Science.gov

Sample records for reflexiones sobre funciones

  1. Towards Behavioral Reflexion Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackermann, Christopher; Lindvall, Mikael; Cleaveland, Rance

    2009-01-01

    Software architecture has become essential in the struggle to manage today s increasingly large and complex systems. Software architecture views are created to capture important system characteristics on an abstract and, thus, comprehensible level. As the system is implemented and later maintained, it often deviates from the original design specification. Such deviations can have implication for the quality of the system, such as reliability, security, and maintainability. Software architecture compliance checking approaches, such as the reflexion model technique, have been proposed to address this issue by comparing the implementation to a model of the systems architecture design. However, architecture compliance checking approaches focus solely on structural characteristics and ignore behavioral conformance. This is especially an issue in Systems-of- Systems. Systems-of-Systems (SoS) are decompositions of large systems, into smaller systems for the sake of flexibility. Deviations of the implementation to its behavioral design often reduce the reliability of the entire SoS. An approach is needed that supports the reasoning about behavioral conformance on architecture level. In order to address this issue, we have developed an approach for comparing the implementation of a SoS to an architecture model of its behavioral design. The approach follows the idea of reflexion models and adopts it to support the compliance checking of behaviors. In this paper, we focus on sequencing properties as they play an important role in many SoS. Sequencing deviations potentially have a severe impact on the SoS correctness and qualities. The desired behavioral specification is defined in UML sequence diagram notation and behaviors are extracted from the SoS implementation. The behaviors are then mapped to the model of the desired behavior and the two are compared. Finally, a reflexion model is constructed that shows the deviations between behavioral design and implementation. This paper discusses the approach and shows how it can be applied to investigate reliability issues in SoS.

  2. Reflexiones Sobre Investigacion Educacional (Reflections on Educational Research).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, Victor M.

    Educational research can serve to improve education in both developed and developing countries. It can be oriented toward increasing knowledge about the educational reality, generating theories, or confirming immediate educational political decisions. Educational research should be an interdisciplinary undertaking; this variety helps to unify…

  3. Evaluating Self-Reflexion Analysis Using Repertory Grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grice*, James; McDaniel, Brenda L.

    Vladimir Lefebvreís Algebraic Model of Self-Reflexion is a formal and flexible system for modeling the processes that underlie human judgments. The model has received notable empirical support from studies within personal construct psychology using the repertory grid approach. In this chapter we briefly review this research and the repertory grid method, and then report the results of two new studies on the model conducted in our laboratory. Lastly, we will briefly discuss the implications of our findings with regard to future research on self-reflexion.

  4. Reflexiones Sobre la Capacitacion de Docentes (Reflections on In-Service Teacher Training).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, Victor M.

    Everyone concerned with educational systems performance agrees that the improvement of teaching qualities is a high priority in any educational effort. Teachers are assigned the role of change agents and are presented with new challenges, e.g., to make education global and permanent, flexible enough to serve in any environment (in or out of the…

  5. Examination of the shock wave regular reflexion phenomenon in a rarefied supersonic plasma flow

    SciTech Connect

    Mazouffre, S.; Caubet-Hilloutou, V.; Lengrand, J.C.; Pawelec, E.

    2005-01-01

    The flow properties of a low-pressure weakly ionized supersonic argon plasma jet are examined using Fabry-Perot interferometry and laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy. The flow velocity and equilibrium temperature measured at the torch nozzle exit are in close agreement with computational fluid dynamics calculations. The model also predicts the plasma flow to be in a rarefied regime. Departure from thermal equilibrium is indeed observed behind the nozzle where the parallel temperature differs significantly from the perpendicular temperature. The development of the axial velocity component along the jet center stream line reveals the occurrence of the shock wave regular reflexion phenomenon: No Mach disk is formed and the flow experiences successive supersonic-to-supersonic transitions before reaching a subsonic regime. Shock wave regular reflexion is in fact favored under our experimental conditions since the speed ratio is high and the rarefaction degree is pronounced at the nozzle exit.

  6. Iterative and FEM methods to solve the 2-D Radiative Transfer Equation with specular reflexion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Hardy, David; Favennec, Yann; Rousseau, Beno√ģt

    2016-01-01

    The present paper deals with iterative algorithms coupled with finite element methods (FEM) to solve the Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE) within semi-transparent heterogenous materials where specular reflexions occur on their boundaries. As our intention is to use such solution for inversion, the forward model should be solved as fastly as possible. This communication compares, in terms of both accuracy and CPU, the Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method with the Streamline Upwind Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) method, both being coupled with the Discrete Ordinate Method. Next, several iteratives methods used to accelerate the convergence are compared. These methods are the Gauss-Siedel (GS), the Source-Iteration (SI) and the Successive Over-Relaxation (SOR) methods.

  7. Actividad funcional cerebral en estado de reposo: REDES EN CONEXI√ďN

    PubMed Central

    Proal, Erika; Alvarez-Segura, Mar; de la Iglesia-Vayá, Maria; Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Resumen El an√°lisis de la conectividad funcional mediante resonancia magn√©tica funcional (RMf) puede llevarse a cabo durante la realizaci√≥n de una tarea, la percepci√≥n de un est√≠mulo o en estado de reposo. Estos an√°lisis han demostrado su fiabilidad y reproducibilidad con diferentes enfoques (matem√°ticos, estad√≠sticos, f√≠sicos) para seleccionar los v√≥xeles activados. El estudio de la se√Īal de baja frecuencia en la actividad cerebral a trav√©s del contraste BOLD en estado de reposo ha revelado patrones de actividad cortical sincronizados, permitiendo describir la arquitectura funcional intr√≠nseca del cerebro humano. La comunidad cient√≠fica internacional dispone de recursos compartidos que contribuir√°n mediante este an√°lisis de RMf en estado de reposo a la obtenci√≥n de diagn√≥sticos y tratamientos m√°s precisos y avanzados en el campo de las neurociencias. PMID:21365601

  8. Confieso que Divulgo. Reflexiones y Experiencias de una Astrofísica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Hidalgo, I.

    Este art√≠culo presenta algunas reflexiones en torno a la popularizaci√≥n de la Ciencia, desarrolladas a lo largo de mi trayectoria profesional, un camino inacabado desde la intuici√≥n al oficio. Tras revisar las se√Īas de identidad de la divulgaci√≥n cient√≠fica, se exponen ideas, experiencias y recursos, cribados por la pr√°ctica y su posterior an√°lisis cr√≠tico. Se destacan las actividades relacionadas con la Astronom√≠a, que se cuentan entre las m√°s espectaculares y gratificantes. Confessions of a popularizer: This paper presents some author's thoughts about scientific outreach, developed along her professional path, an unfinished way from intuition to trade. First, identity signs of outreach are revised; then, ideas, experiences and resources, sifted by practice and further critical analysis, are reviewed. Activities related to Astronomy, being one of the most spectacular and rewarding, are remarked 1

  9. Filtration coefficients and osmotic reflexion coefficients of the walls of single frog mesenteric capillaries.

    PubMed Central

    Michel, C C

    1980-01-01

    1. Single capillaries in the mesentery of pithed frogs were perfused with frog Ringer solutions containing various concentrations of bovine serum albumin and myoglobin. Filtration coefficients (Lp) of the capillary wall were determined from measurements of fluid filtration rate at a series of different capillary pressures (Michel, Mason, Curry & Tooke, 1974). The osmotic reflexion coefficients (sigma) to albumin and myoglobin were determined by comparing the effective osmotic pressure exerted by these solutes across the capillary walls with their osmotic pressures in a membrane osmometer. 2. Lp and sigma to albumin were measured in eighteen vessels at different sites in the capillary bed with the tissue temperature in the range of 20-24 degrees C. Lp varied from 1.5 x 10(-3) to 15 x 10(-3) micrometer sec-1 cm H2O-1 having a higher mean value in nine venous capillaries (11.33 x 10(-3) micrometer sec-1 cm H2O-1) than in nine arterial and mid-capillaries (4.83 x 10(-3) micrometer sec-1 cm H2O-1). For all eighteen vessels sigma to albumin had a mean value of 0.816 (S.E. of mean +/- 0.027). There was no correlation between Lp and sigma. The mean value of sigma for the venous capillaries was 0.841 (S.E. of mean +/- 0.04) and the other nine vessels 0.802 (S.E. of mean +/- 0.034). 3. The osmotic reflexion coefficient to myoglobin was measured in seven different capillaries and found to have a mean value of 0.348 (S.E. of mean +/- 0.012) at 20-24 degrees C. The Lp of the capillaries varied from 3.0 x 10(-3) to 10.5 x 10(-3) micrometer sec-1 cm H2O-1. There was no correlation between sigma for myoglobin and Lp. 4. The method of Curry, Mason & Michel (1976) was used to measure sigma for urea in eight capillaries at 20-24 degrees C (sigma for albumin was also measured in two of these vessels). The mean value of sigma for urea was 0.061 (S.E. of mean +/- 0.012). The exclusive water channel (Curry et al. 1976) was calculated to have a value of 0.209 x 10(-3) micrometer sec-1 H2O-1. 5. The effects of temperature on Lp were investigated in a further seven capillaries. It was found that when tissue temperature changed slowly (less than 2 degrees C min-1) the changes of Lp were similar to the reciprocal changes in the viscosity of water. 6. The estimates of Lp and sigma for myoglobin and serum albumin are discussed in terms of the classical pore theory and in terms of a theory that the molecular sieving properties of the capillary wall reside in a matrix of molecular fibres which covers the endothelial cells and fills the channels through or between them. A quantitative theory of a fibre matrix membrane is given in the Appendix. PMID:6973022

  10. Changes in spectral reflexions from the iridophores of the neon tetra.

    PubMed Central

    Lythgoe, J N; Shand, J

    1982-01-01

    1. The iridescent stripe of the freshwater teleost, the neon tetra, changes from green in the daytime to violet-blue at night. 2. Spectral reflectance measurements were used to follow these colour changes. 3. Light causes a shift in reflectance to longer wavelengths in living fish and in isolated tissue from the lateral stripe. The change is reversed in darkness. 4. The spectral reflectance shifts to longer wavelengths when the fish is disturbed in darkness. No such colour changes were seen in fishes kept alive in 10(-4) M-reserpine. 5. Hypotonic Ringer solution causes a reflectance shift to longer wavelengths and hypertonic solution causes a shift to shorter wavelengths. 6. The iridescent reflexions from the lateral stripe which is continued across the iris originate from iridophores in the dermis. These iridophores contain regular stacks of broad, double-sided hexagonal plates that are about 10 nm thick. Each plate is contained within a pouch in the cytoplasm and is separated from its neighbour by approximately one quarter the wavelength of light. 7. A distinction is drawn between the physiologically active iridophores in the lateral stripe and iris that have broad hexagonal crystal plates which are very thin and the physiologically inactive iridophores that are also found in the iris, but in addition are found on the flanks below the lateral stripe, and on the head. These iridophores contain hexagonal crystals that are usually narrower than the active type, but are about 60-100 nm thick. Images Plate 1 Plate 2 Plate 3 Plate 4 Plate 5 PMID:7108777

  11. ?`Es necesario calcular detalladamente funciones de partición atómicas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milone, L. A.; Merlo, D. C.

    Bas√°ndonos en extensos y precisos c√≥mputos de funciones de partici√≥n realizados por nosotros para distintos √°tomos, se muestra que en el c√°lculo u obtenci√≥n de ciertas magnitudes (notablemente la presi√≥n electr√≥nica, la abundancia de un elemento deducida a partir de un estado fuertemente ionizado, etc.) el error porcentual que se comete es peque√Īo (inferior a 1 %) si se adopta, como valor de la funci√≥n de partici√≥n, el peso estad√≠stico del t√©rmino correspondiente al estado fundamental del √°tomo. Esta notable simplificaci√≥n acelera el c√°lculo, por ejemplo, de un modelo de atm√≥sfera estelar, sin disminuir la precisi√≥n de los resultados.

  12. Funciones de partición atómicas: Fuentes confiables de datos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlo, D. C.; Milone, L. A.

    Se llev√≥ a cabo una revisi√≥n minuciosa del c√°lculo de funciones de partici√≥n at√≥micas de √°tomos livianos, en estados neutro y una vez ionizados, partiendo del Hidr√≥geno y llegando al Sodio, incluyendo tambi√©n al K I y el Ca II. Al respecto, se realiz√≥ una investigaci√≥n exhaustiva de referencias bibliogr√°ficas existentes hasta el presente, las cuales fueron cotejadas con c√°lculos propios llevados a cabo mediante el procedimiento de depresi√≥n del cont√≠nuo (0.001 a 0.5 eV). Nuestros resultados muestran un muy buen acuerdo con las expresiones interpolatorias de Traving et al (1966), al presente, la referencia m√°s completa en cuanto a especies at√≥micas consideradas. Puntualizamos, adem√°s, ciertas deficiencias de estas relaciones de ajuste para decrementos del potencial de ionizaci√≥n altos (őĒ Ōá >= 0.5) eV).

  13. Familiares a cargo de pacientes de c√°ncer: funciones y desaf√≠os (PDQ¬ģ)‚ÄĒVersi√≥n para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario informativo revisado por expertos acerca de los desaf√≠os que enfrentan los familiares a cargo de los pacientes con c√°ncer. Este resumen se centra en las funciones t√≠picas y las inquietudes de las personas a cargo del paciente y en las intervenciones √ļtiles para esas personas.

  14. Regulaci√≥n del flujo sangu√≠neo uterino. II. Funciones de estr√≥geno y receptores estrog√©nicos őĪ/ő≤ en acciones gen√≥micas y no-gen√≥micas del endotelio uterino *

    PubMed Central

    Mayra, Pastore R.; Rosalina, Villal√≥n L.; L√≥pez, Gladys; Iruretagoyena, Jes√ļs; Magness, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Resumen El embarazo est√° marcado por cambios y adaptaciones cardiovasculares que son importantes para el crecimiento y mantenimiento de la placenta y el feto. Durante este periodo, las adaptaciones vasculares uterinas manifiestan cambios clasificados como de corto o largo plazo los cuales est√°n relacionados con adaptaciones vasodilatadoras, angiog√©nicas o de remodelaci√≥n. El estr√≥geno y los receptores estrog√©nicos cl√°sicos (REs), RE-őĪ y RE-ő≤, han demostrado ser parcialmente responsables por facilitar el incremento dram√°tico en el fluido sangu√≠neo uterino necesario durante el embarazo. En √©sta revisi√≥n bibliogr√°fica se discuten la base estructural para la diversidad y selectividad funcional de los REs por el estr√≥geno, el papel de los REs sobre los efectos gen√≥micos y no-gen√≥micos en c√©lulas endoteliales de arterias uterinas (CEAU). Estos temas integran el conocimiento cient√≠fico sobre la regulaci√≥n molecular de CEAU para mantener el incremento fisiol√≥gico en la perfusi√≥n √ļtero-placentaria observada durante un embarazo normal. PMID:26113751

  15. In-situ observation of chemical vapour deposition growth of epitaxial SiGe thin films by reflexion supported pyrometric interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, G.; Tillack, B.; Weidner, M.; Zaumseil, P.; Böbel, F. G.; Hertel, B.; Möller, H.

    1995-01-01

    Reflexion supported pyrometric interferometry (PYRITTE) has been used for the in-situ observation of Si (1 - x) Ge x heteroepitaxial growth on Si-wafers in a rapid thermal chemical vapour deposition (RTCVD)-reactor at 500¬įC. The thickness and the optical parameters of thin films at 500¬įC have been evaluated by real time computer fitting of the measured reflectivity data at the wavelength őĽ = 650 nm. These parameters have been compared with those obtained ex-situ at room temperature by ellipsometry in the wavelength range 240-700 nm. The thickness of growing Si (1 - x) Ge x film depends on time linearly. The temperature coefficient of the real part of the refractive index has been found as 3 √ó 10 -4 K -1.

  16. Investigaccion-accion en la sala de clases sobre las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia de un grupo de estudiantes universitarios y su relacion reciproca con el aprendizaje de las ciencias biologicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordova-Santiago, Lizzette Astrid

    La investigacion---accion que se llevo a cabo en la sala de clases tenia como punto de partida las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia de un grupo de estudiantes universitarios para luego examinar sus implicaciones en el proceso de aprendizaje de las Ciencias Biologicas. ¬ŅQue se supone que hagan las creencias en relacion con el aprendizaje? ¬ŅEn que consiste incorporar este aspecto a la practica educativa universitaria? Utilizando el modelo de Kemmis y McTaggart (1987) la investigacion-accion se planteo como un proceso dinamico en cuatro momentos en espiral constituidos por la planificacion, la accion, la observacion y la reflexion. Cada una de las fases tuvo una intencion retrospectiva y prospectiva formando una espiral de autorreflexion del conocimiento y la accion. Se llevaron a cabo audio grabaciones en clases y analisis de documentos. Ademas, la profesora-investigadora hizo un portafolio para reflexionar sobre las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia que tienen los estudiantes y las creencias del aprendizaje que tiene la profesora y sobre como la comprension de estos elementos ayudo a mejorar su practica educativa a traves del tiempo. Los resultados obtenidos apuntan a que las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia que tiene el grupo de estudiantes son diversas. Ellos si creen que la ciencia tiene una cultura la cual describieron como: complicada y desconocida que evoluciona constantemente, que es un conjunto de metodos, que es altamente tecnologica, que resuelve problemas de salud, ayuda a interpretar la realidad del mundo que los rodea y su origen y que existen unas intersecciones entre la ciencia y el poder. Sobre las creencias del proceso de aprendizaje de la profesora-investigadora, estas senalan que el modelaje de actores, la vision de la academia que tiene ella asi como la participacion y negociacion entre todos los involucrados en el proceso educativo, son factores que inciden en el proceso de aprendizaje.

  17. Interprétation hydrogéologique de l'aquifère des bassins sud-rifains (Maroc) : apport de la sismique réflexionHydrogeological interpretation of the southern Rifean basins aquifer (Morocco): seismic reflexion contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zouhri, Lahcen; Gorini, Christian; Lamouroux, Christian; Vachard, Daniel; Dakki, Mohammed

    2003-03-01

    The aquifer of the Rharb Basin is constituted by heterogeneous material. The seismic reflexion interpretation carried out in this area, highlighted a permeable device compartmentalized in raised and subsided blocks. Depressions identified in the northern and southernmost zones are characterized by Plio-Quaternary fillings that are favourable to the hydrogeological exploitation. Two mechanisms contribute to structure the Plio-Quaternary aquifer: the Hercynian reactivation in the southernmost part, and the gravitational mechanism of the Pre-Rifean nappe. The groundwater flow and the aquifer thickening are controlled by this reactivation.

  18. Personal de enfermería asume diversas funciones con expansión de programas de gestión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo sobre los profesionales de enfermería oncológica que ayudan a los pacientes durante todas las etapas de la atención oncológica, desde los exámenes de detección y el diagnóstico, hasta el tratamiento y la supervivencia.

  19. Reflexion Laws In Atoms Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghezali, S.; Taleb, A.

    2008-09-01

    This poster presents a first analysis of the laws of reflection of cold atoms by an evanescent wave atomic mirror. We demonstrate that when the laser beam is tuned to the blue of the atomic transition, i.e, for a positive frequency detuning compared to the frequency resonance őĒ = ŌČL-ŌČa, there is a reflection without a contact with the surface of the prism (no adsorption). The condition for an internal total reflection is őł>őłc = arcsin (1/n) where őł is the incidence angle of the laser wave on the internal face of the prism and n is its refraction index. The evanescent wave is parallel to the surface and propagates over few wavelengths only for őł = őłc. The atomic trajectory is such as the incidence angle ŌÜi is different from the reflection angle ŌÜr (non respect of the first law of reflection in photonic optics). We'll have to demonstrate the reflection law in atom optics and give numerical examples as an illustration [1]. At its interaction with the evanescent wave, the atom is submitted to a pressure radiation force Fx parallel to the surface of separation which communicates a quantity of motion in the direction of the x axis. It is also submitted to a dipolar force Fy perpendicular to the separation surface responsible of the repulsion of cold atoms in the case where we neglect the Van der Waals forces. We define R as the ratio of two forces Fx and Fy. Their expressions, function of the detuning, are given by the Ehrenfest theorem and the Bloch equations [2]. When the ratio R tends towards zero (spontaneous emission negligible for a detuning important compared to natural linewidth of the excited state), the first law of Descartes reflection is thus satisfied idem ŌÜi = ŌÜr Thus, it is simple to demonstrate that the atomic trajectories obey to the general reflection law: tg ŌÜr = tg ŌÜi-2R where R is independent of the spatial component. Its expression is given by the ratio of the velocity transfers őĒvx to őĒvy. The case of retro-reflection seen in quasi normal incidence and for values of the ratio R different from zero (ŌÜi = -ŌÜr) is also examined. In the case where the value of the ratio R is non null, we may demonstrate that the incidence plan is different from the reflection plan (second law of Descartes reflection).

  20. Novice Non-Native English Teachers' Reflections on Their Teacher Education Programmes and Their First Years of Teaching (Reflexiones de profesores novatos y no nativos del ingl√©s sobre sus programas de formaci√≥n y sus primeros a√Īos de instrucci√≥n)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akcan, Sumru

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates novice non-native English teachers' opinions about the effectiveness of their teacher education programme and the challenges during their initial years of teaching. The results of a survey administered to fifty-five novice teachers and follow-up interviews identify strengths and weaknesses in their teacher education…

  1. [Quality assurance: concepts, actions and reflexions].

    PubMed

    Ruelas Barajas, E

    1994-01-01

    Importance that the topic of quality of medical care has acquired in recent years, a number of concepts have been utilized to mean many strategies to improve the quality of care. This situation has frequently created confusion between terms such as: quality assessment, quality assurance, total quality management, quality guarantee, etc. The purpose of this paper is to propose a conceptual framework that allows not only to clarify the concepts but also the actions towards the improvement of the quality of care. Therefore, a multidimensional matrix is also proposed in order to classify the multiple actions referred about in the literature and to organize them. The conclusions are: 1) The term "Quality guarantee", at least in spanish, is absolutely pertinent when referred to the quality of medical care; 2) This concept becomes a solid starting point to implement concret actions by integrating different concepts and avoiding confusions; 3) The multidimensional matrix allows to systematize multiple actions; 4) Since there was not a similar conceptual framework it is expected that this paper allows to close the gap between thinking and doing on behalf of every body. PMID:8964328

  2. Estudio muestra importancia de conversaciones tempranas sobre el cuidado en etapa final de la vida

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo sobre la importancia de hablar en forma temprana sobre el cuidado paliativo para asegurar que la atención prestada en la etapa final de la vida sea más acorde con las preferencias de los pacientes.

  3. Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer con una sección especial sobre la prevalencia d

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe Anual a la Naci√≥n sobre el Estado del C√°ncer (1975 a 2010), mostr√≥ un descenso m√°s acelerado que en a√Īos anteriores de los √≠ndices de mortalidad por c√°ncer de pulm√≥n. Tambi√©n contiene una secci√≥n especial que destaca los efectos significativos

  4. Informe del NCI y los CDC sobre el tabaco sin humo

    Cancer.gov

    El primer informe sobre el consumo mundial del tabaco sin humo y sus consecuencias en la salud p√ļblica revel√≥ que m√°s de 300 millones de personas en al menos 70 pa√≠ses usan estos productos da√Īinos.

  5. Some Research-Based Issues and Recommendations Expressed at the Seminario Internacional Sobre la Educacion Bilingue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal, Ernesto M.

    The first Seminario Internacional Sobre la Educacion Bilingue (International Seminar on Bilingual Education), under the aegis of the National Association for Bilingual Education and the Mexican secretary for public education, brought together professionals from Canada, the United States, and Mexico in Oaxtepec, Mexico in November 1986 to share…

  6. Discussions about the Nature of Science in a Course on the History of Astronomy. (Spanish Title: Discusiones sobre la Naturaleza de la Ciencia en un Curso sobre Historia de la Astronom√≠a.) Discuss√Ķes sobre a Natureza da Ci√™ncia em um Curso sobre a Hist√≥ria da Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires de Andrade, Victória Flório; L'Astorina, Bruno

    2010-07-01

    There are an increasing number of researches in science education that affirm the importance of discussions on the "nature of science" in basic education level as well as in teacher training. The history of science applied to education is a way to contextualize epistemological discussions, allowing both the understanding of scientific content and learning about science concepts. We present some reasonably consensual definitions on the nature of science that have been widely discussed by the academic community. We show also some episodes in the history of astronomy which can lead to discussions involving some aspects of the nature of science, and how they can do it. Hay un n√ļmero creciente de investigaciones en la ense√Īanza de las ciencias que afirman la importancia de debates sobre la "naturaleza de la ciencia" en la educaci√≥n b√°sica y formaci√≥n del profesorado. La historia de la ciencia aplicada a la educaci√≥n es una manera de contextualizar los debates de la epistemolog√≠a, lo que permite tanto la comprensi√≥n de los contenidos cient√≠ficos como el aprendizaje de conceptos cient√≠ficos. En esto trabajo, presentamos algunas definiciones bastante consensuales sobre la naturaleza de la ciencia que han sido ampliamente discutidas por la comunidad acad√©mica y mostramos c√≥mo algunos episodios en la historia de la astronom√≠a pueden llevar a discusiones sobre algunos aspectos de la naturaleza de la ciencia. H√° um n√ļmero crescente de pesquisas na √°rea de ensino de ci√™ncias que afirmam a import√Ęncia de discuss√Ķes sobre a "natureza da ci√™ncia" na educa√ß√£o b√°sica e na forma√ß√£o de professores. A hist√≥ria da ci√™ncia aplicada ao ensino √© uma maneira de contextualizar discuss√Ķes epistemol√≥gicas, permitindo tanto a compreens√£o de conte√ļdos cient√≠ficos quanto o aprendizado de no√ß√Ķes sobre as ci√™ncias. Neste trabalho apresentamos algumas defini√ß√Ķes razoavelmente consensuais sobre a natureza da ci√™ncia que foram amplamente discutidas pela comunidade acad√™mica e mostramos como alguns epis√≥dios da hist√≥ria da astronomia podem levar a discuss√Ķes envolvendo alguns dos aspectos da natureza da ci√™ncia.

  7. Sobre as Bases de Referência Celeste (On the Celestial Reference Frames)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Vera A. F.; Poppe, Paulo C. R.

    2003-05-01

    Ao longo deste artigo, apresentamos, como continuidade √† discuss√£o apresentada no trabalho anterior, uma primeira discuss√£o sobre algumas das principais bases de refer√™ncia utilizadas em Astronomia. Da mesma forma, esperamos que o presente texto possa ser utilizado ao longo dos cursos de Introdu√ß√£o √† Astronomia das atuais gradua√ß√Ķes de F√≠sica e √°reas afins.

  8. [Some criminological and psychopathologic reflexions about serial crimes].

    PubMed

    Romi, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the concept of serial crime, including murder as well as any action for the purpose of inflicting bodily harm upon any person. It characterizes three types of multi-murderers: serial killers, mass murderers, and spree killers. These offenders often have a specific (ritual) behavior that is idiosyncratic and repeated on each crime, which allows the psychological profiling of the murderer. Examples, a psychopathological background, and a description of both their criminal behavior and dynamics are provided for each of these criminals. They are further classified according to their different motivations: psychotic, prophetic or enlightened, pleasure, secondary or pecuniary profits, power or control. Finally, the author shares his personal experience over 20 years in the assessment of sexual offenders. PMID:22091451

  9. The Process of "Reflexion" in Bridging "Testimonios" across Lived Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espino, Michelle M.; Vega, Irene I.; Rendon, Laura I.; Ranero, Jessica J.; Muniz, Marcela M.

    2012-01-01

    From Latinas' locations in the margins of academe and society emerges a unique set of challenges complicated by racism, sexism, and classism. One form of resistance to these multiple marginalities involves drawing upon and (re)telling one's lived experience to expose oppression and systemic violence. "Testimonio" is a conceptual and methodological…

  10. Evaluating Community Creativity and Innovation: Methodological Proposal and Reflexions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonneau, Gilles A.; Amegan, Samuel

    1999-01-01

    This article suggests the importance of evaluating creativity and innovation at the contextual level of society and proposes a methodological design to do so. Some of the difficulties of such an approach are identified and conditions of its feasibility are outlined. (Author/CR)

  11. Partnership and Participation: Ironic Reflexions from Ivory Towers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannion, Greg; Dockerell, Richard; Sankey, Kate

    1998-01-01

    Uses postmodern and poststructuralist theory to critique ideologies of emancipation and the push for university/business partnerships. Argues for a shift from transmission of a body of knowledge to an interrogation of how knowledge is transmitted. (SK)

  12. Introduction: Reflexions on Interdisciplinarity in Adapted Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Causgrove Dunn, Janice; Goodwin, Donna; Bouffard, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    The articles included in this special issue of Quest emerged from a research workshop entitled "Thinking About Our Thinking in Adapted Physical Activity," held at the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Canada, from June 18-19, 2013. The aim of the workshop was to examine different worldviews that contribute to the adapted physical…

  13. Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer, 1975 a 2012

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer, 1975 a 2012, es una actualización de los índices de casos nuevos, muertes y tendencias de los cánceres más comunes en los Estados Unidos.

  14. Conversation with Lara about the Earth and Land. (Spanish Title: Conversando con Lara sobre la Tierra y la Teirra.) Conversando com Lara sobre a Terra e a Terra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Conceição Barbosa-Lima, Maria

    2010-12-01

    The present article is the analysis of a conversation between the author and Lara, a four-yearold- girl, enrolled in nursery school, while she makes a drawing of the Earth. It took place outside school environment and without any other person around to avoid interference during the interview. According to Ferreira & Silva (2004), a researcher can only comprehend a child's drawing, or form, by listening to him/her while he/she is creating it. Lara presented the traditional flat drawing, picturing the sky parallel to the ground, as reported by Nardi & Carvalho (1996). However, when asked to draw the World - term used by Butterworth et al. (2002), in order to avoid unnecessary confusion - she represented it by a circle, with herself on the surface. Her drawings led to the conclusion that such girl does not know yet the World in which she lives is the Earth, and probably because of that, within her age and consequent maturity, she accurately differentiates the concepts of land and Earth. El presente art√≠culo analiza una entrevista libre, mientras una ni√Īa de 4 a√Īos y 4 meses, matriculada en el pregrado, dibuja la Tierra. Esta entrevista se realiz√≥ fuera del ambiente escolar y sin otra persona alrededor que pudiera interferir. De acuerdo con Ferreira Silva (2004), para quien investiga es posible conocer realmente lo que un ni√Īo o una ni√Īa pone en el papel a trav√©s de grafismos y/o dibujos si se lo escucha durante el proceso de creaci√≥n de la escritura con im√°genes. La ni√Īa, en este caso, representa la Tierra con el tradicional dibujo plano y el "cielo" paralelo al suelo, conforme analizaron Nardi & Carvalho (1996). Pero, cuando se Le solicita dibujar el "Mundo" - palabra empleada en un trabajo de Butterworth et al. (2002), con intenci√≥n de no provocar "confusiones" innecesarias a sus sujetos de investigaci√≥n- lo representa de forma circular, poni√©ndose sobre su superficie. Sus dibujos llevan a concluir que esta ni√Īa a√ļn no tiene conocimiento que el mundo en que vive es el planeta Tierra y que, probablemente por ese motivo, distingue con precisi√≥n, dentro de los limites de comprensi√≥n de la edad y madurez asociada, la tierra y la Tierra. O presente artigo analisa uma entrevista livre enquanto uma menina de quatro anos e quatro meses, matriculada na educa√ß√£o infantil, desenhava a Terra. A entrevista se realizou fora do ambiente escolar e sem qualquer outra pessoa por perto que pudesse interferir. De acordo com Ferreira & Silva (2004), para que o pesquisador conhe√ßa realmente o que uma crian√ßa p√Ķe no papel atrav√©s de grafismos e/ou desenhos, √© necess√°rio ouvi-la durante o processo de cria√ß√£o do desenho. A menina apresenta, em rela√ß√£o √† Terra, o tradicional desenho plano com o 'c√©u' paralelo ao solo, conforme j√° apresentaram Nardi & Carvalho (1996). Mas quando solicitada a desenhar o Mundo - palavra empregada em um trabalho por Butterworth et al. (2002), com inten√ß√£o de n√£o provocar 'confus√Ķes' desnecess√°rias para seus pesquisados - o representa de forma circular, colocando-se sobre sua superf√≠cie. Seus desenhos levaram √† conclus√£o que esta crian√ßa ainda n√£o tem conhecimento de que o Mundo em que vive √© o Planeta Terra e que, provavelmente por este motivo, diferencia com precis√£o, dentro dos limites impostos por sua idade e consequente maturidade, a terra e a Terra.

  15. El Informe a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer, 1975-2012

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer (1975-2012) indica que continuó la baja de tasas de mortalidad de todos los cánceres juntos, así como de la mayoría de los cánceres en hombres y mujeres de todos los grupos raciales y étnicos principales.

  16. O que bilíngues bimodais têm a nos dizer sobre desenvolvimento bilíngue?

    PubMed Central

    de Quadros, Ronice M√ľller; Lillo-Martin, Diane; Pichler, Deborah Chen

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho √© apresentar o que as pesquisas que estamos desenvolvendo com crian√ßas ouvintes, filhas de pais surdos, adquirindo L√≠ngua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras) e Portugu√™s e L√≠ngua de Sinais Americana (ASL) e Ingl√™s (Lillo-Martin et al. 2010) t√™m a nos dizer sobre desenvolvimento bil√≠ngue. Os dados deste estudo fazem parte de um banco de dados de intera√ß√Ķes espont√Ęneas coletadas longitudinalmente, alternando contextos de aquisi√ß√£o da Libras e do portugu√™s como l√≠ngua alvo, no Brasil e dados coletados longitudinalmente. nos mesmos contextos, de crian√ßas adquirindo ASL e ingl√™s1. Al√©m disso, h√° tamb√©m dados do estudo experimental com testes aplicados nos dois pares de l√≠nguas que se agregam ao presente estudo. Uma vis√£o geral dos estudos desenvolvidos sobre a aquisi√ß√£o bil√≠ngue bimodal por crian√ßas ouvintes, filhas de pais surdos, ser√° apresentada e, ent√£o, ser√£o expostos alguns aspectos lingu√≠sticos deste tipo de aquisi√ß√£o, considerando as discuss√Ķes sobre aquisi√ß√£o bil√≠ngue a partir da pesquisa realizada. PMID:24431480

  17. University Students' Conceptions about the Moon Phases. (Spanish Title: Concepciones de Estudiantes Universit√°rios sobre Las Fases de la Luna.) Concep√ß√Ķes de Estudantes Universit√°rios sobre as Fases da Lua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de F√°tima Oliveira Saraiva, Maria; da Silveira, Fernando Lang; Steffani, Maria Helena

    2011-07-01

    In this article we describe the development of a multiple choice test about lunar phases and analyze the results of its application to ten groups of Physics students at the UFRGS. During the improvement of the test, we noticed that the percentage of right answers about some concepts increased significantly when associated with the reformulation of the question, emphasizing the importance of being careful to avoid incorrect answers generated by unclear questions, and not by ignorance on the matter. We confirm the results of other studies that show that students have great difficulty to relate the Moon's phase with its position in the sky at given time. On the other hand, our results suggest that, in general, students of Physics understand the phenomenon of lunar phases better than the average of university students. En estese art√≠culo se describe la elaboraci√≥n de una prueba de opci√≥n m√ļltiple sobre las fases de la Luna y se analizan los resultados de su aplicaci√≥n en diez grupos de estudiantes de F√≠sica de UFRGS. Durante el mejoramiento de la prueba observamos que el porcentaje de aciertos creci√≥ considerablemente cuando considerada una nueva redacci√≥n de la pregunta, destacando el cuidado que se debe tomar a fin de evitar respuestas incorrectas generadas por preguntas poco claras y no a causa de la ignorancia de los estudiantes sobre el tema. Confirmamos los resultados de otros estudios que las mayores dificultades de los alumnos sobre el tema fases de la Luna est√°n en relacionar la fase de la Luna con su posici√≥n en el cielo en determinado momento. Por otra parte, nuestros resultados sugieren que, en general, los estudiantes de la F√≠sica comprenden mejor el fen√≥meno de las fases lunares que el promedio de los estudiantes universitarios. Neste artigo descrevemos a elabora√ß√£o de um teste de m√ļltipla escolha sobre as fases da Lua e analisamos os resultados de sua aplica√ß√£o em dez grupos de estudantes de F√≠sica da UFRGS. Durante o aprimoramento do teste notamos que a porcentagem de acertos a respeito de alguns conceitos teve um aumento significativo associado √† reformula√ß√£o da pergunta, ressaltando a import√Ęncia de tomar cuidado para evitar respostas erradas geradas por perguntas pouco claras e n√£o por ignor√Ęncia do respondente sobre o assunto. Confirmamos os resultados de outros estudos de que as maiores dificuldades dos alunos sobre o tema Fases da Lua dizem respeito a relacionar a fase que a Lua apresenta com a sua posi√ß√£o no c√©u em determinada hora. Por outro lado, nossos resultados sugerem que, em geral, os estudantes de F√≠sica entendem melhor o fen√īmeno das fases lunares do que a m√©dia dos estudantes universit√°rios.

  18. Tend√™ncias de teses e disserta√ß√Ķes sobre ensino de astronomia no Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, P. S.; Megid Neto, J.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho s√£o apresentados os resultados de uma pesquisa do tipo estado da arte sobre teses e disserta√ß√Ķes defendidas no Brasil e relativas ao ensino de Astronomia. Teve por objetivo identificar essa produ√ß√£o e conhecer as principais tend√™ncias da pesquisa nesse campo. O procedimento inicial consistiu de um levantamento bibliogr√°fico junto ao Centro de Documenta√ß√£o em Ensino de Ci√™ncias (CEDOC) da Faculdade de Educa√ß√£o da UNICAMP e ao Banco de Teses da CAPES dispon√≠vel na Internet. Foram localizadas 13 disserta√ß√Ķes de mestrado e 3 teses de doutorado, as quais foram estudadas em fun√ß√£o dos seguintes aspectos: institui√ß√£o, ano de defesa, n√≠vel escolar abrangido no estudo, foco tem√°tico do estudo e g√™nero de trabalho acad√™mico. Deste conjunto de pesquisas, 13 (81,3%) delas foram defendidas a partir da segunda metade dos anos 90, indicando uma preocupa√ß√£o mais recente com temas relativos ao ensino de Astronomia no conjunto da produ√ß√£o acad√™mica em programas de p√≥s-gradua√ß√£o no Brasil. Verificou-se que 43,7% dos trabalhos foram produzidas na USP e 18,8% na UNICAMP. Quanto ao n√≠vel escolar abrangido nos estudos, predominaram os estudos direcionados ao Ensino Fundamental de 5a a 8a s√©ries (62,5%). No que diz respeito ao foco tem√°tico das pesquisas, as principais tend√™ncias voltaram-se: 56,3% para Conte√ļdo e M√©todo; 43,8% para Concep√ß√Ķes do Professor; 37,5% para Curr√≠culo e Programas; 37,5% para Recursos Did√°ticos. Quanto ao g√™nero de trabalho acad√™mico, verificou-se que 43,8% s√£o de Pesquisa Experimental e 31,3% de Pesquisa de An√°lise de Conte√ļdo. Estudos de revis√£o bibliogr√°fica como este visam colaborar com a divulga√ß√£o ampla da produ√ß√£o acad√™mica em determinada √°rea, tra√ßando algumas de suas tend√™ncias. Ao mesmo tempo possibilita, a partir de investiga√ß√Ķes decorrentes, apontar as suas contribui√ß√Ķes para o ensino e sinalizar com necessidades a serem supridas por futuras pesquisas.

  19. Sobre a largura da √ļltima superf√≠cie de espalhamento

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobre, M. A. S.; Pires, N.; Lima, J. A. S.

    2003-08-01

    De acordo com o modelo do "Big-Bang", no universo primordial a mat√©ria estava em equil√≠brio t√©rmico com a radia√ß√£o. Com a expans√£o a temperatura da radia√ß√£o cai. Quando a temperatura chega em torno dos 4.000K, os espalhamentos diminuem, come√ßando a recombina√ß√£o dos pr√≥tons e el√©trons em Hidrog√™nio neutro (era conhecida como da recombina√ß√£o). Ao final da recombina√ß√£o, os f√≥tons se propagam livremente sofrendo, em princ√≠pio, somente os efeitos do "redshift" cosmol√≥gico. Esses f√≥tons nos alcan√ßam hoje como a radia√ß√£o c√≥smica de fundo (RCF), e parecem vir de uma superf√≠cie esf√©rica ao nosso redor, tal que o raio dela √© a dist√Ęncia que ele viajou desde seu √ļltimo espalhamento na √©poca da recombina√ß√£o. Naturalmente, esse processo n√£o ocorreu abruptamente, implicando na exist√™ncia de uma largura no espa√ßo dos "redshifts" que deve depender do modelo cosmol√≥gico espec√≠fico e dos processos f√≠sicos considerados. Neste trabalho analisamos os efeitos de diferentes modelos - a saber, aqueles com decaimento do v√°cuo L(t), cria√ß√£o de mat√©ria, quintess√™ncia e g√°s de Chaplygin - sobre a √ļltima superf√≠cie de espalhamento da RCF, em particular sua largura e a fun√ß√£o visibilidade, que determina a probabilidade de um f√≥ton ter tido seu √ļltimo espalhamento num "redshift" z. No caso particular dos modelos com decaimento do v√°cuo, existe uma forte depend√™ncia da fun√ß√£o visibilidade com L(t). Tais efeitos poder√£o ser testados atrav√©s da an√°lise dos resultados de experimentos mais precisos que est√£o atualmente em andamento, como por exemplo, o WMAP.

  20. Reflexión bioética sobre el uso de organismos genéticamente modificados

    PubMed Central

    Yunta, Eduardo Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    El presente artículo reflexiona desde los 4 principios de la bioética el uso comercial de organismos genéticamente modificados. Se cuestiona fundamentalmente la falta de transferencia de tecnología entre el mundo desarrollado y en desarrollo y el que el presente sistema de patentamiento de organismos vivos modificados fomenta intereses comerciales y no da debida importancia al desarrollo sostenible de la agricultura y ganadería en los países en desarrollo, donde más se necesita. Se reflexiona sobre la importancia que tiene evaluar los riesgos antes de introducirse en el mercado organismos genéticamente modificados y la necesidad de regulación en los países. PMID:21927675

  1. Human breast milk and adipokines - A potential role for the soluble leptin receptor (sOb-R) in the regulation of infant energy intake and development.

    PubMed

    Zepf, F D; Rao, P; Moore, J; Stewart, R; Ladino, Yuli Martinez; Hartmann, B T

    2016-01-01

    Concentrations of different adipokines in human breast milk are thought to be able to affect energy intake of the infant. Leptin is a hormone synthesized by adipose tissue and the human placenta and favors satiety. The availability of leptin in breast milk is influenced by epithelial cells of the mammary gland that are known to be able to produce leptin, as well as leptin from maternal circulation that is transported to the breast milk, and which can thus in turn reach neonatal blood after absorption. Research so far as mainly focused on leptin concentrations in breast milk. However, evidence suggests that in addition to leptin concentrations levels of the so-called soluble leptin receptor (sOb-R), the main high-affinity binding protein for leptin in humans, are necessary in order to calculate the free leptin index (FLI) and to assess function of the leptin axis. FLI is calculated from the ratio of leptin to the sOb-R, and serves as the main parameter for assessing function of the leptin axis throughout maturation and development. Here we propose that assessing sOb-R levels in addition to leptin concentrations in breast milk could serve as a valuable tool to investigate effects of the leptin axis in breast milk because sOb-R concentrations can impact available leptin levels, and which in turn can have significant implications for infant energy intake and related development. PMID:26804597

  2. Educación sobre sexualidad y prevención del VIH: un diagnóstico para América Latina y el Caribe

    PubMed Central

    DeMaria, Lisa M.; Gal√°rraga, Omar; Campero, Lourdes; Walker, Dilys M.

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN Objetivo Mostrar, a trav√©s de un diagn√≥stico en Am√©rica Latina y el Caribe, el panorama legislativo y curricular sobre sexualidad y prevenci√≥n contra el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) en el √°mbito escolar, contrast√°ndolo con los comportamientos sexuales reportados en encuestas demogr√°ficas y de salud. M√©todos En mayo de 2008 se realiz√≥, con el apoyo del Fondo de Poblaci√≥n de las Naciones Unidas (UNFPA), una encuesta a informantes clave en 34 pa√≠ses de la Regi√≥n. El cuestionario autoaplicado solicit√≥ informaci√≥n sustantiva de agentes de las diferentes partes interesadas, como ministerios de educaci√≥n y de salud, sobre los programas de prevenci√≥n contra el VIH/Sida que se est√°n aplicando en las escuelas. Resultados Respondieron a la encuesta 27 pa√≠ses que representan 95,5% de la poblaci√≥n objetivo (6 a 18 a√Īos de edad). La mayor√≠a de los pa√≠ses inform√≥ tener al menos un libro de texto o un cap√≠tulo espec√≠fico para ense√Īar los temas de educaci√≥n sobre sexualidad y prevenci√≥n del VIH. En la escuela secundaria se cubren la mayor parte de los temas pertinentes relevantes para la educaci√≥n sobre sexualidad, pero no todos. Por ejemplo, el problema de la discriminaci√≥n por orientaci√≥n o preferencia sexual no se incluye en los programas escolares. Conclusiones El material educativo sobre sexualidad debe ser revisado y actualizado peri√≥dicamente de modo que refleje los avances en los temas y en la forma de tratar los contenidos. En cada pa√≠s el curr√≠culo debe abordar el tema del respeto a la diversidad sobre orientaci√≥n, preferencia e identidad sexuales, y en particular el manejo apropiado de la educaci√≥n para prevenir infecciones de transmisi√≥n sexual (ITS) en hombres que tienen sexo con hombres. Los esfuerzos de evaluaci√≥n de la efectividad de los programas deben contemplar desenlaces tales como marcadores biol√≥gicos (incidencia y prevalencia de ITS y embarazo) y no √ļnicamente indicadores de conocimiento y comportamiento sexual auto-reportado. PMID:20107702

  3. Tend√™ncias De Teses e Disserta√ß√Ķes Sobre Educa√ß√£o em Astronomia No Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, Paulo Sergio; Megid Neto, Jorge

    2005-07-01

    Apresentam-se os resultados de uma pesquisa do tipo estado da arte sobre teses e disserta√ß√Ķes defendidas no Brasil e relativas ao ensino de Astronomia, com objetivo de identificar essa produ√ß√£o e conhecer as principais tend√™ncias da pesquisa nesse campo. Foram localizadas 13 disserta√ß√Ķes de mestrado e 3 teses de doutorado, as quais foram estudadas em fun√ß√£o dos seguintes aspectos: isntitui√ß√£o, ano de defesa, n√≠vel escolar abrangido no estudo, foco tem√°tico do estudo e g√™nero de trabalho acad√™mico. Pretende-se assim colaborar com a divulga√ß√£o ampla da produ√ß√£o acad√™mica na √°rea. Ao mesmo tempo o estudo possibilita, a partir de investiga√ß√Ķes decorrentes, apontar as contribui√ß√Ķes dessa produ√ß√£o para o ensino e sinalizar com necessidades a serem supridas por futuras pesquisas.

  4. Teor√≠√ā¬≠as de primer y segundo orden sobre el potencial de ciertas figuras de equilibrio de cuerpos celestes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumbau, Manuel Forner

    2010-11-01

    Uno de los problemas que aborda la Mec√°nica Celeste es la determinaci√≥n de las figuras de equilibrio de los cuerpos celestes. Para investigar su soluci√≥n mediante m√©todos directos, se precisa evaluar el potencial generado por su autogravitaci√≥n, el generado por su fuerza centr√≠√ā¬≠fuga y el generado por la fuerza de atracci√≥n entre los cuerpos. Los m√©todos cl√°sicos de Finlay y Kopal que afrontan estos problemas, para determinar el potencial autogravitatorio en las configuraciones de equilibrio, emplean desarrollos en serie de los potenciales interior y exterior del potencial autogravitatorio. Estos m√©todos incurren en el error de suponer la convergencia en capas donde resulta cuestionable dicha convergencia para estos desarrollos en serie. En este trabajo se han elaborado unos algoritmos que contemplan toda la casu√≠&stica y que permiten una manipulaci√≥n efic iente del producto de polinomios de Legendre, del producto de funciones asociada s de Legendre y del producto de arm√≥nicos esf√©ricos como combinaci√≥on lineal de ellos mismos, respectivamente. Se han obtenido, para primer y segundo orden en las amplitudes, los desarrollos correctos para los potencial es interior y exterior del potencial autogravitatorio para configuraciones de equilibrio aisladas, y , en primer orden de amplitudes, los mismos potenciales para los sistemas binarios pr√≥ximos. Se ha elaborado un m√©todo anal√≠tico, en primer orden respecto de las amplitudes, para la determinaci√≥n del potencial de marea en sistemas binarios pr√≥ximos en el cual se manifiesta la forma de la componente secundaria del sistema

  5. Une lecture, mille et une reflexions: Cahier de reflexion sur le processus de lecture. (One Reading, 1001 Reflections: Notebook of Reflection on the Reading Process.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    This activity notebook is intended to help French-speaking students in Alberta, Canada, develop reflective reading practices. Following an introduction and information (with graphics) on the notebook's organization, the notebook is divided into three sections of reading strategies: the first section contains three activities, the second section…

  6. Reflexions sur L'Evolution de L'Enseignement de la Biologie en Afrique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasson, A.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews the main stages of the evolution of biology teaching in Africa. Discusses the UNESCO pilot project, the teaching aids produced for English- and French-speaking countries of Africa, and the "Teacher's Guide on the Biology of Human Populations" and projects needs for further assistance. (CS)

  7. Education Relative a l'Environnement: Regards, Recherches, Reflexions. Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    This document takes a critical look at the relationship between environment, culture, and development from the perspective of education relative to the environment. Papers include: (1) "Education a l'environnement ou acculturation?" (Jean-Etienne Bidou); (2) "Environnement et developpement: La culture de la filiere ONU" (Lucie Sauve, Tom Berryman,…

  8. Education Relative a l'Environnement: Regards, Recherches, Reflexions. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document reports the work of an inter-university colloquium in Montreal in November, 1997 on research on the evaluation of education relative to the environment. Papers include: (1) "Un "patrimoine" de recherche en construction" (Lucie Sauve); (2) "Pour une recherche en education relative l'environnement "centree sur l'objet partage"" (Louis…

  9. Education Relative a l'Environnement: Regards, Recherches, Reflexions. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This document reports the work of inter-university research taken in Montreal in November, 2000 of research on the evaluation of education relative to the environment. Papers include: (1) "Quelle evaluation pour quelle education relative l'environnement?" (Georgia Liarakou and Eugenie Flogaitis); (2) "Quand evaluer c'est apprendre ensemble: Une…

  10. Education Relative a l'Environnement: Regards, Recherches, Reflexions. Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This volume presents the work of a colloquium on the theme "Education a l'environnement: Mouveaux publics, mouveax partenaires" that took place May 3-4, 2000 in Poitiers. Papers include: (1) "Pourquoi rechercher de nouvezus publics pour l'education relative a l'environnement?" (Louis Goffin); (2) "Le partenariat en education relative a…

  11. Reflexions sur les marqueurs de structuration de la conversation (Considerations on the Structural Markers of Conversation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auchlin, Antoine

    1981-01-01

    Examines morphemic markers that signal the opening and closing of discourse units, emphasizing their complexity and their central role for a descriptive model of conversation. Then proceeds to analyze their functions within the overall structure of conversation, classifying them according to their properties and uses. Societe Nouvelle Didier…

  12. Reflexions sur l'intonation de phrase en allemand (Reflections on Sentence Intonation in German)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertrand, Yves

    1976-01-01

    A study of the relationship between intonation and syntax must consider communication as a whole, rather than isolated sentences. This study examines the role of the speakers in communication, bilateral and unilateral communication, and some pedagogical implications of this study. (Text is in French.) (AM)

  13. Quelques Reflexions sur la Marginalite de l'Education des Adultes dans les Universites du Quebec

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadeau, Jean-Real

    1974-01-01

    The policies and attitudes of universities in the Province of Quebec toward adult education are examined as they relate to financing, admission, requirements, programs, and methods. (The article is written in French.) Available from: Extension Division, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon S7N OWO. (MW)

  14. La traduction: pratique reflexive, reflexion pratique (Translation: Reflective Practice, Practical Reflection).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forget, Philippe

    1984-01-01

    It is proposed that, in regard to the question of whether linguistic theory is a friend of the literary translator, the imposed opposition of theory and practice gets in the way of working from the basis of the implied discourse that supports literature's communicative function. (MSE)

  15. Quelques reflexions sur la variation linguistique (Some Reflections on Linguistic Variation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deshaies, Denise

    Various social, psychological, and linguistic explanations for language variation are examined from the perspective of a fundamental principle that seems to underline interaction, language, and society. That principle lies in the paradigm "same and different." The dialectic resulting from this paradigm is at the basis of the notions of…

  16. Reflexions eristiques et heuristiques sur le "tertium comparationis" (Eristic and Heuristic Reflextions on the 'Tertium Comparationis')

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemb, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Questions the effectiveness of contrastive linguistics in measuring the difference between two languages and therefore in predicting the ease or difficulty of acquisition from one to the other. The simplicity of a language is not objectively quantifiable since it is measured as relative to other languages. (Text is in French.) (TL)

  17. REFLEX: A versatile MC code to study X-ray reflexion around AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paltani, S.

    2015-09-01

    We present a new Monte Carlo code called REFLEX to simulate realistic reflection/transmission geometries of X-ray primary emission. REFLEX implements all the major physical processes of interaction of X-rays in cold matter. Its main difference compared to other similar models is its ability to define arbitrarily complex geometries by placing "clouds" of different shapes. In addition, the geometry of the emission and its spectrum can also be defined in a very flexible way. We validate REFLEX using well known models like pexrav/pexmon and MYTorus. As REFLEX is tracking individually all photons, it can be used to make interesting inferences. In particular, the propagation time of the photons allows the study of the time response of reflected spectra. On a more educative side, REFLEX can also generate spectral images of the reflecting medium, and each of the physical processes can be turned off individually. We show some applications of REFLEX for realistic AGN configurations like a disc torus reflector, and we explore the Compton shoulder in different cases.

  18. Research and Curatorship in the National Science Museums: A Reflexion on Threats and Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Robert

    1990-01-01

    The traditional roles of historic collections of instruments, machinery, and their curators and the recent changes in the priorities of national science museums are described. The importance of communication and interpretation in museology is discussed. (KR)

  19. Education Relative a l'Environnement: Regards, Recherches, Reflexions. Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    This document takes a critical look at the relationship between environment, culture, and development from the perspective of education relative to the environment. Papers include: (1) "Education a l'environnement ou acculturation?" (Jean-Etienne Bidou); (2) "Environnement et developpement: La culture de la filiere ONU" (Lucie Sauve, Tom Berryman,Ö

  20. Education Relative a l'Environnement: Regards, Recherches, Reflexions. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This document reports the work of inter-university research taken in Montreal in November, 2000 of research on the evaluation of education relative to the environment. Papers include: (1) "Quelle evaluation pour quelle education relative l'environnement?" (Georgia Liarakou and Eugenie Flogaitis); (2) "Quand evaluer c'est apprendre ensemble: UneÖ

  1. HCO emission toward the X-ray reflexion nebula Sgr B2 in the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armijos AbendaŮo, Jairo

    The Galactic Center (GC) with its relative proximity (ė8.5 Kpc) is an excellent laboratory to study physical processes in a galactic nucleus with an incomparable high angular resolution. The GC hosts a supermassive black hole, Sgr A*, with a mass of ė4◊10(6) M?. The interstellar medium in the GC reveal a harsh environment since it is affected by large scale shocks, star formation activity and high energy phenomena. Furthermore, time-variability of X-ray emission is observed toward the molecular cloud complexes of Sgr A and Sgr B2 located in the GC. To explain this time-variability the X-ray reflection nebula scenario has been proposed. This scenario suggests that an enhanced activity of Sgr A* occurred ė100 years ago, generating a huge X-ray flare that illuminated both cloud complexes in the GC. It is believed that HCO increases its abundance in Photo-Dominated Regions (PDRs) and X-ray Dominated Regions (XDRs). Furthermore, the Fe Kalpha line at 6.4 keV is an excellent tracer of XDRs. This line is produced by fluorescence when X-rays and/or high energy particles (>7.1 keV) interact with neutral or partially ionized iron atoms. The Sgr B2 complex hosts a large amount of regions with ionized hydrogen (HII regions) by UV radiation from nearby stars. These HII regions should illuminate a large number of PDRs in the environment of Sgr B2. Thus, the Sgr B2 complex is unique since PDRs and XDRs can clearly be resolved with the angular resolutions achieved by using actual single dish radio telescopes. HCO observations at 3 mm wavelengths were obtained with the IRAM 30 meter telescope at Pico Veleta (Spain) in 2006. The general aim of this work is to study the spatial distribution of the HCO(1-0) emission toward a 36x32 pc(2) region of the Sgr B2 complex in order to disentangle if this molecule is preferentially synthesized toward PDRs or/and XDRs. We found a good correlation between the HCO(1-0) emission and the Fe Kalpha line emission rather than the emission from HII regions, suggesting that the HCO abundance is enhanced toward XDRs.

