880956

  19. Is synthetic biology mechanical biology?

    PubMed

    Holm, Sune

    2015-12-01

    A widespread and influential characterization of synthetic biology emphasizes that synthetic biology is the application of engineering principles to living systems. Furthermore, there is a strong tendency to express the engineering approach to organisms in terms of what seems to be an ontological claim: organisms are machines. In the paper I investigate the ontological and heuristic significance of the machine analogy in synthetic biology. I argue that the use of the machine analogy and the aim of producing rationally designed organisms does not necessarily imply a commitment to mechanical biology. The ideal of applying engineering principles to biology is best understood as expressing recognition of the machine-unlikeness of natural organisms and the limits of human cognition. The paper suggests an interpretation of the identification of organisms with machines in synthetic biology according to which it expresses a strategy for representing, understanding, and constructing living systems that are more machine-like than natural organisms. PMID:26205204

  20. Earth's Reflection: Albedo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillette, Brandon; Hamilton, Cheri

    2011-01-01

    When viewing objects of different colors, you might notice that some appear brighter than others. This is because light is reflected differently from various surfaces, depending on their physical properties. The word "albedo" is used to describe how reflective a surface is. The Earth-atmosphere has a combined albedo of about 30%, a number that is…

  1. Renewable liquid reflection grating

    DOEpatents

    Ryutov, Dmitri D.; Toor, Arthur

    2003-10-07

    A renewable liquid reflection grating. Electrodes are operatively connected to a conducting liquid in an arrangement that produces a reflection grating and driven by a current with a resonance frequency. In another embodiment, the electrodes create the grating by a resonant electrostatic force acting on a dielectric liquid.

  2. Critically Reflective Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Christine L.

    2012-01-01

    Critical Reflective Practice (CRP) has a proven reputation as a method for teacher-researchers in K-12 classrooms, but there have been few published examples of this method being used to document school leaders' work-based practice. This paper outlines adaptations made by the author from an original CRP method to a Critically Reflective Leadership…

  3. Transparencies and Reflections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Guy

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the use of perspective, or showing things as the human eye sees them, when creating reflections and transparencies in works of art. Provides examples of artwork using transparency, reflection, and refraction by M. C. Escher, Richard Estes, and Janet Fish to give students an opportunity to learn about these three art techniques. (CMK)

  4. Engaging in Retrospective Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brevig, Laurey

    2006-01-01

    Reflection is a powerful means to involve readers actively in gaining new insights about texts and themselves as readers. This article relates the story of three fifth-grade girls engaged in metacognitive inquiry within a classroom book club group. The use of exploratory talk and reflection illustrate how the girls constructed meaning and deepened…

  5. The Impact of Organismal Innovation on Functional and Ecological Diversification.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, Peter C; Price, Samantha A

    2016-09-01

    Innovations in organismal functional morphology are thought to be a major force in shaping evolutionary patterns, with the potential to drive adaptive radiation and influence the evolutionary prospects for lineages. But the evolutionary consequences of innovation are diverse and usually do not result in adaptive radiation. What factors shape the macroevolutionary impact of innovations? We assert that little is known in general about the macroevolutionary outcomes associated with functional innovations and we discuss a framework for studying biological innovations in an evolutionary context. Innovations are novel functional mechanisms that enhance organismal performance. The ubiquity of trade-offs in functional systems means that enhanced performance on one axis often occurs at the expense of performance on another axis, such that many innovations result in an exchange of performance capabilities, rather than an expansion. Innovations may open up new resources for exploitation but their consequences for functional and ecological diversification depend heavily on the adaptive landscape around these novel resources. As an example of a broader program that we imagine, we survey five feeding innovations in labrid fishes, an exceptionally successful and ecologically diverse group of reef fishes, and explore their impact on the rate of evolution of jaw functional morphology. All of the innovations provide performance enhancements and result in changes in patterns of resource use, but most are not associated with subsequent functional diversification or substantial ecological diversification. Because selection acts on a specific performance enhancement and not on the evolutionary potential of an innovation, the enhancement of diversity may be highly serendipitous. The macroevolutionary potential of innovations depends critically on the interaction between the performance enhancement and the ecological opportunity that is exposed. PMID:27375274

  6. How to Develop Innovators? Innovation Education for the Gifted

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shavinina, Larisa

    2013-01-01

    Many people correctly believe that a majority of innovators come from the population of gifted and talented children. If we want to develop innovative abilities of the gifted, then a special, new direction in gifted education is needed: innovation education. This article introduces innovation education, which refers to a wide range of educational…

  7. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents procedures, exercises, demonstrations, and information on a variety of biology topics including labeling systems, biological indicators of stream pollution, growth of lichens, reproductive capacity of bulbous buttercups, a straw balance to measure transpiration, interaction of fungi, osmosis, and nitrogen fixation and crop production. (DC)

  8. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents experiments, demonstrations, activities and ideas relating to various fields of biology to be used in biology courses in secondary schools. Among those experiments presented are demonstrating the early stages of ferns and mosses and simple culture methods for fern prothalli. (HM)

  9. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom activities/materials, including chi-square tests on a microcomputer, an integrated biology game, microscope slides of leaf stomata, culturing soil nematodes, technique for watering locust egg-laying tubes, hazards of biological chemicals (such as benzene, benzidene, calchicine,…

  10. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom activities/materials, including use of dwarf cichlids (fishes) in secondary school biology, teaching edge effects on stomatal diffusion, computer program on effects of selection on gene frequencies, biological oxidation/reduction reactions, short cuts with Drosophila, computer program…