  2. Detection directe d'un gisement de sulfures massifs volcanogenes par sismique reflexion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Erick

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the applicability of the 3D seismic reflection method, which is routinely applied in oil and gas exploration, to prospecting for deep volcanogenic massive sulphides (VMS). The Matagami mining camp of the Abitibi greenstone belt is well suited for this study because geological units have a moderate dip (ňú45¬į) and most geological contacts can be traced for tens of kilometres. Petrophysical studies performed in situ (boreholes) and on rock samples have demonstrated that rhyolite-gabbro contacts were likely to generate strong seismic reflections. The good reflectivity of lithological contacts in the Matagami mining camp allow seismic methods to map them to depths exceeding 3 km. Sample analyses from the Isle-Dieu orebody and borehole logging of holes that intersect the Bell Allard deposit have also shown that massive and semi-massive sulphides could be reflective. In particular, sulphides rich in high-impedance minerals (e.g. pyrite and magnetite) should generate anomalously strong reflections if their size is sufficient. In 1994, a 2D seismic profile acquired directly above Bell Allard identified a geophysical anomaly corresponding to the ore deposit. Since 2D seismic reflection profiles are inherently ambiguous as to the source of a given reflection, a vertical seismic profile (VSP) was deemed necessary to demonstrate the reflectivity of Bell Allard. The VSP section displays a strong compressional wave reflection and converted shear wave produced by the Bell Allard sulphides. A modelling study was undertaken, using existing borehole geometries, to evaluate the performance of VSP technology as a mineral exploration tool. The modelled VSP section showed weak amplitude reflections for any shot location. Hence, the VSP method is not recommended for exploration in the Matagami mining camp. In 1996, a 20 km2 3D seismic survey was collected above the 1 km deep Bell Allard ore deposit. The survey objectives were to identify the seismic response of a VMS ore deposit and to map the main lithological contacts. The Bell Allard VMS deposit appears as a 100 m wide zone of high seismic amplitudes. The deposit is underlain by a larger amplitude anomaly that we attribute to a gabbro sill, or possibly to the alteration zone of the deposit. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  3. Earthquakes in the context of the natural and man-made events. An epidemiologic reflexion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, C. S.

    2003-04-01

    In the last few years a great interest has been growing for studying, in a detailed way, the impact of natural and man-made disasters, by quantifying their consequences on the human community. Such interest could only be possible due to the easier way the information circulates nowadays and how it can be made available to interested persons. We consulted a few elements of published information from a wide variety of sources and compared with elements gathered by ourselves. Many consulted results are taken from the insurance industry, especially from recent years; others from books or through the internet. A brief discussion on the kind of quality that the information should exhibit is made for a few cases. Earthquakes are analysed in the context of natural and man-made disasters, and statistics are shown for the 20th century, with greater emphasis in its second half. Data refers mainly the number of events, classifying them, number of deaths, injuries and homeless, and economic direct impact. In many instances the values by different sources present large uncertainties, especially in what concerns the economic impact. Time evolution is viewed considering the growing of population, housing and industry and the implementation of seismic codes. More precise data from recent years are used to confront the numbers referring larger periods of time. Comparisons are established among the various types of events at the world and regional levels, in order to define an index for the perception of risks. A recommendation for the setting common databases at the international level with this data is strongly made in order to reduce uncertainties and cover more wide fields of information

  4. [Paradise lost - Reflexion of preterm birth from the perspective after a brain injury. A case study].

    PubMed

    Cignacco, Eva; Zu√Īiga, Franziska; Kurth, Elisabeth

    2011-04-01

    This case study describes the history of an older person, born in 1942 preterminally, who suffered from a brain injury in 2005. Problems in rehabilitation elicited the search for a new meaning in life. In analysing and interpreting the brain injury, preterm birth played a crucial role. The theme of lifelong compensation of deficits, caused by preterm birth, gained new importance. The consequences of brain injury left unsuccessful his former modes of compensation. He was confronted with finding new strategies in order to counterbalance the growing decompensation. This report is based on and was developed through respect for the principles of user involvement in research. PMID:21480177

  5. Reflexions on Frasnian and Famennian stage boundary decisions as a guide to future deliberations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ziegler, W.; Sandberg, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    The pros and cons of the three conodont-based boundaries of the Frasnian and Famennian Stages and their corresponding GSSPs (Global Stratotype Section and Point) are evaluated in terms of current taxonomic, biostratigraphic, and sedimentologic knowledge. Two of these boundaries are based on easily identified pelagic species, which provide excellent bases for global correlation. The third, for the base of the Frasnian, is based on a neritic species, whose taxonomy has been heatedly debated. The GSSPs for these three levels are all located in the Montagne Noire of southern France, partly because of political motivation to balance GSSPs selected in other regions. All three GSSPs are at levels from which global correlations cannot be effectively accomplished without aid from other, more complete sections or without making correlations strictly on the basis of taxonomic concepts - i. e., the entry of the definitive conodont species. Future deliberating bodies may want to reconsider the species chosen to delimit the base of the Frasnian and to select better GSSPs for all three boundaries.

  6. Evaluaciůn de funciones de distribuciůn de pares condicionales para objetos no interactuantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurbriggen, E.; Rohrmann, R. D.

    Spatial distributions of objects are ubiquous in astronomy (e.g., particles in a gas, stars in a cluster, galaxies in the Universe). Here, we introduce a novel function for the analysis of the spatial structures: a pair distribution function conditioned by information in which each object has a nearest neighbour to a specific distance. We show its application to randomly distributed, non- interacting objects. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  7. Mecanismos de plasticidad (funcional y dependiente de actividad) en el cerebro auditivo adulto y en desarrollo

    PubMed Central

    Izquierdo, M.A.; Oliver, D.L.; Malmierca, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Introduction and development Sensory systems show a topographic representation of the sensory epithelium in the central nervous system. In the auditory system this representation originates tonotopic maps. For the last four decades these changes in tonotopic maps have been widely studied either after peripheral mechanical lesions or by exposing animals to an augmented acoustic environment. These sensory manipulations induce plastic reorganizations in the tonotopic map of the auditory cortex. By contrast, acoustic trauma does not seem to induce functional plasticity at subcortical nuclei. Mechanisms that generate these changes differ in their molecular basis and temporal course and we can distinguish two different mechanisms: those involving an active reorganization process, and those that show a simple reflection of the loss of peripheral afferences. Only the former involve a genuine process of plastic reorganization. Neuronal plasticity is critical for the normal development and function of the adult auditory system, as well as for the rehabilitation needed after the implantation of auditory prostheses. However, development of plasticity can also generate abnormal sensation like tinnitus. Recently, a new concept in neurobiology so-called ‚Äėneuronal stability‚Äô has emerged and its implications and conceptual basis could help to improve the treatments of hearing loss. Conclusion A combination of neuronal plasticity and stability is suggested as a powerful and promising future strategy in the design of new treatments of hearing loss. PMID:19340783

  8. Cambios históricos en el aporte terrígeno de la cuenca del Río de la Plata sobre la plataforma interna Uruguaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrero, Anal√≠a; Tudur√≠, Adriana; P√©rez, Laura; Cu√Īa, Caroline; Muniz, Pablo

    2014-12-01

    El R√≠o de la Plata (RdlP) presenta significativas variaciones naturales (hidrodin√°micas y oceanogr√°ficas) asociadas a diferentes condiciones clim√°ticas. El prop√≥sito de este trabajo es inferir los cambios de aportes continentales de sedimentos y su relaci√≥n con las variaciones hidrol√≥gicas del R√≠o de la Plata, a trav√©s del an√°lisis de proxies sedimentol√≥gicos y geoqu√≠micos en testigos de sedimentos de la plataforma interna uruguaya que registran los √ļltimos 100 a√Īos, aproximadamente. A partir de la dataci√≥n por 210Pb de dos testigos de sedimentos (GeoB 13813-4 y BAR1) se reconstruy√≥ la geocronolog√≠a del ambiente, y se relacion√≥ con datos de las forzantes clim√°ticas Pacific Decadal Oscillation, El Ni√Īo/La Ni√Īa Southern Oscillation, Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, y las anomal√≠as hidrol√≥gicas de los r√≠os Paran√° y Uruguay. Los valores m√°s positivos y estables del Southern Oscillation Index, los cuales corresponden a fases La Ni√Īa, se observan en el periodo correspondiente entre 1910-1970, respecto al resto de la serie, donde se aprecia una mayor variabilidad y una tendencia hacia valores m√°s negativos (eventos El Ni√Īo). Se hicieron dendrogramas (clustering) jer√°rquicos para ambos testigos. Para el testigo GeoB 13813-4, se utiliz√≥ la relaci√≥n Ca/Ti y la granulometr√≠a, mientras que para BAR1 se recurri√≥ a variables granulom√©tricas y la tasa de sedimentaci√≥n. El mayor aporte continental hacia la regi√≥n de la plataforma adyacente al R√≠o de la Plata registrado a partir del a√Īo 1970, podr√≠a ser el factor principal de los agrupamientos observados en los clusters para ambos testigos. Las agrupaciones mostraron una diferenciaci√≥n en la d√©cada de 1970, lo que estar√≠a asociado al aumento de los caudales de los r√≠os Paran√° y Uruguay, durante las √ļltimas tres d√©cadas del siglo XX. Por otra parte se observa que la granulometr√≠a del testigo BAR1 present√≥ un mayor tama√Īo de grano y m√°s variabilidad que en el caso del testigo GeoB 13813-4. Tambi√©n se determin√≥ una mayor acumulaci√≥n de sedimentos a trav√©s del tiempo en el cintur√≥n de barro del R√≠o de la Plata (plataforma continental adyacente), comparado con aquel registrado en la Barra del Indio (l√≠mite entre zona intermedia y externa del estuario). Estas diferencias podr√≠an estar relacionadas con la influencia del R√≠o de la Plata, el cual genera un ambiente altamente din√°mico sobre la Barra del Indio y un ambiente m√°s estable sobre el cintur√≥n de barro en la plataforma continental.

  9. Desarrollo de la Escala sobre el Estigma Relacionado con el VIH/SIDA para Profesionales de la Salud mediante el uso de métodos mixtos123

    PubMed Central

    Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Neilands, Torsten B.; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Cintrón Bou, Francheska N.

    2009-01-01

    El estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA contin√ļa siendo un obst√°culo para la prevenci√≥n primaria y secundaria del VIH. Las consecuencias para las personas que viven con la enfermedad han sido muy documentadas y contin√ļan siendo una gran preocupaci√≥n para las personas que proveen servicios de salud y para aquellas que investigan el tema. Estas consecuencias son preocupantes cuando el estigma emana de profesionales de la salud porque se puede limitar el acceso a los servicios. Uno de los principales obst√°culos para la investigaci√≥n del estigma relacionado con el VIH en Puerto Rico es la falta de instrumentos cuantitativos para evaluar las manifestaciones del estigma entre profesionales de la salud. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue desarrollar y probar las propiedades psicom√©tricas de una escala sobre el estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA culturalmente apropiada para personas que proveen servicios de salud puertorrique√Īas y desarrollar una versi√≥n corta de la escala que pudiera usarse en escenarios cl√≠nicos con tiempo limitado. El instrumento desarrollado estuvo basado en evidencia cualitativa recopilada entre profesionales y estudiantes de profesiones de la salud puertorrique√Īos/as (n=80) y administrado a una muestra de 421 profesionales de la salud en adiestramiento. La escala conten√≠a 12 dimensiones del estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA. El an√°lisis cuantitativo corrobor√≥ 11 de ellas, teniendo como resultado un instrumento con validez y confiabilidad satisfactoria. Estas dimensiones, a su vez, fueron subcomponentes de un factor de estigma general superior. PMID:20333258

  10. La utilizacion de los mapas conceptuales en la ensenanza de biologia y su efecto sobre el dominio del proceso de fotosintesis en los estudiantes universitarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Rivera, Maria M.

    Se investigo el efecto de los mapas conceptuales sobre el dominio del proceso de fotosintesis en estudiantes universitarios. La investigacion utilizo dos estrategias: mapas conceptuales individuales y mapas conceptuales colaborativos, con el fin de investigar si existen diferencias significativas en el dominio del proceso de fotosintesis. El analisis de los datos incluyo aspectos cualitativos y cuantitativos. Se desprende del estudio que el 80% de los estudiantes describen la utilizacion de los mapas conceptuales como una experiencia beneficiosa. El 70% de los estudiantes expreso que los mapas conceptuales son utiles en el aprendizaje del proceso de fotosintesis y el 61% indico que facilitan la comprension de los conceptos. Los hallazgos mas importantes del analisis cuantitativo indican que los estudiantes que utilizaron los mapas conceptuales mejoraron significativamente su desempeno en la posprueba global. Se utilizo la prueba Mann-Whitney para investigar si existian diferencias significativas en la posprueba y preprueba global, el valor de W = 1945.0, para un valor p de 0.00, lo cual establece diferencias significativas. Para determinar si existian diferencias significativas entre la posprueba y preprueba del grupo individual, se realizo la prueba nuevamente. El valor de W correspondio a 490.5, que es significativo, con un valor p de 0.00. Se concluye que existen diferencias significativas entre la ejecucion de la posprueba y preprueba del grupo individual. Los datos proveen suficiente evidencia para sostener que los estudiantes que utilizaron la estrategia de mapas conceptuales individuales mejoraron el dominio del proceso de fotosintesis significativamente. Se realizo nuevamente la prueba para los resultados de posprueba y preprueba del grupo colaborativo. El valor de W correspondio a 446 con un valor p de 0.00. Se concluyo que existen diferencias significativas entre la ejecucion de la posprueba y preprueba del grupo colaborativo. Finalmente, se efectuo una prueba Mann-Whitney comparando la posprueba de ambos grupos. El valor de W fue de a 777, para un valor p de 0.2782. Aunque las puntuaciones de las pospruebas del grupo colaborativo fueron mayores que las puntuaciones de la posprueba del grupo individual, la diferencia no fue estadisticamente significativa.

  11. Regulando la Enfermedad a través de la Definición y la Restricción: Profesionales de la Salud Hablan sobre el VIH/SIDA1

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Souhail Malavé; Díaz, Nelson Varas

    2009-01-01

    Resumen Las profesiones de la salud tienen un papel social dual. Por un lado, velan por el mantenimiento de la salud de la poblaci√≥n protegiendo el bien com√ļn. Por el otro, dictaminan las formas saludables, y por lo tanto socialmente apropiadas, de ser, actuar y pensar. Este √ļltimo papel, est√° m√°s ligado al control social de la poblaci√≥n que a una preocupaci√≥n altruista hacia la misma. A trav√©s de esta supervisi√≥n y control, se construyen los sujetos a los cuales todos/as debemos aspirar a ser para gozar de aceptaci√≥n social. Los/as profesionales de la salud han jugado un rol protag√≥nico en dicho proceso, siendo los agentes que delimitan y definen lo que es enfermo vs. saludable, √ļtil vs. in√ļtil, apropiado vs. inapropiado. En el caso de la epidemia del VIH, este esfuerzo se ha hecho cada vez m√°s vigente ya que estos/as profesionales juegan un papel importante en el tratamiento de las personas que viven con VIH/SIDA (PVVS). Sin embargo, su funci√≥n est√° plasmada de definiciones que sirven para criminalizar a las PVVS. El objetivo de este estudio fue explorar la manera en que una muestra de profesionales de la salud en Puerto Rico construyen a las PVVS. Con este prop√≥sito, entrevistamos 80 profesionales de la salud y estudiantes de estas profesiones. Estas entrevistas fueron grabadas, transcritas y sometidas a un an√°lisis de discurso. Los resultados reflejaron que seg√ļn las personas participantes: 1) la PVVS no es una persona ‚Äúnormal‚ÄĚ o funcional bajo los est√°ndares sociales debido a que su salud no se los permite, 2) representa una carga para la sociedad incluyendo familiares, amigos/as, el mundo del trabajo, e incluso para el gobierno, 3) debe ser vigilada porque representa un riesgo para la persona seronegativa que es descrita como saludable y productiva, y 4) necesita que su salud y conducta sexual sean controladas por v√≠a legal y/o por las personas que representan las instituciones sociales, como lo son los/as profesionales de la salud. En este art√≠culo abordamos el potencial rol de la psicolog√≠a para servir como veh√≠culo de reconstrucci√≥n de dichas nociones, tomando en consideraci√≥n su propio rol en la formaci√≥n y mantenimiento de dicho sujeto socialmente deseable. PMID:22025907

  12. Reflexions on Buber's "Living-Centre": Conceiving of the Teacher as "The Builder" and Teaching as a "Situational Revelation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilherme, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    There has been a shift from teaching to learning, the so-called process of "learnification", which promotes the idea that teaching should be primarily concerned with the creation of rich learning environments and scaffolding student learning. In doing so, this process of "learnification" has also attacked the idea that teachers…

  13. REFLEXIONS SUR LE DEVELOPPEMENT DE L'EDUCATION PERMANENTE (REFLECTIONS ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUING EDUCATION) (TEXT IN FRENCH).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SCHWARTZ, B.

    THIS ESSAY DEALS MAINLY WITH THE DEVELOPMENT AND THE POTENTIAL OF CONTINUING HIGHER EDUCATION IN FRANCE. THE BASIC TYPES OF ADULT EDUCATION ARE DISTINGUISHED, AND EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES, ADULT CHARACTERISTICS, AND VARIOUS LEARNING PROBLEMS OF ADULTS ARE DISCUSSED. EFFORTS BY THE CENTRE UNIVERSITAIRE DE COOPERATION ECONOMIQUE ET SOCIALE TO PROMOTE…

  14. Proportionnalite et Pourcentage Chez des Apprentis Vendeurs. Reflexion sur la Relation Mathematiques/Realite dans une Formation "En Alternance."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Corinne

    1999-01-01

    Presents the results of a research study conducted with apprentices in order to examine the double hypothesis that vocational training incorporating work placement provides the opportunity to construct authentic situations out of the everyday practices of students, and that these situations allow students to improve their understanding of…

  15. Reflexions sur un Cours de Langue pour Debutants (Refections on a Language Course for Beginners). Melanges Pedagogiques, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esch, E.; Cembalo, M.

    This article attempts an analysis of the problems involved in creating a course in English as a second language for adult beginners. Various learning theories and linguistic theories are discussed, which should be taken into consideration in choosing a teaching method. In addition, care must be taken to distinguish among the four language skills…

  16. L'Education Morale: Reinventer les Logiques de la Reflexion (Moral Education: Reinventing the Logic of Judgment).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giroux, Aline

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the cognitive aspect of moral judgment. Considers the reductionist position that a judgment must conform to the canons of deductive logic to have epistemological value. Argues that moral thinking follows a different logic, requires other kinds of knowing, and demands a different type of rationality. (DMM)

  17. Quelques reflexions sur une serie de stages d'animation (A Few Reflections on a Series of Film Workshops).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agi, Marc

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the processes, objectives, and hoped-for results of a series of film workshops. The following topics are addressed: (1) the production of short films by the group, (2) facilitation of a film club, and (3) film analysis. The contribution made by the workshops to personal development and intercultural relationships is discussed. (AMH)

  18. Reflexions sur le videodisque. Pour un apprentissage interactif (Reflections on the Videodisc. In Favor of Interactive Learning).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compte, Carmen

    1984-01-01

    The interactive videodisc has two advantages for foreign language teaching: it captures the nonverbal element of communication and allows alternatives to written testing. However, there are no French-produced versions yet available, and there is the danger that the technique will go largely unused, as did language laboratories and educational…

  19. Pedagogie des Langues et Prospective: Reflexions Pour 1984 (Language Instruction and the Future: Reflections for 1984). Melanges Pedagogiques, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalon, Y.

    This article explores the possible language teaching situation for the generation born in 1964, with a view toward preparing for the challenges that 1984 will bring. A large percentage of the French population will find a second European language indispensable. To this end, secondary education will have to become an arena of linguistic…

  20. Imagerie par contraste en reflexion ou transmission lors d'une procedure par laser au dioxyde de carbone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdon, Alexandre

    The use of laser micromachining is now reaching maturity. Laser micromachining is now competing with traditional methods in procedures such as welding, cutting or melting. This thesis will focus on various aspects of the uses of laser in the industry. In each aspect we are drawing our attention on the method to image a given procedure in real-time. In this manuscript we are applying Maxwell's equations to describe the propagation of an electromagnetic wave across various interfaces between media. The approach is tantamount to using Fresnel equation by taking into account the thickness between two successive interfaces bounding a given medium. This theory becomes useful when investigating the evaporation of matter, welding of two dissimilar materials and etching at the surface of a substrate. The progression of welding and etching will be imaged in real-time using an effect of contrast. Various planes of observation that are available in our set-up will allow us to draw firm conclusions in real-time as the procedure develops. Using the principle of contrasting regions it was found that the progression of a laser procedure can be imaged and give interesting details as it evolves in time. It will be also possible to determine when it is time to stop the operation during a laser procedure when a substance evaporates on a substrate. In the case of a laser welding procedure, it will be shown that the imaging method can give some information about the quality of a weld between two different materials. Lastly, it will also be shown that we can image a laser etching procedure by using the contrast of reflectance in neighbouring regions.

  1. Educacion Ambiental en las Escuelas: Creando una Programa que Funcione! (Environmental Education in the Schools: Creating a Program That Works!).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy A.; Wood, David

    This book is a manual that enables teachers to formulate an effective program of environmental education across multiple grade levels and cultural settings. A section provides tips for using the book, followed by nine chapters dealing with different aspects of developing and implementing an environmental education program. Chapter 1 presents a…

  2. Distinci√≥n Emp√≠rica Entre Engagement y Trabajolismo en Enfermeras Hospitalarias de Jap√≥n: Efecto Sobre la Calidad del Sue√Īo y el Desempe√Īo Laboral

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Kazumi; Shimazu, Akihito; Kawakami, Norito; Takahashi, Masaya; Nakata, Akinori; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo El objetivo de este estudio es demostrar la distinci√≥n entre engagement y trabajolismo, estudiando su relaci√≥n con la calidad del sue√Īo y el desempe√Īo laboral. M√©todo Un total de 447 enfermeras de 3 hospitales de Jap√≥n fueron entrevistadas mediante un cuestionario autoadministrado que inclu√≠a la escala Utrecht (UWES, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale), la Escala de Adicci√≥n al Trabajo Holandesa (DUWAS, Dutch Workaholism Scale), preguntas sobre la calidad del sue√Īo (7 √≠tems) con respecto a (1) dificultad para conciliar el sue√Īo, (2) dificultad para mantener el sue√Īo, (3) despertar temprano por la ma√Īana, (4) dormirse o tomar siestas durante el d√≠a, (5) somnolencia diurna excesiva en el trabajo, (6) dificultad para despertarse por la ma√Īana, y (7) despertar cansado en la ma√Īana, y el Cuestionario sobre Salud y Desempe√Īo (CSD) de la Organizaci√≥n Mundial de la Salud. Resultados Los modelos de ecuaciones estructurales demostraron que el engagement se relaciona positivamente con la calidad del sue√Īo y el rendimiento laboral, mientras que el trabajolismo tiene una relaci√≥n negativa con la calidad del sue√Īo y el desempe√Īo laboral. Conclusi√≥n Los resultados indican que el engagement y el trabajolismo son conceptualmente diferentes. El primero tiene una connotaci√≥n positiva, mientras que el segundo se asocia de manera negativa al bienestar (buena calidad del sue√Īo y buen rendimiento en el trabajo). PMID:26752805

  3. Estudio de la estructura logica utilizada en la ensenanza y el aprendizaje de los conceptos sobre el comportamiento de gases en el curso introductorio de quimica a nivel universitario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa Diaz, Agnes

    El estudio que se presenta es de caracter cualitativo, un estudio multicasos donde se estudia la estructura logica utilizada por cuatro (4) profesores universitarios que ensenan el curso introductorio de quimica, en la planificacion, presentacion y evaluacion del tema sobre el comportamiento de los gases. Se utilizaron varias fuentes de informacion como: cuestionarios de profesores y estudiantes, entrevistas, grabaciones videomagnetofonicas, materiales didacticos y una prueba conceptual, entre otros. La informacion recopilada fue analizada de acuerdo al orden logico del contenido presentado, el estilo de ensenanza del profesor, las tecnicas y estrategias utilizadas para el desarrollo de destrezas de pensamiento, el ambiente fisico en el salon de clase y los instrumentos de evaluacion y avaluo. El estudio demuestra que lo que los profesores piensan y planifican para hacer sus presentaciones no necesariamente es lo que ocurre en el salon de clases. El desarrollo de destrezas de pensamiento, que constituye una prioridad de los profesores, no se elaboran efectivamente. El uso de las estrategias de resolucion de problemas numericos predomino. La participacion del estudiante en el salon de clases fue limitada y no se logro demostrar el desarrollo de las destrezas de pensamiento deseadas. Aunque los profesores tienen su propio estilo de ensenanza, el orden logico del contenido presentado en clase fue el mismo o siguio muy de cerca el orden establecido por el libro de texto. Los profesores utilizaron preferentemente la tiza y la pizarra para sus presentaciones y la dinamica en el salon de clases fue esencialmente tradicional. Los profesores hicieron su presentacion y los estudiantes copiaron pasivamente la informacion. Las evaluaciones de los estudiantes fueron esencialmente, pruebas escritas de seleccion multiple de acuerdo con el estilo en que se les enseno. El avaluo fue casi inexistente. La prueba conceptual administrada revela un aprendizaje pobre en los conceptos mas basicos sobre el comportamiento de los gases. El estudio senala que la ejecutoria del profesor en todos los aspectos de la ensenanza y el aprendizaje es un factor clave que debe darsele prioridad. Se recomienda que el profesor, en general, tenga un conocimiento basico de las teorias de aprendizaje, de los factores que afectan el aprendizaje y las tecnicas y estrategias mas efectivas en el desarrollo de destrezas de pensamiento entre sus estudiantes. La estructura de la disciplina debe incluir tanto lo experimental como lo teorico.

  4. High School Student's Alternative Conceptions About the Phenomenon of the Formation of the Moon Phases. (Spanish Title: Concepciones Alternativas de Alumnos de Educaci√≥n Media Sobre el Fen√≥meno de Formaci√≥n de las Fases de La Luna.) Concep√ß√Ķes Alternativas de Alunos do Ensino M√©dio Sobre o Fen√īmeno de Forma√ß√£o das Fases da Lua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iachel, Gustavo; Langhi, Rodolfo; Fernandes Scalvi, Rosa Maria

    2008-07-01

    Forty students, at ages between 14 and 18 years old, from three schools in Bauru city, were questioned about their alternative conceptions concerning the phenomenon of formation of the Moon Phases. It was observed that some of the pupils confound the phenomenon of the formation of the Moon Phases with the phenomenon of the formation of the lunar eclipses, others are unaware of the reason of the phenomenon, they present incoherent alternative conceptions of the reality or incomplete conceptions. The results found here are aimed at the teachers of Elementary Education and can be used as a subsidy for future development of new pedagogical methods. Cuarenta estudiantes, con edad entre 14 y 18 a√Īos, pertenecientes a tres escuelas de la ciudad de Bauru, fueron cuestionados sobre sus concepciones alternativas acerca del fen√≥meno de la formaci√≥n de las fases de la Luna. Fue observado que algunos alumnos confunden el fen√≥meno de formaci√≥n de las fases de la Luna con el fen√≥meno de formaci√≥n de los eclipses lunares, otros desconocen el motivo delfen√≥meno, presentan concepciones alternativas incoherentes con la realidad o bien presentan concepciones incompletas. Los resultados aqu√≠ encontrados son destinados a los profesores de la Ense√Īanza B√°sica y podr√°n ser usados como ayuda para el futuro desarrollo de nuevos m√©todos pedag√≥gicos. Quarenta estudantes, com idades entre 14 e 18 anos, pertencentes a tr√™s escolas da cidade de Bauru, foram questionados sobre suas concep√ß√Ķes alternativas acerca do fen√īmeno de forma√ß√£o das fases da Lua. Foi observado que alguns dos alunos confundem o fen√īmeno da forma√ß√£o das fases da Lua com o fen√īmeno da forma√ß√£o dos eclipses lunares, outros desconhecem o motivo do fen√īmeno, apresentam concep√ß√Ķes alternativas incoerentes com a realidade ou ent√£o concep√ß√Ķes incompletas. Os resultados aqui encontrados s√£o destinados aos professores do Ensino B√°sico e poder√£o ser usados como subs√≠dio parafuturo desenvolvimento de novos m√©todos pedag√≥gicos.

  5. [The Spanish AIDS Study Group and Spanish National AIDS Plan (GESIDA/Secretaría del Plan Nacional sobre el Sida) recommendations for the treatment of tuberculosis in HIV-infected individuals (Updated January 2013)].

    PubMed

    Rivero, Antonio; Pulido, Federico; Caylá, Joan; Iribarren, José A; Miró, José M; Moreno, Santiago; Pérez-Camacho, Inés

    2013-12-01

    This consensus document was prepared by an expert panel of the Grupo de Estudio de Sida (GESIDA [Spanish AIDS Study Group]) and the Plan Nacional sobre el Sida (PNS [Spanish National AIDS Plan]). The document updates current guidelines on the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-infected individuals contained in the guidelines on the treatment of opportunistic infections published by GESIDA and PNS in 2008. The document aims to facilitate the management and treatment of HIV-infected patients with TB in Spain, and includes specific sections and recommendations on the treatment of drug-sensitive TB, multidrug-resistant TB, and extensively drug-resistant TB, in this population. The consensus guidelines also make recommendations on the treatment of HIV-infected patients with TB in special situations, such as chronic liver disease, pregnancy, kidney failure, and transplantation. Recommendations are made on the timing and initial regimens of antiretroviral therapy in patients with TB, and on immune reconstitution syndrome in HIV-infected patients with TB who are receiving antiretroviral therapy. The document does not cover the diagnosis of TB, diagnosis/treatment of latent TB, or treatment of TB in children. The quality of the evidence was evaluated and the recommendations graded using the approach of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation Working Group. PMID:23541879

  6. Efectos combinados de la ampliaci√≥n de la atenci√≥n primaria de salud y de las transferencias condicionadas de dinero en efectivo sobre la mortalidad infantil en Brasil, 1998‚Äď2010*

    PubMed Central

    Guanais, Frederico C.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Examin√© los efectos combinados del acceso a la atenci√≥n primaria mediante el Programa de Salud Familiar (PSF) y las transferencias condicionadas de dinero en efectivo del Programa Bolsa Familia (PBF) sobre la mortalidad infantil posneonatal (MIPN) en Brasil. M√©todos. Emple√© un an√°lisis ecol√≥gico longitudinal usando datos en panel de 4‚ÄČ583 municipios brasile√Īos de 1998 al 2010, con 54‚ÄČ253 observaciones en total. Estim√© modelos de regresi√≥n de efectos fijos por m√≠nimos cuadrados ordinarios, con la tasa de MIPN como la variable dependiente y el PSF, el PBF y sus interacciones como las principales variables independientes de inter√©s. Resultados. La asociaci√≥n de una mayor cobertura del PSF con una menor tasa de MIPN se volvi√≥ m√°s fuerte conforme aumentaba la cobertura del PBF. En los promedios de todas las dem√°s variables, cuando la cobertura de PBF era 25%, la MIPN predicha fue 5,24 (intervalo de confianza [IC] de 95% = 4,95, 5,53) para una cobertura del PSF de 0%, y de 3,54 (IC de 95% = 2,77, 4,31) para una cobertura del PSF de 100%. Cuando la cobertura del PBF era de 60%, la MIPN predicha fue 4,65 (IC de 95% = 4,36, 4,94) para una cobertura del PSF de 0%, y de 1,38 (IC de 95% = 0,88, 1,89) para una cobertura del PSF de 100%. Conclusiones. El efecto del PSF depende de la ampliaci√≥n del PBF. Para las poblaciones empobrecidas y subatendidas, la combinaci√≥n de intervenciones tanto del lado de la oferta como del lado de la demanda podr√≠a ser necesaria para mejorar los resultados en salud.

  7. High School Students' Previous Knowledge about the Stars. (Spanish Title: Conocimientos Previos de Estudiantes de Secundaria Acerca de Las Estrellas.) O Conhecimento Prévio de Alunos do Ensino Médio sobre as Estrelas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iachel, Gustavo

    2011-12-01

    Based on the readings of articles related to Astronomy Education published in Brazil, it was noticed a lack of research on previous knowledge of students about the physical characteristics of stars, a fact that motivated us to develop this study. Previous knowledge of 125 students (approximated 15 years old) constituted the study sample; data was collected through written questionnaires (Appendix A) for analysis. From the content analysis of these responses it was possible to achieve some inferences as, for example, many students have some difficult to develop an explanatory model on the functioning of a star; there are few who say that the stars have a certain length of existence; some students have said that stars have tips; few recognize that a star is formed by a mass of gas; some previous knowledge come from purely visual aspects; furthermore, some students do not have the habit of observing nature in detail. We see this research as a reference in which science teachers can recognize the importance of previous knowledge for practice teaching and acquire resources for planning their lessons. De la lectura de art√≠culos relacionados con la Educaci√≥n en Astronom√≠a publicados en el Brasil, se encuentra una falta de investigaciones acerca del conocimiento previo de los estudiantes sobre las caracter√≠sticas f√≠sicas de las estrellas, hecho que nos motiv√≥ a desarrollar este estudio. Los datos analizados se obtuvieron al aplicar un cuestionario a 125 estudiantes de secundaria, para posteriormente realizar un an√°lisis de contenido, tal cuestionario se presenta en el Anexo A. Al realizar el an√°lisis de contenido de las respuestas obtenidas, fue posible hacer algunas inferencias, como por ejemplo; muchos estudiantes tienen dificultades para desarrollar un modelo explicativo acerca del funcionamiento de una estrella; pocos estudiantes dicen que las estrellas tienen un cierto tiempo de vida; algunos estudiantes imaginan que las estrellas tienen puntas; pocos reconocen que una estrella es formada por una masa de gas; varios conocimientos previos parten de aspectos puramente visuales; por otro lado, los estudiantes no tienen el h√°bito de observar la naturaleza detalladamente, entre otros problemas. Vemos esta investigaci√≥n como una probable fuente de referencia en la que los profesores de ciencias pueden reconocer la importancia del conocimiento previo, y la forma como interfieren con su pr√°ctica de ense√Īanza, adem√°s de la adquisici√≥n de recursos para la planificaci√≥n de sus clases. Com base em leituras de artigos relacionados ao ensino de Astronomia publicados no Brasil, verificou-se a inexist√™ncia de investiga√ß√Ķes sobre o conhecimento pr√©vio de estudantes acerca das caracter√≠sticas f√≠sicas das estrelas, fato que nos motivou a desenvolver a pesquisa apresentada. Os conhecimentos pr√©vios de 125 estudantes do primeiro ano do ensino m√©dio constitu√≠ram os dados do estudo, os quais foram inferidos atrav√©s da an√°lise das respostas cedidas em question√°rios impressos (Ap√™ndice A). A partir da an√°lise de conte√ļdo dessas respostas tornou-se poss√≠vel realizar algumas infer√™ncias como, por exemplo: v√°rios estudantes possuem dificuldade em elaborar um modelo explicativo sobre o funcionamento de uma estrela; s√£o poucos os que dizem que as estrelas possuem certo tempo de exist√™ncia; alguns alunos as imaginam com pontas; poucos reconhecem que uma estrela √© formada por uma massa de g√°s; v√°rios conhecimentos pr√©vios partem de aspectos meramente visuais; ainda assim, os estudantes n√£o possuem o h√°bito de observar a natureza mais detalhadamente, entre outras. Vemos essa pesquisa como uma prov√°vel fonte de consulta na qual os professores de ci√™ncias poder√£o, al√©m de reconhecer a import√Ęncia dos conhecimentos pr√©vios para o ensino e como eles interferem em sua pr√°tica, adquirir subs√≠dios para o planejamento de suas aulas.

  8. Reflecting on Culture. (Reflexionando Sobre la Cultura.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irizarry, Estelle

    1980-01-01

    The article comments on two articles, previously published in the same journal, which address the relationship between the "little" cultural tradition of Chicanos, Cubans, and Puerto Ricans and the "great" tradition of Hispanic arts and letters. Notes similarities among these groups and calls for the banding together of Hispanic artists. (SB)

  9. Investigaciones sobre cascadas electromagnéticas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orellana, M.; Pellizza, L.; Romero, G. E.

    Results from the latest generations of telescopes have revealed a rich sky at high and very high energies with more than a thousand sources at GeV energies and more than a hundred sources at TeV energies. The sources are galactic and extra-galactic natural particle accelerators where emission processes operate efficiently at the gamma-ray domain. The development of pair-photon cascades within the source or along the line of sight may modify the originally emitted spectrum. This effect should be included in our interpretation of the observations in order to progress in the understanding of the physical origin of the emission. Through numerical simulations; we follow the three-dimensional trajectories of such cascades. I here report on the status of our investigations; with focus on the propagation through the background photon fields. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  10. Reflecting on Character (Reflexionando Sobre el Caracter).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candelaria, Cordelia

    1980-01-01

    Responding to the "Proyecto Resolana" article in the July/August 1980 issue of this journal, the article notes the heterogeneity of Hispanic Americans, the three main effects of the European conquest on people of the Western Hemisphere, and attempts to further define the character of Hispanic Americans. (SB)

  11. Sobre | Smokefree Espa√Īol

    Cancer.gov

    Espanol.smokefree.gov ofrece apoyo y recursos para norteamericanos que hablan espa√Īol y quieren dejar de fumar. Este sitio en la red fue creada por la Divisi√≥n de Investigaci√≥n para el Control del Tabaco del Instituto Nacional del C√°ncer.

  12. Predicciones Sísmológicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brice√Īo Guarape, Luis Alberto

    2004-05-01

    El trabajo prctende orientar las discusiones. reflexiones y posibles investigaciones sobre la predicci√≥n sismol√≥gica. inicialmente muestra una s√≠ntesis te√≥rica del problema de la predicci√≥n cient√≠fica. estableciendo diferencias entre predicci√≥n y pron√≥stico. Los sistemas en las geocicncias esencialmente son no lineales, lo cual requiere en el caso particular, un acercamiento al problema del caos en geofisica y aclaraciones sobre el problema inverso en sismolog√≥a. Cu√°l es la opini√≥n de los sism√≥logos internacionales y nacionales sobre la predicci√≥n de los terremotos? Dentro de esta discusi√≥n se muestran algunos resultados de laboratorio y campo sobre potenciales el√©ctricos y otros par√°metros geofisicos que se vienen logrando en Colombia. Los resultados no se concluyentes a√ļn y por lo tanto las conclusiones son abiertas.

  13. Learning about the Sky from the Environment: An Experience Working Along One Year with Students of Elementary Education. (Spanish Title: Aprendiendo sobre EL Cielo Desde el Entorno: Una Experiencia Trabajando Durante un A√Īo Junto a Estudiantes del Primario.) Aprendendo sobre o C√©u a Partir do Entorno: Uma Experi√™ncia de Trabalho ao Longo de um Ano com Alunos de Ensino Fundamental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhini, Marcos Daniel; Gomide, Hanny Angeles

    2014-12-01

    Research developed with 95 students of the 6th year of elementary education in a public school of Uberl√Ęndia, Minas Gerais. It was a continuous work from February to December 2013, which led the students to participate in activities of observation of the environment, specifically the sky, analyzing the changes occurred. We focused on the study of variations in temperature, rainfall, day length, variations in the size of the shadows and changes in the aspect of the Moon. Our focus of analysis targeted the discussion of the knowledge that these students had about the topics indicated and as they entered the stage during the implementation of the proposal. The results showed a limited perception that students have of their environment, however, lately expanded due to the undertaken activities, especially in relation to the Moon. Working with systematic measure procedures reveals the careful handling of data so that they become understandable to students, and working with the shadows points towards the students first understand how shadows are formed, and then apply this knowledge to Astronomy. Finally, we conclude that the lived process consisted of an initial step of a work that should be encouraged for the subsequent years of training of these students. Proyecto de investigaci√≥n desarrollado con 95 alumnos del sexto a√Īo de primaria en una escuela p√ļblica de Uberl√Ęndia, Minas Gerais. Fue un trabajo continuo, de febrero a diciembre de 2013, que llev√≥ a los estudiantes a participar en actividades de observaci√≥n de su entorno, entre ellas, el cielo, analizando los cambios ocurridos. Nos centramos en el estudio de las variaciones en la temperatura, las precipitaciones, la duraci√≥n del d√≠a, las variaciones en el tama√Īo de las sombras y los cambios en los aspectos de la Luna. Nuestro foco de an√°lisis se centr√≥ en discutir el conocimiento que estos estudiantes ten√≠an sobre los temas indicados al inicio y t√©rmino de la propuesta. Los resultados mostraron una percepci√≥n limitada que los estudiantes tienen de su alrededor la cual, sin embargo, se expandi√≥ debido a las actividades llevadas a cabo, sobre todo en relaci√≥n con la Luna. Trabajar con medidas sistem√°ticas revela el manejo cuidadoso de los datos para que sean comprensibles para los estudiantes, as√≠ como el trabajo con las sombras para que comprendan primero como se forman estas para despu√©s trabajarlas en Astronom√≠a. Por √ļltimo, llegamos a la conclusi√≥n de que el proceso desarrollado consisti√≥ en una etapa inicial de una obra que debe ser profundizado en los a√Īos posteriores de la formaci√≥n de estos estudiantes. Projeto de pesquisa desenvolvido com 95 alunos do 6¬ļ ano do Ensino Fundamental de uma escola p√ļblica estadual de Uberl√Ęndia, Minas Gerais. Foi um trabalho cont√≠nuo, de fevereiro a dezembro de 2013, o qual levou os alunos a participarem de atividades de observa√ß√£o do entorno, dentre ele, o c√©u, analisando as mudan√ßas ocorridas. Focamos no estudo das varia√ß√Ķes de temperaturas, chuvas, dura√ß√£o do dia, varia√ß√Ķes do tamanho das sombras e mudan√ßas nos aspectos da Lua. Nosso foco de an√°lise centrou-se em discutir os conhecimentos que os referidos alunos tinham acerca dos temas indicados no in√≠cio e ao t√©rmino da implementa√ß√£o da proposta. Os resultados mostraram a percep√ß√£o limitada que os estudantes possuem de seu entorno, todavia, ampliada em fun√ß√£o das atividades desenvolvidas, principalmente no que se refere √† Lua. O trabalho com medidas sistem√°ticas revela o cuidado no tratamento dos dados para que eles se tornem compreens√≠veis aos alunos, assim como o trabalho com as sombras sinaliza para que os alunos primeiramente compreendam como as sombras s√£o formadas para depois trabalhar isso em Astronomia. Por fim, conclu√≠mos que o processo vivido constituiu-se em uma etapa inicial de um trabalho que deve ser estimulado para os anos subsequentes da forma√ß√£o desses alunos.

  14. La Repartition Geographique des Programmes Techniques: Document de reflexion, Commission de l'enseignement professionnel (Geographic Distribution of Technical Programs: Discussion Paper, Commission on Professional Instruction.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conseil des Colleges, Quebec (Quebec).

    The geographic distribution of college-level technical programs is one of the major elements which has distinguished the development of the system of "colleges d'enseignement general et professionel" (CEGEP's) in Quebec. Spring 1992 efforts to identify inactive or scarcely viable programs afforded the Commission on Professional Education of the…

  15. Elements de reflexion sur l'analyse des aspects societaux des contacts des langues (Issues in the Analysis of Societal Aspects of Language Contact).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prujiner, Alain

    The problems of integrating the multiple dimensions of a language contact situation in linguistic research have been of concern in recent years. The use of macro- (collective or group) and micro- (individual) levels of linguistic analysis illustrates this concern. Quebec's International Center for Research on Bilingualism has developed an…

  16. A l'ecoute de son ecoute: Cahier de reflexion sur le processus d'ecoute (On Listening to One's Listening: Notebook of Reflection on the Listening Process.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Intended to help students become better listeners and to develop useful listening strategies, this guide aids the students in better understanding the process of listening. The first section discusses practical teaching techniques and the implementation of a teaching program to improve listening. The second section provides models and illustrates…

  17. Katimavik Participant's Manual, Book XI, Songs, Thoughts, Humour, Doddle Art = Katimavik manuel du participant, cahier XI, chansons, reflexions, humour, art du griffonnage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crelinsten, Michael, Ed.

    The bilingual booklet contains poems, song lyrics, thoughts, humorous stories, riddles, and games used by Katimavik, a nine-month volunteer community service learning and work experience program for 17 to 21-year-old Canadians. The first six pages of the document contain poems and song lyrics, some written in English, and some in French; the…

  18. Communication et reflexion metalinguistique dans l'apprentissage du francais par les adultes (Communication and Metalinguistic Reflection in French Language Learning by Adults).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galatanu, Olga

    A discussion of the relationships between communication in a foreign language and metalinguistic thought given to that language focuses on formal French language learning by adults in their home countries. Experience with adult language learners suggests a resistance to grammatical explanations but an openness to explanations of meaning. It would…

  19. L'Acadie d'Edith Butler: chansons et reflexions (Edith Butler's Acadia: Songs and Thoughts). Teacher's Guide, Transcription, [and] Student's Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullmann, Rebecca; And Others

    This experimental French language teaching module presents an introduction to Acadian history and culture through the songs and perceptions of Acadian singer Edith Butler. Included are a teacher's guide, a cassette tape transcript booklet, and a booklet containing historical and geographical information on Acadia. The core of the module is a taped…

  20. The reality of the management of mental health services in Latin America, reflexions from the perspective of a vision of strategic planning.

    PubMed

    Robles, Enrique Camarena; Belfort, Edgard G

    2010-01-01

    The history of mental health services in Latin America, has been influenced by public policies derived from governments in turn, in each one of the countries of the region. As much in the definition of these public policies, as in the resource allocation, the rule has been inconsistency and indifference. The few results have been dependent on the decision of one or just a few people who were able to make decisions in local and regional Latin American governments. A brief analysis regarding the role and transformation of psychiatric hospitals can be found in this article, also of the workers attitudes and ideology, as well as the importance of developing better mental health professionals with knowledge of public administration and particularly in well-known strategies such as strategic planning. PMID:20874071

  1. La langue etrangere: reflexion sur le statut de la langue francaise en Algerie (Foreign Language: Reflections on the Status of the French Language in Algeria).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morsly, Dalila

    1984-01-01

    The unstable linguistic situation in Algeria resulting from official "normalization" in a country in which French has strong colonial roots is discussed, as well as its effects on the status of French instruction. (MSE)

  2. Trazando el brazo de Vela-Puppis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgi, E. E.; VŠzquez, R. A.; Baume, G. L.; Seggewiss, W.; Feinstein, A.

    Presentamos resultados preliminares basados en anŠlisis fotomťtricos UBVI para 9 cķmulos abiertos ubicados en la zona de Vela-Puppis (? =7h58m y 9h54m, ? =- 28o a -59o) sobre un total de 15 cķmulos previstos. Estos cķmulos no han sido observados previamente, excepto en algunos pocos casos que se cuenta con fotometrŪa y espectroscospŪa de algunas estrellas. Se han determinado membrecias, excesos de color, distancias y edades. En el futuro, la muestra global permitirŠ definir mas claramente este brazo y serŠ utilizada para estudiar las funciones iniciales de masa individuales e integradas y compararlas con las obtenidas en observaciones intensivas realizadas en otras zonas de la Galaxia.

  3. La intimidacion en el comienzo de la adolescencia: La funcion del grupo social (Bullying in Early Adolescence: The Role of the Peer Group). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espelage, Dorothy L.

    One notable gap in the evolving literature on bullying and victimization during early adolescence is the role that peers play in promoting such behavior by either reinforcing the aggressor, failing to intervene to stop the victimization, or affiliating with students who bully. This Spanish-language Digest looks at the limited research available on…

  4. A Proposed Activity for a Meaningful Learning about the Moon Phases. (Breton Title: Uma Proposta de Atividade Para a Aprendizagem Significativa sobre as Fases da Lua.) Una Actividad Propuesta Para EL Aprendizaje Significativo Acerca de Las Fases de la Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Bruno Andrade; Langhi, Rodolfo

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents one of the concepts of Astronomy and its consequent failure in teaching this topic in high school, even when the official documents point out the necessity of Astronomy teaching at this school level. Among the spontaneous conceptions in Astronomy that high school students carry with them, even after the end of the school, we emphasized in this research the Moon phases. The development of different strategies in relation to traditional methods, aimed to teaching-learning process on this topic was considered in this study. These strategies were devised based on the reference frame of the Meaningful Learning, as elaborated by Ausubel. The proposals presented here include the active participation of students in experimental activities and other didactic activities, for their continuous evaluation during the process. These activities finished with a Comics elaboration about the Moon phases. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to present a proposal for differentiated teaching activity about Moon phases supported by the theoretical principles of Meaningful Learning at Physics classes. Este texto foca um dos conte√ļdos de Astronomia e a consequente falha no ensino deste tema no ensino m√©dio, apesar de os documentos oficiais apresentarem a necessidade de se trabalhar a Astronomia neste n√≠vel de ensino. Dentre as concep√ß√Ķes alternativas em Astronomia que os alunos do ensino m√©dio carregam consigo, mesmo ap√≥s o t√©rmino dos estudos, destacamos, nesta pesquisa, o fen√īmeno das fases da Lua. O desenvolvimento de estrat√©gias diferenciadas em rela√ß√£o ao ensino tradicional, visando o processo de ensino-aprendizagem sobre este tema, foi contemplado neste trabalho como um dos resultados obtidos sob a luz dos referenciais da aprendizagem significativa, fundamentados em Ausubel. Segundo a proposta aqui apresentada, a participa√ß√£o ativa dos alunos na execu√ß√£o de uma atividade experimental e outras atividades did√°ticas, que visam sua cont√≠nua avalia√ß√£o durante o processo, culmina com a elabora√ß√£o de uma hist√≥ria em quadrinhos envolvendo as fases da Lua. Portanto, o objetivo deste trabalho √© apresentar uma proposta de atividade did√°tica diferenciada sustentada pelos princ√≠pios te√≥ricos da aprendizagem significativa aplicada ao ensino das fases da Lua durante as aulas de F√≠sica no ensino m√©dio. En este trabajo se presenta uno de los contenidos de la Astronom√≠a y el evidente fracaso en la ense√Īanza del tema en la escuela secundaria, a pesar del hecho que los documentos oficiales apuntan para la necesidad de trabajar contenidos de Astronom√≠a en este nivel. Entre los conceptos alternativos en Astronom√≠a que los alumnos secundarios llevan consigo, a√ļn despu√©s de terminados los estudios, destacamos aqu√≠ el fen√≥meno de las fases de la Luna. El desarrollo de diferentes estrategias en relaci√≥n con los m√©todos tradicionales, dirigidas al proceso de ense√Īanza-aprendizaje en este tema fue considerado en este trabajo como uno de los resultados obtenidos a la luz de los referenciales del aprendizaje significativo, tal como fueron fundamentados por Ausubel. Seg√ļn la propuesta que aqu√≠ se presenta, la participaci√≥n activa de los estudiantes en la ejecuci√≥n de una actividad experimental y otras actividades educativas destinadas a la evaluaci√≥n continua durante el proceso culmin√≥ en la elaboraci√≥n de una historieta respecto de las fases de la Luna. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este trabajo es presentar una propuesta de actividad de ense√Īanza diferenciada con el apoyo de los principios te√≥ricos del aprendizaje significativo aplicado a la ense√Īanza de las fases de la luna durante las clases de f√≠sica del ciclo secundario.

  5. Experiencias sobre el impacto del Programa de Formaci√≥n en √Čtica de la Investigaci√≥n Biom√©dica y Psicosocial en el √°mbito de la salud mental y la investigaci√≥n conductual

    PubMed Central

    Barrios, Liliana Mondragón

    2012-01-01

    El prop√≥sito de este trabajo es presentar el impacto y la integraci√≥n que los conocimientos adquiridos en el Programa Internacional de Formaci√≥n en √Čtica de la Investigaci√≥n Biom√©dica y Psicosocial de la Universidad de Chile han tenido en mi experiencia profesional, en el √°mbito de la investigaci√≥n psicosocial en un Instituto de Salud de M√©xico. Para este objetivo, expondr√© tres √°reas en las cuales se ha podido evidenciar tal impacto: trabajo en los comit√©s de √©tica, desarrollo de programas de acad√©micos en bio√©tica e investigaci√≥n y publicaci√≥n sobre √©tica y bio√©tica. El motivo que me llev√≥ a incursionar en el Programa fue que su ense√Īanza vincula la investigaci√≥n psicosocial con la √©tica y la bio√©tica, lo cual me permiti√≥ dirigir este tipo de reflexi√≥n hacia problemas como violencia, suicidio, adicciones, depresi√≥n y salud mental, y a nuevos campos como los estudios comunitarios, con poblaciones en riesgo o vulnerables, en los cuales las diversas implicaciones son dif√≠ciles de indagar. PMID:22754085

  6. Experiencias sobre el impacto del Programa de Formaci√≥n en √Čtica de la Investigaci√≥n Biom√©dica y Psicosocial en el √°mbito de la salud mental y la investigaci√≥n conductual.

    PubMed

    Barrios, Liliana Mondragón

    2012-01-01

    El prop√≥sito de este trabajo es presentar el impacto y la integraci√≥n que los conocimientos adquiridos en el Programa Internacional de Formaci√≥n en √Čtica de la Investigaci√≥n Biom√©dica y Psicosocial de la Universidad de Chile han tenido en mi experiencia profesional, en el √°mbito de la investigaci√≥n psicosocial en un Instituto de Salud de M√©xico. Para este objetivo, expondr√© tres √°reas en las cuales se ha podido evidenciar tal impacto: trabajo en los comit√©s de √©tica, desarrollo de programas de acad√©micos en bio√©tica e investigaci√≥n y publicaci√≥n sobre √©tica y bio√©tica. El motivo que me llev√≥ a incursionar en el Programa fue que su ense√Īanza vincula la investigaci√≥n psicosocial con la √©tica y la bio√©tica, lo cual me permiti√≥ dirigir este tipo de reflexi√≥n hacia problemas como violencia, suicidio, adicciones, depresi√≥n y salud mental, y a nuevos campos como los estudios comunitarios, con poblaciones en riesgo o vulnerables, en los cuales las diversas implicaciones son dif√≠ciles de indagar. PMID:22754085

  7. The Meanings of Astronomical Observation: An Analysis on the Basis of Relationship with Knowledge. (Spanish Title: Los Sentidos de la Observaci√≥n Astron√≥mica: un An√°lisis sobre la Base de la Relaci√≥n con el Saber.) Os Sentidos da Observa√ß√£o Astron√īmica: Uma An√°lise com Base na Rela√ß√£o com o Saber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Alberto Eduardo; de Mello Arruda, Sergio; Meneghello Passos, Marinez; Vinicius Domenes Zapparoli, Ferdinando

    2010-12-01

    This article presents results of a research which aimed to understand the meanings that people construct for astronomical observation. The subjects, students and school teachers, initially received some instruction on how to view astronomical objects through the telescope. After the observation was realized, they were interviewed. The data analysis allowed the creation of 12 categories, later interpreted on the basis of relationship with knowledge (relation to the world, with himself and with others), as presented by Bernard Charlot. Este art√≠culo presenta los resultados de una investigaci√≥n que tuvo como objetivo comprender los sentidos que las personas construyen para la observaci√≥n astron√≥mica. Los sujetos, los estudiantes y maestros de escuela, recibieron inicialmente algunas instrucciones sobre c√≥mo ver los objetos astron√≥micos a trav√©s del telescopio. Al t√©rmino de la observaci√≥n, fueron entrevistados. El an√°lisis de datos permiti√≥ la creaci√≥n de 12 categor√≠as que m√°s tarde fueron interpretadas sobre la base de la relaci√≥n con el conocimiento (relaci√≥n con el mundo, consigo mismo y con los dem√°s), tal como presentado por Bernard Charlot. Este artigo apresenta resultados de uma pesquisa que objetivou entender quais os sentidos que as pessoas constroem para a observa√ß√£o astron√īmica. Os sujeitos da pesquisa, estudantes e professores do ensino m√©dio, receberam inicialmente alguma instru√ß√£o sobre como visualizar os objetos astron√īmicos atrav√©s do telesc√≥pio. Ap√≥s a realiza√ß√£o da observa√ß√£o, eles foram entrevistados. A an√°lise dos dados permitiu a elabora√ß√£o de 12 categorias que foram posteriormente interpretadas com base nas rela√ß√Ķes com o saber (rela√ß√£o com o mundo, consigo mesmo e com o outro), conforme apresentadas por Bernard Charlot.

  8. Mixed-Methods Study that Examines Nine Science Teachers' Perceptions of Slooh Robotic Telescope for Teaching Astronomy. (Breton Title: M√©todos Mistos de Estudo que Examinam a Percep√ß√£o de Nove Professores de Ci√™ncias sobre o Telesc√≥pio Rob√≥tico Slooh Para Ensino de Astronomia.) M√©todos Mixtos de Estudio que Examinan la Percepcion de Nueve Profesores de Ciencias sobre EL Telescopio Rob√≥tico Slooh Para la Ense√Īanza de la Astronom√≠a

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershun, Daniel C.; Slater, Timothy F.; Berryhill, Katie J.

    2014-07-01

    Although previous studies show that robotic telescopes have the potential to enhance student learning, there is comparatively little research that focuses on teacher perceptions of this technology. This study investigates: "what is the academic merit of using SLOOH robotic telescopes to teach astronomy as perceived by science teachers?" Our sample consists of nine science teachers of students aged 13-18 years. Pre- and post-tests, interviews, and surveys were collected during two weeks of a summer online course about robotic telescopes. While pre and post-tests do not reveal a statistically significant gain in astronomy content knowledge, analysis of qualitative data reveals five themes which describe the most important aspects of using SLOOH according to participants: "Images," "Interface," "Classroom Application," "Instructor Impact," and "Logistical Issues." Analysis of these themes suggests that SLOOH can provide an interactive and social learning environment with capabilities to incorporate crossdisciplinary themes. Embora estudos anteriores mostram que os telesc√≥pios rob√≥ticos t√™m o potencial de melhorar a aprendizagem dos alunos, h√° relativamente pouca investiga√ß√£o focada nas percep√ß√Ķes de professores a respeito desta tecnologia. Este estudo investiga: "qual √© o m√©rito acad√™mico da utiliza√ß√£o de telesc√≥pios rob√≥ticos Slooh para ensinar astronomia, tal como percebido pelos professores de ci√™ncias?" Nossa amostra √© composta por nove professores de ci√™ncias de estudantes com idades entre 13-18 anos pr√© e p√≥s-testes, entrevistas, e levantamentos foram coletados durante duas semanas de um curso on-line de ver√£o sobre telesc√≥pios rob√≥ticos. Enquanto os testes pr√© e p√≥s n√£o revelaram um ganho estatisticamente significativo no conhecimento do conte√ļdo astronomia, a an√°lise de dados qualitativos revela cinco temas que descrevem os aspectos mais importantes da utiliza√ß√£o Slooh de acordo aos participantes: "Imagens", "Interface", "Aplica√ß√£o em sala de aula", "Impacto no Instrutor" e "Quest√Ķes log√≠sticas". A an√°lise desses temas sugere que Slooh pode proporcionar um ambiente de aprendizagem interativo e social com capacidade de incorporar temas interdisciplinares. Aunque estudios previos muostraron que los telescopios rob√≥ticos tienen el potencial de mejorar el aprendizaje del estudiante, hay relativamente poca investigaci√≥n centrada en las percepciones de l√≥s profesores respecto de esta tecnolog√≠a. Este estudio investiga: "¬Ņcu√°l es el m√©rito acad√©mico de la utilizaci√≥n de telescopios rob√≥ticos SLOOH para ense√Īar astronom√≠a seg√ļn la percepci√≥n de los profesores de ci√™ncias?" Nuestra muestra est√° formada por nueve profesores de ciencias de estudiantes entre 13 a 18 a√Īos pre-y post-tests, entrevistas, y. encuestas se recogieron durante dos semanas de un curso on-line de verano sobre los telescopios rob√≥ticos. Si bien l√≥s tests antes y despu√©s de las pruebas no revelaron un aumento estad√≠sticamente significativo en el conocimiento de contenido astron√≥mico, el an√°lisis de l√≥s datos cualitativos revel√≥ cinco temas que describen los aspectos m√°s importantes de la utilizaci√≥n de SLOOH de acuerdo con los participantes:. "Im√°genes", "Interface", "aplicaci√≥n en el aula", "Impacto en el Instructor" y "problemas log√≠sticos" . El an√°lisis de estos temas sugiere que SLOOH puede proporcionar un ambiente de aprendizaje interactivo y social, con capacidad para incorporar temas transversales.

  9. Epilepsy. Fact Sheet = Epilepsia. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet, written in both English and Spanish, provides a definition, information on incidence, typical characteristics, and educational implications of epilepsy. It notes that epilepsy is classified as "other health impaired" under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and that children with epilepsy or seizure disordersÖ

  10. Estudios sobre Educacion, 2002 (Studies on Education, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estudios sobre Educacion, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This journal, which provides abstracts of its articles mostly in Spanish and a few in English, contains studies (estudios) and notes (notas) about educational issues, as well as relevant book reviews (recensiones). Studies in this issue (No. 3, 2002) are: "Unprotected Time of Early Adolescence and Intergenerational Relations: A New Educational…

  11. Um Olhar sobre "Beleza Americana" (A Look at "American Beauty").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissoto, Maria Luisa

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the film "American Beauty" in light of a reading of Karl Marx. Finds that the film shows the circularity which marks bourgeois society, even though the rhythm of industry and renovation of the society masks it. States that Marx praises the industry, invention, and innovation of the bourgeoisie. (BT)

  12. Primeros resultados sobre el estudio de oscilaciones no radiales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cůrsico, A.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    En el Observatorio de La Plata se ha comenzado a elaborar un cůdigo de pulsaciones el cual resuelve el problema de las oscilaciones no radiales en el caso adiabŠtico. Dicho cůdigo estŠ basado en la tťcnica de diferencias finitas ampliamente usado en cŠlculos de estructura y evoluciůn estelar. En este trabajo se presentan los primeros resultados encontrados aplicando el cůdigo mencionado al caso de una polŪtropa de Ūndice n=3. Se presentan los valores de las autofrecuencias y las autofunciones para diferentes modos de pulsaciůn de dicha configuraciůn politrůpica. En un futuro průximo, se aplicarŠ este programa al estudio de las pulsaciones no radiales de estrellas enanas blancas.

  13. Questions about Brain Development = Preguntas sobre el desarrollo del cerebro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southeastern Regional Vision for Education (SERVE), Tallahassee, FL.

    Noting that new research shows that a baby's earliest years shape how he or she grows later in life, this brochure, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides brief answers to some important questions parents may have about their baby's brain. The questions answered are: (1) "Why is brain development a popular subject lately?; (2) "WhatÖ

  14. Questions about Brain Development = Preguntas sobre el desarrollo del cerebro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southeastern Regional Vision for Education (SERVE), Tallahassee, FL.

    Noting that new research shows that a baby's earliest years shape how he or she grows later in life, this brochure, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides brief answers to some important questions parents may have about their baby's brain. The questions answered are: (1) "Why is brain development a popular subject lately?; (2) "What…

  15. Spina Bifida. Fact Sheet = Espina Bifida. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet offers definitions of the three types of spina bifida (spina bifida occulta, meningocele, and myelomeningocele), outlines their incidence, describes characteristics of individuals with spina bifida, and reviews educational implications. The fact sheet discusses the need for many children with myelomeningocele to learn to manage…

  16. Iniciativa sobre Efectividad: Primeros frutos (Initiative about Effectiveness: First Fruits).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno Garcia, Teresa, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This Spanish- and Portuguese-language bulletin is a follow-up to No. 15 (PS 030 558), which examined some Effectiveness Initiative (EI) projects. This issue presents some beginning efforts to reflect on what has been learned through EI and to draw conclusions. The articles cover the results of EI projects from such angles as their relations with…

  17. Sobre prestamos y clasificaciones linguisticas (Regarding Borrowing and Linguistic Classification).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Key, Mary Ritchie

    1988-01-01

    This article explores the traditionally accepted etymologies of several lexical borrowings in the indigenous languages of the Americas within the framework of comparative linguistics and linguistic classification. The first section presents a general discussion of the problem of tracing lexical borrowings in this context. The section features a…

  18. Apuntes sobre Latinismos en Espanol (Notes on Latinisms in Spanish)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez B., L. A.

    1977-01-01

    Several Latinisms appear in Latin American Spanish, which would logically be farther from its Latin roots than Spanish in Spain. The existence of these elements and their importance as linguistic facts is analyzed here. Four words are treated: "Cliente,""cuadrar,""cuarto" and "rabula." (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  19. [Parenting Information: Teenagers. Informacion Para los Padres: Sobre los Jovenes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Steve

    These four booklets are devoted specifically to the concerns of parents and their teenage children and are part of a series of 22 booklets designed specifically to help parents understand their children and help them to learn. "Parents--Learn about Your Teenager" (booklet #6) explains the changes which occur during the teen years and the reasons…

  20. Spina Bifida. Fact Sheet = Espina Bifida. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet offers definitions of the three types of spina bifida (spina bifida occulta, meningocele, and myelomeningocele), outlines their incidence, describes characteristics of individuals with spina bifida, and reviews educational implications. The fact sheet discusses the need for many children with myelomeningocele to learn to manageÖ

  1. Proposiciones Sobre Autonomia Universitaria. (Propositions on University Autonomy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, Victor M.

    University autonomy is a concept widely discussed and often misunderstood. In the Latin American context, university autonomy has been regarded as something inherent to the nature of the universities. As long as universities exist, the phenomenon of university autonomy will be present . University autonomy should be examined in the light of such…

  2. Leamos Sobre Veinte Ocupaciones! Twenty Trades to Read About.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamatino, Robyn; Mintz, Adin

    Twenty trades are explored in this bilingual supplementary workbook, designed specifically for native Spanish speakers who are in the process of learning English. The purpose of this book is to ease the Spanish-speaking student from his/her native language into English with as little discomfort as possible. There are twenty chapters in the book…

  3. Epilepsy. Fact Sheet = Epilepsia. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet, written in both English and Spanish, provides a definition, information on incidence, typical characteristics, and educational implications of epilepsy. It notes that epilepsy is classified as "other health impaired" under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and that children with epilepsy or seizure disorders…

  4. Algo sobre el "Don" (Something about the Word "Don")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruneda, Armandino G.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the many uses of the honorific title of "Don" in Spanish literature and Spanish colloquial speech. It may be used to joke and express irony, as in the expression "don ladron" (sir thief), and forms part of many idiomatic expressions. (Text is in Spanish.) (TL)

  5. Estudios sobre Educacion, 2002 (Studies on Education, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estudios sobre Educacion, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This scholarly journal deals with the study of education. Articles in this second issue are: "La Vertebracion Academica de la Formacion Inicial del Profesorado" (The Academic Backbone of the Initial Formation of Teachers) (Jose M. Esteve); "Deficiencia Visual en el Nino" (Visual Deficiency in the Young Child) (Feli Peralta; Juan Narbona); "The…

  6. [Parenting Information. Informacion Sobre Como Ser Padres Mejores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Steve

    These five booklets, containing information on how parenting can effect children's school achievement, are part of a series of 22 innovative booklets designed specifically to help parents understand and help their children learn. Booklet #1, "Parents--Teach Your Children to Learn [Before They Go to School]," defines intelligence and suggests…

  7. Pensamientos Sobre (Thoughts on) Teaching English as a Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulibarri, Mari-Luci

    This document presents ideas on various topics in teaching English as a second language. Some of the problems of English orthography and semantics are illustrated. The role of contrastive analysis is mentioned with Spanish-English illustrations. A list of second-language-acquisition principles and techniques is provided, and suggestions for…

  8. [Parenting Information: Drugs. Informacion Para los Padres: Sobre las Drojas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Steve

    These two booklets provide basic information about drugs and drug abuse and are part of a series of 22 booklets, designed specifically to help parents understand their children and help them to learn. "Let's Talk about Drug Abuse," (booklet #18), reviews foreign substances or drugs young people are often exposed to (i.e., tobacco, alcohol,…

  9. Teaching EFL Academic Writing in Colombia: Reflections in Contrastive Rhetoric (La ense√Īanza de escritura acad√©mica en Colombia: reflexiones en ret√≥rica contrastiva)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gómez, Juan D.

    2011-01-01

    This essay relates observations to the reasons that advanced students of English as a foreign language in Colombia struggle with English composition. It identifies some cultural, academic, and disciplinary influences that may obfuscate their assimilation of the conventions of written English. It concludes by proposing that the teaching of context…

  10. "Unterricht ist doch kein Zirkus . . ." Zur Frage der psychoanalytischen Reflexion im schulischen Unterricht ("The Classroom Is not a Circus . . ." On the Question of Psycho-Analytic Reflections in School Instruction).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirblinger, Heiner

    1999-01-01

    Inquires of the significance of an insight into dynamic-unconscious processes in the classroom for an understanding of pedagogical practice. Outlines the difficulties of dealing with "emotional experiences" in school. States that the components of the psycho-analytic method can be applied only in a modified form within the classroom setting. (CMK)

  11. Reflection, A Meta-Model for Learning, and a Proposal To Improve the Quality of University Teaching = Reflexion, el meta-modelo del aprendizaje, y la propuesta del mejoramiento de la calidad de la docencia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Joel R.

    This paper, in both English and Spanish, offers a meta-model of the learning process which focuses on the importance of the reflective learning process in enhancing the quality of learning in higher education. This form of innovative learning is offered as a means of helping learners to realize the relevance of what they are learning to their lifeÖ

  12. Reflection, A Meta-Model for Learning, and a Proposal To Improve the Quality of University Teaching = Reflexion, el meta-modelo del aprendizaje, y la propuesta del mejoramiento de la calidad de la docencia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Joel R.

    This paper, in both English and Spanish, offers a meta-model of the learning process which focuses on the importance of the reflective learning process in enhancing the quality of learning in higher education. This form of innovative learning is offered as a means of helping learners to realize the relevance of what they are learning to their life…

  13. L'Enseignement scolaire des langues vivantes dans les pays membres de la communaute europeenne: bilan, reflexions et propositions (Modern Language Instruction in the Member Countries of the European Community: Evaluation, Reflections, and Proposals).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Deth, Jean-Pierre

    A review of the situation of modern language teaching in western Europe (Belgium, Denmark, Ireland, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, West Germany, and the United Kingdom) looks at the demography and multilingualism of the region, the organization of school systems in those countries, and the status of school-based modern language…

  14. Systemic Functional Linguistics and Discourse Analysis as Alternatives When Dealing with Texts (La ling√ľ√≠stica sist√©mica funcional y el an√°lisis del discurso como alternativas para trabajar con textos)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García Montes, Paula Andrea; Sagre Barboza, Ana María; Lacharme Olascoaga, Alba Isabel

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a case study research with aims to find out which activities, methodological and textual aspects used in a reading strategies course were causing a group of students difficulties when analyzing critically written information. We conducted the study at Universidad de Córdoba (Colombia) with seventh semester students from the…

  15. World bank's role in the electric power sector: Policies for effective institutional, regulatory, and financial reform. World Bank policy paper. Funcion del banco mundial en el sector de la electricidad: politicas para efectuar una reforma institucional, regulatoria y financiera eficaz

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The paper outlines the World Bank's new policies for the energy sector. It recommends several new policies to improve the performance of the electric power sector in developing countries. Bank loans for electric power will go first to countries clearly committed to improving the performance of their power sectors. The Bank will also discourage subsidies on energy prices and will encourage private investment in utilities. And it will provide financing to help the least developed countries import power where local generation is not practical.

  16. Regulaci√≥n del flujo sangu√≠neo uterino. I. Funciones de estr√≥geno y receptores estrog√©nicos őĪ/ő≤ en el endotelio vascular uterino durante el embarazo

    PubMed Central

    Mayra, Pastore R.; Rosalina, Villal√≥n L.; L√≥pez, Gladys; Iruretagoyena, Jes√ļs; Magness, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Resumen El estr√≥geno y los receptores estrog√©nicos cl√°sicos (REs), RE-őĪ y RE-ő≤, han demostrado ser parcialmente responsable por las adaptaciones endoteliales uterinas durante el embarazo al corto y largo plazo. Las diferencias moleculares y estructurales, junto con los diferentes efectos causados por estos receptores en las c√©lulas y los tejidos, sugieren que su funci√≥n var√≠a dependiendo de la manera en la cual el estr√≥geno se comunica con sus receptores. En √©sta revisi√≥n bibliogr√°fica se discuten la funci√≥n del estr√≥geno y sus receptores cl√°sicos en las adaptaciones cardiovasculares durante el embarazo y la expresi√≥n de los Res in vivo e in vitro en el endotelio de la arteria uterina durante el ciclo ov√°rico y el embarazo, a la vez comparado con la expresi√≥n en endotelio arterial de tejidos reproductivos y no reproductivos. Estos temas integran el conocimiento actual de este amplio campo cient√≠fico con interpretaciones e hip√≥tesis diversas relacionadas con los efectos estrog√©nicos mediados bien sea por uno o los dos REs. Esta revisi√≥n tambi√©n incluye la relaci√≥n con las adaptaciones vasodilatadoras y angiog√©nicas requeridas para modular el dram√°tico incremento fisiol√≥gico en la perfusi√≥n √ļtero-placentaria observada durante un embarazo normal. PMID:26113750

  17. La Hipotesis Funcional y la Aparicion de Sujeto no Nominal: El Espanol de Puerto Rico (The Functional Hypothesis and the Appearance of a Non-Nominative Subject: The Spanish of Puerto Rico).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales, Amparo

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the Puerto Rican dialect and its peculiar placement of subject pronouns. Notes the linguistic variety in the dialect as well as its use of verbs connotating mental and communicative activity and constructions of relativity. These distinctions give rise to the functional hypothesis to account for the peculiarities of Spanish in the…

  18. La Hipotesis Funcional y la Aparicion de Sujeto no Nominal: El Espanol de Puerto Rico (The Functional Hypothesis and the Appearance of a Non-Nominative Subject: The Spanish of Puerto Rico).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales, Amparo

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the Puerto Rican dialect and its peculiar placement of subject pronouns. Notes the linguistic variety in the dialect as well as its use of verbs connotating mental and communicative activity and constructions of relativity. These distinctions give rise to the functional hypothesis to account for the peculiarities of Spanish in theÖ

  19. Memories of Astronomy Education in Brazil: Clippings from the Discourses of Interviewed Researchers on the Subject. (Spanish Title: Memorias de la Educación en Astronomía en Brasil: Recortes de los Discursos de Investigadores Entrevistados Acerca del Tema ) Memórias da Educação em Astronomia no Brasil: Recortes a Partir das Falas de Pesquisadores Entrevistados sobre o Tema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iachel, Gustavo; Nardi, Roberto

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a historical retrospective concerning data from a research in Astronomy Education in Brazil, after 1973. It was organized on the basis of the speech analysis of national researchers considered references in this field by their peers. Furthermore, it was elaborated on the basis of other studies from the areas of Science Education, Physics and Astronomy. This historical overview was developed in order to facilitate understanding of the contexts in which the interviewed researchers have developed professionally. Moreover, we attempted to recover the memory of the growing field of research in Astronomy Education in the country. We believe that the history presented can help those trying to understand the past in an attempt to resolve current and future demands. Se presenta en este art√≠culo una retrospectiva hist√≥rica referente a datos provenientes de la investigaci√≥n en ense√Īanza de la astronom√≠a en el Brasil, despu√©s de 1973, organizada sobre la base del an√°lisis de los discursos de los investigadores nacionales considerados referencias en este campo, y tambi√©n en la lectura de las publicaciones en las √°reas de Ense√Īanza de las Ciencias, F√≠sica y Astronom√≠a. Este repaso hist√≥rico se desarroll√≥ con el fin de facilitar la comprensi√≥n de los contextos en los que los investigadores entrevistados se han desarrollado profesionalmente. Por otra parte, se intent√≥ recuperar la memoria del creciente campo de la investigaci√≥n en Educaci√≥n en Astronom√≠a en el pa√≠s. Creemos que el relato presentado puede contribuir a quien trata de comprender el pasado, en un intento de resolver las demandas actuales y futuras. Relata-se neste artigo uma retrospectiva hist√≥rica referente a dados provenientes de pesquisa em Educa√ß√£o em Astronomia no pa√≠s, p√≥s 1973, organizada com base na an√°lise das falas de pesquisadores considerados refer√™ncias nacionais nesse campo, como tamb√©m na leitura de publica√ß√Ķes das √°reas de ensino de Ci√™ncias, F√≠sica e Astronomia. Tal panorama hist√≥rico foi desenvolvido com o intuito de favorecer nossa compreens√£o sobre os contextos nos quais os pesquisadores entrevistados se desenvolveram profissionalmente. Ademais, buscou-se recobrar a mem√≥ria do crescente campo de pesquisa em Educa√ß√£o em Astronomia no pa√≠s. Entendemos que o hist√≥rico apresentado possa contribuir para com os que buscam entender o passado na tentativa de solucionar demandas atuais e futuras.

  20. Speech and Language Disorders. Fact Sheet = Trastornos del Habla y Lenguaje. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet on speech and language disorders is presented in English and Spanish. It provides information on the definition of speech and language disorders and possible causes; the incidence (about one in ten people); and characteristics of delayed communication, speech disorders, and language disorders. It notes educational implications,…

  1. El Huichol: Apuntes Sobre el Lexico (Huichol: Notes on the Lexicon).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Jose E.; And Others

    A semantic inventory, an organized network of observations on the lexical structure of Huichol, is presented. Each entry includes a name form or lemma, its pronunciation if not clear from the lemma form, part of speech, and examples to illustrate its range of inflections. The discussion of semantics begins with a syntactic framework for the…

  2. Perspectiva General sobre la Sordo-Ceguera (Overview on Deaf-Blindness). DB-LINK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Barbara

    This overview provides basic information on the causes of deaf-blindness and the particular challenges faced by individuals who are deaf-blind. Causes of deaf-blindness include various syndromes, multiple congenital anomalies, prematurity, congenital prenatal dysfunction, and various postnatal causes. Differences between people deaf-blind from…

  3. Comunicado de prensa del Informe Anual sobre el Estado del C√°ncer 2015

    Cancer.gov

    Por primera vez, los investigadores han usado datos a nivel nacional para determinar la incidencia de los cuatro subtipos moleculares principales de cáncer de seno (mama) por edad, raza y grupo étnico, nivel de pobreza y varios otros factores. El informe

  4. Notas sobre los Sonidos Consonantes en Espanol (Notes on Consonant Sounds in Spanish)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezquerra, Raimundo

    1974-01-01

    This paper examines the Spanish phonetic system, as set forth by Navarro Tomas in his "Manual de Pronunciacion Espanola," and discusses the influences exerted by certain sounds over others. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  5. Modelo analítico del efecto de PRS sobre satélites GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meza, A.; Brunini, C.; Usandivaras, J. C.

    El sistema GPS (Global Position System) es, hoy en d√≠a, la herramienta de navegaci√≥n y posicionamiento m√°s potente y lo ser√° sin duda en la pr√≥xima d√©cada. Gran parte de su valiosa utilidad se debe a la alta precisi√≥n que permite lograr y √©sta, a su vez, depende, entre otras causas, de la precisi√≥n con que se conocen las √≥rbitas de los sat√©lites. La presi√≥n de radiaci√≥n solar (PRS) fija el l√≠mite de la precisi√≥n con que pueden calcularse en la actualidad las efem√©rides satelitarias. El objetivo de este trabajo es proponer una mejor resoluci√≥n de este fen√≥meno. El modelo anal√≠tico aqu√≠ presentado, se basa en el an√°lisis del comportamiento de los residuos de un ajuste por m√≠nimos cuadrados en el que se utiliza el modelo de PRS propuesto por Beutler. El mismo consiste en un modelo determinista del fen√≥meno con dos par√°metros libres. Los resultados obtenidos ponen de manifiesto que, a√ļn despu√©s de aplicar dichos par√°metros, prevalecen en los residuos efectos semidiurnos en las componentes radial,tangencial y normal. Estos resultados obtenidos se comparan con los de un trabajo desarrollado por el Instituto de Berne (Beutler et al., 1994), en el que se utilizaron como pseudo-observaciones las √≥rbitas precisas del IGS (CODE). El intervalo de integraci√≥n escogido por este centro fueron las semanas 680 y 681. En resumen se tienen arcos de 14 d√≠as para todos los sat√©lites, donde las efem√©rides precisas de los mismos para los 14 d√≠as fueron utilizados como pseudo-observaciones. El modelo de fuerza que emple√≥ dicho centro fue b√°sicamente el tradicional en lo que respecta al modelo de las fuerzas gravitacionales, y para la PRS utilizo el modelo standard de Beutler. Los par√°metros de este modelo junto con las 6 condiciones iniciales (posici√≥n y velocidad) fueron ajustados por el m√©todo general de m√≠nimos cuadrados. Los residuos en la componente radial, tangencial y normal, para los sat√©lites con un buen comportamiento, presentan una componente semidiurna. El modelo anal√≠tico planteado en este trabajo, predice el comportamiento de los residuos que se observan en las publicaciones m√°s recientes. Esto abre el camino para plantear una estimaci√≥n distinta de las inc√≥gnitas del problema, basado en el m√©todo de colocaci√≥n por m√≠nimos cuadrados. Ello requiere modelar estad√≠sticamente la se√Īal debida a las componentes de la PRS que no son tomadas en cuenta en el modelo determinista.

  6. Perspectiva sobre una Personalidad Senera: Carmen Fischer Ramirez (Perspective on a Singular Personality: Carmen Fischer Ramirez).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quezeda, Dina Alarcon

    1992-01-01

    Traces the career of Carmen Fischer Ramirez, focusing on her work in improving early childhood education in Chile. Reviews her university career, work with the World Organization for Early Childhood Education, and major publications. (AC)

  7. Guia para los padres sobre educacion preescolar (A Parents' Guide to Early Childhood Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Diane Trister; Phinney, Joanna

    This handbook, entirely in Spanish, was originally intended for parents whose children attend programs which use "The Creative Curriculum for Early Childhood" (CCEC), but the information is also useful to parents whose children attend early childhood programs using other curriculum models based on child development theories. The purpose of the…

  8. Como preparar un programa de informacion sobre la asistencia economica (Planning a Financial Aid Awareness Program).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This booklet, written in Spanish, is intended to be used with a set of slides as part of a presentation to students on "How To Apply for Federal Student Aid" ("Como Solicitar la Asistencia Economica Federal para Estudiantes"). The first part of the book is a script based on the slides. After the script is a guide to hosting a financial aid…

  9. Los ojos de la NASA sobre la Tierra - Duration: 97 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    La NASA cuenta con más de una decena de satélites que estudian la Tierra. Conoce la información que recaban los satélites, junto con Gilberto Colón, asistente especial del subdirector del Centro de...

  10. Informe sobre el proyecto contrastivo hispano-hungaro (Report on the Spanish-Hungarian Contrastive Project)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulei-Szanto, Andres

    1974-01-01

    A description of a contrastive linguistics project in Hungary aiming to augment linguistic theories in the Spanish language and propound theories for scientific and artistic translation. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  11. Bibliografia sobre el "bilinguismo" del Paraguay (A Bibliography on Bilingualism in Paraguay)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melia, Bartomeu

    1974-01-01

    This bibliography of ninety-five entries ranging in publication date from 1847 to 1947 brings together information from areas of history, literature, sociology, anthropology, sociolinguistics, descriptive linguistics, folk-lore and language planning, the central criterion being the relationship of these areas specifically to the bilingual…

  12. Curso Introductorio sobre el Sistema DIALOG (Introductory Course on the DIALOG System).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Ketty

    As an introduction to the use of the DIALOG online retrieval service, this guide presents material that was developed during a fellowship at Carlos III University, School of Library Science and Documentation, Madrid (Spain) and that is based on a course on the same subject taught in English at Texas Women's University. Although the use of DIALOG…

  13. Sobre la ensenanza de la literatura hispanoamericana (The Teaching of Hispanoamerican Literature).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Keith

    There are three main problems in teaching Latin American literature: (1) It is difficult to maintain a regional overview, while, at the same time, including a sense of the literary history of Latin America; (2) It is necessary to teach literature so that the material seems worthwhile in its own right and not only as a complement to other…

  14. Nueva investigacion sobre kindergarten de dia completo (Recent Research on All-Day Kindergarten). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Patricia

    Noting that much of the early research on the effects of all-day kindergarten had serious problems with internal and external validity due to inadequate methodological standards, this Spanish-language digest reviews research conducted in the 1990s. The digest discusses the academic, social, and behavioral effects of all-day kindergarten, as well…

  15. Una Metodologia de Analisis de la Interaccion Alumno-Orgendaor en la Investigacion Sobre Informatica Educativa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estepa, A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The recording of the interaction between pupil and computer is one of the data sources frequently used in research on the use of computers in teaching. Describes the analysis methodology of these recordings to determine the use of computers in statistics and its adaptation to other research work on the use of computers in education. (Author/MDH)

  16. Recopilacion Bibliografica Sobre Investigacion y Cambio Cultural (Bibliographic Compilation about Cultural Investigation and Exchange).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centro Latinoamericano de Educacion de Adultos, Santiago (Chile).

    The bibliography forms part of a project to define guidelines for a method of cultural investigation in the education of adults. A brief introduction is followed by a list of libraries and the plan for the listing of entries in the bibliography. Entries are arranged alphabetically by author under the following general headings: background on the…

  17. Consideraciones sobre la Ansiedad en la Primera Infancia (Considerations Concerning Anxiety in Early Infancy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Elsa

    The results of an experience obtained while working with children in the early stages of infancy are presented. They are basically observations taken of a child's reaction to sudden changes, particularly separation from its mother. Anxiety was observed in these infants in diverse circumstances; in some cases it was at a normal level and in others…

  18. Guia para los padres sobre educacion preescolar (A Parents' Guide to Early Childhood Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Diane Trister; Phinney, Joanna

    This handbook, entirely in Spanish, was originally intended for parents whose children attend programs which use "The Creative Curriculum for Early Childhood" (CCEC), but the information is also useful to parents whose children attend early childhood programs using other curriculum models based on child development theories. The purpose of theÖ

  19. Recursos de Trabajo: Informacion sobre Carreras (Occupational Resources: Career Information). CHOICE (Challenging Options in Career Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam and Northern Westchester Counties Board of Cooperative Educational Services, Yorktown Heights, NY.

    Part of a two-level career education curriculum initially developed for migrant children, the book is the first of three secondary level texts designed to provide high school students with self-awareness, job and role information, and decision-making/goal attaining information related to career education. The text provides job and role information…

  20. [Recomendaciones sobre el uso de palivizumab: actualización 2015].

    PubMed

    Fern√°ndez Jonusas, Silvia; Albas Maubett, Deleys; Satragno, Daniela; Cattaino, Adriana; Martin Alonso, Margarita; Rubio, Cecilia; Nieto, Ricardo

    2016-02-01

    This recommendation updates the Argentinean Pediatrics' Neonatal Committee (CEFEN) ones published in 2007. The respiratory syncytial virus is the most frequent agent for lower respiratory infection. Tiny premature, bronchopulmonary dysplasia and significant hemodynamic congenital heart disease babies are the most vulnerable populations. Palivizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody against respiratory syncytial virus used in the cold season. These recommendations are based on the scientific review of the literature published up to date. We reinforce the importance of general prevention measures like hand hygiene and family education among others. During the predominant season of respiratory syncytial virus in our country (April to September) a monthly dose of intramuscular 15 mg/kg of palivizumab is recommended. The safety and effectiveness has been proved as well as a reduction in the hospitalizations rates. In addition, epidemiological data of previous years are provided here. PMID:26914078

  1. Nota sobre el "Se" como Sujeto Indefinido (A Note on "Se" as an Indefinite Subject)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lujan, Marta

    1975-01-01

    Contradicts Pablo Jordan's theory that certain "se" constructions in Spanish are neither passive nor reflexive. It is claimed that syntactic evidence reveals two types of impersonal structures, the impersonal active and the passive reflexive. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  2. Un nuevo observatorio sobre el Cordón Macón

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrech, R.; Renzi, V.; Recabarren, P.; García Lambas, D.

    We report on the current status of the construction of an astronomical fa- cility at Cordón Macón (4660 m.a.s.l.) in Salta Province, Argentina. This project is the continuation of more than five years of site testing carried on by IATE and ESO at this site. Currently, the project is being suported by the Salta Province Government and the MINCyT. Even though the character- istics of the instrument to be located at Macón are not completely defined yet, the construction of an 8 metres diameter dome is currently under con- struction. This dome will have the capability of hosting a 1-2 m reflector telescope. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  3. Sobre o uso das séries de Puiseux em mecanica celeste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloni, O. I.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho √© apresentada uma demonstra√ß√£o do uso dos diferentes desenvolvimentos em s√©ries para as equa√ß√Ķes de perturba√ß√£o em Mec√Ęnica Celeste no marco Hamiltoniano. Em trabalhos cl√°ssicos como os de Poincar√© (Poincar√©, 1893) por exemplo, j√° esta planteado o uso de pot√™ncias n√£o inteiras no pequeno par√Ęmetro, o que evidencia a n√£o analiticidade das fun√ß√Ķes quando uma resson√Ęncia ocorre. Nestes trabalhos os desenvolvimentos s√£o na ra√≠z quadrada da massa de J√ļpiter (o pequeno par√Ęmetro). Mais recentemente (Ferraz-Mello, 1985) outros tipos de desenvolvimentos foram aplicados modificando substancialmente as ordens de grandeza e a velocidade de converg√™ncia das s√©ries. Com esta abordagem, os desenvolvimentos foram expressados em termos da ra√≠z c√ļbica do pequeno par√Ęmetro. Neste trabalho apresentamos um enfoque geral, onde os diferentes tipos de desenvolvimentos em s√©ries de Puiseux (Valiron, 1950) s√£o obtidos a partir da aplica√ß√£o de Teorema de Prepara√ß√£o de Weierstrass (Goursat, 1916) considerando a equa√ß√£o de Hamilton-Jacobi como uma equa√ß√£o alg√©brica. Os resultados s√£o aplicados ao problema restrito dos tr√™s corpos em resson√Ęncia de primeira ordem e, dependendo da grandeza da excentricidade do aster√≥ide em rela√ß√£o √† de J√ļpiter, obtemos os diferentes desenvolvimentos, em ra√≠z quadrada ou ra√≠z c√ļbica da massa de J√ļpiter.

  4. Questions Parents Ask about Schools = Preguntas que hacen los padres sobre las escuelas. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Office of Intergovernmental and Interagency Affairs.

    Noting that parents play an important role in the school success of their elementary- and middle-school-aged children, this booklet offers research-based tips to provide both practical guidance and information about a range of education-related topics. Presented in a question-answer format in both English and Spanish versions, the booklet provides…

  5. Las Preguntas Que Hacen los Padres sobre la Escuela (Questions Parents Ask about School).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Opinion Research Center, Chicago, IL.

    This guide presents questions that parents frequently ask about their children's school along with answers to those questions. The questions and answers were prepared based on the results of studies conducted by the Partnership for Family Involvement in Education, the U.S. Department of Education, the GTE Foundation, and by the National Center for…

  6. Cultural Diversity Awareness Inventory = Inventario Sobre el Reconocimiento de Diversas Culturas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Gertrude B.

    This booklet features a checklist designed to help persons who are involved in providing direct services to culturally diverse, young special needs children to assess their attitudes, beliefs, and behavior toward these children. The booklet also contains suggestions and lists of print, film, and filmstrip resources for developing a school program…

  7. Questions Often Asked about Special Education Services = Preguntas sobre los servicios de educacion especial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupper, Lisa, Ed.

    This guide, available in both English and Spanish, answers questions often asked by parents about special education services. Questions and answers address the following topics: where to begin if a parent believes a child needs special education services, services available to very young children, the evaluation process, the Individualized…

  8. Ahorre Energia: Consejos sobre el ahorro de dinero y energia en el hogar (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    Learn how to save money with Energy Saver: Tips on Saving Money & Energy at Home, from the U.S. Department of Energy. The Energy Saver guide will help you reduce your monthly energy costs and live more efficiently. This guide takes you through the systems and appliances that consume the most energy in your home, and provides solutions to cut costs for you while saving the environment. The Energy Saver guide also includes transportation tips to help you save money at the pump.

  9. Iniciativa sobre Efectividad: Un entorno para el aprendizaje (Initiative about Effectiveness: An Environment for Learning).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno Garcia, Teresa, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This Spanish- and Portuguese-language bulletin presents articles focusing on the Effectiveness Initiative (EI), a project of the Bernard van Leer Foundation for making a qualitative analysis of those elements of the programs of Early Childhood Development (ECD) that benefit the participants and their communities and cultures. The first article…

  10. Cerebral Palsy. Fact Sheet = La Paralisis Cerebral. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet on cerebral palsy is written in both English and Spanish. First, it provides a definition of cerebral palsy and considers various causes (e.g., an insufficient amount of oxygen reaching the fetal or newborn brain). The fact sheet then offers incidence figures and explains characteristics of the three main types of cerebral palsy:…

  11. Mental Retardation. Fact Sheet = El Retraso Mental. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet on mental retardation is written in both English and Spanish. It begins with a vignette of a 15-year-old boy with mental retardation. Mental retardation is briefly explained as are some causes of mental retardation. It notes that a diagnosis of mental retardation looks at two things: first, the ability of a person's brain to learn,…

  12. Simposio interamericano sobre administracion de la educacion (Inter-American Symposium on Educational Administration).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cespedes, Francisco S., Ed.

    The presidents and foreign ministers in Latin America recognize the importance of applying technology to school administration as the first step in any educational reform. In October 1968, the Organization of American States (OAS) [Organizacion de los Estados Americanos (OEA)], sponsored a symposium in Brasilia, Brazil, in cooperation with the…

  13. Consideracoes Historicas sobre o Ensino Profissionalizante no Brasil (Historical Considerations about Professional Education in Brazil).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barros, Marta Silene Ferreira

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes the paths taken in professional education in Brazil from the colonial period until the formation of the republic. Refers to specialists as well as specific laws for each period described in the study. (BT)

  14. Profesionalismo: Un estudio fenomenologico sobre experiencias de universitarios en programas de salud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez Ortiz, Wilma J.

    Some studies suggest that, upon admission, medicine programs students display eagerness for community service, aspirations to be useful, and to contribute to society's well-being. Those same studies reflect that qualities of idealism, moral nature, and internal motivation, suffer a subsequent diminishing. The researchers inferred that the main reason for this process of change in the mood and disposition of these future physicians lies in the modeling they receive from medical professionals throughout clinical learning activities, by way of behavior and relationships exhibited during daily interaction with peers, patients and the students themselves. This phenomenological study used a cross-sectional sample to explore the experiences of future health workers as they went through didactic and clinical phases of their training curriculum. The study employed semi-structured interviews and reflective journals to explore those experiences and to discover the meanings ascribed by the participants. The analysis revealed that the students defined "professionalism" in terms of scientific knowledge, commitment, respect for human dignity, comradeship, courtesy, empathy, integrity, altruism, motivation. They also described their feelings as they went through the didactic and clinical experiences, and recognized as very important the extracurricular activities of community service, describing them as useful opportunities which contributed to understand their work in terms of a mission dedicated to the achievement of the social benefit. From their individual perspectives, the clinical environment could, in general, be described as congruent with those characteristics of professionalism. During the study we had the opportunity to share, in a little deeper way, the environment... the world... of this small group of young students as we went on trying to decipher their feelings and thoughts. At the end, we realized the richness of their sensibilities, we perceived the intensity of their moral and ethical convictions, we were able to understand their concerns, worries, struggles and efforts. This life event had profound and significant repercussions in our personal and professional life. As a result, and from now on, we will no longer look at our young scholars and apprentices without imagining a noble spirit, with goals which at times could seem unattainable... without completely visualizing or conceiving real hope for a better country.

  15. "Estudio tribologico de aceros para moldes. Aplicacion al moldeo por inyeccion de polibutilentereftalato reforzado con fibra de vidrio"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Mateo, Isidoro Jose

    Mould materials for injection moulding of polymers and polymer-matrix composites represent a relevant industrial economic sector due to the large quantity of pieces and components processed. The material selection for mould manufacturing, its composition and heat treatment, the hardening procedures and machining and finishing processes determine the service performance and life of the mould. In the first part of the present study, the relationship between the hardness and microstructure and the wear resistance of mould steels from large blocks has been studied by pin-on-disc tests, studying the main wear mechanisms. In order to determine the surface damage on mould steels under real injection conditions, different commercial steels have been studied by measuring the variation of surface roughness with the number of injected pieces with different reinforcement percentages and different mould geometries, by using optical profilometry and scanning electron microscopy techniques. It was important to determine the variation of surface roughness of the moulded pieces with the number of injection operations. The materials used were polybutyleneterephthalate pure and reinforced with either 20% or 50% glass fibre. For the different mould designs, the evolution of the glass fibre orientation with injection flow has been determined by image analysis and related to roughness changes and surface damage, both of the composite parts and of the mould steel surface. Finally, the abrasion resistance of the composite parts has been studied by scratch tests as a function of the number of injected parts and of the scratch direction with respect to injection flow and glass fibre orientation. Los materiales para moldes de inyeccion de polimeros y materiales compuestos representan un sector economicamente muy relevante debido al gran aumento del numero de componentes fabricados a partir de materiales polimericos obtenidos mediante moldeo por inyeccion. La seleccion del material para la fabricacion del molde, tienen una gran influencia sobre su comportamiento en servicio a lo largo de la vida util del molde. En la primera parte del presente estudio, a partir de ensayos punzon sobre disco, se ha determinado la relacion entre la resistencia al desgaste y la dureza de aceros para moldes obtenidos a partir de bloques de gran espesor, estudiando los principales mecanismos de desgaste que tienen lugar. A continuacion, con el fin de determinar el dano superficial que sufren los aceros para moldes en condiciones reales de inyeccion, se han estudiado distintos tipos de aceros utilizados comercialmente en moldes de inyeccion de polimeros y materiales compuestos, seleccionando las condiciones de operacion para determinar la variacion de la rugosidad superficial del acero en funcion del material inyectado, del numero de operaciones sucesivas de inyeccion y de la orientacion del flujo de inyeccion, mediante tecnicas de perfilometria optica y microscopia electronica de barrido. Ademas del dano superficial sufrido por el acero con el numero de piezas inyectadas, tambien se ha determinado la evolucion de la rugosidad superficial de los materiales inyectados, polibutilentereftalato (PBT) puro y materiales compuestos derivados de PBT por adicion de un 20 o un 50% en peso de fibra de vidrio. En el caso de las piezas inyectadas, se ha caracterizado su microestructura en funcion del flujo de inyeccion y de la densidad de fibra, se han determinado sus propiedades termicas y dinamico-mecanicas, asi como la variacion de la rugosidad superficial de las piezas inyectadas con el numero de operaciones de inyeccion y con la geometria de las distintas secciones de las piezas. Finalmente, se ha evaluado la resistencia a la abrasion de PBT reforzado con un 50% de fibra, en funcion del numero de piezas inyectadas y de la direccion de rayado con respecto a la orientacion del flujo de inyeccion.

  16. Neurobiología de la impulsividad y los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria*

    PubMed Central

    Orozco-Cabal, Luis Felipe; Herin, David

    2009-01-01

    Resumen Introducci√≥n La impulsividad es un rasgo de personalidad multidimensional relacionado con el control del comportamiento y las emociones. Est√° presente de manera diversa en los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria, particularmente, en la bulimia nerviosa (BN). Aunque la relaci√≥n entre la impulsividad y BN ha sido objeto de numerosas investigaciones, en la actualidad se desconocen los sustratos neurobiol√≥gicos de esta relaci√≥n. Objetivos Discutir cr√≠ticamente la evidencia que sugiere que las alteraciones en los sistemas neuronales relacio-nados con las funciones ejecutivas, con la formaci√≥n de preferencias y con la regulaci√≥n de los estados emocionales sirven como base para el rasgo de personalidad impulsiva, as√≠ como su estado en subgrupos de pacientes con BN. M√©todos B√ļsqueda selectiva de la literatura relevante. Resultados y conclusiones Esta discusi√≥n ilustra la complejidad de la relaci√≥n entre la impulsividad y BN, donde la impulsividad act√ļa como un factor de vulnerabilidad que puede sensibilizar al sujeto con BN a estados emocionales negativos, durante los cuales modifica el impacto de est√≠mulos internos y externos sobre el comportamiento y su regulaci√≥n, favoreciendo as√≠ patrones de comportamiento maladaptativos e inflexibles. PMID:19838321

  17. Electron Diffraction Evidence for the Ordering of Excess Nickel Atoms by Relation to Stoichiometry in Nickel-Rich Beta'-Nial Formation of a Nickel-Aluminum (Ni2al) Superlattices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynaud, F.

    1988-01-01

    In electron diffraction patterns of nickel-rich beta-NiAl alloys, many anomalies are observed. One of these is the appearance of diffuse intensity maxima between the reflexions of the B2 structure. This is explained by the short-range ordering of the excess nickel atoms on the simple cubic sublattice occupied only by aluminum atoms in the stoichiometric, perfectly ordered NiAl alloy. After annealing Ni 37.5 atomic percent Al and Ni 37.75 atomic percent Al for 1 week at 300 and 400 C, the diffuse intensity maxima transformed into sharp superstructure reflexions. These reflexions are explained by the formation of the four possible variants of an ordered hexagonal superstructure corresponding to the Ni2Al composition. This structure is closely related to the Ni2Al3 structure (same space group) formed by the ordering of vacancies on the nickel sublattice in aluminum-rich beta-NiAl alloys.

  18. Las ideologias, las ciencias naturales y sus implicaciones en la educacion cientifica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozada Roldan, Sandra

    Este estudio ausculto las concepciones epistemologicas de los docentes de ciencia del nivel secundario con relacion a las ideologias y las ciencias naturales. Tambien examino las posiciones de los docentes ante asuntos publicos relacionados a la ciencia. Para propositos de este estudio se diseno y se valido el cuestionario con el cual se obtuvieron los resultados. La investigacion es de tipo cuantitativa y se utilizo como diseno la encuesta. El cuestionario se administro en varias actividades de desarrollo profesional para maestros de ciencia. Un total de 78 maestros del nivel secundario respondieron el cuestionario. Para analizar los datos obtenidos se utilizaron estadisticas descriptivas como la distribucion de frecuencia y el porciento. Ademas se establecieron codigos y categorias para describir las posiciones de los maestros ante asuntos publicos relacionados a la ciencia. Los analisis demostraron que entre los docentes participantes de este estudio prevalecen ciertas concepciones epistemologicas adecuadas acerca de las ciencias naturales, a la luz de la literatura consultada. Entre estas concepciones se destacan las siguientes: a) la filosofia materialista de las ciencias naturales, b) la naturaleza tentativa y constructivista del conocimiento cientifico, c) el uso de una metodologia que garantiza cierto grado de objetividad y con el que se justifican y validan los enunciados cientificos y d) la funcion instrumental del conocimiento cientifico. Sin embargo, entre los docentes participantes de este estudio prevalecen ciertas concepciones epistemologicas erroneas acerca de las ciencias naturales, a la luz de la literatura consultada. Entre estas concepciones se destacan las siguientes: a) tendencia inductivista en el que las teorias cientificas comienzan con observaciones que establecen generalizaciones, b) secuencia jerarquica de la metodologia cientifica. Ademas, entre los docentes participantes de este estudio prevalecen concepciones epistemologicas adecuadas acerca de las ideologias, a la luz de la literatura consultada. Entre estas concepciones se destacan las siguientes: a) la funcion de las ideologias y b) la ausencia de validez ante el conocimiento cientifico. Sin embargo, en cuanto a considerar las ciencias naturales como una ideologia mas conocida como cientificismo, no hubo consistencia en las respuestas de los participantes por lo que no es posible afirmarlo o negarlo. Los hallazgos tambien revelaron que entre los docentes participantes hubo posiciones a favor y en contra para las dos situaciones sobre asuntos publicos relacionados a la ciencia que se presentaron. Estas posiciones fueron justificadas con argumentos cientificos y argumentos ideologicos, entre estos, los morales y los economicos. Con este dato se puede afirmar el uso de las ideologias en asuntos publicos relacionados a la ciencia.

  19. Sobre as inclina√ß√Ķes carnais: inflex√Ķes do pensamento crist√£o sobre os desejos e as sensa√ß√Ķes prazerosas do baixo corporali

    PubMed Central

    RIOS, LU√ćS FELIPE; PARKER, RICHARD; TERTO, VERIANO

    2011-01-01

    On carnal inclinations: from early Christianity to the present This study develops a historical review of the meanings of the ‚Äúflesh‚ÄĚ in the West, focusing on its significance in the context of Christianity. Our hope is that a study along these lines can help to illuminate current understandings of questions related to sexuality both within and outside of the religious contexts found in contemporary Brazil. Such questions are of special interest for those who are concerned with both old and new problems found in the field that has come to be known as sexual and reproductive rights, with implications for the field of Public Health. PMID:21980215

  20. An√°lise sobre o Conhecimento de um Grupo de Alunos do Ensino M√©dio da Rede Estadual de S√£o Paulo sobre Termos e Fen√īmenos Astron√īmicos do Cotidiano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, E. F.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2007-08-01

    Embora os Par√Ęmetros Curriculares Nacionais do Ensino M√©dio (PCN-EM) e as orienta√ß√Ķes complementares a esses Par√Ęmetros (PCN+) apontem a import√Ęncia de uma abordagem significativa de conceitos relacionados √† astronomia nas aulas de F√≠sica, muitos estudantes terminam o Ensino M√©dio (EM) sem compreender a raz√£o de certos acontecimentos de origem celeste, ainda que estes fa√ßam parte de seu cotidiano. Este trabalho tem por objetivo analisar os conhecimentos b√°sicos em astronomia dos alunos de EM da escola estadual Batista Renzi, bem como investigar os meios atrav√©s dos quais estes conhecimentos foram adquiridos. Para tanto foi elaborado um question√°rio de m√ļltipla escolha aplicado a 310 alunos distribu√≠dos entre as tr√™s s√©ries do EM dos per√≠odos matutino e noturno. Dessa forma, observou-se que apenas 34,5% relacionaram as esta√ß√Ķes do ano √† inclina√ß√£o do eixo de rota√ß√£o da Terra, 21,3% indicaram a influ√™ncia gravitacional da Lua e do Sol como respons√°veis pelo fen√īmeno das mar√©s, 24,5% indicaram corretamente quais s√£o os objetos celestes mais pr√≥ximos da Terra, 36,1% identificaram ano-luz como uma medida de dist√Ęncia e 34,2% reconheceram uma estrela cadente como meteoro. Em contrapartida, 67,1% compreendiam a sucess√£o entre dia e noite, 73,9% identificaram o Sol como estrela e 52,3% relacionaram o Big Bang √† origem do Universo. Al√©m disso, foram comparadas as respostas de alunos de diferentes s√©ries e per√≠odos, observando-se, dentre outras coisas, que os estudantes do terceiro ano apresentam um percentual de acertos semelhante ao dos alunos do primeiro, caracterizando que a abordagem de t√≥picos relacionados √† astronomia no EM n√£o tem contribu√≠do para uma maior compreens√£o dos fen√īmenos e conceitos.

  1. Efecto de la dieta artificial MP sobre la emergencia y relacion de sexos de Phymastichus coffea (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae) mantenido sobre su hueped, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scloytidae)a traves de generaciones contin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phymastichus coffea La Salle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an endoparasitoid that attacks the adult coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). The MP diet developed by Portilla and Streett is the only reported diet that allows cultures of P. coffea to develop and repr...

  2. Sobre as inclina√ß√Ķes carnais: inflex√Ķes do pensamento crist√£o sobre os desejos e as sensa√ß√Ķes prazerosas do baixo corporal.

    PubMed

    Rios, Luís Felipe; Parker, Richard; Terto, Veriano

    2010-01-01

    This study develops a historical review of the meanings of the "flesh" in the West, focusing on its significance in the context of Christianity. Our hope is that a study along these lines can help to illuminate current understandings of questions related to sexuality both within and outside of the religious contexts found in contemporary Brazil. Such questions are of special interest for those who are concerned with both old and new problems found in the field that has come to be known as sexual and reproductive rights, with implications for the field of Public Health. PMID:21980215

  3. The Practice of Research of a Basic Education Teacher Involving Mental Models of the Phases of the Moon and Eclipses. (Spanish Title: La Pr√°ctica de Investigaci√≥n de un Maestro de Educaci√≥n B√Āsica con El Uso de los Modelos Mentales de Las Fases de la Luna Y Eclipses.) A Pr√°tica de Pesquisa de um Professor do Ensino Fundamental Envolvendo Modelos Mentais de Fases da Lua e Eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pess√īa Queiroz, Gl√≥ria; Jubitipan Borges de Sousa, Carlos; Auxiliadora Delgado Machado, Maria

    2009-12-01

    The inclusion of basic education teachers in the survey domain is a controversial issue and fully debated in the academy. The opportunity for a collective work that incorporated school teachers from a public school to a university's group of physics teaching at university allowed us to glimpse the redefinition of the function of a science teacher (a coauthor of this paper) by himself, such that now he includes research on the knowledge construction by students in his teacher practice. The formation of inter-institutional groups for action planning and research in these areas has proved productive for the task of knowledge construction to support educational processes in school, while the university enriches its collection of experiences critically validated, and can consider the results in teachers initial and continued education. The active participation of the teacher in a research group at the university led him to reflect on the possible didactical ways to be described, analyzed and communicated to other teachers. The construction of a pedagogy that took into account the mental models of students on the basic topics of astronomy, and the changes developed resulting from the lessons taught, led to far-reaching consequences on the pedagogy adopted by the teacher, who incorporates now a new vision of science and alternative forms to dialogue with students, essential components for a researcher in Science Education. La inclusi√≥n de los maestros de la escuela b√°sica en el universo de la investigaci√≥n es pol√©mica y est√° en amplio debate en el mundo acad√©mico. La oportunidad de trabajo colectivo de los maestros de una escuela p√ļblica en R√≠o de Janeiro con un grupo universitario de ense√Īanza de la f√≠sica nos ha permitido vislumbrar la redefinici√≥n de la funci√≥n de un maestro de ciencias (uno de los coautores de este documento) por √©l mismo, ahora para incluir la investigaci√≥n sobre la construcci√≥n del conocimiento por los alumnos en su pr√°ctica como docente. La formaci√≥n de grupos interinstitucionales para la planificaci√≥n de la acci√≥n y la investigaci√≥n ha resultado productiva para el trabajo de construcci√≥n de conocimiento de apoyo a los procesos educativos en la escuela, mientras que la universidad enriquece su colecci√≥n de experiencias validadas, considerando los resultados de la educaci√≥n inicial y continua de maestros. La participaci√≥n activa del maestro en un grupo de investigaci√≥n en la universidad lo llev√≥ a reflexiones sobre los posibles caminos did√°cticos que pueden ser descriptos, analizados y comunicados a los dem√°s docentes. La construcci√≥n de una pedagog√≠a propia, que tuvo en cuenta los modelos mentales de los estudiantes sobre los temas b√°sicos de astronom√≠a, y los cambios desarrollados a partir de las lecciones que ense√Ī√≥, trajeron consecuencias de largo alcance sobre la pedagog√≠a adoptada por el maestro, que ahora incorpora una nueva visi√≥n de la ciencia y formas alternativas al di√°logo con los estudiantes, los componentes esenciales para un investigador en Educaci√≥nen Ciencias. A inclus√£o do professor da escola b√°sica no universo da pesquisa √© quest√£o controvertida e em pleno debate no meio acad√™mico. A oportunidade de trabalho coletivo que incorporou professores de uma escola municipal no Rio de Janeiro a um grupo de ensino de F√≠sica da universidade nos possibilitou vislumbrar a ressignifica√ß√£o da fun√ß√£o de um professor de Ci√™ncias (co-autor deste trabalho) por ele pr√≥prio, agora passando a incluir a pesquisa sobre a constru√ß√£o de conhecimento pelos alunos em sua pr√°tica como docente. A forma√ß√£o de grupos interinstitucionais para o planejamento de a√ß√Ķes e de pesquisas tem-se mostrado produtiva para um trabalho de constru√ß√£o de conhecimentos a fim de subsidiar processos educativos na escola, ao mesmo tempo em que a universidade enriquece seu acervo de experi√™ncias validadas criticamente, podendo considerar seus resultados na forma√ß√£o inicial e continuada de professores. A participa√ß√£o ativa do professor num grupo de pesquisa na universidade o levou √† reflex√£o sobre caminhos did√°ticos poss√≠veis de serem descritos, analisados e comunicados a outros professores. A constru√ß√£o de uma pedagogia pr√≥pria, levando em conta os modelos mentais dos alunos sobre temas b√°sicos de Astronomia, e as mudan√ßas promovidas a partir das aulas dadas, trouxeram amplas conseq√ľ√™ncias sobre a pedagogia adotada pelo professor. Hoje a pr√°tica desse professor incorpora uma nova vis√£o de ci√™ncia e formas alternativas de dialogar com os alunos, elementos indispens√°veis a um pesquisador em Educa√ß√£o em Ci√™ncias.

  4. Apuntes sobre la distribución geográfica de Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) en Colombia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neoleucinodes elegantalis is considered the most limiting pest for production and merchandising of solanaceous fruit and vegetables in the Neotropics. The present study updates the geographic distribution of N. elegantalis in areas of major agricultural production of Solanum lycopersicum, S. melong...

  5. Lecturas sobre educacion de adultos en America latina (Readings on Adult Education in Latin America). Serie: Retablo de Papel 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latapi, Pablo, Comp.; Castillo, Alfonso, Comp.

    Twelve essays written in Spanish on the state of adult education in Latin America are presented. The essays are organized into three main sections, including: "Concepto y evolucion historica de la educacion de adultos" (Conception and Historical Evolution of Adult Education); "Aspectos particulares" (Specific Subjects); and "Tendencias yÖ

  6. Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Cáncer de 1975 a 2008: preguntas y respuestas

    Cancer.gov

    Los √≠ndices generales de mortalidad por c√°ncer han seguido disminuyendo desde principios de los noventa entre hombres, mujeres y ni√Īos. Los √≠ndices de mortalidad disminuyeron en promedio 1,6% por a√Īo entre 2004 y 2008.

  7. The ABCs of Special Education: A Handbook for Parents = El ABS Sobre Educacion Especial: Un Folleto para los Padres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Preston E., Jr.; Hinton, Valeska S.

    This bilingual handbook is intended to help parents understand their rights under P.L. 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act. The following topics are addressed: the Act's legislative history, identification of special education, explanation of P.L. 94-142, parents' rights to know, student records, student testing, students'…

  8. A Guide for Parents about Retention and Promotion = Una Guia para los Padres de Familia sobre Retencion y Promocion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Oneonta. Coll. at Oneonta. Eastern Stream Center on Resources and Training.

    This bilingual (English and Spanish) brochure explains why retention is common among migrant students and what parents can do to help their children succeed in school. By second grade, nearly 50 percent of migrant students in the nation are older than their classmates and only about 50 percent of migrant students graduate from high school.…

  9. Mobile Library Guidelines. IFLA Professional Report No. 28 [and] Lineamientos sobre Bibliotecas Moviles. Informes Professionales de IFLA: 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pestell, Robert

    This publication provides the latest information available on the equipment and operation of mobile libraries operating out of road vehicles. The guide provides details on the establishment of mobile library services, financing, vehicles, furniture and equipment, staffing, collections, service base, and publicity. Some generalizations with regard…

  10. Investigación del USGS sobre el ecosistema de arrecifes de coral en el Atlántico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuffner, Ilsa B.; Yates, Kimberly K.; Zawada, David G.; Richey, Julie N.; Kellogg, Christina A.; Toth, Lauren T.; Torres-Garcia, Legna M.

    2015-01-01

    Los arrecifes de coral son estructuras sólidas, biomineralizadas que protegen comunidades costeras actuando como barreras protectoras de peligros tales como los huracanes y los tsunamis. Estos proveen arena a las playas a través de procesos naturales de erosión, fomentan la industria del turismo, las actividades recreacionales y proveen hábitats pesqueros esenciales. La conti-nua degradación mundial de ecosistemas de arrecifes de coral está bien documentada. Existe la necesidad de enfoque y organización de la ciencia para entender los procesos complejos físicos y biológicos e interacciones que están afectando el estado de los arrecifes coralinos y su capacidad para responder a un entorno cambiante.

  11. Personal Safety for Children: A Guide for Parents = Una guia para los padres sobre la seguridad personal de los ninos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC.

    Noting that parents and teachers have the responsibility of safeguarding children and teaching them the skills they need to be safe, this pamphlet, in Spanish and English versions, is designed to help parents talk to their children about how to protect themselves against abduction and exploitation. The pamphlet is organized into six sections.…

  12. DISYUNTIVAS EN LAS CONCEPCIONES SOBRE AUTONOM√ćA Y BENEFICENCIA QUE AFECTAN LA TERAP√ČUTICA DEL INTENTO SUICIDA.

    PubMed

    Mondragón, Liliana; Monroy, Zuraya; Ito, Ma Emily; Medina-Mora, Dra Ma Elena

    2010-06-01

    El objetivo del trabajo es conocer las disyuntivas entre los principios de beneficencia y autonom√≠a, que se presentan en la relaci√≥n m√©dico-paciente, durante la terap√©utica del intento de suicidio.La investigaci√≥n se realiz√≥ en dos hospitales psiqui√°tricos de la Ciudad de M√©xico. La muestra incluy√≥ a tres sujetos con intento de suicidio, mayores de 18 a√Īos, que eran atendidos en consulta externa a causa de una lesi√≥n autoinfligida en el √ļltimo a√Īo, y a tres psiquiatras que trataban a estos pacientes. La informaci√≥n se obtuvo previo consentimiento informado en entrevistas individuales. Se llev√≥ a cabo un an√°lisis de discurso argumentado para encontrar los significados que los participantes otorgaron a los principios bio√©ticos y las posibles disyuntivas entre √©stos.Las discordancias entre la beneficencia y la autonom√≠a estuvieron relacionadas con el beneficio del tratamiento, el respeto por los valores y las creencias de los pacientes, entre otros. Este trabajo presenta consideraciones √©ticas relevantes en el escenario cl√≠nico, al ofrecer al psiquiatra un an√°lisis bio√©tico que le permita actuar de acuerdo con la beneficencia y respetando la autonom√≠a del paciente frente a casos de intento de suicidio y, de esta forma procurar una mejor atenci√≥n para ellos. PMID:20830214

  13. "O Que Diriam Sobre Os Portugueses?????" [What Would You Say about Portuguese People?]: Intercultural Curiosity in Multilingual Chat-Rooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo e Sa, Maria Helena; de Carlo, Maddalena; Melo-Pfeifer, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we intend to discuss questioning as a sign of Intercultural Communicative Competence in plurilingual environments, stressing the relationship between questioning and the process of developing discovery skills in Romance chat-rooms. Focusing specifically on episodes beginning with intercultural questioning, we will analyse: (1)Ö

  14. Ecocardiografía tridimensional. Nuevas perspectivas sobre la caracterización de la válvula mitral

    PubMed Central

    Solis, Jorge; Sitges, Marta; Levine, Robert A.; Hung, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Recent developments in three-dimensional echocardiography have made it possible to obtain images in real time, without the need for off-line reconstruction. These developments have enabled the technique to become an important tool for both research and daily clinical practice. A substantial proportion of the studies carried out using three-dimensional echocardiography have focused on the mitral valve, the pathophysiology of mitral valve disease and, in particular, functional mitral regurgitation. The aims of this article were to review the contribution of three-dimensional echocardiography to understanding of the functional anatomy of the mitral valve and to summarize the resulting clinical applications and therapeutic implications. PMID:19232192

  15. "O Que Diriam Sobre Os Portugueses?????" [What Would You Say about Portuguese People?]: Intercultural Curiosity in Multilingual Chat-Rooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo e Sa, Maria Helena; de Carlo, Maddalena; Melo-Pfeifer, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we intend to discuss questioning as a sign of Intercultural Communicative Competence in plurilingual environments, stressing the relationship between questioning and the process of developing discovery skills in Romance chat-rooms. Focusing specifically on episodes beginning with intercultural questioning, we will analyse: (1)…

  16. El Conocimiento Ocupacional y del Yo para los Grupos Especiales. Monografias sobre el Conocimiento Ocupacional y del Yo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, Kenneth B.

    This Spanish translation of ED 132 428 includes the three papers representing Office of Education attempts to face the need for improving delivery of career education to special portions of the population. New additions are brief sections on basic definitions and additional considerations of the significance of work. The first paper, on career…

  17. Liv and Lucky in Liverland. . . Color Us Healthy! A Workbook about Your Liver = Un Cuaderno de trabajo sobre tu higado.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1995

    This workbook/coloring book, on the liver and good health is designed for primary school students. The 21 line drawings illustrate different aspects of liver function, maintaining a healthy liver, and preventing liver disease. Each page is captioned in both English and Spanish. (ND)

  18. Una Guia de Consejos Practicos Sobre la Lectura para los Padres (A Guide to Reading Tips for Parents).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    The No Child Left Behind program changes the federal role in education by asking America's schools to describe their success in terms of what each student accomplishes. The information in this reading guide, presented in Spanish, was developed by the United States Department of Education to assist parents, caregivers, and teachers in understanding…

  19. Lecturas sobre educacion de adultos en America latina (Readings on Adult Education in Latin America). Serie: Retablo de Papel 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latapi, Pablo, Comp.; Castillo, Alfonso, Comp.

    Twelve essays written in Spanish on the state of adult education in Latin America are presented. The essays are organized into three main sections, including: "Concepto y evolucion historica de la educacion de adultos" (Conception and Historical Evolution of Adult Education); "Aspectos particulares" (Specific Subjects); and "Tendencias y…

  20. Validacion de un Inventario Sobre La Percepcion de Los Padres de Superdotados Respecto a Los Servicios Educativos Disponibles Para Estos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina Munoz, Arlette Zamarie

    2013-01-01

    In Puerto Rico, there isn't a survey that collects the parent's perception of the available services for gifted children. Considering this, in this investigation an instrument was created and scientifically validated to collect the parents' perception of the educational services available. The instrument was validated using internal…

  1. General Information about Learning Disabilities (Fact Sheet Number 7) = Informacion General sobre Impedimentos en el Aprendizaje (Fact Sheet Number 19).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interstate Research Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet providing general information about learning disabilities is presented in both English and Spanish versions. It begins with the federal definition of learning disabilities and a discussion of its implications followed by estimates of incidence. Typical characteristics of students with learning disabilities are then summarized as…

  2. Estudio numerico y experimental del proceso de soldeo MIG sobre la aleacion 6063--T5 utilizando el metodo de Taguchi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meseguer Valdenebro, Jose Luis

    Electric arc welding processes represent one of the most used techniques on manufacturing processes of mechanical components in modern industry. The electric arc welding processes have been adapted to current needs, becoming a flexible and versatile way to manufacture. Numerical results in the welding process are validated experimentally. The main numerical methods most commonly used today are three: finite difference method, finite element method and finite volume method. The most widely used numerical method for the modeling of welded joints is the finite element method because it is well adapted to the geometric and boundary conditions in addition to the fact that there is a variety of commercial programs which use the finite element method as a calculation basis. The content of this thesis shows an experimental study of a welded joint conducted by means of the MIG welding process of aluminum alloy 6063-T5. The numerical process is validated experimentally by applying the method of finite element through the calculation program ANSYS. The experimental results in this paper are the cooling curves, the critical cooling time t4/3, the weld bead geometry, the microhardness obtained in the welded joint, and the metal heat affected zone base, process dilution, critical areas intersected between the cooling curves and the curve TTP. The numerical results obtained in this thesis are: the thermal cycle curves, which represent both the heating to maximum temperature and subsequent cooling. The critical cooling time t4/3 and thermal efficiency of the process are calculated and the bead geometry obtained experimentally is represented. The heat affected zone is obtained by differentiating the zones that are found at different temperatures, the critical areas intersected between the cooling curves and the TTP curve. In order to conclude this doctoral thesis, an optimization has been conducted by means of the Taguchi method for welding parameters in order to obtain an improvement on mechanical properties in aluminum metal joint. Los procesos de soldadura por arco electrico representan unas de las tecnicas mas utilizadas en los procesos de fabricacion de componentes mecanicos en la industria moderna. Los procesos de soldeo por arco se han adaptado a las necesidades actuales, haciendose un modo de fabricacion flexible y versatil. Los resultados obtenidos numericamente en el proceso de soldadura son validados experimentalmente. Los principales metodos numericos mas empleados en la actualidad son tres, metodo por diferencias finitas, metodos por elementos finitos y metodo por volumenes finitos. El metodo numerico mas empleado para el modelado de uniones soldadas, es el metodo por elementos finitos, debido a que presenta una buena adaptacion a las condiciones geometricas y de contorno ademas de que existe una diversidad de programas comerciales que utilizan el metodo por elementos finitos como base de calculo. Este trabajo de investigacion presenta un estudio experimental de una union soldada mediante el proceso MIG de la aleacion de aluminio 6063-T5. El metodo numerico se valida experimentalmente aplicando el metodo de los elementos finitos con el programa de calculo ANSYS. Los resultados experimentales obtenidos son: las curvas de enfriamiento, el tiempo critico de enfriamiento t4/3, geometria del cordon, microdurezas obtenidas en la union soldada, zona afectada termicamente y metal base, dilucion del proceso, areas criticas intersecadas entre las curvas de enfriamiento y la curva TTP. Los resultados numericos son: las curvas del ciclo termico, que representan tanto el calentamiento hasta alcanzar la temperatura maxima y un posterior enfriamiento. Se calculan el tiempo critico de enfriamiento t4/3, el rendimiento termico y se representa la geometria del cordon obtenida experimentalmente. La zona afectada termicamente se obtiene diferenciando las zonas que se encuentran a diferentes temperaturas, las areas criticas intersecadas entre las curvas de enfriamiento y la curva TTP. Para finalizar el trabajo de investigacion se ha realizado una optimizacion, con la aplicacion del metodo de Taguchi, de los parametros de soldeo con el objetivo de obtener una mejora sustancial en las propiedades mecanicas de las uniones metalicas de aluminio.

  3. DISYUNTIVAS EN LAS CONCEPCIONES SOBRE AUTONOM√ćA Y BENEFICENCIA QUE AFECTAN LA TERAP√ČUTICA DEL INTENTO SUICIDA1

    PubMed Central

    Mondragón, Liliana; Monroy, Zuraya; Ito, Ma. Emily; Medina-Mora, Dra. Ma. Elena

    2010-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo es conocer las disyuntivas entre los principios de beneficencia y autonom√≠a, que se presentan en la relaci√≥n m√©dico-paciente, durante la terap√©utica del intento de suicidio. La investigaci√≥n se realiz√≥ en dos hospitales psiqui√°tricos de la Ciudad de M√©xico. La muestra incluy√≥ a tres sujetos con intento de suicidio, mayores de 18 a√Īos, que eran atendidos en consulta externa a causa de una lesi√≥n autoinfligida en el √ļltimo a√Īo, y a tres psiquiatras que trataban a estos pacientes. La informaci√≥n se obtuvo previo consentimiento informado en entrevistas individuales. Se llev√≥ a cabo un an√°lisis de discurso argumentado para encontrar los significados que los participantes otorgaron a los principios bio√©ticos y las posibles disyuntivas entre √©stos. Las discordancias entre la beneficencia y la autonom√≠a estuvieron relacionadas con el beneficio del tratamiento, el respeto por los valores y las creencias de los pacientes, entre otros. Este trabajo presenta consideraciones √©ticas relevantes en el escenario cl√≠nico, al ofrecer al psiquiatra un an√°lisis bio√©tico que le permita actuar de acuerdo con la beneficencia y respetando la autonom√≠a del paciente frente a casos de intento de suicidio y, de esta forma procurar una mejor atenci√≥n para ellos. PMID:20830214

  4. Connecting Multiple Intelligences through Open and Distance Learning: Going towards a Collective Intelligence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medeiros Vieira, Leandro Mauricio; Ferasso, Marcos; Schröeder, Christine da Silva

    2014-01-01

    This theoretical essay is a learning approach reflexion on Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences and the possibilities provided by the education model known as open and distance learning. Open and distance learning can revolutionize traditional pedagogical practice, meeting the needs of those who have different forms of cognitive…

  5. Software Applications to Educational Planning and Management. A Collection of Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Germain, M.; And Others

    The five papers in this collection examine the existing trends in the use of microcomputers in educational planning and management. In the first paper, "Reflexions sur l'Ordre du Jour" (French), Michel Saint-Germain addresses contextual factors surrounding the use of computers, priorities that must be accounted for before developing new softwareÖ

  6. Proceedings: Pacific Northwest Council on Foreign Languages. Volume XXX, Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Gertrud S., Ed.

    The following papers of relevance to second language instruction are compiled here: (1) "Bilingual Math in a Monolingual Classroom: A Field Study," by Elizabeth M. Baricevic; (2) "Ideologie et pedagogie: reflexions sur le manuel de francais au programme de '3e annee secondaire' en Algerie," by Jeanne Adam; (3) "Pedagogic Grammar and AppliedÖ

  7. Traduction et langues de specialite: Approches theoriques et considerations pedagogiques (Translation and Specialty Languages: Theoretical Approaches and Pedagogic Considerations).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guevel, Zelie, Ed.; Valentine, Egan, Ed.

    Essays on the teaching of translation and on specialized translation, all in French, include: "Perspectives d'optimisation de la formation du traducteur: quelques reflexions" ("Perspectives on Optimization of Training of Translation Teachers: Some Reflections") (Egan Valentine); "L'enseignement de la revision pedagogique" ("The Teaching of…

  8. Young Pianists Exploring Improvisation Using Interactive Music Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Victoria; Triantafyllaki, Angeliki; Anagnostopoulou, Xristina

    2015-01-01

    The use of music technology in the enhancement of young pianists' musical improvisations has been scarcely explored in instrumental music teaching and learning research. In the present study, 19 piano pupils aged 6-10 from the UK and Greece used an interactive improvisation system called Musical Interaction Relying On Reflexion (MIROR)-Impro…

  9. Polarisation of Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spottiswoode, William

    2015-01-01

    Preface; 1. Methods of polarisation; 2. Double refraction: polariscopes; 3. Chromatic polarisation: the wave theory; 4. Circular polarisation; 5. Circular polarisation by reflexion; 6. Phenomena produced by mechanical means: unannealed glass; 7. Atmospheric and other polarisation: the polar clock; 8. Rings and brushes produced by crystal plates; 9. Composition of colours by polarised light; Index.

  10. De profundis: plainte contextuelle (De profundis: A Contextual Complaint)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mey, Jacob

    1973-01-01

    Examination of two works by Per Aage Brandt, "Pour une chromatique. Note sur des prepositions francaises" in "Lingua e Stile," 1971, and "L'analyse phrastique: reflexions pour une grammatique;" both of which discuss the need to develop a grammar superior to transformational grammar or Chomsky's surface structure-deep structure option. (DD)

  11. Population and the Environmental Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Understanding at School, 1972

    1972-01-01

    A group of young scientists from various countries met at Unesco headquarters in May of 1972 to discuss the current issues in growth of world populations. The factors considered merit reflexion by teachers who plan to give attention to these issues in the classroom. (Author)

  12. Problemes theoriques et methodologiques dans l'etude des langues/dialectes en contact aux niveaux macrologique et micrologique = Theoretical and Methodological Issues in the Study of Languages/Dialects in Contact at Macro- and Micro-Logical Levels of Analysis. Proceedings of the International Conference DALE (University of London)/ICRB (Laval University, Quebec)/ICSBT (Vrije Universiteit te Brussel) (London, England, May 23-26, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanc, Michel, Ed.; Hamers, Josiane F., Ed.

    Papers from an international conference on the interaction of languages and dialects in contact are presented in this volume. Papers include: "Quelques reflexions sur la variation linguistique"; "The Investigation of 'Language Continuum' and 'Diglossia': A Macrological Case Study and Theoretical Model"; "A Survey of Dialect Grammar in British…

  13. Curriculum-Evaluation Concerning Dependent Societies: The Contradictory Experiment of Ruralized Primary Education in Dahomey (Republic of Benin) and Its Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kordes, Hagen

    1977-01-01

    The present study presents a comprehensive evaluation of school reform in Dahomey, including empirical control and ideology-critical reflexion up to a stage which seldom occurs in research. The subject, method, and the result of this evaluation are explained. (Author/CTM)

  14. Proceedings: Pacific Northwest Council on Foreign Languages. Volume XXX, Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Gertrud S., Ed.

    The following papers of relevance to second language instruction are compiled here: (1) "Bilingual Math in a Monolingual Classroom: A Field Study," by Elizabeth M. Baricevic; (2) "Ideologie et pedagogie: reflexions sur le manuel de francais au programme de '3e annee secondaire' en Algerie," by Jeanne Adam; (3) "Pedagogic Grammar and Applied…

  15. Young Pianists Exploring Improvisation Using Interactive Music Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Victoria; Triantafyllaki, Angeliki; Anagnostopoulou, Xristina

    2015-01-01

    The use of music technology in the enhancement of young pianists' musical improvisations has been scarcely explored in instrumental music teaching and learning research. In the present study, 19 piano pupils aged 6-10 from the UK and Greece used an interactive improvisation system called Musical Interaction Relying On Reflexion (MIROR)-ImproÖ

  16. ASSERT : a radar Tomography of Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herique, A.; Barucci, A.; Biele, J.; Ho, T.-M.; Kofman, W.; Krause, C.; Michel, P.; Plettemeier, D.; Prado, J. Y.; Souyris, J. C.; Zine, S.; Ulamec, S.

    2011-10-01

    The ASSERT tomographic radar is a unique opportunity to achieve the tomography both in transmission and in reflexion of an asteroid in order to determine its fracturing, its stratigraphy and its heterogeneity at different scales for a better understanding of accretion and evolution phenomena's. This talk reviews all the aspect of the proposed instrument: tomography geometry, instrument concept and present design.

  17. Software Applications to Educational Planning and Management. A Collection of Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Germain, M.; And Others

    The five papers in this collection examine the existing trends in the use of microcomputers in educational planning and management. In the first paper, "Reflexions sur l'Ordre du Jour" (French), Michel Saint-Germain addresses contextual factors surrounding the use of computers, priorities that must be accounted for before developing new software…

  18. Globalizacion y Educacion (Globalization and Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estudios, Sobre Educacion, 2001

    2001-01-01

    This journal issue introduces key points in education from a humanistic and interdisciplinary perspective. Articles are in Spanish (one article is in English) and each one contains a brief abstract in English. Research studies included are: "Globalizacion, Desarrollo y Pobreza (Reflexiones desde la Libertad)" (Juan Jose Toribio); "La Educacion…

  19. Momentos centrados en sistemas estelares a simetria axial.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz Subirana, J.; Juan Zornoza, J. M.; Català Poch, M. A.

    Centered moments in the galactic plane have been analytically determined up to the fourth order for a non-stationary stellar system model with a distribution of peculiar velocities of the stars symmetric under point-axial transformations and equatorial plane reflexions. The obtained results explain satisfactorily the peculiar velocities distribution of the considered stellar samples in the solar neighborhood.

  20. "Reflections on a Europe of Knowledge": A Working Document from CEDEFOP Discussed by the Management Board at Its Meeting of 13 March 1998 = "Gedanken zu einem Europa des Wissens": Ein Arbeitsdokument des CEDEFOP vom Verwaltungsrat auf seiner Sitzung am 13. Marz 1998 diskutiert = "Reflexions sur une Europe de la connaissance": Un document de travail du CEDEFOP examine par le Conseil d'administration lors de la reunion du 13 mars 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Thessaloniki (Greece).

    The European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (CEDEFOP) supports the aims of European Community (EC) activities and initiatives to promote lifelong learning and access to training. To promote competencies and lifelong learning, CEDEFOP has monitored development of lifelong learning skills, clarified main differences in the…

  1. Estudio de la influencia de la refrigeracion con aire de forma natural e inducida en el comportamiento de instalaciones fotovoltaicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazon Hernandez, Rocio

    The aim is to analyse the negative influence of high panel temperatures on electrical production when they are placed on steel roofs of industrial buildings and greenhouse roofs. Different configurations have been tested in order to allow cooling of photovoltaic panels to decrease panel temperature and improve electrical performance. To research this problem two experimental facilities have been built. The first facility includes two panels fixed on a structure. A panel is integrated on a parallel steel plate which does not allow sufficient cooling. Between both surfaces, there is an open air channel in which an air flow is created by the chimney effect thus cooling the panel by natural convection or inducing air, using a fan, by forced convection. The other panel has not any plate underneath it and is used as a referent. The electrical behaviour of the integrated panel has been studied for different air gaps and induced velocities, being also compared with the reference panel. An experimental model was developed to establish correlations which allow determine the panel temperature depending on the influential variables on the cooling ability. This research also analyses the data of a working solar plant, with the same panel model, obtaining the correlations between electrical variables and panel temperature. A comparison with the electrical behaviour in the experimental facility and the solar plant is also presented. The second experimental facility is a replica of a photovoltaic greenhouse. It consists of four photovoltaic panels placed on the plastic roof, providing an open and divergent channel between both surfaces thus creating an air flow by natural convection. This research studies the effect of high temperatures within the greenhouse which is transferred by the roof and thus affects the electrical production. In addition, two air gaps were used and the effect of adding insulating material to the plastic roof was studied. The electrical variables of the panels are analysed to compare and select the best configuration. The presented research provides a deep knowledge of how they work as well as information and results for an improvement in future designs of building integrated photovoltaic systems. Este estudio se centra en analizar la influencia negativa de la temperatura en la produccion electrica de paneles fotovoltaicos al estar emplazados sobre cubierta de acero, como sucede en naves industriales y sobre un invernadero. Se estudian diferentes configuraciones que permitan refrigerar los paneles, reduciendo su temperatura y mejorar su rendimiento. Para abordar este problema, se han construido dos instalaciones experimentales, fieles a plantas solares en funcionamiento. Una instalacion engloba dos paneles fotovoltaicos sobre estructura fija al suelo. Uno de los paneles esta integrado sobre una superficie paralela y metalica. Entre ambas superficies existe un espacio que posibilita circular aire, permitiendo refrigerar el panel por conveccion natural, o conveccion forzada impulsando el aire con un ventilador. El otro panel, libre por su cara posterior y se ha considerado de referencia. Se ha estudiado el comportamiento del panel integrado sobre cubierta para diferentes secciones de aire y velocidades inducidas, comparandolo con el panel de referencia. Se ha desarrollado un modelo experimental que nos permite determinar la temperatura del panel en funcion de las variables que influyen en su refrigeracion. Adicionalmente, se han analizado los datos de una planta solar en funcionamiento, con paneles de igual caracteristicas, obteniendo correlaciones entre la temperatura del panel y las variables electricas y comparandolos con las obtenidas en la instalacion experimental. La segunda instalacion experimental reproduce parte de una instalacion solar sobre un invernadero, formada por cuatro paneles fotovoltaicos colocados sobre el plastico del invernadero, existiendo un canal divergente entre ambas superficies. Se estudia la influencia de las altas temperaturas en el interior del invernadero sobre la produccion electrica de los paneles, decido a la transferencia de calor del interior del invernadero. Ademas, se han ensayado dos separaciones diferentes y para cada una se ha comparado con la misma, utilizando un aislante sobre la cubierta. El estudio realizado sobre ambas instalaciones ha proporcionado un conocimiento profundo del funcionamiento de cada una de ellas, asi como informacion valida para una mejora de futuros disenos de instalaciones fotovoltaicas sobre cubiertas.

  2. Grupos espa√Īoles de c√°lculos ab initio de mol√©culas de inter√©s astrof√≠sico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Y√°√Īez, M.

    Pocos campos de la qu√≠mica est√°n tan bien adaptados a la modelizaci√≥n por medio de los m√©todos te√≥ricos de la Qu√≠mica Cu√°ntica como la Astroqu√≠mica y la Qu√≠mica de la Atm√≥sfera, donde las interacciones moleculares son, generalmente, lo suficientemente peque√Īas para que el modelo de mol√©cula aislada funcione muy bien. En Espa√Īa son varios los grupos te√≥ricos que dedican su esfuerzo de investigaci√≥n, o parte de √©l, al estudio de mol√©culas o procesos de inter√©s en Astrof√≠sica o en atm√≥sferas planetarias. Presentaremos diferentes ejemplos paradigm√°ticos de esta actividad en la que se exploran desde aspectos estructurales, hasta aspectos espectrosc√≥picos y din√°micos. Entre los √ļltimos, cabe destacar estudios en los que se demuestra la importancia de procesos a dos estados, prohibidos por esp√≠n, en la formaci√≥n astrof√≠sica de diversos derivados de inter√©s. En el tratamiento espectrosc√≥pico se han hecho esfuerzos interesantes, que han aunado teor√≠a y experimento, en el estudio de sistemas relevantes desde el punto de vista atmosf√©rico, como los hidratos de √°cido n√≠trico, o el tratamiento espectrosc√≥pico de mol√©culas no r√≠gidas. No menos interesantes son los estudios de fotoabsorci√≥n de radicales o de procesos multifot√≥nicos. Son particularmente abundantes los estudios dedicados a la reactividad espec√≠fica de sistemas de inter√©s astrof√≠sico o atmosf√©rico, con el objetivo de esclarecer v√≠as de formaci√≥n de determinados compuestos o de proporcionar mecanismos que permitan identificar las etapas reactivas limitantes de reacciones de inter√©s en esos medios y sobre los que no exist√≠a informaci√≥n previa. As√≠, por ejemplo, se han publicado interesantes estudios sobre la formaci√≥n o propiedades de compuestos de f√≥sforo, de silico o de azufre o sobre mecanismos de reacci√≥n en los que intervienen el ozono, el radical nitrato, el radical OH u otras especies. Finalmente, son tambi√©n particularmente relevantes los estudios que varios grupos espa√Īoles han llevado, y siguen llevando a cabo, sobre sistemas d√©bilmente enlazados, como complejos de Van der Waals o complejos por enlace de hidr√≥geno, que sin duda juegan un papel importante tanto en medios atmosf√©ricos como interestelares.

  3. [The enlightenment on pregnancy and birth in the 16th century].

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, Dorthe

    2002-01-01

    The enlightenment of people on pregnancy and childbirth is not just a contemporary phenomena. Henrik Smiths laegebog (Manual of Medicine) from 1557 is part of a tradition of communication and education going from antiquity to the present day. This book not only tells us the gynecological and obstetrical knowledge of a period, but is also an exciting reflexion of the perception of the same historical periods' view on gender, body and sexuality. PMID:12564448

  4. How To Talk to Your Teens and Children about AIDS = Como hablar con sus adolescentes y sus ninos sobre el SIDA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National PTA, Chicago, IL.

    Two brochures, one in English and one in Spanish, provide parents with basic information that will enable them to educate their children about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Contents address 11 questions: (1) What is AIDS? (2) How do you get AIDS? (3) How is AIDS not spread? (4) Who can get AIDS? (5) How can you tell if someone hasÖ

  5. Producción masiva automatizada de la broca del café, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) sobre la dieta artificial Cenibroca modificada.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An automated system for the mass rearing of coffee berry borer, CBB, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) was developed at the National Biological Control Laboratory, USDA-ARS in the United States. A novel cell design of 32 cell trays (30 x 14.6 x 1.1 cm) and an automated diet dispenser were developed and ...

  6. Catalysts for Change: Three Case Studies of Quality Education Worldwide = Catalizadores del Cambio: Tres Casos de Estudio sobre la Educacion de Calidad en el Mundo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puriefoy, Wendy D.

    2007-01-01

    Public education is the cornerstone of democracy and is absolutely fundamental to a democratic, civil and prosperous society. Beyond the boundaries of the United States, other countries are working to provide quality education to their children through civil society institutions. In particular, there are three extraordinary organizations in Peru,…

  7. Manual sobre la Educacion en California para Padres de Idiomas Minoritarios = A Handbook on California Education for Language Minority Parents--Spanish/English Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bilingual Education Office.

    This bilingual handbook, presented in both Spanish and English, is designed to assist parents of language minority students who are residing in California. The book is part of the technical assistance effort of the State Department of Education to clarify the operations of the California schools to language minority parents so they can better…

  8. Manual sobre la Educacion en California para Padres de Idiomas Minoritarios (A Handbook on California Education for Language Minority Parents). Revised Edition. Spanish/English Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Office of Bilingual Bicultural Education.

    The handbook, an update of the 1986 handbook, is designed for Spanish-speaking parents of California public school students, and answers commonly-asked questions about the state public education system and its services, particularly those of interest to this population. Information is presented in both Spanish-and English-language sections, in a…

  9. Perspectivas sobre las escuelas charter: Una resena para padres de familia (Perspectives on Charter Schools: A Review for Parents). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahoo, Saran

    Recently, charter schools have gained popularity with parents, students, and others as alternatives to public schools, but what are charter schools and what effects are they having? This Spanish-language Digest defines charter schools and clarifies some of the administrative and legal details surrounding such schools. The Digest also lays out some…

  10. Producción masiva automatizada de la broca del café Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleóptera: Scolytidae) y de sus parasitoides sobre dietas artificiales

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article reviews the current state of knowledge concerning the mass rearing system of the coffee berry borer, cbb, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), and its African parasitoids: the ectoparasitoids Cephalonomia stephanoderis (Betrem) and Prorops nasuta ((Waterston) (Hymenop...

  11. Guia para Madres y Padres de Familia sobre Educacion Pre-Escolar a Temprana Edad (A Parents' Guide to Early Childhood Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Diane Trister; Phinney, Joanna

    This booklet for parents explains what children learn in preschools that employ the Creative Curriculum for Early Childhood and the ways in which learning can be reinforced at home. The first sections of the booklet explain the goals and philosophy of experience-based preschools. Goals include teaching children to love reading and school and to be…

  12. Investigaci√≥n observacional sobre el papel de las estrellas binarias en la ecolog√≠a de c√ļmulos estelares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonz√°lez, J. F.; Levato, H.; Grosso, M.

    We present preliminary results of a long-term project devoted to the observational study of the binary star population in open clusters and its connection with the dynamical and evolutionary properties of the clusters. We report the discovery of 17 double-lined spectroscopic binaries, 30 radial velocity variables and about 30 suspected variables. In the 17 clusters of our sample the binary frequency ranges between 20 and 40 %, and reaches typically 60 % if all suspected binaries are included. We study the spatial distribution of the binary stars with respect to the cluster center and we discuss the statistical correlation of the mass-ratio distribution with the cluster age.

  13. 8 de noviembre de 2006: Mercurio pasea sobre el disco solar (Micro eclipse anular de Sol o el segundo tr√°nsito de Mercurio del siglo XXI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallamaci, C. C.

    On Wendsday November 8, 2006, the second transit of Mercury over the Sun of the 21st. Century, took place. In this work we present the principal characteristics of the phenomenon ocurrence, the visibility region and the local circumstances for some locations of Argentina and other countries of the world. Full TEXT IN SPANISH

  14. A Parent's Guide to Infant/Toddler Programs = Guia para los padres sobre los programas de cuidado infantil de 0-3 anos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Diane Trister; Dombro, Amy Laura; Colker, Laura J.

    Information on how warm and responsive care can help shape infants' and toddlers' development and their ability to learn can be reassuring for concerned parents. This guide, in English and Spanish versions, presents quality child care as a partnership between the child caregiver and the parents with the primary goal of benefiting the child. The…

  15. Conversacion sobre "Tres tristes tigres". Una entrevista de Rita Guibert (A Conversation about "Three Sad Tigers". An Interview with Rita Guibert)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabrera Infante, Guillermo

    1971-01-01

    Interview took place in London, England, on October 5, 1970 between Cuban writer Guillermo Cabrera Infante and journalist Rita Guibert. Special issue dedicated to contemporary Spanish American literature. (DS)

  16. Consideraciones sobre la investigacion hermeneutica en la educacion en lenguas y culturas extranjeras (Aspects of Applying a Hermeneutic Approach to Foreign Language and Culture Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoreda, Margaret Lee

    Drawing on writings by recent post-modernist thinkers and semioticians, this paper focuses on a combination of hermeneutic and semiotic viewpoints and applies them to defining the nature of interpretation in an educational setting (e.g., text interpretation), the interpreter, and the essence of the act of comprehension and interpretation. The main…

  17. La investigacion sobre la calidad de los programas para ninos de hasta dos anos de edad (Research on Quality in Infant-Toddler Programs). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    Concern about the quality of infant-toddler care programs has grown recently in response to two factors. The first is the need of employed parents for such care, and the second is research emphasizing the importance of brain development in the early years. This Spanish-language Digest introduces some of the many issues related to the quality of…

  18. The Dyslexia Handbook: Procedures Concerning Dyslexia and Related Disorders = Manual sobre la dislexia: Procedimientos relacionados con la dislexia y otros desordenes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    This handbook, available in English and Spanish, contains the Texas State Board of Education's approved procedures concerning dyslexia and related disorders and information regarding the state's dyslexia statutes and their relation to the federal Rehabilitation Act of 1973, Section 504, and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Chapters…

  19. Resultados de una encuesta sobre posibles reformas ortograficas en el espanol del siglo XX (Results of a Survey Concerning Possible Orthographic Reforms in Twentieth Century Spanish)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varela Cuellar, Beatriz

    1976-01-01

    This article presents the results of a questionnaire sent to Spanish teachers regarding possible orthographic reforms in Spanish. Changes considered included elimination of certain letters and representation of each phoneme by only one letter. Responses to each question are classified and explained. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  20. Television Viewing = Lo que los padres de estudiantes dotados necesitan saber sobre ver...television. What Parents of Gifted Students Need To Know about...Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegle, Del, Ed.

    This booklet (Practitioner's Guide), in both an English version and a Spanish version, is intended to help parents apply the findings of research to parental mediation of television viewing by their children, including gifted children. Research facts are briefly summarized and implications for the home are drawn. Suggestions for parents are…

  1. Tax and Record Keeping Information for Family Child Care = Informacion Sobre los Impuestos y la Documentacion para el Cuidado Infantil en el Hogar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellert, Sandra

    This pamphlet from the Children's Foundation, in both English- and Spanish-language versions, provides advice to child care providers on record-keeping methods. The pamphlet also gives definitions and guidance on business expenses (100% deductible, shared personal and business, and depreciated capital expenses), time-space formula, self-employment…

  2. Guia para Madres y Padres de Familia sobre Educacion Pre-Escolar a Temprana Edad (A Parents' Guide to Early Childhood Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Diane Trister; Phinney, Joanna

    This booklet for parents explains what children learn in preschools that employ the Creative Curriculum for Early Childhood and the ways in which learning can be reinforced at home. The first sections of the booklet explain the goals and philosophy of experience-based preschools. Goals include teaching children to love reading and school and to beÖ

  3. Desarrollo de un instrumento para medir percepciones sobre el contexto de construccion del conocimiento cientifico de estudiantes universitarios de nuevo ingreso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Ramirez, Jaime Antonio

    En esta investigacion, se desarrollo un instrumento que permite medir percepciones relacionadas al contexto de constriccion del conocimiento cientifico. Se examinaron instrumentos existentes y se encontro que el VOSTS (Views on science, technology, and society), instrumento desarrollado empiricamente en Canada por Aikenhead, Ryan y Fleming, podia traducirse y validarse en el contexto cultural puertorriqueno. El instrumento es extenso, consta de 113 reactivos, cada uno con una premisa basica relacionada a la tematica ciencia, tecnologia y sociedad y un numero de alternativas relacionadas a la premisa que oscila entre siete y trece. Se delimito su utilizacion a los quince reactivos identificados por los autores como relacionados a la construccion social del conocimiento cientifico. Metodologicamente, se procedio a utilizar el modelo de adaptacion intercultural, que permite que el instrumento desarrollado satisfaga las dimensiones de equivalencia semantica, de contenido, tecnica, de criterio y conceptual, atemperado asi al instrumento original. Se cumplio con este proposito mediante la traduccion de la version original en ingles al espanol y viceversa. Se utilizaron comites para examinar la traduccion y la retro-traduccion del instrumento. Se realizo una prueba piloto con estudiantes universitarios de nuevo ingreso, utilizando el instrumento traducido para asegurar su intelegibilidad. La confiabilidad del instrumento se determino mediante la intervencion de un panel de expertos quienes clasificaron las distintas posiciones dentro de cada reactivo en: realista, con merito e ingenua; se transformaron estas opciones en valores numericos lo que permitio establecer una escala Likert para cada una. Se suministro el instrumento a una muestra de estudiantes universitarios de nuevo ingreso con caracteristicas similares a las de la poblacion puertorriquena en cuanto a ejecucion en las pruebas de aptitud verbal y matematica del College Board. Los resultados de sus contestaciones fueron transformados numericamente para poder obtener el coeficiente de correlacion de Spearman-Brown para el instrumento (0.661, p < 0.01). El analisis de las contestaciones de los estudiantes refleja percepciones diversas y, en algunos casos, contradictorias con respecto al contexto de construccion del conocimiento cientifico.

  4. Kathy Finds Out about the Introduction of Solids. Mother-to-Mother Support = Josefa Descubre Conocimientos sobre la Introduccion de Solidos. Apoyo Madre a Madre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magalhaes, Rebecca; Stone-Jimenez, Maryanne; Allen de Smith, Paulina; Smith, Natalia

    These magazine-sized booklets, one in English, one in Spanish, are in cartoon format and are designed to be used by people with limited literacy in English or Spanish. This booklet explains that exclusive breastfeeding means giving no water, liquids, or food; breast milk contains sufficient water to satisfy the baby's thirst; at about 6 months,…

  5. International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs Newsletter, July 1991-December 1992 = Boletin de Grupo Internacional de Trabajo sobre Asuntos Indigenas, Septiembre 1991-Diciembre 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IWGIA Newsletter, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This document contains seven consecutive English-language issues of the IWGIA Newsletter, from July 1991 through December 1992, followed by the seven corresponding issues in Spanish. These newsletters provide educators with a resource on the history, current conditions, and struggles for self-determination of indigenous peoples around the world.Ö

  6. Steppin' On Up: A Post-Secondary Guide for Migrant Students = Tomando Accion: Una Guia para los Estudiantes Migrantes Sobre Que Hacer Despues de la Escuela Secundaria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Stream Migrant Education Program Coordination Center, Portland, OR.

    This bilingual guide (English and Spanish) provides information for migrant students on postsecondary education. The guide includes information on: (1) career planning, involving self-exploration, occupational exploration, and strategies for reaching career objectives; (2) planning for postsecondary education during high school, including a…

  7. International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs Newsletter, July 1991-December 1992 = Boletin de Grupo Internacional de Trabajo sobre Asuntos Indigenas, Septiembre 1991-Diciembre 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IWGIA Newsletter, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This document contains seven consecutive English-language issues of the IWGIA Newsletter, from July 1991 through December 1992, followed by the seven corresponding issues in Spanish. These newsletters provide educators with a resource on the history, current conditions, and struggles for self-determination of indigenous peoples around the world.…

  8. Etnograf√≠a acelerada para transformar normas sociales sobre g√©nero y sexualidad en hombres puertorrique√Īos heterosexuales1,2

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Torres, Blanca; Rivera-Ortiz, Rafael J.; Mendoza, Sigrid

    2014-01-01

    Resumen La construcci√≥n de roles de g√©nero dominantes contribuyen al riesgo de contraer VIH, y por tal raz√≥n se ha urgido a que se integren las normas sociales relativas al g√©nero en las intervenciones preventivas del VIH. Este estudio pretende adaptar y desarrollar una intervenci√≥n que facilite la transformaci√≥n de normas sociales del g√©nero y de pr√°cticas sexuales en hombres puertorrique√Īos. La intervenci√≥n propone transformar normas sociales relacionadas al g√©nero y sexualidad en barras comunitarias utilizando el modelo de l√≠deres de opini√≥n. Luego de ser elegidos/as, los/as l√≠deres de opini√≥n diseminan mensajes integrando la importancia de relaciones equitativas entre parejas para la prevenci√≥n del VIH. La primera fase de esta intervenci√≥n es discutida en este art√≠culo, la cual incluye un proceso de etnograf√≠a acelerada para identificar los escenarios comunitarios en los que podemos desarrollar esta intervenci√≥n y permitirnos entender la cultura de las barras comunitarias. A partir de las observaciones etnogr√°ficas, pudimos: desarrollar un protocolo de seguridad para realizar las observaciones, desarrollar un perfil de la cultura de las barras, elegir las barras a participar en las dos condiciones del estudio y adaptar los instrumentos de la intervenci√≥n para que respondieran a la particularidad de los/as participantes. PMID:25530828

  9. "Que vienen los lobos!" (Breve nota sobre el plural de los apellidos) ("May The Wolves Come:" [A Brief Note on the Plural of Surnames])

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivaldi, Gonzalo Martin

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses the problems that arise with the formation of plural forms of surnames in Spanish, problems both with morphology and with ambiguity. Suggestions as to how to lessen problems are made. (Text is in Spanish.) (CLK)

  10. Uso de los Datos de Biomonitoreo para Informar sobre la Evaluacion Infantil (American translation is: USING BIOMONITORING DATA TO INFORM EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT IN CHILDREN)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussing the challenges associated with estimating and interpreting toxicant exposures and health risks from biomonitoring data. This extended abstract was translated in Spanish and published in Acta Toxicologica Argentina.

  11. Nuevos resultados sobre la cinem√°tica global y nuclear de NGC 253: movimientos no circulares y emisi√≥n en Br ő≥

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camperi, J. A.; Gunthardt, G. I.; D√≠az, R. J.; Ag√ľuero, M. P.; Gimeno, G.; Pessev, P.

    Continuing with previous research (Camperi et al., BAAA, 54, 377, 2011), new heliocentric radial velocity distributions are presented for the nearby galaxy NGC 253, obtained from the ionized hydrogen recombination line HőĪ. These distributions have been derived from long-slit spectroscopy for various position angles. It is also shown the heliocentric radial velocity distribution corresponding to part of the infrared data (ionized hydrogen recombination line Brő≥) observed with the Phoenix spectrograph of the Gemini South Observatory. Sequential mapping with the long slit using this instrument will enable to study in detail the kinematics of the galaxy's core, which is strongly obscured by dust. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  12. Pick and Choose: A Videotape Series on Nutrition for Migrant Families (Coja y Escoja: Peliculas para Television Sobre la Nutricion para las Familias Migratorias).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1979

    One of the major problems faced by migrant workers throughout the United States is a lack of awareness of the relationship between proper diet and an individual's general health and well being. To help solve this problem was the major objective of the series "Pick and Choose." The three 15-minute programs in the series present information related…

  13. Guia para la Ensenanza Combinada de Ingles y Ciencia. Para Padres/sobre Padres. (A Guide to Teaching English and Science Together. For Parents/about Parents).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Wendy

    In the past, students who knew only a little English (called limited English proficient, or LEP), were usually taught only low-level science and mathematics. Now, new science and mathematics teaching methods can help LEP students get a good education in both fields. This guide will help parents know if their children are learning as much as…

  14. Sobre la naturaleza de cinco candidatos a c√ļmulos abiertos ubicados pr√≥ximos a la direcci√≥n del centro gal√°ctico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, A. E.; Clari√°, J. J.

    CCD BVI Johnson-Cousins observations obtained for 1759 stars in 4'√ó4' regions around the unstudied southern stellar aggregates Ruprecht 103, 124, 129, 146 and 166 are presented. The objects are described as open clusters in the catalogues of star clusters and associations of Alter et al. (1970) and Lyng√Ö (1987), as well as, in the ESO/Uppsala Survey of the ESO (B) Atlas (Lauberts 1982). Our analysis shows that none of these objects are genuine open clusters, except perhaps Ruprecht 166, since no clear main sequences (MSs) or other meaningful features can be seen in the extracted (V,B-V) and (V,V-I) colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs). The star sequences seen in the distinct CMDs, specially for Ruprecht 124 and 129, are apparently formed by the superimposition of MS field stars affected by varying amounts of interstellar absorption and/or placed at different distances from the Sun. The CMDs of Ruprecht 166 present a pronounced variation in the luminosity function along the apparent MS, a fact from which we can infer the notion of these stars had a different origin. Star counts carried out within and outside the cluster candidate fields not only support the results that the objects do not present a significant number density contrast with respect to the Galactic disk, but also show that they do not appear to be candidate late stages of star cluster dynamical evolution. Several other stellar aggregates included in open cluster catalogues have previously been disproved as genuine physical systems (see, e.g., Carraro & Patat 1995, MNRAS, 276, 563; Carraro 2000, A&A, 357, 145; Piatti & Clari√° 2001, A&A, 370, 931). Thus, the present work implies the potential likelihood of other wrongly classified open clusters.

  15. Tips for Parents on Keeping Children Drug Free = Consejos para Los Padres Sobre Como Mantener a Los Hijos Libres de La Droga.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Office of Intergovernmental and Interagency Affairs.

    Research shows that recent trends in youth drug use have stabilized; however, the rates of use remain at high levels. It has been shown that the earlier drug use is initiated, the more likely a person is to develop drug problems later in life. Youth substance abuse may lead to many other problems that affect not only the child, but also the…

  16. Politica Nacional sobre Discapacidad: Un Informe del Progreso, Diciembre 2000-Diciembre 2001 (National Disability Policy: A Progress Report, December 2000-December 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Disability, Washington, DC.

    This report (written in Spanish) of the National Council on Disability (NCD) describes the nation's progress in advancing public policies to increase the inclusion, empowerment, and independence of people with disabilities in light of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. The report covers December 2000 through December 2001. It reviews…

  17. Feedback Cheerleader, Mean-Spirited Feedback Estudio Critico Discursivo De Ideologias Sobre El Feedback Escrito En Un Departamento Universitario De Espanol En Estados Unidos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez-Mujica, Maria Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate ideologies that monitor and control styles of written feedback as well as discursive resources used in the expression of those ideologies. Using socio-cognitive analysis, a development of critical discourse studies, I have analyzed 44 sessions of chat on the Internet, 78 journal notes, 31 emails and 12…

  18. Check It Out. FDIC Money Smart Financial Education Curriculum = Conceptos Basicos sobre Cuentas Corientes. FDIC Money Smart Plan de Educacion para Capacitacion en Finanzas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Deposit Insurance Corp., Washington, DC.

    This module on how to choose and keep a checking account is one of ten in the Money Smart curriculum, and includes an instructor guide and a take-home guide. It was developed to help adults outside the financial mainstream enhance their money skills and create positive banking relationships. It is designed to enable participants to open and keep a…

  19. Borrowing Basics. FDIC Money Smart Financial Education Curriculum = Conceptos Basicos sobre Prestamos. FDIC Money Smart Plan de Educacion para Capacitacion en Finanzas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Deposit Insurance Corp., Washington, DC.

    This module, an introduction to credit, is one of ten in the Money Smart curriculum, and includes an instructor guide and a take-home guide. It was developed to help adults outside the financial mainstream enhance their money skills and create positive banking relationships. It is designed to enable participants to decide when and how to use…

  20. Simposio sobre Educacion de Ninas: Evidencias, Temas, Acciones. Actas de sesiones. (Symposium on Girls Education: Evidence, Issues, Actions. Proceedings). (Washington, DC, May 17-18, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for International Development (IDCA), Washington, DC.

    This symposium highlighted core issues of controversy in girls' education and developed implications for policy and practice. Its evidence-based discussion forum encouraged dialogue, debate, and increased interaction and developed partnerships among academic institutions, nongovernmental organizations, multilateral development agencies, and other…

  1. How To Talk to Your Teens and Children about AIDS = Como hablar con sus adolescentes y sus ninos sobre el SIDA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National PTA, Chicago, IL.

    Two brochures, one in English and one in Spanish, provide parents with basic information that will enable them to educate their children about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Contents address 11 questions: (1) What is AIDS? (2) How do you get AIDS? (3) How is AIDS not spread? (4) Who can get AIDS? (5) How can you tell if someone has…

  2. Conservación de material histórico sobre papel en el Observatorio Astronómico de la Universidad Nacional de Córdoba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laguzzi, N.; Tonini, A.; Andreoli, G.; Goldes, G.; Paolantonio, S.; Cequeira, F.; Landi, L.; Alba, J.

    At the recently created Astronomical Museum ``Pte. Sarmiento - Dr. Benjamin Gould", the task of preventive conservation of historic documents has been faced. These materials include: 1) letters exchanged between national authorities and the directors of the Observatory, during the first decades (1870-1880-1890); b) original observation logs from these very first times, containing astrometrical and photometrical data; c) a variety of ancient books and papers; d) administrative documents. The state of conservation of this patrimony was varied: since well-conserved books and letters, to highly degraded logs. The observation logs written by B. Gould and the astronomers who followed him had been stocked in a safe with a permanent humidity of about 70 %, without any ventilation and exposed to the attack of insects of the family ``dermestidae." These conditions could not be worse for the conservation of paper. In order to stop the proccess of degradation and create a healthy environment for written-paper conservation, a team was formed with personnel belonging to the Cultural Area of the Municipality. The tasks being performed on the observation logs are: 1) an initial, mechanical cleaning, performed once the material is extracted from the contaminated safe: by these means, adult insects and pupas are removed 2) a stage of about two weeks of duration, in which the logs are mantained in a vacuum chamber, in orden to completely eliminate the adult, pupa and egg stage insects by anoxia 3) the final mechanical cleaning 4) storage in a clean location. In order to perform these tasks, we work in collaboration with the Environmental Observatory of the City, and the group of Material-Science Research of Fa.M.A.F. Regarding the letters, a mechanical cleaning was performed. After that, the letters were digitized by means of a scanner, inventoried, put inside acid-free polipropylene envelops and filed for conservation, protected from intense light and external sources of contamination. Copies of these letters will be included as exhibits.

  3. NUEVAS T√ČCNICAS DE PRODUCCI√ďN MASIVA SISTEMATIZADA DE LA BROCA DEL CAF√Č, HYPOTHENEMUS HAMPEI (COLEOPTERA: SCOLYTIDAE) SOBRE LA DIETA ARTIFICIAL CENIBROCA MODIFICADA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An automated system for the mass rearing of coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) was developed at the National Biological Control Laboratory, USDA-ARS in the United States. A modified Cenibroca artificial diet consisting of coffee, agar, casein, yeast, inhibitors, vitamins and pre...

  4. Sistema de c√ļmulos globulares de la galaxia lenticular NGC 6861: en busca de indicios sobre la formaci√≥n de las S0s.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escudero, C. G.; Faifer, F. R.; Bassino, L. P.; Calderón, J. P.; Caso, J. P.

    We present a preliminar photometric study of the globular cluster system (GCS), associated to the lenticular galaxy (S0) NGC 6861, which is located in a low density environment (dňú31.8 Mpc). It is based on GEMINI/GMOS images (GS-2010B-Q-2: PI Lilia P. Bassino) in the filters g', r', i' of three fields, one of them centered in the galaxy. We find a large number of GCs candidates and detect the presence of at least two sub-populations of GCs (``blue''/metal-poor and ``red''/metal-rich). The spatial distribution of ``red'' candidates presents a higher concentration toward the galaxy (associated to the bulge?), while the distribution of ``blue'' candidates is more homogeneus over the three fields (associated to the halo?). In the color-magnitud diagram, the ``blue'' GC candidates show a possible mass-luminosity relation, known as ``blue-tilt'', probably detected for the first time in a lenticular galaxy. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  5. Kathy Finds Out about the Introduction of Solids. Mother-to-Mother Support = Josefa Descubre Conocimientos sobre la Introduccion de Solidos. Apoyo Madre a Madre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magalhaes, Rebecca; Stone-Jimenez, Maryanne; Allen de Smith, Paulina; Smith, Natalia

    These magazine-sized booklets, one in English, one in Spanish, are in cartoon format and are designed to be used by people with limited literacy in English or Spanish. This booklet explains that exclusive breastfeeding means giving no water, liquids, or food; breast milk contains sufficient water to satisfy the baby's thirst; at about 6 months,Ö

  6. A Parent's Guide to Infant/Toddler Programs = Guia para los padres sobre los programas de cuidado infantil de 0-3 anos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Diane Trister; Dombro, Amy Laura; Colker, Laura J.

    Information on how warm and responsive care can help shape infants' and toddlers' development and their ability to learn can be reassuring for concerned parents. This guide, in English and Spanish versions, presents quality child care as a partnership between the child caregiver and the parents with the primary goal of benefiting the child. TheÖ

  7. Que Sucede? Manual Informativo Sobre Rehabilitacion y Educacion Especial en Costa Rica (What's Happening? Informative Manual on Rehabilitation and Special Education in Costa Rica).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Mezerville, Gaston; And Others

    The manual, in Spanish, provides descriptions of rehabilitation, medical, and special education services; centers and institutions which offer physical and mental rehabilitation services; and lists of professionals and advocacy organizations in Costa Rica. Part 1 includes an overview of rehabilitation and special education, a short history of…

  8. Ahorre Energía: Consejos sobre el ahorro de dinero y energía en el hogar (Spanish Brochure), Energy Savers Guide

    SciTech Connect

    2014-09-01

    La versión en castellano de la guía del Departamento de Energía de los Estados Unidos que ayuda a consumidores a ahorrar energía y dinero en el hogar y en las carreteras. The Spanish-language version of U.S. Department of Energy's consumer guide to saving energy and money at home and on the road.

  9. Quantitative FT-IR spectroscopy of gypsum raw material for industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwendtner, K.; Libowitzky, E.; Götzinger, M. A.; Koss, S.

    2003-04-01

    Today quality control (QC) is a big issue for being competitive in the gypsum industry. Knowledge and understanding of the raw material help to enhance the quality and permanence of products. Therefore a rapid, precise and user-friendly FT-IR spectroscopic method for quantitative analysis of gypsum, anhydrite, magnesite and dolomite from the gypsum deposit of Puchberg, Austria is being developed. There are decisive advantages of FT-IR spectroscopy compared to thermogravimetric methods (TG, DTA, DSC) or XRD, which are commonly used for QC, e.g. it is frequently available in industry labs and a spectrum can be obtained in a few minutes, with a minimum of sample preparation. The effects of particle size and ratio of dilution with KBr were investigated in transmission mode, using KBr pellets, as well as in diffuse reflexion mode. Little differences in particle size lead to enormous differences in peak height in transmission mode, but show only little effects in diffuse reflexion. The small amounts of sample used in KBr pellets (e.g. 2 mg sample : 500 mg KBr) also turned out to be disadvantageous, just like the time consuming sample preparation. Measurements in diffuse reflexion with a sample to KBr ratio of 1:10 show promising results for use in standardization, whereas higher dilutions hardly improve the quality, and ratios of 1:5 still show components of specular reflection. The calibration model for quantitative analysis is being constructed measuring various defined mixtures of >98% pure natural minerals (gypsum, magnesite, dolomite), and synthetic materials (anhydrite). The latter was obtained by heating gypsum at 350^oC for 10 h. The synthetic material was chosen, because natural material was not available in sufficient amounts with high purity. The IR method is compared with results achieved with XRD-Rietveld and thermogravimetric methods. Advantages of chemometrical software based on multivariate statistical techniques will be investigated and compared with standard techniques using simple peak fitting methods.

  10. Apport de la réflectance spéculaire à l'étude de polymères conducteurs. Vieillissement de la polyaniline et composites conducteurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davenas, J.; Rannou, P.; Planes, J.

    1998-06-01

    UV-vis. reflectance spectrophotometry has been applied to the optical study of composites involving carbon and conducting Pani nanoparticules. Contribution to the study of the mechanism of Pani-CSA ageing is also discussed. La spectrophotométrie UV-vis. dans le mode reflexion spéculaire a été appliqué à l'étude optique de composites mettant en jeu des nanoparticules de carbone ou de polymère conducteur. L'apport de cette technique à l'étude du mécanisme de vieillissement de films de PANI-CSA est discuté.

  11. [Contact with violence--health professionals and their patients victims of abuse].

    PubMed

    Braz, M; Cardoso, M H

    2000-01-01

    Using qualitative methods of collecting data and analysis, this article outlines the way health care professionals, mainly pediatricians, feel about violence and their responsibility in denouncing the cases which they were forced to deal with. Although a typical "case study"--the experience in Instituto Fernandes Figueira/FIOCRUZ--the major concern of this work is to offer material for reflexion about procedures that should or could be taken in face to child morbidity caused by "external causes", making suggestions for a health conduct that enhances the relationship between violence and the medical practice related to child and adolescent abuse. PMID:10909383

  12. Phase-integral approach to Rosen-Morse potentials.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalarsson, Nils

    We apply the phase-integral condition to the motion of a quantal particle in the Rosen-Morse potential V(x)=B0tanh(x/x0)-U0cosh-2(x/x0) to show that it yields the energy eigenvalues exactly in any order of approximation, when the base function is chosen conveniently. Thereafter, we show that the phase-integral formula for the normalization factors of bound states agrees very satisfactorily with the exact calculation. Finally, we apply the phase-integral formula for the reflexion coefficient to the transmission of a quantal particle through the above potential to show that it gives very accurate results.

  13. Familiares a cargo de pacientes de c√°ncer (PDQ¬ģ)‚ÄĒVersi√≥n para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario informativo revisado por expertos acerca de los desaf√≠os que enfrentan los familiares a cargo de los pacientes con c√°ncer. Este resumen se centra en las funciones t√≠picas y las inquietudes de las personas a cargo del paciente y en las intervenciones √ļtiles para esas personas.

  14. Neuropatía persistente aumenta el riesgo de caídas entre supervivientes de cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Muchas mujeres supervivientes de c√°ncer tienen problemas de movilidad y de otras funciones f√≠sicas como resultado de la neuropat√≠a perif√©rica persistente causada por el tratamiento de quimioterapia, seg√ļn un estudio nuevo.

  15. Distintas Modalidades de Aproximar la Educacion al Mundo Productivo: Efectos sobre Variables Psico-Sociales en los Alumnos (Distinct Modalities in Approaching Education for the Productive World: Effects of Socio-psychological Variables on Students).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hidalgo, Abelardo Castro; Carrasco, Decler Martinez; Alegria, Jorge Alegria; Elevancini, Cecilia Maldonado

    2000-01-01

    States that since the 1990s, professional technical education has produced profound transformations in the relationship between education and work in Chile. Examines in a study how modalities of bringing students to the world of work have affected students' socio-psychological characteristics in comparison to training received from traditional…

  16. A Baseline Study of Strategies to Promote Critical Thinking in the Preschool Classroom (Un Estudio de Base sobre Estrategias para la Promoción de Pensamiento Critico en las Aulas de Preescolar)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    León, Jenny Melo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the different incidents of critical thinking in five preschool classrooms in one school, and the instructional strategies preschool teachers employed in the development of children's critical thinking. The participants in this study were five self-contained preschool teachers and their corresponding…

  17. Relatorio Final Sobre o Ensino Bilingue: Resultados da Avaliacao Externa da Experiencia de Escolarizacao Bilingue em Mocambique (PEBIMO) (Final Report on Bilingual Education: Results of External Evaluation of an Experiment in Bilingual Education in Mozambique).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Carolyn J.

    The PEBIMO project was designed to determine whether bilingual education could improve the quality of primary education in Mozambique, recognizing that Portuguese is not the native language of the majority of Mozambican students. The project began in 1992 with 8 cohorts of first grade in 2 provinces; during this investigation, students were in…

  18. Mision Informacion: Entrevista a Empleados en el Lugar donde Trabajan; Observar a Obreros mientras Trabajan; Programa sobre Experiencia Laboral (Mission Information: Worksite Interview, Shadow Community Workers, Work Experience Program). CHOICE (Challenging Options in Career Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam and Northern Westchester Counties Board of Cooperative Educational Services, Yorktown Heights, NY.

    The work-study guide is the third volume in the advanced level of a career education curriculum for elementary-secondary migrant children. Complementing the secondary level job information text and a workbook about decision making and self-awareness, the work-study guide is designed to accompany work exploration and experience programs. It…

  19. Distintas Modalidades de Aproximar la Educacion al Mundo Productivo: Efectos sobre Variables Psico-Sociales en los Alumnos (Distinct Modalities in Approaching Education for the Productive World: Effects of Socio-psychological Variables on Students).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hidalgo, Abelardo Castro; Carrasco, Decler Martinez; Alegria, Jorge Alegria; Elevancini, Cecilia Maldonado

    2000-01-01

    States that since the 1990s, professional technical education has produced profound transformations in the relationship between education and work in Chile. Examines in a study how modalities of bringing students to the world of work have affected students' socio-psychological characteristics in comparison to training received from traditionalÖ

  20. The Effect of Direct and Indirect Corrective Feedback on Students' Spelling Errors (El efecto de la retroalimentaciůn directa e indirecta sobre los errores de ortografŪa de los estudiantes)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baleghizadeh, Sasan; Dadashi, Mehdi

    2011-01-01

    The study presented here is an attempt to examine the role of indirect feedback in promoting junior high school students' spelling accuracy in English. It compares the effect of direct feedback with indirect feedback on students' written work dictated by their teacher from their textbooks. Two classes were selected from the ZanjanroodÖ

  1. Aspectos de biología y tablas de vida de Cephalonomia stephanoderis y Prorops nasuta (Himenoptera: Bethilidae) sobre su hospedero la broca del café criada en la dieta artificial Cenibroca modificada.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological aspects and demographic parameters of the African bethylid wasps Cephalonamia stephanoderis Betrem and Prorops nasuta Waterson (Hymenopterans: Bethylidae) were investigated using diet-reared hosts of Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). The life cycle (28.40 ¬Ī SE 0.486 a...

  2. Exploring Authorship Development among Mexican EFL Teacher-Researchers (Exploración sobre el desarrollo de la autoría en los profesores-investigadores de inglés como lengua extranjera)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trujeque Moreno, Eva Estefania; Encinas Prudencio, F√°tima; Thomas-Ruzic, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a multi-theoretical model to address processes of "authorship development" in the English as a foreign language teaching profession. Working within a sociocultural perspective of second-language teacher education, the authors examined six experienced nonnative English-speaking teacher-researchers. Perceptions of…

  3. Students' Perceptions of the Impact of CLIL in a Mexican BA Program (Percepciones de los estudiantes sobre el impacto de la ense√Īanza de contenido-lengua integrados en un programa de pregrado en M√©xico)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asomoza, Alejandra Nu√Īez

    2015-01-01

    Content and language integrated learning is an innovative pedagogical approach used in educational institutions worldwide. This study considers information and experiences from various settings in order to explore content and language integrated learning within the Mexican context. This study reports the perceptions of students in a BA program.…

  4. The Latinas' Guide to the Information Superhighway: A Bilingual Guide for Latinas by Latinas = Guia para Mujeres Latinas sobre la Supercarretera de la Informacion: Una Guia Bilingue para Latinas por medio de Latinas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MANA, A National Latina Organization, Washington, DC.

    This guide to the Internet is designed to give Latinas basic information on computers and the information superhighway. Written in both Spanish and English, the guide begins by defining the Internet and making some suggestions about acquiring access to a computer. Among the topics discussed are how to choose an Internet service provider, how to…

  5. Manual de Adiestramiento sobre Terapia de Rehidratacion Oral y Control de las Enfermedades Diarreicas (Oral Rehydration Therapy and the Control of Diarrheal Diseases). Training for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Training Manual No. T-53.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Mari; And Others

    This Spanish-language manual was developed to train Peace Corps volunteers and other community health workers in Spanish-speaking countries in oral rehydration therapy (ORT) and the control of diarrheal diseases. Using a competency-based format, the manual contains three training modules (organized in seven sessions) that focus on interrelated…

  6. A Look at the Decisions Hispanic Families Make after the Diagnosis of Deafness = Un estudio sobre las decisiones que toman las familias hispanas despues de un diagnostico de sordera.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Annie; Bain, Lisa; Li, Yuelin; Montoya, Louise; Ruperto, Vivian

    This study, written in both English and Spanish, examined the decision-making process of Hispanic families living in the United States who have a child with a hearing loss. Twenty-nine families in four different geographical areas shared their experiences in learning about their child's disability, searching for appropriate interventions, and…

  7. Kathy Talks with Other Mothers about Breastfeeding an Older Baby. Mother-to-Mother Support = Josefa Habla con Otras Mamas sobre el Amamantar a un Bebe Mayorcito. Apoyo Madre a Madre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magalhaes, Rebecca; Stone-Jimerez, Maryanne; Allen de Smith, Paulina; Smith, Natalia

    These magazine-sized booklets, one in English, one in Spanish, are in cartoon format and designed to be used by people with limited literacy in English or Spanish. The book explains that a 1- or 2-year old breastfed baby is comforted by breastfeeding, breast milk continues to have nutritional value (even if the mother becomes pregnant), and thatÖ

  8. Memorias Conferencia Internacional IEEE Mexico 1971, Sobre Sistemas, Redes Y Computadoras. Volumen I and Volumen II. (Proceedings of International Conference of IEEE Concerning Systems, Networks, and Computers. Volume I and Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Concheiro, A. Alonso, Ed.; And Others

    The following papers in English from this international conference may be of particular interest to those in the field of education. T. Nakahara, A. Tsukamota, and M. Matsumoto describe a computer-aided design technique for an economical urban cable television system. W. D. Wasson and R. K. Chitkara outline a recognition scheme based on analysis…

  9. Grupo de Trabajo Para la Preparacion del Proyecto Sobre el Desarrolo de Servicias de Bibliotecas y de Informacion Cientifica y Tecnica (Working Group for the Preparation of the Proposal on the Development of Library Services and Scientific and Technical Information).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oficina de Educacion Iberoamericana, Madrid (Spain).

    The Office of Iberoamerican Education, an intergovernmental body based on educational and cultural cooperation for the purpose of disseminating information, documentation, advice, and assistance in the field of education, co-sponsors (with UNESCO) the work represented in this study of library and information planning and facilities in the Andean…

  10. Actas de la 4th mesa redonda sobre investigacion en "Lenguas Extranjeras" en la Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana 1996. (Proceedings from the 4th Roundtable on Investigation in Foreign Languages in the Autonomous Metropolitan University 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoreda, Margaret Lee, Comp.; Diop, Mamoudou Si, Comp.; Vivaldo Lima, Javier, Comp.

    The articles included in this volume were selected as exemplary papers from the conference in Mexico. The goal of the forum was to provide an opportunity for researchers from the three branches of the Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana (UAM) to meet and discuss research projects currently in progress at the university. The works presented here…

  11. La Seccion de Investigacion sobre Educacion Medica de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad National Autonoma de Mexico (The Medical Education Investigation Section of the School of Medicine of UNAM).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campillo Sainz, Carlos; Alvarez, Tostado, Juan

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a survey of Mexican medical education needs for the future. To plan for these needs, SISEM of UNAM was formed with the objectives of carrying out and promoting investigations in the different areas of medical education. It also wants to distribute the information…

  12. Can We Talk? Helping Families Talk about Self-Esteem, Sex, and Peer Pressure. Training Package = Conversamos? Ayudando a Familias a Hablar sobre la Autoestima, el Sexo, y la Presion de los Amigos. Paquete de Capacitacion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappello, Dominic; Newberry, Jerald

    This English and Spanish language multimedia packet comprises an educational curriculum designed to help families talk about self-esteem, sex, and peer pressure with their children in grades 4 through 8. The packet consists of a planning and training manuals, family activity books, and a videotape. The curriculum is comprised of four parent…

  13. Western Hemisphere Conference on Persons with Disabilities. Conference Proceedings (Washington, D.C., March 14-18, 1993) = Conferencia Hemisferica Occidental sobre Personas con Discapacidades. Actas de la Conferencia. (Washington, D.C., 14 al 18 de Marzo de 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Jerry D., Ed.; And Others

    This document presents the proceedings of a conference which brought together delegates and First Ladies representing western hemisphere nations to address needs and issues affecting people with disabilities in the Americas. It presents the texts of two keynote addresses: "Small Triumphs, Big Victories: A Global View of Persons with Disabilities,"…

  14. Sobre un Cambio Sintactico en el Espanol Canario: del Indicativo al Subjuntivo y Condicional (Concerning a Syntactic Change in the Spanish of the Canary Islands: From the Indicative to the Subjunctive and Conditional).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano, Maria Jose

    1995-01-01

    Many sociolinguistic studies validate the importance of the relationship among social variables that satisfactorily explain the correlation between linguistic and social phenomena. The intersection of sex, sociocultural level, and age initiates syntactic change that first appears in the vernacular and progresses to the accepted standard. (52…

  15. Edades y metalicidades de cinco c√ļmulos estelares proyectados en direcci√≥n a la Nube Menor de Magallanes: implicaciones sobre los procesos de formaci√≥n y evoluci√≥n de estos sistemas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, A. E.; Santos, J. F. C.; Clari√°, J. J.; Bica, E.; Sarajedini, A.; Geisler, D.

    Washington photometry of the 5 star clusters Lindsay 32, Lindsay 38, Kron 28, Kron 44 and Lindsay 116 and their surrounding fields located towards the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) is presented for the first time. From the color-magnitude diagrams, cleaned from field stars contamination, the cluster and SMC field reddenings, ages and metallicities are determined. The ages - derived from the difference in the T1 magnitude betweem the giant clump and the Main Sequence turnoff point - vary between 2 and 6 Gyr, and the metallicities ([Fe/H]) between -1.65 and -1.10. Lindsay 116 is located closer to the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) than to the SMC and its fundamental parameters suggests a higher probability of belonging to the LMC. The results obtained in this work, combined with previous estimates of age and metallicity for other seven clusters, allow us to draw the following conclusions: (1) There does not exist an age-position relation in the SMC, but a age-metallicity one. (2) The chemical enrichment in the SMC has been very efficient during the last 5 Gyr. (3) The SMC clusters formation and evolution can be better represented by a bursting star formation process than by a continuum star formation mechanism.

  16. Application of the NARCM model to high-resolution aerosol simulations: Case study of Mexico City basin during the Investigación sobre Materia Particulada y Deterioro Atmosférico-Aerosol and Visibility Research measurements campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz-Alpizar, Rodrigo; Blanchet, Jean-Pierre; Quintanar, Arturo I.

    2003-08-01

    The Northern Aerosol Regional Climate Model (NARCM) is used to study the visibility and three-dimensional (3-D) evolution of aerosol distributions within the Mexico City basin. NARCM simulates transport, diffusion, deposition, and size distributions of sulphur aerosol particles in the region. The model assumes only simple sulphur oxidation, not taking explicitly into account the urban air chemistry. Rather, it focuses on detailed aerosol microphysics and 3-D optical properties. The simulation performance is compared with upper air and ground-based observations for the following specific days of intensive measurement: 2, 4, and 14 March 1997. Time series at Mexico City airport shows lower values of visibility in the morning due to a shallow mixed layer and higher values in the afternoon following the evolution of the mixed layer depth. Modeled visibility shows large dependence on cardinal direction and size distribution of particles. It is found that better resolution of particle size leads to better representation of coagulation processes and to realistic size distributions which show a characteristic accumulation mode around 0.3 őľm. As a result, visibility simulations are closer to those observed at the airport location. Comparing visibility is a stringent test for the model because it requires an accurate representation of 3-D meteorological fields together with a realistic aerosol simulation.

  17. La Seccion de Investigacion sobre Educacion Medica de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad National Autonoma de Mexico (The Medical Education Investigation Section of the School of Medicine of UNAM).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campillo Sainz, Carlos; Alvarez, Tostado, Juan

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a survey of Mexican medical education needs for the future. To plan for these needs, SISEM of UNAM was formed with the objectives of carrying out and promoting investigations in the different areas of medical education. It also wants to distribute the informationÖ

  18. Kathy Talks with Other Mothers about Breastfeeding an Older Baby. Mother-to-Mother Support = Josefa Habla con Otras Mamas sobre el Amamantar a un Bebe Mayorcito. Apoyo Madre a Madre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magalhaes, Rebecca; Stone-Jimerez, Maryanne; Allen de Smith, Paulina; Smith, Natalia

    These magazine-sized booklets, one in English, one in Spanish, are in cartoon format and designed to be used by people with limited literacy in English or Spanish. The book explains that a 1- or 2-year old breastfed baby is comforted by breastfeeding, breast milk continues to have nutritional value (even if the mother becomes pregnant), and that…

  19. Percepciones de los estudiantes de education en Venezuela sobre su preparacion e intervencion en violencia domestica. [Perceptions of Education Students in Venezuela about Their Preparation and Intervention in Domestic Violence].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, Anna P.; Cellitti, Anarella; Perez de Linares, Sonia

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated Venezuelan university students' perceptions regarding domestic violence and possible encounters with domestic violence in programs for young children. Students indicated that they expected to encounter only those situations they were prepared to confront, indicating needs for curriculum changes in teacher-training programs.…

  20. [Treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in patients with chronic kidney disease. Grupo de Trabajo para el Documento de Consenso sobre el tratamiento de la diabetes tipo 2 en el paciente con enfermedad renal crónica].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Huelgas, Ricardo; Martínez-Castelao, Alberto; Artola, Sara; Górriz, José Luis; Menéndez, Edelmiro

    2014-01-21

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are highly prevalent chronic diseases, which represent an important public health problem and require a multidisciplinary management. T2DM is the main cause of CKD and it also causes a significant comorbidity with regard to non-diabetic nephropathy. Patients with diabetes and kidney disease represent a special risk group as they have higher morbi-mortality as well as higher risk of hypoglycemia than diabetic individuals with a normal kidney function. Treatment of T2DM in patients with CKD is controversial because of the scarcity of available evidence. The current consensus report aims to ease the appropriate selection and dosage of antidiabetic treatments as well as the establishment of safety objectives of glycemic control in patients with CKD. PMID:24268912

  1. Como Promover el Exito de las Ninas y las Minorias en las Ciencias y en las Matematicas. Para Padres/sobre Padres (How To Promote the Science and Mathematics Achievement of Females and Minorities. For Parents/about Parents).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Wendy

    Some minority and female students traditionally have not been given the help they need to enroll and succeed in mathematics and science classes. Now, however, various approaches are available to give these students the extra attention they need. Parents can help children develop an interest in science and mathematics by: (1) identifying role…

  2. Educacion, Salud y Bienestar para el Nino Preescolar y la Familia (7 de Enero--29 de Febrero de 1996). Informe Curso sobre (Education, Health and Welfare for Small Children. January 7 - February 29, 1996. Report of a Course.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golda Meir Mount Carmel International Training Centre, Haifa (Israel).

    This Spanish-language report (with an English summary) describes a course on interagency cooperation held at the Golda Meir Mount Carmel International Training Center in Haifa, Israel. The course, with 30 Central and South American participants, discusses the necessity of pooling resources and sharing responsibility among institutions in various…

  3. [The EMECAM project: a discussion of the results in the participating cities. Estudio Multic√©ntrico Espa√Īol sobre la Relaci√≥n entre la Contaminaci√≥n Atmosf√©rica y la Mortalidad].

    PubMed

    Ballester D√≠ez, F; S√°ez Zafra, M; P√©rez-Hoyos, S; Daponte Codina, A; Bellido Blasco, J B; Ca√Īada Mart√≠nez, A; Abad D√≠ez, J M; P√©rez Bo√≠llos, M J; Alonso Fustel, M E; Taracido Trunk, M; Aguinaga Ontoso, I; Guill√©n P√©rez, J J; Ord√≥√Īez Iriarte, J M; Saurina Canals, C; Ten√≠as Burillo, J M

    1999-01-01

    This article draws a comparison and provides a discussion of the findings resulting from the local analyses of the 14 cities participating in the EMECAM Project. An analysis is made of the time series related to mortality, pollutants (particles in suspension, SO2, NO2, O3 and CO), temperature and other factors taken from records of public institutions. By using Poisson autoregressive regression, an estimate has been made of the short-term relationship between the number of deaths and the air pollution indicators in each one of the following cities: Barcelona, metropolitan area of Bilbao, Cartagena, Castellón, Gijón, Huelva, Madrid, Pamplona, Seville, Oviedo, Valencia, Vigo, Vitoria and Saragossa. The findings reveal the air pollution figures in our country to be similar to those of other European cities. The levels of the different pollutants point toward road traffic as being the main source of most of this pollution. A relationship has been found between the mortality and different pollutants in most cities, although the results are not homogeneous among the cities and show variability in the different causes under study. In some cities, especially in those having smaller populations, there have been no findings providing any evidence of a relationship, or the findings themselves are not highly consistent. The meta-analysis will provide estimates for all of the cities as a whole and will allow the possibility of making a more clear-cut assessment of the time lag impact of air pollution on the mortality. Worthy of special mention is the participation in this project of public health officers as actively involved researchers. PMID:10410614

  4. Receta para el Exito. Una Guia Actualizada para Padres sobre el Mejoramiento de las Escuelas de Colorado y Logros Estudiantiles (Recipe for Success: An Updated Parents' Guide to Improving Colorado Schools and Student Achievement).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taher, Bonnie; Durr, Pamela

    This Spanish language guide describes ways that parents can help improve student achievement and school quality. It answers such questions as: how to choose the right early-education opportunity for a preschooler; how to make sure a 5-year-old is ready for school; how to help a daughter do well in school; how to work with a daughter's or son's…

  5. Can We Talk? Helping Families Talk about Self-Esteem, Sex, and Peer Pressure. Training Package = Conversamos? Ayudando a Familias a Hablar sobre la Autoestima, el Sexo, y la Presion de los Amigos. Paquete de Capacitacion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappello, Dominic; Newberry, Jerald

    This English and Spanish language multimedia packet comprises an educational curriculum designed to help families talk about self-esteem, sex, and peer pressure with their children in grades 4 through 8. The packet consists of a planning and training manuals, family activity books, and a videotape. The curriculum is comprised of four parentÖ

  6. International Symposium on Visually Handicapped Infants and Young Children: Birth to Seven (2nd, Aruba, 1987). "The First Steps." Proceedings = Simpasio Internacional sobre Ninos Visualmente Deficientes de Nacimiento hasta Siete Anos (2nd, Aruba, 1987). "Los Primeros Pasos."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Lillian, Ed.; And Others

    This symposium focused on the special needs of visually handicapped infants and young children. Texts of 48 papers are presented, including keynote addresses by W. Aubrey Webson ("The First Steps") and Heather Hewitt ("First Steps--Parenting, Prevention and Programming"). Regional reports are provided for Japan, Bangladesh, the Middle East, the…

  7. Role of Systematic Formative Assessment on Students' Views of Their Learning (El papel de la evaluación formativa en las percepciones de los estudiantes sobre su aprendizaje)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areiza Restrepo, Hugo Nelson

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a partial report of a small qualitative research study that explored the students' views of their learning during and after the implementation of formative procedures such as self-assessment, feedback, and conferences. The article also includes their perceptions about this implementation. The research was carried out with a…

  8. Reaching Higher. A Parent's Guide to the Washington Assessment of Learning. Revised = Para llegar mas arriba. Una guia para padres sobre la evaluacion del aprendizaje de los estudiantes del estado de Washington (Washington Assessment of Student Learning). Revisado.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    This guide in English and Spanish is designed to answer questions parents may have about the Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL), including how it will help improve their children's education, how it is scored, and how to use the information it provides. In Washington, clear educational goals for subject content, thinking skills, and…

  9. The Use of Blogs in English Language Learning: A Study of Student Perceptions (El uso de bitácoras o "blogs" en el aprendizaje del idioma inglés: un estudio sobre las percepciones del estudiante)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahluwalia, Gurleen; Gupta, Deepti; Aggarwal, Deepak

    2011-01-01

    In this article we present an investigation that focused on the students' perception of using Blogs as a means to supplement in-class language learning activities. Blogs are easy to manage and enable students to publish their work in a chronological manner. They help students to engage in online exchanges and promote learner autonomy. This…

  10. Fortalecete! Pensamientos e ideas sobre el desarrollo de curriculo para maestras de educacion basica en espanol ("Get Energized! Thoughts and Ideas on Curriculum Development for Spanish Basic Education Teachers").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holyoke JUNTOS Adult Basic Education Collaborative, MA.

    This booklet outlines approaches to adult basic education Spanish literacy. It includes the following: explanatory note for English (non-Spanish) readers; general goals of a Spanish language literacy (SLL) program in Holyoke, Massachusetts; checklists; learning objectives for reading and writing; SLL lesson plan guide; outline for SLL curriculum…

  11. Adolescents' Awareness of Environmental Care: Experiences When Writing Short Descriptive Texts in English (Concientización de los adolescentes sobre el cuidado ambiental: experiencias al escribir textos descriptivos cortos en inglés)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaramillo Urrutia, Lorena; Medina Gutiérrez, Ana Stella

    2011-01-01

    Today it is necessary to approach environmental topics with students in an interdisciplinary manner to mitigate the environmental damages that the Earth is suffering. In this paper we report an action-research and innovation study aimed at sensitizing students with respect to the care and preservation of the environment through the writing of…

  12. Providing Meaningful Learning for Students of the Sixth Grade of Middle School: a Study on the Moon Phases. (Breton Title: Propiciando Aprendizagem Significativa Para Alunos do Sexto Ano do Ensino Fundamental: um Estudo sobre as Fases da Lua.) Propiciando el Aprendizaje Significativo Para Alumnos del Sexto Nivel de la Educación General Básica: un Estudio sobre Las Fases de la Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darroz, Luiz Marcelo; Samudio Pérez, Carlos Ariel; da Rosa, Cleci Werner; Heineck, Renato

    2012-07-01

    We relate in this article a didactic experience studying the moon phases with a group of middle school students of a private school of the municipality of Passo Fundo, RS. Based on David Ausubel's Meaningful Learning Theory, we have sought to develop a proposal following a didactic model which simulates the phases of the Moon, as based on the previous conceptions of the students. The signs of learning were evidenced by means of memory registries of the activity. From the obtained results we believe that the proposal achieved its goals, since the students were able to identify, differentiate and transfer the phenomenon of the moon phases to new contexts. Thus, it is concluded that a methodology focused on a meaningful content for the students is fundamental to the construction and genuine grasping of what is being learned. Neste artigo, relata-se uma experi√™ncia did√°tica de estudo das fases da Lua com uma turma do 6¬į ano do Ensino Fundamental, de uma escola privada do munic√≠pio de Passo Fundo, RS. Tendo como fundamenta√ß√£o te√≥rica a Teoria da Aprendizagem Significativa de David Ausubel, buscou-se desenvolver a proposta a partir de um modelo did√°tico que simula as fases da Lua e com base nas concep√ß√Ķes pr√©vias dos estudantes. Os ind√≠cios da aprendizagem foram constatados atrav√©s de registros de mem√≥rias da atividade. Pelos resultados apresentados, acredita-se que a proposta alcan√ßou seus objetivos, uma vez que os estudantes conseguiram identificar, diferenciar e transferir o fen√īmeno das fases da Lua para novos contextos. Assim, conclui-se que uma metodologia com enfoque em um conte√ļdo significativo ao estudante √© fundamental para a constru√ß√£o e compreens√£o genu√≠na do que est√° sendo aprendido. En este art√≠culo se relata una experiencia did√°ctica de estudio de las fases de la Luna con una clase de 6¬ļ a√Īo de la educaci√≥n general b√°sica de una escuela privada del municipio de Passo Fundo, RS. Teniendo como fundamentaci√≥n te√≥rica la Teor√≠a del Aprendizaje Significativo de David Ausubel, se busc√≥ desenvolver la propuesta a partir de un modelo did√°ctico que simula las Fases de la Luna, usando como base las concepciones previas de los estudiantes. Los indicios del aprendizaje fueron verificados a trav√©s de registros de memorias de la actividad. Por los resultados obtenidos creemos que la propuesta alcanz√≥ sus objetivos, una vez que los estudiantes consiguieron identificar y transferir el fen√≥meno de las fases de la Luna para nuevos contextos. As√≠, se concluye que una metodolog√≠a con enfoque en un contenido significativo para el estudiante es fundamental para la construcci√≥n y comprensi√≥n genuina de lo que est√° siendo aprendido.

  13. Essays on Eclipses, Transits and Occultations as Teaching Tools in the Introductory Astronomy College Course. (Spanish Title: Ensayos sobre Eclipses, Tr√°nsitos y Ocultaciones Como Herramientas de Ense√Īanza en el Curso Universitario Introductorio a la Astronom√≠a.) Ensaios sobre Eclipses, Tr√Ęnsitos e Oculta√ß√Ķes Como Ferramentas de Ensino em um Curso Universit√°rio Introdut√≥rio de Astromomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dcruz, Noella L.

    2014-07-01

    We occasionally include projects in our learner-centered introductory astronomy college course to enable non-science major students explore some astronomical concepts in more detail than otherwise. Such projects also highlight ongoing or upcoming astronomical events. We hope that students will feel more interested in astronomy through projects tied to astronomical events. In Spring 2012, we offered short essays focused on eclipses, transits and occultations to promote the rare transit of Venus that occurred on June 5th, 2012. We asked students to write two short essays from three that were offered. The essays contained descriptive and conceptual parts. They were meant to serve as teaching tools. 62% of 106 essays from 55 students earned A, B or C grades. 21% of 47 feedback survey respondents felt the essays increased their interest in astronomy. 49% of respondents felt that the essays were not educationally beneficial and should not be offered again. The most common written response to our survey indicated that students need more guidance and better preparation in writing successful essays. Since students found the conceptual parts of the essays difficult, in the future we will provide relevant activities prior to essay deadlines to help students create successful essays. Ocasionalmente, incluimos proyectos en nuestro curso de introducci√≥n a la astronom√≠a universitario centrado en el alumno para permitir que los estudiantes de carreras no cient√≠ficas exploren algunos conceptos astron√≥micos en m√°s detalle que lo habitual. Estos proyectos tambi√©n ponen en relevancia eventos astron√≥micos en curso o futuros. Esperamos que los estudiantes se sientan m√°s interesados en la astronom√≠a a trav√©s de proyectos vinculados a eventos astron√≥micos. En el per√≠odo de primavera de 2012 (EUA), propusimos breves ensayos centrados en los eclipses, tr√°nsitos y ocultaciones para promover el raro tr√°nsito de Venus que se produjo el 5 de junio de 2012. Le pedimos a los estudiantes que escribieran dos ensayos cortos de tres que se propon√≠an. Los ensayos conten√≠an partes descriptivas y conceptuales. Los mismos estaban destinados a servir como herramientas de ense√Īanza. 62% de los 106 ensayos de 55 estudiantes obtuvo grados A, B o C. 21% de los 47 encuestados que respondieron al cuestionario posterior consider√≥ que los ensayos aumentaron su inter√©s por la astronom√≠a. 49% de los encuestados consider√≥ que los ensayos no eran educacionalmente √ļtiles y que no deben ser propuestos de nuevo. Las respuestas escritas m√°s comunes a nuestra encuesta indicaran que los estudiantes necesitan m√°s orientaci√≥n y una mejor preparaci√≥n en la redacci√≥n de ensayos exitosos. Dado que los estudiantes encontraron las piezas conceptuales de los ensayos dif√≠ciles, en el futuro vamos a ofrecer actividades pertinentes antes de los plazos de redacci√≥n para ayudar a los estudiantes a crear ensayos de mayor calidad. N√≥s ocasionalmente inclu√≠mos projetos em nosso curso universit√°rio introdut√≥rio centrado no aluno para permitir aos estudantes que pertencem √†s carreiras n√£o cient√≠ficas explorar alguns conceitos astron√īmicos em mais detalhes do que o normal. Tais projetos tamb√©m enfatizam eventos astron√īmicos em curso ou futuros. Esperamos que os alunos se sintam mais interessados na astronomia atrav√©s de projetos ligados a eventos astron√īmicos. No termo de Primavera de 2012 (EUA), propomos ensaios curtos focados em eclipses, tr√Ęnsitos e oculta√ß√Ķes para promover o raro tr√Ęnsito de V√™nus que ocorreu no dia 5 de junho de 2012. Pedimos aos alunos que escrevessem dois ensaios curtos dentre tr√™s que foram propostos. Os ensaios continham partes descritivas e conceituais. Eles foram feitos para servir como ferramentas de ensino. 62% de 106 ensaios de 55 alunos ganhou graus A, B ou C. 21% dos 47 entrevistados que responderam ao levantamento posterior sentiu que os ensaios aumentaram seu interesse na astronomia. 49% dos inquiridos consideraram que os ensaios n√£o eram ben√©ficos para a educa√ß√£o e que n√£o devem ser propostos novamente. As respostas escritas mais comuns da nossa pesquisa indicaram que os alunos precisam de mais orienta√ß√£o e melhor prepara√ß√£o para escrever ensaios bem sucedidos. Como os alunos consideraram dif√≠ceis os aspectos conceituais dos ensaios, no futuro iremos fornecer atividades relevantes antes dos ensaios para ajudar os alunos a escrev√™-los com sucesso.

  14. Toward a critical ethical reflexivity: phenomenology and language in Maurice Merleau-Ponty.

    PubMed

    Murray, Stuart J; Holmes, Dave

    2013-07-01

    Working within the tradition of continental philosophy, this article argues in favour of a phenomenological understanding of language as a crucial component of bioethical inquiry. The authors challenge the 'commonsense' view of language, in which thinking appears as prior to speaking, and speech the straightforward vehicle of pre-existing thoughts. Drawing on Maurice Merleau-Ponty's (1908-1961) phenomenology of language, the authors claim that thinking takes place in and through the spoken word, in and through embodied language. This view resituates bioethics as a matter of bodies that speak. It also refigures the meaning of ethical self-reflexion, and in so doing offers an alternative view on reflexivity and critique. Referring to the Kantian critical tradition and its reception by Hannah Arendt and Michel Foucault, we advance a position we call 'critical ethical reflexivity'. We contend that Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology of language offers valuable insight into ethical reflexivity and subject formation. Moreover, his understanding of language may foster new qualitative empirical research in bioethics, lead to more nuanced methods for interpreting personal narratives, and promote critical self-reflexion as necessary for bioethical inquiry. PMID:23718744

  15. Analysis and Synthesis of Leaky-Wave Devices in Planar Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Ros, Alejandro Javier

    The work developed along this doctoral thesis has been focused on the analysis and synthesis of microwave devices in planar technology. In particular, several types of devices based on the radiation mechanism of leaky waves have been studied. Typically, the radiation properties in leaky-wave devices are determined by the complex propagation constant of the leaky mode, wherein the phase constant is responsible for the pointing angle and the leakage rate for the intensity of the radiated fields. In this manner, by controlling both amplitude and phase of the leaky mode, an effective control over the device's radiation diagram can be obtained. Moreover, with the purpose of efficiently obtaining the leaky mode's radiation properties as function of the main geometrical parameters of the structure, several modal tools based on the transverse resonance analysis of the structure have been performed. In order to demonstrate this simultaneous control over the complex propagation constant in planar technology, several types of leaky-wave devices, including antennas (LWAs), multiplexors and near-field focusing systems, have been designed and manufactured in the technology of substrate integrated waveguide (SIW). This recently proposed technology, allows the design of devices based on classical waveguide technology with standard manufacturing techniques used for printed circuit board (PCB) designs. In this way, most of the parts that form a communication system can be integrated into a single substrate, thus reducing its cost and providing a more robust and compact device, which has less losses compared to other planar technologies such as the microstrip. El trabajo llevado a cabo durante la realizacion de esta tesis doctoral, se ha centrado en el analisis y sintesis de dispositivos de microondas en tecnologia planar. En concreto, se han estudiado diferentes tipos de dispositivos basados en radiacion por ondas de fuga "leaky waves", en los cuales las propiedades de radiacion estan determinadas por la constante de fase del modo "leaky" que es el que determina el angulo de apuntamiento y por la tasa de radiacion que es la que determina la intensidad de los campos radiados. De esta manera, controlando en amplitud y fase el modo "leaky" se puede obtener un control efectivo sobre el diagrama de radiacion del dispositivo. Ademas, con el objetivo de poder obtener de una manera mas eficiente las caracteristicas de propagacion de los modos de fuga "leaky" en funcion de los principales parametros geometricos de la estructura, se han desarrollado diversas herramientas de analisis modal basadas en la tecnica de resonancia transversa de la estructura. La capacidad para obtener un control simultaneo de la constante de propagacion compleja del modo "leaky", ha sido demostrada mediante el diseno y fabricacion de varios tipos de antena "leaky wave" (LWA) y de otros dispositivos como multiplexores y sistemas de enfoque en campo cercano. Para ello, se ha utilizado la tecnologia planar de guia de onda integrada en sustrato (susbstrate integrated waveguide, SIW). Esta recientemente desarrollada tecnologia, permite disenar dispositivos de microondas basados en tecnologia clasica de guia de ondas con sistemas de fabricacion estandar usados en tecnologia de circuitos impresos (printed circuit board, PCB). De esta forma, se pueden integrar en un mismo sustrato muchas de las diferentes partes que forman un sistema de comunicaciones, mejorando asi su robustez y compactibilidad, ademas de reducir el coste y de contar con menores perdidas que otras tecnologias planares como la microstrip.

  16. Prevenci√≥n del c√°ncer de cavidad oral y orofaringe (PDQ¬ģ)‚ÄĒVersi√≥n para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario de información revisada por expertos sobre factores que pueden influir en el riesgo de presentar cáncer de labio, cavidad oral y orofaringe, y sobre las investigaciones dirigidas a prevenir esta enfermedad.

  17. Té y prevencìón de cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Hoja informativa que resume los resultados de estudios realizados sobre el té y la prevención del cáncer. Incluye información sobre los ingredientes del té y las consideraciones de seguridad sobre el consumo de esta bebida.

  18. Accelerating Adaptation of Natural Resource Management to Address Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Molly S; McCarthy, Patrick D; Garfin, Gregg; Gori, David; Enquist, Carolyn AF

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Natural resource managers are seeking tools to help them address current and future effects of climate change. We present a model for collaborative planning aimed at identifying ways to adapt management actions to address the effects of climate change in landscapes that cross public and private jurisdictional boundaries. The Southwest Climate Change Initiative (SWCCI) piloted the Adaptation for Conservation Targets (ACT) planning approach at workshops in 4 southwestern U.S. landscapes. This planning approach successfully increased participants‚Äô self-reported capacity to address climate change by providing them with a better understanding of potential effects and guiding the identification of solutions. The workshops fostered cross-jurisdictional and multidisciplinary dialogue on climate change through active participation of scientists and managers in assessing climate change effects, discussing the implications of those effects for determining management goals and activities, and cultivating opportunities for regional coordination on adaptation of management plans. Facilitated application of the ACT framework advanced group discussions beyond assessing effects to devising options to mitigate the effects of climate change on specific species, ecological functions, and ecosystems. Participants addressed uncertainty about future conditions by considering more than one climate-change scenario. They outlined opportunities and identified next steps for implementing several actions, and local partnerships have begun implementing actions and conducting additional planning. Continued investment in adaptation of management plans and actions to address the effects of climate change in the southwestern United States and extension of the approaches used in this project to additional landscapes are needed if biological diversity and ecosystem services are to be maintained in a rapidly changing world. Acelerando la Adaptaci√≥n del Manejo de Recursos Naturales para Atender el Cambio Clim√°tico Resumen Los manejadores de recursos naturales est√°n buscando herramientas para ayudarles a atender los efectos actuales y futuros del cambio clim√°tico. Presentamos un modelo para la planificaci√≥n colaborativa enfocada a identificar formas para adaptar las acciones de manejo para atender los efectos del cambio clim√°tico en paisajes que cruzan l√≠mites jurisdiccionales p√ļblicos y privados. La Iniciativa Sudoccidental de Cambio Clim√°tico (ISCC) puso a prueba el m√©todo de planificaci√≥n de Adaptaci√≥n para Metas de Conservaci√≥n (AMC) en talleres en cuatro paisajes del suroeste de E. U. A. Este m√©todo de planificaci√≥n increment√≥ exitosamente la capacidad de los participantes para atender el cambio clim√°tico al proporcionarles un mejor entendimiento de los efectos potenciales y guiar la identificaci√≥n de soluciones. Los talleres promovieron el di√°logo trans-jurisdiccional y multidisciplinario sobre cambio clim√°tico mediante la participaci√≥n activa de cient√≠ficos y manejadores en la evaluaci√≥n de efectos del cambio clim√°tico, la discusi√≥n de implicaciones de esos efectos para determinar las metas y actividades de manejo y desarrollar oportunidades para la coordinaci√≥n regional de la adaptaci√≥n de planes de manejo. La aplicaci√≥n simplificada del marco AMC llev√≥ las discusiones de grupo m√°s all√° de la evaluaci√≥n de los efectos a la concepci√≥n de opciones para mitigar los efectos del cambio clim√°tico sobres determinadas especies, funciones ecol√≥gicas y ecosistemas. Los participantes abordaron la incertidumbre de las condiciones futuras al considerar m√°s de un escenario de cambio clim√°tico. Delinearon oportunidades e identificaron los siguientes pasos para la implementaci√≥n de varias acciones, y asociaciones locales han comenzado a implementar acciones y realizar planificaci√≥n adicional. Se requiere inversi√≥n continua en la adaptaci√≥n de planes y acciones de manejo para atender los efectos del cambio clim√°tico en el suroeste de Estados Unidos y la extensi√≥n de los m√©todos utilizados en este proyecto en paisajes adicionales si se quiere mantener la diversidad biol√≥gica y los servicios de los ecosistemas en un mundo que cambia r√°pidamente. PMID:23110636

  19. Los manuales de quimica en Espana (1788--1845): Protagonistas, terminologia, clasificaciones y orden pedagogico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz Bello, Maria Rosa

    La presente tesis doctoral es una investigacion sobre los manuales de quimica utilizados en Espana de 1788 a 1845. Este trabajo proporciona una perspectiva general de un tema relevante en las ultimas decadas en Historia de la Ciencia, el estudio de los libros de texto. De acuerdo con las ultimas investigaciones realizadas en este terreno, el acto pedagogico es considerado como un proceso creativo, como espacio de encuentro de actores e intereses muy diversos, matizando las ideas defendidas por Thomas S. Kuhn. Recordemos que segun Kuhn, los libros de texto ofrecen una vision consensuada y normalizada del estado de la ciencia de su epoca, por lo que sus autores eliminan deliberadamente toda controversia y presentan asi una imagen distorsionada de la actividad cientifica. En cambio, se ha mostrado, por ejemplo, que en la ensenanza participan no solamente profesores y alumnos sino tambien otros muchos actores y todos ellos no unicamente con intereses puramente pedagogicos sino tambien con diversos intereses politicos y economicos que pueden conocerse a traves del estudio de los manuales. En esta tesis se pretende analizar los manuales de quimica en Espana desde 1788 hasta 1845. Para poder llevar a cabo la investigacion ha sido necesario precisar el objeto de estudio (libro de texto de quimica) durante el periodo estudiado (1788-1845) ya que no es adecuado adoptar la imagen actual de una disciplina que sufrio sustanciales cambios durante la epoca estudiada. Esta investigacion se centra en un momento especialmente importante para la quimica y que algunos historiadores han llegado a considerar "revolucionario". Durante estos anos se produjo un cambio importante en las teorias quimicas sobre la combustion y el concepto de elemento, asi como una reforma terminologica que originaron la aparicion de importantes controversias. Ademas, debido a la relacion de la quimica con otras disciplinas como la historia natural o la fisica ha sido necesario restringir el objeto de estudio para poder llegar a conclusiones validas. Por ello, se ha adoptado como nucleo de este trabajo la definicion de libro de texto basada en su destino y no en su funcion, es decir, los libros que de forma explicita expresan su finalidad didactica, tanto en el titulo o como en las declaraciones del autor reflejadas en el prologo de la obra, en los que ademas aparezca la palabra quimica en su titulo. El estudio comienza en 1788 con la publicacion de algunos de los primeros manuales de quimica modernos, y acaba con la reforma educativa de 1845, que tuvo importantes consecuencias en el mercado de libros de texto en Espana. Esta reforma separaba la ensenanza media de la propiamente universitaria y, de este modo, fue impulsora de la creacion de institutos provinciales de segunda ensenanza, algunos de los cuales habian comenzado su andadura en los anos anteriores. Las regulaciones introducidas suponian una fuerte limitacion para los profesores en la eleccion de los manuales de ensenanza que debian ser aprobados cada tres anos por el Consejo de Instruccion Publica. Ademas supuso una reglamentacion clara de los estudios de filosofia y su division en los estudios elementales y superiores. La investigacion se ha distribuido a lo largo de seis capitulos: Introduccion, los protagonista, el vocabulario de la quimica, poniendo orden: las clasificaciones quimicas, conclusiones y apendice. En primer lugar, se ha elaborado un repertorio bibliografico, incluido en el apendice, constituido por 76 obras de quimica publicadas en Espana desde 1788 hasta 1845 que permite realizar un analisis estadistico de su produccion. Posteriormente, se intenta conocer los principales protagonistas en la creacion del libro: editores, impresores, autores, traductores y lectores. Tradicionalmente los historiadores de la ciencia han dado mas importancia a los laboratorios y a los personajes de la investigacion cientifica, frente a las aulas y a los protagonistas de la ensenanza. La situacion ha cambiado en las ultimas decadas pues los trabajos mas recientes han mostrado la labor creativa que se desarrolla en las aulas de ciencias, su importante influencia en la configuracion de las sucesivas generaciones de cientificos y, por ello, la necesidad de prestar atencion a los profesores y estudiantes de ciencias, a los autores, impresores y editores de los libros de texto y otros personajes poco conocidos. Siguiendo estas tendencias, se revisa los principales protagonistas de la edicion de los libros de texto: (1) Los editores, impresores y libreros (incluyendo tambien la regulacion del mercado editorial), (2) Los autores y los traductores de las obras, (3) Los publicos destinatarios. Se ofrece una descripcion general de las principales tendencias y retratos colectivos que se combinan con detalles de algunos de los protagonistas y situaciones particulares que pueden ser reveladoras de cuestiones importantes que no pueden ser abordadas mediante graficas o estadisticas. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  20. Karl ernst von Baer's 'Uber Entwickelungsgeschichte der Thiere II' and its unpublished drawings.

    PubMed

    Tammiksaar, Erki; Brauckmann, Sabine

    2004-01-01

    In 1828 Karl Ernst von Baer (1792-1876) published his seminal Uber Entwickelungsgeschichte der Thiere. Beobachtung und Reflexion. In the preface he announced that a second volume with one copper plate would be finished 'in a few weeks'. However, it took nine years until the unfinished second volume was released, with four copperplates. In his 'Autobiography', von Baer did not clarify the reasons why he did not finish his research program of comparative embryology. The paper attempts to elucidate them, furnished by archival documents and von Baer's unpublished embryological drawings. Our sketch of a few figures will show that (1) von Baer searched for 'analogies' (homologies) as a unifying principle and (2) explained the mechanisms of embryogenesis by physiological reasoning (electromagnetism). The main objective is to show that technical problems in illustrating and conceptual difficulties impeded von Baer's ambitious research program. PMID:16302690

  1. Reflectivity patterns in the Variscan mountain belts and adjacent areas: an attempt for a pattern recognition and correlation to tectonic units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meissner, R.; Wever, Th.; Sadowiak, P.; Dekorp Research Group

    1990-02-01

    The Seismic reflection profiles of DEKORP (DEutsches KOntinentales ReflexionsSeismisches Programm) in the Federal Republic of Germany to date have been limited to areas of the Variscan orogeny. Nevertheless, the character of their reflections differs considerably and may be correlated to certain Variscan and post-Variscan developments. Lower crust lamellae develop in areas of high heat flow, mostly associated with post-Variscan extensional processes; "crocodile" and nappe tectonics are best preserved in the cores and at the flanks of older massifs which were incorporated into the Variscan orogeny. So far poor reflectivity has been observed only in the area of the London-Brabant Massif which was not involved in any of the Phanerozoic orogenies.

  2. Humidity sensing by carbon nanocones.

    PubMed

    Svåsand, Eldrid; Häberle, Patricio

    2014-05-01

    Carbon nano-structures, mainly nanotubes, have been explored in the past as sensing devices. In this report we have considered cones and discs (CNCs) subjected to acid treatment, dry oxidation and high temperature annealing, to study the modifications induced as they are used as sensing elements of varying relative humidity (RH). The relative humidity was varied in cycles of 30 min between 36% and 75%. Not strangely, the acid treated films displayed a much larger variation in resistance for the same difference in RH (16%). In the as-grown material, very small variations were detected among cycles under similar conditions. The changes induced in the sensors structures by the different preparation procedures were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman reflexion. These results were used to model their behaviour as RH sensors. PMID:24734591

  3. U Modele pour L'enregistrement et L'interpretation Physique D'images Tridimensionnelles EN Couleur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baribeau, Rejean

    Le modele propose dans cette these repose sur l'utilisation d'un capteur de vision tridimensionnelle, couple a un laser RGB, pour la saisie des coordonnees surfaciques d'un objet de meme que des couleurs associees. Une calibration du capteur et l'exploitation des donnees 3D permettent la recuperation des facteurs de reflectance spectrale des elements de surface. On montre que la performance du systeme est limitee par le speckle, et une analyse quantitative du phenomene est proposee. Divers modeles de reflexion sont ensuite etablis puis appliques a l'extraction des parametres physiques intrinseques d'objets dans des scenes 3D en couleur. Une telle modelisation physique facilite la tache d'interpretation et permet plus de souplesse dans la manipulation des objets sous forme de realites virtuelles.

  4. Lunar radar mapping: Correlation between radar reflectivity and stratigraphy in north-western mare imbrium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaber, G.G.; Eggleton, R.E.; Thompson, T.W.

    1970-01-01

    DELAY-DOPPLER radar maps of the Moon obtained with the 430 MHz (70 cm wavelength) radar of the Arecibo Ionospheric Observatory in Puerto Rico (Thompson, unpublished) are at present being studied to correlate geological information with the radar reflexion characteristics of the lunar surface. Preliminary evaluation of the radar data for the Sinus Iridum quadrangle (32??-48?? N; 14??-38?? W) has revealed that the lowest values of radar reflectivity are closely correlated with the mare materials of lowest albedo mapped by Schaber1 as of most recent volcanic origin. These radar data were obtained with a surface resolution of 50 to 100 km2 on January 24 and April 17, 1967. A detailed account of the delay-doppler radar mapping technique can be found in unpublished reports by Thompson. ?? 1970 Nature Publishing Group.

  5. [About medical accidents and their medicolegal implications. Information and consent].

    PubMed

    El Banna, S; Beauthier, F; Beauthier, J P

    2013-01-01

    Medical practice today is not simple because of various factors impinging on the doctor-patient relationship. The concept of consent arises from the ethical principle of patient autonomy and basic human rights. It is also the rule of law (Civil Code article 16-3) that guarantees the patient's right and freedom to decide what should or should not happen to his/her body and to gather information before undergoing a test/procedure/surgery. No one else has the right to coerce the patient to act in a particular way. The authors after a reflexion about medical accidents and their medicolegal implications, discuss the means to display in order to provide to the patients the adequate information about their disease and proposed treatment, therefore protecting the medical practitioner from the consequences of insufficient or ill information. PMID:24505867

  6. A new multiple scattering method application: Simulating an infinite 2D photonic crystal by analyzing, sorting and suppressing the border effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnefois, J. J.; Guida, G.; Priou, A.

    2005-07-01

    We present in this paper a study of border effects due to the limitation in width of a finite-size two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystal. Using the multiple scattering method (based on a rigorous electromagnetic theory of the diffraction of light) the band gap of a finite piece of photonic crystal is no longer parabolic. Peaks and oscillations appear in the band gap resulting from multi-reflexion inside the structure which couple with the Fabry-Perot cavity constituted by the lateral edges. We numerically demonstrate that reducing the lateral symmetry eliminates border effects (peaks and oscillations). This result is independent of the geometry of the 2D photonic crystal.

  7. Spectral and photochromic study of spiropyran

    SciTech Connect

    Nordin, Rumaisa; Lazim, Azwani Mat; Hasbullah, Siti Aishah

    2013-11-27

    A new class of benzospiropyran has been synthesized by the condensation of the precursor, Fisher basespiropyran with substituted salicyaldehydes in 1:1 mole ratios. This photochromic compound, spiro [2H-1-benzopyran-2, 2’-(8’-hydroxy-1’, 3’, 3’-trimethylindoline)] was able to undergo convertion into its merocyanine form (colored) after being induced by irradiation of UV light. Both open and closed form of benzospiropyran were characterized and distinguished based on Infrared vibracional spectroscopy in Attenuated Total Reflexion mode (ATR) and UV-vis spectroscopy. In addition, association of ten different metal ions to ethanol solution of SP (A) leads to metal-ion binding by the MC isomer. The coupled reaction of all metal ions, MC-M{sup 2+} underwent a hypsochromic and bathochromic shift in the absorption bands.

  8. Precision analysis based on Cramer-Rao bound for 2D acoustics and electromagnetic inverse scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diong, M. L.; Roueff, A.; Lasaygues, P.; Litman, A.

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present article is to predict the expected precision quantitatively in inverse scattering when one tries to determine the intrinsic properties of a given target from its scattered field. To conduct such a study, we analyze the precision of contrast estimators with the Cramer-Rao bound (CRB) when the target is homogeneous, infinitely-long and with a circular cross-section and with an additive complex circular gaussian noise at the receivers. An unified framework is derived to handle acoustic or electromagnetic imaging configurations equally. Numerical tests enable to quantitatively appraise the variations of the CRB with respect to the considered physical situation parameters: transmission/reflexion, antennas arrangement, weak/strong scatterers, noise level and source frequency. These analyzes are performed with respect to the real and imaginary parts of the contrast.

  9. Crystal structure of cesium aquanickelo(II)undecatungstophosphate dihydrate

    SciTech Connect

    Weakley, T.J. R.

    1987-06-01

    The title compound, Cs/sub 5/(PNi(H/sub 2/O)W/sub 11/O/sub 39/) x 2H/sub 2/O, is tetragonal with space group P4/sub 2//ncm and cell dimensions a = 20.908(5), c = 10.391(6) A. The single-crystal structure determination (diffractometer data, Mo radiation, R = 0.054 for 1484 unique reflexions) shows that two types of disorder are present; the Ni atom substituting for W in the parent ..cap alpha..-PW/sub 12/O/sub 40//sup 3 -/ anion is distributed equally over all twelve W sites and, in addition, the anion lies at a crystal site of symmetry 2/m in two equally weighted orientations related by the two-fold axis. The dimensions of the anion are normal.

  10. Universal ultrasonic goniometer for Rayleigh and surface skimming longitudinal wave dispersion measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, M.; K√ľttner, M.; K√∂hler, B.; Bamberg, J.; Baron, H.-U.

    2012-05-01

    There are several approaches for determining the Rayleigh wave dispersion of surface treated materials. Most of them are based either on ultrasonic probes in contact technique or on laser excitation or detection of ultrasound. Disadvantages of these methods for in-service use are coupling problems (contact methods) and very high device costs (laser based methods). The paper presents an immersion technique trying to avoid the disadvantages of the previous approaches for practical use. The High precision Ultrasound Goniometer (HUGO) allows to vary both: the sound beam angles and the distance between the excitation and detection sound beams. Thus, the Rayleigh wave velocity and its dispersion can be determined by two independent methods: by the drop in the reflexion coefficient at the Rayleigh angle and by change in travel time for a given change in travel distance. The dispersion can also be determined for surface skimming longitudinal waves. The application for stress determination in surface treated aero-engine materials is discussed.

  11. Ray trace algorithm description for the study of pump power absorption in double clad fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narro, R.; Rodriguez, E.; Ponce, L.; de Posada, E.; Flores, T.; Arronte, M.

    2011-09-01

    An algorithm for the analysis of the double clad fiber design is presented. The algorithm developed in the MATLAB computing language, is based on ray tracing method applied to three-dimensional graphics figures which are composed of a set of plans. The algorithm can evaluate thousands of ray paths in sequence and its corresponding pump absorption in each of the elements of the fiber according to the Lambert-Beer law. The beam path is evaluated in 3 dimensions considering the losses by reflexion and refraction in the faces and within the fiber. Due to its flexibility, the algorithm can be used to study the ray propagation in single mode or multimode fibers, bending effects in fibers, variable geometries of the inner clad and the core, and could also be used to study tappers.

  12. [Reflections about death: a challenge for nursing].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Stefanie Griebeler; Quintana, Alberto Manuel; Bertolino, Karla Cristiane Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    This reflection proposes a reinsertion on the death theme, in a more present form, in the daily routine of the nurse and its similar, starting with a historic on death, focusing on the transfer of it, that occurred in the bedroom of the moribund, to the hospital bedroom. Soon after, some considerations about the reason to fear death and the need of discussing it, as well as a reflexion on the planning of actions looking as much as to care as to confort the dying patient. With that, it is easy to realize the relevance of the come back of the approach of the subject in the professional daily basis, considering the need to demystify it, to allow that nurses and its similars plan actions of confort to the dying patient. PMID:21308248

  13. A general theoretical method for star pointing with the coelostat of the Meudon solar tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire, R.

    1980-06-01

    A general method for pointing in any direction with the coelostat of the Meudon solar tower is presented. It is based on the solution of the complete set of equations which relates the astronomical co-ordinates of the direction (or of the star) with the mechanical and geometrical parameters defining the position and movements of the mirrors necessary for tracking the set direction during its diurnal movement. The set of equations allows the verification of the empirical abacus obtained earlier by Miguel (1975). This method may be easily extended to any other case than multiple reflexion in a mirror system (i.e. solar energy array of mirrors); in addition it avoids the complicated system of matrix transformations of the classical methods.

  14. Eight years of bioethics

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Exebio, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Este trabajo presenta la experiencia que signific√≥ el paso por el Programa Internacional de Formaci√≥n en √Čtica de la investigaci√≥n biom√©dica y psicosocial del Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bio√©tica de la Universidad de Chile (2003‚Äď2004) y algunas reflexiones respecto de la integraci√≥n de lo aprendido en mi posterior labor en comit√©s de √©tica y programas acad√©micos de √©tica de investigaci√≥n. Asimismo, en la elaboraci√≥n de regulaciones que permitan una mejor evaluaci√≥n √©tica y cient√≠fica. PMID:23172984

  15. Le management des projets scientifiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrier, Françoise

    2000-12-01

    We describe in this paper a new approach for the management of scientific projects. This approach is the result of a long reflexion carried out within the MQDP (Methodology and Quality in the Project Development) group of INSU-CNRS, and continued with Guy Serra. Our reflexion was initiated with the study of the so-called `North-American Paradigm' which was, initially considered as the only relevant management model. Through our active participation in several astrophysical projects we realized that this model could not be applied to our laboratories without major modifications. Therefore, step-by-step, we have constructed our own methodology, using to the fullest human potential resources existing in our research field, their habits and skills. We have also participated in various working groups in industrial and scientific organisms for the benefits of CNRS. The management model presented here is based on a systemic and complex approach. This approach lets us describe the multiple aspects of a scientific project specially taking into account the human dimension. The project system model includes three major interconnected systems, immersed within an influencing and influenced environment: the `System to be Realized' which defines scientific and technical tasks leading to the scientific goals, the `Realizing System' which describes procedures, processes and organization, and the `Actors' System' which implements and boosts all the processes. Each one exists only through a series of successive models, elaborated at predefined dates of the project called `key-points'. These systems evolve with time and under often-unpredictable circumstances and the models have to take it into account. At these key-points, each model is compared to reality and the difference between the predicted and realized tasks is evaluated in order to define the data for the next model. This model can be applied to any kind of projects.

  16. Symmetries and "simple" solutions of the classical n-body problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenciner, Alain

    2006-03-01

    The Lagrangian of the classical n-body problem has well known symmetries: isometries of the ambient Euclidean space (translations, rotations, reflexions) and changes of scale coming from the homogeneity of the potential. To these symmetries are associated "simple" solutions of the problem, the so-called homographic motions, which play a basic role in the global understanding of the dynamics. The classical subproblems (planar, isosceles) are also consequences of the existence of symmetries: invariance under reflexion through a plane in the first case, invariance under exchange of two equal masses in the second. In these two cases, the symmetry acts at the level of the "shape space" (the oriented one in the first case) whose existence is the main difference between the 2-body problem and the (n ‚Č• 3)-body problem. These symmetries of the Lagrangian imply symmetries of the action functional, which is defined on the space of regular enough loops of a given period in the configuration space of the problem. Minimization of the action under well-chosen symmetry constraints leads to remarkable solutions of the n-body problem which may also be called simple and could play after the homographic ones the role of organizing centers in the global dynamics. In [13] and [16], I have given a survey of the new classes of solutions which had been obtained in this way, mainly choreographies of n equal masses in a plane or in space and generalized Hip-Hops of at least 4 arbitrary masses in space. I give here an updated overview of the results and a quick glance at the methods of proofs.

  17. Using Case Study Methodology to Approach the Views of Teachers of English on Classroom Disciplinary Strategies (Uso de la metodología de estudio de casos para aproximarse a las concepciones de profesores de inglés sobre las estrategias disciplinarias en el aula)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Díaz Larenas, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study aims at identifying the disciplinary strategies claimed to be used by a group of five secondary classroom teachers of English in public or semi-public schools in Chile. To conduct this research, a semi-structured interview was applied to participants. The data were analyzed using the principles of semantic content analysis…

  18. Human Relations Activities for the Single Parent To Develop More Effective Parent/Child Relations. Bilingual Guide = Actividades sobre relaciones humanas para ayudar al padre-soltero o madre-soltera a desarrollar una relacion efectiva entre padre e hijo Guia bilingue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Susan

    Written in English and Spanish, this bilingual guide offers 10 activities which single parents can use to improve their relationships with their children. Objectives of activities include: (1) developing children's responsibility for work tasks in the home; (2) improving sibling relationships; (3) discussing emergencies with children; (4)Ö

  19. How To Talk to Your Doctor (and Get Your Doctor To Talk to You!). An Educational Workshop on Doctor Patient Communication = Como Hablarle a su Doctor (iY que su doctor le hable a usted!). Un seminario educativo sobre la comunicacion entre el doctor y el paciente.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baylor Coll. of Medicine, Houston, TX.

    This workshop, written in both English and Spanish, focuses on improving communication between physician and patient. In the workshop, the trainers will talk about "building bridges" between patient and doctor by understanding the doctor's role and his/her duty to the patient. According to the workshop, a person's doctor should communicate…

  20. Los Hispanos: Problemas y Oportunidades. Resumen de la Actual Situacion Demografica, Economica, Social y Politica de los Hispanos en los Estados Unidos y de las Iniciativas Tomadas por la Fundacion Ford Para Hacer Frente a las Necesidades de esta Poblacion en Aumento y Determinar sus Efectos Sobre la Sociedad Estadounidense. Documento de Trabajo de la Fundacion Ford, No. 436.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford Foundation, New York, NY.

    The Hispanic population's growing impact on American society has caused the Ford Foundation to explore new Foundation initiatives. The 1980 census revealed 14.6 million Hispanics: 60% Mexican American; 14% Puerto Rican; 6% Cuban, and 20% Other. The Hispanic population in the United States is growing and is characterized by diversity; rapid growthÖ

  1. Attending School and Learning or Repeating and Leaving. A Study about the Determinants of Grade Repetition and Dropout in Primary School in Honduras. Synthesis of the Study = Asistir y Aprender o Repetir y Desertar. Un Estudio sobre los Factores que Contribuyen a la Repitencia en la Escuela Primaria en Honduras. Sintesis del Informe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinn, Noel F.; And Others

    This paper synthesizes a study designed to identify the factors that contribute to primary school repetition and dropout in Honduras. Data were collected by record reviews; teacher, student, and parent interviews; and a test of Spanish. The sample included 1,253 students in grades 1 and 3 in 40 schools in rural Honduras. The main findings of the…

  2. Una guia para los padres sobre lo mas importante: el logro academico plan de educacion de Maryland desde preescolar hasta el 12 grado, 2002-2003. (A Parent's Guide to Achievement Matters Most: Maryland's Plan for PreK-12 Education, 2002-2003).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

    To raise the achievement of every student in the state, Maryland implemented "Achievement Matters Most," a new plan for public elementary and secondary schools that sets goals in the areas of achievement, teaching, testing, safety, and family involvement in schools. This Spanish-language guide for parents outlines the goals and characteristics of…

  3. Consejos para los Padres Sobre la Lectura: Informacion e Ideas para Ayudar a los Ninos Desde la Infancia Hasta Octavo Grado a Tener Exito en la Lectura (Tips for Parents about Reading: Information and Ideas for Helping Children through Grade Eight Succeed with Reading).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Deborah; Lewis, Jan Patricia

    Noting that all parents want the best school experience for their children, this booklet, in Spanish, gives parents some ideas about what to expect at different ages and stages of reading development, suggestions for what parents can do at home, and a list of favorite books parents can find in most libraries for parents and children to read.…

  4. "Estudia para que no te pase lo que a mi": Narrativas Culturales Sobre el Valor de la Escuela en Familias Mexicanas ("Study So That What Happened to Me Doesn't Happen to You": Cultural Narratives about the Value of Schooling in Mexican Families).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Claudia Saucedo

    2003-01-01

    Narratives used by parents in Mexican working-class families to motivate their children to study are examined for the advice offered and parental attitudes about the importance of school. The integration of contemporary pressures about the value of schooling is investigated, as well as the ways in which the value of schooling is being…

  5. Human Relations Activities for the Single Parent To Develop More Effective Parent/Child Relations. Bilingual Guide = Actividades sobre relaciones humanas para ayudar al padre-soltero o madre-soltera a desarrollar una relacion efectiva entre padre e hijo Guia bilingue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Susan

    Written in English and Spanish, this bilingual guide offers 10 activities which single parents can use to improve their relationships with their children. Objectives of activities include: (1) developing children's responsibility for work tasks in the home; (2) improving sibling relationships; (3) discussing emergencies with children; (4)…

  6. Lo que los Padres Necesitan Saber sobre...Reconocer y Animar los Intereses, las Capacidades, y los Talentos de los Ninos Dotados de la Escuela Primaria. Guia Practica B0213 (What Parents Need To Know about...Recognizing and Encouraging Interests, Strengths, and Talents of Gifted Elementary School Children. Practitioners' Guide B0213).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delcourt, Marcia A. B.

    This brochure, written in Spanish, discusses strategies that Spanish-speaking parents can use to support the interests of their children and how to recognize and extend their children's talents. Parents are urged to: (1) be aware of what their child likes to do and be patient with the changing patterns as the child explores areas of interests andÖ

  7. Viviremos! On the Road to Healthy Living: A Bilingual Curriculum on AIDS and HIV Prevention for Migrant Students (Grades 6-12) = El Camino Hacia la Salud: Un Programa de Estudio Bilingue sobre la Prevencion del SIDA y del VIH para Estudiantes Migrantes (Grados 6-12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VAMOS (Villarreal Analytical Management and Organizational Services), San Marcos, TX.

    This curriculum provides the basic information everyone needs to avoid HIV infection, but was specifically designed for Latino farmworker students in grades 6-7. The student materials are written in Spanish and English and may be used with older student or young adults, or in English-as-a-second-language courses. An introduction providesÖ

  8. V√≠nculos sobre um modelo de quartess√™ncia de Chaplygin usando observa√ß√Ķes do sat√©lite chandra da fra√ß√£o de massa de g√°s em aglomerados de gal√°xias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, R. S.

    2003-08-01

    Observa√ß√Ķes de Supernovas do tipo Ia mostram que a expans√£o do Universo est√° acelerando. Segundo as equa√ß√Ķes de Einstein uma componente com press√£o negativa (energia escura) √© necess√°ria para explicar a acelera√ß√£o c√≥smica. Al√©m da energia escura √© usualmente admitido que no Universo h√° tamb√©m uma mat√©ria ex√≥tica com press√£o zero, que √© chamada de mat√©ria escura. Essa componente possui um papel fundamental na forma√ß√£o de estruturas no Universo. Recentemente tem se explorado a possibilidade de que mat√©ria e energia escura poderiam ser unificadas atrav√©s de uma √ļnica componente, que tem sido denominada de quartess√™ncia. Um exemplo de fluido com essas caracter√≠sticas √© o G√°s de Chaplygin Generalizado, que possui uma equa√ß√£o de estado da forma p = -A/ra. Inicialmente consideramos o caso especial a = 1 (g√°s de Chaplygin) e vinculamos par√Ęmetros do modelo utilizando observa√ß√Ķes em raios-X do sat√©lite Chandra da fra√ß√£o de massa de g√°s em aglomerados de gal√°xias. Uma compara√ß√£o dos v√≠nculos obtidos com esse teste com outros testes, tais como supernovas e idade do Universo, mostra que esse teste √© bastante restritivo. Exibiremos ainda resultados para o caso em que a curvatura √© nula e o par√Ęmetro a est√° compreendido no intervalo -1 < a 1.

  9. Mirando al Futuro del Desarrollo Humano en America Latina y el Caribe. Seminario Regional sobre Universalization de la Educacion (Sucre, Bolivia, 4-10 mayo 1987) (Looking at the Future of Human Development in Latin America and the Caribbean. Regional Seminar on the Universalization of Education [Sucre, Bolivia, May 4-10, 1987]).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, Santiago (Chile). Oficina Regional para les Americas.

    One of every two children in developing nations does not complete primary school and four out of ten adults do not read or write. Of these ten, six are women. There were 44 million illiterate adults in Latin America in 1985, and of the 66 million school age children, 8.5 million were not in school. Thirty million of these children lived inÖ

  10. Efectos Especiales de Anclaje (Estudio sobre Regresiones de Juicios Condicionales). Parte 1: Distincion entre Efectos Aditivos y Efectos Multiplicativos en el Fenomeno de Anclaje (Special Effects of Anchoring (Study on Regression of Conditional Judgements) Part 1: Distinction Between Additive Effects and Multiplicative Effects in the Phenomenon of Anchoring). Publication No. 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez Alonso, A. O.

    A linear relationship was found between judgements given by 160 subjects to 7 objects presented as single stimuli (alpha judgements) and judgements given to the same objects presented with a condition (gamma judgements). This relationship holds for alpha judgements and the gamma judgements that belong to a family of constant stimulus and varying…

  11. Efectos Especiales de Anclaje (Estudio sobre Regresiones de Juicios Condicionales). Parte 2: Invariancia del Juicio No-Condicional Como Valor Estandar Para el Juicio Condicional (Special Effects of Anchoring (Study of Regression of Conditional Judgements) Part 2: Invariance of Unconditional Judgments as Standard Value for the Conditional Judgment). Publication No. 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez Alonso, A. O.

    From the best-fit lines corresponding to sets of families of conditional judgements, the constant stimulus family and the constant condition family, both defined for a same scale object, the coordinate values of the point of intersection of both lines (indifference point) are obtained. These values are studied in relation to the mean values of the…

  12. Que Tal la Justicia Social en los Alumnos de la UIA (Universidad Iberoamericana)? Investigacion sobre los Logros en la Formacion Valoral (What about Social Justice among the Students of the Iberoamerican University? Survey on the Achievements in the Acquisition of Values).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazdresch Parada, Juan E.

    This survey investigates how the students of social philosophy modify their criteria on basic questions of social justice. A questionnaire of 30 questions, with 5 options, was developed. The five answer/options correspond to the following five schools of social philosophy (five ways of thinking): (1) liberal individualism; (2) humanitarianism; (3)…

  13. El juego entre el nacimiento y los 7 anos: Un manual para ludotecarias. Investigacion-accion sobre la Familia y la Primera Infancia. UNESCO Sector de Educacion Monografia (Play between Birth and 7 Years: A Manual for Preschool Teachers. Action Research in Family and Early Childhood. UNESCO Education Sector Monograph).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grellet, Carolina

    The purpose of this Spanish-language manual is to help preschool teachers better understand theoretical concepts related to children's play. Following a preface that discusses UNESCO's activities related to early childhood education, the two main sections of the manual discuss children's play between 0-2 years and 2-7 years. Each section includes…

  14. Consulta regional sobre investigacion en educacion y toma de decisiones en America Latina: Informe final (Lima, Peru, 11-15 de mayo de 1987) (Regional Meeting on Research in Education and Decision Making in Latin America: Final Report [Lima, Peru, May 11-15, 1987]).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    This report presents the highlights of a United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) conference that was convened to give impetus to and encourage research programs, to analyze research policy formation, and to establish research priorities in the field of educational planning and administration. The document…

  15. Identity-Forming Discourses: A Critical Discourse Analysis on Policy Making Processes Concerning English Language Teaching in Colombia (Discursos que forjan identidades: un an√°lisis cr√≠tico de discursos en la formulaci√≥n de pol√≠ticas sobre la ense√Īanza del ingl√©s en Colombia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escobar Alméciga, Wilder Yesid

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses a critical problem about asymmetrical power relationships and uneven conditions in English language education exerted via identity shaping discourses in the document Educación: "Visión 2019" issued by the Colombian Ministry of National Education. The study follows the critical discourse analysis method. It…

  16. Lo que los educadores necesitan saber sobre...El agrupamiento por habilidad [y] La compactacion del curriculum [y] Los alumnos dotados y el aprendizaje cooperativo [y] La actividad tutoral. Guias practica (What Educators Need To Know about...Ability Grouping [and] Curriculum Compacting [and] Gifted Students and Cooperative Learning [and] Mentoring. Practitioners' Guides).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegle, Del, Ed.

    These four pamphlets in Spanish offer guidelines supported by theory-driven quality research that is problem-based, practice-relevant, and consumer-oriented. Each pamphlet has a section summarizing research from the literature or topic notes as well as implications for the classroom. The first guide offers principles for teachers concerning the…

  17. The Role of English Pre-Service Teachers' Beliefs about Teaching in Teacher Education Programs (El papel de las creencias de los profesores de ingl√©s en formaci√≥n sobre la ense√Īanza en los programas de formaci√≥n docente)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellanos Jaimes, Judith

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a review of studies on pre-service teachers' beliefs about teaching. The purpose of the article is to show teacher educators the relevance of exploring such issue in the classroom. Preservice teachers come into the teaching profession with beliefs about teaching; sometimes they are aware of them, other times they are not. The…

  18. Mirando al Futuro del Desarrollo Humano en America Latina y el Caribe. Seminario Regional sobre Universalization de la Educacion (Sucre, Bolivia, 4-10 mayo 1987) (Looking at the Future of Human Development in Latin America and the Caribbean. Regional Seminar on the Universalization of Education [Sucre, Bolivia, May 4-10, 1987]).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, Santiago (Chile). Oficina Regional para les Americas.

    One of every two children in developing nations does not complete primary school and four out of ten adults do not read or write. Of these ten, six are women. There were 44 million illiterate adults in Latin America in 1985, and of the 66 million school age children, 8.5 million were not in school. Thirty million of these children lived in…

  19. Algunas Premisas Metodologicas y Conceptuales sobre el Desarrollo de los Movimientos en el Primer Ano de Vida (0-12 Meses) (Some Methodological and Conceptual Premises about the Development of Movement in the First Year of Life (0-12 Months)).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bequer Diaz, Gladys

    1997-01-01

    Examined the emergence of principal and secondary movements in Cuban children in their first year of life. Based on 35 examples of observed movements, an integrated program of activity is developed to assist in the development of physical skills which are essential to the development of a well-rounded personality. (AS)

  20. Que Tal la Justicia Social en los Alumnos de la UIA (Universidad Iberoamericana)? Investigacion sobre los Logros en la Formacion Valoral (What about Social Justice among the Students of the Iberoamerican University? Survey on the Achievements in the Acquisition of Values).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazdresch Parada, Juan E.

    This survey investigates how the students of social philosophy modify their criteria on basic questions of social justice. A questionnaire of 30 questions, with 5 options, was developed. The five answer/options correspond to the following five schools of social philosophy (five ways of thinking): (1) liberal individualism; (2) humanitarianism; (3)Ö

  1. Lo que Piensan los Estudiantes y Profesores Sobre la Calidad de la Educacion Superior. Estudio Comparativo en 5 Instituciones de Educacion Superior--dos publicas y tres privadas--en Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico (What Students and Faculties Think about the Quality of Higher Education. Comparative Study of 5 Higher Education Institutions--Two Public and Three Private--in Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanez, Maria Lorena Hernandez

    This study, written in Spanish, compared attitudes of students (N=302) and faculty (N=28) at five institutions of higher education (two public and three private) in Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. The study explored first, whether respondents believed there are significant quality differences between private and public universities and, second, what…

  2. Exploring EFL Pre-Service Teachers' Experience with Cultural Content and Intercultural Communicative Competence at Three Colombian Universities (Indagación sobre la experiencia con el contenido cultural y la competencia comunicativa intercultural de docentes de inglés en formación, en tres universidades colombianas)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olaya, Alba; Gómez Rodríguez, Luis Fernando

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a qualitative research project that explored pre-service English teachers' perceptions of and attitudes toward the aspects of culture and intercultural competence addressed in their English classes in the undergraduate programs at three Colombian universities. Findings reveal that pre-service teachers are…

  3. Manual for ERLE (Energy-Related Laboratory Equipment). Instructions and information for institutions of higher learning concerning used energy-related laboratory equipment grants; Manual para ERLE [Equipo de Laboratorio Relacionado con la Energia]. Instrucciones e informacion para instituciones de educacion superior sobre subvenciones de equipo de laboratorio usado relacionado con la energia

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    This is a listing of energy related equipment available through the Energy-Related Laboratory Equipment Grant Program which grants used equipment to institutions of higher education for energy-related research. Information included is an overview of the program, how to apply for a grant of equipment, eligibility requirements, types of equipment available, and the costs for the institution.

  4. Tabla de Especificaciones e Instructivo sobre Elaboracion de Pruebas Objetivas en la Ensenanza Primaria, para las asignaturas de Estudios Sociales, Idioma Espanol, Matematicas y Ciencias Naturales (Specification Tables and Instructions for the Construction of Objective Tests in the Primary Grades in Social Studies, Spanish, Mathematics, and Natural Sciences).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio de Educacion, Guatemala City (Guatemala). Direccion de Bienestar Estudiantil y Educacion Especial.

    This booklet presents specification tables illustrating the relative importance given to topics on tests within a particular subject area. The general subject areas are social studies, Spanish, mathematics, and natural sciences. Tables are provided for final exams in each of these areas for several primary grades, illustrating the importance of…

  5. Educacion, Salud y Bienestar para el Nino Preescolar y la Familia. (5 de Enero--28 de Febrero, 1997) Informe Curso sobre (Education, Health, and Well-Being of Preschool Children and the Family. January 5 - February 28, 1997. Report of a Course).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golda Meir Mount Carmel International Training Centre, Haifa (Israel).

    This report describes a course held in Spanish at the Golda Meir Mount Carmel International Training Center in Haifa, Israel. The course considered various themes related to the education, health, and well-being of preschool children. Participants were 30 individuals from Central and South American countries who held decision-making positions in…

  6. ...And That's How It All Began: Putting Information about Your Child's Growth, Health and Safety All within Your Reach...Because the First Years Last Forever! = ...Y asi es como empezo todo: Ponemos a su alcance en forma conjunta la informacion sobre el crecimiento, la salud y la seguridad de su hijo...Porque los primeros anos duran para siempre!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Partnership for Children, Raleigh.

    Smart Start is North Carolina's model early childhood initiative to help all North Carolina children enter school healthy and prepared for success. This resource guide, in Spanish and English versions, is designed to provide parents with information on infant and child development, health care, and resources for further assistance. Presented in an…

  7. [The EMECAM protocol: an analysis of the short-term effect of air pollution on mortality. Estudio Multic√©ntrico Espa√Īol sobre la Relaci√≥n entre la Contaminaci√≥n Atmosf√©rica u la Mortalidad].

    PubMed

    P√©rez-Hoyos, S; S√°ez Zafra, M; Barcel√≥, M A; Cambra, C; Figueiras Guzm√°n, A; Ord√≥√Īez, J M; Guill√©n Grima, F; Oca√Īa, R; Bellido, J; Cirera Su√°rez, L; L√≥pez, A A; Rodr√≠guez, V; Alcal√° Nalvaiz, T; Ballester D√≠ez, F

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study is to Mortality show the protocol of analysis which was set out as part of the EMECAM Project, illustrating the application thereof to the effect of pollution has on the mortality in the city of Valencia. The response variables considered will be the daily deaths rate resulting from all causes, except external ones. The explicative variables are the daily series of different pollutants (black smoke, SO2, NO2, CO, O3). As possible confusion variables, weather factors, structural factors and weekly cases of flu are taken into account. A Poisson regression model is built up for each one of the four deaths series in two stages. In the first stage, a baseline model is fitted using the possible confusion variables. In the second stage, the pollution variables or the time legs thereof are included, controlling the residual autocorrelation by including mortality time lags. The process of fitting the baseline model is as follows: 1) Include the significant sinusoidal terms up to the sixth order. 2) Include the significant temperature or temperature squared terms with the time lags thereof up to the 7th order. 3) Repeat this process with the relative humidity. 4) Add in the significant terms of calendar years, daily tendency and tendency squared. 5) The days of the week as dummy variables are always included in the model. 6) Include the holidays and the significant time lags of up to two weeks of flu. Following the reassessment of the model, each one of the pollutants and the time lags thereof up to the fifth order are proven out. The impact is analyzed by six-month periods, including interaction terms. PMID:10410600

  8. Los Hispanos: Problemas y Oportunidades. Resumen de la Actual Situacion Demografica, Economica, Social y Politica de los Hispanos en los Estados Unidos y de las Iniciativas Tomadas por la Fundacion Ford Para Hacer Frente a las Necesidades de esta Poblacion en Aumento y Determinar sus Efectos Sobre la Sociedad Estadounidense. Documento de Trabajo de la Fundacion Ford, No. 436.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford Foundation, New York, NY.

    The Hispanic population's growing impact on American society has caused the Ford Foundation to explore new Foundation initiatives. The 1980 census revealed 14.6 million Hispanics: 60% Mexican American; 14% Puerto Rican; 6% Cuban, and 20% Other. The Hispanic population in the United States is growing and is characterized by diversity; rapid growth…

  9. Proyecto Curricular Sobre la Herencia Iberoamericana. Latinos en la Formacion de los Estados Unidos de American: Ayer, Hoy y Manana. Procedimientos de la Conferencia Sequnda Conferencia Anual del Panel Consultivo Internacional en Santillana del Mar, Espana (The Ibero-American Heritage Curriculum Project. Latinos in the Making of the United States of America: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    The Ibero-American Heritage Curriculum Project is an interdisciplinary curriculum development project designed to integrate the study of Ibero-American heritage and culture into classroom instructional programs, kindergarten through grade 12. The project was initiated by the New York State Education Department and involves the Spanish National…

  10. Una Guia para Los Padres sobre La Educacion Especial: El Derecho de Su Hijo(a) a Adquirir una Educacion en el Estado de Nueva York (A Parent's Guide to Special Education: Your Child's Right to an Education in New York State).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept. Albany. Office for the Education of Children with Handicapping Conditions.

    This guide provides information to help parents of special needs children in New York become active partners in the planning and implementation of special education programs. The first part of the guide provides in-depth information related to the special education process in New York State public schools. A historical view of children's rights to…

  11. Viviremos! On the Road to Healthy Living: A Bilingual Curriculum on AIDS and HIV Prevention for Migrant Students (Grades 6-12) = El Camino Hacia la Salud: Un Programa de Estudio Bilingue sobre la Prevencion del SIDA y del VIH para Estudiantes Migrantes (Grados 6-12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VAMOS (Villarreal Analytical Management and Organizational Services), San Marcos, TX.

    This curriculum provides the basic information everyone needs to avoid HIV infection, but was specifically designed for Latino farmworker students in grades 6-7. The student materials are written in Spanish and English and may be used with older student or young adults, or in English-as-a-second-language courses. An introduction provides…

  12. Students and Teachers' Reasons for Using the First Language within the Foreign Language Classroom (French and English) in Central Mexico (Razones de alumnos y maestros sobre el uso de la primera lengua en el salón de lenguas extranjeras (francés e inglés) en el centro de México)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mora Pablo, Irasema; Lengeling, M. Martha; Rubio Zenil, Buenaventura; Crawford, Troy; Goodwin, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    The present study explores the use of the first language in a context of foreign language teaching. This qualitative research presents the classroom practice and points of view of French and English teachers and students within a public educational institute in central Mexico using the techniques of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews.…

  13. ...And That's How It All Began: Putting Information about Your Child's Growth, Health and Safety All within Your Reach...Because the First Years Last Forever! = ...Y asi es como empezo todo: Ponemos a su alcance en forma conjunta la informacion sobre el crecimiento, la salud y la seguridad de su hijo...Porque los primeros anos duran para siempre!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Partnership for Children, Raleigh.

    Smart Start is North Carolina's model early childhood initiative to help all North Carolina children enter school healthy and prepared for success. This resource guide, in Spanish and English versions, is designed to provide parents with information on infant and child development, health care, and resources for further assistance. Presented in anÖ

  14. What Providers Should Know about Child Care Assistance for Families: A Targeted Effort to Reach Hispanic Families and Providers = Lo que Deben Saber los Proveedores Sobre el Programa de Ayuda de Cuidado Infantil para las Familias: Un Esfuerzo Especial para Alcanzar Familias y Proveedores Hispanos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care Bureau, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Federal and State governments can help families pay for child care. The families one serves may be eligible for this assistance, and one may receive this funding for services one provides, thus becoming a "participating provider." This paper provides answers to the following questions: (1) How can parents receive child care assistance?; (2) How do…

  15. DESIGN OF A MOLECULAR BEAM SURFACE SCATTERING APPARATUS FOR VELOCITY AND ANGULAR DISTRIBUTION MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Ceyer, S. T.; Siekhaus, W. J.; Somorjai, G. A.

    1980-11-01

    A molecular beam surface scattering apparatus designed for the study of corrosion and catalyticsurfacereactions is described. The apparatus incorporates two molecular or atomic beams aimed at a surface characterized by low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), a rotatable, differentially pumped quadrupole mass spectrometer, and a versatile manipulator. Angular distributions and energy distributions as a funcion of angle and independent of the surface residence time can be measured. Typical data for the oxidation of deuterium to D{sub 2}O on a Pt(lll) crystal surface are presented.

  16. Emerging concepts of self-organization and the living state. Special issue.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    This special issue present papers that examine the concept of self-organization in the origin of life. Concepts explored include chaos and order in open systems, the origin of biochemical organization, non-cellular phases of life on clay, biodynamics necessary for the emergence of energy consumers, molecular evolution, order in self-oscillators, self-organization of semi-conductor physics, self-organizing behavior of microtubules in the cytoskeleton, biogenesis and physics, perceptive funcion, and an overview of the experimental realization of artificial intelligence. PMID:11536810

  17. Smoking patterns and predictors of smoking cessation in elderly populations in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Chaaya, M.; Mehio-Sibai, A.; El-Chemaly, S.

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARY OBJECTIVE To investigate smoking patterns in an elderly, low-income population and to identify predictors of smoking cessation, in addition to analyzing the importance of smoking in relation to other risk factors for hospitalization. DESIGN The data were part of an urban health study conducted among 740 individuals aged ‚Č•60 years in three suburban communities of low socio-economic status in Beirut, one of them a refugee camp. A detailed interview schedule was administered that included comprehensive social and health information. RESULTS The overall prevalence of current smokers was 28.1%. Almost half of the group were ever smokers, of whom 44% had quit smoking when they experienced negative health effects. Having at least one chronic illness and having a functional disability significantly increased the odds of smoking cessation. In addition, being a former smoker increased the likelihood of hospital admission. CONCLUSIONS This study is of particular importance, as it has implications for similar low-income and refugee communities in the region and elsewhere. There is a need for more concerted efforts by public health officials to target elderly individuals as a group for smoking cessation interventions, particularly now that mortality and health benefits have been well documented. R√ČSUM√Č OBJECTIF Investiguer les types de tabagisme dans une population √Ęg√©e √† faibles revenus et identifier les facteurs pr√©dictifs de l‚Äôarr√™t du tabagisme, tout en analysant l‚Äôimportance du tabagisme par rapport aux autres facteurs de risque d‚Äôhospitalisation. SCH√ČMA Les donn√©es constituent une fraction de l‚Äô√©tude de sant√© urbaine men√©e chez 740 personnes √Ęg√©es de ‚Č•60 ans √† Beyrouth dans trois collectivit√©s suburbaines √† faible statut socio-√©conomique dont une des trois se situe dans un camp de r√©fugi√©s. Un sch√©ma d√©taill√© d‚Äôinterview a √©t√© utilis√© comportant des informations compl√®tes sur le plan social et celui de la sant√©. R√ČSULTATS La pr√©valence globale des fumeurs actuels est de 28,1%. Pr√®s de la moiti√© des personnes √Ęg√©es ont fum√© √† un moment quelconque dans leur vie et parmi celles-ci, 44% ont cess√© de fumer. Les personnes √Ęg√©es ont cess√© de fumer lorsqu‚Äôelles en ont per√ßu les effets n√©gatifs sur la sant√©. Le fait d‚Äôavoir au moins une maladie chronique et de souffrir d‚Äôune incapacit√© fonctionnelle ont augment√© d‚Äôune fa√ßon significative les chances d‚Äôarr√™t du tabagisme. De plus, le fait d‚Äô√™tre un ancien fumeur a augment√© le risque d‚Äôadmission hospitali√®re. CONCLUSIONS Cette √©tude est d‚Äôune importance particuli√®re car ses implications s‚Äô√©largissent √† des collectivit√©s √† faibles revenus similaires et chez les r√©fugi√©s dans la r√©gion ainsi qu‚Äôailleurs. Il est n√©cessaire que les responsables de la sant√© publique fassent un effort plus concert√© pour cibler les personnes √Ęg√©es comme groupe en vue d‚Äôinterventions d‚Äôarr√™t du tabagisme, d‚Äôautant plus que les avantages en mati√®re de mortalit√© et de sant√© ont aujourd‚Äôhui √©t√© bien document√©s. RESUMEN OBJETIVOS Investigar los tipos de h√°bito tab√°quico en una poblaci√≥n de personas ancianas, de bajos ingresos y determinar los factores pron√≥sticos del abandono del h√°bito. Asimismo, se analiz√≥ la importancia del tabaquismo en relaci√≥n con otros factores de riesgo de hospitalizaci√≥n. DISE√ĎO Los datos formaban parte de un estudio de salud urbana de 740 personas de ‚Č•60 a√Īos de edad, en tres comunidades suburbanas de bajo estrato socioecon√≥mico en Beirut, una de las cuales era un campo de refugiados. Se administr√≥ una entrevista estructurada que aportaba amplia informaci√≥n social y sanitaria. RESULTADOS La prevalencia global de fumadores fue de 28,1%. Casi la mitad de las personas ancianas hab√≠a sido fumadora en alg√ļn momento y 44% hab√≠an abandonado el tabaquismo. Estas personas abandonaron el h√°bito tab√°quico cuando tuvieron repercusiones negativas sobre su salud. La presencia de por lo menos una enfermedad cr√≥nica y de discapacidad funcional aument√≥ en forma significativa las probabilidades de abandono del tabaquismo. Adem√°s, el antecedente de tabaquismo aument√≥ el riesgo de hospitalizaci√≥n. CONCLUSI√ďN El presente estudio reviste una importancia particular, pues sus implicaciones son amplias para comunidades similares de escasos ingresos y de refugiados en esta y otras regiones. Pone en evidencia la necesidad de iniciativas m√°s coordinadas por parte de los funcionarios de salud p√ļblica, destinadas a enfocar las campa√Īas de abandono del tabaquismo en la poblaci√≥n de edad mayor ; a√ļn m√°s hoy, cuando se ha demostrado la utilidad del abandono en t√©rminos de disminuci√≥n de la mortalidad y consecuencias positivas para la salud. PMID:16898378

  18. Elastoplasticidad anisotropa de metales en grandes deformaciones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caminero Torija, Miguel Angel

    El objetivo de este trabajo es el desarrollo de modelos y algoritmos numericos que simulen el comportamiento del material bajo estas condiciones en el contexto de programas de elementos finitos, dando como resultado predicciones mas precisas de los procesos de conformado y deformacion plastica en general. Para lograr este objetivo se han desarrollado diversas tareas destinadas a mejorar las predicciones en tres aspectos fundamentales. El primer aspecto consiste en la mejora de la descripcion del endurecimiento cinematico anisotropo en pequenas deformaciones, lo cual se ha realizado a traves de modelos y algoritmos implicitos de superficies multiples. Ha sido estudiada la consistencia de este tipo de modelos tanto si estan basados en una regla implicita similar a la de Mroz o en la regla de Prager. Ademas se han simulado los ensayos de Lamba y Sidebottom, obteniendo, en contra de la creencia general, muy buenas predicciones con la regla de Prager. Dichos modelos podrian ser extendidos de forma relativamente facil para considerar grandes deformaciones a traves de procedimientos en deformaciones logaritmicas, similares a los desarrollados en esta tesis y detallados a continuacion. El segundo aspecto consiste en la descripcion de la anisotropia elastoplastica inicial. Esto se ha conseguido mediante el desarrollo de modelos y algoritmos para plasticidad anisotropa en grandes deformaciones, bien ignorando la posible anisotropia elastica, bien considerandola simultaneamente con la anisotropia plastica. Para ello ha sido necesario desarrollar primero un nuevo algoritmo de elastoplasticidad anisotropa en pequenas deformaciones consistentemente linealizado y sin despreciar ningun termino, de tal forma que se conserve la convergencia cuadratica de los metodos de Newton. Este algoritmo en pequenas deformaciones ha servido para realizar la correccion plastica de dos algoritmos en grandes deformaciones. El primero de estos algoritmos es una variacion del clasico algoritmo de Eterovic y Bathe para incluir la posibilidad de plasticidad anisotropa con endurecimiento mixto. Este primer algoritmo esta restringido a casos de isotropia elastica. La isotropia elastica es una hipotesis bastante habitual en plasticidad anisotropa y tiene la ventaja de que permite el uso de formulaciones mixtas u/p. El segundo algoritmo, mas complejo y general, incluye la posibilidad de elasticidad anisotropa, plasticidad anisotropa y endurecimiento mixto. Este algoritmo supone una contribucion importante ya que esta basado en hipotesis comunmente aceptadas y utilizadas en elastoplasticidad isotropa: descomposicion multiplicativa del gradiente de deformaciones en parte elastica y parte plastica, descripcion hiperelastica sencilla en funcion de deformaciones logaritmicas e integracion exponencial que conserva el volumen. Ademas, la estructura final del algoritmo es modular y relativamente sencilla, consistiendo en un pre- y un postprocesador geometrico y una correccion plastica realizada en pequenas deformaciones. El algoritmo esta consistentemente linealizado para conservar la convergencia cuadratica asintotica de los metodos de Newton y la forma final que toma dicha linealizacion es similar al caso de isotropia elastoplastica implementado; consiste en el modulo tangente algoritmico de pequenas deformaciones sobre el que se aplica una transformacion para convertirlo en el de grandes deformaciones. Todos estos modelos han sido implementados en un codigo propio de elementos finitos denominado DULCINEA, el cual tiene formulaciones lagrangianas totales y actualizadas para grandes deformaciones. Una de las tareas necesarias para poder realizar las simulaciones, ha sido el estudio e implementacion de diferentes elementos que no sufran el bloqueo volumetrico severo que se observa en formulaciones estandar basadas en desplazamientos. Este bloqueo se debe a la condicion de quasi-incompresibilidad que imponen los modelos de plasticidad desviadores y consiste en una respuesta exageradamente rigida de la solucion obtenida por el metodo de los elementos finitos estandar. Entre los elementos implementados cabe destacar el basado en la formulacion mixta u/p, que contiene una interpolacion adicional de grados de libertad de presion. Estos grados de libertad adicionales habitualmente son internos al elemento en mecanica de solidos. En este trabajo se ha desarrollado e implementado en DULCINEA una familia de elementos tridimensionales mixtos en grandes deformaciones que incluye el caso particular BMIX 27/27/4, basado en la formulacion u/p, constituido por 27 nudos, con 27 puntos de integracion estandar y 4 grados de libertad de presiones, y que pasa la condicion Inf-Sup o de Babuska-Brezzi. Sin embargo, se ha observado que la formulacion u/p presenta ciertas limitaciones bajo las hipotesis conjuntas de anisotropia elastica y anisotropia plastica. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  19. Analysis of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) to characterize microbial communities in aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Christopher T.; Scow, Kate M.

    This paper reviews published applications of lipid-based biochemical techniques for characterizing microbial communities in aquifers and other deep subsurface habitats. These techniques, such as phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, can provide information on a variety of microbial characteristics, such as biomass, physiology, taxonomic and functional identity, and overall community composition. In addition, multivariate statistical analysis of lipid data can relate spatial or temporal changes in microbial communities to environmental factors. The use of lipid-based techniques in the study of groundwater microbiology is advantageous because they do not require culturing and can provide quantitative data on entire communities. However, combined effects of physiological and phylogenetic changes on the lipid composition of a community can confound interpretation of the data, and many questions remain about the validity of various lipid techniques. Despite these caveats, lipid-based research has begun to show trends in community composition in contaminated and pristine aquifers that contribute to our understanding of groundwater microbial ecology and have potential for use in optimization of bioremediation of groundwater pollutants. R√©sum√© Ce papier passe en revue les applications des techniques biochimiques bas√©es sur les lipides pour caract√©riser les communaut√©s microbiennes pr√©sentes dans les aquif√®res et dans les autres habitats souterrains profonds. Ces techniques, telles que l'analyse des acides gras phospholipidiques (PLFA), peuvent fournir des informations sur un ensemble de caract√®res microbiens, tels que la biomasse, la physiologie, l'identit√© taxonomique et fonctionnelle, et surtout la composition de la communaut√©. En outre, l'analyse statistique multivari√©e des donn√©es sur les lipides peut √©tablir les liens entre des changements spatiaux ou temporels dans la communaut√© microbienne et des facteurs environnementaux. L'utilisation des techniques bas√©es sur les lipides dans l'√©tude de la microbiologie des eaux souterraines est int√©ressante parce qu'elle ne n√©cessite pas de mise en culture et qu'elle peut fournir des donn√©es quantitatives sur les communaut√©s dans leur ensemble. Toutefois, les effets combin√©s de changements physiologiques et phylog√©n√©tiques sur la composition d'une communaut√© peuvent brouiller l'interpr√©tation des donn√©es de nombreuses questions se posent sur la validit√© des diff√©rentes techniques lipidiques. Malgr√© ces oppositions, la recherche bas√©e sur les lipides a commenc√©√† montrer des tendances dans la composition des communaut√©s dans les aquif√®res pollu√©s et dans ceux non perturb√©s ces r√©sultats contribuent ainsi √† notre compr√©hension de l'√©cologie microbienne des eaux souterraines et montrent qu'il existe un potentiel pour leur utilisation en vue d'une optimisation de la d√©pollution biologique des eaux souterraines. Resumen Se revisan distintas t√©cnicas bioqu√≠micas que se basan en el an√°lisis de l√≠pidos para caracterizar las comunidades microbianas en h√°bitats subsuperficiales, incluyendo acu√≠feros. Estas t√©cnicas, entre las que se incluye el an√°lisis de √°cidos grasos fosfol√≠pidos (PLFA), pueden proporcionar informaci√≥n sobre toda una serie de caracter√≠sticas de las comunidades microbianas, como su biomasa, fisiolog√≠a, identidad taxon√≥mica y funcional y composici√≥n. Adem√°s, el an√°lisis estad√≠stico multivariado de los datos de l√≠pidos permite relacionar los cambios espaciales o temporales en las comunidades microbianas con factores ambientales. Las t√©cnicas basadas en l√≠pidos son muy √ļtiles para el estudio microbiol√≥gico de las aguas subterr√°neas, puesto que no requieren cultivos y adem√°s proporcionan datos cuantitativos de comunidades completas. Sin embargo, la acci√≥n combinada de los cambios fisiol√≥gicos y filogen√©ticos en la composici√≥n de l√≠pidos en una comunidad pueden confundir la interpretaci√≥n de los datos, por lo existen muchas cuestiones abiertas respecto a la validez de algunas de estas t√©cnicas. A pesar de estas dificultades, estas t√©cnicas han permitido detectar diferentes tendencias en la composici√≥n de las comunidades en acu√≠feros con y sin contaminaci√≥n, lo que contribuye a nuestro entendimiento de la ecolog√≠a microbiana de los acu√≠feros. Este √ļltimo aspecto tiene un uso potencial en la optimizaci√≥n de los m√©todos de biorremediaci√≥n de acu√≠feros.

  20. Instant√°nea del c√°ncer de ri√Ī√≥n

    Cancer.gov

    Informaci√≥n sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el c√°ncer de ri√Ī√≥n; as√≠ como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigaci√≥n de este tipo de c√°ncer.

  1. Instant√°nea del melanoma

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el melanoma; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  2. Instant√°nea del c√°ncer de vejiga

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de vejiga; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  3. Capacitación del personal y de los pacientes en torno a los cuidados terminales

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo sobre programas innovadores de base científica para ayudar a médicos y pacientes a hablar sobre la transición de un tratamiento activo para el cáncer a los cuidados en la etapa final de la vida.

  4. Control del dolor: Apoyo para las personas con c√°ncer

    Cancer.gov

    Contiene información sobre las medicinas contra el dolor para pacientes con cáncer, los planes para controlarlo, cómo hablar con su equipo de atención médica sobre el dolor que usted siente y qué hacer para controlar los efectos físicos y emocionales del

  5. Prevenci√≥n del c√°ncer de cavidad oral y orofaringe (PDQ¬ģ)‚ÄĒVersi√≥n para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario de información revisada por expertos sobre factores que pueden influir en el riesgo de presentar cáncer de labio, cavidad oral y orofaringe, y sobre las investigaciones dirigidas a la prevención de esta enfermedad.

  6. Instant√°nea de la leucemia

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre la leucemia; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  7. Instant√°nea del c√°ncer colorrectal

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer colorrectal; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  8. Instantánea del cáncer de estómago

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de estómago; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  9. Prevenci√≥n del c√°ncer de ovario (PDQ¬ģ)‚ÄĒVersi√≥n para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario de información revisada por expertos sobre factores que pueden influir en el riesgo de presentar cáncer de ovario, de trompas de Falopio y primario de peritoneo y sobre las investigaciones dirigidas a prevenir los mismos.

  10. Hacer frente - Obtener cuidados médicos de seguimiento

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre los cuidados médicos de seguimiento después del tratamiento del cáncer. Trata sobre su plan de cuidados de seguimiento, cómo obtener un plan para el bienestar e incluye una guía para una vida saludable.

  11. Prevenci√≥n del c√°ncer de est√≥mago (g√°strico) (PDQ¬ģ)‚ÄĒVersi√≥n para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario de información revisada por expertos sobre factores que pueden influir en el riesgo de presentar cáncer de estómago y sobre las investigaciones dirigidas a la prevención de esta enfermedad.

  12. Instant√°nea del c√°ncer de ovario

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de ovario; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  13. Instant√°nea del c√°ncer de tiroides

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de tiroides; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  14. Instant√°nea del sarcoma

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el sarcoma; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  15. Instantánea del cáncer de esófago

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de esófago; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  16. Instant√°nea del c√°ncer de endometrio

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de endometrio; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  17. Instant√°nea del c√°ncer de cuello uterino

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de cuello uterino; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  18. Prevenci√≥n del c√°ncer de est√≥mago (g√°strico) (PDQ¬ģ)‚ÄĒVersi√≥n para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario de información revisada por expertos sobre factores que pueden influir en el riesgo de presentar cáncer de estómago y sobre las investigaciones dirigidas a la prevención de esta enfermedad.

  19. Calcio y la prevención del cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Hoja informativa que resume los resultados de estudios sobre el calcio y la prevención del cáncer. Incluye información sobre las recomendaciones dietéticas para calcio y la cantidad de calcio en los alimentos y en complementos de calcio.

  20. Instantánea de los cánceres de hígado

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre los cánceres de hígado y de las vías biliares; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de estos tipos de cáncer.

  1. Instant√°nea de los c√°nceres de cerebro y del sistema nervioso central

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre los cánceres de cerebro y del sistema nervioso central; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de estos tipos de cáncer.

  2. Hacer frente - La adaptación al cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Información para ayudarle a usted y a su familia a enfrentar los desafíos que representa el cáncer en su vida. Incluye temas sobre cómo hablar con sus médicos, sugerencias para hablar con sus hijos, cambios en su familia e información sobre grupos de apoy

  3. Instant√°nea del sarcoma de Kaposi

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el sarcoma de Kaposi; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  4. Instant√°nea del linfoma

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el linfoma; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  5. Instantánea del cáncer de pulmón

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de pulmón; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  6. Instant√°nea del c√°ncer de p√°ncreas

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de páncreas; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  7. Instant√°nea del c√°ncer de seno (mama)

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de seno (mama); así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  8. Instantánea del cáncer de próstata

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de próstata; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  9. Instant√°nea del mieloma

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el mieloma; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  10. Instant√°nea de los c√°nceres de cabeza y cuello

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre los cánceres de cabeza y cuello; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de estos tipos de cáncer.

  11. Neuropatía periférica inducida por quimioterapia

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo sobre un efecto secundario de la quimioterapia que causa dolor y malestar en las manos y los pies. También incluye información sobre los esfuerzos para mejorar las opciones de detección, tratamiento y prevención.

  12. Prevenci√≥n del c√°ncer de ovario, trompas y peritoneo (PDQ¬ģ)‚ÄĒVersi√≥n para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario de información revisada por expertos sobre factores que influirían en el riesgo de presentar cáncer de ovario, de trompas de Falopio y primario de peritoneo y sobre las investigaciones dirigidas a la prevención de los mismos.

  13. Terapia hormonal para la menopausia y el c√°ncer

    Cancer.gov

    Hoja informativa acerca de los resultados de los estudios sobre el uso de la terapia hormonal para la menopausia. Incluye información sobre el efecto de esta terapia en el cuerpo y explica los riesgos y beneficios del uso de hormonas.

  14. Novel Regulatory Mechanisms for Generation of the Soluble Leptin Receptor: Implications for Leptin Action

    PubMed Central

    Schaab, Michael; Kausch, Henriette; Klammt, Juergen; Nowicki, Marcin; Anderegg, Ulf; Gebhardt, Rolf; Rose-John, Stefan; Scheller, Juergen; Thiery, Joachim; Kratzsch, Juergen

    2012-01-01

    Background The adipokine leptin realizes signal transduction via four different membrane-anchored leptin receptor (Ob-R) isoforms in humans. However, the amount of functionally active Ob-R is affected by constitutive shedding of the extracellular domain via a so far unknown mechanism. The product of the cleavage process the so-called soluble leptin receptor (sOb-R) is the main binding protein for leptin in human blood and modulates its bioavailability. sOb-R levels are differentially regulated in metabolic disorders like type 1 diabetes mellitus or obesity and can, therefore, enhance or reduce leptin sensitivity. Methodology/Principal Findings To describe mechanisms of Ob-R cleavage and to investigate the functional significance of differential sOb-R levels we established a model of HEK293 cells transiently transfected with different human Ob-R isoforms. Using siRNA knockdown experiments we identified ADAM10 (A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase 10) as a major protease for constitutive and activated Ob-R cleavage. Additionally, the induction of lipotoxicity and apoptosis led to enhanced shedding shown by increased levels of the soluble leptin receptor (sOb-R) in cell supernatants. Conversely, high leptin concentrations and ER stress reduced sOb-R levels. Decreased amounts of sOb-R due to ER stress were accompanied by impaired leptin signaling and reduced leptin binding. Conclusions Lipotoxicity and apoptosis increased Ob-R cleavage via ADAM10-dependent mechanisms. In contrast high leptin levels and ER stress led to reduced sOb-R levels. While increased sOb-R concentrations seem to directly block leptin action, reduced amounts of sOb-R may reflect decreased membrane expression of Ob-R. These findings could explain changes of leptin sensitivity which are associated with variations of serum sOb-R levels in metabolic diseases. PMID:22545089

  15. Seminario Tecnico Regional Sobre Alternativas de Educacion Basica de Adultos en el Marco de la REDALF del Proyecto Principal de Educacion en America Latina y el Caribe (Colonia Tovar, Venezuela, 29 de Septiembre al 3 de Octubre, 1986). Documento Final. (Regional Seminar on Alternatives for Basic Adult Education in the REDALF Project for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean (Colonia Tovar, Venezuela, September 29-October 3, 1986). Final Document.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    The final report of a conference concerning adult basic education de Adultos en el Marco de la REDALF del related to innovative projects in adult education in nine countries. A wide spectrum of issues related to adult basic education, curriculum, methodology, evaluation, and research are analyzed in the context of educational planning. Among the…

  16. Surface blackening by laser texturing with high repetition rate femtosecond laser up to 1MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faucon, M.; Laffitte, A.; Lopez, J.; Kling, R.

    2014-03-01

    The interaction between laser pulses and material surface can generate sub-wavelength surface structures named ripples. The used of ultrashort laser pulses avoid thermal effect in the lattice so the structures generated are well preserved and can be observed on various materials as metals, polymers or crystals. With increasing energy deposit, ripples grow to give cone-shape structures named spikes. All these structures are interesting to give special properties to the treated surface as coloration change, improvement of light absorption or modification of wettability properties. These structure generation process is well known for femtosecond Ti:Sa laser with a pulse duration below 100fs and repetition rates in the range of 10 kHz. However, to be relevant for industrial applications, the average power of the laser is a critical parameter. The emergence of new femtosecond Yb doped fiber lasers with pulse duration below 350fs permits an increase of the average power for a few years. We will present our latest results obtained for surface texturation on various metals such as stainless steel, titanium, aluminum and copper with these up to date laser source. We study the influence of the average power and of the repetition rate up to 1000 kHz on the surface structures generated on scanned areas. We obtain light reflexion below 7% on stainless steel and below 5% on titanium from 200nm to 2000nm. The characterizations of the results are done with SEM imaging, optical profilometry and with a spectrophotometer.

  17. GlyHisGlyHis immobilization on silicon surface for copper detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sam, Sabrina; Gouget-Laemmel, Anne Chantal; Chazalviel, Jean-No√ęl; Ozanam, Fran√ßois; Gabouze, Noureddine

    2013-03-01

    Hybrid nanomaterials based on organic layer covalently grafted on semi-conductor surfaces appear as promising systems for innovative applications, especially in sensor field. In this work, we focused on the functionalization of silicon surface by the peptide GlyHisGlyHis, which forms stable complexes with metal ions. This property is exploited to achieve heavy metals recognition in solution. The immobilization was achieved using multi-step reactions: GlyHisGlyHis was anchored on a previously prepared carboxyl-terminated silicon surface using N-ethyl-N'-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide (EDC)/N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) coupling agents. This scheme is compatible with the mild conditions required for preserving the probe activity of the peptide. At each step of the functionalization, the surface was monitored by infrared spectroscopy Fourier transform (FTIR) in ATR (attenuated total reflexions) geometry and by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Electrochemical behaviour of such prepared electrodes was carried out in the presence of copper ions by means of cyclic voltammetry. The recorded cyclic voltammograms showed a surface reversible process corresponding to the Cu2+/Cu+ couple in the complex Cu-GlyHisGlyHis immobilized on the silicon surface. Copper ions concentrations down than őľM where detected. These results demonstrate the potential role of peptide-modified silicon electrodes in developing strategies for simple and fast detection of toxic metals in solution.

  18. [Ethics consultation unit in nephrology (UCEN): review of 10 years of operation in the Grenoble area].

    PubMed

    Maurizi Balzan, Jocelyne; Moreaud, Olivier; Palacin, Pedro; Truche, Anne-Sophie; Zaoui, Philippe

    2013-07-01

    The existence of an ethics consultation unit in nephrology (UCEN) gives to the nephrologist the collegiality required to meet the difficulties of therapeutic choice on a legislative level, particularly in indications of stop dialysis. The discussion conducted, outside the emergency, is guided by a tool for reflexion that details successive steps necessary to the identification of elements required for decision-making. Thanks to complementary skills provided by the participants and training acquired, the UCEN can approach other ethic issues encountered during practice such as contrindication for a kidney transplantation or maintenance of conservative treatment, or performing invasive procedures on patients refusing transfusion. Propositions are not always relevant due to opposition or ambivalence of some patients, their relatives, an external or disagreements between teams or a mismatch between the technical and the patient's condition. These non-conformities decrypted always have an explanation, sometimes they are understood and accepted by the teams, and sometimes they became source of regrets when they extend life in very poor conditions. The UCEN, if it does not solve every single point, remains a place and a time of sharing that face difficult situations, help the nephrologist positioning himself on maintaining treatments that were first to avoid and prevent the realization of unreasonable acts and accept their limits. PMID:23266203

  19. Astrobiology : is humankind ready for the next revolution ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnould, Jacques

    2012-07-01

    The discovery of a first exoplanet, in 1995, did not revolutionize but knocked astronomical sciences over. At the same time, by opening new prospects of research, in particular in the search of planets similar to the Earth and in a possible extraterrestrial life, this discovery, since then abundantly repeated, gave a new breath to the public interest for this scientific field. But is humanity ready to learn the existence from extraterrestrial forms of life or to remain, in spite of its efforts, in ignorance? The question of the plurality of the worlds is one of the oldest interrogations conveyed by the human cultures, as testified by the multiple answers which were brought to it. In the same way, the concept of life is itself an inexhaustible source of philosophical and religious reflexions, with many consequences in moral domains. It is today necessary to accompany the scientific development in the field of astrobiology by attaching the greatest importance to this intellectual patrimony. It constitutes even one of the first stages of an ethical responsibility in astrobiology, as important as that concerning planetary protection.

  20. The directional sensitivity of retinal rods.

    PubMed Central

    Alpern, M; Ching, C C; Kitahara, K

    1983-01-01

    Rod field sensitivity, 10-S(r) (i.e. the reciprocal of the radiance of a background required for 10-fold elevation of rod threshold) was measured for monochromatic backgrounds traversing the pupil at various points (r) on three subjects. The wave-length dependency of the directional sensitivities of the three foveal cone mechanisms of the principal subject have been reported previously (Alpern & Kitahara, 1983). Rods, as cones, are less sensitive to obliquely incident, than to normally incident backgrounds. At the pupil margin (4 mm) the effect is between 0.368 and 0.976 log10 units smaller for rods. After correction for losses by corneal reflexion and by absorption in the lens, S(r) for rods is reasonably described by the parabolic equation used by Stiles (1937) to quantify the directional sensitivity of cones. The small effect for rods precludes a description as consistently precise as this equation provides for cones. The steepness of the parabolic curve best fitting the directional sensitivity data of the rods of the principal subject was independent of background wave number. For a second subject, whose rods are supposed to be smaller, it was directly proportional to the square of that wave number. The latter is the expectation if the directional sensitivity of this subject's rods were determined by principles outlined in the diffraction theory of Simon (1970). PMID:6644624

  1. [Social crisis and occupational fatigue among health professionals: warnings and resources].

    PubMed

    Wolfberg, Elsa

    Due to the crisis of the welfare state, the smashing of the state budget and the labour flexibility, the "helping professions" (health service, education, etc.) are the main assistance for the poor, the elderly people and the victims of violence. This result in the emergence of occupational pathologies, mainly in the health workers, such as burnout, secondary traumatic stress or empaty caused fatigue, mobbing or moral harassment -all of them affecting not only the quality of life of professionals but also the body health. The corporal disorders may begin with mild malfunctions, considered as "natural" facts of life, then becoming severe illness. The professional may attempt to meliorate the situation with the use of alcohol, tobacco, ansiolitics, etc. thus worsening the whole health. At the moment there are not legal regulations for this emergent pathologies. We have to pay attention to the signals in order to be able to overcome the dysfunctional defense mechanisms and to activate the preventive and protective resources, such as reflexion groups at workplaces. PMID:14654875

  2. [Coping of cybervictimization in adolescence - emotional and behavioral reactions to cyberbullying ].

    PubMed

    Ittel, Angela; M√ľller, Christin R; Pfetsch, Jan; Walk, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    The experience of cybervictimization is related to health, psychological, and behavioral problems among children and adolescents. Up to today research is scarce, how the persons affected by cybervictimization react and which determinants influence the choice for social, problem-focused, technical, or helpless coping behavior. The current online study with 428 adolescents considers age, sex, mean internet use, frequency of victimization, roles in cyberbullying, and emotional reactions to cybervictimization as potential determinants of the mentioned coping strategies. Based on the participant role approach, roles of cyberbullies, cybervictims, defenders or outsiders are frequently changing. Logistic regression analyses point out the important relevance of emotional reactions like anger or helplessness and the roles as cyberbully-victim or outsider. Further, younger participants reported cybervictimization more often, while the frequency of cybervictimization and sex did not and internet use only partially predict coping strategies. These findings corroborate the relevance of emotional reactions and the roles in the process of cyberbullying. As a starting point for prevention and intervention of cybervictimization, we suggest emotion regulation, teaching of technical coping behaviors as well as reflexion of roles in the context of cyberbullying. If feasible, different stakeholders should be engaged in this process: adolescents, parents, educational staff inside and outside of schools, experts from counseling and therapy as well as internet and mobile phone service providers. PMID:24877776

  3. The role of water nitrogen retention in integrated nutrient management: assessment in a large basin using different modelling approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grizzetti, Bruna; Passy, Paul; Billen, Gilles; Bouraoui, Fayçal; Garnier, Josette; Lassaletta, Luis

    2015-06-01

    Assessing the removal of nitrogen (temporary and permanent) in large river basins is complex due to the dependency on climate, hydrological and physical characteristics, and ecosystems functioning. Measurements are generally limited in number and do not account for the full integration of all processes contributing to nitrogen retention in the river basin. However, the estimation of nitrogen retention by the ecosystems is crucial to understanding the nitrate water pollution and the N2O emissions to the atmosphere, as well as the lag time between the implementation of agri-environmental measures to reduce nitrogen pollution and the improvement of water quality. Models have often been used to understand the dynamics of the river basin system. The objective of this study was to assess nitrogen retention in a large river basin, the Seine basin (‚ąľ65 000 km2, in France), through the application of three models with different levels of complexity developed for different specific purposes: the GREEN, SWAT and RiverStrahler models. The study analyses the different modelling approaches and compares their estimates of water nitrogen retention over an 11-year period. Then reflexions on the role played by nitrogen retention by aquatic ecosystems in integrated nutrient management are presented. The results of this study are relevant for the understanding of nitrogen retention processes at the large river basin scale and for the analysis of mitigation measure scenarios designed to reduce nitrogen impacts on aquatic ecosystems and climate.

  4. Trap geometry in three giant montane pitcher plant species from Borneo is a function of tree shrew body size.

    PubMed

    Chin, Lijin; Moran, Jonathan A; Clarke, Charles

    2010-04-01

    *Three Bornean pitcher plant species, Nepenthes lowii, N. rajah and N. macrophylla, produce modified pitchers that 'capture' tree shrew faeces for nutritional benefit. Tree shrews (Tupaia montana) feed on exudates produced by glands on the inner surfaces of the pitcher lids and defecate into the pitchers. *Here, we tested the hypothesis that pitcher geometry in these species is related to tree shrew body size by comparing the pitcher characteristics with those of five other 'typical' (arthropod-trapping) Nepenthes species. *We found that only pitchers with large orifices and lids that are concave, elongated and oriented approximately at right angles to the orifice capture faeces. The distance from the tree shrews' food source (that is, the lid nectar glands) to the front of the pitcher orifice precisely matches the head plus body length of T. montana in the faeces-trapping species, and is a function of orifice size and the angle of lid reflexion. *Substantial changes to nutrient acquisition strategies in carnivorous plants may occur through simple modifications to trap geometry. This extraordinary plant-animal interaction adds to a growing body of evidence that Nepenthes represents a candidate model for adaptive radiation with regard to nitrogen sequestration strategies. PMID:20100203

  5. Some reflective properties of the tapetum lucidum of the cat's eye

    PubMed Central

    Coles, J. A.

    1971-01-01

    1. Observation of the fresh, isolated tapetum of the cat with a low-power microscope showed it to be composed of multilayer reflectors (domains) each being less than 6 őľm in diameter. It is concluded that these are subdivisions of the intracellular bundles of rodlets seen in electron micrographs. 2. Apparatus was devised for illuminating a single domain with a pencil of white light and observing the colour and direction of the reflected light. 3. Those domains which lie near the vitreal surface of the tapetum tend to reflect blue light and deeper ones reflect longer wave-lengths; this is attributed to differences in the layer spacings of the domains. 4. Each domain has a set of reflecting planes lying within 15¬į of the general plane of the tapetal surface. In addition, many domains have surfaces inclined to these at angles greater than 20¬į which also can reflect visible light. 5. The mechanism of reflexion is discussed in relation to the latticelike structure of the domain. 6. It is suggested that under some conditions the nature of the tapetum may lead to significant local variations in the spectral sensitivity of the visual system. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:5548017

  6. [The implantation receptive luteal phase of the endometrium. On the current status of molecular and cell biology research].

    PubMed

    Beier, H M; Beier-Hellwig, K; Sterzik, K

    2001-06-01

    The biological aim of the differentiation and maturation of endometrial tissue compartments during any menstrual cycle is the achievement of suitable conditions for blastocyst implantation and the establishment of pregnancy. Infertility and early embryonic loss are frequently caused by insufficient endometrial differentiation. Even any incomplete receptivity stage of the luteal phase endometrium will prevent attachment and implantation. We have studied the physiological changes throughout an endometrial cycle to elucidate causes of endometrial insufficiency leading to subfertility or infertility. Up to now, the histological changes described by Noyes et al. are understood as classical diagnostic approaches. However, evidence is accumulating that molecular deficits of endometrial differentiation are by no means detectable histologically, and consequently ask for the research on new diagnostic methods and parameters. There are histochemical localizations of specific protein molecules, adhesion molecules and cytokines, which permit by far more detailed and significant molecular analyses than any classical morphological means could yield. Moreover, there are convincing arguments to use further biochemical assessments on proteins of the uterine secretions as specific diagnostic parameters. The electrophoretical resolution presents typical protein patterns, which in turn can be interpreted as characteristic reflexions of the functional phases of the endometrial cycle. What is demonstrated as the so-called adequate luteal phase protein pattern clearly is the product of the receptive endometrium, reflecting the "implantation window". This is established already two days after ovulation and persists usually eight further days, if the endometrial cycle is undisturbed (15th to 24th day of the cycle). PMID:11488159

  7. Active self-calibration of thoracoscopic images for assisted minimally invasive spinal surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, Fantin; Benboujja, Fouzi; Parent, Stefan; Cheriet, Farida

    2010-02-01

    Registration of thoracoscopic images to a preoperative 3D model of the spine is a prerequisite for minimally invasive surgical guidance. We propose an active self-calibration method of thoracoscopic image sequences acquired by an angled monocular endoscope with varying focal length during minimally invasive surgery of the spine. The extrinsic parameters are updated in real time by a motion tracking system while the intrinsic parameters are determined from a set of geometrical primitives extracted from the image of the surgical instrument tracked throughout the thoracoscopic sequence. A particle filter was used for the tracking of the instrument on the image sequence that was preprocessed to detect and correct reflexions due to the light source. The proposed method requires undertaking a pure rotation of the endoscope to update the focal length and exploits the inherent temporal rigid motion of the instrument through consecutive frames. A pure rotation is achievable by undertaking a rotation of the scope cylinder with respect to the head of the camera. Therefore, the surgeon may take full advantage of an angled endoscope by adjusting focus and zoom during surgery. Simulation experiments have assessed the accuracy of the obtained parameters and the optimal number of geometrical primitives required for an active self-calibration of the angled monocular endoscope. Finally, an in vitro experiment demonstrated that 3D reconstruction of rigid structures tracked throughout a monocular thoracoscopic image sequence is feasible and its accuracy is adequate for the registration of thoracoscopic images to a preoperative MRI 3D model of the spine.

  8. Influence of alloying elements in rust formed on low alloyed steels. A study by x-ray diffraction and MŲssbauer spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haces, C.; Furet, N. R.; Muleshkova, L.

    1991-11-01

    In this research, three Bulgarian steels were employed, one carbon (08KP) and other two low alloyed (KBC) and (KORAT). These three steels were exposed on a test site affected with industrial pollution in the Cuban climate, for a period of one, two and three years. The phase composition obtained by means of XRD and MŲssbauer spectroscopy is mainly a mixture of Goethite (?-FeOOH) and Lepidocrocite (?-FEOOH) in the three steels. The mean width of the Goethite reflexions, as determined in the diffractograms, is increased in the case of the low alloyed steels, while in MŲssbauer spectra two types of magnetic arrangement for Goethite appear, one antiferromagnetic (sextet) and the other superparamagnetic (doublet). This behaviour is due to the effect of the small particle size and the presence of alloying elements in the structure. In this paper, the values of the areas of both effects are discussed from the greater formation of superparamagnetic Goethite in the KORAT steel which exibits the lowest corrosion rate.

  9. ASSERT for Mascot / Hayabusa 2 mission: A radar tomography of 1999 JU3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herique, A.; Kofman, W. W.; Barucci, A.; Beck, P.; Biele, J.; Clifford, S. M.; Goutail, J.; Heggy, E.; Ho, T.; Kumamoto, A.; Lasue, J.; Levasseur-Regourd, A.; Michel, P.; Nielsen, E.; Ono, T.; Pujet, P.; Plettemeier, D.; Ulamec, S.; Zine, S.

    2010-12-01

    ASteroid Sounding Experiment by Radiowaves Transmission is a radar to instrument the Mascot lander which is proposed in the frame future Hayabusa 2 Jaxa mission. This low frequency radar is a unique opportunity to sound the internal structure of the target. It is to achieve the tomography both in transmission and in reflexion of the asteroid in order to determine its fracturing, its stratigraphy and its heterogeneity at different scale for better understanding of accretion and evolution phenomena's. This talk reviews all the aspect of the proposed experiment. The problematic of the C-type asteroid is reviewed in order to demonstrate the interest of the low frequency radar sounding. The Consert/Rosetta-like bistatic experiment solution is proposed to fulfil the low mass budget constraints. The concept of this tomography between the lander and the orbiter is detailed including its different operation modes, the measurement, the inversions and the addressed NEA questions. In a second time, we present the design of our instrument. These review starts from the existing Consert instrument on board of the Rosetta and Philae probes. The main instrument trade off are presented from the mission characteristics and the proposed target. The electronics are revisited and the budgets are updated. So, some antenna designs are proposed for both lander and orbiter spacecrafts. To end a preliminary experiment budget is shown.

  10. How do silanes affect the lubricating properties of cationic double chain surfactant on silica surfaces?

    PubMed

    Beauvais, Muriel; Serreau, Laurence; Heitz, Caroline; Barthel, Etienne

    2009-03-01

    The effect of an aminosilane on the lubricant properties of a C(18) double-chained cationic surfactant has been investigated in the context of glass fiber forming process. The surfactant adsorption was studied on silica by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy in the attenuated total reflexion (ATR) mode as a function of the aminosilane concentration in an organic water based formulation (sizing) used to coat the glass fibers during the process. A reciprocating ball-on-plate tribometer was used to compare friction properties of silica in contact with the aminosilane-surfactant mixture and in presence of each component of the sizing. Surface forces were measured between silica and an atomic force microscope (AFM) silicon nitride tip in the sizing and in the pure cationic surfactant solution. The aminosilane on its own has no lubricant property and reduces or even suppresses the cationic surfactant adsorption on silica. However, the silica-silica contact is lubricated even if the infrared spectroscopy does not detect any surfactant adsorption. The repeated contacts and shear due to the friction experiment itself induce accumulation, organization and compactness of surfactant bilayers. PMID:19059599

  11. Evidence that logical reasoning depends on conscious processing.

    PubMed

    DeWall, C Nathan; Baumeister, Roy F; Masicampo, E J

    2008-09-01

    Humans, unlike other animals, are equipped with a powerful brain that permits conscious awareness and reflection. A growing trend in psychological science has questioned the benefits of consciousness, however. Testing a hypothesis advanced by [Lieberman, M. D., Gaunt, R., Gilbert, D. T., & Trope, Y. (2002). Reflection and reflexion: A social cognitive neuroscience approach to attributional inference. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 34, 199-249], four studies suggested that the conscious, reflective processing system is vital for logical reasoning. Substantial decrements in logical reasoning were found when a cognitive load manipulation preoccupied conscious processing, while hampering the nonconscious system with consciously suppressed thoughts failed to impair reasoning (Experiment 1). Nonconscious activation (priming) of the idea of logical reasoning increased the activation of logic-relevant concepts, but failed to improve logical reasoning performance (Experiments 2a-2c) unless the logical conclusions were largely intuitive and thus not reliant on logical reasoning (Experiment 3). Meanwhile, stimulating the conscious goal of reasoning well led to improvements in reasoning performance (Experiment 4). These findings offer evidence that logical reasoning is aided by the conscious, reflective processing system. PMID:18226923

  12. Radiopacity evaluation of contemporary resin composites by digitization of images

    PubMed Central

    Ermis, R. Banu; Yildirim, Derya; Yildiz, Gul; Gormez, Ozlem

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity of different composite resins and compare the values to those of human enamel and dentine. Materials and Methods: Five specimens of each material with thicknesses of 2 mm were prepared and radiographed alongside aluminum step wedge and human enamel and dentin. Three occlusal radiographs for each material were taken and digitized using a desktop scanner. Mean gray values of the test materials were measured using Image J software. Then a conversion was performed according to establish the radiopacity of the test materials, in millimeters of equivalent Al. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Duncan multiple range tests (P < 0.05). Results: The radiopacity values varied among the restorative materials (P < 0.05). The radiopacity values of the materials tested were, in decreasing order: Enamel Plus HRI > Z250 > Filtek Ultimate ‚Č• Z550 > Nexcomp ‚Č• Nanoceram Bright > enamel ‚Č• Estelite Sigma Quick > Clearfil Majesty Esthetic ‚Č• Reflexions XLS ‚Č• Aelite LS Posterior ‚Č• dentin ‚Č• 2 mm Al. Conclusion: All resin composite materials investigated in this study presented different radiopacity values. However, all materials had radiopacity values greater than dentin and had sufficient radiopacity to meet International Organization for Standardization 4049 standard. PMID:25202214

  13. Solid organ transplant training objectives for residents.

    PubMed

    Masclans, J R; Vicente, R; Ballesteros, M A; Sabater, J; Roca, O; Rello, J

    2012-11-01

    With the aim of analyzing the current state of the educational objectives in the training of medical residents in solid organ transplantation (SOT), we conducted a review of the status of the official programs of the specialities involved in SOT, focusing particularly on lung transplantation. A survey of medical residents was also conducted to allow reflexion about the topic. We obtained 44 surveys from 4 University Hospitals with active programs in SOT, mainly from intensive care medicine and anesthesiology residents. We detected an important number of courses oriented to organ donation but very limited in terms of basic training in the management of the immediate postoperative period, principles of immunosuppression and updates on immunosuppressive therapy and complications (particularly rejection and infection). We also identified that these educational aspects should be directed not only to medical residents from specialities with a close retation to SOT, but also to all who may at some time have a relation to such patients. The use of information and communication techniques (ICTs), on-line courses and also simulations should be instruments to take into account in the biomedical training of medical residents. We conclude that we need a specific training program in complications of SOT, as well as fundamental principles in immunology and immunosuppressor pharmacology. PMID:22980670

  14. [Hepatitis E virus: Blood transfusion implications].

    PubMed

    Gallian, P; Piquet, Y; Assal, A; Djoudi, R; Chiaroni, J; Izopet, J; Tiberghien, P

    2014-11-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a non-enveloped RNA virus transmitted by the fecal-oral route. Autochthonous hepatitis E occurring in developed countries is caused by genotypes 3 and 4 and is a zoonotic infection. Humans are infected mostly after ingestion of undercooked meat from infected animals. Most HEV 3 and 4 infections are clinically inapparent. However, genotype 3 (HEV 3) can lead to chronic hepatitis in immuno-compromised patients such as organ-transplant recipients and patients with haematological malignancies. In Europe, HEV 3 is implicated in transfusion-transmitted HEV infection. In France, as observed in several European countries, prevalence of HEV RNA and specific IgG antibodies are high indicating that viral circulation is important. The systematic HEV NAT screening of blood donations used for preparation of solvent detergent plasma indicate that 1 to 2218 donation is infected by HEV RNA. The need or implementation's impacts of safety measures to prevent HEV transmission by blood transfusion are under reflexion by French's health authorities. The HEV NAT screening is the only available tool of prevention. Alternative strategies are under investigation including individual or mini pool NAT testing all or part of blood donations. PMID:25267201

  15. Algorithms for computer detection of symmetry elements in molecular systems.

    PubMed

    Beruski, Ot√°vio; Vidal, Luciano N

    2014-02-01

    Simple procedures for the location of proper and improper rotations and reflexion planes are presented. The search is performed with a molecule divided into subsets of symmetrically equivalent atoms (SEA) which are analyzed separately as if they were a single molecule. This approach is advantageous in many aspects. For instance, in those molecules that are symmetric rotors, the number of atoms and the inertia tensor of the SEA provide one straight way to find proper rotations of any order. The algorithms are invariant to the molecular orientation and their computational cost is low, because the main information required to find symmetry elements is interatomic distances and the principal moments of the SEA. For example, our Fortran implementation, running on a single processor, took only a few seconds to locate all 120 symmetry operations of the large and highly symmetrical fullerene C720, belonging to the Ih point group. Finally, we show how the interatomic distances matrix of a slightly unsymmetrical molecule is used to symmetrize its geometry. PMID:24403016

  16. Echtzeit-Ultraschallsimulation auf Grafik-Prozessoren mit CUDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichl, Tobias; Passenger, Josh; Acosta, Oscar; Salvado, Olivier

    Trotz der zunehmenden Verbreitung j√ľngerer bildgebender Verfahren bleibt medizinischer Ultraschall (US) weiterhin ein wichtiges Hilfsmittel bei chirurgischen Eingriffen und der klinischen Diagnose. Viele US-gest√ľtzte medizinische Prozeduren erfordern allerdings ausgiebiges Training, so dass es w√ľnschenswert ist, eine realistische Simulation von US-Bildern zur Verf√ľgung zu stellen. Im Gegensatz zu fr√ľheren Ans√§tzen simulieren wir solche Bilder auf der "Graphics Processing Unit‚Äú. Wir erweitern hierzu eine Methode, die von Wein et al. f√ľr die Absch√§tzung von US-Reflexionen aus Daten der Computertomographie (CT) vorgeschlagen wurde, zu einer leichter zu berechnenden Form. Zus√§tzlich sch√§tzen wir die US-Absorption aus den CT-Daten ab. Mit Hilfe von NVIDIAs "Compute Unified Device Architecture‚Äú (CUDA) simulieren wir Reflexion, Verschattung, Rauschen und radiale Unsch√§rfe, ausgehend von unbearbeiteten CT-Daten in Echtzeit und ohne Vorausberechnung.

  17. First-principles investigation of the adsorption of the 2,5-pyridine di-carboxylic acid onto the Cu(011) surface.

    PubMed

    Tranca, D C; Keil, F J

    2011-03-14

    First-principles calculations within the density functional theory (DFT) framework have been performed in order to investigate various conformations of the 2,5-pyridine di-carboxylic acid (PDCA) molecule adsorbed onto the Cu(011) surface. By means of DFT calculations the adsorption geometry, the bond formation and the electronic properties of PDCA molecule conformations on the Cu(011) surface have been studied. The most important structural property is the orientation of the COOH H atom which can point either toward the aromatic ring or toward the vacuum. This H atom position determines the possible reactions in which the adsorbed molecule can get involved and also has a significant impact on the value of the Cu-molecule system work function. Thus, we find that simply by changing the H atom orientation (from up to down) the Cu-molecule system work function can be varied with more than 2.5 eV. This is a significant result as a lot of effort is put nowadays in finding efficient ways for the in situ variation of the systems work function. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images, reflexion absorption infrared vibrational spectra (RAIRS) as well as various thermodynamic properties (adsorption entropies, enthalpies) have also been investigated in order to get a better insight into the system studied and to provide support to possible experimental studies (STM or RAIRS experiments). PMID:21405185

  18. First-principles investigation of the adsorption of the 2,5-pyridine di-carboxylic acid onto the Cu(011) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tranca, D. C.; Keil, F. J.

    2011-03-01

    First-principles calculations within the density functional theory (DFT) framework have been performed in order to investigate various conformations of the 2,5-pyridine di-carboxylic acid (PDCA) molecule adsorbed onto the Cu(011) surface. By means of DFT calculations the adsorption geometry, the bond formation and the electronic properties of PDCA molecule conformations on the Cu(011) surface have been studied. The most important structural property is the orientation of the COOH H atom which can point either toward the aromatic ring or toward the vacuum. This H atom position determines the possible reactions in which the adsorbed molecule can get involved and also has a significant impact on the value of the Cu-molecule system work function. Thus, we find that simply by changing the H atom orientation (from up to down) the Cu-molecule system work function can be varied with more than 2.5 eV. This is a significant result as a lot of effort is put nowadays in finding efficient ways for the in situ variation of the systems work function. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images, reflexion absorption infrared vibrational spectra (RAIRS) as well as various thermodynamic properties (adsorption entropies, enthalpies) have also been investigated in order to get a better insight into the system studied and to provide support to possible experimental studies (STM or RAIRS experiments).

  19. Optical quality of the living cat eye.

    PubMed

    Bonds, A B

    1974-12-01

    1. The optical quality of the living cat eye was measured under conditions similar to those of cat retinal ganglion cell experiments by recording the aerial image of a nearly monochromatic thin line of light.2. Experiments were performed to assess the nature of the fundal reflexion of the cat eye, which was found to behave essentially as a diffuser.3. The optical Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) was calculated from the measured aerial linespread using Fourier mathematics; the MTF of a ;typical' cat eye was averaged from data collected from ten eyes.4. The state of focus of the optical system, the pupil size and the angle of the light incident on the eye were all varied to determine their effect on image quality.5. By using an image rotator, the aerial linespread was measured for several orientations of the line; these measurements yielded an approximation of the two-dimensional pointspread completely characterizing the optical system.6. Evidence is reviewed to show that the optical resolution of the cat, albeit some 3-5 times worse than that of human, appears to be better than the neural resolution of its retina and its visual system as a whole. PMID:4449081

  20. Comparison of {sup 120}Sn({sup 6}He,{sup 6}He){sup 120}Sn and {sup 120}Sn({alpha},{alpha}){sup 120}Sn elastic scattering and signatures of the {sup 6}He neutron halo in the optical potential

    SciTech Connect

    Mohr, P.; Faria, P. N. de; Lichtenthaeler, R.; Pires, K. C. C.; Guimaraes, V.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Mendes, D. R. Jr.; Barioni, A.; Morcelle, V.; Morais, M. C.; Arazi, A.

    2010-10-15

    Cross sections of {sup 120}Sn({alpha},{alpha}){sup 120}Sn elastic scattering have been extracted from the {alpha}-particle-beam contamination of a recent {sup 120}Sn({sup 6}He,{sup 6}He){sup 120}Sn experiment. Both reactions are analyzed using systematic double-folding potentials in the real part and smoothly varying Woods-Saxon potentials in the imaginary part. The potential extracted from the {sup 120}Sn({sup 6}He,{sup 6}He){sup 120}Sn data may be used as the basis for the construction of a simple global {sup 6}He optical potential. The comparison of the {sup 6}He and {alpha} data shows that the halo nature of the {sup 6}He nucleus leads to a clear signature in the reflexion coefficients {eta}{sub L}: The relevant angular momenta L with {eta}{sub L}>>0 and {eta}{sub L}<<1 are shifted to larger L with a broader distribution. This signature is not present in the {alpha}-scattering data and can thus be used as a new criterion for the definition of a halo nucleus.

  1. Seismic assessment of geothermal potential: Concept and application Part 2: Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwanowski, K.; Szalaiova, E.; Rabbel, W.

    2009-12-01

    The exploration of renewable energies such as geothermal energy plays an important role in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, but its widespread economic use is limited by high uncertainties in the reservoir characterization and the resulting high investment risks. The aim of the MeProRisk project (with the project partners CAU Kiel, RWTH Aachen, FU-Berlin and Geophysica) is the improvement of geophysical methods for the exploration of the geothermal potential by setting up a concept which will be based on the combination of geophysical and hydraulic borehole measurements and thermal simulations (Part1: Concept, Szalaiova E., Iwanowski K., Rabbel W.). Since geothermal properties vary significantly in different subsurface conditions such as crystalline and sediments, different approaches in the fracture zones detection and the derivation of petrophysical boundary conditions for geothermal modeling must be defined. A comparative analysis of seismic data combined with borehole information was applied on the following two geothermally relevant locations: (1) Southern German crystalline: German continental deep drilling program (KTB), and (2) North German Basin sediments (provided by RWE-DEA). Available are 3D reflexion seismic datasets, numerous vertical seismic profiles and a dataset containing a big amount of various log data. The result is a 3D structure model, which will be used as input in the following modeling. This poster gives an overview of the current state of results and a comparison of the two datasets mentioned above.

  2. Numerical modeling of undersea acoustics using a partition of unity method with plane waves enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hospital-Bravo, Ra√ļl; Sarrate, Josep; D√≠ez, Pedro

    2016-05-01

    A new 2D numerical model to predict the underwater acoustic propagation is obtained by exploring the potential of the Partition of Unity Method (PUM) enriched with plane waves. The aim of the work is to obtain sound pressure level distributions when multiple operational noise sources are present, in order to assess the acoustic impact over the marine fauna. The model takes advantage of the suitability of the PUM for solving the Helmholtz equation, especially for the practical case of large domains and medium frequencies. The seawater acoustic absorption and the acoustic reflectance of the sea surface and sea bottom are explicitly considered, and perfectly matched layers (PML) are placed at the lateral artificial boundaries to avoid spurious reflexions. The model includes semi-analytical integration rules which are adapted to highly oscillatory integrands with the aim of reducing the computational cost of the integration step. In addition, we develop a novel strategy to mitigate the ill-conditioning of the elemental and global system matrices. Specifically, we compute a low-rank approximation of the local space of solutions, which in turn reduces the number of degrees of freedom, the CPU time and the memory footprint. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the capabilities of the model and to assess its accuracy.

  3. Observaciones del CH interestelar y el continuo en 3,3 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olano, C. A.; Combi, J. A.; Pöppel, W.; Benaglia, P.; Sanz, A. J.; Bava, J. A.

    Se informa sobre el proyecto que se lleva a cabo en el IAR con el propósito de observar las líneas hiperfinas del estado fundamental del CH y el continuo en la banda de 3,3 GHz. El nuevo receptor construído en nuestro laboratorio para tal fin se instaló sobre uno de los radiotelescopios, funcionando conjuntamente con los sistemas de procesamiento actuales del IAR. Los resultados de las primeras observaciones, realizadas tanto en las líneas espectrales como en el continuo sobre fuentes conocidas, fueron satisfactorios.

  4. Pasado, presente y futuro de la epidemiología. Una perspective latinoamericana

    PubMed Central

    Morabia, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Este art√≠culo intenta contestar tres preguntas. Sobre el pasado: ¬ŅPor qu√© no existi√≥ una epidemiolog√≠a precolombina? Sobre el presente: ¬ŅCu√°les son los or√≠genes de la epidemiolog√≠a moderna, incluyendo sus ra√≠ces sudamericanas? Y sobre el futuro, escog√≠ un t√≠tulo surrealista para enfatizar el hecho que estoy consciente de que es siempre delicado hacer predicciones: ¬ŅPor qu√© fen√≥menos complejos son los ‚Äúobjetos oscuros del deseo‚ÄĚ epidemiol√≥gico? PMID:25124247

  5. Designing and Supporting Cooperative and Ubiquitous Learning Systems for People with Special Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fern√°ndez L√≥pez, √Ālvaro; Rodr√≠guez F√≥rtiz, Mar√≠a Jos√©; Noguera Garc√≠a, Manuel

    Cooperative work in schools helps students to learn behaviour norms, tolerate their partners and educators, and make decisions or accept the decisions from other people. In case of students with cognitive disabilities, cooperative work contributes to the socialization of the students by improving the communication and the integration in the classroom. New technologies foster guided and cooperative learning through didactic exercises and educational activities that adapt the educative context to user's needs and abilities. For this objective, the design must take into account non-funcional requirements for provide a future adaptation. This paper presents the design of one of such systems and the main decisions made in order to improve usability, adaptation, flexibility, and accessibility in ubiquitous spaces of it. The general architecture of the system and the platform that supports the development process of its software for educational activities are described in a real case study.

  6. Improvements of the Penalty Avoiding Rational Policy Making Algorithm and an Application to the Othello Game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Kazuteru; Tsuboi, Sougo; Kobayashi, Shigenobu

    The purpose of reinforcement learning is to learn an optimal policy in general. However, in 2-players games such as the othello game, it is important to acquire a penalty avoiding policy. In this paper, we focus on formation of a penalty avoiding policy based on the Penalty Avoiding Rational Policy Making algorithm [Miyazaki 01]. In applying it to large-scale problems, we are confronted with the curse of dimensionality. We introduce several ideas and heuristics to overcome the combinational explosion in large-scale problems. First, we propose an algorithm to save the memory by calculation of state transition. Second, we describe how to restrict exploration by two type knowledge; KIFU database and evaluation funcion. We show that our learning player can always defeat against the well-known othello game program KITTY.

  7. Analisis del contenido curricular de los Documentos Normativos del Programa de Ciencias en el area de biologia para la escuela superior del sistema de educacion publica de Puerto Rico: 1993-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davila Montanez, Melissa

    Esta investigacion de naturaleza cualitativa se ocupo de realizar un analisis de contenido documental de los Documentos Normativos del Programa de Ciencias en el area de biologia de la escuela superior del sistema de educacion publica de Puerto Rico del periodo 1993-2012. Los documentos analizados fueron: Guia Curricular, 1995; Marco Curricular, 2003; Estandares de Excelencia, 1996, 2000 y Estandares de Contenido y Expectativas de Grado, 2007. Se indago si hubo cambios en significados en los Componentes Estructurales: Naturaleza de la ciencia, Paradigmas para la ensenanza de la ciencia, Funcion del curriculo formal, Mision de la ensenanza de la ciencia; Contenidos, destrezas y competencias, Estrategias de ensenanza y Evaluacion/Assessment del aprendizaje. El analisis sugiere que no hubo cambios sustanciales en los significados de los Componentes Estructurales. Los documentos estudiados muestran mayormente caracteristicas similares, aunque los documentos mas recientes eran mas descriptivos, explicativos y especificos.

  8. Mejoras en el apuntado del telescopio de 2,15 mts de CASLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aballay, J. L.; Casagrande, A. R.; Pereyra, P. F.; Mar√ļn, A. H.

    Con el objeto de optimizar el funcionamiento del telescopio de 2,15 mts. de CASLEO, se est√°n eliminando los motores de calar, de gu√≠a y mec√°nica asociada. Para √©sto, se est√°n dise√Īando dos electr√≥nicas que gobernar√°n, solamente, el motor de slew y el de tracking. Con el control del motor de slew se realizar√°n las funciones de slew y calar, controlando desde una PC la placa que maneja las rampas de velocidad. De este modo, el movimiento ser√° programado y por lo tanto, m√°s suave y preciso. Con el control del motor de tracking, a trav√©s de un generador de frecuencias programable desde una PC, se proveer√° los movimientos necesarios para el tracking y gu√≠a.

  9. All about Menstruation (For Children)

    MedlinePlus

    ... en espa√Īol Todo sobre la menstruaci√≥n People (especially girls) talk a lot about periods. But what exactly is a period and what makes it happen? Girls only: How much do you worry about getting ...

  10. Carcinoma de tumor primario desconocido‚ÄĒVersi√≥n para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del carcinoma de tumor primario desconocido, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados.

  11. Observing Sites in NW Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muriel, H.

    En esta comunicacion se propone revisar la importancia que los grandes relevamientos de galaxias y los diferentes catalogos que de ellos se derivan, tienen en los estudios sobre estructura y evolucion del Universo.

  12. Muchos adolescentes y adultos jóvenes supervivientes de cáncer tienen problemas crónicos de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo sobre los resultados de un estudio realizado en 2012 que subrayan la importancia de abordar las necesidades especiales e inquietudes de los adolescentes y adultos jóvenes supervivientes de cáncer.

  13. 26 CFR 31.6011(a)-2 - Returns under Railroad Retirement Tax Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... employer, pursuant to the provisions of 26 CFR (1939) 410.501(b) (Regulations 100) or of 26 CFR (1939) 411... Federal sobre el Trabajo por Cuenta Propia (Incluyendo el Crédito Tributario Adicional por Hijos...

  14. Grados de comprobaci√≥n de estudios de terapias integrales (PDQ¬ģ)‚ÄĒVersi√≥n para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información acerca de cómo sopesar la fuerza de los datos probatorios obtenidos de los estudios de investigación sobre terapias integrales, alternativas y complementarias en seres humanos con cáncer.

  15. Explore medicamentos | Smokefree EspaŮol

    Cancer.gov

    Aprenda sobre los medicamentos que lo ayudarŠn a dejar de fumar, incluso el tratamiento de reemplazo de la nicotina. El uso de estos medicamentos puede duplicar sus probabilidades de dejar de fumar definitivamente.

  16. Tumores carcinoides gastrointestinales‚ÄĒVersi√≥n para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del tumor carcinoide gastrointestinal, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados.

  17. El estr√©s y fumar | Smokefree Espa√Īol

    Cancer.gov

    Muchas personas fuman cuando se sienten estresadas. Una parte importante de dejar de fumar es encontrar maneras de manejar el estrés. Reciba recomendaciones sobre formas de disminuir el estrés en su vida.

  18. Explore medicamentos | Smokefree Espa√Īol

    Cancer.gov

    Aprenda sobre los medicamentos que lo ayudar√°n a dejar de fumar, incluso el tratamiento de reemplazo de la nicotina. El uso de estos medicamentos puede duplicar sus probabilidades de dejar de fumar definitivamente.

  19. Líneas Vitales: Programas y servicios del NCI

    Cancer.gov

    Artículos y videos sobre los programas y servicios del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer de la serie educativa Líneas Vitales del NCI, la cual está dirigida especialmente a poblaciones multiculturales.

  20. Neoplasias mieloproliferativas y s√≠ndromes mielodispl√°sicos‚ÄĒVersi√≥n para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento de las neoplasias mieloproliferativas, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados.

  1. Fotometría UBVI en NGC 6231

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baume, G. L.; V√°zquez, R. A.; Feinstein, A.

    Se ha realizado fotometr√≠a CCD UBVI en la zona del c√ļmulo abierto NGC 6231, habi√©ndose observado 1062 estrellas hasta una magnitud V‚Čą 19. Esto posibilita tener una imagen clara de la parte inferior de la secuencia principal del c√ļmulo. Combinando nuestros datos con tipos espectrales tomados de la literatura pudimos re-derivar la ley de absorci√≥n en direcci√≥n a este c√ļmulo y encontrar que los valores de R muestran variaciones de estrella a estrella. La secuencia principal inferior muestra tambi√©n algunos rasgos intrigantes: hay un codo notorio en V‚Čą 13.5 seguido por un gran ``spread'' de magnitudes a color constante entre las estrellas d√©biles y una inusualmente alta densidad de estrellas a lo largo de una banda que se extiende 1.5 mag encima de la ZAMS. Los c√°lculos indican que el n√ļmero esperado de estrellas de campo en direcci√≥n al c√ļmulo deber√≠a ser menor que el observado. Una re-evaluaci√≥n de las funciones de luminosidad y masa dentro de los l√≠mites -7.5 < MV < 1.5 mag y 2 Msolar < M arroja pendientes planas para ambas funciones, lo que parece ser t√≠pico de c√ļmulos muy j√≥venes. Todos estos rasgos son congruentes con un escenario joven donde las estrellas en fase de contracci√≥n est√°n arribando a la secuencia principal.

  2. Inventario mundial de la calidad del carbon mineral (WoCQI) [The world coal quality inventory (WoCQI)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelman, R.B.; Lovern, V.S.

    2001-01-01

    Los oficiales encargados de la politica comercial de cada pais requieren informacion clara y precisa sobre el recurso del carbon mineral, particularmente sobre sus propiedades y caracteristicas, para tomar decisiones bien fundamentadas con respecto al mejor uso de los recursos naturales, necesidades de importacion y oportunidades de exportacion, objetivos de politica interna y externa, oportunidades de transferencia tecnologica, posibilidades de inversion externa, estudios ambientales y de salud, y asuntos relacionados con el uso de productos secundarios y su disposicion.

  3. Leptin as well as Free Leptin Receptor Is Associated with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Rizk, Nasser M.; Sharif, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim. Leptin has two forms in the circulation: free and bound forms. The soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R) circulates in the blood and can bind to leptin. The aim of this study is to assess the concentrations of the leptin and the sOB-R in PCOS and its relation to adiposity, insulin resistance, and androgens. Methods. A cross-sectional study included 78 female students aged 17‚Äď25 years. Fasting serum leptin and sOB-R concentrations were measured. The anthropometric variables and the hormonal profile such as insulin, female and male sex hormones, and prolactin were assessed. Results. In PCOS, leptin level (ng/ml) and free leptin index (FLI) increased significantly while sOB-R (ng/ml) significantly decreased compared to control subjects. In age-matched subjects, obese PCOS had increased leptin level in ng/ml (median level with interquartile levels) of 45.67 (41.98‚Äď48.04) and decreased sOB-R in ng/ml 11.47 (7.59‚Äď16.44) compared to lean PCOS 16.97 (10.60‚Äď45.55) for leptin and 16.62 (11.61‚Äď17.96) for sOB-R with p values 0.013 and 0.042, respectively. However, body mass index (BMI) is significantly correlated with leptin and s-OBR, while no significant correlations with parameters of insulin resistance were detected. Conclusion. PCOS is associated with hyperleptinemia and increased free leptin index. Decreased sOB-R could be a compensatory mechanism for the defective action of leptin. PMID:26180527

  4. Fetuin-A levels and free leptin index are reduced in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a hospital-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Dalamaga, Maria; Polyzos, Stergios A; Karmaniolas, Konstantinos; Chamberland, John; Lekka, Antigoni; Triantafilli, Maria; Migdalis, Ilias; Papadavid, Evangelia; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2016-03-01

    There are limited data on fetuin-A, soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R) and free leptin index (FLI) in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The aim of this study was to compare circulating fetuin-A, sOB-R levels and FLI between 95 patients with CLL and 95 matched controls, as well as among different stages of CLL. Circulating fetuin-A was significantly lower in cases than controls (241.9 ¬Ī 99.2 vs. 288.8 ¬Ī 127.7 őľg/mL; p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.005). Although circulating sOB-R levels were similar between groups, FLI was lower in cases than controls (0.45 ¬Ī 0.42 vs. 0.67 ¬Ī 0.57; p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.003). Furthermore, lower fetuin-A or FLI, but not sOB-R, were independently associated with CLL (p‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ0.05), particularly among overweight/obese individuals. Fetuin-A, s-OB-R and FLI were similar between different stages of CLL severity, or between symptomatic and asymptomatic disease. In conclusion, circulating fetuin-A and FLI, but not sOB-R, were lower in patients with CLL than controls, a finding warranting further investigation. PMID:26317877

  5. The GOLD IODP Project: Global Climate Changes, Extreme Events, Margins formation and the Limits of Life in the Gulf of Lion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabineau, M.

    2009-12-01

    The Gulf of Lion is a unique natural laboratory to study both evolution and interaction of deep processes and more surficial processes. Here, we present, the main objectives for a deep GOLD drilling project at the toe of the continental slope (2400 m water depth where the sedimentary column is fully complete without major erosion and hiatuses. At this position we record the full and very high resolution history of the last 23 Ma of earth history within 7.7 km of sedimentary archives. 1) This drilling represents the first opportunity to study the microbial communities from deep marine sediments of the Mediterranean Sea, the so-called ‚Äėdeep biosphere‚Äô. This site is particularly interesting to address the question of life‚Äôs tolerance to environmental extremes and habitability since extreme conditions such as high P, high T¬į, salt layers and particular organic matter content are prevailing. The GOLD drilling should reach 7700 mbsf when the present-day deepest detection for molecular signatures of microbes is at 1626 mbsf. 2) Seismic reflexion data (ECORS, SARDINIA data) image quite clearly, at the toe of the slope, the limit between continental crust and transitional substratum where highly reflective lower crust clearly visible below the shelf, disappears. Refraction data confirm those observations: the upper continental crust thins to less than 5 km, and changes laterally to a relatively thin crust with high velocities which precise nature is still a problem. The aim of the drilling is to bring crucial information on the nature of this puzzling crust. 3) The Gulf of Lion receives most sediments from the Alps by the Rh√īne River. We infer that the amount of sediment will vary significantly according to the existence or not of ice sheet and glaciers. We will therefore date and characterize the impact of the initiation and the change in glacioeustatic cyclicities on alpine glacier and ultimately on sedimentation in the deep basin during Plioquaternary. For the Miocene and older sediments the drilling combined to seismic reflexion data, will give the nature, the paleoenvironments and dating of deposits enabling early history of margin formation and subsidence understanding and an Astronomically Tuned Neogene Time Scale to be established. 4) The messinian extreme event represents a unique sedimentological, hydrological, oceanographic, biological and climatological crisis in earth history. It is a unique case to study and quantify the impact of an outstanding sea-level drop (more than 1500 m, one order of magnitude greater than Late Quaternary glaciations) on sedimentary river behavior, deltaic and evaporitic deposition. Furthermore, the amount of messinian deposits reaches more than 3000 m. Such important erosion and sedimentation must provide crucial information on margin vertical dynamic. So far, DSDP and IODP drillings have reached the upper part of the evaporites only, the beginning of the crisis is still a matter of intense debate and conjectures. We invite all interested participants to join this drilling project and let you know that we have proposed an IODP Magellan Workshop in Banyuls in early March 2010.

  6. Comparative summer dynamics of surface cyanobacterial communities in two connected lakes from the west of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Touzet, N; McCarthy, D; Gill, A; Fleming, G T A

    2016-05-15

    The eutrophication of lakes is typically associated with high biomass proliferations of potentially toxic cyanobacteria. At a regional level, the sustainable management of water resources necessitates an approach that recognises the interconnectivity of multiple water systems within river catchments. This study examined the dynamics in summer diversity of planktonic cyanobacterial communities and microcystin toxin concentrations in two inter-connected lakes from the west of Ireland prone to nutrient enrichment. DGGE analysis of 16S rRNA gene amplicons of genotype-I cyanobacteria (typically spherical) showed changes in the communities of both Lough Corrib and Ballyquirke Lough throughout the summer, and identified cyanobacterial genotypes both unique and shared to both lakes. Microcystin concentrations, estimated via the protein phosphatase 2A inhibition assay, were greater in August than in July and June in both lakes. This was concomitant to the increased occurrence of Microcystis as evidenced by DGGE band excision and subsequent sequencing and BLAST analysis. RFLP analysis of PCR amplified mcy-A/E genes clustered together the August samples of both lakes, highlighting a potential change in microcystin producers across the two lakes. Finally, the multiple factor analysis of the combined environmental data set for the two lakes highlighted the expected pattern opposing greater water temperature and chlorophyll concentration against macronutrient concentrations, but also indicated a negative relationship between microcystin concentration and cyanobacterial diversity, possibly underlining allelopathic interactions. Despite some element of connectivity, the dissimilarity in the composition of the cyanobacterial assemblages and the timing of community change in the two lakes likely were a reflexion of niche differences determined by meteorologically-forced variation in physico-chemical parameters in the two water bodies. PMID:26930314

  7. Increased ROS Production: A Component of the Longevity Equation in the Male Mygalomorph, Brachypelma albopilosa

    PubMed Central

    Criscuolo, Francois; Font-Sala, Candide; Bouillaud, Frederic; Poulin, Nicolas; Trabalon, Marie

    2010-01-01

    Background The diversity of longevities encountered in wildlife is one of the most intriguing problems in biology. Evolutionary biologists have proposed different theories to explain how longevity variability may be driven by bad genes expression in late life or by gene pleiotropic effects. This reflexion has stimulated, in the last ten years, an active research on the proximal mechanisms that can shape lifespan. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), i.e., the by-products of oxidative metabolism, have emerged as the main proximate cause of ageing. Because ROS are mainly produced by the mitochondria, their production is linked to metabolic rate, and this may explain the differences in longevity between large and small species. However, their implication in the sex difference in longevity within a species has never been tested, despite the fact that these differences are widespread in the animal kingdom. Methodology/Principal Findings Mitochondrial superoxide production of hemolymph immune cells and antioxidant and oxidative damages plasma levels were measured in adult male and female B. albopilosa at different ages. We found that female spiders are producing less mitochondrial superoxide, are better protected against oxidative attack and are then suffering less oxidative damages than males at adulthood. Conclusions/Significance In tarantulas, once reaching sexual maturity, males have a life expectancy reduced to 1 to 2 years, while females can still live for 20 years, in spite of the fact that females continue to grow and moult. This study evidences an increased exposure of males to oxidative stress due to an increase in mitochondrial superoxide production and a decrease in hemolymph antioxidant defences. Such a phenomenon is likely to be part of the explanation for the sharp reduction of longevity accompanying male tarantula maturity. This opens several fundamental research roads in the future to better understand how reproduction and longevity are linked in an original ageing model. PMID:20957044

  8. Integrated fly management in European ruminant operations from the perspective of directive 2009/128/EC on sustainable use of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Durel, Luc; Estrada-Pe√Īa, Augustin; Franc, Michel; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Bouyer, J√©r√©my

    2015-02-01

    Integrated pest management (IPM) in agriculture animals remains undeveloped as compared to IPM in crops. With respect to the range of external nuisance arthropods that may bother farm animals, development and implementation of systematic IPM strategies are difficult to carry out. However, recurrent outbreaks of blue tongue disease in sheep and cattle, the public threats regarding the prophylactic use of veterinary insecticides and the need to preserve the efficacy of available actives have to lead the reflexion on new control strategies for arthropod pests of livestock. A recent extension of EU regulation on the use of pesticides in crops provides an opportunity to compare IPM strategies and to suggest new lines of reflection for the control of nuisance pests in ruminants under European conditions. In this paper, actions suggested by the Annex III of the Directive 2009/128/CE on Sustainable Use of Pesticides and related National Action Plans from 28 member states of the EU were reviewed from an animal production perspective by a group of veterinary entomologists. Eight lines of action have been identified and thus challenged with respect to current husbandry practices in modern European ruminant operations. Many IPM strategies for crops were identified to be unsuitable for large animals. Suggestions for implementing tools, opportunities and constraint assessment, and needs for support were also discussed. Only control of pest development sites and monitoring of harmful organisms were considered achievable in the near future; both in conjunction with the use of topical insecticides. Complementary actions such as alternatives to chemical control require further researches and industrial development. Marketing of IGR-based feed additives would be of great interest, but development of new compounds for veterinary medicines is very unlikely with respect to the European regulatory environment and associated cost of development. PMID:25547079

  9. TH-E-BRF-11: Dynamic Treatment of Clinical Margins Beyond the PET-Avid Target in Emission Guided Radiation Therapy: A Retrospective Patient Study

    SciTech Connect

    Nanduri, A; Mazin, S; Fan, Q; Yang, J; Graves, E; Loo, B; Yamamoto, T

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Emission guided radiation therapy (EGRT) is a new modality that uses PET emissions for direct real-time tumor tracking. Radiation beamlets are delivered along PET lines of response (LOR's) by a fast rotating PET-Linac closed ring gantry. In this work, we develop a scheme to treat clinical margins defined proximal to the moving PET-avid tumor, while maintaining EGRT's inherent real-time tracking ability. Methods: The principle of EGRT is to deliver radiation along PET emission paths to concentrate dose in the PET-avid gross tumor volume (GTV). To account for adjacent non- PET avid regions in the clinical volume (CTV) a method was developed that expands the set of radiation beamlet responses to include the effective margin extension from the GTV to the CTV. An LOR detection may now Result in multiple beamlet responses: one along the original LOR, and others that are adjacent to it in the direction of margin extension. Evaluation studies were performed on a 4D digital patient as well as a clinical breast cancer patient with moving lung tumors. Emission data were obtained using GATE and a commercial PET scanner. Dose delivery was simulated using VMC++. For the patient study, Philips Pinnacle was used for planning and Mirada RTx was used for deformable dose registration across multiple breathing phases. Results: Compared with IMRT, the EGRT margin extension method achieved a 25.3% and 9.0% relative increase in dose to 95% of the CTV for the digital and clinical patients, respectively. The corresponding CTV dose increases without margin extension were 9.7% and 1.4%. The organs at risk doses were kept similar or lower for EGRT in both cases, with tumor tracking preserved. Conclusions: With the capability of accurate treatment of the moving CTV, EGRT has the potential to enable a practical and effective implementation of 4D biologically guided radiation therapy. Authors SRM and AN are stockholders of RefleXion Medical.

  10. The caloric vestibular nystagmus during short lasting microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oosterveld, W. J.; de Jong, H. A. A.; Kortschot, H. W.

    In human subjects the caloric vestibular test was conducted during parabolic flight. The ear irrigation was performed from 35 secs. till 5 secs. before the onset of microgravity. Nystagmography covered a 10-minutes period, including three parabolic manoeuvres of the aircraft. a. The slow phase velocity (SPV) of the caloric nystagmus increased proportionally with the value of the g-force. Introduction of microgravity induced an exponential decrease of the SPV decay. b. The nystagmus disappeared completely in microgravity, but SPV decay showed a specific time constant. c. The averaged time constant values of the caloric nystagmus SPV decay after sudden onset of microgravity and the averaged time constant of the SPV decay following a sudden stop after sustained rotation during 0-g appeared to be on the same level (10.2 s. and 10.6 s.). d. These two averaged time constant values obtained during shortlasting microgravity proved to be on a lower level than those time constants (15.5 secs.; 15.9 secs.) found in ground-based conditions. e. Because of the similarities in the characteristics of both SPV decay's and their accompanying time constants, a common working mechanism of cupular stimulation is likely. Most probably a fluid movement (or pressure) provokes a cupula deflexion followed by a cupula reflexion, either caused by a sudden stop after a sustained rotation or by a sudden onset of microgravity after g-load calorization. The present results support the BŠrŠny convection theory with regard the endolymph stimulatory properties following the caloric test.

  11. Behaviour of painted mirrors during exposure tests to salt spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sch√ľtz, E.; Berger, F.; Barillon, R.; Audebert, P.; Chambaudet, A.

    1997-11-01

    The multilayer structure of commercially made mirrors can be subject to degradation under normal conditions, leading to alterations of the mirror's reflective properties. A protective coat of paint, containing an anticorrosive compound, is applied to the copper surface to reduce the oxidation of the thin metallic films. The objective of this study is to analyse the behaviour of the multilayer stack during salt spray tests (neutral salt spray and CASS-test). We followed the morphological and chemical evolution of the interfacial area (glass-silver-copper-paint) using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electron probe for micro analysis (EPMA). Studies of the surface of the coatings were performed with attenuated total reflexion infrared spectroscopy (IRTF-ATR) and SEM-EPMA. The observations revealed that a glass-silver decohesion occurs starting at the edges of the material during the tests. The EPMA analyses of the exposed edges of the mirrors indicated first that concentration of the anticorrosive pigment of the paint (lead-based compound) decreased, especially at the copper-paint interface, and second that the copper in the paint may diffuse to the surface of the coating. Finally, IRTF-ATR spectroscopy and SEM-EPMA analyses of surfaces showed that the CASS-test leads to an acid attack of some pigments and extenders of the paint (particularly CaCO 3) and leads to chemical modifications of the binder. These phenomena result in an increase in the porosity and a weakening of the paint film. The results obtained with these surface analytical technics will allow us to propose some degradation mechanisms of painted mirrors during salt spray tests.

  12. FANTINA: Fathom Asteroids Now: Tomography and Imagery of a NEA- Payload For Marco Polo R CV3 / ESA mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herique, A.; Biele, J.; Bousquet, P.; Ciarletti, V.; Ho, T. M.; Issler, J. L.; Kofman, W.; Michel, P.; Plettemeier, D.; Puget, P.; Souyris, J. C.; Ulamec, S.; van Zoest, T.; Zine, S.

    2012-04-01

    The internal structure of small bodies is still poorly known and has never been measured directly. There is no way to determine from ground based observation whether the body is a monolithic piece of rock or a rubble-pile, an aggregate of boulders held together by gravity and how much porosity it contains, both in the form of micro-scale or macro-scale porosity. Knowing this structure is a key point for a better understanding of the asteroid accretion and dynamical evolution. It is the main objective of the FANTINA experience proposed Payload for Marco Polo R CV3 / ESA mission: FANTINA (Marco Polo's Daughter) for Fathom Asteroids Now: Tomography and Imagery of a NEA is to provide measurement capabilities and science data which are not accessible by remote sensing of the asteroid from the Marco-Polo R spacecraft alone and which complement the analysis of the returned samples. The FANTINA payload is a Lander carrying the ASSERT experiment and a complementary payload to be defined: ASSERT is a bistatic CONSERT/Rosetta-like radar to achieve the tomography both in transmission and in reflexion of the asteroid in order to characterise its composition and its heterogeneity from decimetric to global scale. The lander is a long-lived bus in the 10-kg class derived from MASCOT/Hayabusa 2. This paper reviews the science rationale of FANTINA in the context of the Marco Polo R mission to 1996FG3. The surface package concept will be reviewed including the radar tomography principles. So a preliminary design and budget will be done.

  13. Application de la méthode de Laue refocalisée à haute énergie à l'étude des mécanismes de recristallisation après déformation à froid de métaux CFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauveau, Th.; Gerber, Ph.; Bastie, P.; Hamelin, B.; Tarasiuk, J.; Bacroix, B.

    2002-07-01

    In order to determine the kinetics of recystallization process, the Laue diffraction method is apllied here on cold rolled and recrystallized copper materials. Firts, the results obtained from reflexion X-ray diffraction texture measurements are presented. It is shown that the both techniques are complementar, and that the transmission Laue method presents some advantadges. Some previous hypotheses are verified in this work. Especially, the Cube orientation \\{100\\} <001> loses during recrystallization its advantadge of growth, which implies the development of a mixed ‚Äúdeformed-recrystallized‚ÄĚ texture at the end of the process. The nucleation step determines the final recrystallized texture. La m√©thode de Laue haute √©nergie est appliqu√©e ici dans le but de d√©terminer les cin√©tiques de recristallisation de mat√©riaux cuivre apr√®s laminages √† froid et recuits interrompus. Apr√®s pr√©sentation des r√©sultats obtenus par mesures classiques en r√©flexion, une comparaison est effectu√©e entre les deux techniques permettant de rendre compte des avantages certains qu'offrent des mesures en transmission et de la compl√©mentarit√© des deux techniques utilis√©es. Quelques hypoth√®ses sur les m√©canismes r√©gissant le processus de recristallisation sont ainsi v√©rifi√©es. Au tout d√©but du processus de recristallisation, il a clairement √©t√© mis en √©vidence une perte de l'avantage de croissance des germes d'orientation Cube \\{100\\} <001> au profit des composantes constituant la texture de d√©formation. Dans ce type de processus, n'est pr√©f√©rentielle que l'√©tape de germination, dans le sens o√Ļ elle d√©termine la texture finale apr√®s recristallisation.

  14. [Legal aspects of ritual circumcision].

    PubMed

    Schreiber, M; Schott, G E; Rascher, W; Bender, A W

    2009-12-01

    Female circumcision (genital mutilation) is a criminal violation of human rights under German law. Even with consent of the person to be circumcised and/or her legal representative this procedure must not be carried out since a consent to female circumcision is unethical and therefore void. As much consent as there is on female circumcision the legal situation with ritual male circumcision is very unclear. In practice and unnoticed by the public male circumcision is carried out - be it for medical or ritual reasons - without deeper-going reflexions on the clearness of the medical indication or the legal situation with ritual circumcision. From the medical aspect there are big differences between female and male circumcision but also certain parallels. Various reasons, partly founded in prejudice and misinformation, make people refrain from regarding circumcision of boys also as illegal. Contrary to the prevailing opinion male circumcision also represents a bodily harm which a doctor can only carry out after a preoperative interview and with the consent of the affected person. Since ritual male circumcision does not serve the wellbeing of a child it is not possible for the parents to give their consent to the circumcision in lieu of the child. Male circumcision is only permitted if the child has given his consent and is thus only legally permitted if the child has reached an age at which he is mature enough to understand the meaning and extent of such an action which is hardly the case before he has completed his 16 (th) year. PMID:20013563

  15. Modelo de accesibilidad de conceptos matematicos aplicados en el curso de Astronomia Descriptiva para estudiantes con impedimentos visuales en la UPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isidro Villamizar, Gloria Maria

    Este estudio utiliza metodologia de investigacion cualitativa, con el proposito de describir, analizar y evaluar los procesos de diseno y desarrollo de un modelo de accesibilidad que consiste en estrategias de ensenanza de las matematicas para estudiantes con impedimentos visuales matriculados en el curso de Astronomia Descriptiva en la UPR. Se utilizaron las siguientes estrategias para recopilar la informacion, 1) reflexiones de la investigadora en el proceso de diseno y desarrollo de las lecciones adaptadas, que se registraron en un diario reflexivo. 2) entrevista semiestructurada luego de haber trabajado las lecciones de aprendizaje adaptadas con los participantes. 3) observaciones y notas de la investigadora del trabajo de los participantes. Para obtener la informacion de los participantes se obtuvo los permisos institucionales necesarios; se seleccionaron los participantes y se validaron los instrumentos; se realizo el desarrollo de las lecciones adaptadas con los participantes; y finalmente, se analizo la informacion obtenida. El diseno de las lecciones de aprendizaje adaptadas se hizo siguiendo las recomendaciones curriculares de los temas de matematicas aplicados en el curso de Astronomia Descriptiva realizado por la investigadora durante su semestre de internado. El testimonio de las voces de los participantes se obtuvo del proceso de desarrollo de las lecciones de aprendizaje adaptadas de temas seleccionados de conceptos matematicos requeridos en el curso de Astronomia Descriptiva y de la entrevista semiestructurada con los participantes, luego de haber trabajado las lecciones de aprendizaje. Para el desarrollo de las lecciones de aprendizaje, se utilizaron materiales tactiles adaptados, materiales tactiles disenados y materiales disponibles comercialmente. Los textos de las lecciones se imprimieron en tinta y en Braille. Se exhorta a disenar y desarrollar estrategias de ensenanza accesibles, considerando como recursos para evaluar su efectividad a personas con impedimentos visuales. El utilizar estrategias de aprendizaje accesibles de acuerdo a las necesidades individuales de los estudiantes, contribuye para que los estudiantes con impedimentos visuales descubran, exploren, investiguen y formulen sus propias conclusiones durante su proceso de aprendizaje.

  16. Acceptability of an Embodied Conversational Agent-based Computer Application for Hispanic Women

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Kristen J.; V√°zquez-Otero, Coralia; Bredice, Marissa; Meade, Cathy D.; Chaet, Alexis; Rivera, Maria I.; Arroyo, Gloria; Proctor, Sara K.; Barnes, Laura E.

    2015-01-01

    There are few Spanish language interactive, technology-driven health education programs. Objectives of this feasibility study were to: 1) learn more about computer and technology usage among Hispanic women living in a rural community; and 2) evaluate acceptability of the concept of using an embodied conversational agent (ECA) computer application among this population. A survey about computer usage history and interest in computers was administered to a convenience sample of 26 women. A sample video prototype of a hospital discharge ECA was administered followed by questions to gauge opinion about the ECA. Data indicate women exhibited both a high level of computer experience and enthusiasm for the ECA. Feedback from community is essential to ensure equity in state of the art dissemination of health information. Hay algunos programas interactivos en espa√Īol que usan la tecnolog√≠a para educar sobre la salud. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron: 1) aprender m√°s sobre el uso de computadoras y tecnolog√≠a entre mujeres Hispanas que viven en comunidades rurales y 2) evaluar la aceptabilidad del concepto de usar un programa de computadora utilizando un agente de conversaci√≥n encarnado (ECA) en esta poblaci√≥n. Se administro una encuesta sobre el historial de uso y del inter√©s de aprender sobre computadoras fue a 26 mujeres por muestreo de conveniencia. Un ejemplo del prototipo ECA en forma de video de un alta hospitalaria fue administrado y fue seguido por preguntas sobre la opini√≥n que ten√≠an del ECA. Los datos indican que las mujeres mostraron un alto nivel de experiencia con las computadoras y un alto nivel de entusiasmo sobre el ECA. La retroalimentaci√≥n de la comunidad es esencial para asegurar equidad en la diseminaci√≥n de informaci√≥n sobre la salud con tecnolog√≠a de punta. PMID:26671558

  17. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Petter da Silva, Fhaira; Beatriz Dallepiane, Loiva; Ramos Kirsten, Vanessa; Maria Kirchner, Rosane

    2016-01-01

    Introducci√≥n: la esperanza de vida est√° aumentando y convirti√©ndose en un fen√≥meno caracter√≠stico de los pa√≠ses desarrollados y, cada vez m√°s, de los pa√≠ses en desarrollo, como Brasil. El proceso de envejecimiento produce cambios en algunas funciones fisiol√≥gicas, como la p√©rdida del olfato o gusto o p√©rdida de apetito, entre otros, que terminan alterando la ingesta de alimentos de estos individuos.Objetivos: este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar el consumo de alimentos de los ancianos y de los ancianos m√°s longevos en una ciudad del sur de Brasil.M√©todos: un estudio transversal realizado mediante visitas a domicilio en Palmeira das Miss√Ķes - RS, Brasil. Los datos sociodemogr√°ficos, antropom√©tricos y diet√©ticos fueron recogidos a trav√©s de cuestionarios y recordatorio de 24 horas. La adecuaci√≥n de nutrientes se evalu√≥ de acuerdo con las ingestas de referencia en la dieta. Los datos fueron analizados utilizando el software SPSS 18.0.Resultados: el estudio incluy√≥ a 424 adultos mayores, el 84.4% (n = 358) de ellos menores de 80 a√Īos y el 15.6% (n = 66) con m√°s de 80 a√Īos. La ingesta de energ√≠a y prote√≠nas fue insuficiente tanto para j√≥venes adultos como para los m√°s ancianos. El consumo de vitaminas y minerales ha sido insuficiente en todos los adultos mayores a excepci√≥n del hierro, que presentaba una ingesta excesiva. Hubo una diferencia estad√≠sticamente significativa entre las personas de edad y mayores s√≥lo en cuanto al consumo de l√≠pidos y vitamina B12. Conclusi√≥n: la mayor√≠a de los estudios con personas mayores corrobora los resultados obtenidos en este art√≠culo. Una ingesta inadecuada de nutrientes puede dar lugar a deficiencias nutricionales y, por lo tanto, a cambios fisiol√≥gicos y patol√≥gicos que pondr√≠an en peligro la capacidad funcional de los ancianos. El consumo de energ√≠a y de macronutrientes result√≥ insuficiente tanto para los ancianos como para los ancianos m√°s longevos. Adem√°s, el consumo de vitaminas y minerales. PMID:27019240

  18. Conocimiento de Energía: Principios Esenciales y Conceptos Fundamentales para la Educación de Energía

    SciTech Connect

    2014-06-01

    This is the Spanish version of our Energy Literacy guidebook. Esta guía presenta conceptos de energía que, cuando se entienden y se aplican, ayudan a individuos y a comunidades a tomar decisiones sobre la energía con conocimiento de causa. No es un currículo sino que ofrece un marco sobre el cual puede basarse un plan de estudios. La guía se dirige a cualquier persona que participe en la educación de energía.

  19. BCG vaccination and epidemiological situation: a decision making approach to the use of BCG.

    PubMed

    Rouillon, A; Waaler, H

    1976-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of a well-controlled and correctly applied BCG vaccine can hardly be questioned, nor its usefulness under individual circumstances. But a problem more and more often raised now is that of the opportuneness, at the present time, to still use BCG on a mass- systematic - scale, particularly in the TB control programmes of low-prevalence countries. The article proposes an approach which, alongside with other methods already presented for assessing the epidemiological value of BCG and its public health indications, can help appreciate the advantages and disadvantages brought by vaccination in high- as well as in low-prevalence countries. The article focuses on the future, i.e. on what can, from now on, be expected from BCG in terms of epidemiological, economical and psychological benefits. Test runs were made considering three cohorts of 100,000 individuals (newborn, school enterers, school leavers), vaccinated or not vaccinated, submitted to various risks of infection (corresponding to conditions of high-, intermediate- and low-prevalence of tuberculosis) and experiencing various breakdown rates from infection to disease. Cost for BCG on the one hand, and cost for diagnosis, treatment of tuberculosis and loss of wages on the other, were also entered in the calculations; an attempt was also made to quantify in absolute terms and in relative ones the in conveniences linked to the application of BCG itself. Beyond figures and results presented as examples, what is more important is that the article furnished a method of reasoning and the possibility to feed one's own data in the model; it may help to encompass the scope and implications of a decision, and it furnishes elements of dialogue with other members of the planning team. It should be well realized that the elements provided and those which can be worked out are elements of reflexion to found a decision; the decision itself - to start, to pursue or to stop BCG on a mass scale - is of political nature (public health policy): it always implies a value judgement - from the part of the providers of the services and/or, preferably, from the part of the users, i.e. a preference which is the result of a 'weighing' between advantages and inevitable disadvantages, both involving time, place, existing system, existing beliefs and other fields of health and welfare. PMID:970278

  20. Optical metrology tools for the Virgo projet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loriette, V.

    For more than thirty years the search for gravitationnal waves, predicted by Einstein's relativistic theory of gravitation, has been an intense research field in experimental as well as theoretical physics. Today, with the constant advance of technology in optics, lasers, data analysis and processing, ... a promising way of directly detecting gravitationnal waves with earth-based instruments is optical interferometry. Before the end of this century many experiments will be carried on in Australia, Europe, Japan and the United States to detect the passage of a gravitationnal wave through giant Michelson-type interferometers. The effects predicted are so small, (a gravitationnal wave changes the length of three kilometer long arms by one thousandth of a fermi) that the need for ‚Äúperfect‚ÄĚ optical components is a key to the success of these experiments. Still a few years ago it would have been impossible to make optical components that would satisfy the required specifications for such interferometric detectors. For nearly ten years constant R&D efforts in optical coating manufacturing, optical material fabrication and optical metrology, allow us today to make such components. This text is intended to describe the field of optical metrology as it is needed for the testing of optical parts having performances far beyond than everything previously made. The first chapter is an introduction to gravitationnal waves, their sources and their effects on detectors. Starting by newtonian mechanics we jump rapidly to the general theory of relativity and describe particular solutions of Einstein's equations in the case of weak gravitationnal fields, which are periodic perturbations of the space-time metric in the form of plane waves, the so-called gravitationnal waves. We present various candidate sources, terrestrial and extra-terrestrial and give a short description of the two families of detectors: resonnant bars and optical interferometers. The second part of this chapter is a description of the various optical components that have to be manufactured and tested for Virgo. The next sections are dedicated to the description of various metrology instruments. In chapter 2 we focus on absorption of light in multilayer coatings. The sensitivity of interferometric detectors is degraded by this loss process, not only because it decreases the laser beam power, but also and chiefly because thermo-elastic deformations and changes of the indexes of refraction modify the beam profile. Optical coatings have now reached an absorption level lower than at m. We present a method based on the mirage effect, i.e. the deflexion of light by an index of refraction gradient induced by non homogeneous heating. This ‚Äúmirage bench‚ÄĚ has a sensitivity better than 10^{-8}. We start by a discussion of the approximations that are useful to simplify the problem, we then derive the equation that give the signal amplitude versus the absorption factor. Afterwards we describe the instrument and give a few results with home made Virgo mirrors as well as commercial samples. In the following chapter we discuss the problem of measuring reflexion factors. We focus on two particular problems, the first one is common, it is to measure high (higher than 0.9999) reflexion factors by the use of Fabry-Perot cavities. We present various possible schemes and we detail a particular one which seems to be the easiest to implement. We use a pulsed laser source and measure the average reflexion factor of the two Fabry-Perot mirrors by studying the pulse shape modification after transmission by the cavity. We estimate the sensitivity of this intrument to 10^{-6}. The second problem is a less common one and is to evaluate the relative homogeneity of reflexion factors on large components. Because inhomogeneities of this parameter will degrade the sensitivity of Virgo by coupling various modes of the laser beam with the fundamental one, homogeneity higher than 1{-}10^{-4} is required. We propose a simple scheme and describe a bench built following this scheme. This bench, being a first try, is far from being optimized and the measurement method could be used with other experimental realizations. By using various geometries measurements can be performed on high reflectivity mirrors as well as on beamsplitters with a comparable sensitivity of 10^{-4}. At last we discuss the problem of surface figure testing. Virgo needs are for optical surfaces with defects smaller than ten nanometers peak to valley on twelve centimeter diameter surfaces. These surfaces can not be tested by classical ways, Fizeau interferometers are sensitive enough but do not have a sufficient precision because of the obligatory presence of a reference surface to compare the samples with. We present a method based on local slope measurement that permits to reach the required precision, to the detriment of measurement time. Les ondes gravitationnelles, d√©formations locales de l'espace-temps pr√©dites par les th√©ories relativistes de la gravitation, font l'objet depuis plus de trente ans de recherches, tant exp√©rimentales que th√©oriques, tr√®s intenses. Aujourd'hui gr√Ęce aux d√©veloppements technologiques en optique, analyse et traitement des donn√©es, fabrication de lasers, ... une m√©thode prometteuse de d√©tection directe des ondes gravitationnelles est l'interf√©rom√©trie optique. Avant la fin de ce si√®cle plusieurs exp√©riences vont √™tre men√©es en Australie, aux √©tats-Unis, en Europe, et au Japon pour d√©tecter le passage d'une onde gravitationnelle √† travers des interf√©rom√®tres de Michelson g√©ants. Les effets attendus sont si faibles (une onde gravitationnelle modifie la longueur d'un bras de trois kilom√®tres d'√† peu pr√®s un milli√®me de fermi) que des composants optiques "parfaits‚ÄĚ sont une des clefs du succ√®s de ces exp√©riences. Il y a encore quelques ann√©es il aurait √©t√© impossible de fabriquer des composants optiques satisfaisant les sp√©cifications de tels d√©tecteurs interf√©rom√©triques. Depuis pr√®s de dix ans des efforts constants en R&D dans les domaines de la r√©alisation des rev√™tements multicouches, de la fabrication des mat√©riaux pour l'optique, et de la m√©trologie optique, permettent aujourd'hui d'obtenir de tels composants. Ce texte pr√©sente le domaine de la m√©trologie optique necessaire aux tests de composants dont les performances se situent au del√† de tout ce qui a √©t√© r√©alis√© auparavant. Le premier chapitre est une introduction aux ondes de gravitation, leurs sources et leurs effets sur des d√©tecteurs. Partant de la m√©canique newtonienne on passe rapidement √† la relativit√© g√©n√©rale pour d√©crire les solutions particuli√®res des √©quations d'Einstein dans le cas de champs gravitationnels faibles, qui sont des perturbations p√©riodiques de la m√©trique de l'espace temps : les ondes gravitationnelles. Apr√®s une pr√©sentation des diff√©rentes sources de rayonnement et des deux familles de d√©tecteurs : barres r√©sonnantes et interf√©rom√®tres optiques, la seconde partie de ce chapitre est consacr√©e √† la description des diff√©rents √©l√©ments optiques constitutifs de l'antenne Virgo. Dans les chapitres suivants sont pr√©sent√©s les divers outils de m√©trologie optique. Le deuxi√®me chapitre traite de l'absorption de la lumi√®re dans les rev√™tements multicouches. La m√©thode dite "m√©thode mirage‚ÄĚ est bas√©e sur la d√©viation de la lumi√®re par un gradient d'indice de r√©fraction cr√©√© par une √©l√©vation locale de temp√©rature. La mesure par effet mirage du facteur d'absorption d'absorption a une sensibilit√© meilleure que 10^{-8}. Le chapitre suivant d√©crit tout d'abord les moyens utilis√© pour mesurer des facteurs de r√©flexion √©lev√©s (typiquement sup√©rieurs √† 0,9999) gr√Ęce √† l'utilisation de cavit√©s Fabry-Perot avec une sensibilit√© de l'ordre de 10^{-6}. Un second probl√®me moins fr√©quemment rencontr√© est celui de l'√©valuation de l'homog√©n√©it√© du facteur de r√©flexion sur de grandes pi√®ces. Une m√©thode simple permet cependant d'obtenir une sensibilit√© raisonnable de 10^{-4}. Enfin le dernier chapitre est consacr√© au probl√®me classique de mesure de l'√©tat g√©om√©trique d'une surface optique. Les besoins de Virgo interdisent l'utilisation d'instruments classiques tels que les interf√©rom√®tres de Fizeau, mais une m√©thode locale bas√©e sur la mesure de gradients permet d'obtenir une pr√©cision de mesure de őĽ/100 cr√™te √† cr√™te sur des surfaces de douze centim√®tres de diam√®tre.

  1. Protecting drinkable water: an analysis of action plans and stakeholders' networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal; Menard, Marjorie

    2015-04-01

    Since WFD the policy for protecting drinkable water has been enhanced in France. This policy establish the main components and the different steps for protecting drinkable water, and ask for defining and implementing an action plan for each contributing catchment. Despite ambitious objectives, the local implementation is difficult. Firstly there is a high diversity of stakeholders involved with local authorities, which are mainly: water agencies, agricultural chambers and consultants, authorities at regional and departmental levels. Most of the local authorities do not feel qualified enough for carrying out such a policy, as they are not really used to deal with technical and political issues related to agricultural diffuse pollutions. As a consequence assessed action plans are based on regulation and/or agri-environmental measures. More ambitious and complementary measures can be included, but without any support measure nor accurate objectives for their implementation. In the end, action plans reflect more a formal implementation of protection approaches than a search for efficiency by defining ambitious measures and the setting-up a consistent support scheme. The way stakeholders' networks mobilize knowledge have been analyzed based on ten case studies located in three different regions. Three local authorities profiles are defined: (1) the "passive" ones, not really convinced of the necessity to undertake actions against diffuse pollutions and/or having low level of knowledge to support local reflexion, that delegate project management; (2) the local authorities that support local protection approach but that, for different reasons, do not search for an effective action plan, and that only consider an improvement approach; (3) the local authorities that more rarely, aim at efficient actions, motivated by the urgent need of action for preserving threatened resources. According to these profiles, local authorities and their project coordinators will be looking for, more or less actively, mobilizing stakeholders' networks and knowledge that enable to build a strategic management. Reciprocally, institutional stakeholders push for more formal or demanding approaches, with most of the time low level of knowledge that could objectivize the relevance of action plans. This analysis contributes to help some key stakeholders, particularly local authorities, in building more efficient action plans.

  2. L'eclairage de la recherche sur la situation et le point de vue des enseignants de sciences du primaire et ses repercussions sur leur formation continue en ce domaine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Jean A.

    Cette these par articles comporte deux textes successivement consacres (1) a elaborer un modele causal hierarchique des facteurs qui se repercutent sur l'enseignement de sciences de l'enseignant du primaire, et (2) a degager puis a analyser la representation du point de vue des enseignants de sciences du primaire et du secondaire qui emerge de la recherche qualitative qui leur est consacree. L'essentiel des conclusions de ces articles tient aux faits suivants: (1) au primaire, la prestation d'enseignement des sciences de l'enseignant serait directement determinee par ses "preferences" au plan des pratiques d'enseignement, par ses attitudes a l'egard des sciences et de leur enseignement et par son sentiment d'efficacite personnelle en ce domaine; (2) l'action de l'enseignant de sciences du primaire tout autant que du secondaire est confrontee a des dilemmes pedagogiques dont la resolution obeit a des regles qui tiennent moins souvent a des principes abstraits ou bien etablis qu'aux exigences variables et tres contextualisees de l'"ici et maintenant" de sa classe. Chacun des deux articles est par ailleurs complete par un texte substantiel qui propose des clarifications et des donnees complementaires qui en precisent la portee et qui en relient plus directement le contenu au propos de cette these: la formation initiale et surtout continue des enseignants du primaire dans le domaine de l'enseignement des sciences. S'articulant tous autour de l'enseignant de sciences et s'appuyant chaque fois sur un travail de recension de la recherche adapte a la nature particuliere de la problematique qui y est traitee, ces articles et les textes qui les accompagnent veulent contribuer a mieux eclairer et a resoudre la situation problematique de l'enseignement des sciences au primaire, un enseignement qui est souvent caracterise par des pratiques pedagogiques traditionnelles et inadequates, si ce n'est meme par son evitement plus ou moins delibere par les enseignants. Apres avoir decrit les avancees methodologiques qu'ont occasionne les approches differenciees de recension auxquelles les deux articles ont donne lieu, cette recherche debouche sur une reflexion sur les conditions necessaires d'une formation plus adequate des enseignants de sciences du primaire a l'egard de leur maitrise des savoirs disciplinaires, de leur formation initiale a la pratique ainsi que de la mise a jour continuee de leurs pratiques d'enseignement. On conclut enfin en mesurant l'ampleur de la transformation necessaire des conceptions des formateurs de maitres qui s'engageraient dans une telle reforme de la formation initiale et continuee des enseignants de sciences du primaire.

  3. From flood management systems to flood resilient systems: integration of flood resilient technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salagnac, J.-L.; Diez, J.; Tourbier, J.

    2012-04-01

    Flooding has always been a major risk world-wide. Humans chose to live and develop settlements close to water (rivers, seas) due to the resources water brings, i.e. food, energy, capacity to economically transport persons and goods, and recreation. However, the risk from flooding, including pluvial flooding, often offsets these huge advantages. Floods sometimes have terrible consequences from both a human and economic point of view. The permanence and growth of urban areas in flood-prone zones despite these risks is a clear indication of the choices of concerned human groups. The observed growing concentration of population along the sea shore, the increase of urban population worldwide, the exponential growth of the world population and possibly climate change are factors that confirm flood will remain a major issue for the next decades. Flood management systems are designed and implemented to cope with such situations. In spite of frequent events, lessons look to be difficult to draw out and progresses are rather slow. The list of potential triggers to improve flood management systems is nevertheless well established: information, education, awareness raising, alert, prevention, protection, feedback from events, ... Many disciplines are concerned which cover a wide range of soft and hard sciences. A huge amount of both printed and electronic literature is available. Regulations are abundant. In spite of all these potentially favourable elements, similar questions spring up after each new significant event: ‚ÄĘ Was the event forecast precise enough? ‚ÄĘ Was the alert system efficient? ‚ÄĘ Why were buildings built in identified flood prone areas? ‚ÄĘ Why did the concerned population not follow instructions? ‚ÄĘ Why did the dike break? ‚ÄĘ What should we do to avoid it happens again? ‚ÄĘ What about damages evaluation, wastes and debris evacuation, infrastructures and buildings repair, activity recovery, temporary relocation of inhabitants, health concerns, insurance concerns, water-resistant materials, vulnerability assessment ? Flood resilient system (FReS) concept has been proposed as a new framework to address flood situations. Such systems intend to better approach such situations from a holistic point of view. FReS encompass ecologic, spatial, structural, social, disaster relief and flood risk aspects. FReS design and implementation conditions have been addressed by the FP7 SMARTeST (Smart Resilience Technology, Systems and Tools) project. The focus of this Project on the use of available and innovative communication, forecasting and flood protection technologies leads to an original contribution which highlights both the scope and the limits of this technology driven approach. These reflexions contribute to the elaboration of guidelines for the design of FReS.

  4. SALSA: a tool to estimate the stray light contamination for low-Earth orbit observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuntzer, Thibault; Fortier, Andrea; Benz, Willy

    2014-08-01

    Stray light contamination reduces considerably the precision of photometric of faint stars for low altitude spaceborne observatories. When measuring faint objects, the necessity of coping with stray light contamination arises in order to avoid systematic impacts on low signal-to-noise images. Stray light contamination can be represented by a flat offset in CCD data. Mitigation techniques begin by a comprehensive study during the design phase, followed by the use of target pointing optimisation and post-processing methods. We present a code that aims at simulating the stray-light contamination in low-Earth orbit coming from reflexion of solar light by the Earth. StrAy Light SimulAtor (SALSA) is a tool intended to be used at an early stage as a tool to evaluate the effective visible region in the sky and, therefore to optimise the observation sequence. SALSA can compute Earth stray light contamination for significant periods of time allowing missionwide parameters to be optimised (e.g. impose constraints on the point source transmission function (PST) and/or on the altitude of the satellite). It can also be used to study the behaviour of the stray light at different seasons or latitudes. Given the position of the satellite with respect to the Earth and the Sun, SALSA computes the stray light at the entrance of the telescope following a geometrical technique. After characterising the illuminated region of the Earth, the portion of illuminated Earth that affects the satellite is calculated. Then, the flux of reflected solar photons is evaluated at the entrance of the telescope. Using the PST of the instrument, the final stray light contamination at the detector is calculated. The analysis tools include time series analysis of the contamination, evaluation of the sky coverage and an objects visibility predictor. Effects of the South Atlantic Anomaly and of any shutdown periods of the instrument can be added. Several designs or mission concepts can be easily tested and compared. The code is not thought as a stand-alone mission designer. Its mandatory inputs are a time series describing the trajectory of the satellite and the characteristics of the instrument. This software suite has been applied to the design and analysis of CHEOPS (CHaracterizing ExOPlanet Satellite). This mission requires very high precision photometry to detect very shallow transits of exoplanets. Different altitudes and characteristics of the detector have been studied in order to find the best parameters, that reduce the effect of contamination.

  5. Light and X-ray diffraction studies on chick skeletal muscle under controlled physiological conditions

    PubMed Central

    Matsubara, Ichiro

    1974-01-01

    1. The sarcomere length (s) of ehick slow and fast muscles (anterior and posterior latissimus dorsi (ant. lat. dorsi and post. lat. dorsi)) was measured by the method of light diffraction. In resting ant. lat. dorsi, s changed from 1∑76 to 2∑30 ?m during stretch from minimum to maximum muscle lengths in situ, and in resting post. lat. dorsi from 2∑18 to 2∑63 ?m. 2. Resting tension started to rise in ant. lat. dorsi when s exceeded 1∑7-1∑8 ?m, but in post. lat. dorsi not until s exceeded 2∑6-2∑7 ?m. 3. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that ant. lat. dorsi contains collagen filaments; collagen reflexions were not seen in patterns obtained from post. lat. dorsi with the same exposure time. 4. The relation between active tension and sarcomere length was similar for ant. and post. lat. dorsi. The maximum active tension was observed when s = 2∑05-2∑15 ?m in ant. lat. dorsi, and when s = 2∑10-2∑25 ?m in post. lat. dorsi. 5. X-ray diffraction patterns from both muscles showed that the periodic structures of the thick and thin filaments are similar to those in frog and rabbit skeletal muscles. 6. The volume of the myofilament lattice in resting ant. lat. dorsi was 3∑06 (Ī 0∑14) ◊ 109 Ň3, in resting post. lat. dorsi 2∑98 (Ī 0∑09) ◊ 109 Ň3. These values are close to that of frog skeletal muscle. The lattice volume remained constant in ant. lat. dorsi and post. lat. dorsi over the range of sarcomere lengths found in situ. 7. The equatorial diffraction patterns from the ant. lat. dorsi in rigor (glycerol extracted) were different from that of the resting muscle, and suggested that a large number of cross-bridges were attached to the thin filaments during rigor. During potassium contracture, however, the diffraction pattern remained similar to that from the resting ant. lat. dorsi. ImagesPlate 1Plate 2 PMID:4852995

  6. Earthquake depth estimations in the Padano-Emiliana North Italy Plain using regional and teleseismic data: influence on seismic properties and tectonic process understandings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letort, J.; Massa, M.; Cotton, F.; Drouet, S.; Guilbert, J.; Pacor, F.; Traversa, P.; Vergoz, J.

    2012-12-01

    On May 2012, the central part of the Padano-Emiliana Plain (North Italy), has been shocked by a dramatic sequence of earthquakes, with higest Mw 6.0. These events were very shallow (~ 5-10 km), which could explain the large ground-motions amplitude observed in the fault area. On the opposite, on the last 25th and 27th January other two deeper moderate earthquakes (either with Mw 4.9) occurred in the same area (south of Parma). These two events made very few damages and no victims, but have been felt also far from the source: their focal depths (33 and 65 km respectively) seem to play a huge role. Indeed, in this sector of the Padano-Emiliana plain, earthquakes are mainly generated by systems of blind thrust faults extending to depths of 20-25km, even if recent seismicity studies proposed that a deeper subducting slab of Adriatic lithosphere could occur as well in this area. Thus, a trustable estimation of depths is needed in order to better understand this complex tectonic process. Based on teleseismic dataset, we have used coherent depth phases detected on CTBTO arrays (comprehensive-test-ban treaty-organization), using cepstral methods as well as focal mechanism estimations from genetic algorithm inversions to constrain the depths of all recent events above magnitude 3.8 in this area. The use of the teleseismic records gives the opportunity to reduce uncertainties due to complex crustal propagations during regional depth estimations. Moreover, pMP reflexions, observable on these teleseismic records, seem to prove that some events occurred below the Moho discontinuity, strenghthening the hypothesis of an active slab for this area. The regional North Italy dataset collected in the last years by the RAIS strong-motion network (INGV) have been studied as well. The joint inversions have been performed to increase the resolution of the depth estimations by mixing teleseismic and regional data. At the end we have built a new database of accurate earthquake depths, allowing to investigate the influence of this parameter on the seismic properties. Source spectra and stress drops have been estimated and their correlation with depth has been pointed out. Hence, in the global aim to predict ground motions, it seems that depth should be taken into account in a more systematic way, as new seismic equipments (for instance CTBTO arrays) afford now better resolution for this crucial parameter.

  7. Plio-Quaternary tectonic evolution off Al Hoceima, Moroccan Margin of the Alboran Basin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafosse, Manfred; d'Acremont, Elia; Rabaute, Alain; Mercier de Lépinay, Bernard; Gorini, Christian; Ammar, Abdellah; Tahayt, Abdelilah

    2015-04-01

    We use data from a compilation of industrial and academic 2D surveys and recent data from MARLBORO-1 (2011), MARLBORO-2 (2012), and SARAS (2012) surveys, which provide high resolution bathymetry and 2D seismic reflexion data. We focus on the key area located south of the Alboran Ridge and the Tofi√Īo Bank, and encompassing the Nekor and Boudinar onshore-offshore basins on the Moroccan side of the Alboran Sea. The Nekor basin is a present pull-apart basin in relay between inherited N050¬į sinistral strike-slip faults. We consider that these faults define the Principal Displacement Zones (PDZ). The northern PDZ marks the position of the crustal Bokkoya fault, which is connected to the Al-Idrisi Fault Zone en relais with the Adra and Carboneras Fault Zones. On the seabed, right-stepping non-coalescent faults characterize the sinistral kinematics of the northern PDZ and give a general N050¬į azimuth for the crustal discontinuity. The southern PDZ corresponds to the Nekor fault Zone, a Miocene sinistral strike-slip fault acting as the structural limit of the External Rif. On its eastern edge, the Nekor basin is bounded by the N-S onshore-offshore Trougout fault, connecting the northern and the southern PDZ. The western boundary of the Nekor basin is marked by the Rouadi and El-Hammam Quaternary active N-S normal faults. In the offshore Nekor basin, recent N155¬į conjugated normal faults affect the seabed. Further east, the Boudinar basin is a Plio-Quaternary uplifted Neogene basin. The northeastern segment of the Nekor fault bounds this basin to the south but is inactive in the Quaternary. Normal east-dipping N150¬į faults are visible offshore in the continuity of the Boudinar fault. From our perspective, the orientation of major tectonic structures (Bokkoya, Nekor and Carboneras faults and the Alboran ridge) under the present compressive regime due to the Europe/Africa convergence is not compatible with a strike-slip motion. The orientation of the most recent Plio-Quaternary structures (NW-SE normal faults in the Nekor basin, the Al-Idrissi fault zone) suggests a Plio-quaternary change in boundary conditions and the rotation of faults. In the Nekor and Boudinar basins, recent faulting, the abandonment of the Boudinar fault and the uplift of the basin can be interpreted as the effect of the slab rollback under the Rif, as well as the propagation of the deformation toward the southwest.

  8. Ibn al-Haitham--father of optics and describer of vision theory.

    PubMed

    Masic, Izet

    2008-01-01

    Among famous Arabic doctor belongs also Ibn Al-Haitam (known in the west as Alhazen) which is considered to be the greatest Muslim doctor and one of the greatest researches of optics for all times. Al Haitam is born in city Basra and immigrated to Egypt during reign of Caliph Al Hakim. He is quoted as excellent astronomer, mathematician and doctor as well as one of the best commentators of the Galen and Aristotle's work. He is the first medical scholar who teaches that light "does not originates from the eye but on opposite enters the eye", and in that manner corrects the wrong opinion of the Greeks about the nature of vision. According to this scholar retina is the center of vision and the impressions that it receives are transferred to the brain by the optical nerve, in order that brain afterwards create visual image in the symmetrical relationship for both retinas. Al-Haitam was the most important researcher of optics in Islam. He was convinced that the adequate theory of vision must combine Euclid and Ptolemy "mathematical" approach and "physical doctrine of the naturalists. The result of his reflections in the paper "Optics", supported by the experimental approach, is the new theory of vision, much richer and perfected than any before. He thought that light and color, two physical features that exist independently from the observed subject, in strait lines originates from the each point of visible object. Al Haitam concludes that what we perceive is actually the object which is on a certain distance from the eye and which have certain shape and size, and vision itself is the result of intervention by the visual material received by the brain and stored information's from previous experiences. Reception hypothesis (intromission) Al-Haitam exposed to mathematical testing, and then incorporated into already developed perception theory, which is still not completely explored by historians. In his experiments he used "dark chambers", trying to confirm the features of light, such as expansion in straight lines, reflexion and refraction of the light beams. Basic stand point which he supported was that the vision is the result of impression which light leaves on the sight sense, he supported it based on the experience that the eye "retains an image" or has pain when looking into bright light. Theory of vision by Haitam Optics, written in Egypt during the first half of XI century, overmatches Galen, Euclid and Ptolemy ones. PMID:18822953

  9. Use of thermal infrared pictures for retrieving intertidal DEM by the waterline method: advantages and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudin, D.; Delacourt, C.; Allemand, P.

    2010-12-01

    Digital Elevation Models (DEM) of the intertidal zones have a growing interest for ecological and land development purposes. They are also a fundamental tool for monitoring current sedimentary movements in those low energy environments. Such DEMs have to be constructed with a centimetric resolution as the topographic changes are not predictable and as sediment displacements are weak. Direct construction of DEM by GPS in these muddy environment is difficult: photogrammetric techniques are not efficient on uniform coloured surfaces and terrestrial laser scans are difficult to stabilize on the mud, due to humidity. In this study, we propose to improve and to apply the waterline method to retrieve DEMs in intertidal zones. This technique is based on monitoring accurately the boundary between sand and water during a whole tide rise with thermal infrared images. The DEM is made by stacking all these lines calibrated by an immersed pressure sensor. Using thermal infrared pictures, instead of optical ones, improves the detection of the waterline, since mud and water have very different responses to sun heating and a large emissivity contrast. However, temperature retrieving from thermal infrared data is not trivial, since the luminance of an object is the sum of a radiative part and a reflexive part, whose relative proportions are given by the emissivity. In the following equation, B accounts for the equivalent blackbody luminance, and Linc is the incident luminance : Ltot}=L{rad}+L_{refl=…õ B+(1-…õ )Linc The infrared waterline technique has been used for the monitoring of a beach located on the Aber Benoit, 8.5km away from the open sea. The site is mainly constituted of mud, and waves are very small (less than one centimeter high), which are the ideal conditions for using the waterline method. A few measurements have been made to make differential heigh maps of sediments. We reached a mean resolution of 2cm and a vertical accuracy better than one centimeter. The results have been validated by terrestrial laser scanning. We discuss here the main sources of error due to the very high resolution and suggest methods to minimize its effects : diffuse limit between water and mud due to the heating delay, the difficulty to precisely calibrate thermal camera optics, effects of light reflexion from clouds or cliffs. This technique may be used in the future with satellites, planes or unmanned platforms images, to cover extended areas.

  10. Disrupting privilege, identity, and meaning: A reflexive dance of environmental education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neilson, Alison Laurie

    By inviting educators from diverse backgrounds to participate in creative conversations, I had hoped to reflect on experiences that had helped construct our theories of environmental education, and inform practice. I sought consistency across the espoused ethics of co-participants, namely critical perspectives grounded in environmental justice. However, this quest was interrupted by a growing awareness of the interference of power dynamics between myself and the other participants, and of my own commitment to respect the stories being told. This narrative describes my "dance" of meaning making. The community dance examining privilege, identity and meaning is a study of how I may be contributing to the same oppressive situations I passionately strive to work against. Concepts of knowledge, power, and identity ebbed and flowed within stories drawn from the mountains of Tanzania to the hills of Colombia, and from the frozen shores of Kirkland Lake to the trout filled streams of Karman, Iran. Making meaning is itself an act of power and privilege, so I danced to make room for multiple understandings of these stories, of environmental education, and of research. This work offers an experience of disruption that raises questions and broadens the inclusion of people, ideas and other life into "accepted" research and pedagogical practices. Conventions embedded within research and education were disrupted throughout this reflexive process. As the author of this text, I was uncomfortable with the role of being the dominant voice, and consciously chose not to impose my interpretation on the stories shared by co-participants. The struggle to resist the very privilege in which my own education practice and this research process are so deeply steeped revealed normative forces that often threaten to undermine attempts by educators and researchers to act according to critical theories and environmental justice ethics. To accept the invitation to dance with the text is to step into the rhythmic intricacies of a collaborative process of reflexion. Circling hand-in-hand and giving weight to fellow dancers' movements shifts individuals from being carriers of truths to being community members sharing in the collaborative process of dancing the world into existence.

  11. Lateral extrusion of Tunisia : Contribution of Jeffara Fault (southern branch) and Petroleum Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghedhoui, R.; Deffontaines, B.; Rabia, M. C.

    2012-04-01

    Contrasting to the northward African plate motion toward Eurasia and due to its geographic position in the North African margin, since early cretaceous, Tunisia seems to be submitted to an eastward migration. The aim of this work is to study the southern branch of this inferred tectonic splay that may guide the Tunisian extrusion characterised to the east by the Mediterranean sea as a free eastern boundary. The Jeffara Fault zone (southern Tunisia), represent a case example of such deformation faced by Tunisia. Helped by the results of previous researchers (Bouaziz, 1995 ; Rabiaa, 1998 ; Touati et Rodgers, 1998 ; Sokoutis D. et al., 2000 ; Bouaziz et al., 2002 ; Jallouli et al., 2005 ; Deffontaines et al., 2008…), and new evidences developed in this study, we propose a geodynamic Tunisian east extrusion model, due to such the northern African plate migration to the Eurasian one. In this subject, structural geomorphology is undertaken herein based on both geomorphometric drainage network analysis (Deffontaines et al., 1990), the Digital Terrain Model photo-interpretation (SRTM) combined with photo-interpretation of detailed optical images (Landsat ETM+), and confirmed by field work and numerous seismic profiles at depth. All these informations were then integrated within a GIS (Geodatabase) (Deffontaines 1990 ; Deffontaines et al. 1994 ; Deffontaines, 2000 ; Slama, 2008 ; Deffontaines, 2008) and are coherent with the eastern extrusion of the Sahel block. We infer that the NW-SE Gafsa-Tozeur, which continue to the Jeffara major fault zone acting as a transtensive right lateral motion since early cretaceous is the southern branch of the Sahel block extrusion. Our structural analyses prove the presence of NW-SE right lateral en-echelon tension gashes, NW-SE aligned salt diapirs, numerous folds offsets, en-echelon folds, and so on that parallel this major NW-SE transtensive extrusion fault zone.These evidences confirm the fact that the NW-SE Jeffara faults correspond to the tectonic accident, located in the south of the Tunisian extrusion, in favour of the eastern migration of the Sahel block toward the free Mediterranean sea boundary. Therefore this geodynamic movement explains the presence, in offshore area, of small elongated NW-SE, N-S &NE-SW petroleum transtensive basins and grabens. To conclude, at the regional scale, the structural geomorphologic approach combined with both field work and reflexion seismic profile analyses appear to be an excellent tool to prove & confirm the east Sahel block extrusion of the central Tunisian part caused by the northward migration of African plate. _______________________________________ Keywords : Geodynamics, Neotectonics, right lateral transtensive fault, Extrusion, Petroleum exploration, Geomorphometry, Digital Elevation Model, Geographic Information System (GIS), Geodatabase, Jeffara, South Tunisia.

  12. Long equatorial waves in the Tropical Atlantic: The 1996-1997 ENSO-like event.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illig, S.; Dewitte, B.

    2003-04-01

    In 1995 and 1996, westerly wind events (WWE) occurred in the western equatorial Atlantic region prior the observed 1996 warming in the eastern tropical Atlantic, followed by a cold phase in 1997. The sequence of long equatorial waves associated to these wind bursts is investigated during this ENSO-like event from an high-resolution OGCM simulation and several experiments using an intermediate coupled model of the tropical Atlantic. As a first step, from the results of a vertical mode decomposition of a high-resolution OGCM forced simulation of the tropical Atlantic, a multi-mode model of the tropical Atlantic is tuned in order to reproduce the observed interannual low frequency variability in 1981-2000. A mixed layer model including heat flux forcing is also built in order to best reproduce the change in sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies of the OGCM and then coupled to the ocean linear model. Several experiments are then performed with the linear model: first, the role of the individual WWE is identified by forcing the model with modified wind stress anomalies: In particular, the spatio-temporal structure of specific wind events are extracted using a Local Mode Analysis (Goulet and Duvel, 2000) and removed from the model forcing. Second, wave reflexions are cancelled at the eastern or western boundary in order to determine the role of a specific wave on SST changes. The results indicate that downwelling Kelvin waves, triggered by positive Wind Stress Anomalies (WSA), leads to the warming of 1996. The associated reflected first-meridional Rossby waves lead to competitive effects on SST changes : a cooling through zonal advection and a warming through vertical advection. The resulting effect of the Rossby waves is quantified as an increase in SSTA by about 0.4¬įC in between 20¬įW and 0¬įE along the equator in July 1996. The upwelling Rossby waves forced by the WWE reflect into upwelling Kelvin waves which shallow the thermocline (~10m) in the central and eastern equatorial Atlantic from June to October 1996. The cooling is further intensified in association with the trades intensification from September 1996 to September 1997.

  13. The social impact of the snowfall of 8 March 2010 in Catalonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaro, J.; Llasat, M. C.; Aran, M.

    2010-09-01

    The snowfall of 8 March 2010 affected almost all Catalonia, but especially the northeast where snow thickness was between 20 and 30 cm, locally with higher values up to 60 cm. Strong winds followed the event, exceeding 90 km/h in some places. As a result, infrastructures and public services, also private properties were damaged. Thousands of people were left stranded by the circulatory collapse, suspensions of railway service and by falling branches or trees on road infrastructures blocking accesses to residential areas. The regional government approved funds of 21.4 millions of Euros to mitigate the damage caused by this event, mainly invested in forest cleanup operations and in repairing road damage. The social impact of this event has been so high that 210 news have been published in a newspaper until 23 April, 190 of them during the month of March. From the study of the characteristics of this episode it can be stated that in the coast and pre-costal area, temperature at the same moment of precipitation was between 0¬ļC and 2¬ļC and humidity was high. In these zones, the type of precipitation was wet snow. It has to be considered that the combination of wet snow and wind can be a risk because of the ice-weight accumulated on objects (trees, electricity pylons...). As a consequence important damage happened in power network with significant collateral effects and more than 450,000 customers were affected by a power outage during some days. In this study we will compare the consequences of this event with others by means of information published in press. As a result, some set of consequences that are repeated regardless of the magnitude of the phenomenon will be identified. Finally, this event is also an example of the incision of social networks. This snowfall has been classified by mass media as the first "snowfall 2.0": 81600 entrances in Google, 132 Facebook groups and 750 videos made by amateurs in internet. From this study, we will present some reflexions that could be useful to improve the snow emergency plan in Catalonia, released in 2004, and mitigating the effects of future snow storms. A campaign focused on motivate population in order to increase more social commitment in these events, seems to be necessary to prevent avoidable risks. Information campaigns and some educational tasks have to be carried out to make warnings and forecasts reports clearer to citizens and to increase population sensitivity in emergency situations.

  14. Telecommunications, computers and other complementary communication means on behalf of the disabled.

    PubMed

    Puig de la Bellacasa, R

    1980-01-01

    It took the author eleven months (1-3-1979 to 31-1-1980) to carry out the first part of a study and coordinate a number of working sessions in which he examined the state of the arts and put forward a program for the application of telecommunications, computers and other complementary communication means to the welfare of the disabled. The five areas of study are described in the present article: blindness, deaf-blindness and visual impairment; disability in the family; home-boundness due to disability, chronic illness or advanced age; speech impairments due to non-auditory causes; mental illness and related disorders. The study was carried out as a part of the activities of the "Foundation for the Development of the Social Function of Communications" (Fundacion para el Desarrollo de la Funcion Social de las Comunicaciones) and tries to open up a new perspective in Spain on technological applications for the handicapped. The main feature of the study is the proposal of Rehabilitation Engineering and Technical Aids Centre for the Disabled which starting from the telecommunications area, intends to make available to the handicapped the possibilities offered by technology. PMID:6161092

  15. Bases para la elaboracion de unidades didacticas de calidad en el area de ciencias (Fisica y Quimica 3 deg ESO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccioni, Elena Lucia

    Este Trabajo Fin de Master tiene como objeto, el estudio previo de la educacion de la ciencia en la actualidad y mas destacable, del diseno de las unidades didacticas segun las metodologias mas frecuentes aplicadas por los diferentes sistemas educativos en el area de las Ciencias teniendo en cuenta la importancia y el efecto de la psicologia del alumnado y todo ello como no puede ser de otro modo bajo el corse de la Legislacion aplicable, Estatal, Autonomica y europea. Con estos antecedentes, se extrae cuales son las preguntas que deben contestarse en la elaboracion de una unidad didactica de calidad en el contexto, generacional (edad y sexo), del Proyecto Educativo de Centro, y de la Programacion del Departamento, discutiendo y justificando cada uno de los apartados en que estructuradamente dividiremos dicha Unidad, con un formato manejable, util, y dinamico en el tiempo que sea un verdadero instrumento educativo de aula. Teniendo en cuenta estas premisas, se procede a hacer una recopilacion de una misma unidad didactica publicada por diferentes editoriales, elegidas no al azar, sino en funcion de su penetracion editorial en nuestros centros de ESO, siendo las elegidas (SM y Oxford). Las diferentes unidades seleccionadas son analizadas de forma critica, atendiendo a los criterios generales de calidad bajo parametros cientificos y normativos, concluyendo con la aportacion final que es la redaccion de unas pautas cientifico-pedagogicas, para redactar unidades didacticas de calidad en el area de la Ciencias, en concreto en la Asignatura de Fisica y Quimica de 3¬ļ de ESO.

  16. Research Progress on the Role of ABC Transporters in the Drug Resistance Mechanism of Intractable Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Jie; Mao, Ding-an; Liu, Li-qun

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of intractable epilepsy is not fully clear. In recent years, both animal and clinical trials have shown that the expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters is increased in patients with intractable epilepsy; additionally, epileptic seizures can lead to an increase in the number of sites that express ABC transporters. These findings suggest that ABC transporters play an important role in the drug resistance mechanism of epilepsy. ABC transporters can perform the funcions of a drug efflux pump, which can reduce the effective drug concentration at epilepsy lesions by reducing the permeability of the blood brain barrier to antiepileptic drugs, thus causing resistance to antiepileptic drugs. Given the important role of ABC transporters in refractory epilepsy drug resistance, antiepileptic drugs that are not substrates of ABC transporters were used to obtain ABC transporter inhibitors with strong specificity, high safety, and few side effects, making them suitable for long-term use; therefore, these drugs can be used for future clinical treatment of intractable epilepsy. PMID:26491660

  17. Distribución espacial de órbitas con diferentes grados de caoticidad en modelos autoconsistentes de satélites galácticos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzzio, J. C.; Mosquera, M.

    En trabajos anteriores (Carpintero et al., Cel. Mech. Dynam. Astron. 85, 247, 2003), mostramos que las √≥rbitas ca√≥ticas son muy importantes en los sat√©lites gal√°cticos. Sin embargo, los √ļnicos modelos autoconsistentes de los que se dispon√≠a para ellos eran los de Heggie-Ramamani, cuya funci√≥n de distribuci√≥n depende s√≥lo de la energ√≠a por lo que no mostraban diferencias entre las distribuciones de sus √≥rbitas regulares y ca√≥ticas. Ahora, mediante una aproximaci√≥n cuadrupolar, hemos logrado construir modelos autoconsistentes de sat√©lites gal√°cticos con distribuciones de velocidades anisotr√≥picas (lo que indica que sus funciones de distribuci√≥n no dependen s√≥lo de la energ√≠a) y hemos logrado revelar las diferencias entre las estructuras espaciales de las √≥rbitas de distinta caoticidad.

  18. Estimaci√≥n de peque√Īas perturbaciones en sat√©lites geoc√©ntricos como un problema inverso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadunaisky, P. E.

    El movimiento geoc√©ntrico de un sat√©lite artificial es simulado autom√°ticamente por un sistema de ecuaciones diferenciales de segundo orden que incluyen dos funciones perturbadoras. La primera representa el segundo t√©rmino del potencial gravitatorio de la Tierra y la segunda corresponde al frenado atmosf√©rico. Asumiendo como conocidas, por hip√≥tesis o por mediciones, la posici√≥n y velocidad del sat√©lite en instantes sucesivos se estiman las perturbaciones a intervalos sucesivos por un m√©todo determin√≠stico. Para ilustrar el m√©todo y comprobar la precisi√≥n de nuestros resultados hemos simulado dos ejemplos incluyendo valores conocidos de las perturbaciones que luego comparamos con los resultados de nuestro m√©todo. El m√©todo puede aplicarse por ejemplo para el intervalo de una revoluci√≥n satelital lo cual permitir√≠a el dise√Īo inmediato de una maniobra correctiva de la √≥rbita satelital.

  19. Estudio teórico de moléculas de interés en Astrofísica: compuestos binarios policarbonados

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Largo-Cabrerizo, A.

    Se han detectado en el espacio distintos compuestos binarios policarbonados (que se pueden formular como CnX), algunos de ellos con elementos de la primera fila del sistema peri√≥dico, pero tambi√©n existen otros que contienen elementos de la segunda fila, como azufre o silicio. La informaci√≥n experimental sobre estos √ļltimos compuestos es escasa, por lo que los estudios te√≥ricos son especialmente valiosos en este campo. En esta comunicaci√≥n presentaremos los avances mas recientes que sobre el tema ha realizado nuestro grupo. Incidiremos particularmente en dos aspectos. En primer lugar resumiremos los estudios en los que hemos intentado proporcionar informaci√≥n estructural sobre carburos met√°licos formados por sodio, magnesio, aluminio o calcio, que pueda ser de ayuda a la hora de caracterizar estas mol√©culas en laboratorio como paso previo a su eventual detecci√≥n en el espacio. Un aspecto importante dentro de este primer apartado es el an√°lisis de las propiedades moleculares en funci√≥n del tama√Īo del sistema (cuantificado en el numero de √°tomos de carbono) con el objeto de intentar sistematizar su estudio. En segundo lugar comentaremos brevemente algunos de los estudios realizados sobre posibles reacciones que pueden ser v√≠as de s√≠ntesis de este tipo de compuestos en el medio interestelar.

  20. FAQs about Baseline Testing among Young Athletes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Signs and Symptoms Responding to a Concussion and Action Plan for Coaches FAQs about Baseline Testing Preguntas frecuentes sobre la prueba de referencia para jóvenes deportistas Danger Signs Severe Brain Injury Recovery from Concussion Returning to School Returning to Sports ...